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Sample records for nanoscale kirkendall effect

  1. Formation of hollow nanocrystals through the nanoscale kirkendall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Yadong; Rioux, Robert M.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Hughes, Steven; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2004-03-11

    We demonstrate that hollow nanocrystals can be synthesized through a mechanism analogous to the Kirkendall Effect, in which pores form due to the difference in diffusion rates between two components in a diffusion couple. Cobalt nanocrystals are chosen as a primary example to show that their reaction in solution with oxygen, sulfur or selenium leads to the formation of hollow nanocrystals of the resulting oxide and chalcogenides. This process provides a general route to the synthesis of hollow nanostructures of large numbers of compounds. A simple extension of this process yields platinum-cobalt oxide yolk-shell nanostructures which may serve as nanoscale reactors in catalytic applications.

  2. Size-dependent nanoscale kirkendall effect during the oxidation of nickel nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Railsback, Justin G; Johnston-Peck, Aaron C; Wang, Junwei; Tracy, Joseph B

    2010-04-27

    The transformation of Ni nanoparticles (NPs) of different sizes (average diameters of 9, 26, and 96 nm) during oxidation to hollow (single void) or porous (multiple voids) NiO through the nanoscale Kirkendall effect was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Samples treated for 1-4 h at 200-500 degrees C show that the structures of the completely oxidized NPs do not depend on the temperature, but oxidation proceeds more quickly at elevated temperatures. For the Ni/NiO system, after formation of an initial NiO shell (of thickness approximately 3 nm), single or multiple voids nucleate on the inner surface of the NiO shell, and the voids grow until conversion to NiO is complete. Differences in the void formation and growth processes cause size-dependent nanostructural evolution: For 9 and 26 nm NPs, a single void forms beneath the NiO shell, and the void grows by moving across the NP while conversion to NiO occurs opposite the site where the void initially formed. Because of the differences in the Ni/NiO volume ratios for the 9 and 26 nm NPs when the void first forms, they have distinct nanostructures: The 9 nm NPs form NiO shells that are nearly radially symmetric, while there is a pronounced asymmetry in the NiO shells for 26 nm NPs. By choosing an intermediate oxidation temperature and varying the reaction time, partially oxidized Ni(core)/NiO(shell) NPs can be synthesized with good control. For 96 nm NPs, multiple voids form and grow, which results in porous NiO NPs. PMID:20361781

  3. Hollow Silicon Nanostructures via the Kirkendall Effect.

    PubMed

    Son, Yoonkook; Son, Yeonguk; Choi, Min; Ko, Minseong; Chae, Sujong; Park, Noejung; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-10-14

    The Kirkendall effect is a simple, novel phenomenon that may be applied for the synthesis of hollow nanostructures with designed pore structures and chemical composition. We demonstrate the use of the Kirkendall effect for silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) nanowires (NWs) and nanoparticles (NPs) via introduction of nanoscale surface layers of SiO2 and GeO2, respectively. Depending on the reaction time, Si and Ge atoms gradually diffuse outward through the oxide layers, with pore formation in the nanostructural cores. Through the Kirkendall effect, NWs and NPs were transformed into nanotubes (NTs) and hollow NPs, respectively. The mechanism of the Kirkendall effect was studied via quantum molecular dynamics calculations. The hollow products demonstrated better electrochemical performance than their solid counterparts because the pores developed in the nanostructures resulted in lower external pressures during lithiation. PMID:26340592

  4. Kinetic description of metal nanocrystal oxidation: a combined theoretical and experimental approach for determining morphology and diffusion parameters in hollow nanoparticles by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshiki; Mowbray, Ryan W.; Rice, Katherine P.; Stoykovich, Mark P.

    2014-10-01

    The oxidation of colloidal metal nanocrystals to form hollow shells via the nanoscale Kirkendall effect has been investigated using a combined theoretical and experimental approach. A generalized kinetic model for the formation of hollow nanoparticles describes the phenomenon and, unlike prior models, is applicable to any material system and accounts for the effect of surface energies. Phase diagrams of the ultimate oxidized nanoparticle morphology and the time to achieve complete oxidation are calculated, and are found to depend significantly upon consideration of surface energy effects that destabilize the initial formation of small voids. For the oxidation of Cu nanocrystals to Cu2O nanoparticles, we find that the diffusion coefficients dictate the morphological outcomes: the ratio of ? to ? controls the void size, ? determines the time of oxidation and ? is largely irrelevant in the kinetics of oxidation. The kinetic model was used to fit experimental measurements of 11 nm diameter Cu nanocrystals oxidized in air from which temperature-dependent diffusivities of ? and ? for 100 ≤ T ≤ 200 °C were determined. In contrast to previous interpretations of the nanoscale Kirkendall effect in the Cu/Cu2O system, these results are obtained without any a priori assumptions about the relative magnitudes of ? and ?. The theoretical and experimental approaches presented here are broadly applicable to any nanoparticle system undergoing oxidation, and can be used to precisely control the final nanoparticle morphology for applications in catalysis or optical materials.

  5. Monocrystalline spinel nanotube fabrication based on the Kirkendall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin Fan, Hong; Knez, Mato; Scholz, Roland; Nielsch, Kornelius; Pippel, Eckhard; Hesse, Dietrich; Zacharias, Margit; Gösele, Ulrich

    2006-08-01

    There is a deep interest in methods to fabricate hollow nanocrystals for potential application as high-efficiency catalysts or drug-delivery agents. Tubular one-dimensional nanocrystals have been prepared for a wide variety of materials, including semiconductors, metals, ferroelectrics and magnetite. They can be produced by rolling up layered materials or via an axial growth in a rolled-up form, coating pores in templates or by eliminating the core of a core-shell nanowire. The Kirkendall effect, a classical phenomenon in metallurgy, was recently applied to explain the formation of hollow spherical nanocrystals. Although the experimental demonstration and theoretical treatment mainly concern binary compounds and planar interfaces or nanoscale spherical interfaces, the fabrication route provided by the Kirkendall effect should be generic, and should also work for high-aspect-ratio hollow cylinders (that is, nanotubes) or even more complex superstructures. In this letter, we report, for the first time, on ultra-long single-crystal ZnAl2O4 spinel nanotubes (total diameter: ~40 nm, wall thickness: ~10 nm) fabricated through a spinel-forming interfacial solid-state reaction of core-shell ZnO-Al2O3 nanowires involving the Kirkendall effect. Our results simultaneously represent an extension of applying the Kirkendall effect in fabricating hollow nano-objects from zero-dimensional to multidimensional, and from binary to ternary systems.

  6. Sodium-ion storage properties of nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide composite powders prepared by a spray drying process and the nanoscale Kirkendall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, G. D.; Cho, J. S.; Kang, Y. C.

    2015-10-01

    Spray-drying and the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process are used to prepare nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders with excellent Na-ion storage properties. Metallic Ni nanopowder-decorated rGO powders, formed as intermediate products, are transformed into composite powders of nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/rGO with mixed crystal structures of Ni3S2 and Ni9S8 phases by the sulfidation process under H2S gas. Nickel sulfide/rGO composite powders with the main crystal structure of Ni3S2 are also prepared as comparison samples by the direct sulfidation of nickel acetate-graphene oxide (GO) composite powders obtained by spray-drying. In electrochemical properties, the discharge capacities at the 150th cycle of the nickel sulfide/rGO composite powders prepared by sulfidation of the Ni/rGO composite and nickel acetate/GO composite powders at a current density of 0.3 A g-1 are 449 and 363 mA h g-1, respectively; their capacity retentions, calculated from the tenth cycle, are 100 and 87%. The nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/rGO composite powders possess structural stability over repeated Na-ion insertion and extraction processes, and also show excellent rate performance for Na-ion storage.Spray-drying and the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process are used to prepare nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders with excellent Na-ion storage properties. Metallic Ni nanopowder-decorated rGO powders, formed as intermediate products, are transformed into composite powders of nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/rGO with mixed crystal structures of Ni3S2 and Ni9S8 phases by the sulfidation process under H2S gas. Nickel sulfide/rGO composite powders with the main crystal structure of Ni3S2 are also prepared as comparison samples by the direct sulfidation of nickel acetate-graphene oxide (GO) composite powders obtained by spray-drying. In electrochemical properties, the discharge capacities at the

  7. Kirkendall effect and lattice contraction in nanocatalysts: a new strategy to enhance sustainable activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia X; Ma, Chao; Choi, YongMan; Su, Dong; Zhu, Yimei; Liu, Ping; Si, Rui; Vukmirovic, Miomir B; Zhang, Yu; Adzic, Radoslav R

    2011-08-31

    Core-shell nanoparticles increasingly are found to be effective in enhancing catalytic performance through the favorable influence of the core materials on the active components at the surface. Yet, sustaining high activities under operating conditions often has proven challenging. Here we explain how differences in the components' diffusivity affect the formation and stability of the core-shell and hollow nanostructures, which we ascribe to the Kirkendall effect. Using Ni nanoparticles as the templates, we fabricated compact and smooth Pt hollow nanocrystals that exhibit a sustained enhancement in Pt mass activity for oxygen reduction in acid fuel cells. This is achieved by the hollow-induced lattice contraction, high surface area per mass, and oxidation-resistant surface morphology--a new route for enhancing both the catalysts' activity and durability. The results indicate challenges and opportunities brought by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect for designing, at the atomic level, nanostructures with a wide range of novel properties. PMID:21780827

  8. Wire-in-tube structure fabricated by single capillary electrospinning via nanoscale Kirkendall effect: the case of nickel-zinc ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jiecai; Zhang, Junli; Peng, Yong; Zhao, Changhui; He, Yongmin; Zhang, Zhenxing; Pan, Xiaojun; Mellors, Nigel J.; Xie, Erqing

    2013-11-01

    Wire-in-tube structures have previously been prepared using an electrospinning method by means of tuning hydrolysis/alcoholysis of a precursor solution. Nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) nanowire-in-nanotubes have been prepared as a demonstration. The detailed nanoscale characterization, formation process and magnetic properties of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes has been studied comprehensively. The average diameters of the outer tubes and inner wires of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes are around 120 nm and 42 nm, respectively. Each fully calcined individual nanowire-in-nanotube, either the outer-tube or the inner-wire, is composed of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 monocrystallites stacked along the longitudinal direction with random orientation. The process of calcining electrospun polymer composite nanofibres can be viewed as a morphologically template nucleation and precursor diffusion process. This allows the nitrates precursor to diffuse toward the surface of the nanofibres while the oxides (decomposed from hydroxides and nitrates) products diffuse to the core region of the nanofibres; the amorphous nanofibres transforming thereby into crystalline nanowire-in-nanotubes. In addition, the magnetic properties of the Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes were also examined. It is believed that this nanowire-in-nanotube (sometimes called core-shell) structure, with its uniform size and well-controlled orientation of the long nanowire-in-nanotubes, is particularly attractive for use in the field of nano-fluidic devices and nano-energy harvesting devices.Wire-in-tube structures have previously been prepared using an electrospinning method by means of tuning hydrolysis/alcoholysis of a precursor solution. Nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) nanowire-in-nanotubes have been prepared as a demonstration. The detailed nanoscale characterization, formation process and magnetic properties of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes has been studied comprehensively. The

  9. Wire-in-tube structure fabricated by single capillary electrospinning via nanoscale Kirkendall effect: the case of nickel-zinc ferrite.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiecai; Zhang, Junli; Peng, Yong; Zhao, Changhui; He, Yongmin; Zhang, Zhenxing; Pan, Xiaojun; Mellors, Nigel J; Xie, Erqing

    2013-12-21

    Wire-in-tube structures have previously been prepared using an electrospinning method by means of tuning hydrolysis/alcoholysis of a precursor solution. Nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) nanowire-in-nanotubes have been prepared as a demonstration. The detailed nanoscale characterization, formation process and magnetic properties of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes has been studied comprehensively. The average diameters of the outer tubes and inner wires of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes are around 120 nm and 42 nm, respectively. Each fully calcined individual nanowire-in-nanotube, either the outer-tube or the inner-wire, is composed of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 monocrystallites stacked along the longitudinal direction with random orientation. The process of calcining electrospun polymer composite nanofibres can be viewed as a morphologically template nucleation and precursor diffusion process. This allows the nitrates precursor to diffuse toward the surface of the nanofibres while the oxides (decomposed from hydroxides and nitrates) products diffuse to the core region of the nanofibres; the amorphous nanofibres transforming thereby into crystalline nanowire-in-nanotubes. In addition, the magnetic properties of the Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes were also examined. It is believed that this nanowire-in-nanotube (sometimes called core-shell) structure, with its uniform size and well-controlled orientation of the long nanowire-in-nanotubes, is particularly attractive for use in the field of nano-fluidic devices and nano-energy harvesting devices. PMID:24173384

  10. The Kirkendall effect and nanoscience: hollow nanospheres and nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Ryusuke; Bittencourt, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hollow nanostructures are ranked among the top materials for applications in various modern technological areas including energy storage devices, catalyst, optics and sensors. The last years have witnessed increasing interest in the Kirkendall effect as a versatile route to fabricate hollow nanostructures with different shapes, compositions and functionalities. Although the conversion chemistry of nanostructures from solid to hollow has reached a very advanced maturity, there is still much to be discovered and learned on this effect. Here, the recent progress on the use of the Kirkendall effect to synthesize hollow nanospheres and nanotubes is reviewed with a special emphasis on the fundamental mechanisms occurring during such a conversion process. The discussion includes the oxidation of metal nanostructures (i.e., nanospheres and nanowires), which is an important process involving the Kirkendall effect. For nanospheres, the symmetrical and the asymmetrical mechanisms are both reviewed and compared on the basis of recent reports in the literature. For nanotubes, in addition to a summary of the conversion processes, the unusual effects observed in some particular cases (e.g., formation of segmented or bamboo-like nanotubes) are summarized and discussed. Finally, we conclude with a summary, where the prospective future direction of this research field is discussed. PMID:26199838

  11. Nanoparticle conversion chemistry: Kirkendall effect, galvanic exchange, and anion exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Bryan D.; Tracy, Joseph B.

    2014-10-01

    Conversion chemistry is a rapidly maturing field, where chemical conversion of template nanoparticles (NPs) into new compositions is often accompanied by morphological changes, such as void formation. The principles and examples of three major classes of conversion chemical reactions are reviewed: the Kirkendall effect for metal NPs, galvanic exchange, and anion exchange, each of which can result in void formation in NPs. These reactions can be used to obtain complex structures that may not be attainable by other methods. During each kind of conversion chemical reaction, NPs undergo distinct chemical and morphological changes, and insights into the mechanisms of these reactions will allow for improved fine control and prediction of the structures of intermediates and products. Conversion of metal NPs into oxides, phosphides, sulphides, and selenides often occurs through the Kirkendall effect, where outward diffusion of metal atoms from the core is faster than inward diffusion of reactive species, resulting in void formation. In galvanic exchange reactions, metal NPs react with noble metal salts, where a redox reaction favours reduction and deposition of the noble metal (alloying) and oxidation and dissolution of the template metal (dealloying). In anion exchange reactions, addition of certain kinds of anions to solutions containing metal compound NPs drives anion exchange, which often results in significant morphological changes due to the large size of anions compared to cations. Conversion chemistry thus allows for the formation of NPs with complex compositions and structures, for which numerous applications are anticipated arising from their novel catalytic, electronic, optical, magnetic, and electrochemical properties.

  12. Synthesis of Hierarchical Nanoporous Microstructures via the Kirkendall Effect in Chemical Reduction Process

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ling; Pang, Chao; He, Dafang; Shen, Liming; Gupta, Arunava; Bao, Ningzhong

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel hierarchical nanoporous microstructures have been synthesized through one-step chemical reduction of micron size Cu2O and Co3O4 particles. By controlling the reduction time, non-porous Cu2O microcubes sequentially transform to nanoporous Cu/Cu2O/Cu dented cubic composites and hollow eightling-like Cu microparticles. The mechanism involved in the complex structural evolution is explained based on oxygen diffusion and Kirkendall effect. The nanoporous Cu/Cu2O/Cu dented cubic composites exhibit superior electrochemical performance as compared to solid Cu2O microcubes. The reduction of nonporous Co3O4 also exhibits a uniform sequential reduction process from nonporous Co3O4 to porous Co3O4/CoO composites, porous CoO, porous CoO/Co composites, and porous foam-like Co particles. Nanoscale channels originate from the particle surface and eventually develop inside the entire product, resulting in porous foam-like Co microparticles. The Kirkendall effect is believed to facilitate the formation of porous structures in both processes. PMID:26552845

  13. Synthesis of Hierarchical Nanoporous Microstructures via the Kirkendall Effect in Chemical Reduction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ling; Pang, Chao; He, Dafang; Shen, Liming; Gupta, Arunava; Bao, Ningzhong

    2015-11-01

    A series of novel hierarchical nanoporous microstructures have been synthesized through one-step chemical reduction of micron size Cu2O and Co3O4 particles. By controlling the reduction time, non-porous Cu2O microcubes sequentially transform to nanoporous Cu/Cu2O/Cu dented cubic composites and hollow eightling-like Cu microparticles. The mechanism involved in the complex structural evolution is explained based on oxygen diffusion and Kirkendall effect. The nanoporous Cu/Cu2O/Cu dented cubic composites exhibit superior electrochemical performance as compared to solid Cu2O microcubes. The reduction of nonporous Co3O4 also exhibits a uniform sequential reduction process from nonporous Co3O4 to porous Co3O4/CoO composites, porous CoO, porous CoO/Co composites, and porous foam-like Co particles. Nanoscale channels originate from the particle surface and eventually develop inside the entire product, resulting in porous foam-like Co microparticles. The Kirkendall effect is believed to facilitate the formation of porous structures in both processes.

  14. Influence of surface diffusion on the formation of hollow nanostructures induced by the Kirkendall effect: the basic concept.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hong Jin; Knez, Mato; Scholz, Roland; Hesse, Dietrich; Nielsch, Kornelius; Zacharias, Margit; Gösele, Ulrich

    2007-04-01

    The Kirkendall effect has been widely applied for fabrication of nanoscale hollow structures, which involves an unbalanced counterdiffusion through a reaction interface. Conventional treatment of this process only considers the bulk diffusion of growth species and vacancies. In this letter, a conceptual extension is proposed: the development of the hollow interior undergoes two main stages. The initial stage is the generation of small Kirkendall voids intersecting the compound interface via a bulk diffusion process; the second stage is dominated by surface diffusion of the core material (viz., the fast-diffusing species) along the pore surface. This concept applies to spherical as well as cylindrical nanometer and microscale structures, and even to macroscopic bilayers. As supporting evidence, we show the results of a spinel-forming solid-state reaction of core-shell nanowires, as well as of a planar bilayer of ZnO-Al2O3 to illustrate the influence of surface diffusion on the morphology evolution. PMID:17381161

  15. Growth of Hollow Transition Metal (Fe, Co, Ni) Oxide Nanoparticles on Graphene Sheets through Kirkendall Effect as Anodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xianbo; Qu, Bin; Zhao, Yang; Li, Chunyan; Chen, Yujin; Sun, Chunwen; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Chunling

    2016-01-26

    A general strategy based on the nanoscale Kirkendall effect has been developed to grow hollow transition metal (Fe, Co or Ni) oxide nanoparticles on graphene sheets. When applied as lithium-ion battery anodes, these hollow transition metal oxide-based composites exhibit excellent electrochemical performance, with high reversible capacities and long-term stabilities at a high current density, superior to most transition metal oxides reported to date. PMID:26502895

  16. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of spherical and hollow-structured NiO aggregates created by combining the Kirkendall effect and Ostwald ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jung Sang; Won, Jong Min; Lee, Jong-Heun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-11-01

    The Kirkendall effect and Ostwald ripening were successfully combined to prepare uniquely structured NiO aggregates. In particular, a NiO-C composite powder was first prepared using a one-pot spray pyrolysis, which was followed by a two-step post-treatment process. This resulted in the formation of micron-sized spherical and hollow-structured NiO aggregates through a synergetic effect that occurred between nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion and Ostwald ripening. The discharge capacity of the spherical and hollow-structured NiO aggregates at the 500th cycle was 1118 mA h g-1 and their capacity retention, which was measured from the second cycle, was nearly 100%. However, the discharge capacities of the solid NiO aggregates and hollow NiO shells were 631 and 150 mA h g-1, respectively, at the 500th cycle and their capacity retentions, which were measured from the second cycle, were 63 and 14%, respectively. As such, the spherical and hollow-structured NiO aggregates, which were formed through the synergetic effect of nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion and Ostwald ripening, have high structural stability during cycling and have excellent lithium storage properties.The Kirkendall effect and Ostwald ripening were successfully combined to prepare uniquely structured NiO aggregates. In particular, a NiO-C composite powder was first prepared using a one-pot spray pyrolysis, which was followed by a two-step post-treatment process. This resulted in the formation of micron-sized spherical and hollow-structured NiO aggregates through a synergetic effect that occurred between nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion and Ostwald ripening. The discharge capacity of the spherical and hollow-structured NiO aggregates at the 500th cycle was 1118 mA h g-1 and their capacity retention, which was measured from the second cycle, was nearly 100%. However, the discharge capacities of the solid NiO aggregates and hollow NiO shells were 631 and 150 mA h g-1, respectively, at the 500th cycle and their

  17. Core-decomposition-facilitated fabrication of hollow rare-earth silicate nanowalnuts from core-shell structures via the Kirkendall effect.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenli; Zou, Rui; Yang, Xianfeng; Huang, Ningyu; Huang, Junjian; Liang, Hongbin; Wang, Jing

    2015-08-28

    Hollow micro-/nanostructures have been widely applied in the fields of lithium ion batteries, catalysis, biosensing, biomedicine, and so forth. The Kirkendall effect, which involves a non-equilibrium mutual diffusion process, is one of many important fabrication strategies for the formation of hollow nanomaterials. Accordingly, full understanding of the interdiffusion process at the nanoscale is very important for the development of novel multifunctional hollow materials. In this work, hollow Y2SiO5 nanowalnuts have been fabricated from the conversion of YOHCO3@SiO2 core-shell nanospheres via the Kirkendall effect. More importantly, it was found that in the conversion process, the decomposition of YOHCO3 core imposes on the formation of the Y2SiO5 interlayer by facilitating the initial nucleation of the Kirkendall nanovoids and accelerating the interfacial diffusion of Y2O3@SiO2 core@shell. The simple concept developed herein can be employed as a general Kirkendall effect strategy without the assistance of any catalytically active Pt nanocrystals or gold motion for future fabrication of novel hollow nanostructures. Moreover, the photoluminescence properties of rare-earth ion doped hollow Y2SiO5 nanoparticles are researched. PMID:26220051

  18. Morphology and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 nanocables fabricated by electrospinning based on the Kirkendall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengmei; Yang, Guijin; Wei, Jinxin; Bian, Haiqin; Gao, Jiming; Li, Jinyun; Wang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    CoFe2O4 nanocables have been successfully fabricated by electrospinning involving the nanoscale Kirkendall effect. The average diameters of the outer tubes and inner wires of CoFe2O4 nanocables are around 200 nm and 85 nm, respectively. The detailed formation process nanoscale morphology, structure and unique magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 nanocables have been studied comprehensively. Each fully calcined individual nanocable is composed of CoFe2O4 monocrystallites, which stacked along the longitudinal direction with random orientation. The coercivity (Hc) of the CoFe2O4 nanocables decreases from 11043 Oe at 10 K to 707 Oe at 300 K, and a spin reorientation has been detected at 5 K and 100 K, which is different from CoFe2O4 nanorods and nanoparticles.

  19. Synthesis of hollow cobalt oxide nanopowders by a salt-assisted spray pyrolysis process applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion and their electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyeon Seok; Cho, Jung Sang; Kim, Jong Hwa; Choi, Yun Ju; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-12-21

    A new concept for preparing hollow metal oxide nanopowders by salt-assisted spray pyrolysis applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion is introduced. The composite powders of metal oxide and indecomposable metal salt are prepared by spray pyrolysis. Post-treatment under a reducing atmosphere and subsequent washing using distilled water produce aggregation-free metal nanopowders. The metal nanopowders are then transformed into metal oxide hollow nanopowders by nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. Co3O4 hollow nanopowders are prepared as first target materials. A cobalt oxide-NaCl composite powder prepared by spray pyrolysis transforms into several Co3O4 hollow nanopowders by several treatment processes. The discharge capacities of the Co3O4 nanopowders with filled and hollow structures at a current density of 1 A g(-1) for the 150th cycle are 605 and 775 mA h g(-1), respectively. The hollow structure formed by nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion improves the lithium-ion storage properties of Co3O4 nanopowders. PMID:26571144

  20. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of spherical and hollow-structured NiO aggregates created by combining the Kirkendall effect and Ostwald ripening.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sang; Won, Jong Min; Lee, Jong-Heun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-12-14

    The Kirkendall effect and Ostwald ripening were successfully combined to prepare uniquely structured NiO aggregates. In particular, a NiO-C composite powder was first prepared using a one-pot spray pyrolysis, which was followed by a two-step post-treatment process. This resulted in the formation of micron-sized spherical and hollow-structured NiO aggregates through a synergetic effect that occurred between nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion and Ostwald ripening. The discharge capacity of the spherical and hollow-structured NiO aggregates at the 500(th) cycle was 1118 mA h g(-1) and their capacity retention, which was measured from the second cycle, was nearly 100%. However, the discharge capacities of the solid NiO aggregates and hollow NiO shells were 631 and 150 mA h g(-1), respectively, at the 500(th) cycle and their capacity retentions, which were measured from the second cycle, were 63 and 14%, respectively. As such, the spherical and hollow-structured NiO aggregates, which were formed through the synergetic effect of nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion and Ostwald ripening, have high structural stability during cycling and have excellent lithium storage properties. PMID:26549333

  1. The Kirkendall effect towards oxynitride nanotubes with improved visible light driven conversion of CO2 into CH4.

    PubMed

    Zhou, P; Gao, H L; Yan, S C; Zou, Z G

    2016-02-28

    Functional hollow nanomaterials are of great interest due to their unique physical-chemical properties. Oxynitride photocatalysts are a kind of promising material for solar energy conversion. However, nanoscale design of hollow oxynitrides was difficult to achieve due to the thermal instability of oxide precursors at high temperature. Here, single crystal zinc gallium oxynitride nanotubes were successfully synthesized via the Kirkendall effect with ZnO nanorods and Ga2O3 nanosheets as precursors, which can be attributed to the high diffusion rate of ZnO and the high melting point of oxynitride. Enhanced photocatalytic performance in CO2 reduction was achieved over the as-prepared ZnGaNO nanotubes, due to their higher specific surface area and less recombination of the photogenerated carriers. These results are expected to provide new guidance in the design and preparation of highly efficient nano-scaled oxynitride photocatalysts. PMID:26795040

  2. Core-decomposition-facilitated fabrication of hollow rare-earth silicate nanowalnuts from core-shell structures via the Kirkendall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenli; Zou, Rui; Yang, Xianfeng; Huang, Ningyu; Huang, Junjian; Liang, Hongbin; Wang, Jing

    2015-08-01

    Hollow micro-/nanostructures have been widely applied in the fields of lithium ion batteries, catalysis, biosensing, biomedicine, and so forth. The Kirkendall effect, which involves a non-equilibrium mutual diffusion process, is one of many important fabrication strategies for the formation of hollow nanomaterials. Accordingly, full understanding of the interdiffusion process at the nanoscale is very important for the development of novel multifunctional hollow materials. In this work, hollow Y2SiO5 nanowalnuts have been fabricated from the conversion of YOHCO3@SiO2 core-shell nanospheres via the Kirkendall effect. More importantly, it was found that in the conversion process, the decomposition of YOHCO3 core imposes on the formation of the Y2SiO5 interlayer by facilitating the initial nucleation of the Kirkendall nanovoids and accelerating the interfacial diffusion of Y2O3@SiO2 core@shell. The simple concept developed herein can be employed as a general Kirkendall effect strategy without the assistance of any catalytically active Pt nanocrystals or gold motion for future fabrication of novel hollow nanostructures. Moreover, the photoluminescence properties of rare-earth ion doped hollow Y2SiO5 nanoparticles are researched.Hollow micro-/nanostructures have been widely applied in the fields of lithium ion batteries, catalysis, biosensing, biomedicine, and so forth. The Kirkendall effect, which involves a non-equilibrium mutual diffusion process, is one of many important fabrication strategies for the formation of hollow nanomaterials. Accordingly, full understanding of the interdiffusion process at the nanoscale is very important for the development of novel multifunctional hollow materials. In this work, hollow Y2SiO5 nanowalnuts have been fabricated from the conversion of YOHCO3@SiO2 core-shell nanospheres via the Kirkendall effect. More importantly, it was found that in the conversion process, the decomposition of YOHCO3 core imposes on the formation of the Y2Si

  3. High-areal-capacity lithium storage of the Kirkendall effect-driven hollow hierarchical NiSx nanoarchitecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chan Woo; Seo, Seung-Deok; Park, Hoon Kee; Park, Sangbaek; Song, Hee Jo; Kim, Dong-Wan; Hong, Kug Sun

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) architectures can provide significant advantages as lithium ion microbattery electrodes by lengthening the vertical dimension. In addition, the nanoscale hierarchy and hollow properties are important factors for enhancing the performance. Here, we prepared a 3-D nickel sulfide nanoarchitecture via a facile low-temperature solution route. A Kirkendall effect-driven sulfidation of a 3-D nickel electrode was used to produce a hollow 3-D structure. Moreover, a nanoscale hierarchy can be formed with the use of highly concentrated sulfur species. The morphology, structure, and chemical composition of the 3-D nickel sulfide electrode are characterized in detail, and the formation mechanism is discussed based on a time-resolved study. The 3-D nickel sulfide electrodes show an outstanding areal capacity (1.5 mA h cm-2 at a current rate of 0.5 mA cm-2), making this electrode a potential electrode for 3-D lithium ion microbatteries with a large energy density. Moreover, this strategy is expected to provide a general fabrication method for transition metal sulfide nanoarchitectures.Three-dimensional (3-D) architectures can provide significant advantages as lithium ion microbattery electrodes by lengthening the vertical dimension. In addition, the nanoscale hierarchy and hollow properties are important factors for enhancing the performance. Here, we prepared a 3-D nickel sulfide nanoarchitecture via a facile low-temperature solution route. A Kirkendall effect-driven sulfidation of a 3-D nickel electrode was used to produce a hollow 3-D structure. Moreover, a nanoscale hierarchy can be formed with the use of highly concentrated sulfur species. The morphology, structure, and chemical composition of the 3-D nickel sulfide electrode are characterized in detail, and the formation mechanism is discussed based on a time-resolved study. The 3-D nickel sulfide electrodes show an outstanding areal capacity (1.5 mA h cm-2 at a current rate of 0.5 mA cm-2), making

  4. Applying Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion for Template-Free, Kilogram-Scale Production of SnO2 Hollow Nanospheres via Spray Drying System

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung Sang; Ju, Hyeon Seok; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-01-01

    A commercially applicable and simple process for the preparation of aggregation-free metal oxide hollow nanospheres is developed by applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion to a large-scale spray drying process. The precursor powders prepared by spray drying are transformed into homogeneous metal oxide hollow nanospheres through a simple post-treatment process. Aggregation-free SnO2 hollow nanospheres are selected as the first target material for lithium ion storage applications. Amorphous carbon microspheres with uniformly dispersed Sn metal nanopowder are prepared in the first step of the post-treatment process under a reducing atmosphere. The post-treatment of the Sn-C composite powder at 500 °C under an air atmosphere produces carbon- and aggregation-free SnO2 hollow nanospheres through nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. The hollow and filled SnO2 nanopowders exhibit different cycling performances, with their discharge capacities after 300 cycles being 643 and 280 mA h g−1, respectively, at a current density of 2 A g−1. The SnO2 hollow nanospheres with high structural stability exhibit superior cycling and rate performances for lithium ion storage compared to the filled ones. PMID:27033088

  5. Applying Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion for Template-Free, Kilogram-Scale Production of SnO2 Hollow Nanospheres via Spray Drying System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jung Sang; Ju, Hyeon Seok; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-04-01

    A commercially applicable and simple process for the preparation of aggregation-free metal oxide hollow nanospheres is developed by applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion to a large-scale spray drying process. The precursor powders prepared by spray drying are transformed into homogeneous metal oxide hollow nanospheres through a simple post-treatment process. Aggregation-free SnO2 hollow nanospheres are selected as the first target material for lithium ion storage applications. Amorphous carbon microspheres with uniformly dispersed Sn metal nanopowder are prepared in the first step of the post-treatment process under a reducing atmosphere. The post-treatment of the Sn-C composite powder at 500 °C under an air atmosphere produces carbon- and aggregation-free SnO2 hollow nanospheres through nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. The hollow and filled SnO2 nanopowders exhibit different cycling performances, with their discharge capacities after 300 cycles being 643 and 280 mA h g‑1, respectively, at a current density of 2 A g‑1. The SnO2 hollow nanospheres with high structural stability exhibit superior cycling and rate performances for lithium ion storage compared to the filled ones.

  6. Applying Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion for Template-Free, Kilogram-Scale Production of SnO2 Hollow Nanospheres via Spray Drying System.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sang; Ju, Hyeon Seok; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-01-01

    A commercially applicable and simple process for the preparation of aggregation-free metal oxide hollow nanospheres is developed by applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion to a large-scale spray drying process. The precursor powders prepared by spray drying are transformed into homogeneous metal oxide hollow nanospheres through a simple post-treatment process. Aggregation-free SnO2 hollow nanospheres are selected as the first target material for lithium ion storage applications. Amorphous carbon microspheres with uniformly dispersed Sn metal nanopowder are prepared in the first step of the post-treatment process under a reducing atmosphere. The post-treatment of the Sn-C composite powder at 500 °C under an air atmosphere produces carbon- and aggregation-free SnO2 hollow nanospheres through nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. The hollow and filled SnO2 nanopowders exhibit different cycling performances, with their discharge capacities after 300 cycles being 643 and 280 mA h g(-1), respectively, at a current density of 2 A g(-1). The SnO2 hollow nanospheres with high structural stability exhibit superior cycling and rate performances for lithium ion storage compared to the filled ones. PMID:27033088

  7. High-areal-capacity lithium storage of the Kirkendall effect-driven hollow hierarchical NiS(x) nanoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan Woo; Seo, Seung-Deok; Park, Hoon Kee; Park, Sangbaek; Song, Hee Jo; Kim, Dong-Wan; Hong, Kug Sun

    2015-02-14

    Three-dimensional (3-D) architectures can provide significant advantages as lithium ion microbattery electrodes by lengthening the vertical dimension. In addition, the nanoscale hierarchy and hollow properties are important factors for enhancing the performance. Here, we prepared a 3-D nickel sulfide nanoarchitecture via a facile low-temperature solution route. A Kirkendall effect-driven sulfidation of a 3-D nickel electrode was used to produce a hollow 3-D structure. Moreover, a nanoscale hierarchy can be formed with the use of highly concentrated sulfur species. The morphology, structure, and chemical composition of the 3-D nickel sulfide electrode are characterized in detail, and the formation mechanism is discussed based on a time-resolved study. The 3-D nickel sulfide electrodes show an outstanding areal capacity (1.5 mA h cm(-2) at a current rate of 0.5 mA cm(-2)), making this electrode a potential electrode for 3-D lithium ion microbatteries with a large energy density. Moreover, this strategy is expected to provide a general fabrication method for transition metal sulfide nanoarchitectures. PMID:25585208

  8. An observation of the effect of grain structure on the appearance of Kirkendall porosity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Study of substitutional diffusion in thoriated and nonthoriated nickel alloys, particularly in several nominally Ni-20Cr-2ThO2:Ni type diffusion couples diffused at 1530 K. Upon metallographic examination, one DS-NiCr:Ni couple had negligible Kirkendall pore formation while the other couples contained significant porosity. It is believed that the difference in Kirkendall porosity is related to the unique grain structure of the particular lot of DS-NiCr used in this diffusion couple.

  9. Na-ion Storage Performances of FeSex and Fe2O3 Hollow Nanoparticles-Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Balls prepared by Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Gi Dae; Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-02-01

    Uniquely structured FeSex-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders, in which hollow FeSex nanoparticles are uniformly distributed throughout the rGO matrix, were prepared by spray pyrolysis applying the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process. Iron oxide-rGO composite powders were transformed into FeSex-rGO composite powders by a two-step post-treatment process. Metallic Fe nanocrystals formed during the first-step post-treatment process were transformed into hollow FeSex nanoparticles during the selenization process. The FeSex-rGO composite powders had mixed crystal structures of FeSe and FeSe2 phases. A rGO content of 33% was estimated from the TG analysis of the FeSex-rGO composite powders. The FeSex-rGO composite powders had superior sodium-ion storage properties compared to those of the Fe2O3-rGO composite powders with similar morphological characteristics. The discharge capacities of the FeSex- and Fe2O3-rGO composite powders for the 200th cycle at a constant current density of 0.3 A g-1 were 434 and 174 mA h g-1, respectively. The FeSex-rGO composite powders had a high discharge capacity of 311 mA h g-1 for the 1000th cycle at a high current density of 1 A g-1.

  10. Na-ion Storage Performances of FeSex and Fe2O3 Hollow Nanoparticles-Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Balls prepared by Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion Process

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gi Dae; Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-01-01

    Uniquely structured FeSex-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders, in which hollow FeSex nanoparticles are uniformly distributed throughout the rGO matrix, were prepared by spray pyrolysis applying the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process. Iron oxide-rGO composite powders were transformed into FeSex-rGO composite powders by a two-step post-treatment process. Metallic Fe nanocrystals formed during the first-step post-treatment process were transformed into hollow FeSex nanoparticles during the selenization process. The FeSex-rGO composite powders had mixed crystal structures of FeSe and FeSe2 phases. A rGO content of 33% was estimated from the TG analysis of the FeSex-rGO composite powders. The FeSex-rGO composite powders had superior sodium-ion storage properties compared to those of the Fe2O3-rGO composite powders with similar morphological characteristics. The discharge capacities of the FeSex- and Fe2O3-rGO composite powders for the 200th cycle at a constant current density of 0.3 A g−1 were 434 and 174 mA h g−1, respectively. The FeSex-rGO composite powders had a high discharge capacity of 311 mA h g−1 for the 1000th cycle at a high current density of 1 A g−1. PMID:26928312

  11. Multiphase and Double-Layer NiFe2O4@NiO-Hollow-Nanosphere-Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Powders Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Applying Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Park, Gi Dae; Cho, Jung Sang; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-08-01

    Multicomponent metal oxide hollow-nanosphere decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders are prepared by spray pyrolysis with nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. The double-layer NiFe2O4@NiO-hollow-nanosphere decorated rGO composite powders are prepared using the first target material. The NiFe-alloy-nanopowder decorated rGO powders are prepared as an intermediate product by post-treatment under the reducing atmosphere of the NiFe2O4/NiO-decorated rGO composite powders obtained by spray pyrolysis. The different diffusion rates of Ni (83 pm for Ni(2+)) and Fe (76 pm for Fe(2+), 65 pm for Fe(3+)) cations with different radii during nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion result in multiphase and double-layer NiFe2O4@NiO hollow nanospheres. The mean size of the hollow NiFe2O4@NiO nanospheres decorated uniformly within crumpled rGO is 14 nm. The first discharge capacities of the nanosphere-decorated rGO composite powders with filled NiFe2O4/NiO and hollow NiFe2O4@NiO at a current density of 1 A g(-1) are 1168 and 1319 mA h g(-1), respectively. Their discharge capacities for the 100th cycle are 597 and 951 mA h g(-1), respectively. The discharge capacity of the NiFe2O4@NiO-hollow-nanosphere-decorated rGO composite powders at the high current density of 4 A g(-1) for the 400th cycle is 789 mA h g(-1). PMID:26186601

  12. Evolution of hollow TiO2 nanostructures via the Kirkendall effect driven by cation exchange with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanhao; Yin, Xin; Kvit, Alexander; Wang, Xudong

    2014-05-14

    Hollow nanostructures are promising building blocks for electrode scaffolds and catalyst carriers in energy-related systems. In this paper, we report a discovery of hollow TiO2 nanostructure evolution in a vapor-solid deposition system. By introducing TiCl4 vapor pulses to ZnO nanowire templates, we obtained TiO2 tubular nanostructures with well-preserved dimensions and morphology. This process involved the cation exchange reaction between TiCl4 vapor and ZnO solid and the diffusion of reactants and products in their vapor or solid phases, which was likely a manifestation of the Kirkendall effect. The characteristic morphologies and the evolution phenomena of the hollow nanostructures from this vapor-solid system were in a good agreement with the Kirkendall effect discovered in solution systems. Complex hollow TiO2 nanostructures were successfully acquired by replicating various ZnO nanomorphologies, suggesting that this unique cation exchange process could also be a versatile tool for nanostructure replication in vapor-solid growth systems. The evolution of TiO2 nanotubes from ZnO NW scaffolds was seamlessly integrated with TiO2 NR branch growth and thus realized a pure TiO2-phased 3D NW architecture. Because of the significantly enlarged surface area and the trace amount of Zn left in the TiO2 crystals, such 3D TiO2 nanoforests demonstrated enhanced photoelectrochemical performance particularly under AM (air mass) 1.5G illumination, offering a new route for hierarchical functional nanomaterial assembly and application. PMID:24679077

  13. Kirkendall-effect-based growth of dendrite-shaped CuO hollow micro/nanostructures for lithium-ion battery anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yingying; Huang Xintang; Wang Kai; Liu Jinping; Jiang Jian; Ding Ruimin; Ji Xiaoxu; Li Xin

    2010-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) dendrite-shaped CuO hollow micro/nanostructures have been prepared via a Kirkendall-effect-based approach for the first time and have been demonstrated as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The as-prepared hollow structures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical properties. A CuO hollow structure composed of nanocubes outside and a dense film inside was selected as a typical example of the optimized design; it exhibited significantly improved cyclability at a current rate of 0.5 C, with the average Coulombic efficiency of {approx}97.0% and 57.9% retention of the discharge capacity of the second cycle after 50 cycles. The correlation between the structure features of the hollow CuO and their electrochemical behavior was discussed in detail. Smaller size of primary structure and larger internal space of electrode materials are crucial to better electrochemical performance. This work represents that Kirkendall effect is a promising method to fabricate excellent hollow electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: SEM images of 3D dendrite-shaped CuO hollow micro/nanostructures prepared via a Kirkendall-effect-based approach have been shown. The as-prepared CuO electrode exhibited significantly improved cyclability for Li-ion batteries.

  14. Na-ion Storage Performances of FeSe(x) and Fe2O3 Hollow Nanoparticles-Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Balls prepared by Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion Process.

    PubMed

    Park, Gi Dae; Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-01-01

    Uniquely structured FeSe(x)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders, in which hollow FeSe(x) nanoparticles are uniformly distributed throughout the rGO matrix, were prepared by spray pyrolysis applying the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process. Iron oxide-rGO composite powders were transformed into FeSe(x)-rGO composite powders by a two-step post-treatment process. Metallic Fe nanocrystals formed during the first-step post-treatment process were transformed into hollow FeSe(x) nanoparticles during the selenization process. The FeSe(x)-rGO composite powders had mixed crystal structures of FeSe and FeSe2 phases. A rGO content of 33% was estimated from the TG analysis of the FeSe(x)-rGO composite powders. The FeSe(x)-rGO composite powders had superior sodium-ion storage properties compared to those of the Fe2O3-rGO composite powders with similar morphological characteristics. The discharge capacities of the FeSe(x)- and Fe2O3-rGO composite powders for the 200(th) cycle at a constant current density of 0.3 A g(-1) were 434 and 174 mA h g(-1), respectively. The FeSe(x)-rGO composite powders had a high discharge capacity of 311 mA h g(-1) for the 1000(th) cycle at a high current density of 1 A g(-1). PMID:26928312

  15. Kirkendall-effect-based growth of dendrite-shaped CuO hollow micro/nanostructures for lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yingying; Huang, Xintang; Wang, Kai; Liu, Jinping; Jiang, Jian; Ding, Ruimin; Ji, Xiaoxu; Li, Xin

    2010-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) dendrite-shaped CuO hollow micro/nanostructures have been prepared via a Kirkendall-effect-based approach for the first time and have been demonstrated as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The as-prepared hollow structures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical properties. A CuO hollow structure composed of nanocubes outside and a dense film inside was selected as a typical example of the optimized design; it exhibited significantly improved cyclability at a current rate of 0.5 C, with the average Coulombic efficiency of ˜97.0% and 57.9% retention of the discharge capacity of the second cycle after 50 cycles. The correlation between the structure features of the hollow CuO and their electrochemical behavior was discussed in detail. Smaller size of primary structure and larger internal space of electrode materials are crucial to better electrochemical performance. This work represents that Kirkendall effect is a promising method to fabricate excellent hollow electrode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  16. Cation Exchange Combined with Kirkendall Effect in the Preparation of SnTe/CdTe and CdTe/SnTe Core/Shell Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Jang, Youngjin; Yanover, Diana; Čapek, Richard Karel; Shapiro, Arthur; Grumbach, Nathan; Kauffmann, Yaron; Sashchiuk, Aldona; Lifshitz, Efrat

    2016-07-01

    Controlling the synthesis of narrow band gap semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with a high-quality surface is of prime importance for scientific and technological interests. This Letter presents facile solution-phase syntheses of SnTe NCs and their corresponding core/shell heterostructures. Here, we synthesized monodisperse and highly crystalline SnTe NCs by employing an inexpensive, nontoxic precursor, SnCl2, the reactivity of which was enhanced by adding a reducing agent, 1,2-hexadecanediol. Moreover, we developed a synthesis procedure for the formation of SnTe-based core/shell NCs by combining the cation exchange and the Kirkendall effect. The cation exchange of Sn(2+) by Cd(2+) at the surface allowed primarily the formation of SnTe/CdTe core/shell NCs. Further continuation of the reaction promoted an intensive diffusion of the Cd(2+) ions, which via the Kirkendall effect led to the formation of the inverted CdTe/SnTe core/shell NCs. PMID:27331900

  17. Nanofibers Comprising Yolk-Shell Sn@void@SnO/SnO₂ and Hollow SnO/SnO₂ and SnO₂ Nanospheres via the Kirkendall Diffusion Effect and Their Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sang; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-09-01

    Nanofibers with a unique structure comprising Sn@void@SnO/SnO2 yolk-shell nanospheres and hollow SnO/SnO2 and SnO2 nanospheres are prepared by applying the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process in conventional electrospinning process. Under a reducing atmosphere, post-treatment of tin 2-ethylhexanoate-polyvinylpyrrolidone electrospun nanofibers produce carbon nanofibers with embedded spherical Sn nanopowders. The Sn nanopowders are linearly aligned along the carbon nanofiber axis without aggregation of the nanopowders. Under an air atmosphere, oxidation of the Sn-C composite nanofibers produce nanofibers comprising Sn@void@SnO/SnO2 yolk-shell nanospheres and hollow SnO/SnO2 and SnO2 nanospheres, depending on the post-treatment temperature. The mean sizes of the hollow nanospheres embedded within tin oxide nanofibers post-treated at 500 °C and 600 °C are 146 and 117 nm, respectively. For the 250th cycle, the discharge capacities of the nanofibers prepared by the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process post-treated at 400 °C, 500 °C, and 600 °C at a high current density of 2 A g(-1) are 663, 630, and 567 mA h g(-1), respectively. The corresponding capacity retentions are 77%, 84%, and 78%, as calculated from the second cycle. The nanofibers prepared by applying the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process exhibit superior electrochemical properties compared with those of the porous-structured SnO2 nanofibers prepared by the conventional post-treatment process. PMID:26058833

  18. Synthesis of Capsule-like Porous Hollow Nanonickel Cobalt Sulfides via Cation Exchange Based on the Kirkendall Effect for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongfu; Chen, Shunji; Mu, Shichun; Chen, Teng; Qiao, Yuqing; Yu, Shengxue; Gao, Faming

    2016-04-20

    To construct a suitable three-dimensional structure for ionic transport on the surface of the active materials for a supercapacitor, porous hollow nickel cobalt sulfides are successfully synthesized via a facile and efficient cation-exchange reaction in a hydrothermal process involving the Kirkendall effect with γ-MnS nanorods as a sacrificial template. The formation mechanism of the hollow nickel cobalt sulfides is carefully illustrated via the tuning reaction time and reaction temperature during the cation-exchange process. Due to the ingenious porous hollow structure that offers a high surface area for electrochemical reaction and suitable paths for ionic transport, porous hollow nickel cobalt sulfide electrodes exhibit high electrochemical performance. The Ni1.77Co1.23S4 electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 224.5 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 0.25 A g(-1) and a high capacity retention of 87.0% at 10 A g(-1). An all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor, assembled with a Ni1.77Co1.23S4 electrode as the positive electrode and a homemade activated carbon electrode as the negative electrode (denoted as NCS//HMC), exhibits a high energy density of 42.7 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 190.8 W kg(-1) and even 29.4 Wh kg(-1) at 3.6 kW kg(-1). The fully charged as-prepared asymmetric supercapacitor can light up a light emitting diode (LED) indicator for more than 1 h, indicating promising practical applications of the hollow nickel cobalt sulfides and the NCS//HMC asymmetric supercapacitor. PMID:27031254

  19. Thermoelectric effects in nanoscale junctions.

    PubMed

    Dubi, Yonatan; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2009-01-01

    Despite its intrinsic nonequilibrium origin, thermoelectricity in nanoscale systems is usually described within a static scattering approach which disregards the dynamical interaction with the thermal baths that maintain energy flow. Using the theory of open quantum systems, we show instead that unexpected properties, such as a resonant structure and large sign sensitivity, emerge if the nonequilibrium nature of this problem is considered. Our approach also allows us to define and study a local temperature, which shows hot spots and oscillations along the system according to the coupling of the latter to the electrodes. This demonstrates that Fourier's lawa paradigm of statistical mechanicsis generally violated in nanoscale junctions. PMID:19072125

  20. Structure sensitivity and nanoscale effects in electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, Marc T. M.

    2011-05-01

    This review discusses the role of the detailed nanoscale structure of catalytic surfaces on the activity of various electrocatalytic reactions of importance for fuel cells, hydrogen production, and other environmentally important catalytic reactions, such as carbon monoxide oxidation, methanol and ethanol oxidation, ammonia oxidation, nitric oxide reduction, hydrogen evolution, and oxygen reduction. Specifically, results and insights obtained from surface-science single-crystal-based model experiments are linked to experiments on well-defined shape-controlled nanoparticles. A classification of structure sensitive effects in electrocatalysis is suggested, based both on empirical grounds and on quantum-chemical viz. thermochemical considerations. The mutual relation between the two classification schemes is also discussed. The review underscores the relevance of single-crystal modeling of nanoscale effects in catalysis, and points to the special role of two kinds of active sites for electrocatalysis on nanoparticulate surfaces: (i) steps and defects in (111) terraces or facets, and (ii) long-range (100) terraces or facets.

  1. Exploring Transport Effects in Nanoscale Graphene Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worne, Jeff; Galande, Charudatta; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Ajayan, Pulickel; Natelson, Douglas

    2011-03-01

    Graphene, the single- to few-atomic layers cousin to graphite, has become a very interesting topic of research owing to its unique mechanical, optical, thermal and electrical properties. Many of the properties of graphene can be traced to its structural uniformity, allowing both electrons and holes to travel long distances (up to several microns) before scattering. However, studying graphene on the micron level can mask its true nanoscale behavior. Using very short length scales allows for the investigation of the behavior of charge impurities, contact effects and ballistic transport. In this work, we fabricate sub-30 nanometer suspended graphene 3-terminal devices on gold and platinum electrodes. We present data from electrical measurements on charge impurities that are apparent at this length scale and the effect of electrode work function on contact resistance. We compare this to mechanically exfoliated graphene on a silicon/SiO2 substrate with gold electrodes.

  2. Resonant Effects in Nanoscale Bowtie Apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Li; Qin, Jin; Guo, Songpo; Liu, Tao; Kinzel, Edward; Wang, Liang

    2016-06-01

    Nanoscale bowtie aperture antennas can be used to focus light well below the diffraction limit with extremely high transmission efficiencies. This paper studies the spectral dependence of the transmission through nanoscale bowtie apertures defined in a silver film. A realistic bowtie aperture is numerically modeled using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Results show that the transmission spectrum is dominated by Fabry-Pérot (F-P) waveguide modes and plasmonic modes. The F-P resonance is sensitive to the thickness of the film and the plasmonic resonant mode is closely related to the gap distance of the bowtie aperture. Both characteristics significantly affect the transmission spectrum. To verify these numerical results, bowtie apertures are FIB milled in a silver film. Experimental transmission measurements agree with simulation data. Based on this result, nanoscale bowtie apertures can be optimized to realize deep sub-wavelength confinement with high transmission efficiency with applications to nanolithography, data storage, and bio-chemical sensing.

  3. Electromigration induced Kirkendall void growth in Sn-3.5Ag/Cu solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yong; Yu, Jin

    2014-02-28

    Effects of electric current flow on the Kirkendall void formation at solder joints were investigated using Sn-3.5Ag/Cu joints specially designed to have localized nucleation of Kirkendall voids at the Cu{sub 3}Sn/Cu interface. Under the current density of 1 × 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}, kinetics of Kirkendall void growth and intermetallic compound thickening were affected by the electromigration (EM), and both showed the polarity effect. Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} showed a strong susceptibility to the polarity effect, while Cu{sub 3}Sn did not. The electromigration force induced additional tensile (or compressive) stress at the cathode (or anode), which accelerated (or decelerated) the void growth. From the measurements of the fraction of void at the Cu{sub 3}Sn/Cu interface on SEM micrographs and analysis of the kinetics of void growth, the magnitude of the local stress induced by EM was estimated to be 9 MPa at the anode and −7 MPa at the cathode.

  4. Resonant Effects in Nanoscale Bowtie Apertures

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li; Qin, Jin; Guo, Songpo; Liu, Tao; Kinzel, Edward; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale bowtie aperture antennas can be used to focus light well below the diffraction limit with extremely high transmission efficiencies. This paper studies the spectral dependence of the transmission through nanoscale bowtie apertures defined in a silver film. A realistic bowtie aperture is numerically modeled using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Results show that the transmission spectrum is dominated by Fabry-Pérot (F-P) waveguide modes and plasmonic modes. The F-P resonance is sensitive to the thickness of the film and the plasmonic resonant mode is closely related to the gap distance of the bowtie aperture. Both characteristics significantly affect the transmission spectrum. To verify these numerical results, bowtie apertures are FIB milled in a silver film. Experimental transmission measurements agree with simulation data. Based on this result, nanoscale bowtie apertures can be optimized to realize deep sub-wavelength confinement with high transmission efficiency with applications to nanolithography, data storage, and bio-chemical sensing. PMID:27250995

  5. Resonant Effects in Nanoscale Bowtie Apertures.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li; Qin, Jin; Guo, Songpo; Liu, Tao; Kinzel, Edward; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale bowtie aperture antennas can be used to focus light well below the diffraction limit with extremely high transmission efficiencies. This paper studies the spectral dependence of the transmission through nanoscale bowtie apertures defined in a silver film. A realistic bowtie aperture is numerically modeled using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Results show that the transmission spectrum is dominated by Fabry-Pérot (F-P) waveguide modes and plasmonic modes. The F-P resonance is sensitive to the thickness of the film and the plasmonic resonant mode is closely related to the gap distance of the bowtie aperture. Both characteristics significantly affect the transmission spectrum. To verify these numerical results, bowtie apertures are FIB milled in a silver film. Experimental transmission measurements agree with simulation data. Based on this result, nanoscale bowtie apertures can be optimized to realize deep sub-wavelength confinement with high transmission efficiency with applications to nanolithography, data storage, and bio-chemical sensing. PMID:27250995

  6. Predictive modeling of synergistic effects in nanoscale ion track formation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-08-05

    Molecular dynamics techniques and the inelastic thermal spike model are used to study the coupled effects of inelastic energy loss due to 21 MeV Ni ion irradiation and pre-existing defects in SrTiO3. We determine the dependence on pre-existing defect concentration of nanoscale track formation occurring from the synergy between the inelastic energy loss and the pre-existing atomic defects. We show that the nanoscale ion tracks’ size can be controlled by the concentration of pre-existing disorder. This work identifies a major gap in fundamental understanding concerning the role played by defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron–lattice coupling.

  7. Effectiveness of the Young-Laplace equation at nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hailong; Cao, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, a new approach based on the behavior of pressurized water out of a nanopore (1.3–2.7 nm) in a flat plate is developed to calculate the relationship between the water surface curvature and the pressure difference across water surface. It is found that the water surface curvature is inversely proportional to the pressure difference across surface at nanoscale, and this relationship will be effective for different pore size, temperature, and even for electrolyte solutions. Based on the present results, we cannot only effectively determine the surface tension of water and the effects of temperature or electrolyte ions on the surface tension, but also show that the Young-Laplace (Y-L) equation is valid at nanoscale. In addition, the contact angle of water with the hydrophilic material can be further calculated by the relationship between the critical instable pressure of water surface (burst pressure) and nanopore size. Combining with the infiltration behavior of water into hydrophobic microchannels, the contact angle of water at nanoscale can be more accurately determined by measuring the critical pressure causing the instability of water surface, based on which the uncertainty of measuring the contact angle of water at nanoscale is highly reduced. PMID:27033874

  8. Effectiveness of the Young-Laplace equation at nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hailong; Cao, Guoxin

    2016-04-01

    Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, a new approach based on the behavior of pressurized water out of a nanopore (1.3–2.7 nm) in a flat plate is developed to calculate the relationship between the water surface curvature and the pressure difference across water surface. It is found that the water surface curvature is inversely proportional to the pressure difference across surface at nanoscale, and this relationship will be effective for different pore size, temperature, and even for electrolyte solutions. Based on the present results, we cannot only effectively determine the surface tension of water and the effects of temperature or electrolyte ions on the surface tension, but also show that the Young-Laplace (Y-L) equation is valid at nanoscale. In addition, the contact angle of water with the hydrophilic material can be further calculated by the relationship between the critical instable pressure of water surface (burst pressure) and nanopore size. Combining with the infiltration behavior of water into hydrophobic microchannels, the contact angle of water at nanoscale can be more accurately determined by measuring the critical pressure causing the instability of water surface, based on which the uncertainty of measuring the contact angle of water at nanoscale is highly reduced.

  9. Predictive modeling of synergistic effects in nanoscale ion track formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-08-05

    Molecular dynamics techniques and the inelastic thermal spike model are used to study the coupled effects of inelastic energy loss due to 21 MeV Ni ion irradiation and pre-existing defects in SrTiO3. We determine the dependence on pre-existing defect concentration of nanoscale track formation occurring from the synergy between the inelastic energy loss and the pre-existing atomic defects. We show that the nanoscale ion tracks’ size can be controlled by the concentration of pre-existing disorder. This work identifies a major gap in fundamental understanding concerning the role played by defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron–lattice coupling.

  10. Nano-scale effects in bulk nanostructured thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyala, Nikhil

    The technique of energy harvesting via thermoelectric (TE) materials is one of the favorable directions towards manifesting sustainable energy resources. The ability of TE materials to directly convert heat energy to electricity facilitates the reduction in consumption of natural resources for power generation. The requirements of high electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient while maintaining a low thermal conductivity for attaining higher TE performance introduced newer material processing techniques. Several efficient techniques for nano-scale structural modifications such as alloying, point defects, nanostructuring etc. were implemented for improvement in the figure-of-merit. Quantum confinement techniques based on nanostructuring of compounds gained prominence due to the resulting reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity. In this dissertation, various aspects of theoretical and experimental techniques pertaining to the nano-scale effects in TE materials were investigated. As a first step, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of nanostructuring, TE characteristics of silicide based materials such as Mg2Si and Si1-xGex were theoretically modeled. A comprehensive comparison of effects of nanostructuring in both the materials was deduced. The fact that nanostructuring may not always be beneficial was highlighted through estimation of phonon mean free path in nanostructured compounds. In the second phase of this dissertation, a novel technique through mixing of a conductive glass-frit for improving the mechanical stability of Mg2Si was successfully developed. The studies were followed up by investigations on the benefits of combinatorial effects of nano-inclusions, nanostructuring and long duration annealing based on Bi2Te 3. In the final phase of this dissertation work, the technique of rapid decrystallization of single crystal silicon by high energy microwaves was introduced and the beneficial effects of rapid

  11. Sulfidation of Cadmium at the Nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Cabot, Andreu; Smith, Rachel; Yin, Yadong; Zheng, Haimei; Reinhard, Bjorn; Liu, Haitao; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-05-22

    We investigate the evolution of structures that result when spherical Cd nanoparticles of a few hundred nanometers in diameter react with dissolved molecular sulfur species in solution to form hollow CdS. Over a wide range of temperatures and concentrations, we find that rapid Cd diffusion through the growing CdS shell localizes the reaction front at the outermost CdS/S interface, leading to hollow particles when all the Cd is consumed. When we examine partially reacted particles, we find that this system differs significantly from others in which the nanoscale Kirkendall effect has been used to create hollow particles. In previously reported systems, partial reaction creates a hollow particle with a spherically symmetric metal core connected to the outer shell by filaments. In contrast, here we obtain a lower symmetry structure, in which the unreacted metal core and the coalesced vacancies separate into two distinct spherical caps, minimizing the metal/void interface. This pattern of void coalescence is likely to occur in situations where the metal/vacancy self-diffusivities in the core are greater than the diffusivity of the cations through the shell.

  12. Nanoscale optimization of quantum dot media for effective photovoltaic conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablon, K. A.; Sergeev, A.; Little, J. W.; Vagidov, N.; Mitin, V.

    2014-06-01

    Nanoscale engineering of band profile and potential profile provide effective tools for the management of photoelectron processes in quantum dot (QD) photovoltaic devices. We investigate the QD devices with various 1-μm InAs /GaAs QD media placed in a 3-μm base GaAs p-n junction. We found that n-charging of quantum dots (QDs) create potential barriers around QDs. QD growth between ultrathin AlGaAs layers leads to the formation of AlGaAs "fence" barriers, and reduces the wetting layers (WLs). The barriers around QDs and reduction of the wetting layer substantially suppress recombination processes via QDs. The n-doping of interdot space in QD media enhances electron extraction from QDs. All of our QD devices show short-circuit current, JSC, higher than that of the reference cell, but smaller open-circuit voltage, VOC.. In the QD devices, the short circuit currents increase by ~0.1 mA/cm2 per dot layer. JSC reaches 28.4 mA/cm2 in the device with QD media that combines dot charging, fence barriers, and WL reduction.

  13. Defect-Free nanoscale printing using the Talbot effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, Mario; Li, Wei; Martinez Esquiroz, Victor; Urbanski, Lukasz; Patel, Dinesh; Menoni, Carmen; Stein, Aaron; Chao, Weilun; Anderson, Erik

    2014-03-01

    An Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography technique that utilizes a compact EUV laser to print nanoscale features on a photoresist is presented. The lithographic method uses the Talbot effect and is based on the self-imaging produced when a periodic transmission mask is illuminated with a coherent light beam. A periodic mask composed of an array of tiles with an arbitrary design produces self images that are used to replicate the mask in the surface of a photoresist. When illuminated with coherent light, the tiled diffractive mask produces images which are 1 × replicas at certain locations (Talbot planes). The self-images are generated by the diffraction of the thousands of cells in the mask. Thus, any defect in any of the unitary cells is averaged over a very large numbers of tiles consequently rendering a virtually defect-free image. This is a unique characteristic of this photolithographic approach. This work was supported by NSF awards ECCS 0901806, EEC 0310717 and SBIR 1248924 and DOE Contract DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  14. Effect of nanoscale patterned interfacial roughness on interfacial toughness.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Moody, Neville Reid; Mook, William M.; Kennedy, Marian S.; Bahr, David F.; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.

    2007-09-01

    The performance and the reliability of many devices are controlled by interfaces between thin films. In this study we investigated the use of patterned, nanoscale interfacial roughness as a way to increase the apparent interfacial toughness of brittle, thin-film material systems. The experimental portion of the study measured the interfacial toughness of a number of interfaces with nanoscale roughness. This included a silicon interface with a rectangular-toothed pattern of 60-nm wide by 90-nm deep channels fabricated using nanoimprint lithography techniques. Detailed finite element simulations were used to investigate the nature of interfacial crack growth when the interface is patterned. These simulations examined how geometric and material parameter choices affect the apparent toughness. Atomistic simulations were also performed with the aim of identifying possible modifications to the interfacial separation models currently used in nanoscale, finite element fracture analyses. The fundamental nature of atomistic traction separation for mixed mode loadings was investigated.

  15. Microstructural study on Kirkendall void formation in Sn-containing/Cu solder joints during solid-state aging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Quan; Shang, Pan-Ju; Tan, Feifei; Li, Douxing

    2013-08-01

    Kirkendall void formation at the solder/metallization interface is an important reliability concern for Cu conductors and under-bump metallization in microelectronic packaging industry, whose mechanism is still hard to be understood for different individual cases. In the present work, two typical solder/Cu-diffusing couples, eutectic SnIn/Cu and SnBi/Cu, were studied by scanning/transmission electron microscopy to investigate the microstructural evolution and voiding process after soldering and then solid-state aging. It was concluded that Kirkendall voids formed between two sublayers within Cu2(In,Sn) phase in eutectic SnIn/Cu solder joint, whereas they appeared at the Cu3Sn/Cu interface or within Cu3Sn for eutectic SnBi/Cu solder joint. Besides the effect of impurity elements, the morphological difference within one intermetallic compound layer could change the diffusing rates of reactive species, hence resulting in void formation in the reaction zone. PMID:23920185

  16. Controlling the Formation of Nanocavities in Kirkendall Nanoobjects through Sequential Thermal Ex Situ Oxidation and In Situ Reduction Reactions.

    PubMed

    Mel, Abdel-Aziz El; Tessier, Pierre-Yves; Buffiere, Marie; Gautron, Eric; Ding, JunJun; Du, Ke; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony; Bittencourt, Carla; Molina-Luna, Leopoldo

    2016-06-01

    Controlling the porosity, the shape, and the morphology of Kirkendall hollow nanostructures is the key factor to tune the properties of these tailor-made nanomaterials which allow in turn broadening their applications. It is shown that by applying a continuous oxidation to copper nanowires following a temperature ramp protocol, one can synthesize cuprous oxide nanotubes containing periodic copper nanoparticles. A further oxidation of such nanoobjects allows obtaining cupric oxide nanotubes with a bamboo-like structure. On the other hand, by applying a sequential oxidation and reduction reactions to copper nanowires, one can synthesize hollow nanoobjects with complex shapes and morphologies that cannot be obtained using the Kirkendall effect alone, such as necklace-like cuprous oxide nanotubes, periodic solid copper nanoparticles or hollow cuprous oxide nanospheres interconnected with single crystal cuprous oxide nanorods, and aligned and periodic hollow nanospheres embedded in a cuprous oxide nanotube. The strategy demonstrated in this study opens new avenues for the engineering of hollow nanostructures with potential applications in gas sensing, catalysis, and energy storage. PMID:27061060

  17. Heat diode effect and negative differential thermal conductance across nanoscale metal-dielectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jie; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    2013-06-01

    Controlling heat flow by phononic nanodevices has received significant attention recently because of its fundamental and practical implications. Elementary phononic devices such as thermal rectifiers, transistors, and logic gates are essentially based on two intriguing properties: heat diode effect and negative differential thermal conductance. However, little is known about these heat transfer properties across metal-dielectric interfaces, especially at nanoscale. Here we analytically resolve the microscopic mechanism of the nonequilibrium nanoscale energy transfer across metal-dielectric interfaces, where the inelastic electron-phonon scattering directly assists the energy exchange. We demonstrate the emergence of heat diode effect and negative differential thermal conductance in nanoscale interfaces and explain why these novel thermal properties are usually absent in bulk metal-dielectric interfaces. These results will generate exciting prospects for the nanoscale interfacial energy transfer, which should have important implications in designing hybrid circuits for efficient thermal control and open up potential applications in thermal energy harvesting with low-dimensional nanodevices.

  18. Size Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Nanoscale Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianping

    Finite size effects on the magnetic properties of nanoscale particles have been studied in this work. The first system studied was MnFe_2O _4 prepared by coprecipitation followed by digestion. The particles were single crystals with an average diameter controllable from 5 nm to 25 nm. These particles have a higher inversion degree of metal ion distribution between the tetrahedral sites and octahedral sites of the spinel structure than those synthesized with ceramic methods. This higher inversion leads to a higher Curie temperature. We found that the structure of the particles can be varied by heat treatment. The Curie temperature of the particles decreased after heat treatment in inert gas, however, it increased after heat treatment in air. The size effects show in two aspects on the MnFe_2O _4 particles. First, the Curie temperature decreased as particles size was reduced, which was explained by finite size scaling. Second, the saturation magnetization decreased as particle size decreased because of the existence of a nonmagnetic layer on the surface of MnFe_2 O_4 particles. The second system studied was Co particles synthesized with an inverse micelle technique. The particles were small (1-5 nm) and had a narrow size distribution. The Co particles were superparamagnetic at room temperature and showed a set of consistent magnetic data in magnetic moment per particle, coercivity, and blocking temperature. We found the anisotropy constant and saturation magnetization of Co particles had a strong size dependence. The anisotropy constant was above the bulk value of Co and increased as particle size decreased. The saturation magnetization increased as the particle became smaller. The magnetic properties of Co particles also strongly suggested a core/shell structure in each particle. But no physical inhomogeneity was observed. We have also studied ligand effects on the magnetic properties of Co particles. The magnetization of the Co particles was quenched by 36%, 27

  19. Surface evolution at nanoscale during oxidation: A competing mechanism between local curvature effect and stress effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xufei; Li, Yan; Wang, Dan; Lu, Siyuan; Feng, Xue

    2016-04-01

    The process of surface evolution of a chemically etched stepped structure at nanoscale during oxidation at 600 °C is in situ and real time observed using scanning probe microscope, which is integrated in a nanoindentation equipment for high temperature test. Experimental results reveal that this curved stepped structure becomes flat after being oxidized for a short period of time. However, after a longer time of oxidation, it is observed that the originally flat surface near the stepped structure becomes rough. Analysis shows that such a surface evolution is attributed to the competition between the nanoscale curvature effect (related to surface energy) and the stress developed in the oxide film during oxidation (related to strain energy). It is demonstrated that both the surface energy and strain energy can modify the surface chemical potential, which acts as the driving force of the surface diffusion of oxygen and further affects the oxide formation on the surface.

  20. Drain current modulation in a nanoscale field-effect-transistor channel by single dopant implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. C.; Tettamanzi, G. C.; Alves, A. D. C.; Thompson, S.; Yang, C.; Verduijn, J.; Mol, J. A.; Wacquez, R.; Vinet, M.; Sanquer, M.; Rogge, S.; Jamieson, D. N.

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate single dopant implantation into the channel of a silicon nanoscale metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor. This is achieved by monitoring the drain current modulation during ion irradiation. Deterministic doping is crucial for overcoming dopant number variability in present nanoscale devices and for exploiting single atom degrees of freedom. The two main ion stopping processes that induce drain current modulation are examined. We employ 500 keV He ions, in which electronic stopping is dominant, leading to discrete increases in drain current and 14 keV P dopants for which nuclear stopping is dominant leading to discrete decreases in drain current.

  1. Effect of cantilever nonlinearity in nanoscale tensile testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Weiqiang; Guo, Zaoyang; Ruoff, Rodney S.

    2007-02-01

    Microcantilevers are widely used in micro-/nanoscale mechanics studies. The nonlinear response of a cantilever at large deflection is sometimes overlooked. A general study of cantilever beam nonlinearity under a variety of loading conditions was performed with analytical and finite element analyses. Analytical equations for the applied load and the cantilever deflection were obtained. The cantilever nonlinearity was found to increase with increasing cantilever deflection and/or angle of loading. Tensile tests were performed on templated carbon nanotubes (TCNTs) with a custom-made nanomanipulator inside a scanning electron microscope. Atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers were used to load the TCNTs and sense the force. During the tests the AFM cantilevers were loaded to relatively large deflections with nonvertical loads applied at the AFM tip. Based on the slope and the loading angle measurements, the breaking forces of the TCNTs were obtained through numerical integration of the analytical equations. A comparison was made between the load results obtained from linear and nonlinear analyses. The linear analysis was found to underestimate the applied load by up to 15%.

  2. Nanoscale effects in dendrimer-mediated targeting of neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Nance, Elizabeth; Zhang, Fan; Mishra, Manoj K; Zhang, Zhi; Kambhampati, Siva P; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M; Kannan, Sujatha

    2016-09-01

    Neuroinflammation, mediated by activated microglia and astrocytes, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders. Systemically-administered dendrimers target neuroinflammation and deliver drugs with significant efficacy, without the need for ligands. Elucidating the nanoscale aspects of targeting neuroinflammation will enable superior nanodevices for eventual translation. Using a rabbit model of cerebral palsy, we studied the in vivo contributions of dendrimer physicochemical properties and disease pathophysiology on dendrimer brain uptake, diffusion, and cell specific localization. Neutral dendrimers move efficiently within the brain parenchyma and rapidly localize in glial cells in regions of injury. Dendrimer uptake is also dependent on the extent of blood-brain-barrier breakdown, glial activation, and disease severity (mild, moderate, or severe), which can lend the dendrimer to be used as an imaging biomarker for disease phenotype. This new understanding of the in vivo mechanism of dendrimer-mediated delivery in a clinically-relevant rabbit model provides greater opportunity for clinical translation of targeted brain injury therapies. PMID:27267631

  3. Determination of Size Effects during the Phase Transition of a Nanoscale Au-Si Eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. J.; Tersoff, J.; Wen, C.-Y.; Reuter, M. C.; Stach, E. A.; Ross, F. M.

    2009-10-01

    The phase diagram of a nanoscale system can be substantially different than in the bulk, but quantitative measurements have proven elusive. Here we use in situ microscopy to observe a phase transition in a nanoscale system, together with a simple quantitative model to extract the size effects from these measurements. We expose a Au particle to disilane gas, and observe the transition from a two-phase Au+AuSi system to single-phase AuSi. Size effects are evident in the nonlinear disappearance of the solid Au. Our analysis shows a substantial shift in the liquidus line, and a discontinuous change in the liquid composition at the transition. It also lets us estimate the liquid-solid interfacial free energy.

  4. Determination of size effects during the phase transition of a nanoscale Au-Si eutectic.

    PubMed

    Kim, B J; Tersoff, J; Wen, C-Y; Reuter, M C; Stach, E A; Ross, F M

    2009-10-01

    The phase diagram of a nanoscale system can be substantially different than in the bulk, but quantitative measurements have proven elusive. Here we use in situ microscopy to observe a phase transition in a nanoscale system, together with a simple quantitative model to extract the size effects from these measurements. We expose a Au particle to disilane gas, and observe the transition from a two-phase Au + AuSi system to single-phase AuSi. Size effects are evident in the nonlinear disappearance of the solid Au. Our analysis shows a substantial shift in the liquidus line, and a discontinuous change in the liquid composition at the transition. It also lets us estimate the liquid-solid interfacial free energy. PMID:19905650

  5. Effect of cholesterol on the lateral nanoscale dynamics of fluid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Clare L; Barrett, M; Heiss, Arno; Salditt, Tim; Katsaras, John; Shi, An-Chang; Rheinstadter, Maikel C

    2012-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering was used to study the effect of 5 and 40 mol% cholesterol on the lateral nanoscale dynamics of phospholipid membranes. By measuring the excitation spectrum at several lateral q || values (up to q || = 3 1), complete dispersion curves were determined of gel, fluid and liquid-ordered phase bilayers. The inclusion of cholesterol had a distinct effect on the collective dynamics of the bilayer s hydrocarbon chains; specifically, we observed a pronounced stiffening of the membranes on the nanometer length scale in both gel and fluid bilayers, even though they were experiencing a higher degree of molecular disorder. Also, for the first time we determined the nanoscale dynamics in the high-cholesterol liquid-ordered phase of bilayers containing cholesterol. Namely, this phase appears to be softer than fluid bilayers, but better ordered than bilayers in the gel phase.

  6. The dilemma of hyperbolic heat conduction and its settlement by incorporating spatially nonlocal effect at nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. Jun; Li, Chen-Lin; Xue, Zhang-Na; Tian, Xiao-Geng

    2016-01-01

    To model transiently thermal responses of numerous thermal shock issues at nano-scale, Fourier heat conduction law is commonly extended by introducing time rate of heat flux, and comes to hyperbolic heat conduction (HHC). However, solution to HHC under Dirichlet boundary condition depicts abnormal phenomena, e.g. heat conducts from the cold to the hot, and there are two temperatures at one location. In this paper, HHC model is further perfected with the aids of spatially nonlocal effect, and the exceeding temperature as well as the discontinuity at the wave front are avoided. The effect of nonlocal parameter on temperature response is discussed. From the analysis, the importance of size effect for nano-scale heat conduction is emphasized, indicating that spatial and temporal extensions should be simultaneously made to nano-scale heat conduction. Beyond that, it is found that heat flux boundary conditions should be directly given, instead of Neumann boundary condition, which does not make sense any longer for non-classical heat conductive models. And finally, it is observed that accurate solution to such problems may be obtained using Laplace transform method, especially for the time-dependent boundary conditions, e.g. heat flux boundary condition.

  7. Drift-diffusion equation for ballistic transport in nanoscale metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhew, Jung-Hoon; Lundstrom, Mark S.

    2002-11-01

    We develop a drift-diffusion equation that describes ballistic transport in a nanoscale metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). We treat injection from different contacts separately, and describe each injection with a set of extended McKelvey one-flux equations [Phys. Rev. 123, 51 (1961); 125, 1570 (1962)] that include hierarchy closure approximations appropriate for high-field ballistic transport and degenerate carrier statistics. We then reexpress the extended one-flux equations in a drift-diffusion form with a properly defined Einstein relationship. The results obtained for a nanoscale MOSFET show excellent agreement with the solution of the ballistic Boltzmann transport equation with no fitting parameters. These results show that a macroscopic transport model based on the moments of the Boltzmann transport equation can describe ballistic transport.

  8. The effect of growth temperature on the nanoscale biochemical surface properties of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congzhou; Stanciu, Cristina E; Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2016-08-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, has been responsible for several recurrent, lethal pandemics in history. Currently, it is an important pathogen to study owing to its virulence, adaptation to different environments during transmission, and potential use in bioterrorism. Here, we report on the changes to Y. pestis surfaces in different external microenvironments, specifically culture temperatures (6, 25, and 37 °C). Using nanoscale imaging coupled with functional mapping, we illustrate that changes in the surfaces of the bacterium from a morphological and biochemical standpoint can be analyzed simultaneously using atomic force microscopy. The results from functional mapping, obtained at a single cell level, show that the density of lipopolysaccharide (measured via terminal N-acetylglucosamine) on Y. pestis grown at 37 °C is only slightly higher than cells grown at 25 °C, but nearly three times higher than cells maintained at 6 °C for an extended period of time, thereby demonstrating that adaptations to different environments can be effectively captured using this technique. This nanoscale evaluation provides a new microscopic approach to study nanoscale properties of bacterial pathogens and investigate adaptations to different external environments. PMID:27259520

  9. Surface effect on the magnetoelectric response of magnetoelectric layered composite with nanoscale thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, GuoLiang; Zhang, HuaiWu

    2015-02-01

    A theoretical model is proposed to study the ME effect in the layered ME composite with nanoscale thickness, which taking into account the surface effect. The layered ME composites nano structure is treated as a bulk core plus two surface layers with zero thickness. The influence on the structure overall properties resulted from the surface effect is modeled by a spring force exerting on the boundary of the bulk core. Using the derived equations, the so-called effective Miller-Shenoy coefficient, static and electromechanical resonance (EMR) properties of the nanoscale thickness ME composite for the extensional-bending coupling deformations are analyzed theoretically. At the same time, the effect of the substrate on ME effect is theoretically studied by altering the thickness ratio of the substrate. Numerical results shows the effective properties and the static and EMR properties of the composites are size-dependent, and surface effect have non-ignored effects on the ME effect. Besides, the EMR frequency in nano-thickness composites are expected to occur at very low frequencies compared to nominal dimensional composites. The EMR frequency shows an increase with increasing substrate thickness, and predicts a maximum in the EMR ME coefficient at small but nonvanishing substrate thickness.

  10. Effects of nanoscale density inhomogeneities on shearing fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Benjamin A.; Daivis, Peter J.; Hansen, J. S.; Todd, B. D.

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that density inhomogeneities at the solid-liquid interface can have a strong effect on the velocity profile of a nanoconfined fluid in planar Poiseuille flow. However, it is difficult to control the density inhomogeneities induced by solid walls, making this type of system unsuitable for a comprehensive study of the effect on density inhomogeneity on nanofluidic flow. In this paper, we employ an external force compatible with periodic boundary conditions to induce the density variation, which greatly simplifies the problem when compared to flow in nonperiodic nanoconfined systems. Using the sinusoidal transverse force method to produce shearing velocity profiles and the sinusoidal longitudinal force method to produce inhomogeneous density profiles, we are able to observe the interactions between the two property inhomogeneities at the level of individual Fourier components. This gives us a method for direct measurement of the coupling between the density and velocity fields and allows us to introduce various feedback control mechanisms which customize fluid behavior in individual Fourier components. We briefly discuss the role of temperature inhomogeneity and consider whether local thermal expansion due to nonuniform viscous heating is sufficient to account for shear-induced density inhomogeneities. We also consider the local Newtonian constitutive relation relating the shear stress to the velocity gradient and show that the local model breaks down for sufficiently large density inhomogeneities over atomic length scales.

  11. A new nanoscale fin field effect transistor with embedded intrinsic region for high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Fa.; Orouji, Ali A.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper reveals a novel structure of nanoscale Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Fin Field Effect Transistor (FinFET) in which an intrinsic region (EIR) is embedded into the buried oxide layer. The key idea in this work is to improve the critical thermal problems raised by the self-heating effect (SHE). The EIR-FinFET device has lower thermal resistance, reduced hot carrier effect, lower threshold voltage roll-off, and lower critical electric field in comparison with the C-FinFET. Also, higher DC transconductance, lower DC conductance and a better gate capacitance are obtained because the intrinsic region is embedded in a suitable place. Moreover, the simulation result with three-dimensional and two-carrier device simulator demonstrates an improved output characteristic of the proposed structure due to the reduced self-heating effect. The intrinsic silicon layer is located under the source and fin regions and provides more space to dissipate the accumulated heat. Due to the high thermal conductivity of the silicon and decreasing corner effects there, the heat will flow easily and the lattice temperature will decrease. All the extracted results attempt to show the superiority of the EIR-FinFET device over the conventional one, and its effect on the operation of nanoscale low power and high speed devices.

  12. Casimir force on a surface with shallow nanoscale corrugations: geometry and finite conductivity effects.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y; Guérout, R; Lussange, J; Lambrecht, A; Cirelli, R A; Klemens, F; Mansfield, W M; Pai, C S; Chan, H B

    2010-12-17

    We measure the Casimir force between a gold sphere and a silicon plate with nanoscale, rectangular corrugations with a depth comparable to the separation between the surfaces. In the proximity force approximation (PFA), both the top and bottom surfaces of the corrugations contribute to the force, leading to a distance dependence that is distinct from a flat surface. The measured Casimir force is found to deviate from the PFA by up to 10%, in good agreement with calculations based on scattering theory that includes both geometry effects and the optical properties of the material. PMID:21231564

  13. Effect of deformation path sequence on the behavior of nanoscale copper bicrystal interfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Spearot, Douglas E.; Jacob, Karl I.; Plimpton, Steven James; McDowell, David Lynn

    2005-06-01

    Molecular dynamics calculations are performed to study the effect of deformation sequence and history on the inelastic behavior of copper interfaces on the nanoscale. An asymmetric 45 deg tilt bicrystal interface is examined, representing an idealized high-angle grain boundary interface. The interface model is subjected to three different deformation paths: tension then shear, shear then tension, and combined proportional tension and shear. Analysis shows that path-history dependent material behavior is confined within a finite layer of deformation around the bicrystal interface. The relationships between length scale and interface properties, such as the thickness of the path-history dependent layer and the interface strength, are discussed in detail.

  14. Acute toxicity of quantum dots on late pregnancy mice: Effects of nanoscale size and surface coating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanyi; Yang, Lin; Kuang, Huijuan; Yang, Pengfei; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Wang, Andrew; Fu, Fen; Xu, Hengyi

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the effects of cadmium containing QDs (such as CdSe/ZnS and CdSe QDs) and bulk CdCl2 in pregnant mice, their fetuses, and the pregnancy outcomes were investigated. It was shown that although the QDs and bulk CdCl2 were effectively blocked by the placental barrier, the damage on the placenta caused by CdSe QDs still led to fetus malformation, while the mice in CdSe/ZnS QDs treatment group exhibited slightly hampered growth but showed no significant abnormalities. Moreover, the Cd contents in the placenta and the uterus of CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS QDs treatment groups showed significantly higher than the CdCl2 treated group which indicated that the nanoscale size of the QDs allowed relative ease of entry into the gestation tissues. In addition, the CdSe QDs more effectively altered the expression levels of susceptive genes related to cell apoptosis, dysplasia, metal transport, cryptorrhea, and oxidative stress, etc. These findings suggested that the nanoscale size of the QDs were probably more important than the free Cd in inducing toxicity. Furthermore, the results indicated that the outer surface shell coating played a protective role in the adverse effects of QDs on late pregnancy mice. PMID:27399148

  15. Effects of anions on the kinetics and reactivity of nanoscale Pd/Fe in trichlorobenzene dechlorination.

    PubMed

    Lim, Teik-Thye; Zhu, Bao-Wei

    2008-11-01

    Influences of anionic co-solutes on dechlorination of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (124TCB) by the nanoscale Pd/Fe particles were investigated in batch experiments in the presence of an anionic solute such as nitrate, nitrite, perchlorate, phosphate, carbonate, silica, sulfate, sulfite, or sulfide. Based on the extent of inhibitory effects on the 124TCB dechlorination, the anions can be ranked in the order of: control≈sulfate≈silicaeffect on reactivity of the nanoscale Pd/Fe, because the 124TCB dechlorination reaction was only dependent on the reactivity of the Pd site that was apparently not passivated by the anions. However, sulfide and sulfite could immediately terminate the 124TCB dechlorination process. Based on the natures of their inhibitory effects on 124TCB dechlorination by the Pd/Fe, the anions can be classified as: (1) adsorption-precipitation passivating species (e.g., phosphate and carbonate), (2) redox-active species (e.g., nitrate, nitrite, and perchlorate), and (3) catalyst poisons (e.g., sulfide and sulfite). PMID:18760820

  16. Micro- and Nanoscale Energetic Materials as Effective Heat Energy Sources for Enhanced Gas Generators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Beom; Kim, Kyung Ju; Cho, Myung Hoon; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kim, Soo Hyung

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we systematically investigated the effect of micro- and nanoscale energetic materials in formulations of aluminum microparticles (Al MPs; heat source)/aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs; heat source)/copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs; oxidizer) on the combustion and gas-generating properties of sodium azide microparticles (NaN3 MPs; gas-generating agent) for potential applications in gas generators. The burn rate of the NaN3 MP/CuO NP composite powder was only ∼0.3 m/s. However, the addition of Al MPs and Al NPs to the NaN3 MP/CuO NP matrix caused the rates to reach ∼1.5 and ∼5.3 m/s, respectively. In addition, the N2 gas volume flow rate generated by the ignition of the NaN3 MP/CuO NP composite powder was only ∼0.6 L/s, which was significantly increased to ∼1.4 and ∼3.9 L/s by adding Al MPs and Al NPs, respectively, to the NaN3 MP/CuO NP composite powder. This suggested that the highly reactive Al MPs and NPs, with the assistance of CuO NPs, were effective heat-generating sources enabling the complete thermal decomposition of NaN3 MPs upon ignition. Al NPs were more effective than Al MPs in the gas generators because of the increased reactivity induced by the reduced particle size. Finally, we successfully demonstrated that a homemade airbag with a specific volume of ∼140 mL could be rapidly and fully inflated by the thermal activation of nanoscale energetic material-added gas-generating agents (i.e., NaN3 MP/Al NP/CuO NP composites) within the standard time of ∼50 ms for airbag inflation. PMID:27007287

  17. Nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I.

    2015-12-31

    The present work summarizes recent progress in the investigation of nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys foils produced at exceptionally high cooling rates. We focus here on the potential of modification of hydrogen desorption kinetics in respect to weak and strong trapping sites that could serve as hydrogen sinks in Al materials. It is shown that it is important to elucidate the surface microstructure of the Al alloy foils at the submicrometer scale because rapidly solidified microstructural features affect hydrogen trapping at nanostructured defects. We discuss the profound influence of solute atoms on hydrogen−lattice defect interactions in the alloys. with emphasis on role of vacancies in hydrogen evolution; both rapidly solidified pure Al and conventionally processed aluminum samples are considered.

  18. Effect of chain architecture on the compression behavior of nanoscale polyethylene particles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric particles with controlled internal molecular architectures play an important role as constituents in many composite materials for a number of emerging applications. In this study, classical molecular dynamics techniques are employed to predict the effect of chain architecture on the compression behavior of nanoscale polyethylene particles subjected to simulated flat-punch testing. Cross-linked, branched, and linear polyethylene chain architectures are each studied in the simulations. Results indicate that chain architecture has a significant influence on the mechanical properties of polyethylene nanoparticles, with the network configuration exhibiting higher compressive strengths than the branched and linear architectures. These findings are verified with simulations of bulk polyethylene. The compressive stress versus strain profiles of particles show four distinct regimes, differing with that of experimental micron-sized particles. The results of this study indicate that the mechanical response of polyethylene nanoparticles can be custom-tailored for specific applications by changing the molecular architecture. PMID:23855722

  19. Effects of Alloying on Nanoscale Grain Growth in Substitutional Binary Alloy System: Thermodynamics and Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haoran; Chen, Yuzeng; Liu, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Applying the regular solution model, the Gibbs free energy of mixing for substitutional binary alloy system was constructed. Then, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, e.g., driving force and solute drag force, controlling nanoscale grain growth of substitutional binary alloy systems were derived and compared to their generally accepted definitions and interpretations. It is suggested that for an actual grain growth process, the classical driving force P = γ/D ( γ the grain boundary (GB) energy, D the grain size) should be replaced by a new expression, i.e., P^' = γ /D - Δ P . Δ P represents the energy required to adjust nonequilibrium solute distribution to equilibrium solute distribution, which is equivalent to the generally accepted solute drag force impeding GB migration. By incorporating the derived new driving force for grain growth into the classical grain growth model, the reported grain growth behaviors of nanocrystalline Fe-4at. pct Zr and Pd-19at. pct Zr alloys were analyzed. On this basis, the effect of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters ( i.e., P, Δ P and the GB mobility ( M GB)) on nanoscale grain growth, were investigated. Upon grain growth, the decrease of P is caused by the reduction of γ as a result of solute segregation in GBs; the decrease of Δ P is, however, due to the decrease of grain growth velocity; whereas the decrease of M GB is attributed to the enhanced difference of solute molar fractions between the bulk and the GBs as well as the increased activation energy for GB diffusion.

  20. Effect of nanoscale size and medium on metal work function in oleylamine-capped gold nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellatif, M. H.; Ghosh, S.; Liakos, I.; Scarpellini, A.; Marras, S.; Diaspro, A.; Salerno, M.

    2016-02-01

    The work function is an important material property with several applications in photonics and optoelectronics. We aimed to characterize the work function of clusters resulting from gold nanocrystals capped with oleylamine surfactant and drop-casted onto gold substrate. We used scanning Kelvin probe microscopy to investigate the work function, and complemented our study mainly with X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The oleylamine works as an electron blocking layer through which the electrical conduction takes place by tunneling effect. The surface potential appears to depend on the size of the clusters, which can be ascribed to their difference in effective work function with the substrate. The charge state of gold clusters is discussed in comparison with theory, and their capacitance is calculated from a semi-analytical equation. The results suggest that at the nanoscale the work function is not an intrinsic property of a material but rather depends on the size and morphology of the clusters, including also effects of the surrounding materials.

  1. Effects of Rhamnolipid and Carboxymethylcellulose Coatings on Reactivity of Palladium-Doped Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron Particles.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Sourjya; Basnet, Mohan; Tufenkji, Nathalie; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2016-02-16

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles are often coated with polymeric surface modifiers for improved colloidal stability and transport during remediation of contaminated aquifers. Doping the NZVI surface with palladium (Pd-NZVI) increases its reactivity to pollutants such as trichloroethylene (TCE). In this study, we investigate the effects of coating Pd-NZVI with two surface modifiers of very different molecular size: rhamnolipid (RL, anionic biosurfactant, M.W. 600 g mol(-1)) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, anionic polyelectrolyte, M.W. 700 000 g mol(-1)) on TCE degradation. RL loadings of 13-133 mg TOC/g NZVI inhibited deposition of Pd in a concentration-dependent manner, thus limiting the number of available Pd sites and decreasing the TCE degradation reaction rate constant from 0.191 h(-1) to 0.027 h(-1). Furthermore, the presence of RL in solution had an additional inhibitory effect on the reactivity of Pd-NZVI by interacting with the exposed Pd deposits after they were formed. In contrast, CMC had no effect on reactivity at loadings up to 167 mg TOC/g NZVI. There was a lack of correlation between Pd-NZVI aggregate sizes and TCE reaction rates, and is explained by cryo-transmission electron microscopy images that show open, porous aggregate structures where TCE would be able to easily access Pd sites. PMID:26745244

  2. Nanoscale Metal–Organic Framework for Highly Effective Photodynamic Therapy of Resistant Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective anticancer procedure that relies on tumor localization of a photosensitizer followed by light activation to generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (e.g., 1O2). Here we report the rational design of a Hf–porphyrin nanoscale metal–organic framework, DBP–UiO, as an exceptionally effective photosensitizer for PDT of resistant head and neck cancer. DBP–UiO efficiently generates 1O2 owing to site isolation of porphyrin ligands, enhanced intersystem crossing by heavy Hf centers, and facile 1O2 diffusion through porous DBP–UiO nanoplates. Consequently, DBP–UiO displayed greatly enhanced PDT efficacy both in vitro and in vivo, leading to complete tumor eradication in half of the mice receiving a single DBP–UiO dose and a single light exposure. NMOFs thus represent a new class of highly potent PDT agents and hold great promise in treating resistant cancers in the clinic. PMID:25407895

  3. Nanoscale transport of phonons: Dimensionality, subdiffusion, molecular damping, and interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Walczak, Kamil; Yerkes, Kirk L.

    2014-05-07

    We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in the systems composed of nanoscale chains of masses coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. Thermal conductance is obtained by using linearized Landauer-type formula for heat flux with phonon transmission probability calculated within atomistic Green's functions (AGF) method. AGF formalism is extended onto dissipative chains of masses with harmonic coupling beyond nearest-neighbor approximation, while atomistic description of heat reservoirs is also included into computational scheme. In particular, the phonon lifetimes and the phonon frequency shifts are discussed for harmonic lattices of different dimensions. Further, resonant structure of phonon transmission spectrum is analyzed with respect to reservoir-induced effects, molecular damping, and mass-to-mass harmonic coupling. Analysis of transmission zeros (antiresonances) and their accompanied Fano-shape resonances are discussed as a result of interference effects between different vibrational modes. Finally, we also predict subdiffusive transport regime for low-frequency ballistic phonons propagated along a linear chain of harmonically coupled masses.

  4. Nanoscale BaTiO3 MOSCAP formation for ferroelectric field effect transistor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponath, Patrick; Posadas, Agham; Schmidt, Michael; Hurley, Paul; Duffy, Ray; Demkov, Alex

    Titanates are an important class of materials with many interesting functional properties and applications for non-volatile memory, i.e. BaTiO3, which is a promising candidate for the realization of a ferroelectric field-effect transistor. However, the difficulty of chemically etching titanates has hindered their commercial use in device manufacturing so far. Here, we report a technique to circumvent this problem. Using molecular beam epitaxy, we grew compressively strained ferroelectric BaTiO3, within photolithographically defined openings of a sacrificial SiO2 layer on germanium (001) with Pt as a top electrode. Etching away the sacrificial SiO2 can reveal isolated nanoscale gate stacks circumventing the need to etch the titanate thin film. Using X-ray diffraction we find that the BaTiO3 film is tetragonal with the longer c-axis being out of plane, which is a requirement for the ferroelectric field effect transistor. The crystal quality of the BaTiO3 films grown in the openings is confirmed using RHEED and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Focused ion beam etching of the Pt layer is then used to electrically isolate a Pt/BaTiO3/SrTiO3/Ge stack to perform electrical measurements.

  5. Effect of nano-scale characteristics of graphene on electrochemical performance of activated carbon supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasni, M. R. M.; Deraman, M.; Suleman, M.; Hamdan, E.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Nor, N. S. M.; Shamsudin, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Graphene with its typical nano-scale characteristic properties has been widely used as an additive in activated carbon electrodes in order to enhance the performance of the electrodes for their use in high performance supercapacitors. Activated carbon monoliths (ACMs) electrodes have been prepared by carbonization and activation of green monoliths (GMs) of pre-carbonized fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches or self-adhesive carbon grains (SACGs) and SACGs added with 6 wt% of KOH-treated multi-layer graphene. ACMs electrodes have been assembled in symmetrical supercapacitor cells that employed aqueous KOH electrolyte (6 M). The cells have been tested with cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge discharge methods to investigate the effect of graphene addition on the specific capacitance (Csp), specific energy (E), specific power (P), equivalent series resistance (ESR) and response time (τo) of the supercapacitor cells. The results show that the addition of graphene in the GMs change the values of Csp, Emax, Pmax, ESR and τo from (61-96) F/g, 2 Wh/kg, 104 W/kg, 2.6 Ω and 38 s, to the respective values of (110-124) F/g, 3 Wh/kg, 156 W/kg, 3.4 Ω and 63 s. This study demonstrates that the graphene addition in the GMs has a significant effect on the electrochemical behavior of the electrodes.

  6. Nanoscale imaging and hydrophobicity mapping of the antimicrobial effect of copper on bacterial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congzhou; Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2016-09-01

    Copper has a long historical role in the arena of materials with antimicrobial properties. Various forms of copper ranging from surfaces to impregnation in textiles and particles, have attracted considerable interest owing to their versatility, potency, chemical stability, and low cost. However, the effects and mechanisms of their antimicrobial action is still unclear. In this study, the effect of copper particles on Escherichia coli was studied at the nanoscale using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Time-lapse AFM images at the single cell level show the morphological changes on live E. coli during antimicrobial treatment, in which for the first time, this process was followed in situ on the same cell over time. AFM-based hydrophobicity mapping further showed that incubating cells with Cu decreased the surface hydrophobicity with an increase of incubation time. Specifically, we are able to visualize both morphology and physico-chemical nature of the bacterial cell surface change in response to copper treatment, leading to the membrane damage and cytoplasm leakage. Overall, the time-lapse AFM imaging combined with hydrophobicity mapping approach presented here provides spatio-temporal insight into the antimicrobial mechanisms of copper at the single cell level, and can be applied to design of better metallic antimicrobial materials as well as investigate different microorganisms. PMID:27258941

  7. Understanding the effects of strain on morphological instabilities of a nanoscale island during heteroepitaxial growth

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Lu; Wang, Jing; Wang, Shibin; Li, Linan; Shen, Min; Wang, Zhiyong; Chen, Zhenfei; Zhao, Yang

    2015-07-21

    A comprehensive morphological stability analysis of a nanoscale circular island during heteroepitaxial growth is presented based on continuum elasticity theory. The interplay between kinetic and thermodynamic mechanisms is revealed by including strain-related kinetic processes. In the kinetic regime, the Burton-Cabrera-Frank model is adopted to describe the growth front of the island. Together with kinetic boundary conditions, various kinetic processes including deposition flow, adatom diffusion, attachment-detachment kinetics, and the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier can be taken into account at the same time. In the thermodynamic regime, line tension, surface energy, and elastic energy are considered. As the strain relief in the early stages of heteroepitaxy is more complicated than commonly suggested by simple consideration of lattice mismatch, we also investigate the effects of external applied strain and elastic response due to perturbations on the island shape evolution. The analytical expressions for elastic fields induced by mismatch strain, external applied strain, and relaxation strain are presented. A systematic approach is developed to solve the system via a perturbation analysis which yields the conditions of film morphological instabilities. Consistent with previous experimental and theoretical work, parametric studies show the kinetic evolution of elastic relaxation, island morphology, and film composition under various conditions. Our present work offers an effective theoretical approach to get a comprehensive understanding of the interplay between different growth mechanisms and how to tailor the growth mode by controlling the nature of the crucial factors.

  8. Understanding the effects of strain on morphological instabilities of a nanoscale island during heteroepitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lu; Wang, Jing; Wang, Shibin; Li, Linan; Shen, Min; Wang, Zhiyong; Chen, Zhenfei; Zhao, Yang

    2015-07-01

    A comprehensive morphological stability analysis of a nanoscale circular island during heteroepitaxial growth is presented based on continuum elasticity theory. The interplay between kinetic and thermodynamic mechanisms is revealed by including strain-related kinetic processes. In the kinetic regime, the Burton-Cabrera-Frank model is adopted to describe the growth front of the island. Together with kinetic boundary conditions, various kinetic processes including deposition flow, adatom diffusion, attachment-detachment kinetics, and the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier can be taken into account at the same time. In the thermodynamic regime, line tension, surface energy, and elastic energy are considered. As the strain relief in the early stages of heteroepitaxy is more complicated than commonly suggested by simple consideration of lattice mismatch, we also investigate the effects of external applied strain and elastic response due to perturbations on the island shape evolution. The analytical expressions for elastic fields induced by mismatch strain, external applied strain, and relaxation strain are presented. A systematic approach is developed to solve the system via a perturbation analysis which yields the conditions of film morphological instabilities. Consistent with previous experimental and theoretical work, parametric studies show the kinetic evolution of elastic relaxation, island morphology, and film composition under various conditions. Our present work offers an effective theoretical approach to get a comprehensive understanding of the interplay between different growth mechanisms and how to tailor the growth mode by controlling the nature of the crucial factors.

  9. EDITORIAL: Nanoscale metrology Nanoscale metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picotto, G. B.; Koenders, L.; Wilkening, G.

    2009-08-01

    characterization. The papers in the first part report on new or improved instrumentation, details of developments of metrology SFM, improvements to SFM, probes and scanning methods in the direction of nanoscale coordinate measuring machines and true 3D measurements as well as of progress of a 2D encoder based on a regular crystalline lattice. To ensure traceability to the SI unit of length many highly sophisticated instruments are equipped with laser interferometers to measure small displacements in the nanometre range very accurately. Improving these techniques is still a challenge and therefore new interferometric techniques are considered in several papers as well as improved sensors for nanodisplacement measurements or the development of a deep UV microscope for micro- and nanostructures. The tactile measurement of small structures also calls for a better control of forces in the nano- and piconewton range. A nanoforce facility, based on a disk-pendulum with electrostatic stiffness reduction and electrostatic force compensation, is presented for the measurement of small forces. In the second part the contributions are related to calibration and correction strategies and standards such as the development of test objects based on 3D silicon structures, and of samples with irregular surface profiles, and their use for calibration. The shape of the tip and its influence on measurements is still a contentious issue and addressed in several papers: use of nanospheres for tip characterization, a geometrical approach for reconstruction errors by tactile probing. Molecular dynamical calculations, classical as well as ab initio (based on density functional theory), are used to discuss effects of tip-sample relaxation on the topography and to have a better base from which to estimate uncertainties in measurements of small particles or features. Some papers report about measurements of air refractivity fluctuations by phase modulation interferometry, angle-scale traceability by laser

  10. Vertical Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors with Nanoscale Gate-All-Around

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerfi, Youssouf; Larrieu, Guilhem

    2016-04-01

    Nanowires are considered building blocks for the ultimate scaling of MOS transistors, capable of pushing devices until the most extreme boundaries of miniaturization thanks to their physical and geometrical properties. In particular, nanowires' suitability for forming a gate-all-around (GAA) configuration confers to the device an optimum electrostatic control of the gate over the conduction channel and then a better immunity against the short channel effects (SCE). In this letter, a large-scale process of GAA vertical silicon nanowire (VNW) MOSFETs is presented. A top-down approach is adopted for the realization of VNWs with an optimum reproducibility followed by thin layer engineering at nanoscale. Good overall electrical performances were obtained, with excellent electrostatic behavior (a subthreshold slope (SS) of 95 mV/dec and a drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) of 25 mV/V) for a 15-nm gate length. Finally, a first demonstration of dual integration of n-type and p-type VNW transistors for the realization of CMOS inverter is proposed.

  11. Vertical Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors with Nanoscale Gate-All-Around.

    PubMed

    Guerfi, Youssouf; Larrieu, Guilhem

    2016-12-01

    Nanowires are considered building blocks for the ultimate scaling of MOS transistors, capable of pushing devices until the most extreme boundaries of miniaturization thanks to their physical and geometrical properties. In particular, nanowires' suitability for forming a gate-all-around (GAA) configuration confers to the device an optimum electrostatic control of the gate over the conduction channel and then a better immunity against the short channel effects (SCE). In this letter, a large-scale process of GAA vertical silicon nanowire (VNW) MOSFETs is presented. A top-down approach is adopted for the realization of VNWs with an optimum reproducibility followed by thin layer engineering at nanoscale. Good overall electrical performances were obtained, with excellent electrostatic behavior (a subthreshold slope (SS) of 95 mV/dec and a drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) of 25 mV/V) for a 15-nm gate length. Finally, a first demonstration of dual integration of n-type and p-type VNW transistors for the realization of CMOS inverter is proposed. PMID:27094824

  12. Pure Nanoscale Morphology Effect Enhancing the Energy Storage Characteristics of Processable Hierarchical Polypyrrole.

    PubMed

    Wannapob, Rodtichoti; Vagin, Mikhail Yu; Jeerapan, Itthipon; Mak, Wing Cheung

    2015-11-01

    We report a new synthesis approach for the precise control of wall morphologies of colloidal polypyrrole microparticles (PPyMPs) based on a time-dependent template-assisted polymerization technique. The resulting PPyMPs are water processable, allowing the simple and direct fabrication of multilevel hierarchical PPyMPs films for energy storage via a self-assembly process, whereas convention methods creating hierarchical conducting films based on electrochemical polymerization are complicated and tedious. This approach allows the rational design and fabrication of PPyMPs with well-defined size and tunable wall morphology, while the chemical composition, zeta potential, and microdiameter of the PPyMPs are well characterized. By precisely controlling the wall morphology of the PPyMPs, we observed a pure nanoscale morphological effect of the materials on the energy storage performance. We demonstrated by controlling purely the wall morphology of PPyMPs to around 100 nm (i.e., thin-walled PPyMPs) that the thin-walled PPyMPs exhibit typical supercapacitor characteristics with a significant enhancement of charge storage performance of up to 290% compared to that of thick-walled PPyMPs confirmed by cyclic voltametry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We envision that the present design concept could be extended to different conducting polymers as well as other functional organic and inorganic dopants, which provides an innovative model for future study and understanding of the complex physicochemical phenomena of energy-related materials. PMID:26467112

  13. Effect of ion structure on nanoscale friction in protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, James; Webber, Grant B; Rutland, Mark W; Atkin, Rob

    2014-08-21

    The effect of ionic liquid (IL) molecular structure on nanoscale friction has been investigated using colloidal probe Friction Force Microscopy (FFM). The ILs studied were ethylammonium formate (EAF), ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), propylammonium formate (PAF), propylammonium nitrate (PAN), dimethylethylammonium formate (DMEAF), and ethanolammonium nitrate (EtAN). ILs were confined between a silica colloid probe and a mica surface, and the friction force was measured as a function of normal load for sliding velocities between 10 and 40 μm s(-1). At low normal forces, multiple IL layers are found between the probe and the surface, but at higher force, in the boundary layer regime, a single ion layer separates the probe and the surface. In the boundary layer regime energy is dissipated by two main pathways. Firstly, the ionic liquid near the surface, with the exception of the boundary layer, is expelled from the advancing contact made by the probe on the surface. This disruption in the interactions between the boundary layer and the near surface multilayers, leads to energy dissipation and depends on the strength of the attraction between the boundary and near surface layers. The second pathway is via rotations and twists of ions in the boundary layer, primarily associated with the cation terminal methyl group. The friction coefficient did not vary over the limited range of sliding speeds investigated. PMID:24992959

  14. Analysis of effect of electrolyte types on electrokinetic energy conversion in nanoscale capillaries.

    PubMed

    Chein, Reiyu; Tsai, Kunyong; Yeh, Liying

    2010-01-01

    An analytical study on the effect of electrolyte types on the electrokinetic energy conversion is presented using nanoscale cylindrical capillary, which is either positively or negatively charged. The sign of surface charge determines the role and concentration magnitude of ions in the capillary and the energy conversion performance. Our study shows that the electrokinetic energy conversion performance (maximum efficiency, pressure rise and streaming potential) are approximately identical for 1:1 (KCl), 2:1 (CaCl2) and 3:1 (LaCl3) electrolytes when capillary is positively charged. For negatively charged capillary, energy conversion performance degrades significantly with the increase of counter-ion valence. For both positively and negatively charged capillaries, higher maximum efficiency can be resulted in low bulk concentration and surface charge density regimes. However, high maximum pressure rise generation for the pumping is found in the low bulk concentration and high surface charge density regimes. For the electric power generation, higher maximum streaming potential is found when both bulk concentration and surface charge density are low. PMID:20119963

  15. [Performance Recoverability of Denitrifying Granular Sludge Under the Stressing Effect of Nanoscale Zero-valent Iron].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan-fan; Qian, Fei-yue; Shen, Yao-liang; Wang, Jian-fang; Zhang, Yue-ru; Liu, Guo-xun

    2016-04-15

    To explore the potential stressing effect of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on denitrifying granular sludge (DGS), the evolution of DGS denitrifying performance under different C/N ratios was investigated in this study, by carrying out batch tests of eight successive periods with the nZVI shock-loading. The results showed that the specific denitrification rate of µ value decreased when the nZVI dosage was higher than 5 mg · L⁻¹. Meanwhile, a positive correlation between the inhibition ratio (IR) of µ value and substrate C/N ratios or nZVI dosage was observed. When the nZVI dosage reached 100 mg · L⁻¹, both extracellular protein and polysaccharides concentrations decreased obviously. It would be beneficial to promote the recovery of DGS denitrifying activity and reduce the COD demanding to remove unit mass of nitrate, by increasing external carbon source with C/N ratios of higher than 4. On the basis of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, when higher C/N ratio was provided, stronger bioadsorption of nZVI would be achieved. During the recovery period, a significant improvement of DCS denitrifying performance under the high C/N ratio was expected, due to the continuous washout of total iron in sludge phase (Qe), while the µ value would reach or approach the one of the control group when Qe was lower than 0.4 mg · g⁻¹. PMID:27548972

  16. Orthogonally functionalized nanoscale micelles for active targeted codelivery of methotrexate and mitomycin C with synergistic anticancer effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Lin, Jinyan; Wu, Hongjie; Chang, Ying; Yuan, Conghui; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shuang; Hou, Zhenqing; Dai, Lizong

    2015-03-01

    The design of nanoscale drug delivery systems for the targeted codelivery of multiple therapeutic drugs still remains a formidable challenge (ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 9558-9570; ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 9518-9525). In this article, both mitomycin C (MMC) and methotrexate (MTX) loaded DSPE-PEG micelles (MTX-M-MMC) were prepared by self-assembly using the dialysis technique, in which MMC-soybean phosphatidylcholine complex (drug-phospholipid complex) was encapsulated within MTX-functionalized DSPE-PEG micelles. MTX-M-MMC could coordinate an early phase active targeting effect with a late-phase synergistic anticancer effect and enable a multiple-responsive controlled release of both drugs (MMC was released in a pH-dependent pattern, while MTX was released in a protease-dependent pattern). Furthermore, MTX-M-MMC could codeliver both drugs to significantly enhance the cellular uptake, intracellular delivery, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis in vitro and improve the tumor accumulation and penetration and anticancer effect in vivo compared with either both free drugs treatment or individual free drug treatment. To our knowledge, this work provided the first example of the systemically administrated, orthogonally functionalized, and self-assisted nanoscale micelles for targeted combination cancer chemotherapy. The highly convergent therapeutic strategy opened the door to more simplified, efficient, and flexible nanoscale drug delivery systems. PMID:25625539

  17. The Effect of Nano-Scale Topography on Keratinocyte Phenotype and Wound Healing Following Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Suzanne M.; Stevenson, Andrew W.; Wood, Fiona M.; Fear, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Topographic modulation of tissue response is an important consideration in the design and manufacture of a biomaterial. In developing new tissue therapies for skin, all levels of architecture, including the nanoscale need to be considered. Here we show that keratinocyte phenotype is affected by nanoscale changes in topography with cell morphology, proliferation, and migration influenced by the pore size in anodic aluminum oxide membranes. A membrane with a pore size of 300 nm, which enhanced cell phenotype in vitro, was used as a dressing to cover a partial thickness burn injury in the pig. Wounds dressed with the membrane showed evidence of advanced healing with significantly less organizing granulation tissue and more mature epidermal layers than control wounds dressed with a standard burns dressing. The results demonstrate the importance of nanoscale topography in modulating keratinocyte phenotype and skin wound healing. PMID:21988618

  18. Nanoscale size effect of magnetic nanocrystals and their utilization for cancer diagnosis via magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jun, Young-Wook; Huh, Yong-Min; Choi, Jin-Sil; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Song, Ho-Taek; Kim, Sungjun; Yoon, Sarah; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Suh, Jin-Suck; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2005-04-27

    Since the use of magnetic nanocrystals as probes for biomedical system is attractive, it is important to develop optimal synthetic protocols for high-quality magnetic nanocrystals and to have the systematic understanding of their nanoscale properties. Here we present the development of a synthetically controlled magnetic nanocrystal model system that correlates the nanoscale tunabilities in terms of size, magnetism, and induced nuclear spin relaxation processes. This system further led to the development of high-performance nanocrystal-antibody probe systems for the diagnosis of breast cancer cells via magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:15839639

  19. Ascertaining effects of nanoscale polymeric interfaces on competitive protein adsorption at the individual protein level.

    PubMed

    Song, Sheng; Xie, Tian; Ravensbergen, Kristina; Hahm, Jong-in

    2016-02-14

    With the recent development of biomaterials and biodevices with reduced dimensionality, it is critical to comprehend protein adhesion processes to nanoscale solid surfaces, especially those occurring in a competitive adsorption environment. Complex sequences of adhesion events in competitive adsorption involving multicomponent protein systems have been extensively investigated, but our understanding is still limited primarily to macroscopic adhesion onto chemically simple surfaces. We examine the competitive adsorption behavior from a binary protein mixture containing bovine serum albumin and fibrinogen at the single protein level. We subsequently evaluate a series of adsorption and displacement processes occurring on both the macroscopic homopolymer and nanoscopic diblock copolymer surfaces, while systematically varying the protein concentration and incubation time. We identify the similarities and dissimilarities in competitive protein adsorption behavior between the two polymeric surfaces, the former presenting chemical uniformity at macroscale versus the latter exhibiting periodic nanointerfaces of chemically alternating polymeric segments. We then present our novel experimental finding of a large increase in the nanointerface-engaged residence time of the initially bound proteins and further explain the origin of this phenomenon manifested on nanoscale diblock copolymer surfaces. The outcomes of this study may provide timely insight into nanoscale competitive protein adsorption that is much needed in designing bioimplant and tissue engineering materials. In addition, the fundamental understanding gained from this study can be beneficial for the development of highly miniaturized biodevices and biomaterials fabricated by using nanoscale polymeric materials and interfaces. PMID:26794230

  20. Nanoscale Surface Characterization of Aqueous Copper Corrosion: Effects of Immersion Interval and Orthophosphate Concentration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphology changes for copper surfaces exposed to different water parameters were investigated at the nanoscale with atomic force microscopy (AFM), as influenced by changes in pH and the levels of orthophosphate ions. Synthetic water samples were designed to mimic physiological c...

  1. Effect of nanoscale particles incorporation on microhardness of polymers for oral prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Zuccolotti, Bruna Carolina Rossatti; Moreno, Amalia; Vechiato Filho, Aljomar José; Paulini, Marcela Borghi; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the incorporation of pigments on surface hardness of four acrylic resins subjected to thermocycling and analyze their elemental composition using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Materials and Methods: Twenty-one discs of each resin were fabricated, whereas seven had no additive, seven had 3% of nanoscale pigments and last seven had 10% of them. The percentage was obtained by measuring the total weight of each resin disc. Besides, seven discs composed by only nanoscale pigments were also fabricated, totalizing 91 discs. The pigment was weighed by using an analytical balance (BEL Analytical Equipment, SP, Brazil). The surface hardness was measured through a hardness tester machine before and after thermocycling (5–55°C, for 2000 cycles). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (P < 0.05). The chemical composition of the discs composed only by nanoscale pigments was analyzed with EDS test. Results: Hardness of all resins decreased after thermocycling. The lowest values were observed on the discs with 3% of nanoscale pigments and discs fabricated only with them. EDS showed the presence of titanium dioxide. Conclusion: Discs with 7% of pigments (after thermocycling) showed higher hardness values.

  2. Nanoscale Fe(0) particles for pentachlorophenol removal from aqueous solution: temperature effect and particles transformation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rong; Zheng, Xiang; Liu, Peng; Wang, Jian-Long

    2014-09-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP), as an important contaminant which was toxic and intractable, has received extensive attention. In this paper, the temperature effect during the transformation of PCP using nanoscale Fe(0) particles was studied, and the transformation processes of PCP and iron particles was explained. The results revealed that the removal processes of PCP followed pseudo first-order kinetics. The scale of dechlorination to the transformation of PCP increased with the increase of temperature, though the transformation rate decreased after reacting for 2 h under the experimental condition. However, the initial apparent transformation rate constants were calculated to be 0.312-0.536 h(-1) at the temperature of 20-50 degrees C, which showed an increase of transformation rate along with the increase of temperature. And the surface-area-normalized rate constants were calculated to be 9.50 x 10-3-1.63 x 10-2 L . h-1 . m-2. The experimental activation energy was calculated to be 15.0 kJ x mol(-1) from these rate constants using Arrhenius equation. A phenomenon observed at 50 degrees C indicated that more than one chlorine atom was removed from PCP and suggested β-elimination might be the major pathway for transformation. Sorption experiments showed that the sorption process on the surface of particles could be ignored in the kinetics and thermodynamics models. The changes of morphologies of nanoparticles before and after reaction indicated the transformation process of iron particles, and could be used to explain the changes of activity of nanoparticles. Magnetite (Fe3O4) and/or maghemite (Fe2O3) and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) were corrosion products of iron. And along with the increase of temperature, the increased intensity of XRD peaks revealed the related a better crystallizing. PMID:25924353

  3. Nanoscale multilayered and porous carbide interphases prepared by pressure-pulsed reactive chemical vapor deposition for ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, S.; Jouanny, I.; Ledain, O.; Maillé, L.; Weisbecker, P.

    2013-06-01

    In Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) reinforced by continuous fibers, a good toughness is achieved by adding a thin film called "interphase" between the fiber and the brittle matrix, which acts as a mechanical fuse by deflecting the matrix cracks. Pyrocarbon (PyC), with or without carbide sub-layers, is typically the material of choice to fulfill this role. The aim of this work was to study PyC-free nanoscale multilayered carbide coatings as interphases for CMCs. Nanoscale multilayered (SiC-TiC)n interphases were deposited by pressure-Pulsed Chemical Vapor Deposition (P-CVD) on single filament Hi-Nicalon fibers and embedded in a SiC matrix sheath. The thicknesses of the carbide interphase sub-layers could be made as low as a few nanometers as evidenced by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. By using the P-ReactiveCVD method (P-RCVD), in which the TiC growth involves consumption of SiC, it was not only possible to obtain multilayered (SiC-TiC)n films but also TiC films with a porous multilayered microstructure as a result of the Kirkendall effect. The porosity in the TiC sequences was found to be enhanced when some PyC was added to SiC prior to total RCVD consumption. Because the porosity volume fraction was still not high enough, the role of mechanical fuse of the interphases could not be evidenced from the tensile curves, which remained fully linear even when chemical attack of the fiber surface was avoided.

  4. Nanoscale Wicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jijie; Sansom, Elijah; Gharib, Mory; Noca, Flavio

    2003-11-01

    A wick is a bundle of fibers that by capillary attraction draws up to be burned a steady supply of the oil in lamps. In textile research, wicking is the process by which liquids are transported across or along fibers by capillary action (of relevance to perspiration). A similar phenomenon was recently discovered in our lab with mats of nanoscale fibers. A droplet containing a surfactant solution was placed on top of a well-aligned mat of carbon nanotubes: wicking was then observed as a film of liquid propagating within the nanocarpet, such as a stain or drop absorbed into a textile fabric. The nanoscale wicking process in carbon nano-arrays offers a simple and enabling technology for the processing (transport, mixing, filtering) of picoliters of fluids without any need for confinement (nanochannel) or bulky driving pressure apparatus. In this work, nanoscale wicking properties are quantified as a function of surfactant activity and carbon nanoarray geometry. The biomolecular sieving capability of the nanotube arrays is also put to test by the addition of biomolecules, while using the wicking process as the fluid driving force.

  5. Nanoscale observations of the effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Christine V.

    2016-04-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaC2O4ṡxH2O) minerals are naturally occurring minerals found in fossils, plants, kidney stones and is a by-product in some processes such as paper, food and beverage production [1,2]. In particular, calcium oxalate monohydrate phase (COM) also known as whewellite (CaC2O4ṡH2O), is the most frequently reported mineral phase found in urinary and kidney stones together with phosphates. Organic additives are well known to play a key role in the formation of minerals in both biotic and abiotic systems, either facilitating their precipitation or hindering it. In this regard, recent studies have provided direct evidence demonstrating that citrate species could enhance dissolution of COM and inhibit their precipitation. [3,4] The present work aims at evauate the influence of pH, citrate and oxalic acid concentrations in calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces (Island Spar, Chihuahua, Mexico) through in-situ nanoscale observation using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, Multimode, Bruker) in flow-through experiments. Changes in calcium oxalate morphologies and precipitated phases were observed, as well as the inhibitory effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation, which also lead to stabilization an the amorphous calcium oxalate phase. [1] K.D. Demadis, M. Öner, Inhibitory effects of "green"additives on the crystal growth of sparingly soluble salts, in: J.T. Pearlman (Ed.), Green Chemistry Research Trends, Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 265-287. [2] M. Masár, M. Zuborová, D. Kaniansky, B. Stanislawski, Determination of oxalate in beer by zone electrophoresis on a chip with conductivity detection, J. Sep. Sci. 26 (2003) 647-652. [3] Chutipongtanate S, Chaiyarit S, Thongboonkerd V. Citrate, not phosphate, can dissolve calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and detach these crystals from renal tubular cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;689:219-25. [4] Weaver ML, Qiu SR, Hoyer JR, Casey WH, Nancollas GH, De Yoreo JJ

  6. Ascertaining effects of nanoscale polymeric interfaces on competitive protein adsorption at the individual protein level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Xie, Tian; Ravensbergen, Kristina; Hahm, Jong-In

    2016-02-01

    With the recent development of biomaterials and biodevices with reduced dimensionality, it is critical to comprehend protein adhesion processes to nanoscale solid surfaces, especially those occurring in a competitive adsorption environment. Complex sequences of adhesion events in competitive adsorption involving multicomponent protein systems have been extensively investigated, but our understanding is still limited primarily to macroscopic adhesion onto chemically simple surfaces. We examine the competitive adsorption behavior from a binary protein mixture containing bovine serum albumin and fibrinogen at the single protein level. We subsequently evaluate a series of adsorption and displacement processes occurring on both the macroscopic homopolymer and nanoscopic diblock copolymer surfaces, while systematically varying the protein concentration and incubation time. We identify the similarities and dissimilarities in competitive protein adsorption behavior between the two polymeric surfaces, the former presenting chemical uniformity at macroscale versus the latter exhibiting periodic nanointerfaces of chemically alternating polymeric segments. We then present our novel experimental finding of a large increase in the nanointerface-engaged residence time of the initially bound proteins and further explain the origin of this phenomenon manifested on nanoscale diblock copolymer surfaces. The outcomes of this study may provide timely insight into nanoscale competitive protein adsorption that is much needed in designing bioimplant and tissue engineering materials. In addition, the fundamental understanding gained from this study can be beneficial for the development of highly miniaturized biodevices and biomaterials fabricated by using nanoscale polymeric materials and interfaces.With the recent development of biomaterials and biodevices with reduced dimensionality, it is critical to comprehend protein adhesion processes to nanoscale solid surfaces, especially those

  7. Single-charge transport in ambipolar silicon nanoscale field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Filipp; Konstantaras, Georgios; Wiel, Wilfred G. van der; Zwanenburg, Floris A.

    2015-04-27

    We report single-charge transport in ambipolar nanoscale MOSFETs, electrostatically defined in near-intrinsic silicon. We use the ambipolarity to demonstrate the confinement of either a few electrons or a few holes in exactly the same crystalline environment underneath a gate electrode. We find similar electron and hole quantum dot properties while the mobilities differ quantitatively like in microscale devices. The understanding and control of individual electrons and holes are essential for spin-based quantum information processing.

  8. Intracellular recordings of action potentials by an extracellular nanoscale field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaojie; Gao, Ruixuan; Xie, Ping; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Qing, Quan; Choe, Hwan Sung; Tian, Bozhi; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Lieber, Charles M

    2012-03-01

    The ability to make electrical measurements inside cells has led to many important advances in electrophysiology. The patch clamp technique, in which a glass micropipette filled with electrolyte is inserted into a cell, offers both high signal-to-noise ratio and temporal resolution. Ideally, the micropipette should be as small as possible to increase the spatial resolution and reduce the invasiveness of the measurement, but the overall performance of the technique depends on the impedance of the interface between the micropipette and the cell interior, which limits how small the micropipette can be. Techniques that involve inserting metal or carbon microelectrodes into cells are subject to similar constraints. Field-effect transistors (FETs) can also record electric potentials inside cells, and because their performance does not depend on impedance, they can be made much smaller than micropipettes and microelectrodes. Moreover, FET arrays are better suited for multiplexed measurements. Previously, we have demonstrated FET-based intracellular recording with kinked nanowire structures, but the kink configuration and device design places limits on the probe size and the potential for multiplexing. Here, we report a new approach in which a SiO2 nanotube is synthetically integrated on top of a nanoscale FET. This nanotube penetrates the cell membrane, bringing the cell cytosol into contact with the FET, which is then able to record the intracellular transmembrane potential. Simulations show that the bandwidth of this branched intracellular nanotube FET (BIT-FET) is high enough for it to record fast action potentials even when the nanotube diameter is decreased to 3 nm, a length scale well below that accessible with other methods. Studies of cardiomyocyte cells demonstrate that when phospholipid-modified BIT-FETs are brought close to cells, the nanotubes can spontaneously penetrate the cell membrane to allow the full-amplitude intracellular action potential to be

  9. Intracellular recordings of action potentials by an extracellular nanoscale field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaojie; Gao, Ruixuan; Xie, Ping; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Qing, Quan; Choe, Hwan Sung; Tian, Bozhi; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Lieber, Charles M.

    2012-03-01

    The ability to make electrical measurements inside cells has led to many important advances in electrophysiology. The patch clamp technique, in which a glass micropipette filled with electrolyte is inserted into a cell, offers both high signal-to-noise ratio and temporal resolution. Ideally, the micropipette should be as small as possible to increase the spatial resolution and reduce the invasiveness of the measurement, but the overall performance of the technique depends on the impedance of the interface between the micropipette and the cell interior, which limits how small the micropipette can be. Techniques that involve inserting metal or carbon microelectrodes into cells are subject to similar constraints. Field-effect transistors (FETs) can also record electric potentials inside cells, and because their performance does not depend on impedance, they can be made much smaller than micropipettes and microelectrodes. Moreover, FET arrays are better suited for multiplexed measurements. Previously, we have demonstrated FET-based intracellular recording with kinked nanowire structures, but the kink configuration and device design places limits on the probe size and the potential for multiplexing. Here, we report a new approach in which a SiO2 nanotube is synthetically integrated on top of a nanoscale FET. This nanotube penetrates the cell membrane, bringing the cell cytosol into contact with the FET, which is then able to record the intracellular transmembrane potential. Simulations show that the bandwidth of this branched intracellular nanotube FET (BIT-FET) is high enough for it to record fast action potentials even when the nanotube diameter is decreased to 3 nm, a length scale well below that accessible with other methods. Studies of cardiomyocyte cells demonstrate that when phospholipid-modified BIT-FETs are brought close to cells, the nanotubes can spontaneously penetrate the cell membrane to allow the full-amplitude intracellular action potential to be

  10. Vortex interaction enhanced saturation number and caging effect in a superconducting film with a honeycomb array of nanoscale holes.

    SciTech Connect

    Latimer, M. L.; Berdiyorov, G. R.; Xiao, Z. L.; Kwok, W. K.; Peeters, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    The electrical transport properties of a MoGe thin film with a honeycomb array of nanoscale holes are investigated. The critical current of the system shows nonmatching anomalies as a function of applied magnetic field, enabling us to distinguish between multiquanta vortices trapped in the holes and interstitial vortices located between the holes. The number of vortices trapped in each hole is found to be larger than the saturation number predicted for an isolated hole and shows a nonlinear field dependence, leading to the caging effect as predicted from the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory. Our experimental results are supplemented by numerical simulations based on the GL theory.

  11. Interpreting nanoscale size-effects in aggregated Fe-oxide suspensions: Reaction of Fe(II) with Goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cwiertny, David M.; Handler, Robert M.; Schaefer, Michael V.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Scherer, Michelle M.

    2008-03-01

    The Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox couple plays an important role in both the subsurface fate and transport of groundwater pollutants and the global cycling of carbon and nitrogen in iron-limited marine environments. Iron oxide particles involved in these redox processes exhibit broad size distributions, and the recent demonstrations of dramatic nanoscale size-effects with various metal oxides has compelled us, as well as many others, to consider whether the rate and extent of Fe(II)/Fe(III) cycling depends upon oxide particle size in natural systems. Here, we investigated the reaction of Fe(II) with three different goethite particle sizes in pH 7.5 suspensions. Acicular goethite rods with primary particle dimensions ranging from 7 by 80 nm to 25 by 670 nm were studied. Similar behavior with respect to Fe(II) sorption, electron transfer and nitrobenzene reduction was observed on a mass-normalized basis despite almost a threefold difference in goethite specific surface areas. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and sedimentation measurements all indicated that, at pH 7.5, significant aggregation occurred with all three sizes of goethite particles. SEM images further revealed that nanoscale particles formed dense aggregates on the order of several microns in diameter. The clear formation of particle aggregates in solution raises questions regarding the use of primary particle surface area as a basis for assessing nanoscale size-effects in iron oxide suspensions at circum-neutral pH values. In our case, normalizing the Fe(II) sorption densities and rate constants for nitrobenzene reduction by BET surface area implies that goethite nanoparticles are less reactive than larger particles. We suspect, however, that aggregation is responsible for this observed size-dependence, and argue that BET values should not be used to assess differences in surface site density or intrinsic surface reactivity in aggregated particle suspensions. In order to

  12. Nanoscale Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yufeng; Tolic, Nikola; Masselon, Christophe D.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Camp, David G.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes efforts to develop a liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS) technology for ultra-sensitive proteomics studies, i.e. nanoscale proteomics. The approach combines high-efficiency nano-scale LC with advanced MS, including high sensitivity and high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS, to perform both single-stage MS and tandem MS (MS/MS) proteomic analyses. The technology developed enables large-scale protein identification from nanogram size proteomic samples and characterization of more abundant proteins from sub-picogram size complex samples. Protein identification in such studies using MS is feasible from <75 zeptomole of a protein, and the average proteome measurement throughput is >200 proteins/h and ~3 h/sample. Higher throughput (>1000 proteins/h) and more sensitive detection limits can be obtained using a “accurate mass and time” tag approach developed at our laboratory. These capabilities lay the foundation for studies from single or limited numbers of cells.

  13. The Effects of Nanoscale Exsolution on Magnetic Properties: Insights From FORC Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnroe, S.; Hirt, A. M.; Harrison, R.; Robinson, P.; Brown, L.

    2005-12-01

    Samples of igneous and metamorphic rocks from the USA, Canada, Chile, Sweden, Norway and Australia contain oxides of either nearly `pure hematite' or from the hematite-ilmenite solid solution series. Samples with oxides from the hematite-ilmenite solid solution series all have nanoscale exsolution of hematite and ilmenite that formed as a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) during cooling from igneous or metamorphic settings. The nearly pure hematite samples show relic exsolution of spinel and/or extensive twinning in the hematite. Hysteresis properties have been measured from 10 K to 300 K on most samples and to 900K on selected samples. All samples contain a hematite component either as exsolution lamellae, as the host material, or as a nearly pure oxide phase. Variations in room temperature coercivity ranged from 9mT to 440mT. With this large range in hysteresis behavior FORC measurements were made to help separate the possibilities of 1) co-existing phases, 2) exchange coupling or interactions and 3) contributions from the nanoscale exsolution. It is important to note that a saturated state may not have been reached at the start of the FORC measurements for the higher coercivity samples. However, FORC diagrams on samples with two or more oxides were very helpful in determining the contributions to the bulk coercivity of the different minerals. Numerous samples with exsolution showed distinct negative peak value of Hu. Separating out whether this response is due to the fact that these samples contain hematite, or due to interaction within the oxides is open to speculation. Most of the examined samples contained nanoscale exsolution as imaged with TEM, all had a negative Hu and the amount of displacement varied strongly. The amount of displacement cannot be correlated directly to the size, or spacing of the lamellae. Correlation of the distribution of Hc and Hu with TEM images and other rock magnetic properties will be discussed.

  14. Nanoscale alloying effect of gold-platinum nanoparticles as cathode catalysts on the performance of a rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jun; Fang, Bin; Luo, Jin; Wanjala, Bridgid; Mott, Derrick; Loukrakpam, Rameshowri; Ng, Mei Shan; Li, Zheng; Hong, Jian; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2012-08-01

    The understanding of nanoscale alloying or the phase segregation effect of alloy nanoparticles on the catalytic properties is important for a rational design of the desired catalysts for a specific reaction. This paper describes findings of an investigation into this type of structural effect for carbon-supported bimetallic gold-platinum nanoparticles as cathode catalysts in a rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery. The nanoscale structural characteristics in terms of size, alloying and phase segregation were shown to affect the catalytic properties of the catalysts in the Li-O2 battery. In addition to the composition effect, the catalysts with a fully alloyed phase structure were found to exhibit a smaller discharge-charge voltage difference and a higher discharge capacity than those with a partial phase segregation structure. This finding is significant for the design of alloy nanoparticles as air cathode catalysts in rechargeable lithium-air batteries, demonstrating the importance of the control of the nanoscale composition and phase properties.

  15. Nanoscale 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenders, Ludger; Ducourtieux, Sebastien

    2014-04-01

    The accurate determination of the properties of micro- and nano-structures is essential in research and development. It is also a prerequisite in process control and quality assurance in industry. In most cases, especially at the nanometer range, knowledge of the dimensional properties of structures is the fundamental base, to which further physical properties are linked. Quantitative measurements presuppose reliable and stable instruments, suitable measurement procedures as well as calibration artifacts and methods. This special issue of Measurement Science and Technology presents selected contributions from the NanoScale 2013 seminar held in Paris, France, on 25 and 26 April. It was the 6th Seminar on NanoScale Calibration Standards and Methods and the 10th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy (the first being held in 1995). The seminar was jointly organized with the Nanometrology Group of the Technical Committee-Length of EURAMET, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt and the Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais. Three satellite meetings related to nanometrology were coupled to the seminar. The first one was an open Symposium on Scanning Probe Microscopy Standardization organized by the ISO/TC 201/SC9 technical committee. The two others were specific meetings focused on two European Metrology Research Projects funded by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET) (see www.euramet.org), the first one focused on the improvement of the traceability for high accuracy devices dealing with sub-nm length measurement and implementing optical interferometers or capacitive sensors (JRP SIB08 subnano), the second one aiming to develop a new metrological traceability for the measurement of the mechanical properties of nano-objects (JRP NEW05 MechProNo). More than 100 experts from industry, calibration laboratories and metrology institutes from around the world joined the NanoScale 2013 Seminar to attend 23 oral and 64 poster

  16. Effect of geometrical constraint condition on the formation of nanoscale twins in the Ni-based metallic glass composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. H.; Kim, B. S.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Sansoz, F.; Eckert, J.

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of geometrically constrained stress-strain conditions on the formation of nanotwins in α-brass phase reinforced Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass (MG) matrix deformed under macroscopic uniaxial compression. The specific geometrically constrained conditions in the samples lead to a deviation from a simple uniaxial state to a multi-axial stress state, for which nanocrystallization in the MG matrix together with nanoscale twinning of the brass reinforcement is observed in localized regions during plastic flow. The nanocrystals in the MG matrix and the appearance of the twinned structure in the reinforcements indicate that the strain energy is highly confined and the local stress reaches a very high level upon yielding. Both the effective distribution of reinforcements on the strain enhancement of composite and the effects of the complicated stress states on the development of nanotwins in the second-phase brass particles are discussed.

  17. Effect of geometrical constraint condition on the formation of nanoscale twins in the Ni-based metallic glass composite

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M H; Kim, B S; Kim, D H; Ott, R T; Sansoz, F; Eckert, J

    2014-04-25

    We investigated the effect of geometrically constrained stress-strain conditions on the formation of nanotwins in alpha-brass phase reinforced Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass (MG) matrix deformed under macroscopic uniaxial compression. The specific geometrically constrained conditions in the samples lead to a deviation from a simple uniaxial state to a multi-axial stress state, for which nanocrystallization in the MG matrix together with nanoscale twinning of the brass reinforcement is observed in localized regions during plastic flow. The nanocrystals in the MG matrix and the appearance of the twinned structure in the reinforcements indicate that the strain energy is highly confined and the local stress reaches a very high level upon yielding. Both the effective distribution of reinforcements on the strain enhancement of composite and the effects of the complicated stress states on the development of nanotwins in the second-phase brass particles are discussed.

  18. Effects of dislocation density and sample-size on plastic yielding at the nanoscale: a Weibull-like framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Micro-compression tests have demonstrated that plastic yielding in nanoscale pillars is the result of the fine interplay between the sample-size (chiefly the diameter D) and the density of bulk dislocations ρ. The power-law scaling typical of the nanoscale stems from a source-limited regime, which depends on both these sample parameters. Based on the experimental and theoretical results available in the literature, this paper offers a perspective about the joint effect of D and ρ on the yield stress in any plastic regime, promoting also a schematic graphical map of it. In the sample-size dependent regime, such dependence is cast mathematically into a first order Weibull-type theory, where the power-law scaling the power exponent β and the modulus m of an approximate (unimodal) Weibull distribution of source-strengths can be related by a simple inverse proportionality. As a corollary, the scaling exponent β may not be a universal number, as speculated in the literature. In this context, the discussion opens the alternative possibility of more general (multimodal) source-strength distributions, which could produce more complex and realistic strengthening patterns than the single power-law usually assumed. The paper re-examines our own experimental data, as well as results of Bei et al. (2008) on Mo-alloy pillars, especially for the sake of emphasizing the significance of a sudden increase in sample response scatter as a warning signal of an incipient source-limited regime.

  19. Nanoscale nonlinear radio frequency properties of bulk Nb: Origins of extrinsic nonlinear effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Tamin; Ghamsari, B. G.; Bieler, T.; Anlage, Steven M.

    2015-10-01

    The performance of niobium-based superconducting radio frequency (SRF) particle-accelerator cavities can be sensitive to localized defects that give rise to quenches at high accelerating gradients. In order to identify these material defects on bulk Nb surfaces at their operating frequency and temperature, a wide-bandwidth microwave microscope with localized and strong RF magnetic fields is developed by integrating a magnetic write head into the near-field microwave microscope to enable mapping of the local electrodynamic response in the multi-GHz frequency regime at cryogenic temperatures. This magnetic writer demonstrates a localized and strong RF magnetic field on bulk Nb surface with Bsurface>102 mT and submicron resolution. By measuring the nonlinear response of the superconductor, nonlinearity coming from the nanoscale weak-link Josephson junctions due to the contaminated surface in the cavity-fabrication process is demonstrated.

  20. Effect of Micro- and Nanoscale Topography on the Adhesion of Bacterial Cells to Solid Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Lillian C.; Fang, Jean; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana A.; Worobo, Randy W.

    2013-01-01

    Attachment and biofilm formation by bacterial pathogens on surfaces in natural, industrial, and hospital settings lead to infections and illnesses and even death. Minimizing bacterial attachment to surfaces using controlled topography could reduce the spreading of pathogens and, thus, the incidence of illnesses and subsequent human and financial losses. In this context, the attachment of key microorganisms, including Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, to silica and alumina surfaces with micron and nanoscale topography was investigated. The results suggest that orientation of the attached cells occurs preferentially such as to maximize their contact area with the surface. Moreover, the bacterial cells exhibited different morphologies, including different number and size of cellular appendages, depending on the topographical details of the surface to which they attached. This suggests that bacteria may utilize different mechanisms of attachment in response to surface topography. These results are important for the design of novel microbe-repellant materials. PMID:23416997

  1. Nano-scale machining of polycrystalline coppers - effects of grain size and machining parameters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive investigation on nano-scale machining of polycrystalline copper structures is carried out by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Simulation cases are constructed to study the impacts of grain size, as well as various machining parameters. Six polycrystalline copper structures are produced, which have the corresponding equivalent grain sizes of 5.32, 6.70, 8.44, 13.40, 14.75, and 16.88 nm, respectively. Three levels of depth of cut, machining speed, and tool rake angle are also considered. The results show that greater cutting forces are required in nano-scale polycrystalline machining with the increase of depth of cut, machining speed, and the use of the negative tool rake angles. The distributions of equivalent stress are consistent with the cutting force trends. Moreover, it is discovered that in the grain size range of 5.32 to 14.75 nm, the cutting forces and equivalent stress increase with the increase of grain size for the nano-structured copper, while the trends reserve after the grain size becomes even higher. This discovery confirms the existence of both the regular Hall–Petch relation and the inverse Hall–Petch relation in polycrystalline machining, and the existence of a threshold grain size allows one of the two relations to become dominant. The dislocation-grain boundary interaction shows that the resistance of the grain boundary to dislocation movement is the fundamental mechanism of the Hall–Petch relation, while grain boundary diffusion and movement is the reason of the inverse Hall–Petch relation. PMID:24267785

  2. The Effects of Spacer Length and Composition on Aptamer-Mediated Cell-Specific Targeting with Nanoscale PEGylated Liposomal Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Xing, Hang; Li, Ji; Xu, Weidong; Hwang, Kevin; Wu, Peiwen; Yin, Qian; Li, Zhensheng; Cheng, Jianjun; Lu, Yi

    2016-06-16

    Aptamer-based targeted drug delivery systems have shown significant promise for clinical applications. Although much progress has been made in this area, it remains unclear how PEG coating would affect the selective binding of DNA aptamers and thus influence the overall targeting efficiency. To answer this question, we herein report a systematic investigation of the interactions between PEG and DNA aptamers on the surface of liposomes by using a series of nanoscale liposomal doxorubicin formulations with different DNA aptamer and PEG modifications. We investigated how the spatial size and composition of the spacer molecules affected the targeting ability of the liposome delivery system. We showed that a spacer of appropriate length was critical to overcome the shielding from surrounding PEG molecules in order to achieve the best targeting effect, regardless of the spacer composition. Our findings provide important guidelines for the design of aptamer-based targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:27123758

  3. Charge transport and contact effects in nanoscale electrical junctions formed via conducting probe atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, Jeremy Matthew

    This thesis describes the fabrication and characterization of nanoscale molecular junctions using conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). This technique involves using a metal-coated AFM tip to contact a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of an organic molecule tethered to a metal surface. This is one of several strategies for the formation of nanoscale electrical junctions designed to probe the current-voltage characteristics of very small numbers of organic molecules. The general goals of this research are to gain a better understanding of the nature of charge transport through molecules, and to begin to pave the way for their use in commercial electronic devices. Important concerns in molecular electronic research can be broken into two general categories, those being the metal contacts and the molecules themselves. In the contact subcategory, issues such as metal work function, electrode roughness, and electrode cleanliness are all important in determining the resistance of a given junction. The physical details of monolayer formation, such as surface coverage, tilt angle, and surface functionality combine with the electronic structure of the molecules to dictate how a given molecule performs in a junction. Included in this thesis is the first direct evidence that resistance in molecular junctions comprised of alkyl repeat units depends on the work function of the metal electrodes. Because an increase in metal work function corresponds to a smaller offset between the molecular HOMO and the junction Fermi level, this dependence also suggests that transport in these aliphatic systems occurs chiefly via hole tunneling. Also included is an analysis of the contribution to junction resistance that arises from each metal-molecule contact, and across the molecule in alkanethiol and alkanedithiol junctions. The aromatic phenylene and acene systems are examined briefly, and phenylenes are shown to be more efficient conduits for charge transport, contrary to

  4. Self-assembled nanoscale coordination polymers with trigger release properties for effective anticancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Demin; Poon, Christopher; Lu, Kuangda; He, Chunbai; Lin, Wenbin

    2014-06-01

    Nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) are self-assembled from metal ions and organic bridging ligands, and can overcome many drawbacks of existing drug delivery systems by virtue of tunable compositions, sizes and shapes, high drug loadings, ease of surface modification and intrinsic biodegradability. Here we report the self-assembly of zinc bisphosphonate NCPs that carry 48±3 wt% cisplatin prodrug and 45±5 wt% oxaliplatin prodrug. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in mice show minimal uptake of pegylated NCPs by the mononuclear phagocyte system and excellent blood circulation half-lives of 16.4±2.9 and 12.0±3.9 h for the NCPs carrying cisplatin and oxaliplatin, respectively. In all tumour xenograft models evaluated, including CT26 colon cancer, H460 lung cancer and AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer, pegylated NCPs show superior potency and efficacy compared with free drugs. As the first example of using NCPs as nanotherapeutics with enhanced antitumour activities, this study establishes NCPs as a promising drug delivery platform for cancer therapy.

  5. Effectively suppressing dissolution of manganese from spinel lithium manganate via a nanoscale surface-doping approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jun; Zhan, Chun; Wu, Tianpin; Wen, Jianguo; Lei, Yu; Kropf, A. Jeremy; Wu, Huiming; Miller, Dean J.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Sun, Yang-Kook; Qiu, Xinping; Amine, Khalil

    2014-12-16

    The capacity fade of lithium manganate-based cells is associated with the dissolution of Mn from cathode/electrolyte interface due to the disproportionation reaction of Mn(III), and the subsequent deposition of Mn(II) on the anode. Suppressing the dissolution of Mn from the cathode is critical to reducing capacity fade of LiMn2O4-based cells. Here we report a nanoscale surface-doping approach that minimizes Mn dissolution from lithium manganate. This approach exploits advantages of both bulk doping and surface-coating methods by stabilizing surface crystal structure of lithium manganate through cationic doping while maintaining bulk lithium manganate structure, and protecting bulk lithium manganate from electrolyte corrosion while maintaining ion and charge transport channels on the surface through the electrochemically active doping layer. Consequently, the surface-doped lithium manganate demonstrates enhanced electrochemical performance. This study provides encouraging evidence that surface doping could be a promising alternative to improve the cycling performance of lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Method and apparatus for remote sensing of molecular species at nanoscale utilizing a reverse photoacoustic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Ming; Thundat, Thomas G; Hedden, David

    2010-02-23

    A method and apparatus for identifying a sample, involves illuminating the sample with light of varying wavelengths, transmitting an acoustic signal against the sample from one portion and receiving a resulting acoustic signal on another portion, detecting a change of phase in the acoustic signal corresponding to the light of varying wavelengths, and analyzing the change of phase in the acoustic signal for the varying wavelengths of illumination to identify the sample. The apparatus has a controlled source for illuminating the sample with light of varying wavelengths, a transmitter for transmitting an acoustic wave, a receiver for receiving the acoustic wave and converting the acoustic wave to an electronic signal, and an electronic circuit for detecting a change of phase in the acoustic wave corresponding to respective ones of the varying wavelengths and outputting the change of phase for the varying wavelengths to allow identification of the sample. The method and apparatus can be used to detect chemical composition or visual features. A transmission mode and a reflection mode of operation are disclosed. The method and apparatus can be applied at nanoscale to detect molecules in a biological sample.

  7. Self-assembled nanoscale coordination polymers with trigger release properties for effective anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Demin; Poon, Christopher; Lu, Kuangda; He, Chunbai; Lin, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) are self-assembled from metal ions and organic bridging ligands, and can overcome many drawbacks of existing drug delivery systems by virtue of tunable compositions, sizes, and shapes; high drug loadings; ease of surface modification; and intrinsic biodegradability. Here we report the self-assembly of zinc bisphosphonate NCPs that carry 48±3 wt% cisplatin prodrug and 45±5 wt% oxaliplatin prodrug. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in mice show minimal uptake of pegylated NCPs by the mononuclear phagocyte system and excellent blood circulation half-lives of 16.4±2.9 and 12.0±3.9 h for the NCPs carrying cisplatin and oxaliplatin, respectively. In all tumor xenograft models evaluated, including CT26 colon cancer, H460 lung cancer, and AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer, pegylated NCPs show superior potency and efficacy compared to free drugs. As the first example of using NCPs as nanotherapeutics with enhanced antitumor activities, this study establishes NCPs as a promising drug delivery platform for cancer therapy. PMID:24964370

  8. Nanoscale directional motion towards regions of stiffness.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tienchong; Zhang, Hongwei; Guo, Zhengrong; Guo, Xingming; Gao, Huajian

    2015-01-01

    How to induce nanoscale directional motion via some intrinsic mechanisms pertaining to a nanosystem remains a challenge in nanotechnology. Here we show via molecular dynamics simulations that there exists a fundamental driving force for a nanoscale object to move from a region of lower stiffness toward one of higher stiffness on a substrate. Such nanoscale directional motion is induced by the difference in effective van der Waals potential energy due to the variation in stiffness of the substrate; i.e., all other conditions being equal, a nanoscale object on a stiffer substrate has lower van der Waals potential energy. This fundamental law of nanoscale directional motion could lead to promising routes for nanoscale actuation and energy conversion. PMID:25615480

  9. Nanoscale Directional Motion towards Regions of Stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tienchong; Zhang, Hongwei; Guo, Zhengrong; Guo, Xingming; Gao, Huajian

    2015-01-01

    How to induce nanoscale directional motion via some intrinsic mechanisms pertaining to a nanosystem remains a challenge in nanotechnology. Here we show via molecular dynamics simulations that there exists a fundamental driving force for a nanoscale object to move from a region of lower stiffness toward one of higher stiffness on a substrate. Such nanoscale directional motion is induced by the difference in effective van der Waals potential energy due to the variation in stiffness of the substrate; i.e., all other conditions being equal, a nanoscale object on a stiffer substrate has lower van der Waals potential energy. This fundamental law of nanoscale directional motion could lead to promising routes for nanoscale actuation and energy conversion.

  10. An evaluation method for nanoscale wrinkle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. P.; Wang, C. G.; Zhang, L. M.; Tan, H. F.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a spectrum-based wrinkling analysis method via two-dimensional Fourier transformation is proposed aiming to solve the difficulty of nanoscale wrinkle evaluation. It evaluates the wrinkle characteristics including wrinkling wavelength and direction simply using a single wrinkling image. Based on this method, the evaluation results of nanoscale wrinkle characteristics show agreement with the open experimental results within an error of 6%. It is also verified to be appropriate for the macro wrinkle evaluation without scale limitations. The spectrum-based wrinkling analysis is an effective method for nanoscale evaluation, which contributes to reveal the mechanism of nanoscale wrinkling.

  11. Nanoscale memory elements based on the superconductor-ferromagnet proximity effect and spin-transfer torque magnetization switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Burm

    Superconducting-ferromagnetic hybrid devices have potential for a practical memory technology compatible with superconducting logic circuits and may help realize energy-efficient, high-performance superconducting computers. We have developed Josephson junction devices with pseudo-spin-valve barriers. We observed changes in Josephson critical current depending on the magnetization state of the barrier (parallel or anti-parallel) through the superconductor-ferromagnet proximity effect. This effect persists to nanoscale devices in contrast to the remanent field effect. In nanopillar devices, the magnetization states of the pseudo-spin-valve barriers could also be switched with applied bias currents at 4 K, which is consistent with the spin-transfer torque effect in analogous room-temperature spin valve devices. These results demonstrate devices that combine major superconducting and spintronic effects for scalable read and write of memory states, respectively. Further challenges and proposals towards practical devices will also be discussed.In collaboration with: William Rippard, NIST - Boulder, Matthew Pufall, NIST - Boulder, Stephen Russek, NIST-Boulder, Michael Schneider, NIST - Boulder, Samuel Benz, NIST - Boulder, Horst Rogalla, NIST-Boulder, Paul Dresselhaus, NIST - Boulder

  12. Effect of changing the nanoscale environment on activity and stability of nitrate reductase.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Veena; Hooda, Vinita

    2016-07-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) is employed for fabrication of nitrate sensing devices in which the enzyme in immobilized form is used to catalyze the conversion of nitrate to nitrite in the presence of a suitable cofactor. So far, instability of immobilized NR due to the use of inappropriate immobilization matrices has limited the practical applications of these devices. Present study is an attempt to improve the kinetic properties and stability of NR using nanoscale iron oxide (nFe3O4) and zinc oxide (nZnO) particles. The desired nanoparticles were synthesized, surface functionalized, characterized and affixed onto the epoxy resin to yield two nanocomposite supports (epoxy/nFe3O4 and epoxy/nZnO) for immobilizing NR. Epoxy/nFe3O4 and epoxy/nZnO support could load as much as 35.8±0.01 and 33.20±0.01μg/cm(2) of NR with retention of about 93.72±0.50 and 84.81±0.80% of its initial activity respectively. Changes in surface morphology and chemical bonding structure of both the nanocomposite supports after addition of NR were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Optimum working conditions of pH, temperature and substrate concentration were ascertained for free as well as immobilized NR preparations. Further, storage stability at 4°C and thermal stability between 25-50°C were determined for all the NR preparations. Analytical applications of immobilized NR for determination of soil and water nitrates along with reusability data has been included to make sure the usefulness of the procedure. PMID:27233127

  13. Nanoscale morphology of multilayer PbTe/CdTe heterostructures and its effect on photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczewski, G.; Szot, M.; Kret, S.; Kowalczyk, L.; Chusnutdinow, S.; Wojtowicz, T.; Schreyeck, S.; Brunner, K.; Schumacher, C.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2015-03-01

    We study nanoscale morphology of PbTe/CdTe multilayer heterostuctures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on hybrid GaAs/CdTe (100) substrates. Nominally, the structures consist of 25 repetitions of subsequently deposited CdTe and PbTe layers with comparable thicknesses of 21 and 8 nm, respectively. However, the morphology of the resulting structures crucially depends on the growth temperature. The two-dimensional layered, superlattice-like character of the structures remains preserved only when grown at low substrate temperatures, such as 230 °C. The samples grown at the slightly elevated temperature of 270 °C undergo a morphological transformation to structures consisting of CdTe and PbTe pillars and columns oriented perpendicular to the substrate. Although the pillar-like objects are of various shapes and dimensions these structures exhibit exceptionally strong photoluminescence in the near infrared spectral region. At the higher growth temperature of 310 °C, PbTe and CdTe separate completely forming thick layers oriented longitudinally to the substrate plane. The observed topological transformations are driven by thermally activated atomic diffusion in the solid state phase. The solid state phase remains fully coherent during the processes. The observed topological transitions leading to the material separation in PbTe/CdTe system could be regarded as an analog of spinodal decomposition of an immiscible solid state solution and thus they can be qualitatively described by the Cahn-Hillard model as proposed by Groiss et al (2014 APL Mater. 2 012105).

  14. Effects and Mechanisms of Mechanical Activation on Hydrogen Sorption/ Desorption of Nanoscale Lithium Nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Leon, L.; Yang, Gary, Z.; Crosby, Kyle; Wwan, Xufei. Zhong, Yang; Markmaitree, Tippawan; Osborn, William; Hu, Jianzhi; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2012-04-26

    The objective of this project is to investigate and develop novel, mechanically activated, nanoscale Li3N-based and LiBH4-based materials that are able to store and release {approx}10 wt% hydrogen at temperatures near 100 C with a plateau hydrogen pressure of less than 10 bar. Four (4) material systems have been investigated in the course of this project in order to achieve the project objective. These 4 systems are (i) LiNH2+LiH, (ii) LiNH2+MgH2, (iii) LiBH4, and (iv) LiBH4+MgH2. The key findings we have obtained from these 4 systems are summarized below. *The thermodynamic driving forces for LiNH2+LiH and LiBH4 systems are not adequate to enable H2 release at temperatures < 100 C. *Hydrogen release in the solid state for all of the four systems is controlled by diffusion, and thus is a slow process. *LiNH2+MgH2 and LiBH4+MgH2 systems, although possessing proper thermodynamic driving forces to allow for H2 release at temperatures < 100 C, have sluggish reaction kinetics because of their diffusion-controlled rate-limiting steps. *Reducing particles to the nanometer length scale (< 50 nm) can improve the thermodynamic driving force to enable H2 release at near ambient temperature, while simultaneously enhancing the reaction kinetics as well as changing the diffusion-controlled rate-limiting step to gas desorption-controlled rate-limiting step. This phenomenon has been demonstrated with LiBH4 and offers the hope that further work along this direction will make one of the material systems, i.e., LiBH4, LiBH4+MgH2 and LiNH2+MgH2, possess the desired thermodynamic properties and rapid H2 uptake/release kinetics for on-board applications. Many of the findings and knowledge gained from this project have been published in archival refereed journal articles [1-15] and are accessible by general public. Thus, to avoid a bulky final report, the key findings and knowledge gained from this project will be succinctly summarized, particularly for those findings and knowledge

  15. Self-assembled Nanoscale Coordination Polymers Carrying siRNAs and Cisplatin for Effective Treatment of Resistant Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunbai; Liu, Demin; Lin, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin is a major limitation for the successful treatment of many cancers. Development of novel strategies to overcome intrinsic and acquired resistance to chemotherapy is of critical importance to effective treatment of ovarian cancer and other types of cancers. We have sought to re-sensitize resistant ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapy by co-delivering chemotherapeutics and pooled siRNAs targeting multi-drug resistance (MDR) genes using self-assembled nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs). In this work, NCP-1 particles with trigger release properties were first constructed by linking cisplatin prodrug-based bisphosphonate bridging ligands with Zn2+ metal-connecting points and then coated with a cationic lipid layer, followed by the adsorption of pooled siRNAs targeting three MDR genes including survivin, Bcl-2, and P-glycoprotein via electrostatic interactions. The resulting NCP-1/siRNA particles promoted cellular uptake of cisplatin and siRNA and enabled efficient endosomal escape in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. By down-regulating the expression of MDR genes, NCP-1/siRNAs enhanced the chemotherapeutic efficacy as indicated by cell viability assay, DNA ladder, and flow cytometry. Local administration of NCP-1/siRNAs effectively reduced tumor sizes of cisplatin-resistant SKOV-3 subcutaneous xenografts. This work shows that the NCP-1/siRNA platform holds great promise in enhancing chemotherapeutic efficacy for the effective treatment of drug-resistant cancers. PMID:25315138

  16. Effects of thickness, dopant type and doping levels of flexible nanoscale polyaniline films on responses to gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Mousumi; Panda, Siddhartha

    2015-07-01

    While doped nanoscale (sub-100 nm) polyaniline films have shown interesting behavior with respect to electrical conductivities and thermal sensing, there has been scant attention to responses of such films to gases. In this work, a detailed study on the effects of film thicknesses, doping levels and dopant types on the responses to different gases is presented. The responses to NO2 were higher than to NO and NH3, and the films were unresponsive to N2, O2, CO2 and H2. The responses to NO2 and NH3 increased with decrease in film thickness below about 50 nm and were prominent at lower doping levels, and also were dependent on the type of dopant used. Explanations for the experimental observations were provided based on energy considerations. The modulation of the calculated LUMO levels and band gaps, and the Fermi energy levels at lower film thicknesses and doping levels correlated well with the responses. As the transfer of electrons resulting in the formation of the charge complex depends on the difference between the Fermi level of the film and the Mulliken electronegativity of the gas molecules, this difference in the energy levels also correlated with the effects of different gases and different dopants. Limited tests on the effect of water vapor were conducted.

  17. Investigation of 2D Transient Heat Transfer under the Effect of Dual-Phase-Lag Model in a Nanoscale Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazanfarian, J.; Abbassi, A.

    2012-03-01

    Analytical and numerical solutions of the 2D transient dual-phase-lag (DPL) heat conduction equation are presented in this article. The geometry is that of a simplified metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor with a heater placed on it. A temperature jump boundary condition is used on all boundaries in order to consider boundary phonon scattering at the micro- and nanoscale. A combination of a Laplace transformation technique and separation of variables is used to solve governing equations analytically, and a three-level finite difference scheme is employed to generate numerical results. The results are illustrated for three Knudsen numbers of 0.1, 1, and 10 at different instants of time. It is seen that the wave characteristic of the DPL model is strengthened by increasing the Knudsen number. It is found that the combination of the DPL model with the proposed mixed-type temperature boundary condition has the potential to accurately predict a 2D temperature distribution not only within the transistor itself but also in the near-boundary region.

  18. Nanoscale alloying effect of gold-platinum nanoparticles as cathode catalysts on the performance of a rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Fang, Bin; Luo, Jin; Wanjala, Bridgid; Mott, Derrick; Loukrakpam, Rameshowri; Ng, Mei Shan; Li, Zheng; Hong, Jian; Whittingham, M Stanley; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2012-08-01

    The understanding of nanoscale alloying or the phase segregation effect of alloy nanoparticles on the catalytic properties is important for a rational design of the desired catalysts for a specific reaction. This paper describes findings of an investigation into this type of structural effect for carbon-supported bimetallic gold-platinum nanoparticles as cathode catalysts in a rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery. The nanoscale structural characteristics in terms of size, alloying and phase segregation were shown to affect the catalytic properties of the catalysts in the Li-O(2) battery. In addition to the composition effect, the catalysts with a fully alloyed phase structure were found to exhibit a smaller discharge-charge voltage difference and a higher discharge capacity than those with a partial phase segregation structure. This finding is significant for the design of alloy nanoparticles as air cathode catalysts in rechargeable lithium-air batteries, demonstrating the importance of the control of the nanoscale composition and phase properties. PMID:22781275

  19. Non-linear, non-monotonic effect of nano-scale roughness on particle deposition in absence of an energy barrier: Experiments and modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chao; Glawdel, Tomasz; Ren, Carolyn L.; Emelko, Monica B.

    2015-01-01

    Deposition of colloidal- and nano-scale particles on surfaces is critical to numerous natural and engineered environmental, health, and industrial applications ranging from drinking water treatment to semi-conductor manufacturing. Nano-scale surface roughness-induced hydrodynamic impacts on particle deposition were evaluated in the absence of an energy barrier to deposition in a parallel plate system. A non-linear, non-monotonic relationship between deposition surface roughness and particle deposition flux was observed and a critical roughness size associated with minimum deposition flux or “sag effect” was identified. This effect was more significant for nanoparticles (<1 μm) than for colloids and was numerically simulated using a Convective-Diffusion model and experimentally validated. Inclusion of flow field and hydrodynamic retardation effects explained particle deposition profiles better than when only the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) force was considered. This work provides 1) a first comprehensive framework for describing the hydrodynamic impacts of nano-scale surface roughness on particle deposition by unifying hydrodynamic forces (using the most current approaches for describing flow field profiles and hydrodynamic retardation effects) with appropriately modified expressions for DLVO interaction energies, and gravity forces in one model and 2) a foundation for further describing the impacts of more complicated scales of deposition surface roughness on particle deposition. PMID:26658159

  20. Non-linear, non-monotonic effect of nano-scale roughness on particle deposition in absence of an energy barrier: Experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chao; Glawdel, Tomasz; Ren, Carolyn L.; Emelko, Monica B.

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of colloidal- and nano-scale particles on surfaces is critical to numerous natural and engineered environmental, health, and industrial applications ranging from drinking water treatment to semi-conductor manufacturing. Nano-scale surface roughness-induced hydrodynamic impacts on particle deposition were evaluated in the absence of an energy barrier to deposition in a parallel plate system. A non-linear, non-monotonic relationship between deposition surface roughness and particle deposition flux was observed and a critical roughness size associated with minimum deposition flux or “sag effect” was identified. This effect was more significant for nanoparticles (<1 μm) than for colloids and was numerically simulated using a Convective-Diffusion model and experimentally validated. Inclusion of flow field and hydrodynamic retardation effects explained particle deposition profiles better than when only the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) force was considered. This work provides 1) a first comprehensive framework for describing the hydrodynamic impacts of nano-scale surface roughness on particle deposition by unifying hydrodynamic forces (using the most current approaches for describing flow field profiles and hydrodynamic retardation effects) with appropriately modified expressions for DLVO interaction energies, and gravity forces in one model and 2) a foundation for further describing the impacts of more complicated scales of deposition surface roughness on particle deposition.

  1. The dual effects of carboxymethyl cellulose on the colloidal stability and toxicity of nanoscale zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Dong, Haoran; Xie, Yankai; Zeng, Guangming; Tang, Lin; Liang, Jie; He, Qi; Zhao, Feng; Zeng, Yalan; Wu, Yanan

    2016-02-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles are usually modified with surface coating to mitigate the particle stability in water during the environmental application. However, the surface coating may not only influence the particle stabilization but also the particle cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the dual effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the colloidal stability and cytotoxicity of NZVI towards gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and discussed the interrelation between particle stability and cytotoxicity. The effect of CMC concentration, ionic strength (Ca(2+)) and aging treatment on the particle cytotoxicity were also examined. Specifically, the aqueous stability of NZVI suspensions with CMC ratio dose-dependently strengthened within 1 h. The inactivation of E. coli by bare NZVI was significant and concentration- and time-dependent. On the contrary, an increasing reduction in cytotoxicity of NZVI with CMC ratio increasing was observed, even though the particles became more dispersed. TEM analysis demonstrates the membrane disruption and the cellular internalization of nanoparticles after exposure of E. coli to NZVI. However, in the case of CMC-modified NZVI (CNZVI), the bacterial cell wall displays an outer shell of a layer of nanoparticles attached around the outer membrane, but the cell membrane was kept intact. The presence of Ca(2+) can either increase or decrease the cytotoxicity of NZVI and CNZVI, depending on the concentration. The aged NZVI and CNZVI particles did not seem to present obvious bactericidal effect due to the transformation of Fe(0) to the less toxic or non-toxic iron oxides, as indicated by the XRD analysis. PMID:26519799

  2. The effect of dipole boron centers on the electroluminescence of nanoscale silicon p{sup +}−n junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Bagraev, Nikolay; Klyachkin, Leonid; Kuzmin, Roman; Malyarenko, Anna; Mashkov, Vladimir

    2014-02-21

    Nanoscale silicon p{sup +}−;n junctions with very high concentration of boron, 5 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}, are found to demonstrate interesting optical properties. Emission band dominated in near-infrared electroluminescence (EL) spectra possesses high degree of the linear polarization along preferred crystallographic axis which can be controlled by the lateral voltage applied in the plane of the p{sup +}−n junction. Such behavior together with the temperature dependence of the EL intensity is attributed to the presence of the self-compensating dipole boron centers, B{sup +}-B{sup −}, with negative correlation energy which are identified using the ESR technique in the nanoscale silicon p{sup +}−n junctions heavily doped with boron. The model of the recombination process though the negative-U dipole boron centers controlling the optical properties of the nanoscale silicon p{sup +}−n junctions is proposed.

  3. Evaluating Born and Local Effective Charges in Nanoscale MnO

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qi; Xu, Xiaoshan; Baker, Sheila N; Christianson, Andrew D; Musfeldt, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Phonons are exquisitely sensitive to finite-length scale effects in complex materials because they are intimately connected to charge, polarizability, and structure, and a quantitative analysis of their behavior can reveal microscopic aspects of chemical bonding. To investigate these effects in a model correlated oxide, we measured the infrared vibrational properties of 8-nm particles of MnO, compared the results with the analogous bulk material, and quantified the phonon confinement with a calculation of the Born effective charge. Our analysis reveals that the Born effective charge decreases by {approx}20%, compared to the bulk material. Moreover, this change impacts both ionicity and polarizability. Specifically, we find that MnO nanoparticles are {approx}12% less ionic than the corresponding bulk. This discovery is important for understanding finite-length scale effects in this simple binary oxide and the more complicated functional oxides that emanate from this parent compound.

  4. Size effect on transfection and cytotoxicity of nanoscale plasmid DNA/polyethyleneimine complexes for aerosol gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoon Byeon, Jeong; Kim, Jang-Woo

    2014-02-01

    Nanoscale plasmid DNA (pDNA)/polyethyleneimine (PEI) complexes were fabricated in the aerosol state using a nebulization system consisting of a collison atomizer and a cool-walled diffusion dryer. The aerosol fabricated nanoscale complexes were collected and employed to determine fundamental properties of the complexes, such as size, structure, surface charge, and in vitro gene transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity. The results showed that mass ratio between pDNA and PEI should be optimized to enhance gene transfection efficiency without a significant loss of cell viability. These findings may support practical advancements in the field of nonviral gene delivery.

  5. Size effect on transfection and cytotoxicity of nanoscale plasmid DNA/polyethyleneimine complexes for aerosol gene delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Hoon Byeon, Jeong; Kim, Jang-Woo

    2014-02-03

    Nanoscale plasmid DNA (pDNA)/polyethyleneimine (PEI) complexes were fabricated in the aerosol state using a nebulization system consisting of a collison atomizer and a cool-walled diffusion dryer. The aerosol fabricated nanoscale complexes were collected and employed to determine fundamental properties of the complexes, such as size, structure, surface charge, and in vitro gene transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity. The results showed that mass ratio between pDNA and PEI should be optimized to enhance gene transfection efficiency without a significant loss of cell viability. These findings may support practical advancements in the field of nonviral gene delivery.

  6. A study of phonon anisotropic scattering effect on silicon thermal conductivity at nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Bong, Victor N-S; Wong, Basil T.

    2015-08-28

    Previous studies have shown that anisotropy in phonon transport exist because of the difference in phonon dispersion relation due to different lattice direction, as observed by a difference in in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivity. The directional preference (such as forward or backward scattering) in phonon propagation however, remains a relatively unexplored frontier. Our current work adopts a simple scattering probability in radiative transfer, which is called Henyey and Greenstein probability density function, and incorporates it into the phonon Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the effect of directional scattering in phonon transport. In this work, the effect of applying the anisotropy scattering is discussed, as well as its impact on the simulated thermal conductivity of silicon thin films. While the forward and backward scattering will increase and decrease thermal conductivity respectively, the extent of the effect is non-linear such that forward scattering has a more obvious effect than backward scattering.

  7. Nanoscale roughness effect on Maxwell-like boundary conditions for the Boltzmann equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brull, S.; Charrier, P.; Mieussens, L.

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that the roughness of the wall has an effect on microscale gas flows. This effect can be shown for large Knudsen numbers by using a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation. However, when the wall is rough at a nanometric scale, it is necessary to use a very small mesh size which is much too expansive. An alternative approach is to incorporate the roughness effect in the scattering kernel of the boundary condition, such as the Maxwell-like kernel introduced by the authors in a previous paper. Here, we explain how this boundary condition can be implemented in a discrete velocity approximation of the Boltzmann equation. Moreover, the influence of the roughness is shown by computing the structure scattering pattern of mono-energetic beams of the incident gas molecules. The effect of the angle of incidence of these molecules, of their mass, and of the morphology of the wall is investigated and discussed in a simplified two-dimensional configuration. The effect of the azimuthal angle of the incident beams is shown for a three-dimensional configuration. Finally, the case of non-elastic scattering is considered. All these results suggest that our approach is a promising way to incorporate enough physics of gas-surface interaction, at a reasonable computing cost, to improve kinetic simulations of micro- and nano-flows.

  8. Nanoscale thermal probing

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yanan; Wang, Xinwei

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale novel devices have raised the demand for nanoscale thermal characterization that is critical for evaluating the device performance and durability. Achieving nanoscale spatial resolution and high accuracy in temperature measurement is very challenging due to the limitation of measurement pathways. In this review, we discuss four methodologies currently developed in nanoscale surface imaging and temperature measurement. To overcome the restriction of the conventional methods, the scanning thermal microscopy technique is widely used. From the perspective of measuring target, the optical feature size method can be applied by using either Raman or fluorescence thermometry. The near-field optical method that measures nanoscale temperature by focusing the optical field to a nano-sized region provides a non-contact and non-destructive way for nanoscale thermal probing. Although the resistance thermometry based on nano-sized thermal sensors is possible for nanoscale thermal probing, significant effort is still needed to reduce the size of the current sensors by using advanced fabrication techniques. At the same time, the development of nanoscale imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging, provides a great potential solution to resolve the nanoscale thermal probing problem. PMID:22419968

  9. Nonlocal tunnel magnetoresistance and thermal rectification effect in a nanoscale three-terminal junction.

    PubMed

    Ying, Yibo; Jin, Guojun

    2012-12-12

    We investigate thermally driven electronic transport through a quantum dot (QD) coupled to two ferromagnetic leads and one normal-metallic lead. The effect of spin accumulation and temperature bias on the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) is examined. We obtain a nonlocal negative TMR, which also exhibits a rectification effect as a function of the QD level modulated by a gate voltage. For a negative QD level, the TMR is zero, and the TMR is negative for a positive QD level. This effect arises from the interplay of the spin accumulation and thermoelectric transport, which detects the sign reversal of spin accumulation in the QD. In addition, our system can also be used as a spin current generator. PMID:23148042

  10. Effective repair of traumatically injured spinal cord by nanoscale block copolymer micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunzhou; Kim, Sungwon; Huff, Terry B.; Borgens, Richard B.; Park, Kinam; Shi, Riyi; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cord injury results in immediate disruption of neuronal membranes, followed by extensive secondary neurodegenerative processes. A key approach for repairing injured spinal cord is to seal the damaged membranes at an early stage. Here, we show that axonal membranes injured by compression can be effectively repaired using self-assembled monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic acid) di-block copolymer micelles. Injured spinal tissue incubated with micelles (60 nm diameter) showed rapid restoration of compound action potential and reduced calcium influx into axons for micelle concentrations much lower than the concentrations of polyethylene glycol, a known sealing agent for early-stage spinal cord injury. Intravenously injected micelles effectively recovered locomotor function and reduced the volume and inflammatory response of the lesion in injured rats, without any adverse effects. Our results show that copolymer micelles can interrupt the spread of primary spinal cord injury damage with minimal toxicity.

  11. The effect of surface wettability on water vapor condensation in nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Niu, D.; Tang, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surface wettability on condensation heat transfer in a nanochannel is studied with the molecular dynamics simulations. Different from the conventional size, the results show that the filmwise mode leads to more efficient heat transfer than the dropwise mode, which is attributed to a lower interfacial thermal resistance between the hydrophilic surface and the condensed water compared with the hydrophobic case. The observed temperature jump at the solid-liquid surface confirms that the hydrophilic properties of the solid surface can suppress the interfacial thermal resistance and improve the condensation heat transfer performance effectively. PMID:26754316

  12. Effect of nanoscale morphology on selective ethanol transport through block copolymer membranes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the effect of block copolymer domain size on transport of liquid mixtures through the membranes by presenting pervaporation data of an 8 wt% ethanol/water mixture through A-B-A and B-A-B triblock copolymer membranes. The A-block was chosen to facilitate ethanol transport while the B-blo...

  13. Nanoscale ferroelectric field-effect writing and reading using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuffer, Olivier; Maggio-Aprile, Ivan; Fischer, Øystein

    2005-05-01

    Control of the density of mobile charge carriers using electric fields is widely used in a variety of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures and is the governing principle behind the operation of field-effect transistors. Ferroelectric materials possessing a switchable and non-volatile polarization field can be used as insulating layers, revealing new opportunities for device applications. Advances in material processing and in particular complex oxide thin-film growth mean that high-quality field-effect devices can be based on ferroelectric/metallic oxide heterostructures. In addition, advances in local probe techniques such as atomic force microscopy allow them to be used in the imaging and study of small ferroelectric domain structures in bulk crystals and thin films. Meanwhile, scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy have established themselves as powerful techniques for atomic manipulation and nanometre-resolution electron tunnelling spectroscopy. Here, a scanning tunnelling microscope is used to investigate the ferroelectric field effect in all-perovskite heterostructures. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy allows us to probe the local electronic properties of the polarized channel of a ferroelectric field-effect device as a function of the field orientation. This technique can be used to read and write ferroelectric field-induced regions with a size as low as 20 nm. PMID:15834416

  14. A training effect on electrical properties in nanoscale BiFeO3.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Sudipta; Bhattacharya, Dipten; Li, Wuxia; Cui, Ajuan; Jiang, QianQing; Gu, Chang-zhi

    2013-04-01

    We report our observation of the training effect on dc electrical properties in a nanochain of BiFeO3 as a result of large scale migration of defects under the combined influence of electric field and Joule heating. We show that an optimum number of cycles of electric field within the range zero to ~1.0 MV cm(-1) across a temperature range 80-300 K helps in reaching the stable state via a glass-transition-like process in the defect structure. Further treatment does not give rise to any substantial modification. We conclude that such a training effect is ubiquitous in pristine nanowires or chains of oxides and needs to be addressed for applications in nanoelectronic devices. PMID:23478468

  15. Geometrical effects and signal delay in time-dependent transport at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldoveanu, Valeriu; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar

    2009-07-01

    Nonstationary and steady-state transport through a mesoscopic sample connected to particle reservoirs via time-dependent barriers is investigated by the reduced density operator method. The generalized master equation is solved via the Crank-Nicolson algorithm by taking into account the memory kernel which embodies the non-Markovian effects that are commonly disregarded. The lead-sample coupling takes into account the match between the energy of the incident electrons and the levels of the isolated sample, as well as their overlap at the contacts. Using a tight-binding description of the system, we investigate the effects induced in the transient current by the spectral structure of the sample and by the localization properties of its eigenfunctions. In strong magnetic fields, the transient currents propagate along edge states. The behavior of populations and coherences is discussed, as well as their connection to the tunneling processes that are relevant for transport.

  16. Effective medium theory of the space-charge region electrostatics of arrays of nanoscale junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurugubelli, Vijaya Kumar; Karmalkar, Shreepad

    2016-01-01

    We develop an Effective Medium Theory for the electrostatics of the Space-Charge Region (SCR) of Schottky and p-n junctions in arrays of nanofilms (NFs), nanowires (NWs), and nanotubes (NTs) in a dielectric ambient. The theory captures the effects of electric fields in both the semiconductor, i.e., NF/NW/NT, and the dielectric media of the array. It shows that the depletion width and the screening length characterizing the SCR tail in the array correspond to those in a bulk junction with an effective semiconductor medium, whose permittivity and doping are their weighted averages over the cross-sectional areas of the semiconductor and dielectric; the shapes of the cross-sections are immaterial. Further, the reverse bias 1 /C2 -V behavior of junctions in NF/NW/NT arrays is linear, as in bulk junctions, and is useful to extract from measurements the built-in potential, effective doping including the semiconductor-dielectric interface charge, and NF/NW/NT length. The theory is validated with numerical simulations, is useful for the experimentalist, and yields simple formulas for nano-device design which predict the following. In the limiting case of a single sheet-like NF, the junction depletion width variation with potential drop is linear rather than square-root (as in a bulk junction). In arrays of symmetric silicon p-n junctions in oxide dielectric where NF/NW thickness and separation are 5% and 100% of the bulk depletion width, respectively, the junction depletion width and the screening length are scaled up from their bulk values by the same factor of ˜2 for NF and ˜10 for NW array.

  17. Predicting the effects of nanoscale cerium additives in diesel fuel on regional-scale air quality.

    PubMed

    Erdakos, Garnet B; Bhave, Prakash V; Pouliot, George A; Simon, Heather; Mathur, Rohit

    2014-11-01

    Diesel vehicles are a major source of air pollutant emissions. Fuel additives containing nanoparticulate cerium (nCe) are currently being used in some diesel vehicles to improve fuel efficiency. These fuel additives also reduce fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions and alter the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and hydrocarbon (HC) species, including several hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). To predict their net effect on regional air quality, we review the emissions literature and develop a multipollutant inventory for a hypothetical scenario in which nCe additives are used in all on-road and nonroad diesel vehicles. We apply the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to a domain covering the eastern U.S. for a summer and a winter period. Model calculations suggest modest decreases of average PM2.5 concentrations and relatively larger decreases in particulate elemental carbon. The nCe additives also have an effect on 8 h maximum ozone in summer. Variable effects on HAPs are predicted. The total U.S. emissions of fine-particulate cerium are estimated to increase 25-fold and result in elevated levels of airborne cerium (up to 22 ng/m3), which might adversely impact human health and the environment. PMID:25271762

  18. Interface traps and quantum size effects on the retention time in nanoscale memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ling-Feng

    2013-08-01

    Based on the analysis of Poisson equation, an analytical surface potential model including interface charge density for nanocrystalline (NC) germanium (Ge) memory devices with p-type silicon substrate has been proposed. Thus, the effects of Pb defects at Si(110)/SiO2, Si(111)/SiO2, and Si(100)/SiO2 interfaces on the retention time have been calculated after quantum size effects have been considered. The results show that the interface trap density has a large effect on the electric field across the tunneling oxide layer and leakage current. This letter demonstrates that the retention time firstly increases with the decrease in diameter of NC Ge and then rapidly decreases with the diameter when it is a few nanometers. This implies that the interface defects, its energy distribution, and the NC size should be seriously considered in the aim to improve the retention time from different technological processes. The experimental data reported in the literature support the theoretical expectation.

  19. Effect of ion beam parameters on engineering of nanoscale voids and their stability under post-growth annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooda, Sonu; Khan, S. A.; Satpati, B.; Stange, D.; Buca, D.; Bala, M.; Pannu, C.; Kanjilal, D.; Kabiraj, Debdulal

    2016-03-01

    Swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of damaged germanium (d-Ge) layer results in porous structure with voids aligned along ion trajectory due to local melting and resolidification during high electronic energy deposition. The present study focuses on the irradiation temperature- and incident angle-dependent growth dynamics and shape evolution of these voids due to 100 MeV Ag ions irradiation. The d-Ge layers were prepared by multiple low-energy Ar ion implantations in single crystalline Ge with damage formation of ~7 displacements per atom. Further, these d-Ge layers were irradiated using 100 MeV Ag ions at two different temperatures (77 and 300 K) and three different angles (7°, 30° and 45°). After SHI irradiation, substantial volume expansion of d-Ge layer is detected which is due to formation of nanoscale voids. The volume expansion is observed to be more in the samples irradiated at 77 K as compared to 300 K at a given irradiation fluence. It is observed that the voids are of spherical shape at low ion irradiation fluence. The voids grow in size and change their shape from spherical to prolate spheroid with increasing ion fluence. The major axis of spheroid is observed to be aligned approximately along the ion beam direction which has been confirmed by irradiation at three different angles. The change in shape is a consequence of combination of compressive strain and plastic flow developed due to thermal spike generated along ion track. Post-SHI irradiation annealing shows increase in size of voids and reversal of shape from prolate spheroid towards spherical through strain relaxation. The stability of voids was studied with the effect of post-growth annealing.

  20. Illite precipitation and surface cracking during biotite dissolution under hydrothermal conditions: Effects of nanoscale system changes on larger scale processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Jun, Y.

    2012-12-01

    To ensure safe and efficient geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS), it is crucial to have a better understanding of CO2-brine-caprock interactions under GCS conditions. In this work, using biotite (K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH,F)2) as a model abundant clay mineral of the caprock at GCS sites, CO2-brine-biotite interactions were studied under hydrothermal conditions relevant to GCS sites (at 95 deg C, under 102 atm CO2, in 1 M NaCl, 0.4 M MgCl2, or 0.4 M CaCl2 solution). In these salt solutions, after reaction for 3 hrs, fast growth of micron-sized fibrous illite on flat basal planes of biotite was observed. After 22 hrs reaction, microscale cracks formed on the biotite basal surface, resulting in fibrous illite detaching from the surface. After reaction in 1 M NaCl solution for longer time, the cracked biotite pieces detached from the surface layer and released into solution. In control experiments with water under the same temperature and pressure, neither micron-sized fibrous illite nor cracks were observed, while oriented aggregation of hexagonal nanoparticles starting to form the fibrous-shaped illite was observed. These nano- and micro-scale behaviors have great effects on the macroscopic biotite dissolution and the aquifer properties. The cracking of the biotite surface can increase the surface area in contact with solution and accelerate biotite dissolution. The fibrous illite formation and its later mobilization in the salt solutions after its detachment could decrease the permeability of the aquifers greatly. This work provides unique information on how nanoscale system changes induced by geochemical reactions can affect larger scale chemical interactions and geophysical properties such as porosity and permeability. Ultimately, this information can help design safer and more efficient operations at not only GCS sites, but also other subsurface hydrothermal conditions.

  1. Photocatalysis: effect of light-activated nanoscale formulations of TiO(2) on Xanthomonas perforans and control of bacterial spot of tomato.

    PubMed

    Paret, Mathews L; Vallad, Gary E; Averett, Devron R; Jones, Jeffrey B; Olson, Stephen M

    2013-03-01

    Protection of crops from bacterial diseases presents a continuing challenge, mandating the development of novel agents and approaches. Photocatalysis is a process where chemically reactive oxygen species are catalytically generated by certain minerals in the presence of light. These reactive oxygen species have the capacity to destroy organic molecular structures critical to pathogen viability. In this study, the antibacterial potential of photocatalytic nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), nanoscale TiO(2) doped (incorporation of other materials into the structure of TiO(2)) with silver (TiO(2)/Ag), and nanoscale TiO(2) doped with zinc (TiO(2)/Zn; AgriTitan) was evaluated against Xanthomonas perforans, the causal agent for bacterial spot disease of tomato. In vitro experiments on photocatalytic activity and dose dependency were conducted on glass cover slips coated with the nanoscale formulations by adding a known population of X. perforans strain Xp-F7 and illuminating the cover slips under a visible light source. TiO(2)/Ag and TiO(2)/Zn had high photocatalytic activity against X. perforans within 10 min of exposure to 3 × 10(4) lux. Greenhouse studies on naturally and artificially infected transplants treated with TiO(2)/Zn at ≈500 to 800 ppm significantly reduced bacterial spot severity compared with untreated and copper control. Protection was similar to the grower standard, copper + mancozeb. The use of TiO(2)/Zn at ≈500 to 800 ppm significantly reduced disease incidence in three of the four trials compared with untreated and copper control, and was comparable to or better than the grower standard. The treatments did not cause any adverse effects on tomato yield in any of the field trials. PMID:23190116

  2. Hydration effects on gypsum dissolution revealed by in situ nanoscale atomic force microscopy observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos-Cara, A.; Putnis, C. V.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.

    2016-04-01

    Recent work has suggested that the rates of mineral dissolution in aqueous solutions are dependent on the kinetics of dehydration of the ions building the crystal. Dehydration kinetics will be ultimately determined by the competition between ion-water and water-water interactions, which can be significantly modified by the presence of background ions in solution. At low ionic strength, the effect of electrolytes on ion-water (electrostatic) interactions will dominate (Kowacz et al., 2007). By performing macroscopic and in situ, microscopic (atomic force microscopy) dissolution experiments, the effect of background electrolytes on the dissolution kinetics of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) {0 1 0} cleavage surfaces is tested at constant, low ionic strength (IS = 0.05) and undersaturation (saturation index, SI = -0.045). Dissolution rates are systematically lower in the presence of 1:1 background electrolytes than in an electrolyte-free solution, regardless of the nature of the electrolyte tested. We hypothesize that stabilization of the hydration shell of calcium by the presence of background ions can explain this result, based on the observed correlations in dissolution rates with the ionic surface tension increment of the background ion in solution. Stabilization of the cation hydration shell should favor dissolution. However, in the case of strongly hydrated ions such as Ca2+, this has a direct entropic effect that reduces the overall ΔG of the system, so that dissolution is energetically less favorable. Overall, these results provide new evidence that supports cation dehydration being the rate-controlling step for gypsum dissolution, as proposed for other minerals such as barite, dolomite and calcite.

  3. Towards quantitative electrochemical measurements on the nanoscale by scanning probe microscopy: environmental and current spreading effects

    SciTech Connect

    Arruda, Thomas M; Kumar, Amit; Veith, Gabriel M; Jesse, Stephen; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Balke, Nina; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    The application of electric bias across tip-surface junctions in scanning probe microscopy can readily induce surface and bulk electrochemical processes that can be further detected though changes in surface topography, Faradaic or conductive currents, or electromechanical strain responses. However, the basic factors controlling tip-induced electrochemical processes, including the relationship between applied tip bias and the thermodynamics of local processes remains largely unexplored. Using the model Li-ion reduction reaction on the surface in Li-ion conducting glass ceramic, we explore the factors controlling Li-metal formation and find surprisingly strong effects of atmosphere and back electrode composition on the process. These studies suggest the feasibility of SPM-based quantitative electrochemical studies under proper environmental controls, extending the concepts of ultramicroelectrodes to the single-digit nanometer scale.

  4. Plant biomass recalcitrance: effect of hemicellulose composition on nanoscale forces that control cell wall strength.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Rodrigo L; Stoyanov, Stanislav R; Gusarov, Sergey; Skaf, Munir S; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2013-12-26

    Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to second-generation biofuels and valuable chemicals requires decomposition of resilient plant cell wall structure. Cell wall recalcitrance varies among plant species and even phenotypes, depending on the chemical composition of the noncellulosic matrix. Changing the amount and composition of branches attached to the hemicellulose backbone can significantly alter the cell wall strength and microstructure. We address the effect of hemicellulose composition on primary cell wall assembly forces by using the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation, which provides statistical-mechanical sampling and molecular picture of hemicellulose arrangement around cellulose. We show that hemicellulose branches of arabinose, glucuronic acid, and especially glucuronate strengthen the primary cell wall by strongly coordinating to hydrogen bond donor sites on the cellulose surface. We reveal molecular forces maintaining the cell wall structure and provide directions for genetic modulation of plants and pretreatment design to render biomass more amenable to processing. PMID:24274712

  5. Switching times of nanoscale FePt: Finite size effects on the linear reversal mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, M. O. A.; Chantrell, R. W.

    2015-04-20

    The linear reversal mechanism in FePt grains ranging from 2.316 nm to 5.404 nm has been simulated using atomistic spin dynamics, parametrized from ab-initio calculations. The Curie temperature and the critical temperature (T{sup *}), at which the linear reversal mechanism occurs, are observed to decrease with system size whilst the temperature window T{sup *}effects. Calculations of the minimum pulse duration show faster switching in small grains and are qualitatively described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation with finite size atomistic parameterization, which suggests that multiscale modeling of FePt down to a grain size of ≈3.5 nm is possible.

  6. Buff/wipe effects on the physicochemical properties of perfluoropolyether nanoscale thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haigang; Seung Chung, Pil; Jhon, Myung S.

    2014-05-01

    Buff/Wipe (B/W) process is commonly used in disk drive manufacturing to remove the particles and asperities on the lubricated disk surface. In this paper, we investigated how B/W process impacts the physicochemical properties of perfluoropolyethers (PFPE) nano-films through the study of surface energy and bonded ratio. Two-liquid geometric method was used to analyze the surface energy of nonfunctional PFPE, i.e., Z03, and functional PFPE, i.e., Zdol, lubricated media before and after B/W process. It was found that the dispersive surface energy of Z03 films greatly decreased after B/W, which was more significant in the submonolayer regime. In addition, the bonded ratio slightly increased. However, B/W effect on the surface energy and bonded ratio was not detected for Zdol films. It is hypothesized that nonfunctional PFPE behaves liquid-like on the carbon overcoat due to the weak interaction between lubricant and overcoat. External mechanical stress as applied with B/W can change the conformation and increase the surface coverage for nonfunctional PFPE. On the other hand, functional PFPEs behave solid-like due to the strong attraction between lubricant and overcoat; therefore, it is difficult to change the conformation by external stress from B/W process.

  7. Context for Understanding why Particular Nanoscale Crystals Turn-On Faster and Other Lenr Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott R.

    Two persistent questions have been: (1) Why is it often necessary to wait for a finite period of time before the Excess Heat effect is observed after palladium (Pd) has been sufficiently loaded with deuterium (D), that the near full-loading condition (PdDx, 0.85 ~ < x → 1) that is required for Excess Heat, has been achieved? (2) Is it possible to identify physical properties of the materials and/or crystals that are used that might be playing a role in the interval of time associated with this phenomenon? Recently, I generalized conventional energy band theory to address both questions. The new theory can explain these experimental results but will be ignored by most scientists. I suggest that this is expected: The context of energy band and Ion Band State (IBS) theory is very different from the context of hot fusion theory. Even within the Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) field, hidden, simplifying assumptions exist, which implicitly reflect biases associated with the context of hot fusion. A typical example is the idea that a single, particular form of reaction or environment can explain all LENR phenomena. As opposed to such a picture, involving a single "nuclear active environment" ("NAE"), the context of IBS theory and many-body physics suggests a more realistic and useful description of LENR involves a multiplicity of "nuclear active environments" (NAEs).

  8. Effects of tilt interface boundary on mechanical properties of Cu/Ni nanoscale metallic multilayer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Meng; Xu, Jian-Gang; Song, Hai-Yang; Zhang, Yun-Guang

    2015-09-01

    The effect of tilt interfaces and layer thickness of Cu/Ni multilayer nanowires on the deformation mechanism are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that the plasticity of the sample with a 45° tilt angle is much better than the others. The yield stress is found to decrease with increasing the tilt angle and it reaches its lowest value at 33°. Then as the tilt angle continues to increase, the yield strength increases. Furthermore, the studies show that with the decrease of layer thickness, the yield strength gradually decreases. The study also reveals that these different deformation behaviors are associated with the glide of dislocation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 10902083), the Program for New Century Excellent Talent in University of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. NCET-12-1046), the Program for New Scientific and Technological Star of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2012KJXX-39), and the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014JQ1036).

  9. The effect of sulphate on magnesite growth: in-situ and ex-situ nanoscale observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Helen E.; Satoh, Hisao; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Putnis, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The composition of a solution has important implications for growth mechanisms and the incorporation of impurities during growth. For example, the presence of sulphate during CO2 sequestration in Mg-silicate rocks such as ophiolites is expected to restrict magnesite (MgCO3) growth due to the formation of Mg-sulphate ion pairs in solution (Pye et al. 1998), which lower the solution supersaturation with respect to magnesite. Conversely, direct interactions of sulphate with the magnesite surface, observed during dissolution (King and Putnis, 2013), could limit the negative effects of Mg-sulphate ion pair formation in solution by aiding growth through assisted desolvation of the Mg2+ ion (e.g., Piana et al. 2006). Furthermore, if the adsorbed sulphate is incorporated into the magnesite structure during growth it removes the need for expensive SO2 flue gas scrubbers as both CO2 and SO2 can be sequestered simultaneously. To explore the implications of sulphate in solution for CO2 sequestration we have observed the growth of cleaved magnesite {104} surfaces in-situ using phase shift interferometry (PSI), a technique specially designed to monitor ultra-slow growing or dissolving mineral surfaces. In addition, we have conducted batch experiments in Teflon-lined steel autoclaves and examined the surfaces ex-situ using atomic force microscopy (AFM). All experiments were conducted at 90 ° C in solutions of 0.2 M NaHCO3 and 0.8 M NaCl or 0.4 M Na2SO4. Supersaturation of the solution was varied by changing the concentration of either MgCl2 for Cl-rich or MgSO4 in sulphate-rich solutions. For the PSI experiments a pressure of 1 MPa was used to prevent the formation of bubbles. In these experiments magnesite was grown in a flowing solution (100 μL/min) for 12 hours, whereas the batch experiments were conducted for 1-7 days under static conditions. The in-situ observations from the PSI experiments indicate that the presence of sulphate increased the rate of obtuse step

  10. Nanoscale Poiseuille flow and effects of modified Lennard-Jones potential function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toghraie Semiromi, D.; Azimian, A. R.

    2010-08-01

    Numerical simulation of Poiseuille flow of liquid Argon in a nanochannel using the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation (NEMD) is performed. The nanochannel is a three-dimensional rectangular prism geometry where the concerned numbers of Argon atoms are 2,700, 2,550 and 2,400 at 102, 108 and 120 K. Poiseuille flow is simulated by embedding the fluid particles in a uniform force field. An external driving force, ranging from 1 to 11 PN (Pico Newton), is applied along the flow direction to inlet fluid particles during the simulation. To obtain a more uniform temperature distribution across the channel, local thermostating near the wall are used. Also, the effect of other mixing rules (Lorenthz-Berthelot and Waldman-Kugler rules) on the interface structure are examined by comparing the density profiles near the liquid/solid interfaces for wall temperatures 108 and 133 K for an external force of 7 PN. Using Kong and Waldman-Kugler rules, the molecules near the solid walls were more randomly distributed compared to Lorenthz-Berthelot rule. These mean that the attraction between solid-fluid atoms was weakened by using Kong rule and Waldman-Kugler rule rather than the Lorenthz-Berthelot rule. Also, results show that the mean axial velocity has symmetrical distribution near the channel centerline and an increase in external driving force can increase maximum and average velocity values of fluid. Furthermore, the slip length and slip velocity are functions of the driving forces and they show an arising trend with an increase in inlet driving force and no slip boundary condition is satisfied at very low external force (<1 PN).

  11. Effects of nanoscale coatings on reliability of MEMS ohmic contact switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremper, Amber Leigh

    This thesis examines how the electrical and mechanical behavior of Au thin films is altered by the presence of ultra-thin metallic coatings. To examine the mechanical behavior, nanoindentation, nano-scratch, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) testing was performed. The electrical behavior was evaluated through Kelvin probe contact resistance measurements. This thesis shows that ultra-thin, hard, ductile coatings on a softer, ductile underlying layer (such as Ru or Pt on Au) had a significant effect on mechanical behavior of the system, and can be tailored to control the deformation resistance of the thin film system. Despite Ru and Pt having a higher hardness and plane strain modulus than Au, the Ru and Pt coatings decreased both the hardness and plane strain modulus of the layered system when the indentation depth was on the order of the coating thickness. Alternately, when the indentation depth was several times the coating thickness, the ductile, plastically hard, elastically stiff layer significantly hardened the contact response. These results correlate well with membrane stress theoretical predictions, and demonstrate that membrane theory can be applied even when the ratio of indentation depth, h, to coating thickness, t, is very large ( h/t<10). The transition from film-substrate models to membrane models occurs when the indent penetration depth to coating thickness ratio is less than ˜0.5. When the electrical behavior of the Ru-coated Au films was examined, it was found that all the measured resistances of the Au-only film and Ru-coated systems were several orders of magnitude larger than those predicted by Holm's law, but were still in good agreement with previously reported values in the literature. Previous studies attributed the high contact resistances to a variety of causes, including the buildup of an insulating contamination layer. This thesis determined the cause of the deviations to be large sheet resistance contributions to the total measured

  12. Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver Ion Conductors and the Dual Nature of Its Locality

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Sangmo; Strelcov, Evgheni; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Tselev, Alexander; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-01-07

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a powerful tool to investigate electrochemistry in nanoscale volumes. While most SPM-based studies have focused on reactions at the tip-surface junction, charge and mass conservation requires coupled and intrinsically non-local cathodic and anodic processes that can be significantly affected by ambient humidity. Here, we explore the role of water in both cathodic and anodic processes, associated charge transport, and topographic volume changes depending on the polarity of tip bias. The first-order reversal curve current-voltage technique combined with simultaneous detection of the sample topography, referred to as FORC-IVz, was applied to a silver solid ion conductor. We found that the protons generated from water affect silver ionic conduction, silver particle formation and dissolution, and mechanical integrity of the material. This work highlights the dual nature (simultaneously local and non-local) of electrochemical SPM studies, which should be considered for comprehensive understanding of nanoscale electrochemistry.

  13. Effects of deposition parameters on residual stresses, hardness and electrical resistivity of nanoscale twinned 330 stainless steel thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Misra, A.; Wang, H.; Lima, A. L.; Hundley, M. F.; Hoagland, R. G.

    2005-05-01

    We have explored the influence of sputtering parameters on the structural, mechanical, and electrical properties of nanoscale twinned 330 stainless steel thin films. As the residual stress in the film is changed from tensile to compressive by varying the growth conditions, the nanoscale twinned structure, the average columnar grain size and texture of the film show little or no change. Hardness of the film in compression reaches 7GPa, compared to about 5.5GPa in films with high residual tension, and an order of magnitude higher than that of bulk 330 stainless steel. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that twin boundaries pose a strong barrier to glide dislocation transmission under applied in-plane biaxial loading, consistent with the GPa level strengths measured in these films. The increase in the room temperature electrical resistivity of these films, compared to bulk 330 stainless steel, is found to be small, indicating that nanoscale twinned structures may provide the best combination of high mechanical strengths and high electrical conductivity.

  14. Effects of deposition parameters on residual stresses, hardness and electrical resistivity of nanoscale twinned 330 stainless steel thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Misra, A.; Wang, H.; Lima, A.L.; Hundley, M. F.; Hoagland, R.G.

    2005-05-01

    We have explored the influence of sputtering parameters on the structural, mechanical, and electrical properties of nanoscale twinned 330 stainless steel thin films. As the residual stress in the film is changed from tensile to compressive by varying the growth conditions, the nanoscale twinned structure, the average columnar grain size and texture of the film show little or no change. Hardness of the film in compression reaches 7 GPa, compared to about 5.5 GPa in films with high residual tension, and an order of magnitude higher than that of bulk 330 stainless steel. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that twin boundaries pose a strong barrier to glide dislocation transmission under applied in-plane biaxial loading, consistent with the GPa level strengths measured in these films. The increase in the room temperature electrical resistivity of these films, compared to bulk 330 stainless steel, is found to be small, indicating that nanoscale twinned structures may provide the best combination of high mechanical strengths and high electrical conductivity.

  15. Nanoscale drug delivery for targeted chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yong; Huang, Qian; Tang, Jian-Qin; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Long Zhen; Jiang, Guan

    2016-08-28

    Despite significant improvements in diagnostic methods and innovations in therapies for specific cancers, effective treatments for neoplastic diseases still represent major challenges. Nanotechnology as an emerging technology has been widely used in many fields and also provides a new opportunity for the targeted delivery of cancer drugs. Nanoscale delivery of chemotherapy drugs to the tumor site is highly desirable. Recent studies have shown that nanoscale drug delivery systems not only have the ability to destroy cancer cells but may also be carriers for chemotherapy drugs. Some studies have demonstrated that delivery of chemotherapy via nanoscale carriers has greater therapeutic benefit than either treatment modality alone. In this review, novel approaches to nanoscale delivery of chemotherapy are described and recent progress in this field is discussed. PMID:27235607

  16. DIET at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujardin, G.; Boer-Duchemin, E.; Le Moal, E.; Mayne, A. J.; Riedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    We review the long evolution of DIET (Dynamics at surfaces Induced by Electronic Transitions) that began in the 1960s when Menzel, Gomer and Redhead proposed their famous stimulated desorption model. DIET entered the "nanoscale" in the 1990s when researchers at Bell Labs and IBM realized that the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) could be used as an atomic size source of electrons to electronically excite individual atoms and molecules on surfaces. Resonant and radiant Inelastic Electron Tunneling (IET) using the STM have considerably enlarged the range of applications of DIET. Nowadays, "DIET at the nanoscale" covers a broad range of phenomena at the atomic-scale. This includes molecular dynamics (dissociation, desorption, isomerization, displacement, chemical reactions), vibrational spectroscopy and dynamics, spin spectroscopy and manipulation, luminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and plasmonics. Future trends of DIET at the nanoscale offer exciting prospects for new methods to control light and matter at the nanoscale.

  17. Nonplanar Nanoscale Fin Field Effect Transistors on Textile, Paper, Wood, Stone, and Vinyl via Soft Material-Enabled Double-Transfer Printing.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Jhonathan P; Torres Sevilla, Galo A; Alfaraj, Nasir; Ghoneim, Mohamed T; Kutbee, Arwa T; Sridharan, Ashvitha; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-05-26

    The ability to incorporate rigid but high-performance nanoscale nonplanar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics with curvilinear, irregular, or asymmetric shapes and surfaces is an arduous but timely challenge in enabling the production of wearable electronics with an in situ information-processing ability in the digital world. Therefore, we are demonstrating a soft-material enabled double-transfer-based process to integrate flexible, silicon-based, nanoscale, nonplanar, fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) and planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on various asymmetric surfaces to study their compatibility and enhanced applicability in various emerging fields. FinFET devices feature sub-20 nm dimensions and state-of-the-art, high-κ/metal gate stacks, showing no performance alteration after the transfer process. A further analysis of the transferred MOSFET devices, featuring 1 μm gate length, exhibits an ION value of nearly 70 μA/μm (VDS = 2 V, VGS = 2 V) and a low subthreshold swing of around 90 mV/dec, proving that a soft interfacial material can act both as a strong adhesion/interposing layer between devices and final substrate as well as a means to reduce strain, which ultimately helps maintain the device's performance with insignificant deterioration even at a high bending state. PMID:25933370

  18. Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver Ion Conductors and the Dual Nature of Its Locality

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Sangmo; Strelcov, Evgheni; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Tselev, Alexander; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-01-07

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a powerful tool to investigate electrochemistry in nanoscale volumes. While most SPM-based studies have focused on reactions at the tip-surface junction, charge and mass conservation requires coupled and intrinsically non-local cathodic and anodic processes that can be significantly affected by ambient humidity. Here, we explore the role of water in both cathodic and anodic processes, associated charge transport, and topographic volume changes depending on the polarity of tip bias. The first-order reversal curve current-voltage technique combined with simultaneous detection of the sample topography, referred to as FORC-IVz, was applied to a silver solid ion conductor.more » We found that the protons generated from water affect silver ionic conduction, silver particle formation and dissolution, and mechanical integrity of the material. This work highlights the dual nature (simultaneously local and non-local) of electrochemical SPM studies, which should be considered for comprehensive understanding of nanoscale electrochemistry.« less

  19. Rapid reductive degradation of aqueous p-nitrophenol using nanoscale zero-valent iron particles immobilized on mesoporous silica with enhanced antioxidation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lin; Tang, Jing; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Guide; Xie, Xia; Zhou, Yaoyu; Pang, Ya; Fang, Yan; Wang, Jiajia; Xiong, Weiping

    2015-04-01

    In this study, nanoscale zero-valent iron particles immobilized on mesoporous silica (nZVI/SBA-15) were successfully prepared for effective degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP). The nZVI/SBA-15 composites were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results showed that abundant ultrasmall nanoscale zero-valent iron particles were formed and well dispersed on mesoporous silica (SBA-15). Batch experiments revealed that PNP removal declined from 96.70% to 16.14% as solution pH increased from 3.0 to 9.0. Besides, degradation equilibrium was reached within 5 min, which was independent of initial PNP concentration. Furthermore, only a little PNP elimination on SBA-15 indicated that nZVI immobilized on mesoporous silica was mainly responsible for the target contaminant removal. The UV-vis spectrum and XPS measurement confirmed that the PNP removal was a reductive degradation process, which was further proved by the detected intermediates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The excellent antioxidation ability had been discovered with more than 80% of PNP being removed by nZVI/SBA-15 treated with 30 days' exposure to air. These results demonstrated the feasible and potential application of nZVI/SBA-15 composites in organic wastewater treatment.

  20. Nanoscale surface photoreactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, Garrett Austin

    Subnanometer-scale properties of molecules and materials have become extremely important to the development of nanoscale and molecular electronics devices, including advanced biological and chemical sensors. The energies (i.e., wavelengths) at which the LSPRs of individual nanoparticles are excited varies depending on their size, thickness, and shape, all of which can be controlled synthetically. Photon-coupled scanning tunneling microscopy uses a total internal reflection scheme to couple light into a tunneling junction, generating this specific LSPR in individual Au and Ag nanoprisms. By controlling and coupling this specific excitation to molecular assemblies, the effective photoreactivities and photoconductances of organic molecules can be measured and manipulated. Nanoparticle synthesis methods were developed to produce nanoprisms with appropriate dimensions and homogeneity. Functionalization of the sample surface using alkanedithiols and p-terphenyl-4,4"-dithiol enabled the adsorption dispersion of nanoprisms onto substrates with high density yet minimal stacking. Insertion into self-assembled monolayers was used to arrange single molecules on Au{111} and Ag{111} nanoprisms for selective surface plasmonic enhancement. Scanning tunneling microscopy measurements were collected for molecules adsorbed on the dispersed nanoprisms. Photon STM will be used to monitor the photoactivities of molecules on these substrates, such as photocurrent, photoconductance, and photoreaction.

  1. Nanoscale analysis of the effects of antibiotics and CX1 on a Pseudomonas aeruginosa multidrug-resistant strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formosa, C.; Grare, M.; Jauvert, E.; Coutable, A.; Regnouf-de-Vains, J. B.; Mourer, M.; Duval, R. E.; Dague, E.

    2012-08-01

    Drug resistance is a challenge that can be addressed using nanotechnology. We focused on the resistance of the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and investigated, using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), the behavior of a reference strain and of a multidrug resistant clinical strain, submitted to two antibiotics and to an innovative antibacterial drug (CX1). We measured the morphology, surface roughness and elasticity of the bacteria under physiological conditions and exposed to the antibacterial molecules. To go further in the molecules action mechanism, we explored the bacterial cell wall nanoscale organization using functionalized AFM tips. We have demonstrated that affected cells have a molecularly disorganized cell wall; surprisingly long molecules being pulled off from the cell wall by a lectin probe. Finally, we have elucidated the mechanism of action of CX1: it destroys the outer membrane of the bacteria as demonstrated by the results on artificial phospholipidic membranes and on the resistant strain.

  2. Electron-electron scattering-induced channel hot electron injection in nanoscale n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors with high-k/metal gate stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Liu, Xi-Wen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Ching-En; Ho, Szu-Han; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Lu, Ching-Sen

    2014-10-06

    This work investigates electron-electron scattering (EES)-induced channel hot electron (CHE) injection in nanoscale n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (n-MOSFETs) with high-k/metal gate stacks. Many groups have proposed new models (i.e., single-particle and multiple-particle process) to well explain the hot carrier degradation in nanoscale devices and all mechanisms focused on Si-H bond dissociation at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. However, for high-k dielectric devices, experiment results show that the channel hot carrier trapping in the pre-existing high-k bulk defects is the main degradation mechanism. Therefore, we propose a model of EES-induced CHE injection to illustrate the trapping-dominant mechanism in nanoscale n-MOSFETs with high-k/metal gate stacks.

  3. Effects of Nanoscale Structure on the Magnetism and Transport Properties of Chromium and Chromium-Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekelheide, Zoe Austin

    This thesis studies the unique properties of Cr and Cr-Al alloys; the first half focuses on Cr while the second half focuses on Cr-Al alloys. This thesis particularly focuses on the effects of nanoscale structure such as crystal defects, grain boundaries, and short- to medium-range chemical ordering, on both the magnetism and the electronic transport properties of Cr and Cr-Al. This thesis aimed to understand the spin density waves (SDW) in polycrystalline Cr films such as those commonly used in GMR multilayers, where disorder and stress are the important variables. Infrared reflectivity was used to measure the characteristic SDWpseudogap energies to distinguish the SDW state of Cr thin films grown under different deposition conditions (e-beam and sputtered at different argon pressures). The fundamental distinguishing properties of the films are stress and disorder, both strongly affected by the deposition conditions. Films with low stress and disorder are ISDW, like bulk Cr. Films with high tensile stress are CSDW, like Mn-doped Cr. Finally, films with high disorder, determined from the resistivity, have regions of both ISDW and CSDW. Importantly, all of the Cr films measured showed SDW signatures, showing that the SDW is quite robust even in highly disordered thin films. A low temperature magnetic phase diagram was created for Cr films. It was shown that Cr thin films show unusual and extremely deposition condition-dependent resistivity due to resonant scattering, such as residual resistivity ranging between 3 and 400 muO-cm, and significant resistivity minima at low temperature. Several experiments showed that these features are due to defects in the Cr lattice such as grain boundaries and vacancies. When a highly disordered, 400 muO-cm film with a significant minimum is annealed to 800°C, the resistivity is decreased by 10x and the depth of the minimum is decreased by 50x. On the other end of the spectrum, two low resistivity (< 10 muO-cm) samples grown in the

  4. Spin manipulation in nanoscale superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, D.

    2016-04-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism in nanoscale structures has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to the exciting new physics created by the competition of these antagonistic ordering phenomena, and the prospect of exploiting this competition for superconducting spintronics devices. While much of the attention is focused on spin-polarized supercurrents created by the triplet proximity effect, the recent discovery of long range quasiparticle spin transport in high-field superconductors has rekindled interest in spin-dependent nonequilibrium properties of superconductors. In this review, the experimental situation on nonequilibrium spin injection into superconductors is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions of the field are outlined.

  5. Spin manipulation in nanoscale superconductors.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, D

    2016-04-27

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism in nanoscale structures has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to the exciting new physics created by the competition of these antagonistic ordering phenomena, and the prospect of exploiting this competition for superconducting spintronics devices. While much of the attention is focused on spin-polarized supercurrents created by the triplet proximity effect, the recent discovery of long range quasiparticle spin transport in high-field superconductors has rekindled interest in spin-dependent nonequilibrium properties of superconductors. In this review, the experimental situation on nonequilibrium spin injection into superconductors is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions of the field are outlined. PMID:27001949

  6. Exposure, Health and Ecological Effects Review of Engineered Nanoscale Cerium and Cerium Oxide Associated with its Use as a Fuel Additive

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances of nanoscale science have produced nanomaterials with unique physical and chemical properties at commercial levels which are now incorporated into over 1000 products. Nanoscale cerium (di) oxide (CeO(2)) has recently gained a wide range of applications which includes coa...

  7. Exposure and Health Effects Review of Engineered Nanoscale Cerium and Cerium Dioxide Associated with its Use as a Fuel Additive - NOW IN PRINT IN THE JOURNAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances of nanoscale science have produced nanomaterials with unique physical and chemical properties at commercial levels that are now incorporated into over 1000 products. Nanoscale cerium (di) oxide (Ce02) has recently gained a wide range of applications which includes coatin...

  8. Two-dimensional linear elasticity theory of magneto-electro-elastic plates considering surface and nonlocal effects for nanoscale device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjun; Li, Peng; Jin, Feng

    2016-09-01

    A novel two-dimensional linear elastic theory of magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) plates, considering both surface and nonlocal effects, is established for the first time based on Hamilton’s principle and the Lee plate theory. The equations derived are more general, suitable for static and dynamic analyses, and can also be reduced to the piezoelectric, piezomagnetic, and elastic cases. As a specific application example, the influences of the surface and nonlocal effects, poling directions, piezoelectric phase materials, volume fraction, damping, and applied magnetic field (i.e., constant applied magnetic field and time-harmonic applied magnetic field) on the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling effects are first investigated based on the established two-dimensional plate theory. The results show that the ME coupling coefficient has an obvious size-dependent characteristic owing to the surface effects, and the surface effects increase the ME coupling effects significantly when the plate thickness decreases to its critical thickness. Below this critical thickness, the size-dependent effect is obvious and must be considered. In addition, the output power density of a magnetic energy nanoharvester is also evaluated using the two-dimensional plate theory obtained, with the results showing that a relatively larger output power density can be achieved at the nanoscale. This study provides a mathematical tool which can be used to analyze the mechanical properties of nanostructures theoretically and numerically, as well as evaluating the size effect qualitatively and quantitatively.

  9. Effect of nanoscale tin-dioxide layers on the efficiency of CdS/CdTe-based film solar elements

    SciTech Connect

    Khrypunov, G. S. Pirohov, O. V.; Gorstka, T. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Kovtun, N. A.

    2015-03-15

    Comparative investigations of the output parameters and optical diode characteristics of ITO/CdS/CdTe/Cu/Au and SnO{sub 2}: F/CdS/CdTe/Cu/Au film solar cells are carried out with the aim of optimizing the design of the front electrodes. It is established that the high voltage and large filling factor of the solar elements with SnO{sub 2}: F films are caused by a lower diode saturation current density and series resistance due to the stability of the crystal structure and electrical properties of these films against chloride treatment of the base layer during device fabrication. At the same time, solar elements with an ITO front electrode exhibit a higher short-circuit current density due to the larger average light transmittance of the ITO layers. The use of nanoscale SnO{sub 2} layers in the ITO front contacts allows the efficiency of the CdS/CdTe-based solar elements to be enhanced to 11.4% on account of stabilization of the crystal structure and electrical properties of the ITO films and a possible reduction in the cadmium-sulphide-layer thickness without shunting the device structure.

  10. Effect of Nano-Scale and Micro-Scale Yttria Reinforcement on Powder Forged AA-7075 Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Tilak C.; Prakash, U.; Dabhade, Vikram V.

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the development of AA-7075 metal matrix composites reinforced with nano yttria particles (0.1 to 3 vol.%) and micron yttria particles (1 to 15 vol.%) by powder forging. Matrix powders (AA-7075) and reinforcement powders (yttria) were blended, cold compacted, sintered under pure nitrogen, and finally hot forged in a closed floating die. The hot forged samples were artificially age hardened at 121 °C for various time durations to determine the peak aging time. The mechanical properties in the peak-aged condition as well as density and microstructure were determined and correlated with the reinforcement size and content. The nano composites exhibited a well-densified structure as well as better hardness and tensile/compressive strength as compared to micro-scale composites. The mechanical properties in nano-scale composites peaked at 0.5 vol.% yttria addition while for micro-scale composites these properties peaked at 5 vol.% yttria addition.

  11. Aggregation of nanoscale iron oxyhydroxides and corresponding effects on metal uptake, retention, and speciation: II. Temperature and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegemeier, J. P.; Reinsch, B. C.; Lentini, C. J.; Dale, J. G.; Kim, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation and growth of nanosized particles can greatly impact their capacity to sorb and retain dissolved metals, thus affecting metal fate and transport in contaminated systems. Aqueous suspensions of synthesized nanoscale iron oxyhydroxides were exposed to dissolved Zn(II) or Cu(II) and aged at room temperature (∼20 °C), 50 °C, and 75 °C for timeframes ranging from 0 to 96 h before sorbed metal ions were desorbed by lowering the suspension pH. Atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis of supernatants both before and after the desorption step determined how temperature and time affect macroscopic metal uptake and retention capacities. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy analysis described the local binding environment of the sorbed/retained metals on the solid phase. With increasing aging temperature and time, the initial ∼5-nm oblong nanoparticles formed dense aggregates, lost reactive surface area, and retained progressively larger fractions of the initially-introduced Zn(II) and Cu(II) following the desorption step, with the copper species inhibiting the oriented aggregation of the nanoparticles into nanorods. Based on EXAFS analysis, the speciation of the sorbed metal species evolves with increasing time and temperature from surface-sorbed metal ions, which readily desorb and return to solution, to more strongly-bound, structurally-incorporated metal ions. These retained metals appear to associate intimately with the nanoparticle aggregates by substituting for iron in the nanoparticle lattice or by binding within nanoparticle aggregate pore spaces.

  12. Nanoscale Electrical Imaging of Metal-Insulator Transition in Ion-Gel Gated ZnO Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yuan; Yuan, Hongtao; Wu, Xiaoyu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Cui, Yi; Hwang, Harold; Lai, Keji

    2015-03-01

    Electric double-layer transistors (EDLTs) using ionic liquid as the gate dielectric have demonstrated a remarkably wide range of density modulation, a condition crucial for the study of novel electronic phases in complex quantum materials. Yet little is known microscopically when carriers are modulated in the EDLT structure because of the technical challenge to image the buried electrolyte-semiconductor interface with nanoscale resolution. Using a cryogenic microwave impedance microscope, we demonstrate the real-space conductivity mapping in ZnO EDLTs with a spatial resolution of 100nm. A thin layer of ion gel, which solidifies below the glass transition temperature of 200K, was spin-coated on the ZnO surface to induce the metal-insulator transition. The microwave images acquired at different channel conductance clearly showed the spatial evolution of local conductivity through the transition. In addition, by applying a large source-drain bias, electrical inhomogeneity was also observed across the source and drain electrodes.

  13. Effect of bottom electrodes on nanoscale switching characteristics and piezoelectric response in polycrystalline BiFeO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Zhu, T. J.; Lai, M. O.; Lu, L.

    2011-10-01

    We have investigated the nanoscale switching characteristics and piezoelectric response based on polycrystalline BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films with different orientations deposited on different oxide bottom electrodes. The BFO film deposited on the LaNiO3 (LNO)-coated Si substrate shows a (001) preferred orientation and higher ferroelectric properties, while the BFO film grown on the SrRuO3 (SRO) buffered Si substrate shows a random orientation. The domain structures have been determined via piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) for both films, predicting that the BFO film with the LNO bottom electrode has a larger piezoelectricity property corresponding to the ferroelastic domain. Through local switching spectroscopy measurements, the evidence of ferroelectric switching and the origin of the enhanced piezoresponse properties have been provided. A greatly improved piezoelectric response has been demonstrated using PFM that is 66.8 pm V-1 for the BFO with a SRO bottom electrode, while we obtain a value of 348.2 pm V-1 for the BFO with a LNO bottom electrode due to the increased density of the polarization vectors along the external electrical field.

  14. Effect of Nano-Scale and Micro-Scale Yttria Reinforcement on Powder Forged AA-7075 Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Tilak C.; Prakash, U.; Dabhade, Vikram V.

    2016-05-01

    The present investigation deals with the development of AA-7075 metal matrix composites reinforced with nano yttria particles (0.1 to 3 vol.%) and micron yttria particles (1 to 15 vol.%) by powder forging. Matrix powders (AA-7075) and reinforcement powders (yttria) were blended, cold compacted, sintered under pure nitrogen, and finally hot forged in a closed floating die. The hot forged samples were artificially age hardened at 121 °C for various time durations to determine the peak aging time. The mechanical properties in the peak-aged condition as well as density and microstructure were determined and correlated with the reinforcement size and content. The nano composites exhibited a well-densified structure as well as better hardness and tensile/compressive strength as compared to micro-scale composites. The mechanical properties in nano-scale composites peaked at 0.5 vol.% yttria addition while for micro-scale composites these properties peaked at 5 vol.% yttria addition.

  15. A nanoscale shape memory oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinxing; Ke, Xiaoxing; Gou, Gaoyang; Seidel, Jan; Xiang, Bin; Yu, Pu; Liang, Wen-I; Minor, Andrew M; Chu, Ying-Hao; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Ren, Xiaobing; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2013-01-01

    Stimulus-responsive shape-memory materials have attracted tremendous research interests recently, with much effort focused on improving their mechanical actuation. Driven by the needs of nanoelectromechanical devices, materials with large mechanical strain, particularly at nanoscale level, are therefore desired. Here we report on the discovery of a large shape-memory effect in bismuth ferrite at the nanoscale. A maximum strain of up to ~14% and a large volumetric work density of ~600±90 J cm(-3) can be achieved in association with a martensitic-like phase transformation. With a single step, control of the phase transformation by thermal activation or electric field has been reversibly achieved without the assistance of external recovery stress. Although aspects such as hysteresis, microcracking and so on have to be taken into consideration for real devices, the large shape-memory effect in this oxide surpasses most alloys and, therefore, demonstrates itself as an extraordinary material for potential use in state-of-art nanosystems. PMID:24253399

  16. A nanoscale shape memory oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinxing; Ke, Xiaoxing; Gou, Gaoyang; Seidel, Jan; Xiang, Bin; Yu, Pu; Liang, Wen-I.; Minor, Andrew M.; Chu, Ying-Hao; van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Ren, Xiaobing; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2013-11-01

    Stimulus-responsive shape-memory materials have attracted tremendous research interests recently, with much effort focused on improving their mechanical actuation. Driven by the needs of nanoelectromechanical devices, materials with large mechanical strain, particularly at nanoscale level, are therefore desired. Here we report on the discovery of a large shape-memory effect in bismuth ferrite at the nanoscale. A maximum strain of up to ~14% and a large volumetric work density of ~600±90 J cm-3 can be achieved in association with a martensitic-like phase transformation. With a single step, control of the phase transformation by thermal activation or electric field has been reversibly achieved without the assistance of external recovery stress. Although aspects such as hysteresis, microcracking and so on have to be taken into consideration for real devices, the large shape-memory effect in this oxide surpasses most alloys and, therefore, demonstrates itself as an extraordinary material for potential use in state-of-art nanosystems.

  17. Removal of nitrobenzene by immobilized nanoscale zero-valent iron: Effect of clay support and efficiency optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Ying; Xi, Beidou; Mao, Xuhui; Gong, Bin; Li, Rui; Peng, Xing; Liu, Hongliang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, natural clays were used as the support for nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) to fulfill affordable and efficient decontamination materials. In comparison with the kaolinite (K) and montmorillonite (M) supported nZVI materials (K-nZVI and M-nZVI), Hangjin clay supported nZVI (HJ-nZVI) exhibited the best performance for nitrobenzene (NB) removal because of its favorable characteristics, such as higher specific surface area (SSA, 82.0 m2 g-1), larger pore volume (0.1198 cm3 g-1) and bigger average pore diameter (6.2 nm). The NB removal efficiency achieved by HJ-nZVI (93.2 ± 2.8%) was much higher than these achieved by HJ clay alone (38.2 ± 2.3%), nZVI alone (52.3 ± 2.5%) and by the combined use of nZVI and HJ clay (70.2 ± 1.3%). The superior performance of HJ-nZVI was associated with three aspects: the even distribution of nZVIs onto HJ clay, higher payload efficiency of nZVIs and the stronger adsorption capability of HJ clay support. Higher SSA, larger pore volume, favorable cation exchange capacity and structural negative charges all facilitated the payload of iron onto HJ clay. The adsorption process accelerated the reduction via increasing the local concentration of aqueous NB. The high efficiency of HJ-nZVI for decontamination warranted its promising prospect in remediation applications.

  18. The Effects of Noncellulosic Compounds on the Nanoscale Interaction Forces Measured between Carbohydrate-Binding Module and Lignocellulosic Biomass.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Baran; Colpan, Mert; Ju, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiao; Kostyukova, Alla; Abu-Lail, Nehal I

    2016-05-01

    The lack of fundamental understanding of the types of forces that govern how cellulose-degrading enzymes interact with cellulosic and noncellulosic components of lignocellulosic surfaces limits the design of new strategies for efficient conversion of biomass to bioethanol. In a step to improve our fundamental understanding of such interactions, nanoscale forces acting between a model cellulase-a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) of cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I)-and a set of lignocellulosic substrates with controlled composition were measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The three model substrates investigated were kraft (KP), sulfite (SP), and organosolv (OPP) pulped substrates. These substrates varied in their surface lignin coverage, lignin type, and xylan and acetone extractives' content. Our results indicated that the overall adhesion forces of biomass to CBM increased linearly with surface lignin coverage with kraft lignin showing the highest forces among lignin types investigated. When the overall adhesion forces were decoupled into specific and nonspecific component forces via the Poisson statistical model, hydrophobic and Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) forces dominated the binding forces of CBM to kraft lignin, whereas permanent dipole-dipole interactions and electrostatic forces facilitated the interactions of lignosulfonates to CBM. Xylan and acetone extractives' content increased the attractive forces between CBM and lignin-free substrates, most likely through hydrogen bonding forces. When the substrates treated differently were compared, it was found that both the differences in specific and nonspecific forces between lignin-containing and lignin-free substrates were the least for OPP. Therefore, cellulase enzymes represented by CBM would weakly bind to organosolv lignin. This will facilitate an easy enzyme recovery compared to other substrates treated with kraft or sulfite pulping. Our results also suggest that altering the surface hydrophobicity

  19. Nanoscale zero valent supported by Zeolite and Montmorillonite: Template effect of the removal of lead ion from an aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Arancibia-Miranda, Nicolás; Baltazar, Samuel E; García, Alejandra; Muñoz-Lira, Daniela; Sepúlveda, Pamela; Rubio, María A; Altbir, Dora

    2016-01-15

    In this work, we have studied the Pb(2+) sorption capacity of Zeolite (Z) and Montmorillonite (Mt) functionalized with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI), at 50% w/w, obtained by means of an impregnating process with a solvent excess. The composites were characterized by several techniques including X-ray diffraction; scanning electron microscopy (SEM); BET area; isoelectric point (IEP); and, finally a magnetic response. Comparatively significant differences in terms of electrophoretic and magnetic characteristics were found between the pristine materials and the composites. Both structures show a high efficiency and velocity in the removal of Pb(2+) up to 99.0% (200.0 ppm) after 40 min of reaction time. The removal kinetics of Pb(2+) is adequately described by the pseudo second-order kinetic model, and the maximum adsorbed amounts (q(e)) of this analyte are in close accordance with the experimental results. The intraparticle diffusion model shows that this is not the only rate-limiting step, this being the Langmuir model which was well adjusted to our experimental data. Therefore, maximum sorption capacities were found to be 115.1±11.0, 105.5±9.0, 68.3±1.3, 54.2±1.3, and 50.3±4.2 mg g(-1), for Mt-nZVI, Z-nZVI, Zeolite, Mt, and nZVI, respectively. The higher sorption capacities can be attributed to the synergetic behavior between the clay and iron nanoparticles, as a consequence of the clay coating process with nZVI. These results suggest that both composites could be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of lead from contaminated water sources. PMID:26384998

  20. Nanoscale Proximity Effect in the High-Temperature Superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ Using a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, C.V.; Gu, G.; Pushp, A.; Pasupathy, A.N.; Gomes, K.K.; Wen, J.; Xu, Z.; Ono, S.; Yazdani, A.

    2010-03-15

    High-temperature cuprate superconductors exhibit extremely local nanoscale phenomena and strong sensitivity to doping. While other experiments have looked at nanoscale interfaces between layers of different dopings, we focus on the interplay between naturally inhomogeneous nanoscale regions. Using scanning tunneling microscopy to carefully track the same region of the sample as a function of temperature, we show that regions with weak superconductivity can persist to elevated temperatures if bordered by regions of strong superconductivity. This suggests that it may be possible to increase the maximum possible transition temperature by controlling the distribution of dopants.

  1. Nanoscale Proximity Effect in the High-Temperature Superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ Using a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Colin V.; Pushp, Aakash; Pasupathy, Abhay N.; Gomes, Kenjiro K.; Wen, Jinsheng; Xu, Zhijun; Ono, Shimpei; Gu, Genda; Yazdani, Ali

    2010-03-01

    High-temperature cuprate superconductors exhibit extremely local nanoscale phenomena and strong sensitivity to doping. While other experiments have looked at nanoscale interfaces between layers of different dopings, we focus on the interplay between naturally inhomogeneous nanoscale regions. Using scanning tunneling microscopy to carefully track the same region of the sample as a function of temperature, we show that regions with weak superconductivity can persist to elevated temperatures if bordered by regions of strong superconductivity. This suggests that it may be possible to increase the maximum possible transition temperature by controlling the distribution of dopants.

  2. DNA in Nanoscale Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinker, Jason

    2012-10-01

    DNA, the quintessential molecule of life, possesses a number of attractive properties for use in nanoscale circuits. Charge transport (CT) through DNA itself is of both fundamental and practical interest. Fundamentally, DNA has a unique configuration of π-stacked bases in a well ordered, double helical structure. Given its unparalleled importance to life processes and its arrangement of conjugated subunits, DNA has been a compelling target of conductivity studies. In addition, further understanding of DNA CT will elucidate the biological implications of this process and advance its use in sensing technologies. We have investigated the fundamentals of DNA CT by measuring the electrochemistry of DNA monolayers under biologically-relevant conditions. We have uncovered both fundamental kinetic parameters to distinguish between competing models of operation as well as the practical implications of DNA CT for sensing. Furthermore, we are leveraging our studies of DNA conductivity for the manufacture of nanoscale circuits. We are investigating the electrical properties and self-assembly of DNA nanowires containing artificial base pair surrogates, which can be prepared through low cost and high throughput automated DNA synthesis. This unique and economically viable approach will establish a new paradigm for the scalable manufacture of nanoscale semiconductor devices.

  3. Adsorption Kinetics in Nanoscale Porous Coordination Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Nune, Satish K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, Benard Peter; Annapureddy, Harsha V. R.; Dang, Liem X.; Mei, Donghai; Karri, Naveen; Alvine, Kyle J.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Arey, Bruce W.; Dohnalkova, Alice

    2015-10-07

    Nanoscale porous coordination polymers were synthesized using simple wet chemical method. The effect of various polymer surfactants on colloidal stability and shape selectivity was investigated. Our results suggest that the nanoparticles exhibited significantly improved adsorption kinetics compared to bulk crystals due to decreased diffusion path lengths and preferred crystal plane interaction.

  4. Dynamic structural disorder in supported nanoscale catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Rehr, J. J.; Vila, F. D.

    2014-04-07

    We investigate the origin and physical effects of “dynamic structural disorder” (DSD) in supported nano-scale catalysts. DSD refers to the intrinsic fluctuating, inhomogeneous structure of such nano-scale systems. In contrast to bulk materials, nano-scale systems exhibit substantial fluctuations in structure, charge, temperature, and other quantities, as well as large surface effects. The DSD is driven largely by the stochastic librational motion of the center of mass and fluxional bonding at the nanoparticle surface due to thermal coupling with the substrate. Our approach for calculating and understanding DSD is based on a combination of real-time density functional theory/molecular dynamics simulations, transient coupled-oscillator models, and statistical mechanics. This approach treats thermal and dynamic effects over multiple time-scales, and includes bond-stretching and -bending vibrations, and transient tethering to the substrate at longer ps time-scales. Potential effects on the catalytic properties of these clusters are briefly explored. Model calculations of molecule-cluster interactions and molecular dissociation reaction paths are presented in which the reactant molecules are adsorbed on the surface of dynamically sampled clusters. This model suggests that DSD can affect both the prefactors and distribution of energy barriers in reaction rates, and thus can significantly affect catalytic activity at the nano-scale.

  5. Fats, Oils, & Colors of a Nanoscale Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisensky, George C.; Horoszewski, Dana; Gentry, Kenneth L.; Zenner, Greta M.; Crone, Wendy C .

    2006-01-01

    Phase changes and intermolecular forces are important physical science concepts but are not always easy to present in an active learning format. This article presents several interactive activities in which students plot the melting points of some fatty acids and explore the effect that the nanoscale size and shape of molecules have on the…

  6. Dynamic structural disorder in supported nanoscale catalysts.

    PubMed

    Rehr, J J; Vila, F D

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the origin and physical effects of "dynamic structural disorder" (DSD) in supported nano-scale catalysts. DSD refers to the intrinsic fluctuating, inhomogeneous structure of such nano-scale systems. In contrast to bulk materials, nano-scale systems exhibit substantial fluctuations in structure, charge, temperature, and other quantities, as well as large surface effects. The DSD is driven largely by the stochastic librational motion of the center of mass and fluxional bonding at the nanoparticle surface due to thermal coupling with the substrate. Our approach for calculating and understanding DSD is based on a combination of real-time density functional theory/molecular dynamics simulations, transient coupled-oscillator models, and statistical mechanics. This approach treats thermal and dynamic effects over multiple time-scales, and includes bond-stretching and -bending vibrations, and transient tethering to the substrate at longer ps time-scales. Potential effects on the catalytic properties of these clusters are briefly explored. Model calculations of molecule-cluster interactions and molecular dissociation reaction paths are presented in which the reactant molecules are adsorbed on the surface of dynamically sampled clusters. This model suggests that DSD can affect both the prefactors and distribution of energy barriers in reaction rates, and thus can significantly affect catalytic activity at the nano-scale. PMID:24712802

  7. Effects of washing solution and drying condition on reactivity of nano-scale zero valent irons (nZVIs) synthesized by borohydride reduction.

    PubMed

    Woo, Heesoo; Park, Junboum; Lee, Seockheon; Lee, Seunghak

    2014-02-01

    Washing and drying processes are essential when synthesizing nano-scale zero valent irons (nZVIs) by borohydride reduction of iron salts in aqueous phase. However, effects of these processes on nZVI reactivity have not been investigated in detail, although different washing and drying conditions might alter surface characteristics of nZVIs and thus vary their reactivity towards reducible contaminants. In this study, effects of three washing solutions and drying conditions on the reactivity of nZVIs for nitrate were investigated. Washing with volatile solvents and drying under anaerobic condition decreased thickness of Fe-oxide layer on nZVIs and increased content of Fe(2+)-containing oxides in the layer, which enhanced nZVI reactivity toward nitrate. Volatile solvent washing could minimize the decrease in nZVI reactivity according to changing anaerobic drying condition to aerobic. Findings from this study suggest that application of washing with volatile solvents and drying under aerobic condition should be recommended as effective processes to obtain nZVIs with maximum reactivity at reasonable costs and efforts. PMID:24290304

  8. [Dynamic effects of commonly co-existing anions on the removal of selenite from groundwater by nanoscale zero-valent iron].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Jun; Guo, Ying-Qing; Du, Er-Deng

    2014-05-01

    Batch experiments are used to research selenite removal from groundwater by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) , and dynamic effects of commonly co-existing anions on the removal of selenite are also investigated. The results showed that under anoxic conditions,when nZVI dose was 0.1 g.L-1 , the concentration of Se( IV)/sodium chloride was 100 micromol.L-1/0. 01 mol L-1 , pH = 7.0, T = 25 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C, auto-adding 1 mmol.L -1 CO(2-)(3) or SO(2-)(4) , 5 mg. L -1 humic acid (HA), the removals of Se( IV ) were obviously inhibited. The weak effect on the removal of Se( IV) was observed when added 0. 5 mmol L- Ca2+ or Mg2 ,while concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ were 3 mmol L-1 and 3 mmol L-1 respectively, removal efficiency of Se( IV) were evidently decreased. Without coexisting ions, Se( IV) were totally removed in 20 min, while with co-existing ions, removal efficiency of Se( NV) were achieved 100% in 30 min. Bivalent iron tended to stationary with the remove of Se( WV) in reaction processes. ORP rapidly decreased from positive to negative in the process of reaction, which illustrated the process of remove Se( IV) by nZVI was the reduction reaction. PMID:25055668

  9. Systematic Investigation of Nanoscale Adsorbate Effects at Organic Light-Emitting diode Interfaces. Interfacial Structure-Charge Injection-Luminance Relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Huang,Q.; Li, J.; Evmenenko, G.; Dutta, P.; Marks, T.

    2006-01-01

    Molecule-scale structure effects at indium tin oxide (ITO) anode-hole transport layer (HTL) interfaces in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) heterostructures are systematically probed via a self-assembly approach. A series of ITO anode-linked silyltriarylamine precursors differing in aryl group and linker density are synthesized for this purpose and used to probe the relationship between nanoscale interfacial chemical structure and charge-injection/electroluminescence properties. These precursors form conformal and largely pinhole-free self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on the ITO anode surface with angstrom-level thickness control. Deposition of a HTL on top of the SAMs places the probe molecules precisely at the anode-HTL interface. OLEDs containing ITO/SAM/HTL configurations have dramatically varied hole-injection magnitudes and OLED responses. These can be correlated with the probe molecular structures and electrochemically derived heterogeneous electron-transfer rates for such triarylamine fragments. The large observed interfacial molecular structure effects offer an approach to tuning OLED hole-injection flux over 1-2 orders of magnitude, resulting in up to 3-fold variations in OLED brightness at identical bias and up to a 2 V driving voltage reduction at identical brightness. Very bright and efficient ({approx}70 000 cd/m{sup 2}, {approx}2.5% forward external quantum efficiency, {approx}11 lm/W power efficiency) Alq (tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum(III))-based OLEDs can thereby be fabricated.

  10. Effect of Channel Thickness, Annealing Temperature and Channel Length on Nanoscale Ga2O3-In2O3-ZnO Thin Film Transistor Performance.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Pak, Yusin; Lim, Namsoo; Lee, Ryeri; Song, Hui; Kim, Tae Heon; Choi, Boran; Jung, Gun Young

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrated the effect of active layer (channel) thickness and annealing temperature on the electrical performances of Ga2O3-In2O3-ZnO (GIZO) thin film transistor (TFT) having nanoscale channel width (W/L: 500 nm/100 μm). We found that the electron carrier concentration of the channel was decreased significantly with increasing the annealing temperature (100 degrees C to 300 degrees C). Accordingly, the threshold voltage (V(T)) was shifted towards positive voltage (-12.2 V to 10.8 V). In case of channel thickness, the V(T) was shifted towards negative voltage with increasing the channel thickness. The device with channel thickness of 90 nm annealed at 200 degrees C revealed the best device performances in terms of mobility (10.86 cm2/Vs) and V(T) (0.8 V). The effect of channel length was also studied, in which the channel width, thickness and annealing temperature were kept constant such as 500 nm, 90 nm and 200 degrees C, respectively. The channel length influenced the on-current level significantly with small variation of V(T), resulting in lower value of on/off current ratio with increasing the channel length. The device with channel length of 0.5 μm showed enhanced on/off current ratio of 10(6) with minimum V(T) of 0.26 V. PMID:27427719

  11. Nanotribology and Nanoscale Friction

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yi; Qu, Zhihua; Braiman, Yehuda; Zhang, Zhenyu; Barhen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Tribology is the science and technology of contacting solid surfaces in relative motion, including the study of lubricants, lubrication, friction, wear, and bearings. It is estimated that friction and wear cost the U.S. economy 6% of the gross national product (Persson, 2000). For example, 5% of the total energy generated in an automobile engine is lost to frictional resistance. The study of nanoscale friction has a technological impact in reducing energy loss in machines, in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and in the development of durable, low-friction surfaces and ultra-thin lubrication films.

  12. SBA-15-incorporated nanoscale zero-valent iron particles for chromium(VI) removal from groundwater: mechanism, effect of pH, humic acid and sustained reactivity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xia; Yan, Yubo; Li, Jiansheng; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun

    2014-02-15

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (NZVIs) were incorporated inside the channels of SBA-15 rods by a "two solvents" reduction technique and used to remove Cr(VI) from groundwater. The resulting NZVIs/SBA-15 composites before and after reaction were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results helped to propose the mechanism of Cr(VI) removal by NZVIs/SBA-15, where Cr(VI) in aqueous was firstly impregnated into the channels of the silica, then adsorbed on the surfaces of the incorporated NZVIs and reduced to Cr(III) directly in the inner pores of the silica. Corrosion products included Fe2O3, FeO(OH), Fe3O4 and Cr2FeO4. Batch experiments revealed that Cr(VI) removal decreased from 99.7% to 92.8% when the initial solution pH increased from 5.5 to 9.0, accompanied by the decrease of the kobs from 0.600 to 0.024 min(-1). Humic acid (HA) had a little effect on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) by NZVIs/SBA-15 but could decrease the reduction rate. The stable reduction of NZVIs/SBA-15 was observed within six cycles. NZVIs/SBA-15 composites offer a promising alternative material to remove heavy metals from groundwater. PMID:24374562

  13. Effect of promoter and noble metals and suspension pH on catalytic nitrate reduction by bimetallic nanoscale Fe(0) catalysts.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sungjun; Hamid, Shanawar; Jung, Junyoung; Sihn, Youngho; Lee, Woojin

    2016-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of experimental factors (types of promotor and noble metals, H2 injection, and suspension pH) on catalytic nitrate reduction by bimetallic catalysts supported by nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI). NZVI without H2 injection showed 71% of nitrate reduction in 1 h. Cu/NZVI showed the almost complete nitrate reduction (96%) in 1 h, while 67% of nitrate was reduced by Ni/NZVI. The presence of noble metals (Pd and Pt) on Cu/NZVI without H2 injection resulted in the decrease of removal efficiency to 89% and 84%, respectively, due probably to the electron loss of NZVI for formation of metallic Pd and Pt. H2 injection into Cu-Pd/NZVI suspension significantly improved both catalytic nitrate reduction (>97% in 30 min) and N2 selectivity (18%), indicating that adsorbed H on active Pd sites played an important role for the enhanced nitrate reduction and N2 selectivity. The rapid passivation of NZVI surface resulted in a dramatic decrease in nitrate reduction (79-28%) with an increase in N2 selectivity (8-66%) as the suspension pH increased from 8 to 10. PMID:26512419

  14. Thermal Treatment of PtNiCo Electrocatalysts: Effects of Nanoscale Strain and Structure on the Activity and Stability for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Wanjala, Bridgid N.; Loukrakpam, Rameshwori; Luo, Jin; Njoki, Peter; Mott, Derrick; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Shao, Minhua; Protsailo, Lesia; Kawamura, Tetsuo

    2010-10-21

    The ability to control the nanoscale size, composition, phase, and facet of multimetallic catalysts is important for advancing the design and preparation of advanced catalysts. This report describes the results of an investigation of the thermal treatment temperature on nanoengineered platinum-nickel-cobalt catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction, focusing on understanding the effects of lattice strain and surface properties on activity and stability. The thermal treatment temperatures ranged from 400 to 926 C. The catalysts were characterized by microscopic, spectroscopic, and electrochemical techniques for establishing the correlation between the electrocatalytic properties and the catalyst structures. The composition, size, and phase properties of the trimetallic nanoparticles were controllable by our synthesis and processing approach. The increase in the thermal treatment temperature of the carbon-supported catalysts was shown to lead to a gradual shrinkage of the lattice constants of the alloys and an enhanced population of facets on the nanoparticle catalysts. A combination of the lattice shrinkage and the surface enrichment of nanocrystal facets on the nanoparticle catalysts as a result of the increased temperature was shown to play a major role in enhancing the electrocatalytic activity for catalysts. Detailed analyses of the oxidation states, atomic distributions, and interatomic distances revealed a certain degree of changes in Co enrichment and surface Co oxides as a function of the thermal treatment temperature. These findings provided important insights into the correlation between the electrocatalytic activity/stability and the nanostructural parameters (lattice strain, surface oxidation state, and distribution) of the nanoengineered trimetallic catalysts.

  15. Thermal Treatment of PtNiCo Electrocatalysts: Effects of Nanoscale Strain and Structure on the Activity and Stability for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    B Wanjala; R Loukrakpam; J Luo; P Njoki; D Mott; C Zhong; M Shao; L Protsailo; T Kawamura

    2011-12-31

    The ability to control the nanoscale size, composition, phase, and facet of multimetallic catalysts is important for advancing the design and preparation of advanced catalysts. This report describes the results of an investigation of the thermal treatment temperature on nanoengineered platinum-nickel-cobalt catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction, focusing on understanding the effects of lattice strain and surface properties on activity and stability. The thermal treatment temperatures ranged from 400 to 926 C. The catalysts were characterized by microscopic, spectroscopic, and electrochemical techniques for establishing the correlation between the electrocatalytic properties and the catalyst structures. The composition, size, and phase properties of the trimetallic nanoparticles were controllable by our synthesis and processing approach. The increase in the thermal treatment temperature of the carbon-supported catalysts was shown to lead to a gradual shrinkage of the lattice constants of the alloys and an enhanced population of facets on the nanoparticle catalysts. A combination of the lattice shrinkage and the surface enrichment of nanocrystal facets on the nanoparticle catalysts as a result of the increased temperature was shown to play a major role in enhancing the electrocatalytic activity for catalysts. Detailed analyses of the oxidation states, atomic distributions, and interatomic distances revealed a certain degree of changes in Co enrichment and surface Co oxides as a function of the thermal treatment temperature. These findings provided important insights into the correlation between the electrocatalytic activity/stability and the nanostructural parameters (lattice strain, surface oxidation state, and distribution) of the nanoengineered trimetallic catalysts.

  16. Nanoscale precipitation in hot rolled sheet steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun

    Some newer hot rolled high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels with a single phase ferrite matrix have obtained substantial strengthening from nanoscale precipitation. These HSLA are reported to have a good combination of strength, ductility and hole-expansion ability. In the current work, Gleeble ® 3500 torsion testing was employed to simulate the hot rolling process with varying run-out table cooling rates and coiling temperatures on five microalloyed steels with additions of Ti, Nb, Mo, Cr and V, to investigate the effects of microalloy additions and processing conditions on microstructures as well as mechanical properties. Subsized tensile specimens obtained from as-twisted torsion samples were used to evaluate mechanical properties. The precipitation states of the five steels with different processing conditions were characterized using extraction replica TEM. Comparison of microstructures and mechanical properties was discussed. Characterization of the microstructure via light optical microscopy showed the matrix microstructure was mainly influenced by coiling temperature, which indicates that the transformation from austenite to ferrite occurred during the coiling period. A higher Ti content was shown to reduce the second constituent fractions. Investigation of carbon extraction replica specimens via TEM revealed the presence of nanoscale precipitation. Extensive nanoscale precipitation was observed in most of the specimens having a polygonal ferrite matrix, while in the granular bainite/ferrite microstructure at lower temperatures, fewer microalloy carbides were present. The specimens with polygonal ferrite had similar or higher yield strength than the specimens with granular bainite microstructure, which suggests the effectiveness of precipitation strengthening from extensive nanoscale precipitates. In the Nb-Mo steel, more significant strengthening due to grain refinement was evident. Yield strength values were less than reported for JFE's "NANOHITEN

  17. Nanoscale Optoelectronic Photosynthetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Lee, Ida; Guillorn, Michael; Lee, James W.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2001-03-01

    This presentation provides an overview and recent progress in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory research program in molecular electronics and green plant photosynthesis. The photosynthetic reaction center is a nanoscale molecular diode and photovoltaic device. The key thrust of our research program is the construction of molecular electronic devices from these nanoscale structures. Progress in this multidisciplinary research program has been demonstrated by direct electrical contact of emergent electrons with the Photosystem I (PS I) reaction center by nanoparticle precipitation. Demonstration of stable diode properties of isolated reaction centers combined with the ability to orient PS I by self-assembly on a planar surface, makes this structure a good building block for 2-D and potentially 3-D devices. Metallization of isolated PS I does not alter their fundamental photophysical properties and they can be bonded to metal surfaces. We report here the first measurement of photovoltage from single PS I reaction centers. Working at the Cornell University National Nanofabrication Facility, we have constructed sets of dissimilar metal electrodes separated by distances as small as 6 nm. We plan to use these structures to make electrical contact to both ends of oriented PSI reaction centers and thereby realize biomolecular logic circuits. Potential applications of PSI reaction centers for optoelectronic applications as well as molecular logic device construction will be discussed.

  18. Characterizing Nanoscale Transient Communication.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifan; Anwar, Putri Santi; Huang, Limin; Asvial, Muhamad

    2016-04-01

    We consider the novel paradigm of nanoscale transient communication (NTC), where certain components of the small-scale communication link are physically transient. As such, the transmitter and the receiver may change their properties over a prescribed lifespan due to their time-varying structures. The NTC systems may find important applications in the biomedical, environmental, and military fields, where system degradability allows for benign integration into life and environment. In this paper, we analyze the NTC systems from the channel-modeling and capacity-analysis perspectives and focus on the stochastically meaningful slow transience scenario, where the coherence time of degeneration Td is much longer than the coding delay Tc. We first develop novel and parsimonious models to characterize the NTC channels, where three types of physical layers are considered: electromagnetism-based terahertz (THz) communication, diffusion-based molecular communication (DMC), and nanobots-assisted touchable communication (TouchCom). We then revisit the classical performance measure of ϵ-outage channel capacity and take a fresh look at its formulations in the NTC context. Next, we present the notion of capacity degeneration profile (CDP), which describes the reduction of channel capacity with respect to the degeneration time. Finally, we provide numerical examples to demonstrate the features of CDP. To the best of our knowledge, the current work represents a first attempt to systematically evaluate the quality of nanoscale communication systems deteriorating with time. PMID:26955048

  19. Nanoscale control designs for systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Yue

    2014-02-01

    Nanoscale control is the science of the control of objects at dimensions with 100 nm or less and the manipulation of them at this level of precision. The desired attributes of systems under nanoscale control design are extreme high resolution, accuracy, stability, and fast response. An important perspective of investigation in nanoscale control design includes system modeling and precision control devices and materials at a nanoscale dimension, i.e., design of nanopositioners. Nanopositioners are mechatronic systems with an ultraprecise resolution down to a fraction of an atomic diameter and developed to move objects over a small range in nanoscale dimension. After reviewing a lot of existing literatures for nanoscale control designs, the way to successful nanoscale control is accurate position sensing and feedback control of the motion. An overview of nanoscale identification, linear, and nonlinear control technologies, and devices that are playing a key role in improving precision, accuracy, and response of operation of these systems are introduced in this research. PMID:24749455

  20. Rocket Science at the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxing; Rozen, Isaac; Wang, Joseph

    2016-06-28

    Autonomous propulsion at the nanoscale represents one of the most challenging and demanding goals in nanotechnology. Over the past decade, numerous important advances in nanotechnology and material science have contributed to the creation of powerful self-propelled micro/nanomotors. In particular, micro- and nanoscale rockets (MNRs) offer impressive capabilities, including remarkable speeds, large cargo-towing forces, precise motion controls, and dynamic self-assembly, which have paved the way for designing multifunctional and intelligent nanoscale machines. These multipurpose nanoscale shuttles can propel and function in complex real-life media, actively transporting and releasing therapeutic payloads and remediation agents for diverse biomedical and environmental applications. This review discusses the challenges of designing efficient MNRs and presents an overview of their propulsion behavior, fabrication methods, potential rocket fuels, navigation strategies, practical applications, and the future prospects of rocket science and technology at the nanoscale. PMID:27219742

  1. Effects of Bias Pulsing on Etching of SiO2 Pattern in Capacitively-Coupled Plasmas for Nano-Scale Patterning of Multi-Level Hard Masks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sechan; Choi, Gyuhyun; Chae, Heeyeop; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2016-05-01

    In order to study the effects of bias pulsing on the etching characteristics of a silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer using multi-level hard mask (MLHM) structures of ArF photoresist/bottom anti-reflected coating/SiO2/amorphous carbon layer (ACL)/SiO2, the effects of bias pulsing conditions on the etch characteristics of a SiO2 layer with an ACL mask pattern in C4F8/CH2F2/O2/Ar etch chemistries were investigated in a dual-frequency capacitively-coupled plasma (CCP) etcher. The effects of the pulse frequency, duty ratio, and pulse-bias power in the 2 MHz low-frequency (LF) power source were investigated in plasmas generated by a 27.12 MHz high-frequency (HF) power source. The etch rates of ACL and SiO2 decreased, but the etch selectivity of SiO2/ACL increased with decreasing duty ratio. When the ACL and SiO2 layers were etched with increasing pulse frequency, no significant change was observed in the etch rates and etch selectivity. With increasing LF pulse-bias power, the etch rate of ACL and SiO2 slightly increased, but the etch selectivity of SiO2/ACL decreased. Also, the precise control of the critical dimension (CD) values with decreasing duty ratio can be explained by the protection of sidewall etching of SiO2 by increased passivation. Pulse-biased etching was successfully applied to the patterning of the nano-scale line and space of SiO2 using an ACL pattern. PMID:27483889

  2. Simulations of Metallic Nanoscale Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Karsten W.

    2003-03-01

    Density-functional-theory calculations can be used to understand and predict materials properties based on their nanoscale composition and structure. In combination with efficient search algorithms DFT can furthermore be applied in the nanoscale design of optimized materials. The first part of the talk will focus on two different types of nanostructures with an interesting interplay between chemical activity and conducting states. MoS2 nanoclusters are known for their catalyzing effect in the hydrodesulfurization process which removes sulfur-containing molecules from oil products. MoS2 is a layered material which is insulating. However, DFT calculations indicates the exsistence of metallic states at some of the edges of MoS2 nanoclusters, and the calculations show that the conducting states are not passivated by for example the presence of hydrogen gas. The edge states may play an important role for the chemical activity of MoS_2. Metallic nanocontacts can be formed during the breaking of a piece of metal, and atomically thin structures with conductance of only a single quantum unit may be formed. Such open metallic structures are chemically very active and susceptible to restructuring through interactions with molecular gases. DFT calculations show for example that atomically thin gold wires may incorporate oxygen atoms forming a new type of metallic nanowire. Adsorbates like hydrogen may also affect the conductance. In the last part of the talk I shall discuss the possibilities for designing alloys with optimal mechanical properties based on a combination of DFT calculations with genetic search algorithms. Simulaneous optimization of several parameters (stability, price, compressibility) is addressed through the determination of Pareto optimal alloy compositions within a large database of more than 64000 alloys.

  3. Nanoscale Thermal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baloch, Kamal; Brintlinger, Todd; Qi, Yi; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Cumings, John

    2007-03-01

    We present real time, in-situ, high resolution thermal imaging of metallic nanowires. The nanowires are grown on the front-side of silicon nitride membranes. Resistive heating along the wires produces thermal gradients which melt/freeze 20-200nm diameter indium islands deposited by thermal evaporation on the back-side of the membrane. These transitions can be imaged using a transmission electron microscope operating in dark-field mode such that contrast corresponds to the phase of an individual island. Global changes in temperature can be used to calibrate the melting point of individual islands and to account for the presence of the ˜100nm thick silicon nitride membrane. Thermal modeling confirms the imaged thermal behavior. This technique could be generally employed for thermal imaging of nanowires and nanotubes, wherein the nanoscale systems are imaged in-situ and under electrical bias. Results of local resistive heating in a carbon nanotube device will also be shown

  4. Dissipation in Nanoscale Superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Maestro, Adrian; Rosenow, Bernd

    Pressure driven flow of a superfluid inside a narrow channel can be maintained by the nucleation of vortices and their resulting motion across the flow lines. The maximum velocity of the superfluid is set by a nucleation rate which crucially depends on the microscopic details of the vortices and flow profile. Within the kinetic vortex theory, we have determined the critical superfluid velocity inside a nanoscale constriction and obtain agreement with experimental results for superfluid helium-4 in nanopores. In the small pore limit, when the ratio of pore radius to correlation length is of order unity, we find a drastic suppression of the superfluid velocity that can be understood within the Langer-Ambegaokar-McCumber-Halperin theory of resistive fluctuations in thin superconducting wires.

  5. Anatomy of Nanoscale Propulsion.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vinita; Duan, Wentao; Butler, Peter J; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-01-01

    Nature supports multifaceted forms of life. Despite the variety and complexity of these forms, motility remains the epicenter of life. The applicable laws of physics change upon going from macroscales to microscales and nanoscales, which are characterized by low Reynolds number (Re). We discuss motion at low Re in natural and synthetic systems, along with various propulsion mechanisms, including electrophoresis, electrolyte diffusiophoresis, and nonelectrolyte diffusiophoresis. We also describe the newly uncovered phenomena of motility in non-ATP-driven self-powered enzymes and the directional movement of these enzymes in response to substrate gradients. These enzymes can also be immobilized to function as fluid pumps in response to the presence of their substrates. Finally, we review emergent collective behavior arising from interacting motile species, and we discuss the possible biomedical applications of the synthetic nanobots and microbots. PMID:26098511

  6. Nanoscale memristive radiofrequency switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Shuang; Ghadiri-Sadrabadi, Mohammad; Bardin, Joseph C.; Xia, Qiangfei

    2015-06-01

    Radiofrequency switches are critical components in wireless communication systems and consumer electronics. Emerging devices include switches based on microelectromechanical systems and phase-change materials. However, these devices suffer from disadvantages such as large physical dimensions and high actuation voltages. Here we propose and demonstrate a nanoscale radiofrequency switch based on a memristive device. The device can be programmed with a voltage as low as 0.4 V and has an ON/OFF conductance ratio up to 1012 with long state retention. We measure the radiofrequency performance of the switch up to 110 GHz and demonstrate low insertion loss (0.3 dB at 40 GHz), high isolation (30 dB at 40 GHz), an average cutoff frequency of 35 THz and competitive linearity and power-handling capability. Our results suggest that, in addition to their application in memory and computing, memristive devices are also a leading contender for radiofrequency switch applications.

  7. The effect of an electrical double layer on the voltammetric performance of nanoscale interdigitated electrodes: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Guigen

    2008-11-01

    Finite-element based computational simulation is performed to investigate the effect of an electrical double layer (EDL) on the electrochemical processes of nanometer-scale interdigitated electrodes (nano-IDEs). Results show that the EDL structure will alter the voltammetric current response of nano-IDEs due to the expansion of the diffuse layer into the diffusion layer at the electrode surfaces and the overlap of the electrical fields of the neighboring electrodes. The EDL induced change in the voltammetric current response is more severe for nano-IDEs with a smaller electrode size and gap spacing, and the EDL effect is influenced by the compact layer thickness, the charge valence of the redox species, the electron transfer rate, and the absence of the supporting electrolyte.

  8. Modeling Quantum and Coulomb Effects in Nanoscale Enhancement-Mode Tri-Gate III-V MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sibiani, Sameer; Khair, Khadija; Ahmed, Shaikh

    2014-03-01

    Because of limited benefits of strain engineering in extremely scaled silicon devices and lack of demonstration of a performance gain at the product level with nanowires, nanotubes, graphene, and other exotic channel materials, there is a strong motivation to continue device scaling using high-transport III-V (such as InGaAs and InAsSb) channel materials beyond the year 2020. However, there are several challenges with III-V MOSFETs prohibiting their use in high-performance and low-power logic applications. In this work, we investigate the performance of the tri-gate III-V FETs as compared to the planar counterpart, and show how quantum size quantization and random dopant fluctuations (RDF) affect the tri-gate FET characteristics and how to curb these issues. A 3-D fully atomistic quantum-corrected Monte Carlo device simulator has been used in this work. Space-quantization effects have been accounted for via a parameter-free effective potential scheme (and benchmarked against the NEGF approach in the ballistic limit). To treat full Coulomb (electron-ion and electron-electron) interactions, the simulator implements a real-space corrected Coulomb electron dynamics (ED) scheme. Also, the essential bandstructure parameters (bandgap, effective masses, and the density-of-states) have been computed using a 20-band nearest-neighbour sp3d5s* tight-binding scheme.

  9. The effects of the bottom anti-reflective coating with different baked temperatures and thicknesses on nanoscale patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jie; Li, Ling; Chen, Weidong

    2015-12-01

    The bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) material can enhance the resolution of the nanopatterns structures in laser interference lithography process. In this study, WIDE-B ARC material was investigated to confirm the reduction of the vertical standing wave which leads to defect of nanopatterns. And the critical dimension (CD) of 100 nm L/S patterns with and without the application of BARC material was fabricated by laser interference lithography technology. The compared results showed that BARC can effectively reduce CD swing and obtain more uniform nanopatterns. Meanwhile, we also verified the influence of cured temperature and film thickness of BARC on the uniformity of nanopatterns.

  10. Phase Transformations in Au-Fe Particles and Thin Films: Size Effects at the Micro- and Nano-scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amram, Dor; Rabkin, Eugen

    2016-05-01

    Thin Au-Fe bilayers (3-30 nm in total thickness) were deposited on sapphire substrates. Annealing in a temperature range of 600-1100°C resulted in solid-state dewetting and the subsequent formation of micro- and nano-particles. Electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and in situ x-ray diffraction were employed to systematically study two phase transformations in the Au-Fe system: (1) precipitation of α-Fe from supersaturated Au-Fe solid-solution particles; and (2) α↔ γ transformation in Fe and Au-Fe thin films and particles. In both cases, the transformations proceeded differently than in the bulk already for sub-micron (100 nm to 1 μm) particles. These results were explained by the low defect concentration in the particles, nucleation difficulties, slow diffusivity on facets, and Au segregation. A "reverse size effect" was observed in thin Fe films, and discussed in terms of nucleation model taking into account the small size of the parent phase. The main conclusion is that phase transformations in the particles and in the bulk proceed differently, not only for nano-sized particles as was customarily believed but also for particles of sub-micrometer size. We suggest that this size effect is governed by two different length scales: the inter-defect spacing (upper limit) and the bulk critical nucleus size (lower limit).

  11. Understanding and characterizing the effect of nanoscale confinement on glass transition temperature and film dewetting of macrocylic polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lanhe; Elupula, Ravinder; Grayson, Scott; Torkelson, John

    There is a growing interest in the dynamics of different polymer topologies when confined to nanoscopic length scales. Macrocyclic polymers have attracted research interest because their lack of chain ends and cyclic topology has led to a range of unique physical properties. Cyclic polystyrene (c-PS) of well-defined molecular weight (MW) ranging from 2,300 to 8,700 g/mol was synthesized via click cyclization of dilute solutions of linear PS (l-PS) with azide and alkyne end functionalities. The click reaction enables nearly quantitative cyclization of l-PS. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to measure bulk glass transition temperature (Tg) and fragility of c-PS, both of which exhibit less MW dependence compared to l-PS. Compared to thin l-PS films, thin c-PS films exhibited extraordinary stability against dewetting. 22-nm-thick c-PS films were nearly stable for up to 4 hr at bulk Tg + 45 °C in contrast, 22-nm-thick l-PS films underwent severe dewetting. Nanoconfinement effects on Tgand fragility of c-PS are investigated using ellipsometry and/or fluorescence spectroscopy and compared to effects for l-PS precursors as well as commercial anionic l-PS standards.

  12. Effects of surface concentration on the porphine monolayers: Molecular simulations at the nanoscale water-gas interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krongsuk, Sriprajak; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2011-05-01

    The effect of surface concentration on the structure and stability of porphine (PH 2) monolayers at the water-gas interface was studied by using molecular dynamics simulation. Five monolayer systems having different surface concentrations were investigated in order to cover a full range of the experimental π- A isotherm. The simulation results show that increment of a number of the PH 2 molecules not only affects the significantly decreasing water density at the interface but also the monolayer surface tensions. The calculated surface tensions of the five systems indicate that the monolayer phase transfer corresponding to gaseous, expanded, condensed, and collapsed phases are observed. The hydrogen bonding between water and the PH 2 molecules at the interface plays an important role on the monolayer film formation, especially at the lower surface concentrations. The PH 2 orientations for all surface concentrations, except the highest one, are favored to be the β-structure as observed in the copper porphyrazine (CuPz) monolayer.

  13. Effect of antimony nano-scale surface-structures on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Husaini, S.; Shima, D.; Ahirwar, P.; Rotter, T. J.; Hains, C. P.; Dang, T.; Bedford, R. G.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2013-02-11

    Effects of antimony crystallization on the surface of GaSb during low temperature molecular beam epitaxy growth are investigated. The geometry of these structures is studied via transmission electron and atomic force microscopies, which show the surface metal forms triangular-shaped, elongated nano-wires with a structured orientation composed entirely of crystalline antimony. By depositing antimony on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector, the field is localized within the antimony layer. Polarization dependent transmission measurements are carried out on these nano-structures deposited on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector. It is shown that the antimony-based structures at the surface favor transmission of light polarized perpendicular to the wires.

  14. Direct fabrication of thin layer MoS{sub 2} field-effect nanoscale transistors by oxidation scanning probe lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, Francisco M.; Ryu, Yu K.; Garcia, Ricardo; Marinov, Kolyo; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Kis, Andras

    2015-03-09

    Thin layer MoS{sub 2}-based field effect transistors (FET) are emerging candidates to fabricate very fast and sensitive devices. Here, we demonstrate a method to fabricate very narrow transistor channel widths on a single layer MoS{sub 2} flake connected to gold electrodes. Oxidation scanning probe lithography is applied to pattern insulating barriers on the flake. The process narrows the electron path to about 200 nm. The output and transfer characteristics of the fabricated FET show a behavior that is consistent with the minimum channel width of the device. The method relies on the direct and local chemical modification of MoS{sub 2}. The straightforward character and the lack of specific requirements envisage the controlled patterning of sub-100 nm electron channels in MoS{sub 2} FETs.

  15. Nanoscale thickness double-gated field effect silicon sensors for sensitive pH detection in fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Elibol, Oguz H.; Reddy, Bobby Jr.; Bashir, Rashid

    2008-05-12

    In this work, we report on the optimization of a double-gate silicon-on-insulator field effect device operation to maximize pH sensitivity. The operating point can be fine tuned by independently biasing the fluid and the back gate of the device. Choosing the bias points such that device is nearly depleted results in an exponential current response--in our case, 0.70 decade per unit change in pH. This value is comparable to results obtained with devices that have been further scaled in width, reported at the forefront of the field, and close to the ideal value of 1 decade/pH. By using a thin active area, sensitivity is increased due to increased coupling between the two conducting surfaces of the devices.

  16. Democratization of Nanoscale Imaging and Sensing Tools Using Photonics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Providing means for researchers and citizen scientists in the developing world to perform advanced measurements with nanoscale precision can help to accelerate the rate of discovery and invention as well as improve higher education and the training of the next generation of scientists and engineers worldwide. Here, we review some of the recent progress toward making optical nanoscale measurement tools more cost-effective, field-portable, and accessible to a significantly larger group of researchers and educators. We divide our review into two main sections: label-based nanoscale imaging and sensing tools, which primarily involve fluorescent approaches, and label-free nanoscale measurement tools, which include light scattering sensors, interferometric methods, photonic crystal sensors, and plasmonic sensors. For each of these areas, we have primarily focused on approaches that have either demonstrated operation outside of a traditional laboratory setting, including for example integration with mobile phones, or exhibited the potential for such operation in the near future. PMID:26068279

  17. Nanoscale characterization of effect of L-arginine on Streptococcus mutans biofilm adhesion by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shivani; Lavender, Stacey; Woo, JungReem; Guo, Lihong; Shi, Wenyuan; Kilpatrick-Liverman, LaTonya; Gimzewski, James K

    2014-07-01

    A major aetiological factor of dental caries is the pathology of the dental plaque biofilms. The amino acid L-arginine (Arg) is found naturally in saliva as a free molecule or as a part of salivary peptides and proteins. Plaque bacteria metabolize Arg to produce alkali and neutralize glycolytic acids, promoting a less cariogenous oral microbiome. Here, we explored an alternative and complementary mechanism of action of Arg using atomic force microscopy. The nanomechanical properties of Streptococcus mutans biofilm extracellular matrix were characterized under physiological buffer conditions. We report the effect of Arg on the adhesive behaviour and structural properties of extracellular polysaccharides in S. mutans biofilms. High-resolution imaging of biofilm surfaces can reveal additional structural information on bacterial cells embedded within the surrounding extracellular matrix. A dense extracellular matrix was observed in biofilms without Arg compared to those grown in the presence of Arg. S. mutans biofilms grown in the presence of Arg could influence the production and/or composition of extracellular membrane glucans and thereby affect their adhesion properties. Our results suggest that the presence of Arg in the oral cavity could influence the adhesion properties of S. mutans to the tooth surface. PMID:24763427

  18. Chromate removal by surface-modified nanoscale zero-valent iron: Effect of different surface coatings and water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Dong, Haoran; He, Qi; Zeng, Guangming; Tang, Lin; Zhang, Chang; Xie, Yankai; Zeng, Yalan; Zhao, Feng; Wu, Yanan

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the correlation between the colloidal stability and reactivity of surface-modified nano zero-valent iron (SM-nZVI) as affected by the surface coating (i.e., polyacrylic acid [PAA] and starch) under various geochemical conditions. Generally, the colloidal stability of nZVI was enhanced with increasing loading of surface coating, while there is an optimum loading for the most efficient Cr(VI) removal by SM-nZVI. At lower loadings than the optimum loading, the surface coating could enhance the particle stabilization, facilitating the Cr(VI) reduction by providing more available surface sites. However, the over-loaded surface coating on the surface of nZVI particles decreased the Cr(VI) reduction due to the occupation of the reactive sites and the inhibition of the mass transfer of Cr(VI) ions from water to the particle surface by providing the electrostatic or steric repulsion. The effects of Ca(2+) ions or humic acid (HA) on the colloidal stability and reactivity of PAA-modified nZVI (P-nZVI) and starch-modified nZVI (S-nZVI) were examined. Differing stability behavior and reactivity were observed for different SM-nZVI. It was found that the presence of Ca(2+) or HA altered surface chemistry of SM-nZVI, the particle-particle interaction and the particle-contaminant interaction, and hence influencing the stability behavior and reactivity of the particles. PMID:26970032

  19. The effect of size and size distribution on the oxidation kinetics and plasmonics of nanoscale Ag particles.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hua; Alexson, Dimitri; Glembocki, Orest; Prokes, S M

    2010-05-28

    We employed a simple and effective electroless (EL) plating approach to produce silver nanoparticles (NPs) on bare silicon, on dielectric ZnO nanowires (NWs) and on Si NWs, respectively. The surface stability of the homogeneous Ag NPs formed on the ZnO NW surfaces was investigated by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), which show that the attachment of thiol to the Ag surface can slow down the oxidation process, and the SERS signal remains strong for more than ten days. To further examine the Ag NP oxidation process in air, the oxygen content in the silicon nanowire core/Ag sheath composites was monitored by the energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) method. The amount of oxygen in the system increases with time, indicating the silver NPs were continuously oxidized, and it is not clear if saturation is reached in this time period. To investigate the influence of the Ag NPs size distribution on the oxidation process, the oxygen amount in the NPs formed by EL deposition and e-beam (EB) evaporation on a bare silicon surface was compared. Results indicate a faster oxidation process in the EL formed Ag NPs than those produced by EB evaporation. We attribute this observation to the small diameter of the EL produced silver particles, which results in a higher surface energy. PMID:20431201

  20. The effect of size and size distribution on the oxidation kinetics and plasmonics of nanoscale Ag particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Hua; Alexson, Dimitri; Glembocki, Orest; Prokes, S. M.

    2010-05-01

    We employed a simple and effective electroless (EL) plating approach to produce silver nanoparticles (NPs) on bare silicon, on dielectric ZnO nanowires (NWs) and on Si NWs, respectively. The surface stability of the homogeneous Ag NPs formed on the ZnO NW surfaces was investigated by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), which show that the attachment of thiol to the Ag surface can slow down the oxidation process, and the SERS signal remains strong for more than ten days. To further examine the Ag NP oxidation process in air, the oxygen content in the silicon nanowire core/Ag sheath composites was monitored by the energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) method. The amount of oxygen in the system increases with time, indicating the silver NPs were continuously oxidized, and it is not clear if saturation is reached in this time period. To investigate the influence of the Ag NPs size distribution on the oxidation process, the oxygen amount in the NPs formed by EL deposition and e-beam (EB) evaporation on a bare silicon surface was compared. Results indicate a faster oxidation process in the EL formed Ag NPs than those produced by EB evaporation. We attribute this observation to the small diameter of the EL produced silver particles, which results in a higher surface energy.

  1. Applications of Optical Spectroscopy in Studies on Energy & Electron Transfer and Solvation Effects in Nanoscale and Molecular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Megan H. J.

    This thesis describes three investigations, ranging in subject matters, all of which relating to systems capable of photoinduced reactions involving energy or electron transfer. The phenomenon and the effects of environment in the various systems are explored using different methodologies of optical spectroscopy. As the chapters progress, different investigations introduce and build on fundamental concepts encountered and in complexity of the methodologies used to explore the systems. The first chapter introduces the preparation of water-soluble CdSe nanocrystal clusters. The clusters, created using a protein, are 3-D close-packed self-assemblies of nanocrystals. Due to this close-packed nature, electronic interactions between the nanocrystals allow for energy migration within the cluster. The structural and optical properties of the clusters were described. Then using steady-state spectroscopy, properties of the original nanocrystals were compared to that of the cluster to determine the consequence of nanocrystal coupling interactions and their potential use toward the development of artificial light-harvesting systems. In the second chapter, CdSe nanocrystals are functionalized with a unique electro-active polymer, and the electron transfer between the nanocrystal and the electro-active polymer adsorbate is investigated. Using fluorescence decay measurements, the electron transfer reaction inherent to the system with respect to a comprehensive range of dielectric solvents was explored. The study illustrates the high complexity of seemingly typical nanocrystal-based systems and provides general awareness of what factors need to be considered when dealing with such systems. The final chapter starts with an informal review of ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy, focusing on two methods, three-pulse photon echo peak shift (3PEPS) and two-dimensional photon echo (2DPE) electronic spectroscopy, and how they are related. A straightforward approach for extracting 3PEPS data

  2. Quantum Tunneling Current in Nanoscale Plasmonic Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2014-10-01

    Recently, electron tunneling between plasmonic resonators is found to support quantum plasmon resonances, which may introduce new regimes in nano-optoelectronics and nonlinear optics. This revelation is of substantial interest to the fundamental problem of electron transport in nano-scale, for example, in a metal-insulator-metal junction (MIM), which has been continuously studied for decades. Here, we present a self-consistent model of electron transport in a nano-scale MIM, by solving the coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations. The effects of space charge, exchange-correlation, anode emission, and material properties of the electrodes and insulator are examined in detail. The self-consistent calculations are compared with the widely used Simmons formula. Transition from the direct tunneling regime to the space-charge-limited regime is demonstrated. This work was supported by AFOSR.

  3. Nanoscale confinement and interfacial effects on the dynamics and glass transition/crystallinity of thin adsorbed films on silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madathingal, Rajesh Raman

    The research investigated in this dissertation has focused on understanding the structure-property-function relationships of polymer nanocomposites. The properties of composite systems are dictated by the properties of their components, typically fillers in a polymer matrix. In nanocomposites, the polymer near an interface has significantly different properties compared with the bulk polymer, and the contribution of the adsorbed polymer to composite properties becomes increasingly important as the filler size decreases. Despite many reports of highly favorable properties, the behavior of polymer nanocomposites is not generally predictable, and thus requires a better understanding of the interfacial region. The ability to tailor the filler/matrix interaction and an understanding of the impact of the interface on macroscopic properties are keys in the design of nanocomposite properties. In this original work the surface of silica nanoparticles was tailored by: (a) Changing the number of sites for polymer attachment by varying the surface silanols and, (b) By varying the size/curvature of nanoparticles. The effect of surface tailoring on the dynamic properties after the adsorption of two model polymers, amorphous polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and semicrystalline polyethylene oxide (PEO) was observed. The interphase layer of polymers adsorbed to silica surfaces is affected by the surface silanol density as well as the relative size of the polymer compared with the size of the adsorbing substrate. The non-equilibrium adsorption of PMMA onto individual colloidal Stober silica (SiO2) particles, where Rparticle (100nm) > RPMMA (˜6.5nm) was compared with the adsorption onto fumed silica, where Rparticle (7nm) ˜ RPMMA (6.5nm) < Raggregate (˜1000nm), both as a function of silanol density [SiOH] and hydrophobility. In the former case, TEM images showed that the PMMA adsorbed onto individual nanoparticles, so that the number of PMMA chains/bead could be calculated, whereas

  4. Nanoscale memristive radiofrequency switches.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shuang; Ghadiri-Sadrabadi, Mohammad; Bardin, Joseph C; Xia, Qiangfei

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency switches are critical components in wireless communication systems and consumer electronics. Emerging devices include switches based on microelectromechanical systems and phase-change materials. However, these devices suffer from disadvantages such as large physical dimensions and high actuation voltages. Here we propose and demonstrate a nanoscale radiofrequency switch based on a memristive device. The device can be programmed with a voltage as low as 0.4 V and has an ON/OFF conductance ratio up to 10(12) with long state retention. We measure the radiofrequency performance of the switch up to 110 GHz and demonstrate low insertion loss (0.3 dB at 40 GHz), high isolation (30 dB at 40 GHz), an average cutoff frequency of 35 THz and competitive linearity and power-handling capability. Our results suggest that, in addition to their application in memory and computing, memristive devices are also a leading contender for radiofrequency switch applications. PMID:26108890

  5. Nanoscale Electrostatics in Mitosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardi, L. John; West, Patrick Michael

    2001-04-01

    Primitive biological cells had to divide with very little biology. This work simulates a physicochemical mechanism, based upon nanoscale electrostatics, which explains the anaphase A poleward motion of chromosomes. In the cytoplasmic medium that exists in biological cells, electrostatic fields are subject to strong attenuation by Debye screening, and therefore decrease rapidly over a distance equal to several Debye lengths. However, the existence of microtubules within cells changes the situation completely. Microtubule dimer subunits are electric dipolar structures, and can act as intermediaries that extend the reach of the electrostatic interaction over cellular distances. Experimental studies have shown that intracellular pH rises to a peak at mitosis, and decreases through cytokinesis. This result, in conjunction with the electric dipole nature of microtubule subunits and the Debye screened electrostatic force is sufficient to explain and unify the basic events during mitosis and cytokinesis: (1) assembly of asters, (2) motion of the asters to poles, (3) poleward motion of chromosomes (anaphase A), (4) cell elongation, and (5) cytokinesis. This paper will focus on a simulation of the dynamics if anaphase A motion based on this comprehensive model. The physicochemical mechanisms utilized by primitive cells could provide important clues regarding our understanding of cell division in modern eukaryotic cells.

  6. Effect of injection velocity and particle concentration on transport of nanoscale zero-valent iron and hydraulic conductivity in saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Strutz, Tessa J; Hornbruch, Götz; Dahmke, Andreas; Köber, Ralf

    2016-08-01

    Successful groundwater remediation by injecting nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles requires efficient particle transportation and distribution in the subsurface. This study focused on the influence of injection velocity and particle concentration on the spatial NZVI particle distribution, the deposition processes and on quantifying the induced decrease in hydraulic conductivity (K) as a result of particle retention by lab tests and numerical simulations. Horizontal column tests of 2m length were performed with initial Darcy injection velocities (q0) of 0.5, 1.5, and 4.1m/h and elemental iron input concentrations (Fe(0)in) of 0.6, 10, and 17g/L. Concentrations of Fe(0) in the sand were determined by magnetic susceptibility scans, which provide detailed Fe(0) distribution profiles along the column. NZVI particles were transported farther at higher injection velocity and higher input concentrations. K decreased by one order of magnitude during injection in all experiments, with a stronger decrease after reaching Fe(0) concentrations of about 14-18g/kg(sand). To simulate the observed nanoparticle transport behavior the existing finite-element code OGS has been successfully extended and parameterized for the investigated experiments using blocking, ripening, and straining as governing deposition processes. Considering parameter relationships deduced from single simulations for each experiment (e.g. deposition rate constants as a function of flow velocity) one mean parameter set has been generated reproducing the observations in an adequate way for most cases of the investigated realistic injection conditions. An assessment of the deposition processes related to clogging effects showed that the percentage of retention due to straining and ripening increased during experimental run time resulting in an ongoing reduction of K. Clogging is mainly evoked by straining which dominates particle deposition at higher flow velocities, while blocking and ripening play a

  7. Effect of injection velocity and particle concentration on transport of nanoscale zero-valent iron and hydraulic conductivity in saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutz, Tessa J.; Hornbruch, Götz; Dahmke, Andreas; Köber, Ralf

    2016-08-01

    Successful groundwater remediation by injecting nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles requires efficient particle transportation and distribution in the subsurface. This study focused on the influence of injection velocity and particle concentration on the spatial NZVI particle distribution, the deposition processes and on quantifying the induced decrease in hydraulic conductivity (K) as a result of particle retention by lab tests and numerical simulations. Horizontal column tests of 2 m length were performed with initial Darcy injection velocities (q0) of 0.5, 1.5, and 4.1 m/h and elemental iron input concentrations (Fe0in) of 0.6, 10, and 17 g/L. Concentrations of Fe0 in the sand were determined by magnetic susceptibility scans, which provide detailed Fe0 distribution profiles along the column. NZVI particles were transported farther at higher injection velocity and higher input concentrations. K decreased by one order of magnitude during injection in all experiments, with a stronger decrease after reaching Fe0 concentrations of about 14-18 g/kg(sand). To simulate the observed nanoparticle transport behavior the existing finite-element code OGS has been successfully extended and parameterized for the investigated experiments using blocking, ripening, and straining as governing deposition processes. Considering parameter relationships deduced from single simulations for each experiment (e.g. deposition rate constants as a function of flow velocity) one mean parameter set has been generated reproducing the observations in an adequate way for most cases of the investigated realistic injection conditions. An assessment of the deposition processes related to clogging effects showed that the percentage of retention due to straining and ripening increased during experimental run time resulting in an ongoing reduction of K. Clogging is mainly evoked by straining which dominates particle deposition at higher flow velocities, while blocking and ripening play a

  8. Charge transport in nanoscale junctions.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Understanding the fundamentals of nanoscale charge transfer is pivotal for designing future nano-electronic devices. Such devices could be based on individual or groups of molecular bridges, nanotubes, nanoparticles, biomolecules and other 'active' components, mimicking wire, diode and transistor functions. These have operated in various environments including vacuum, air and condensed matter, in two- or three-electrode configurations, at ultra-low and room temperatures. Interest in charge transport in ultra-small device components has a long history and can be dated back to Aviram and Ratner's letter in 1974 (Chem. Phys. Lett. 29 277-83). So why is there a necessity for a special issue on this subject? The area has reached some degree of maturity, and even subtle geometric effects in the nanojunction and noise features can now be resolved and rationalized based on existing theoretical concepts. One purpose of this special issue is thus to showcase various aspects of nanoscale and single-molecule charge transport from experimental and theoretical perspectives. The main principles have 'crystallized' in our minds, but there is still a long way to go before true single-molecule electronics can be implemented. Major obstacles include the stability of electronic nanojunctions, reliable operation at room temperature, speed of operation and, last but not least, integration into large networks. A gradual transition from traditional silicon-based electronics to devices involving a single (or a few) molecule(s) therefore appears to be more viable from technologic and economic perspectives than a 'quantum leap'. As research in this area progresses, new applications emerge, e.g. with a view to characterizing interfacial charge transfer at the single-molecule level in general. For example, electrochemical experiments with individual enzyme molecules demonstrate that catalytic processes can be studied with nanometre resolution, offering a route towards optimizing biosensors at

  9. Molecular Photovoltaics in Nanoscale Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Burtman, Vladimir; Zelichonok, Alexander; Pakoulev, Andrei V.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the intrinsic charge transport in organic photovoltaic (PVC) devices and field-effect transistors (SAM-OFETs) fabricated by vapor phase molecular self-assembly (VP-SAM) method. The dynamics of charge transport are determined and used to clarify a transport mechanism. The 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic diphenylimide (NTCDI) SAM devices provide a useful tool to study the fundamentals of polaronic transport at organic surfaces and to discuss the performance of organic photovoltaic devices in nanoscale. Time-resolved photovoltaic studies allow us to separate the charge annihilation kinetics in the conductive NTCDI channel from the overall charge kinetic in a SAM-OFET device. It has been demonstrated that tuning of the type of conductivity in NTCDI SAM-OFET devices is possible by changing Si substrate doping. Our study of the polaron charge transfer in organic materials proposes that a cation-radical exchange (redox) mechanism is the major transport mechanism in the studied SAM-PVC devices. The role and contribution of the transport through delocalized states of redox active surface molecular aggregates of NTCDI are exposed and investigated. This example of technological development is used to highlight the significance of future technological development of nanotechnologies and to appreciate a structure-property paradigm in organic nanostructures. PMID:21339983

  10. Nanoscale pillar arrays for separations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kirchner, Teresa; Strickhouser, Rachel; Hatab, Nahla; Charlton, Jennifer; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2015-04-01

    The work presented herein evaluates silicon nano-pillar arrays for use in planar chromatography. Electron beam lithography and metal thermal dewetting protocols were used to create nano-thin layer chromatography platforms. With these fabrication methods we are able to reduce the size of the characteristic features in a separation medium below that used in ultra-thin layer chromatography; i.e. pillar heights are 1-2μm and pillar diameters are typically in the 200- 400nm range. In addition to the intrinsic nanoscale aspects of the systems, it is shown they can be further functionalized with nanoporous layers and traditional stationary phases for chromatography; hence exhibit broad-rangingmore » lab-on-a-chip and point-of-care potential. Because of an inherent high permeability and very small effective mass transfer distance between pillars, chromatographic efficiency can be very high but is enhanced herein by stacking during development and focusing while drying, yielding plate heights in the nm range separated band volumes. Practical separations of fluorescent dyes, fluorescently derivatized amines, and anti-tumor drugs are illustrated.« less