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Sample records for nanoscale multilayer pvd

  1. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, R.; Cunha, D. J.; Vieira, E. M. F.; Silva, M. M.; Dupont, L.; Goncalves, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si3N4). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber.

  2. Tribological and mechanical properties of Ti/TiAlN/TiAlCN nanoscale multilayer PVD coatings deposited on AISI H11 hot work tool steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Bukhaiti, M. A.; Al-hatab, K. A.; Tillmann, W.; Hoffmann, F.; Sprute, T.

    2014-11-01

    A new [Ti/TiAlN/TiAlCN]5 multilayer coatings were deposited onto polished substrate AISI H11 (DIN 1.2343) steel by an industrial magnetron sputtering device. The tribological performance of the coated system was investigated by a ball-on-disk tribometer against 100Cr6 steel and Al2O3 balls. The friction coefficients and specific wear rates were measured at various normal loads (2, 5, 8, and 10 N) and sliding velocities (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 m/s) in ambient air and dry conditions. The phase structure, composition, wear tracks morphologies, hardness, and film/substrate adhesion of the coatings were characterized by light-microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), 3D-surface analyzer, nanoindentation, and scratch tests. Results showed that the deposited coatings showed low wear rates in the scale of 10-15 m3/N m, low friction coefficients against 100Cr6 and Al2O3 balls in the range of 0.25-0.37, and good hardness in the range of 17-20 GPa. Results also revealed that the friction coefficients and disc wear rates decrease and increase, respectively with the increase in normal load and sliding velocity for both coating/Al2O3 and coating/100Cr6 sliding system. Compared with the uncoated-H11 substrate, the deposited coating exhibited superior tribological and mechanical properties. The dominant wear mechanism was abrasive wear for coating/Al2O3 pair, while for coating/100Cr6 pair, a combination of mild adhesive wear, severe adhesive wear, and abrasive wear (extensive plowing) were the dominant wear mechanisms at different applied normal loads.

  3. Metallic multilayers at the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A.F.

    1994-11-01

    The development of multilayer structures has been driven by a wide range of commercial applications requiring enhanced material behaviors. Innovations in physical vapor deposition technologies, in particular magnetron sputtering, have enabled the synthesis of metallic-based structures with nanoscaled layer dimensions as small as one-to-two monolayers. Parameters used in the deposition process are paramount to the Formation of these small layer dimensions and the stability of the structure. Therefore, optimization of the desired material properties must be related to assessment of the actual microstructure. Characterization techniques as x-ray diffraction and high resolution microscopy are useful to reveal the interface and layer structure-whether ordered or disordered crystalline, amorphous, compositionally abrupt or graded, and/or lattice strained Techniques for the synthesis of metallic multilayers with subnanometric layers will be reviewed with applications based on enhancing material behaviors as reflectivity and magnetic anisotropy but with emphasis on experimental studies of mechanical properties.

  4. Residual stress within nanoscale metallic multilayer systems during thermal cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Economy, David Ross; Cordill, Megan Jo; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kennedy, Marian S.

    2015-09-21

    Projected applications for nanoscale metallic multilayers will include wide temperature ranges. Since film residual stress has been known to alter system reliability, stress development within new film structures with high interfacial densities should be characterized to identify potential long-term performance barriers. To understand factors contributing to thermal stress evolution within nanoscale metallic multilayers, stress in Cu/Nb systems adhered to Si substrates was calculated from curvature measurements collected during cycling between 25 °C and 400 °C. Additionally, stress within each type of component layers was calculated from shifts in the primary peak position from in-situ heated X-ray diffraction. The effects of both film architecture (layer thickness) and layer order in metallic multilayers were tracked and compared with monolithic Cu and Nb films. Analysis indicated that the thermoelastic slope of nanoscale metallic multilayer films depends on thermal expansion mismatch, elastic modulus of the components, and also interfacial density. The layer thickness (i.e. interfacial density) affected thermoelastic slope magnitude while layer order had minimal impact on stress responses after the initial thermal cycle. When comparing stress responses of monolithic Cu and Nb films to those of the Cu/Nb systems, the nanoscale metallic multilayers show a similar increase in stress above 200 °C to the Nb monolithic films, indicating that Nb components play a larger role in stress development than Cu. Local stress calculations from X-ray diffraction peak shifts collected during heating reveal that the component layers within a multilayer film respond similarly to their monolithic counterparts.

  5. Residual stress within nanoscale metallic multilayer systems during thermal cycling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Economy, David Ross; Cordill, Megan Jo; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kennedy, Marian S.

    2015-09-21

    Projected applications for nanoscale metallic multilayers will include wide temperature ranges. Since film residual stress has been known to alter system reliability, stress development within new film structures with high interfacial densities should be characterized to identify potential long-term performance barriers. To understand factors contributing to thermal stress evolution within nanoscale metallic multilayers, stress in Cu/Nb systems adhered to Si substrates was calculated from curvature measurements collected during cycling between 25 °C and 400 °C. Additionally, stress within each type of component layers was calculated from shifts in the primary peak position from in-situ heated X-ray diffraction. The effects ofmore » both film architecture (layer thickness) and layer order in metallic multilayers were tracked and compared with monolithic Cu and Nb films. Analysis indicated that the thermoelastic slope of nanoscale metallic multilayer films depends on thermal expansion mismatch, elastic modulus of the components, and also interfacial density. The layer thickness (i.e. interfacial density) affected thermoelastic slope magnitude while layer order had minimal impact on stress responses after the initial thermal cycle. When comparing stress responses of monolithic Cu and Nb films to those of the Cu/Nb systems, the nanoscale metallic multilayers show a similar increase in stress above 200 °C to the Nb monolithic films, indicating that Nb components play a larger role in stress development than Cu. Local stress calculations from X-ray diffraction peak shifts collected during heating reveal that the component layers within a multilayer film respond similarly to their monolithic counterparts.« less

  6. Fabrication and nanoscale characterization of magnetic multilayer nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elawayeb, Mohamed

    Magnetic multilayers nanowires are scientifically fascinating and have potential industrial applications in many areas of advanced nanotechnology. These applications arise due to the nanoscale dimensions of nanostructures that lead to unique physical properties. Magnetic multilayer nanowires have been successfully produced by electrodeposition into templates. Anodic Aluminium Oxide (AAO) membranes were used as templates in this process; the templates were fabricated by anodization method in acidic solutions at a fixed voltage. The fabrication method of a range of magnetic multilayer nanowires is described in this study and their structure and dimensions were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). This study is focused on the first growth of NiFe/Pt and NiFe/Fe magnetic multilayer nanowires, which were successfully fabricated by pulse electrodeposition into the channels of porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) templates, and characterized at the nanoscale. Individual nanowires have uniform structure and regular periodicity. The magnetic and nonmagnetic layers are polycrystalline, with randomly oriented fcc lattice structure crystallites. Chemical compositions of the individual nanowires were analyzed using TEM equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS). The electrical and magnetoresistance properties of individual magnetic multilayer nanowires have been measured inside a SEM using two sharp tip electrodes attached to in situ nanomanipulators and a new electromagnet technique. The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect of individual magnetic multilayer nanowires was measured in the current - perpendicular to the plane (CPP) geometry using a new in situ method at variable magnetic field strength and different orientations..

  7. Deposition of nanoscale multilayer CrN/NbN physical vapor deposition coatings by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Purandare, Y. P.; Ehiasarian, A. P.; Hovsepian, P. Eh.

    2008-03-15

    Nanoscale multilayer CrN/NbN physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings are gaining reputation for their high corrosion and wear resistance. However, the CrN/NbN films deposited by ABS (arc bond sputtering) technology have some limitations such as macrodroplets, porosity, and less dense structures. The novel HIPIMS (high power impulse magnetron sputtering) technique produces macroparticle-free, highly ionized metal plasma, which brings advantages in both surface pretreatment and coating deposition stages of the PVD process. In this study, nanoscale multilayer CrN/NbN PVD coatings were pretreated and deposited with HIPIMS technology and compared with those deposited by HIPIMS-UBM (unbalanced magnetron) and by the ABS technique. In all cases Cr{sup +} etching was utilized to enhance adhesion by low energy ion implantation. The coatings were deposited at 400 deg. C with substrate biased (U{sub b}) at -75 V. During coating deposition, HIPIMS produced significantly high activation of nitrogen compared to the UBM as observed with mass spectroscopy. HIPIMS-deposited coatings revealed a bilayer period of 4.1 nm (total thickness: 2.9 {mu}m) and hardness of 3025 HK{sub 0.025}. TEM results revealed droplet free, denser microstructure with (200) preferred orientation for the HIPIMS coating owing to the increased ionization as compared to the more porous structure with random orientation observed in UBM coating. The dry sliding wear coefficient (K{sub c}) of the coating was 1.8x10{sup -15} m{sup 3} N{sup -1} m{sup -1}, whereas the steady state coefficient of friction was 0.32. Potentiodynamic polarization tests revealed higher E{sub corr} values, higher pitting resistance (around potentials +400 to +600 mV), and lower corrosion current densities for HIPIMS deposited coatings as compared to the coatings deposited by ABS or HIPIMS-UBM. The corrosion behavior of the coatings qualitatively improved with the progressive use of HIPIMS from pretreatment stage to the coating deposition step.

  8. The mechanical behavior of nanoscale metallic multilayers: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Q.; Xie, J. Y.; Wang, F.; Huang, P.; Xu, K. W.; Lu, T. J.

    2015-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of nanoscale metallic multilayers (NMMs) has attracted much attention from both scientific and practical views. Compared with their monolithic counterparts, the large number of interfaces existing in the NMMs dictates the unique behavior of this special class of structural composite materials. While there have been a number of reviews on the mechanical mechanism of microlaminates, the rapid development of nanotechnology brought a pressing need for an overview focusing exclusively on a property-based definition of the NMMs, especially their size-dependent microstructure and mechanical performance. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review on the microstructure, mechanical property and plastic deformation physics of NMMs. We hope this review could accomplish two purposes: (1) introducing the basic concepts of scaling and dimensional analysis to scientists and engineers working on NMM systems, and (2) providing a better understanding of interface behavior and the exceptional qualities the interfaces in NMMs display at atomic scale.

  9. Deformation-induced nanoscale mixing reactions in Cu/Ni and Ag/Pd multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2013-11-04

    During the repeated cold rolling of Cu/Ni and Ag/Pd multilayers, a solid solution forms at the interfaces as nanoscale layer structure with a composition that replicates the overall multilayer composition. The interfacial mixing behavior was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. During deformation induced reaction, the intermixing behavior of the Cu/Ni and Ag/Pd multilayers is in contrast to thermally activated diffusion behavior. This distinct behavior can provide new kinetic pathways and offer opportunities for microstructure control that cannot be achieved by thermal processing.

  10. Effect of a ductility layer on the tensile strength of TiAl-based multilayer composite sheets prepared by EB-PVD

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rubing; Zhang, Yaoyao; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Guiqing; Zhang, Deming

    2014-09-15

    TiAl/Nb and TiAl/NiCoCrAl laminate composite sheets with a thickness of 0.4–0.6 mm and dimensions of 150 mm × 100 mm were successfully fabricated by electron beam physical vapor deposition. The microstructures of the sheets were examined, and their mechanical properties were compared with those of TiAl monolithic sheet produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition. Tensile testing was performed at room temperature and 750 °C, and the fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Among the three microlaminate sheets, the TiAl/NiCoCrAl micro-laminate sheet had the best comprehensive properties at room temperature, and the TiAl/Nb micro-laminate sheet showed the ideal high-temperature strength and plasticity at 750 °C. The result was discussed in terms of metal strengthening mechanism. - Highlights: • TiAl-based multilayer foils was fabricated successfully by using EB-PVD method; • The tensile properties and micro-fracture morphologies of the sheet were investigated; • The deformation behavior of the multilayer foils was discussed.

  11. Microstructure evolution during annealing of TiAl/NiCoCrAl multilayer composite prepared by EB-PVD

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rubing; Zhang, Deming; Chen, Guiqing; Wang, Yuesheng

    2014-07-01

    TiAl/NiCoCrAl laminate composite sheet with a thickness of 0.4–0.6 mm as well as a dimension of 150 mm × 100 mm was fabricated successfully by using electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) method. The annealing treatment was processed at 1123 and 1323 K for 3 h in a high vacuum atmosphere, respectively. The phase composition and microstructure of TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminated sheet have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Based on the sheet characterization and results of the microstructure evolution during annealing treatment process, the diffusion mechanism of interfacial reaction in TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminate was investigated and discussed.

  12. Identifying Deformation and Strain Hardening Behaviors of Nanoscale Metallic Multilayers Through Nano-wear Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economy, D. Ross; Mara, N. A.; Schoeppner, R. L.; Schultz, B. M.; Unocic, R. R.; Kennedy, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    In complex loading conditions (e.g., sliding contact), mechanical properties, such as strain hardening and initial hardness, will dictate the long-term performance of materials systems. With this in mind, the strain hardening behaviors of Cu/Nb nanoscale metallic multilayer systems were examined by performing nanoindentation tests within nanoscratch wear boxes and undeformed regions (as-deposited). Both the architecture and substrate influence were examined by utilizing three different individual layer thicknesses (2, 20, and 100 nm) and two total film thicknesses (1 and 10 m). After nano-wear deformation, multilayer systems with thinner layers showed less volume loss as measured by laser scanning microscopy. Additionally, the hardness of the deformed regions significantly rose with respect to the as-deposited measurements, which further increased with greater wear loads. Strain hardening exponents for multilayers with thinner layers (2 and 20 nm, n ? 0.018 and n ? 0.022, respectively) were less than that determined for 100 nm systems (n ? 0.041). These results suggest that single-dislocation-based deformation mechanisms observed for the thinner systems limit the extent of achievable strain hardening. This conclusion indicates that impacts of both architecture strengthening and strain hardening must be considered to accurately predict multilayer performance during sliding contact across varying length scales.

  13. Identifying Deformation and Strain Hardening Behaviors of Nanoscale Metallic Multilayers Through Nano-wear Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economy, D. Ross; Mara, N. A.; Schoeppner, R. L.; Schultz, B. M.; Unocic, R. R.; Kennedy, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    In complex loading conditions ( e.g., sliding contact), mechanical properties, such as strain hardening and initial hardness, will dictate the long-term performance of materials systems. With this in mind, the strain hardening behaviors of Cu/Nb nanoscale metallic multilayer systems were examined by performing nanoindentation tests within nanoscratch wear boxes and undeformed regions (as-deposited). Both the architecture and substrate influence were examined by utilizing three different individual layer thicknesses (2, 20, and 100 nm) and two total film thicknesses (1 and 10 µm). After nano-wear deformation, multilayer systems with thinner layers showed less volume loss as measured by laser scanning microscopy. Additionally, the hardness of the deformed regions significantly rose with respect to the as-deposited measurements, which further increased with greater wear loads. Strain hardening exponents for multilayers with thinner layers (2 and 20 nm, n ≈ 0.018 and n ≈ 0.022, respectively) were less than that determined for 100 nm systems ( n ≈ 0.041). These results suggest that single-dislocation-based deformation mechanisms observed for the thinner systems limit the extent of achievable strain hardening. This conclusion indicates that impacts of both architecture strengthening and strain hardening must be considered to accurately predict multilayer performance during sliding contact across varying length scales.

  14. Dislocation dynamics analysis of dislocation intersections in nanoscale metallic multilayered composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasheh, F.; Zbib, H. M.; Hirth, J. P.; Hoagland, R. G.; Misra, A.

    2007-04-01

    In this work, dislocation dynamics (DD) analysis is used to investigate the strength of nanoscale metallic multilayered composites. Several possible interactions between threading (glide) dislocations and intersecting interfacial dislocations are considered and found to lead to strength predictions in better agreement with experimental trends and significantly higher than the predictions of the simplified confined layer plasticity model based on Orowan bowing of single dislocation in a rigid channel. The strongest interaction occurs when threading and intersecting interfacial dislocations have collinear Burgers' vector and involves an annihilation reaction at their crossing points followed by the resumption of threading with a new dislocation configuration. The other possible dislocation intersections involve the formation of junctions, which are found to be more complex than simple models suggest. When the layer interfaces are modeled as impenetrable walls, as in existing analytical and some dislocation dynamics (DD) models, the predicted strengthening effect is weaker than that predicted by DD with more physical boundary conditions at the interfaces.

  15. Stress-Induced Self-Organization of Nanoscale Structures in SiGe/Si Multilayer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichert, C.; Lagally, M. G.; Tersoff, J.; Peticolas, L. J.; Bean, J. C.

    1996-03-01

    During the growth of Si_1-xGex films on Si(001) the resulting growth front undergoes a series of elastic strain relief mechanisms including ripple formation due to step bunching and subsequent formation of facetted nanoscale islands. Using atomic-force microscopy we show that one can use these mechanisms to create relatively periodic two-dimensional surface patterns by tuning substrate miscut, alloy composition, and layer thickness. By growing SiGe/Si multilayers, the three-dimensional islands, usually exhibiting a broad size distribution, can be forced to self-organize into an array of uniformly sized crystallites. In general, these crystallites are four-sided pyramids. But for specific substrate miscuts an interplay of ripple formation and facetting yields a regular arrangement of prism-like ``hut clusters''. We discuss the underlying mechanisms of the self-organization of the islands in the framework of continuum elasticity theory.

  16. Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hanfei; Chu, Yong S.; Maser, Jörg; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Kim, Jungdae; Kang, Hyon Chol; Lombardo, Jeffrey J.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.

    2013-01-01

    For scanning x-ray microscopy, many attempts have been made to image the phase contrast based on a concept of the beam being deflected by a specimen, the so-called differential phase contrast imaging (DPC). Despite the successful demonstration in a number of representative cases at moderate spatial resolutions, these methods suffer from various limitations that preclude applications of DPC for ultra-high spatial resolution imaging, where the emerging wave field from the focusing optic tends to be significantly more complicated. In this work, we propose a highly robust and generic approach based on a Fourier-shift fitting process and demonstrate quantitative phase imaging of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode by multilayer Laue lenses (MLLs). The high sensitivity of the phase to structural and compositional variations makes our technique extremely powerful in correlating the electrode performance with its buried nanoscale interfacial structures that may be invisible to the absorption and fluorescence contrasts. PMID:23419650

  17. Nanoscale/multilayer gradient materials for application in electromagnetic gun systems

    SciTech Connect

    Otooni, M.A.; Brown, I.G.; Anders, S.; Wang, Z.

    1996-12-31

    Analysis of fired rails from electromagnetic railguns indicates severe surface damage occurs due to high current arcing and tribological mismatch. The authors have explored the behavior of several nanoscale multilayered materials as possible routes to improve the thermomechanical properties of the rail and armature materials. Structures investigated include (i) Ti-Co alloy on Ta-Cu alloy on dlc (diamond-like carbon) on stainless steel; (ii) Ti-Co alloy on Ta-Cu alloy on dlc on Cu, (iii) Ti-Co alloy on Ta-Cu on Cu; and (iv) Ti-Co on Ta-Cu alloy on Al. The alloys were all 50:50 at% and film thicknesses were fin the range 400--1,000 {angstrom}. The films were formed using a repetitively pulsed vacuum arc plasma deposition method with substrate biasing- and IBAD-like techniques. The surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, optical microscopy, microhardness measurements, arc erosion resistance and scratch resistance tests. Preliminary results show improvement in the microhardness, arc erosion resistance and scratch resistance, most especially for the dlc-coated surfaces. This kind of multilayered approach to the fabrication of electromagnetic railgun and armature surfaces could be important for future advanced Electromagnetic EM Gun systems.

  18. Thermomechanically modulated nanoscale multilayered materials for application in electromagnetic gun systems

    SciTech Connect

    Otooni, M.A.; Brown, I.G.; Monteiro, O.

    1997-12-01

    Fired rails from electromagnetic railguns show severe damage from arcing and tribological mismatch. The authors have fabricated and studied several different nanoscale multilayered materials as possible routes to improve the thermal transport and thermomechanical properties of the rail and armature materials. A vacuum-arc-based plasma deposition technique with wide control of ion energy was used for the film synthesis, and high-energy high-dose (energy up to {approximately}150 keV, dose up to {approximately}1 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}2}) metal ion implantation was also used. The multilayered film structures formed and investigated included sublayers of Ti, TiCo, ZrN, TaN and dlc (diamond-like carbon) in the following combinations: (1) ZrN on TiCo on TaN on dlc on a Cu substrate, (2) ZrN on TiCo on TaN on dlc on an Al substrate, (3) TiN on TiCo on TaN on a stainless steel substrate, and (4) Ti on TiCo on a stainless steel substrate. Individual sublayer film thickness was in the range of 400 {angstrom}--7{micro}. The surfaces were characterized by SEM, TEM, RBS, high energy electron diffraction, and microhardness measurements. Significant improvements in the material surface properties were obtained for virtually all of the surface structures investigated. Here the authors outline the material synthesis and surface modification techniques used and the materials characterization results obtained.

  19. Surface modification of 316L stainless steel with magnetron sputtered TiN/VN nanoscale multilayers for bio implant applications.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, B; Ananthakumar, R; Kobayashi, Akira; Jayachandran, M

    2012-02-01

    Nanoscale multilayered TiN/VN coatings were developed by reactive dc magnetron sputtering on 316L stainless steel substrates. The coatings showed a polycrystalline cubic structure with (111) preferential growth. XPS analysis indicated the presence of peaks corresponding to Ti2p, V2p, N1s, O1s, and C1s. Raman spectra exhibited the characteristic peaks in the acoustic range of 160-320 cm(-1) and in the optic range between 480 and 695 cm(-1). Columnar structure of the coatings was observed from TEM analysis. The number of adherent platelets on the surface of the TiN/VN multilayer, VN, TiN single layer coating exhibit fewer aggregation and pseudopodium than on substrates. The wear resistance of the multilayer coatings increases obviously as a result of their high hardness. Tafel plots in simulated bodily fluid showed lower corrosion rate for the TiN/VN nanoscale multilayer coatings compared to single layer and bare 316L SS substrate. PMID:22113251

  20. Synthesis and characterization of titanium carbide, titanium boron carbonitride, titanium boride/titanium carbide and titanium carbide/chromium carbide multilayer coatings by reactive and ion beam assisted, electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Douglas Edward

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate the synthesis of titanium carbide, TiBCN, TiB2/TiC and TiC/Cr23C6 multilayer coatings by several methods of electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and examine the affects of various processing parameters on the properties and microstructures of the coatings. TiC was successfully deposited by reactive ion beam assisted (RIBA), EB-PVD and the results were compared to various titanium carbide coatings deposited by a variety of techniques. The affects of substrate temperature and ion beam current density were correlated with composition, hardness, changes in the lattice parameter, degree of crystallographic texture, residual stress, surface morphology, and microstructure. The average Vicker's hardness number was found to increase with increasing ion beam current density and increase over the substrate temperature range of 250C to 650C. The average Vicker's hardness number decreased at a substrate temperature of 750C as a result of texturing and microstructure. The present investigation shows that the average Vicker's hardness number is not only a function of the composition, but also the microstructure including the degree of crystallographic texture. TiB2/TiC multilayer coatings were deposited by argon ion beam assisted, EB-PVD with varying number of total layers to two different film thicknesses under slightly different deposition conditions. In both cases, the hardness of the coatings increased with increasing number of total layers. The adhesion of the coatings ranged from 30 N to 50 N, with the better adhesion values obtained with the thinner coatings. The crystallographic texture coefficients of both the TiC and TiB2 layers were found to change with increasing number of total layers. The multilayer design was found to significantly affect the microstructure and grain size of the deposited coatings. The fracture toughness was found to decrease with increasing number of total layers and was attributed to the increase in hardness and reduction in the total amount of compressive stress. TiBCN coatings were synthesized by the co-evaporation of titanium, titanium diboride, and carbon (through tungsten) while simultaneously bombarding the substrate surface with a mixture of argon and nitrogen ionized gas which has not been performed to the author's knowledge. The bulk composition was determined by EPMA and suggests that TiBCN has a wide compositional range similar to TiN and TiC. The TiBCN coatings were determined to be nano-crystalline with a cubic crystallographic structure. The average Vicker's hardness number of the TiBCN coatings ranged from 2777 VHN0.050 to 3343 VHN0.050 with the highest value reported for the higher concentrations of boron. The adhesion of the coatings to WC-6wt.Co-0.3wt.%TaC was found to increase from 20 N to 52 N with decreasing compressive stress. Lastly, multilayer titanium carbide and chromium carbide coatings with varying individual layer thickness were synthesized by the co-evaporation of Ti, Cr and C through tungsten at elevated temperatures. The average Vicker's hardness number was found to increase from 1302 VHN0.050 to 2052 VHN0.050 by changing the individual layer thickness of the multilayers. In addition, the grain size, measured compressive stress, and fracture toughness values all decreased with decreasing individual layer thickness.

  1. Nanoscale morphology of multilayer PbTe/CdTe heterostructures and its effect on photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczewski, G.; Szot, M.; Kret, S.; Kowalczyk, L.; Chusnutdinow, S.; Wojtowicz, T.; Schreyeck, S.; Brunner, K.; Schumacher, C.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2015-03-01

    We study nanoscale morphology of PbTe/CdTe multilayer heterostuctures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on hybrid GaAs/CdTe (100) substrates. Nominally, the structures consist of 25 repetitions of subsequently deposited CdTe and PbTe layers with comparable thicknesses of 21 and 8 nm, respectively. However, the morphology of the resulting structures crucially depends on the growth temperature. The two-dimensional layered, superlattice-like character of the structures remains preserved only when grown at low substrate temperatures, such as 230 C. The samples grown at the slightly elevated temperature of 270 C undergo a morphological transformation to structures consisting of CdTe and PbTe pillars and columns oriented perpendicular to the substrate. Although the pillar-like objects are of various shapes and dimensions these structures exhibit exceptionally strong photoluminescence in the near infrared spectral region. At the higher growth temperature of 310 C, PbTe and CdTe separate completely forming thick layers oriented longitudinally to the substrate plane. The observed topological transformations are driven by thermally activated atomic diffusion in the solid state phase. The solid state phase remains fully coherent during the processes. The observed topological transitions leading to the material separation in PbTe/CdTe system could be regarded as an analog of spinodal decomposition of an immiscible solid state solution and thus they can be qualitatively described by the Cahn-Hillard model as proposed by Groiss et al (2014 APL Mater. 2 012105).

  2. Simulations of nanoscale Ni/Al multilayer foils with intermediate Ni2Al3 growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunduz, I. E.; Onel, S.; Doumanidis, C. C.; Rebholz, C.; Son, S. F.

    2015-06-01

    Nanoscale multilayers of binary metallic systems, such as nickel/aluminum, exhibit self-propagating exothermic reactions due to the high formation enthalpy of the intermetallic compounds. Most of the previous modeling approaches on the reactions of this system rely on the use of mass diffusion with a phenomenological derived diffusion coefficient representing single-phase (NiAl) growth, coupled with heat transport. We show that the reaction kinetics, temperatures, and thermal front width can be reproduced more satisfactorily with the sequential growth of Ni2Al3 followed by NiAl, utilizing independently obtained interdiffusivities. The computational domain was meshed with a dynamically generated bi-modal grid consisting of fine and coarse zones corresponding to rapid and slower reacting regions to improve computational efficiency. The PDEPE function in MATLAB was used as a basis for an alternating direction scheme. A modified parabolic growth law was employed to model intermetallic growth in the thickness direction. A multiphase enthalpy function was formulated to solve for temperatures after discrete phase growth and transformations at each time step. The results show that the Ni2Al3 formation yields a preheating zone to facilitate the slower growth of NiAl. At bilayer thicknesses lower than 12 nm, the intermixing layer induces oscillating thermal fronts, sharply reducing the average velocities.

  3. Synthesis of nanoscale CN{sub x}/TiAlN multilayered coatings by ion-beam-assisted deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, M.; Li, D. J.; Deng, X. Y.; Sun, X.

    2008-09-15

    CN{sub x}/TiAlN multilayered coatings with different nanoscale modulation periods and ratio of CN{sub x} within each period were prepared by ion-beam-assisted deposition at room temperature. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and nanoindenter and a profiler were used to characterize the microstructure and mechanical properties of the coatings. The low-angle XRD pattern and AES indicated a well-defined multilayered structure of the coating. Although monolithic CN{sub x} and TiAlN coatings formed amorphous and nanocrystalline structures, respectively, the CN{sub x}/TiAlN multilayers exhibited coherent epitaxial growth due to the mutual growth-promoting effect at small CN{sub x} layer thickness (<0.6 nm). At modulation period {lambda}=2.83 nm and CN{sub x} thickness of 10% within each period, the multilayers exhibited strong TiAlN (111) and weak AlN (111) textures and showed the highest hardness (32 GPa), elastic modulus (409 GPa), and critical fracture load (65.7 mN)

  4. Laser beam induced nanoscale spot through nonlinear "thick" samples: A multi-layer thin lens self-focusing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jingsong; Yan, Hui

    2014-08-01

    Self-focusing is a well-researched phenomenon. Nanoscale spots can be achieved through self-focusing, which is an alternative method for achieving high-density data storage, high-resolution light imaging, and maskless nanolithography. Several research groups have observed that self-focusing spots can be reduced to nanoscale levels via incident laser power manipulation. Self-focusing spots can be analyzed by solving the nonlinear Schrdinger equation and the finite difference time domain method. However, both procedures are complex and time-consuming. In the present work, a multi-layer thin-lens self-focusing model that considers diffraction effects and changes of refractive index along the radial and film thickness directions is proposed to analyze the self-focusing behavior and traveling process of light beams intuitively. The self-focusing behaviors of As2S3 are simulated, and results show that a nanoscale self-focusing spot with a radius of about 0.12 ?m can be formed at the bottom of nonlinear sample when the incident laser power exceeds 4.25 mW. Our findings are basically consistent with experimental reports and provide a good method for analyzing and understanding the self-focusing process. An appropriate application schematic design is also provided.

  5. Laser beam induced nanoscale spot through nonlinear thick samples: A multi-layer thin lens self-focusing model

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jingsong; Yan, Hui

    2014-08-14

    Self-focusing is a well-researched phenomenon. Nanoscale spots can be achieved through self-focusing, which is an alternative method for achieving high-density data storage, high-resolution light imaging, and maskless nanolithography. Several research groups have observed that self-focusing spots can be reduced to nanoscale levels via incident laser power manipulation. Self-focusing spots can be analyzed by solving the nonlinear Schrdinger equation and the finite difference time domain method. However, both procedures are complex and time-consuming. In the present work, a multi-layer thin-lens self-focusing model that considers diffraction effects and changes of refractive index along the radial and film thickness directions is proposed to analyze the self-focusing behavior and traveling process of light beams intuitively. The self-focusing behaviors of As{sub 2}S{sub 3} are simulated, and results show that a nanoscale self-focusing spot with a radius of about 0.12??m can be formed at the bottom of nonlinear sample when the incident laser power exceeds 4.25?mW. Our findings are basically consistent with experimental reports and provide a good method for analyzing and understanding the self-focusing process. An appropriate application schematic design is also provided.

  6. Structure and mechanical properties of nanoscale multilayered CrN/ZrSiN coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. G.; Rapaud, O.; Allain, N.; Baraket, M.; Dong, C.; Coddet, C.

    2009-07-15

    Nanocrystalline/amorphous CrN/ZrSiN multilayer coatings with a bilayer thickness ranging from 11 to 153 nm were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructure and mechanical properties of these thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and nanoindentation. The formation of nanocrystalline CrN and nanocomposite ZiSiN in the single layer coatings was identified by XRD and FTIR. The periodic structure of the as-deposited multilayer coatings was confirmed by TEM observation. Nanoindentation tests showed that both the values of hardness (H) and reduced elastic modulus (E{sub r}) of CrN/ZrSiN multilayers remained almost constant despite varying the bilayer thickness. The multilayer coatings exhibited higher H of 30 GPa and higher resistance to plastic deformation when compared to the single layer CrN and ZrSiN coatings.

  7. Performance of nanoscale metallic multilayer systems under mechanical and thermal loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economy, David Ross

    Reports of nanoscale metallic multilayers (NMM) performance show a relatively high strength and radiation damage resistance when compared their monolithic components. Hardness of NMMs has been shown to increase with increasing interfacial density (i.e. decreasing layer thickness). This interface density-dependent behavior within NMMs has been shown to deviate from Hall-Petch strengthening, leading to higher measured strengths during normal loading than those predicted by a rule of mixtures. To fully understand why this occurs, other researchers have looked at the influence of the crystal structures of the component layers, orientations, and compositions on deformation processes. Additionally, a limited number of studies have focused on the structural stability and possible performance variation between as-deposited systems and those exposed to mechanical and thermal loading. This dissertation identified how NMM as-deposited structures and performance are altered by mechanical loading (sliding/wear contact) and/or thermal (such as diffusion, relaxation) loading. These objectives were pursued by tracking hardness evolution during sliding wear and after thermal loading to as-deposited stress and mechanical properties. Residual stress progression was also examined during thermal loading and supporting data was collected to detail structural and chemical changes. All of these experimental observations were conducted using Cu/Nb NMMs with 2 nm, 20 nm, or 100 nm thick individual layers deposited with either 1 microm or 10 microm total thicknesses with two geometries (Cu/Nb and Nb/Cu) on (100) Si. Wear boxes were performed on Cu/Nb NMM using a nanoindentation system with a 1 microm conical diamond counterface. After nano-wear deformation, the hardness of the deformed regions significantly rose with respect to as-deposited measurements, which further increased with greater wear loads. Additionally, NMMs with thinner layers showed less volume loss as measured by laser scanning microscopy. Strain hardening exponents for multilayers with thinner layers (2 nm: n ≈ 0.018 and 20 nm: n ≈ 0.022 respectively) were less than was determined for 100 nm systems (n ≈ 0.041). These results suggest that single-dislocation based deformation mechanisms observed for the thinner systems limit the extent of achievable strain hardening. This result indicates that both architecture strengthening and strain hardening should be considered if the coating will undergo sliding wear. Furthermore, the hardness of the worn 100 nm system was observed to exceed the as-deposited hardness of the 20 nm, a previously unreported finding, further indicating the interplay between the architecture- and strain-based strengthening mechanisms. Residual stress has been identified as a potential mechanism to cause microstructural instability in NMM architectures. To understand the factors controlling thermal stress evolution for NMMs, the stress in Cu-Nb NMM systems was determined from curvature measurements collected as the sample was cycled from 25°C to 400°C. In addition, the stress within each of the component layers was assessed by using changes in primary peak position from X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermoelastic slope of NMM systems was shown to not only depend on thermal expansion mismatch and elastic modulus. Analysis showed that layer thickness (interfacial density) affected the magnitude of thermoelastic slope while the layer order was observed to have minimal impact on the stress-response after the initial heating segment. When comparing the monolithic stress responses to those of the Cu-Nb NMM systems, the NMMs show a similar increase in stress magnitude above 200°C to monolithic Nb. This indicates that the Nb layers play a larger role in the development of initial stresses than the Cu layers. Localized stress measurements using in-situ XRD revealed that the stress response of the Cu and Nb layers within the NMM behave similarly to their monolithic counterparts by themselves, rather than the composite stress estimate from curvature measurements. Although FCC Nb has been identified under very specific contexts (e.g. due to initial deposition conditions, appreciable impurity content), the transformation of pure Nb from BCC to FCC has not been previously observed. Through this work we identified that stress is a possible mechanism that allows this transformation to occur. During heating to 500°C, a sharp peak in the stress response of 1 microm monolithic Nb was observed at 475°C. Post-heating determination of structure revealed both the initial BCC orientation as well as peaks that coincide with a previously simulated FCC Nb structure. Due to the observation of both structures concurrently, the observed transformation did not progress to completion. The transformation coincided with an increase in the elastic modulus from 115 +/- 4 GPa to 153 +/- 4 GPa, another indication of a structural change within the Nb film. These findings have not been previously observed for pure Nb and are being further confirmed with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area diffraction (SAD).

  8. PVD-Beschichtungstechnologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Markus K.

    Die PVD-Technologie umfasst eine Reihe von Beschichtungsverfahren zur Abscheidung von Metallen, Legierungen oder chemischen Verbindungen durch Zufuhr von thermischer Energie oder durch Teilchenbeschuss im Hochvakuum. PVDVerfahren gestatten u. a. die Beschichtung bei niedrigen Prozesstemperaturen, so dass thermisch sensible Substrate, z. B. wrmebehandelte Sthle oder ausgewhlte Kunststoffe, beschichtet werden knnen. Insbesondere mit dem Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating-Verfahren (MSIP-Verfahren) und mit dem Arc Ion Plating-Verfahren (AIP-Verfahren) ist es mglich, thermisch vorbehandelte Werkstoffe zu beschichten, ohne den eingestellten Wrmebehandlungszustand (Hrte, Spannungszustand) zu verndern. Ferner knnen endbearbeitete Bauteile mit der PVD-Technologie beschichtet werden, da die eingesetzten PVD-Verfahren die Ausgangsoberflche konturgetreu abbilden, ohne dass eine Nachbearbeitung erforderlich wird.

  9. Ion-beam induced transformations in nanoscale multilayers: Evolution of clusters with preferred length scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, S.; Satpati, B.; Goswami, D. K.; Bhattacharjee, K.; Satyam, P. V.; Dev, B. N.

    2006-04-01

    Ion-irradiation-induced modifications of a periodic Pt/C multilayer system containing a small amount of Fe have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) studies. The multilayer stack with 16 Pt/C layer pairs (period of 4.23 nm) was fabricated on a glass substrate. A 2 MeV Au2+ ion beam was rastered on the sample to obtain uniformly irradiated strips with fluences from 11014 to 11015 ions/cm2. Ion irradiation has been found to cause preferential migration of Fe towards Pt layers [Bera et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 212, 530 (2003)]. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) shows considerable atomic redistribution for irradiation at the highest ion fluence (11015 ions/cm2). This structure is composed of small clusters. Phase separation and cluster formation processes are discussed. Periodic multilayers have periodicity only in the direction normal to the multilayer surface. However, Fourier transform (FT) of the XTEM images of the sample irradiated at the highest fluence shows extra off-normal Fourier components of superlattice periodicities arising due to ion irradiation. These extra spots in the FT are due to preferential length scales in intercluster separation in three dimensions. With a proper understanding of this phenomenon it may be possible to fabricate useful three-dimensional self-assembled structures of nanoclusters. Our high resolution transmission electron microscopy and GIXRD results reveal the formation of an FePt alloy. As FePt is a magnetic alloy, our observation raises the possibility of fabrication of ion-beam induced magnetic nanocluster lattices.

  10. Enhancement of biocompatibility of metal implants by nanoscale tiN/NbN multilayer coatings.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, B

    2013-07-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN)/niobium nitride (NbN) nanostructured multilayer coatings were prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering method using the combination of a titanium and niobium target and an Ar-N2 mixture discharge gas on to 316L stainless steel substrates. The coatings showed a polycrystalline structure with (111) for TiN and (101) for NbN preferential growth. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the multilayer films exhibited the characteristic peaks at 212, 303, 458 and 578 cm-1. A higher hardness of 38 GPa was observed for TiN/NbN coatings. Electrochemical polarization tests were performed in simulated biological fluid solutions at 37 degreesC in order to determine and compare the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated 316L SS substrates. The TiN/NbN multilayer coatings could improve the corrosion resistance of 316L SS substrate. The bacterial culture experiments were performed and the bacteria treated samples were examined by epi fluorescence microscope measurements. PMID:23901475

  11. Mechanics of nanoscale metallic multilayers: from atomic-scale to micro-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian; Hoagland, Richard G; Misra, Amit

    2008-01-01

    Layered composites of Cu/Nb with incoherent interfaces achieve very high strength levels. Interfaces play a crucial role in materials strength by acting as barriers to slip. Atomistic models of Cu/Nb bilayers are used to explore the origins of this resistance. The models clearly show that dislocations near an interface experience an attraction toward the interface. This attraction is caused by shear of the interface induced by the stress field of the dislocation. More importantly, atomistic simulations also reveal that interfacial dislocations easily move in interfaces by both glide and climb. Integrating these findings into a micro-scale model, we develop a three-dimensional crystal elastic-plastic model to describe the mechanical behavior of nanoscale metallic multi layers.

  12. Toward Nanoscale Material Applications: Colloidal Quantum Dot Memory And Multi-Layer Graphene Electronics And Optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olac-vaw, Roman

    In this dissertation, the analysis of a possible use of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in memory storage devices is presented. The charging and discharging behaviors of capped cadmium selenide (CdSe) QDs deposited on a sheet of graphite film layers in ambient conditions were analyzed. Individual QDs can be addressed (charged) with the synergistic action of light and the mechanical interaction of a probe of an atomic force microscope (AFM). The probe squeezes the coating layer of QDs helping the photoelectron to tunnel to either the conductive AFM probe or to the substrate. The charge can be induced on individual QDs by locating the QDs with AFM. The charges were stable in ambient conditions (survived up to 24 hours), and even recovered within a minute after their forced neutralization by airflow of negative ions. The analyzed QDs allow recording information at a density up to 1Tb/cm 2. A possibility to attain charging (writing) time down to nanoseconds while keeping discharging (storage) times for more than 100 years is also demonstrated. These results may also be of interest for QDs based sensors, memory, and solar cell applications. Multi-layer heteroepitaxial graphene was successfully formed on 3C-SiC grown on a Si substrate using single gas source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The observation of ambipolar behavior, one of the unique properties of graphene, verifies the successful growth of graphene layers. The epitaxial graphene is believed to be unintentionally p-type doped with the Fermi level offset around +0.11+0.12 V at the Dirac point. Backgate field-effect transistors using multilayer graphene channel were designed, fabricated and characterized for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Even though some gate leakage current was observed, the experimental results show the device worked as an n-type transistor as well as an infrared detector. The drain saturated current of the graphene channel transistor is on the order of mA/mm. The extracted effective mobility was calculated to be around 6000 cm/ V.s which is much higher than Si under any circumstances. The photoreponsivity of the device was achieved up to 100 A/W at 1064 nm wavelength source. Constant photocurrent from 1400 nm to 1600 nm due to interband transition was also observed. The response at 1.6 THz with photoresponsivity of 75 muA/W at 1.6 THz is believed due to intraband transitions.

  13. Effects of tilt interface boundary on mechanical properties of Cu/Ni nanoscale metallic multilayer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Meng; Xu, Jian-Gang; Song, Hai-Yang; Zhang, Yun-Guang

    2015-09-01

    The effect of tilt interfaces and layer thickness of Cu/Ni multilayer nanowires on the deformation mechanism are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that the plasticity of the sample with a 45° tilt angle is much better than the others. The yield stress is found to decrease with increasing the tilt angle and it reaches its lowest value at 33°. Then as the tilt angle continues to increase, the yield strength increases. Furthermore, the studies show that with the decrease of layer thickness, the yield strength gradually decreases. The study also reveals that these different deformation behaviors are associated with the glide of dislocation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 10902083), the Program for New Century Excellent Talent in University of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. NCET-12-1046), the Program for New Scientific and Technological Star of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2012KJXX-39), and the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014JQ1036).

  14. Characterizing solid-state ignition of runaway chemical reactions in Ni-Al nanoscale multilayers under uniform heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Gregory M.; Grzyb, Jessica A.; Knio, Omar M.; Grapes, Michael D.; Weihs, Timothy P.

    2015-10-01

    Nanoscale layers of nickel and aluminum can mix rapidly to produce runaway reactions. While self-propagating high temperature synthesis reactions have been observed for decades, the solid-state ignition of these reactions has been challenging to study. Particularly elusive is characterization of the low-temperature chemical mixing that occurs just prior to the ignition of the runaway reaction. Characterization can be challenging due to inhomogeneous microstructures, uncontrollable heat losses, and the nonuniform distribution of heat throughout the material prior to ignition. To reduce the impact of these variables, we heat multilayered Ni/Al foils in a highly uniform manner and report ignition temperatures as low as 245 C for heating rates ranging from 2000 C/s to 50 000 C/s. Igniting in this way reveals that there are four stages before the reaction is complete: heating to an ignition temperature, low temperature solid-state mixing, a separate high temperature solid-state mixing, and liquid-state mixing. Multiple bilayer spacings, heating rates, and heating times are compared to show that the ignition temperature is a function of the bilayer spacing. A symmetric numerical diffusion model is used to show that there is very little chemical mixing in the first 10 ms of heating but significant mixing after 50 ms. These predictions suggest that ignition temperatures should increase for the slowest heating rates but this trend could not be identified clearly. The modeling was also used to examine the kinetic parameters governing the early stages of solid-state diffusion and suggest that grain boundary diffusion is dominant.

  15. Nanoscale layer-selective readout of magnetization direction from a magnetic multilayer using a spin-torque oscillator.

    PubMed

    Suto, Hirofumi; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Kudo, Kiwamu; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2014-06-20

    Technology for detecting the magnetization direction of nanoscale magnetic material is crucial for realizing high-density magnetic recording devices. Conventionally, a magnetoresistive device is used that changes its resistivity in accordance with the direction of the stray field from an objective magnet. However, when several magnets are near such a device, the superposition of stray fields from all the magnets acts on the sensor, preventing selective recognition of their individual magnetization directions. Here we introduce a novel readout method for detecting the magnetization direction of a nanoscale magnet by use of a spin-torque oscillator (STO). The principles behind this method are dynamic dipolar coupling between an STO and a nanoscale magnet, and detection of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) of this coupled system from the STO signal. Because the STO couples with a specific magnet by tuning the STO oscillation frequency to match its FMR frequency, this readout method can selectively determine the magnetization direction of the magnet. PMID:24872254

  16. Nanoscale layer-selective readout of magnetization direction from a magnetic multilayer using a spin-torque oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suto, Hirofumi; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Kudo, Kiwamu; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2014-06-01

    Technology for detecting the magnetization direction of nanoscale magnetic material is crucial for realizing high-density magnetic recording devices. Conventionally, a magnetoresistive device is used that changes its resistivity in accordance with the direction of the stray field from an objective magnet. However, when several magnets are near such a device, the superposition of stray fields from all the magnets acts on the sensor, preventing selective recognition of their individual magnetization directions. Here we introduce a novel readout method for detecting the magnetization direction of a nanoscale magnet by use of a spin-torque oscillator (STO). The principles behind this method are dynamic dipolar coupling between an STO and a nanoscale magnet, and detection of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) of this coupled system from the STO signal. Because the STO couples with a specific magnet by tuning the STO oscillation frequency to match its FMR frequency, this readout method can selectively determine the magnetization direction of the magnet.

  17. Optical multilayers with an amorphous fluoropolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R.; Loomis, G.E.; Lindsey, E.F.

    1994-07-01

    Multilayered coatings were made by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of a perfluorinated amorphous polymer, Teflon AF2400, together with other optical materials. A high reflector at 1064 run was made with ZnS and AF2400. An all-organic 1064-nm reflector was made from AF2400 and polyethylene. Oxide (HfO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}) compatibility was also tested. Each multilayer system adhered to itself. The multilayers were influenced by coating stress and unintentional temperature rises during PVD deposition.

  18. Femtosecond Single-Shot Imaging of Nanoscale Ferromagnetic Order in Co/Pd Multilayers using Resonant X-ray Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tianhan; Zhu, Diling; Benny Wu,; Graves, Catherine; Schaffert, Stefan; Rander, Torbjorn; Muller, leonard; Vodungbo, Boris; Baumier, Cedric; Bernstein, David P.; Brauer, Bjorn; Cros, Vincent; Jong, Sanne de; Delaunay, Renaud; Fognini, Andreas; Kukreja, Roopali; Lee, Sooheyong; Lopez-Flores, Victor; Mohanty, Jyoti; Pfau, Bastian; Popescu, 5 Horia

    2012-05-15

    We present the first single-shot images of ferromagnetic, nanoscale spin order taken with femtosecond x-ray pulses. X-ray-induced electron and spin dynamics can be outrun with pulses shorter than 80 fs in the investigated fluence regime, and no permanent aftereffects in the samples are observed below a fluence of 25 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Employing resonant spatially-muliplexed x-ray holography results in a low imaging threshold of 5 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Our results open new ways to combine ultrafast laser spectroscopy with sequential snapshot imaging on a single sample, generating a movie of excited state dynamics.

  19. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) of Ceramics for Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, Bryan J.; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    In order to generate advanced multilayer thermal and environmental protection systems, a new deposition process is needed to bridge the gap between conventional plasma spray, which produces relatively thick coatings on the order of 125-250 microns, and conventional vapor phase processes such as electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) which are limited by relatively slow deposition rates, high investment costs, and coating material vapor pressure requirements. The use of Plasma Spray - Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) processing fills this gap and allows thin (< 10 microns) single layers to be deposited and multilayer coatings of less than 100 microns to be generated with the flexibility to tailor microstructures by changing processing conditions. Coatings of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were applied to NiCrAlY bond coated superalloy substrates using the PS-PVD coater at NASA Glenn Research Center. A design-of-experiments was used to examine the effects of process variables (Ar/He plasma gas ratio, the total plasma gas flow, and the torch current) on chamber pressure and torch power. Coating thickness, phase and microstructure were evaluated for each set of deposition conditions. Low chamber pressures and high power were shown to increase coating thickness and create columnar-like structures. Likewise, high chamber pressures and low power had lower growth rates, but resulted in flatter, more homogeneous layers

  20. Optical multilayer films based on an amorphous fluoropolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R.; Loomis, G.E.; Ward, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Multilayered coatings were made by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of a perfluorinated amorphous polymer, Teflon AF2400, and with other optical materials. A high reflector for 1064 nm light was made with ZnS and AF2400. An all-organic 1064 nm reflector was made from AF2400 and polyethylene. Oxide (HfO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}) compatibility with AF2400 was also tested. The multilayer morphologies were influenced by coating stress and unintentional temperature rises from the PVD process. Analysis by liquid nuclear magnetic resonance of the thin films showed slight compositional variations between the coating and starting materials of perfluorinated amorphous polymers.

  1. The effects of rapid thermal annealing on the electrical, optical, and structural properties of Nb:TiO2 multilayer electrodes with an inserted nanoscale Ag layer for organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun-Hyuk; Choi, Yoon-Young; Kim, Han-Ki; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Na, Seok-In

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the effects of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the electrical, optical, structural, interfacial, and surface properties of Nb:TiO2 (NTO)-Ag-NTO multilayer electrodes inserting a nanoscale Ag layer for application in organic solar cells (OSCs). Up to an annealing temperature of 500 C, the resistivity and optical transmittance of the NTO-Ag-NTO electrodes were stably maintained due to the absence of Ag outdiffusion. The effective activation of the Nb in the NTO layer led to a slight decrease in the resistivity and an increase in the band gap caused by the Burstein-Moss effect. However, increasing the RTA temperature above 600 C resulted in degradation of the NTO-Ag-NTO multilayer electrode due to severe Ag diffusion. Based on the synchrotron x-ray scattering and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses results, the electrical properties of the NTO-Ag-NTO electrodes are correlated with the microstructure and interfacial diffusion of each layer. In addition, it was found that the performance of the OSC was critically dependent on the RTA temperature of the NTO-Ag-NTO electrodes even though the as-deposited NTO-Ag-NTO electrode had a fairly low resistivity. This indicates that the activation of Nb dopants in the top NTO layer plays an important role in the extraction of carriers from the organic layer to the anode (NTO-Ag-NTO) electrode.

  2. PVD TBC experience on GE aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maricocchi, A.; Bartz, A.; Wortman, D.

    1997-06-01

    The higher performance levels of modern gas turbine engines present significant challenges in the reli-ability of materials in the turbine. The increased engine temperatures required to achieve the higher per-formance levels reduce the strength of the materials used in the turbine sections of the engine. Various forms of thermal barrier coatings have been used for many years to increase the reliability of gas turbine engine components. Recent experience with the physical vapor deposition process using ceramic material has demonstrated success in extending the service life of turbine blades and nozzles. Engine test results of turbine components with a 125 μm (0.005 in.) PVD TBC have demonstrated component operating tem-peratures of 56 to 83 °C (100 to 150 °F) lower than non-PVD TBC components. Engine testing has also revealed that TBCs are susceptible to high angle particle impact damage. Sand particles and other engine debris impact the TBC surface at the leading edge of airfoils and fracture the PVD columns. As the impacting continues, the TBC erodes in local areas. Analysis of the eroded areas has shown a slight increase in temperature over a fully coated area ; however, a significant temperature reduc-tion was realized over an airfoil without TBC.

  3. Iron-regulated transcription of the pvdA gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: effect of Fur and PvdS on promoter activity.

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, L; Ciervo, A; Orsi, N; Visca, P

    1996-01-01

    The pvdA gene, encoding the enzyme L-ornithine N5-oxygenase, catalyzes a key step of the pyoverdin biosynthetic pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Expression studies with a promoter probe vector made it possible to identify three tightly iron-regulated promoter regions in the 5.9-kb DNA fragment upstream of pvdA. The promoter governing pvdA expression was located within the 154-bp sequence upstream of the pvdA translation start site. RNA analysis showed that expression of PvdA is iron regulated at the transcriptional level. Primer extension and S1 mapping experiments revealed two 5'termini of the pvdA transcript, 68 bp (T1) and 43 bp (T2) 5' of the PvdA initiation. The pvdA transcripts were monocystronic, with T1 accounting for 90% of the pvdA mRNA. Fur box-like sequences were apparently absent in the regions 5' of pvdA transcription start sites. A sequence motif resembling the -10 hexamer of AlgU-dependent promoters and the iron starvation box of pyoverdin genes controlled by the sigmaE -like factor PvdS were identified 5' of the T1 start site. The minimum DNA region required for iron-regulated promoter activity was mapped from bp -41 to -154 relative to the ATG translation start site of pvdA. We used pvdA'::lacZ transcriptional fusions and Northern (RNA) analyses to study the involvement of Fur and PvdS in the iron-regulated expression of pvdA. Two fur mutants of P. aeruginosa were much less responsive than wild-type PAO1 to the iron-dependent regulation of pvdA expression. Transcription from the pvdA promoter did not occur in a heterologous host unless in the presence of the pvdS gene in trans and was abrogated in a pvdS mutant of P. aeruginosa. Interaction of the Fur repressor with a 150-bp fragment encompassing the pvdS promoter was demonstrated in vivo by the Fur titration assay and confirmed in vitro by gel retardation experiments with a partially purified Fur preparation. Conversely, the promoter region of pvdA did not interact with Fur. Our results support the hypothesis that the P. aeruginosa Fur repressor indirectly controls pvdA transcription through the intermediary sigma factor PvdS; in the presence of sufficient iron, Fur blocks the pvdS promoter, thus preventing PvdS expression and consequently transcription of pvdA and other pyoverdin biosynthesis genes. PMID:8636031

  4. Protection of yttria-stabilized zirconia for dental applications by oxidic PVD coating.

    PubMed

    Hbsch, C; Dellinger, P; Maier, H J; Stemme, F; Bruns, M; Stiesch, M; Borchers, L

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the application of transparent physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings on zirconia ceramics was examined as an approach to retard the low-temperature degradation of zirconia for dental applications. Transparent monolayers of titanium oxide (TixOy) and multilayers consisting of titanium oxide-alumina-titanium oxide (TixOy-AlxOy-TixOy) were deposited onto standardized discs of 3Y-TZP using magnetron sputtering. Using X-ray photospectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry, the compositions of the coatings were verified, and an approximate thickness of 50 nm for each type of coating was ascertained. After aging the coated and uncoated samples in water vapor at 134C and 3 bar for 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 h, the monoclinic phase content was determined using X-ray diffraction, and its impact on mechanical properties was assessed in biaxial flexural strength tests. In addition, the depth of the transformation zone was measured from scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces of hydrothermally aged samples. The results revealed that the tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation of the zirconia ceramic was retarded by the application of PVD coatings. During the first stages of aging, the coated samples exhibited a significantly lower monoclinic phase content than the uncoated samples and, after 128 h of aging, showed a transformation zone which was only ?12-15 ?m thick compared to ?30 ?m in the control group. Biaxial flexural strength decreased by ?10% during aging and was not influenced by the application of a PVD coating. PMID:25278443

  5. Vapor Phase Deposition Using Plasma Spray-PVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Niessen, K.; Gindrat, M.; Refke, A.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma sprayphysical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is a low pressure plasma spray technology to deposit coatings out of the vapor phase. PS-PVD is a part of the family of new hybrid processes recently developed by Sulzer Metco AG (Switzerland) on the basis of the well-established low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS) technology. Included in this new process family are plasma spraychemical vapor deposition (PS-CVD) and plasma spraythin film (PS-TF) processes. In comparison to conventional vacuum plasma spraying and LPPS, these new processes use a high energy plasma gun operated at a work pressure below 2 mbar. This leads to unconventional plasma jet characteristics which can be used to obtain specific and unique coatings. An important new feature of PS-PVD is the possibility to deposit a coating not only by melting the feed stock material which builds up a layer from liquid splats, but also by vaporizing the injected material. Therefore, the PS-PVD process fills the gap between the conventional PVD technologies and standard thermal spray processes. The possibility to vaporize feedstock material and to produce layers out of the vapor phase results in new and unique coating microstructures. The properties of such coatings are superior to those of thermal spray and EB-PVD coatings. This paper reports on the progress made at Sulzer Metco to develop functional coatings build up from vapor phase of oxide ceramics and metals.

  6. Effects of MeV Si ions bombardment on the thermoelectric generator from SiO 2/SiO 2 + Cu and SiO 2/SiO 2 + Au nanolayered multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budak, S.; Chacha, J.; Smith, C.; Pugh, M.; Colon, T.; Heidary, K.; Johnson, R. B.; Ila, D.

    2011-12-01

    The defects and disorder in the thin films caused by MeV ions bombardment and the grain boundaries of these nanoscale clusters increase phonon scattering and increase the chance of an inelastic interaction and phonon annihilation. We prepared the thermoelectric generator devices from 100 alternating layers of SiO 2/SiO 2 + Cu multi-nano layered superlattice films at the total thickness of 382 nm and 50 alternating layers of SiO 2/SiO 2 + Au multi-nano layered superlattice films at the total thickness of 147 nm using the physical vapor deposition (PVD). Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and RUMP simulation have been used to determine the stoichiometry of the elements of SiO 2, Cu and Au in the multilayer films and the thickness of the grown multi-layer films. The 5 MeV Si ions bombardments have been performed using the AAMU-Center for Irradiation of Materials (CIM) Pelletron ion beam accelerator to make quantum (nano) dots and/or quantum (quantum) clusters in the multilayered superlattice thin films to decrease the cross plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross plane Seebeck coefficient and cross plane electrical conductivity. To characterize the thermoelectric generator devices before and after Si ion bombardments we have measured Seebeck coefficient, cross-plane electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity in the cross-plane geometry for different fluences.

  7. Controlling light with plasmonic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Alexey A.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Iorsh, Ivan V.; Belov, Pavel A.

    2014-06-01

    Recent years have seen a new wave of interest in layered media - namely, plasmonic multilayers - in several emerging applications ranging from transparent metals to hyperbolic metamaterials. In this paper, we review the optical properties of such subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayered metamaterials and describe their use for light manipulation at the nanoscale. While demonstrating the recently emphasized hallmark effect of hyperbolic dispersion, we put special emphasis to the comparison between multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials and more broadly defined plasmonic-multilayer metamaterials A number of fundamental electromagnetic effects unique to the latter are identified and demonstrated. Examples include the evolution of isofrequency contour shape from elliptical to hyperbolic, all-angle negative refraction, and nonlocality-induced optical birefringence. Analysis of the underlying physical causes, which are spatial dispersion and optical nonlocality, is also reviewed. These recent results are extremely promising for a number of applications ranging from nanolithography to optical cloaking.

  8. Nanoscale Wicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jijie; Sansom, Elijah; Gharib, Mory; Noca, Flavio

    2003-11-01

    A wick is a bundle of fibers that by capillary attraction draws up to be burned a steady supply of the oil in lamps. In textile research, wicking is the process by which liquids are transported across or along fibers by capillary action (of relevance to perspiration). A similar phenomenon was recently discovered in our lab with mats of nanoscale fibers. A droplet containing a surfactant solution was placed on top of a well-aligned mat of carbon nanotubes: wicking was then observed as a film of liquid propagating within the nanocarpet, such as a stain or drop absorbed into a textile fabric. The nanoscale wicking process in carbon nano-arrays offers a simple and enabling technology for the processing (transport, mixing, filtering) of picoliters of fluids without any need for confinement (nanochannel) or bulky driving pressure apparatus. In this work, nanoscale wicking properties are quantified as a function of surfactant activity and carbon nanoarray geometry. The biomolecular sieving capability of the nanotube arrays is also put to test by the addition of biomolecules, while using the wicking process as the fluid driving force.

  9. Nanoscale 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenders, Ludger; Ducourtieux, Sebastien

    2014-04-01

    The accurate determination of the properties of micro- and nano-structures is essential in research and development. It is also a prerequisite in process control and quality assurance in industry. In most cases, especially at the nanometer range, knowledge of the dimensional properties of structures is the fundamental base, to which further physical properties are linked. Quantitative measurements presuppose reliable and stable instruments, suitable measurement procedures as well as calibration artifacts and methods. This special issue of Measurement Science and Technology presents selected contributions from the NanoScale 2013 seminar held in Paris, France, on 25 and 26 April. It was the 6th Seminar on NanoScale Calibration Standards and Methods and the 10th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy (the first being held in 1995). The seminar was jointly organized with the Nanometrology Group of the Technical Committee-Length of EURAMET, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt and the Laboratoire National de Mtrologie et d'Essais. Three satellite meetings related to nanometrology were coupled to the seminar. The first one was an open Symposium on Scanning Probe Microscopy Standardization organized by the ISO/TC 201/SC9 technical committee. The two others were specific meetings focused on two European Metrology Research Projects funded by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET) (see www.euramet.org), the first one focused on the improvement of the traceability for high accuracy devices dealing with sub-nm length measurement and implementing optical interferometers or capacitive sensors (JRP SIB08 subnano), the second one aiming to develop a new metrological traceability for the measurement of the mechanical properties of nano-objects (JRP NEW05 MechProNo). More than 100 experts from industry, calibration laboratories and metrology institutes from around the world joined the NanoScale 2013 Seminar to attend 23 oral and 64 poster presentations. From these contributions, 22 are included as articles in this special issue of Measurement Science and Technology . They cover some novel scientific results that are representative of the topics currently being investigated in the field of European and world-wide nanometrology. Half of the articles presented in this special issue are linked to a quantitative use of atomic force microscopes (AFM) and related techniques. This is not surprising since atomic force microscopy with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scatterometry are the most used techniques to practice metrology at the nanometer scale. The presented developments around AFM mainly concern solutions to improve its performance, such as for example by increasing the scanning speed using dynamic control, its measurement range by using long-range AFM and even by automatically replacing the tip with 10 nm repositioning. The search for a better traceability is still on-going and a comparison of SEM and AFM organized in the Northern Europe research institutes illustrates this question well. But nowadays measurement on advanced product structures requires 3D capabilities. This can be achieved by using a new type of tilting AFM or more dedicated critical dimension (CD) AFMs that will use specific tips whose cantilever is sensitive in three dimensions. A perfect illustration of this are the results presented for the measurement of CD and sidewall on EUV photomasks. Calibration of the cantilever spring constant is still carried on and two papers present the latest developments. Finally, as past Nanoscale issues have witnessed, scanning probe microscopes are more and more used for metrological applications where the quantities to be measured are no longer dimensional, for example, thermal conductivity on delaminated thin films using a scanning thermal microscope, the carrier concentration on CIGS solar cells using a scanning capacitance microscope (SCM) or the surface potential measured by a Kelvin probe microscope. But in all cases, what these special developments share is a metrological approach, and for

  10. Evolution of self-organization in nano-structured PVD coatings under extreme tribological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox-Rabinovich, G.; Kovalev, A.; Aguirre, M. H.; Yamamoto, K.; Veldhuis, S.; Gershman, I.; Rashkovskiy, A.; Endrino, J. L.; Beake, B.; Dosbaeva, G.; Wainstein, D.; Yuan, Junifeng; Bunting, J. W.

    2014-04-01

    The evolution of the self-organization process where dissipative structures are formed under the extreme frictional conditions associated with high performance dry machining of hardened steels has been studied in detail. The emphasis was on the progressive studies of surface transformations within multilayer and monolayer TiAlCrSiYN-based PVD coatings during the running-in stage of wear when self-organization process occurs. The coating layer was characterized by high resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). It is shown that the nano-multilayer coating possesses higher non-equilibrium structure in comparison to the monolayer. Comprehensive studies of the tribo-films (dissipative structures) formed on the friction surface were made using a number of advanced surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The data obtained for the tribo-films was combined with the detailed TEM studies of the structural and phase transformations within the underlying coating layer. This data was related to the micro-mechanical characteristics of the coating layer and its wear resistance. It was demonstrated that the evolution of the self-organization process is strongly controlled by the characteristics of the tribo-films formed at different stages of the wear process. Within running-in stage (after length of cut of 15 m) fully protective mullite tribo-films predominantly form on the surface of nano-multilayer coating, establishing a functional hierarchy within the layer of tribo-films. This reduces entropy production during friction and leads to significant surface damage reduction and wear rate stabilization. In contrast, in a monolayer coating with a lower structural complexity, a variety of protective and non-protective tribo-films form during the running-in stage, which cannot fully protect the surface. Therefore the wear rate on the monolayer is not stabilized and its wear resistance is lower. The results obtained show that it is possible to control tribo-films evolution during self-organization by means of increase in structural complexity and the non-equilibrium state of the surface engineered layer with simultaneous tuning of its integrative behaviour.

  11. EDITORIAL: Nanoscale metrology Nanoscale metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapetek, P.; Koenders, L.

    2011-09-01

    This special issue of Measurement Science and Technology presents selected contributions from the NanoScale 2010 seminar held in Brno, Czech Republic. It was the 5th Seminar on Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods and the 9th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy (the first being held in 1995). The seminar was jointly organized with the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) and the Nanometrology Group of the Technical Committee-Length of EURAMET. There were two workshops that were integrated into NanoScale 2010: first a workshop presenting the results obtained in NANOTRACE, a European Metrology Research Project (EMRP) on displacement-measuring optical interferometers, and second a workshop about the European metrology landscape in nanometrology related to thin films, scanning probe microscopy and critical dimension. The aim of this workshop was to bring together developers, applicants and metrologists working in this field of nanometrology and to discuss future needs. For more information see www.co-nanomet.eu. The articles in this special issue of Measurement Science and Technology cover some novel scientific results. This issue can serve also as a representative selection of topics that are currently being investigated in the field of European and world-wide nanometrology. Besides traditional topics of dimensional metrology, like development of novel interferometers or laser stabilization techniques, some novel interesting trends in the field of nanometrology are observed. As metrology generally reflects the needs of scientific and industrial research, many research topics addressed refer to current trends in nanotechnology, too, focusing on traceability and improved measurement accuracy in this field. While historically the most studied standards in nanometrology were related to simple geometric structures like step heights or 1D or 2D gratings, now we are facing tasks to measure 3D structures and many unforeseen questions arising from interesting physical properties of nanoparticles, nanotubes, quantum dots and similar fascinating objects. Currently there is a high level of interest in characterization of nanoparticles since they are increasingly encountered in science, technology, life sciences and even everyday life. Quantitative characterization of nanoparticles has been the subject of many discussions and some recent work over the last couple of years, and both scanning probe microscopy and scanning or transmission electron microscopy characterization of nanoparticles are presented here. There is also a continuous need for improvement of scanning probe microscopy that is a basic tool for nanometrology. Increasing thermal stability, scanning speed and tip stability, improving traceability and reducing uncertainty are all areas being addressed. As scanning probe microscopy is essentially based on force measurements in the nano- and piconewton range, we take notice of large developments, both theoretical and experimental, in the field of traceable measurements of nanoscale forces. This will greatly increase the understanding and quantification of many basic phenomena in scanning probe microscopy. Finally, we observe that high resolution techniques for acquiring more than just morphology are slowly shifting from purely qualitative tools to well defined quantitative methods. Lack of simple and reliable chemical identification in scanning probe microscopy is compensated by many other local probing methods seen in commercial microscopes, like scanning thermal microscopy or the Kelvin probe technique. All these methods still require underpinning with theoretical and experimental work before they can become traceable analytical methods; however, the increased interest in the metrology community gives rise to optimism in this field. The production of this issue involved considerable effort from many contributors. We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions, the referees for their time spent reviewing the contributions and their valuable comments, and the whole Editorial Board of Measurement Science and Tec

  12. Optical constants of silicon carbide deposited with emerging PVD techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Gianni; Suman, M.; Pelizzo, M. G.; Nicolosi, P.

    2009-05-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is an attractive material for EUV and soft X-ray optics. CVD-deposited silicon carbide (deposited at 1400° C on Si substrate) is the best reflective material in the whole EUV interval (with about the 48% of reflectance at 121.6 nm). Despite of this, SiC thin films deposited with PVD techniques, such as magnetron sputtering, on silicon substrate, do not have the same performances and they undergo to a degradation with time, probably because of some stoichiometry reason (carbon rich). Depositing stable SiC with PVD techniques is crucial in building ML's, like Si/SiC and SiC/Mg for soft X-ray applications (such space telescope and photolithography). We deposited some preliminary samples using the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) and the Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) techniques achieving a good reflectance in the whole EUV range (27% at near normal incidence at 121.6 nn) on a silicon substrate. The higher energy involved in these deposition processes could lead to a film with a stoichiometry much closer to the target one. The reflectivity of the deposited films has been measured at the BEAR beamline of the ELETTRA synchrotron in Trieste (Italy; the optical constants retrieved at six wavelength from 121.6 nm down to 5 nm.

  13. Application of PVD methods to solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyev, A. A.; Sochugov, N. S.; Rabotkin, S. V.; Shipilova, A. V.; Ionov, I. V.; Kovalchuk, A. N.; Borduleva, A. O.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, attention is paid to the application of such a method of vacuum physical vapor deposition (PVD) as magnetron sputtering for fabrication of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) materials and structures. It is shown that the YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) electrolyte and Ni-YSZ anode layers with required thickness, structure and composition can be effectively formed by PVD methods. The influence of parameters of pulsed power magnetron discharge on the deposition rate and the microstructure of the obtained YSZ electrolyte films were investigated. It is shown that the deposition rate of the oxide layers by magnetron sputtering can be significantly increased by using asymmetric bipolar power magnetrons, which creates serious prerequisites for applying this method on the industrial scale. Porous Ni-YSZ anode films were obtained by reactive co-sputtering of Ni and Zr-Y targets and subsequent reduction in the H2 atmosphere at a temperature of 800 C. The Ni-YSZ films comprised small grains and pores of tens of nanometers.

  14. EDITORIAL: Nanoscale metrology Nanoscale metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picotto, G. B.; Koenders, L.; Wilkening, G.

    2009-08-01

    Instrumentation and measurement techniques at the nanoscale play a crucial role not only in extending our knowledge of the properties of matter and processes in nanosciences, but also in addressing new measurement needs in process control and quality assurance in industry. Micro- and nanotechnologies are now facing a growing demand for quantitative measurements to support the reliability, safety and competitiveness of products and services. Quantitative measurements presuppose reliable and stable instruments and measurement procedures as well as suitable calibration artefacts to ensure the quality of measurements and traceability to standards. This special issue of Measurement Science and Technology presents selected contributions from the Nanoscale 2008 seminar held at the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), Torino, in September 2008. This was the 4th Seminar on Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods and the 8th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy (the first being held in 1995). The seminar was jointly organized by the Nanometrology Group within EUROMET (The European Collaboration in Measurement Standards), the German Nanotechnology Competence Centre 'Ultraprecise Surface Figuring' (CC-UPOB), the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and INRIM. A special event during the seminar was the 'knighting' of Günter Wilkening from PTB, Braunschweig, Germany, as the 1st Knight of Dimensional Nanometrology. Günter Wilkening received the NanoKnight Award for his outstanding work in the field of dimensional nanometrology over the last 20 years. The contributions in this special issue deal with the developments and improvements of instrumentation and measurement methods for scanning force microscopy (SFM), electron and optical microscopy, high-resolution interferometry, calibration of instruments and new standards, new facilities and applications including critical dimension (CD) measurements on small and medium structures and nanoparticle characterization. The papers in the first part report on new or improved instrumentation, details of developments of metrology SFM, improvements to SFM, probes and scanning methods in the direction of nanoscale coordinate measuring machines and true 3D measurements as well as of progress of a 2D encoder based on a regular crystalline lattice. To ensure traceability to the SI unit of length many highly sophisticated instruments are equipped with laser interferometers to measure small displacements in the nanometre range very accurately. Improving these techniques is still a challenge and therefore new interferometric techniques are considered in several papers as well as improved sensors for nanodisplacement measurements or the development of a deep UV microscope for micro- and nanostructures. The tactile measurement of small structures also calls for a better control of forces in the nano- and piconewton range. A nanoforce facility, based on a disk-pendulum with electrostatic stiffness reduction and electrostatic force compensation, is presented for the measurement of small forces. In the second part the contributions are related to calibration and correction strategies and standards such as the development of test objects based on 3D silicon structures, and of samples with irregular surface profiles, and their use for calibration. The shape of the tip and its influence on measurements is still a contentious issue and addressed in several papers: use of nanospheres for tip characterization, a geometrical approach for reconstruction errors by tactile probing. Molecular dynamical calculations, classical as well as ab initio (based on density functional theory), are used to discuss effects of tip-sample relaxation on the topography and to have a better base from which to estimate uncertainties in measurements of small particles or features. Some papers report about measurements of air refractivity fluctuations by phase modulation interferometry, angle-scale traceability by laser diffractometry, and an error separation method. The development of 3D surface roughness measurement standards from scratches is considered in one contribution. Here a 2D autoregressive model was used to generate the software gauge data, which were used as a base for the manufacturing process by diamond turning. Contributions in the third part deal with applications including CD measurements on small and medium structures, the characterization of nanoparticles with a diameter less than 200 nm by electron microscopy, chemical nanoscale metrology by TXRF and a study of the strength of nanotube bundles. We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions, and the referees for their time spent reviewing all the papers and for making their valuable and helpful comments. Additional thanks are extended to all involved in the production of this issue for their help and support.

  15. Nucleotide sequence of pvdD, a pyoverdine biosynthetic gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: PvdD has similarity to peptide synthetases.

    PubMed Central

    Merriman, T R; Merriman, M E; Lamont, I L

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes a fluorescent siderophore, pyoverdine, when grown under iron-deficient conditions. Pyoverdine consists of a chromophoric group bound to a partly cyclic octapeptide. As a step toward understanding the molecular events involved in pyoverdine synthesis, we have sequenced a gene, pvdD, required for this process. The gene encodes a 2,448-residue protein, PvdD, which has a predicted molecular mass of 273,061 Da and contains two highly similar domains of about 1,000 amino acids each. The protein is similar to peptide synthetases from a range of bacterial and fungal species, indicating that synthesis of the peptide moiety of pyoverdine proceeds by a nonribosomal mechanism. The pvdD gene is adjacent to a gene, fpvA, which encodes an outer membrane receptor protein required for uptake of ferripyoverdine. PMID:7798141

  16. Improved Thermal Cycling Durability of Thermal Barrier Coatings Manufactured by PS-PVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezanka, S.; Mauer, G.; Vaen, R.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) process is a promising method to manufacture thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). It fills the gap between traditional thermal spray processes and electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The durability of PS-PVD manufactured columnar TBCs is strongly influenced by the compatibility of the metallic bondcoat (BC) and the ceramic TBC. Earlier investigations have shown that a smooth BC surface is beneficial for the durability during thermal cycling. Further improvements of the bonding between BC and TBC could be achieved by optimizing the formation of the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer. In the present study, the parameters of pre-heating and deposition of the first coating layer were investigated in order to adjust the growth of the TGO. Finally, the durability of the PS-PVD coatings was improved while the main advantage of PS-PVD, i.e., much higher deposition rate in comparison to EB-PVD, could be maintained. For such coatings, improved thermal cycling lifetimes more than two times higher than conventionally sprayed TBCs, were measured in burner rigs at ~1250 C/1050 C surface/substrate exposure temperatures.

  17. Phase stability in metallic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genc, Arda

    As the thin film materials used in electronic and optical applications continue to decrease in thickness to the nano-scales, marked changes in functional properties are expected to occur due to changes in crystal structure of these materials. Therefore, such multilayer systems have been of considerable interest due to the ability to control properties by engineering the structure of materials at these scales. The new characterization tools allow direct imaging and analysis of such materials in order to link the performance variations with the crystal structure variations. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been often the technique of choice in characterization of nanomaterials enabling not only imaging the structure of the material but also chemically probing of the composition changes at a high spatial resolution. The ultimate resolution achievable in the electron microscope is a product of both microscope and the specimen and the simultaneous effect of each defines the quality and quantity of the information transferred through the microscope. In this sense, the common ion-beam assisted TEM sample preparation techniques have been deeply recognized as being surface damaging at high ion milling energies (>5kV) thus limiting the information transfer in the microscope. For the first time, a low energy (<2kV) focused Ar ion beam milling system has been applied to remove the surface artifacts created by the high energy conventional broad Ar or focused Ga beam milling techniques. The overall quality of the samples drastically improved after the application of the low energy milling practices and the outcome results directly enhanced the clarity of the information gathered at the atomic and nanoscale by the electron microscope. Besides the specimen the resolution achievable in the electron microscope is strongly limited by the imperfections in the electron optics of the microscope column such as the spherical aberration of the electromagnetic lenses. Recently this problem has been solved by the correction of the spherical aberration of the microscope using a set of non-round lenses and consequently the information limit in an aberration corrected microscope (<0.1nm) has been pushed beyond an uncorrected microscope (˜0.13nm). In 2007, such a corrector system in the probe-forming lens of a Scanning TEM microscope was successfully installed at The Ohio State University. The preliminary results from this microscope were presented in the content of this work where we have studied the microscope and performed first hand experiments. Finally we have addressed the phase stability in Cu/Nb and Ti/Nb nanoscale metallic multilayers by extensive use of these advance characterization techniques and tools. At reduced layer thickness (<2nm) the change in fcc to bcc phase in Cu and hcp to bcc phase in Ti were experimentally confirmed using X-ray diffraction electron diffraction and electron imaging techniques along the plan-view and cross-section directions. These structural transformations were often referred to as being thermodynamic in nature and a classical thermodynamical model explains and predicts the formation of such pseudomorphic phases through the competition of volumetric and interfacial free energy variables. We have investigated both the structural and chemical changes in the Cu/Nb and Ti/Nb nanoscale metallic mutilayers as a function of length scale in order to understand and predict the phase stability. The important constituents: volumetric free energy and interfacial energy changes were experimentally derived considering the chemistry and structure of the multilayers and competition between these thermodynamic terms well explains the observed structural changes in nanoscale metallic multilayers.

  18. Antibacterial PVD coatings doped with silver by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oss, J.; Palacio, J. F.; Kulkarni, S.; Medrano, A.; Garca, J. A.; Rodrguez, R.

    2014-08-01

    The antibacterial effect of certain metal ions, like silver, has been exploited since antiquity. Obviously, the ways to employ the biocide activity of this element have evolved throughout time and it is currently used in a wide range of clinical applications. The work presented here reports the results of an investigation focused on combining the protective properties of PVD coatings with the biocide property of silver, applied by ion implantation. For this purpose, chromium nitride layers were doped with silver implanted at two different doses (5 1016 and 1 1017 ion/cm2) at 100 keV of energy and perpendicular incidence. Full characterization of the coatings was performed to determine its topographical and mechanical properties. The concentration profile of Ag was analyzed by GD-OES. The thickness of the layers, nano-hardness, roughness, wear resistance and coefficient of friction were measured. Finally, the anti-bacterial efficacy of the coatings was determined following the JIS Z-2801:2010 Standard. The results provide clear insights into the efficacy of silver for antibacterial purposes, as well as on its influence in the mechanical and tribological behaviour of the coatings matrix.

  19. Nanoscale thermal probing

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yanan; Wang, Xinwei

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale novel devices have raised the demand for nanoscale thermal characterization that is critical for evaluating the device performance and durability. Achieving nanoscale spatial resolution and high accuracy in temperature measurement is very challenging due to the limitation of measurement pathways. In this review, we discuss four methodologies currently developed in nanoscale surface imaging and temperature measurement. To overcome the restriction of the conventional methods, the scanning thermal microscopy technique is widely used. From the perspective of measuring target, the optical feature size method can be applied by using either Raman or fluorescence thermometry. The near-field optical method that measures nanoscale temperature by focusing the optical field to a nano-sized region provides a non-contact and non-destructive way for nanoscale thermal probing. Although the resistance thermometry based on nano-sized thermal sensors is possible for nanoscale thermal probing, significant effort is still needed to reduce the size of the current sensors by using advanced fabrication techniques. At the same time, the development of nanoscale imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging, provides a great potential solution to resolve the nanoscale thermal probing problem. PMID:22419968

  20. Plasma Spray-PVD: A New Thermal Spray Process to Deposit Out of the Vapor Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Niessen, Konstantin; Gindrat, Malko

    2011-06-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is a low pressure plasma spray technology recently developed by Sulzer Metco AG (Switzerland). Even though it is a thermal spray process, it can deposit coatings out of the vapor phase. The basis of PS-PVD is the low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS) technology that has been well established in industry for several years. In comparison to conventional vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) or low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS), the new proposed process uses a high energy plasma gun operated at a reduced work pressure of 0.1 kPa (1 mbar). Owing to the high energy plasma and further reduced work pressure, PS-PVD is able to deposit a coating not only by melting the feed stock material which builds up a layer from liquid splats but also by vaporizing the injected material. Therefore, the PS-PVD process fills the gap between the conventional physical vapor deposition (PVD) technologies and standard thermal spray processes. The possibility to vaporize feedstock material and to produce layers out of the vapor phase results in new and unique coating microstructures. The properties of such coatings are superior to those of thermal spray and electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) coatings. In contrast to EB-PVD, PS-PVD incorporates the vaporized coating material into a supersonic plasma plume. Owing to the forced gas stream of the plasma jet, complex shaped parts such as multi-airfoil turbine vanes can be coated with columnar thermal barrier coatings using PS-PVD. Even shadowed areas and areas which are not in the line of sight of the coating source can be coated homogeneously. This article reports on the progress made by Sulzer Metco in developing a thermal spray process to produce coatings out of the vapor phase. Columnar thermal barrier coatings made of Yttria-stabilized Zircona (YSZ) are optimized to serve in a turbine engine. This process includes not only preferable coating properties such as strain tolerance and erosion resistance but also the simultaneous coverage of multiple air foils.

  1. A review-application of physical vapor deposition (PVD) and related methods in the textile industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahidi, Sheila; Moazzenchi, Bahareh; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood

    2015-09-01

    Physical vapor deposition (PVD) is a coating process in which thin films are deposited by the condensation of a vaporized form of the desired film material onto the substrate. The PVD process is carried out in a vacuum. PVD processes include different types, such as: cathode arc deposition, electron beam physical vapor deposition, evaporative deposition, sputtering, ion plating and enhanced sputtering. In the PVD method, the solid coating material is evaporated by heat or by bombardment with ions (sputtering). At the same time, a reactive gas is also introduced; it forms a compound with the metal vapor and is deposited on the substrate as a thin film with highly adherent coating. Such coatings are used in a wide range of applications such as aerospace, automotive, surgical, medical, dyes and molds for all manner of material processing, cutting tools, firearms, optics, thin films and textiles. The objective of this work is to give a comprehensive description and review of the science and technology related to physical vapor deposition with particular emphasis on their potential use in the textile industry. Physical vapor deposition has opened up new possibilities in the modification of textile materials and is an exciting prospect for usage in textile design and technical textiles. The basic principle of PVD is explained and the major applications, particularly sputter coatings in the modification and functionalization of textiles, are introduced in this research.

  2. PvdP Is a Tyrosinase That Drives Maturation of the Pyoverdine Chromophore in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Nadal-Jimenez, Pol; Koch, Gudrun; Reis, Carlos R.; Muntendam, Remco; Raj, Hans; Jeronimus-Stratingh, C. Margot; Cool, Robbert H.

    2014-01-01

    The iron binding siderophore pyoverdine constitutes a major adaptive factor contributing to both virulence and survival in fluorescent pseudomonads. For decades, pyoverdine production has allowed the identification and classification of fluorescent and nonfluorescent pseudomonads. Here, we demonstrate that PvdP, a periplasmic enzyme of previously unknown function, is a tyrosinase required for the maturation of the pyoverdine chromophore in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PvdP converts the nonfluorescent ferribactin, containing two iron binding groups, into a fluorescent pyoverdine, forming a strong hexadentate complex with ferrous iron, by three consecutive oxidation steps. PvdP represents the first characterized member of a small family of tyrosinases present in fluorescent pseudomonads that are required for siderophore maturation and are capable of acting on large peptidic substrates. PMID:24816606

  3. Structural characterization and high throughput screening of inhibitors of PvdQ, an NTN hydrolase involved in pyoverdine synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Eric J.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a variety of virulence factors including pyoverdine, a non-ribosomally produced peptide siderophore. The maturation pathway of the pyoverdine peptide is complex and provides a unique target for inhibition. Within the pyoverdine biosynthetic cluster is a periplasmic hydrolase, PvdQ, that is required for pyoverdine production. However, the precise role of PvdQ in the maturation pathway has not been biochemically characterized. We demonstrate herein that the initial module of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase PvdL adds a myristate moiety to the pyoverdine precursor. We extracted this acylated precursor, called PVDIq, from a pvdQ mutant strain and show that the PvdQ enzyme removes the fatty acid catalyzing one of the final steps in pyoverdine maturation. Incubation of PVDIq with crystals of PvdQ allowed us to capture the acylated enzyme and confirm through structural studies the chemical composition of the incorporated acyl chain. Finally, because inhibition of siderophore synthesis has been identified as a potential antibiotic strategy, we developed a high throughput screening assay and tested a small chemical library for compounds that inhibit PvdQ activity. Two compounds that block PvdQ have been identified and their binding within the fatty acid binding pocket structurally characterized. PMID:21892836

  4. Characterization of Mo/Si multilayer growth on stepped topographies

    SciTech Connect

    Boogaard, A. J. R. vcan den; Louis, E.; Zoethout, E.; Goldberg, K. A.; Bijkerk, F.

    2011-08-31

    Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with nanoscale bilayer thicknesses have been deposited on stepped substrate topographies, using various deposition angles. The multilayer morphology at the stepedge region was studied by cross section transmission electron microscopy. A transition from a continuous- to columnar layer morphology is observed near the step-edge, as a function of the local angle of incidence of the deposition flux. Taking into account the corresponding kinetics and anisotropy in layer growth, a continuum model has been developed to give a detailed description of the height profiles of the individual continuous layers. Complementary optical characterization of the multilayer system using a microscope operating in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength range, revealed that the influence of the step-edge on the planar multilayer structure is restricted to a region within 300 nm from the step-edge.

  5. Plasma Spray-PVD: Plasma Characteristics and Impact on Coating Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauer, G.; Vaen, R.

    2012-12-01

    Typical plasma characteristics of the plasma spray-physical vapour deposition (PS-PVD) process were investigated by optical emission spectroscopy. Electron temperatures were determined by Boltzmann plots while temperatures of the heavy species as well as electron densities were obtained by broadening analysis of spectral lines. The results show how the plasma properties and thermodynamic equilibrium conditions are affected by the admixture of hydrogen and the ambient chamber pressure. Some experimental examples of PS-PVD coatings demonstrate the impact on feedstock treatment and deposited microstructures.

  6. Nanoscale construction with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Shawn

    2013-03-01

    The programmability of DNA makes it an attractive material for constructing intricate nanoscale shapes. One method for creating these structures is DNA origami, in which a multiple-kilobase single-stranded ``scaffold'' is folded into a custom nanoscale shape by interacting with hundreds of short oligonucleotide ``staple'' strands. I will talk about our efforts to realize demand-meeting applications of this method, including our recent development of nanoscale devices to mimic cell-signaling stimulation carried out by our own immune systems.

  7. Magnetic pinning in superconductor-ferromagnet multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 ; Chudnovsky, E. M.; Maley, M. P.

    2000-05-01

    We argue that superconductor/ferromagnet multilayers of nanoscale period should exhibit strong pinning of vortices by the magnetic domain structure in magnetic fields below the coercive field when ferromagnetic layers exhibit strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The estimated maximum magnetic pinning energy for single vortex in such a system is about 100 times larger than the pinning energy by columnar defects. This pinning energy may provide critical currents as high as 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2} at high temperatures (but not very close to T{sub c}) at least in magnetic fields below 0.1 T. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Toughening mechanisms in bioinspired multilayered materials

    PubMed Central

    Askarinejad, Sina; Rahbar, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Outstanding mechanical properties of biological multilayered materials are strongly influenced by nanoscale features in their structure. In this study, mechanical behaviour and toughening mechanisms of abalone nacre-inspired multilayered materials are explored. In nacre's structure, the organic matrix, pillars and the roughness of the aragonite platelets play important roles in its overall mechanical performance. A micromechanical model for multilayered biological materials is proposed to simulate their mechanical deformation and toughening mechanisms. The fundamental hypothesis of the model is the inclusion of nanoscale pillars with near theoretical strength (?th ~ E/30). It is also assumed that pillars and asperities confine the organic matrix to the proximity of the platelets, and, hence, increase their stiffness, since it has been previously shown that the organic matrix behaves more stiffly in the proximity of mineral platelets. The modelling results are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data for abalone nacre. The results demonstrate that the aragonite platelets, pillars and organic matrix synergistically affect the stiffness of nacre, and the pillars significantly contribute to the mechanical performance of nacre. It is also shown that the roughness induced interactions between the organic matrix and aragonite platelet, represented in the model by asperity elements, play a key role in strength and toughness of abalone nacre. The highly nonlinear behaviour of the proposed multilayered material is the result of distributed deformation in the nacre-like structure due to the existence of nano-asperities and nanopillars with near theoretical strength. Finally, tensile toughness is studied as a function of the components in the microstructure of nacre. PMID:25551150

  9. Toughening mechanisms in bioinspired multilayered materials.

    PubMed

    Askarinejad, Sina; Rahbar, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Outstanding mechanical properties of biological multilayered materials are strongly influenced by nanoscale features in their structure. In this study, mechanical behaviour and toughening mechanisms of abalone nacre-inspired multilayered materials are explored. In nacre's structure, the organic matrix, pillars and the roughness of the aragonite platelets play important roles in its overall mechanical performance. A micromechanical model for multilayered biological materials is proposed to simulate their mechanical deformation and toughening mechanisms. The fundamental hypothesis of the model is the inclusion of nanoscale pillars with near theoretical strength (σth ~ E/30). It is also assumed that pillars and asperities confine the organic matrix to the proximity of the platelets, and, hence, increase their stiffness, since it has been previously shown that the organic matrix behaves more stiffly in the proximity of mineral platelets. The modelling results are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data for abalone nacre. The results demonstrate that the aragonite platelets, pillars and organic matrix synergistically affect the stiffness of nacre, and the pillars significantly contribute to the mechanical performance of nacre. It is also shown that the roughness induced interactions between the organic matrix and aragonite platelet, represented in the model by asperity elements, play a key role in strength and toughness of abalone nacre. The highly nonlinear behaviour of the proposed multilayered material is the result of distributed deformation in the nacre-like structure due to the existence of nano-asperities and nanopillars with near theoretical strength. Finally, tensile toughness is studied as a function of the components in the microstructure of nacre. PMID:25551150

  10. DIET at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujardin, G.; Boer-Duchemin, E.; Le Moal, E.; Mayne, A. J.; Riedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    We review the long evolution of DIET (Dynamics at surfaces Induced by Electronic Transitions) that began in the 1960s when Menzel, Gomer and Redhead proposed their famous stimulated desorption model. DIET entered the "nanoscale" in the 1990s when researchers at Bell Labs and IBM realized that the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) could be used as an atomic size source of electrons to electronically excite individual atoms and molecules on surfaces. Resonant and radiant Inelastic Electron Tunneling (IET) using the STM have considerably enlarged the range of applications of DIET. Nowadays, "DIET at the nanoscale" covers a broad range of phenomena at the atomic-scale. This includes molecular dynamics (dissociation, desorption, isomerization, displacement, chemical reactions), vibrational spectroscopy and dynamics, spin spectroscopy and manipulation, luminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and plasmonics. Future trends of DIET at the nanoscale offer exciting prospects for new methods to control light and matter at the nanoscale.

  11. Electrical Properties of Gamma Irradiated PVdF Based Polymer Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ayoub, N.; Amin, Y. M.; Arof, A. K.

    2010-07-07

    The effect of different doses of {gamma}-irradiation on the conductivity of PVdF-LiPF{sub 6} solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) was investigated at room temperature. The dielectric constant and loss are seen to increase with increasing radiation doses.

  12. PvD1 defensin, a plant antimicrobial peptide with inhibitory activity against Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Viviane V.; Mello, Érica de O.; Carvalho, Laís P.; de Melo, Edésio J.T.; Carvalho, André de O.; Fernandes, Katia V.S.; Gomes, Valdirene M.

    2015-01-01

    Plant defensins are small cysteine-rich peptides and exhibit antimicrobial activity against a variety of both plant and human pathogens. Despite the broad inhibitory activity that plant defensins exhibit against different micro-organisms, little is known about their activity against protozoa. In a previous study, we isolated a plant defensin named PvD1 from Phaseolus vulgaris (cv. Pérola) seeds, which was seen to be deleterious against different yeast cells and filamentous fungi. It exerted its effects by causing an increase in the endogenous production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and NO (nitric oxide), plasma membrane permeabilization and the inhibition of medium acidification. In the present study, we investigated whether PvD1 could act against the protozoan Leishmania amazonensis. Our results show that, besides inhibiting the proliferation of L. amazonensis promastigotes, the PvD1 defensin was able to cause cytoplasmic fragmentation, formation of multiple cytoplasmic vacuoles and membrane permeabilization in the cells of this organism. Furthermore, we show, for the first time, that PvD1 defensin was located within the L. amazonensis cells, suggesting the existence of a possible intracellular target. PMID:26285803

  13. PvD1 defensin, a plant antimicrobial peptide with inhibitory activity against Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Viviane V; Mello, rica de O; Carvalho, Las P; de Melo, Edsio J T; Carvalho, Andr de O; Fernandes, Katia V S; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2015-01-01

    Plant defensins are small cysteine-rich peptides and exhibit antimicrobial activity against a variety of both plant and human pathogens. Despite the broad inhibitory activity that plant defensins exhibit against different micro-organisms, little is known about their activity against protozoa. In a previous study, we isolated a plant defensin named PvD1 from Phaseolus vulgaris (cv. Prola) seeds, which was seen to be deleterious against different yeast cells and filamentous fungi. It exerted its effects by causing an increase in the endogenous production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and NO (nitric oxide), plasma membrane permeabilization and the inhibition of medium acidification. In the present study, we investigated whether PvD1 could act against the protozoan Leishmania amazonensis. Our results show that, besides inhibiting the proliferation of L. amazonensis promastigotes, the PvD1 defensin was able to cause cytoplasmic fragmentation, formation of multiple cytoplasmic vacuoles and membrane permeabilization in the cells of this organism. Furthermore, we show, for the first time, that PvD1 defensin was located within the L. amazonensis cells, suggesting the existence of a possible intracellular target. PMID:26285803

  14. Pyoverdine and beyond: PvdS dependent gene regulation in Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor PvdS regulates the expression of genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa encoding virulence factors and the biosynthesis and transport of pyoverdine, a siderophore involved in iron acquisition. The production of pyoverdine is a distinctive trait of the fluor...

  15. Investigating Deformation and Failure Mechanisms in Nanoscale Multilayer Metallic Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zbib, Hussein M; Bahr, David F

    2014-10-22

    Over the history of materials science there are many examples of materials discoveries that have made superlative materials; the strongest, lightest, or toughest material is almost always a goal when we invent new materials. However, often these have been a result of enormous trial and error approaches. A new methodology, one in which researchers design, from the atoms up, new ultra-strong materials for use in energy applications, is taking hold within the science and engineering community. This project focused on one particular new classification of materials; nanolaminate metallic composites. These materials, where two metallic materials are intimately bonded and layered over and over to form sheets or coatings, have been shown over the past decade to reach strengths over 10 times that of their constituents. However, they are not yet widely used in part because while extremely strong (they don’t permanently bend), they are also not particularly tough (they break relatively easily when notched). Our program took a coupled approach to investigating new materials systems within the laminate field. We used computational materials science to explore ways to institute new deformation mechanisms that occurred when a tri-layer, rather than the more common bi-layer system was created. Our predictions suggested that copper-nickel or copper-niobium composites (two very common bi-layer systems) with layer thicknesses on the order of 20 nm and then layered 100’s of times, would be less tough than a copper-nickel-niobium metallic composite of similar thicknesses. In particular, a particular mode of permanent deformation, cross-slip, could be activated only in the tri-layer system; the crystal structure of the other bi-layers would prohibit this particular mode of deformation. We then experimentally validated this predication using a wide range of tools. We utilized a DOE user facility, the Center for Integrated Nanotechnology (CINT), to fabricate, for the first time, these tri-layer composites. CINT formed nanolaminate composites were tested in tension, with bulge testing, using nanoindentation, and using micro-compression testing to demonstrate that the tri-layer films were indeed tougher and hardened more during deformation (they got stronger as we deformed them) than equivalent bi-layers. The seven graduate students, 4 post-docs and research faculty, and the two faculty co-PI’s were able to create a collaborated computational prediction and experimental validation team to demonstrate the benefits of this class of materials to the community. The computational work crossed from atomistic to bulk simulations, and the experiments coupled form nm-scale to the mm scale; closely matching the simulations. The simulations provided viable mechanisms that explained the observed results, and new experimental results were used to push the boundaries of the simulation tools. Over the life of the 7 years of this program we proved that tri-layer nanolaminate metallic composite systems exceeded the mechanical performance of bi-layer systems if the right materials were chosen, and that the mechanism responsible for this was tied to the cross slip of dislocations. With 30 journal publications resulting from this work we have broadly disseminated this family of results to the scientific community.

  16. Multilayer Insulation Material Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, M. M.; Dooling, D.

    1999-01-01

    Multilayer Insulation Material Guidelines provides data on multilayer insulation materials used by previous spacecraft such as Spacelab and the Long-Duration Exposure Facility and outlines other concerns. The data presented in the document are presented for information only. They can be used as guidelines for multilayer insulation design for future spacecraft provided the thermal requirements of each new design and the environmental effects on these materials are taken into account.

  17. Complete Wetting of Pt(111) by Nanoscale Liquid Water Films.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuntao; Dibble, Collin J; Petrik, Nikolay G; Smith, R Scott; Kay, Bruce D; Kimmel, Greg A

    2016-02-01

    The melting and wetting of nanoscale crystalline ice films on Pt(111) that are transiently heated above the melting point in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) using nanosecond laser pulses are studied with infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy and Kr temperature-programmed desorption. The as-grown crystalline ice films consist of nanoscale ice crystallites embedded in a hydrophobic water monolayer. Upon heating, these crystallites melt to form nanoscale droplets of liquid water. Rapid cooling after each pulse quenches the films, allowing them to be interrogated with UHV surface science techniques. With each successive heat pulse, these liquid drops spread across the surface until it is entirely covered with a multilayer water film. These results, which show that nanoscale water films completely wet Pt(111), are in contrast to molecular dynamics simulations predicting partial wetting of water drops on a hydrophobic water monolayer. The results provide valuable insights into the wetting characteristics of nanoscale water films on a clean, well-characterized, single-crystal surface. PMID:26785059

  18. Microstructures and mechanical properties of sputtered Cu/Cr multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, A.; Kung, H.; Mitchell, T.E.; Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-03-01

    The microstructures and mechanical properties of Cu/Cr multilayers prepared by sputtering onto {l_brace}100{r_brace} Si substrates at room temperature are presented. The films exhibit columnar grain microstructures with nanoscale grain sizes. The interfaces are planar and abrupt with no intermixing, as expected from the phase diagram. The multilayers tend to adopt a Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) orientation relationship: {l_brace}110{r_brace}Cr // {l_brace}111{r_brace}Cu, <111>Cr // <110>Cu. The hardness of the multilayered structures, as measured by nanoindentation, increase with decreasing layer thickness for layer thicknesses ranging from 200 nm to 50 nm, whereas for lower thicknesses the hardness of the multilayers is independent of the layer thickness. Dislocation-based models are used to interpret the variation of hardness with layer periodicity. The possible effects of factors such as grain size within the layers, density and composition of films and residual stress in the multilayers are highlighted. Comparisons are made to the mechanical properties of sputtered polycrystalline Cu/Nb multilayers which, like Cu/Cr, exhibit sharp fcc/bcc interfaces with no intermixing and a KS orientation relationship, but have a small shear modulus mismatch.

  19. Thermal Conductivity of EB-PVD Thermal Barrier Coatings Evaluated by a Steady-State Laser Heat Flux Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Nagaraj, Ben A.; Bruce, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) Zr02-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined by a steady-state heat flux laser technique. Thermal conductivity change kinetics of the EB-PVD ceramic coatings were also obtained in real time, at high temperatures, under the laser high heat flux, long term test conditions. The thermal conductivity increase due to micro-pore sintering and the decrease due to coating micro-delaminations in the EB-PVD coatings were evaluated for grooved and non-grooved EB-PVD coating systems under isothermal and thermal cycling conditions. The coating failure modes under the high heat flux test conditions were also investigated. The test technique provides a viable means for obtaining coating thermal conductivity data for use in design, development, and life prediction for engine applications.

  20. High Temperature Multilayer Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited Via Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, Bryan James; Zhu, Dongming; Schmitt, Michael P.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Si-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments to avoid rapid material loss. Candidate EBC materials have use temperatures only marginally above current technology, but the addition of a columnar oxide topcoat can substantially increase the durability. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) allows application of these multilayer EBCs in a single process. The PS-PVD technique is a unique method that combines conventional thermal spray and vapor phase methods, allowing for tailoring of thin, dense layers or columnar microstructures by varying deposition conditions. Multilayer coatings were deposited on CMC specimens and assessed for durability under high heat flux and load. Coated samples with surface temperatures ranging from 2400-2700F and 10 ksi loads using the high heat flux laser rigs at NASA Glenn. Coating morphology was characterized in the as-sprayed condition and after thermomechanical loading using electron microscopy and the phase structure was tracked using X-ray diffraction.

  1. Biomedical applications of polypeptide multilayer nanofilms and microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudra, Jai Simha S.

    The past few years have witnessed considerable growth in synthetic polymer chemistry and physics, biomaterials science, and nano-scale engineering. Research on polypeptide multilayer films, coatings, and microcapsules is located at the intersection of these areas and are promising materials for applications in medicine, biotechnology, environmental science. Most envisioned applications of polypeptide multilayers have a biomedical bent. This dissertation on polypeptide multilayer film applications covers key points of polypeptides as materials, means of polymer production, film preparation, film characterization methods, and key points of current research in basic science. Both commercial and designed peptides have been used to fabricate films for in-vitro applications such as antimicrobial coatings and cell culture coatings and also microcapsules for drug delivery applications. Other areas of product development include artificial red blood cells, anisotropic coatings, enantioselective membranes, and artificial viruses.

  2. Multiple frequency capacitive plasmas as a tool to optimize PVD processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienholz, Stefan; Semmler, Egmont; Awakowicz, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Capacitively coupled plasmas are widely used in PVD processes over several years. Nowadays mainly DC-Magnetron sputter coaters are commonly used, which do not allow a separate control of ion flux and ion energy distribution at the target. A possibility to overcome this constriction consists of exciting the plasma at two different radio frequencies simultaneously. In this contribution we discuss the possibility of tuning electrical discharge quantities such as target voltage waveform and self bias voltage by using multiple excitation frequencies. The influence of the relative phase between one frequency and its second harmonic on these quantities is also investigated. The experiments show, that capacitively coupled multiple frequency discharges are a promising complement to existing PVD processes. The authors would like to acknowledge the funding provided by the ``Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft'' within the frame of the SFB-TR 87 and the ``Ruhr University Bochum Research School.''

  3. The effect of PVD coatings on the wear behaviour of magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Altun, Hikmet Sen, Sadri

    2007-10-15

    In this study, AlN/TiN was coated on magnesium alloys using physical vapour deposition (PVD) technique of DC magnetron sputtering, and the influence of the coating on the wear behaviour of the alloys was examined. A physical vapour deposition system for coating processes, a reciprocating wear system for wear tests, a universal hardness equipment for hardness measurement, a X-ray diffractometer (XRD) for compositional analysis of the coating, and a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface examinations were used. It was determined that the wear resistance of the magnesium alloys can be increased by PVD coatings. However, small structural defects which could arise from the coating process or substrate were observed in the coating layers.

  4. Functional expression and activity of the recombinant antifungal defensin PvD1r from Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) seeds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Defensins are basic, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides that are important components of plant defense against pathogens. Previously, we isolated a defensin, PvD1, from Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) seeds. Results The aim of this study was to overexpress PvD1 in a prokaryotic system, verify the biologic function of recombinant PvD1 (PvD1r) by comparing the antimicrobial activity of PvD1r to that of the natural defensin, PvD1, and use a mutant Candida albicans strain that lacks the gene for sphingolipid biosynthesis to unravel the target site of the PvD1r in C. albicans cells. The cDNA encoding PvD1, which was previously obtained, was cloned into the pET-32 EK/LIC vector, and the resulting construct was used to transform bacterial cells (Rosetta Gami 2 (DE3) pLysS) leading to recombinant protein expression. After expression had been induced, PvD1r was purified, cleaved with enterokinase and repurified by chromatographic steps. N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed that the overall process of the recombinant production of PvD1r, including cleavage with the enterokinase, was successful. Additionally, modeling revealed that PvD1r had a structure that was similar to the defensin isolated from plants. Purified PvD1 and PvD1r possessed inhibitory activity against the growth of the wild-type pathogenic yeast strain C. albicans. Both defensins, however, did not present inhibitory activity against the mutant strain of C. albicans. Antifungal assays with the wild-type C. albicans strains showed morphological changes upon observation by light microscopy following growth assays. PvD1r was coupled to FITC, and the subsequent treatment of wild type C. albicans with DAPI revealed that the labeled peptide was intracellularly localized. In the mutant strain, no intracellular labeling was detected. Conclusion Our results indicate that PvD1r retains full biological activity after recombinant production, enterokinase cleavage and purification. Additionally, our results from the antimicrobial assay, the microscopic analysis and the PvD1r-FITC labeling assays corroborate each other and lead us to suggest that the target of PvD1 in C. albicans cells is the sphingolipid glucosylceramide. PMID:24690228

  5. Physical vapor deposited titanium thin films for biomedical applications: Reproducibility of nanoscale surface roughness and microbial adhesion properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ldecke, Claudia; Bossert, Jrg; Roth, Martin; Jandt, Klaus D.

    2013-09-01

    The surface topography is of great importance for the biological performance of titanium based implants since it may influence the initial adsorption of proteins, cell response, as well as microbial adhesion. A recently described technique for the preparation of titanium thin films with an adjustable surface roughness on the nanometer scale is the physical vapor deposition (PVD). The aims of this study were to statistically evaluate the reproducibility of nanorough titanium thin films prepared by PVD using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) based approach, to test the microbial adhesion in dependence of the nanoscale surface roughness and to critically discuss the parameters used for the characterization of the titanium surfaces with respect to AFM microscope settings. No statistically significant differences were found between the surface nanoroughnesses of the PVD prepared titanium thin films. With increasing surface nanoroughness, the coverage by Escherichia coli decreased and the microbial cells were increasingly patchy distributed. The calculated roughness values significantly increased with increasing AFM scan size, while image resolution and pixel density had no influence on this effect. Our study shows that PVD is a suitable tool to reproducibly prepare titanium thin films with a well-defined surface topography on the nanometer scale. These surfaces are, thus, a suitable 2D model system for studies addressing the interaction between surface nanoroughness and the biological system. First results show that surface roughness even on the very low nanometer scale has an influence on bacterial adhesion behavior. These findings give new momentum to biomaterials research and will support the development of biomaterials surfaces with anti-infectious surface properties.

  6. Interfacial effects in multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T.W., Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Interfacial structure and the atomic interactions between atoms at interfaces in multilayers or nano-laminates have significant impact on the physical properties of these materials. A technique for the experimental evaluation of interfacial structure and interfacial structure effects is presented and compared to experiment. In this paper the impact of interfacial structure on the performance of x-ray, soft x-ray and extreme ultra-violet multilayer optic structures is emphasized. The paper is concluded with summary of these results and an assessment of their implications relative to multilayer development and the study of buried interfaces in solids in general.

  7. Multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Britten, Jerald A. (Oakley, CA); Nguyen, Hoang T. (Livermore, CA); Boyd, Robert (Livermore, CA); Shore, Bruce W. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The design and fabrication of dielectric grating structures with high diffraction efficiency used in reflection or transmission is described. By forming a multilayer structure of alternating index dielectric materials and placing a grating structure on top of the multilayer, a diffraction grating of adjustable efficiency, and variable optical bandwidth can be obtained. Diffraction efficiency into the first order in reflection varying between 1 and 98 percent has been achieved by controlling the design of the multilayer and the depth, shape, and material comprising the grooves of the grating structure. Methods for fabricating these gratings without the use of ion etching techniques are described.

  8. Multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings

    DOEpatents

    Perry, M.D.; Britten, J.A.; Nguyen, H.T.; Boyd, R.; Shore, B.W.

    1999-05-25

    The design and fabrication of dielectric grating structures with high diffraction efficiency used in reflection or transmission is described. By forming a multilayer structure of alternating index dielectric materials and placing a grating structure on top of the multilayer, a diffraction grating of adjustable efficiency, and variable optical bandwidth can be obtained. Diffraction efficiency into the first order in reflection varying between 1 and 98 percent has been achieved by controlling the design of the multilayer and the depth, shape, and material comprising the grooves of the grating structure. Methods for fabricating these gratings without the use of ion etching techniques are described. 7 figs.

  9. Hybrid diffusive/PVD treatments to improve the tribological resistance of Ti-6Al-4V.

    PubMed

    Marin, E; Offoiach, R; Lanzutti, A; Regis, M; Fusi, S; Fedrizzi, L

    2014-01-01

    Titanium alloys are nowadays used for a wide range of biomedical applications thanks to their combination of high mechanical resistance, high corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Nevertheless, the applicability of titanium alloys is sometimes limited due to their low microhardness and tribological resistance. Thus the titanium alloys cannot be successfully applied to prosthetic joint couplings. A wide range of surface treatments, in particular PVD coatings such as CrN and TiN, have been used in order to improve the tribological behaviour of titanium alloys. However, the low microhardness of the titanium substrate often results in coating failure due to cracks and delamination. For this reason, hybrid technologies based on diffusive treatments and subsequent PVD coatings may improve the overall coating resistance. In this work, conventional PVD coatings of CrN or TiCN, deposited on Titanium Grade 5, were characterized and then combined with a standard thermal diffusive nitriding treatment in order to improve the tribological resistance of the titanium alloys and avoid coating delamination. The different treatments were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy both on the sample surface and in cross-section. In-depth composition profiles were obtained using glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and localized energy dispersive X-ray diffraction on linear scan-lines. The microhardness and adhesion properties of the different treatments were evaluated using Vickers microhardness tests at different load conditions. The indentations were observed by means of SEM in order to evaluate delaminated areas and the crack's shape and density. The tribological behaviour of the different treatments was tested in dry conditions and in solution, in alternate pin-on-flat configuration, with a frequency of 0.5 Hz. After testing, the surface was investigated by means of stylus profilometry and SEM both on the surface and in cross-section. The standalone PVD coatings show a limited tribological resistance due to the low hardness of the substrate, which results in fractures and delamination. The combination of a diffusive process and a subsequent PVD coating shows a stronger effect in improving the tribological resistance of the substrate. PMID:24211942

  10. Excitons in nanoscale systems.

    PubMed

    Scholes, Gregory D; Rumbles, Garry

    2006-09-01

    Nanoscale systems are forecast to be a means of integrating desirable attributes of molecular and bulk regimes into easily processed materials. Notable examples include plastic light-emitting devices and organic solar cells, the operation of which hinge on the formation of electronic excited states, excitons, in complex nanostructured materials. The spectroscopy of nanoscale materials reveals details of their collective excited states, characterized by atoms or molecules working together to capture and redistribute excitation. What is special about excitons in nanometre-sized materials? Here we present a cross-disciplinary review of the essential characteristics of excitons in nanoscience. Topics covered include confinement effects, localization versus delocalization, exciton binding energy, exchange interactions and exciton fine structure, exciton-vibration coupling and dynamics of excitons. Important examples are presented in a commentary that overviews the present understanding of excitons in quantum dots, conjugated polymers, carbon nanotubes and photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna complexes. PMID:16946728

  11. Excitons in nanoscale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholes, Gregory D.; Rumbles, Garry

    2006-09-01

    Nanoscale systems are forecast to be a means of integrating desirable attributes of molecular and bulk regimes into easily processed materials. Notable examples include plastic light-emitting devices and organic solar cells, the operation of which hinge on the formation of electronic excited states, excitons, in complex nanostructured materials. The spectroscopy of nanoscale materials reveals details of their collective excited states, characterized by atoms or molecules working together to capture and redistribute excitation. What is special about excitons in nanometre-sized materials? Here we present a cross-disciplinary review of the essential characteristics of excitons in nanoscience. Topics covered include confinement effects, localization versus delocalization, exciton binding energy, exchange interactions and exciton fine structure, exciton-vibration coupling and dynamics of excitons. Important examples are presented in a commentary that overviews the present understanding of excitons in quantum dots, conjugated polymers, carbon nanotubes and photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna complexes.

  12. Nanoscale Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugar, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), based on the sensitive detection of nuclear spins, enables three dimensional imaging without radiation damage. Conventional MRI techniques achieve spatial resolution that is at best a few micrometers due to sensitivity limitations of conventional inductive detection. The advent of ultrasensitive nanoscale magnetic sensing opens the possibility of extending MRI to the nanometer scale. If this can be pushed far enough, one can envision taking 3D images of individual biomolecules and, perhaps, even solving molecular structures of proteins. In this talk we will discuss issues related to nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging, especially its implementation using magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). We will also consider the future possibility of using NV centers in diamond for detection of nanoMRI. This work was performed in collaboration with John Mamin, Mark Sherwood, Christian Degen, Martino Poggio and Ginel Hill.

  13. Wedged multilayer Laue Lens.

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, R.; Liu, C.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C. M.; Macrander, A. T.; Yan, H.; Kang, H. C.; Maser, J.; Stephenson, G. B.

    2008-05-01

    A multilayer Laue lens (MLL) is an x-ray focusing optic fabricated from a multilayer structure consisting of thousands of layers of two different materials produced by thin-film deposition. The sequence of layer thicknesses is controlled to satisfy the Fresnel zone plate law and the multilayer is sectioned to form the optic. An improved MLL geometry can be created by growing each layer with an in-plane thickness gradient to form a wedge, so that every interface makes the correct angle with the incident beam for symmetric Bragg diffraction. The ultimate hard x-ray focusing performance of a wedged MLL has been predicted to be significantly better than that of a nonwedged MLL, giving subnanometer resolution with high efficiency. Here, we describe a method to deposit the multilayer structure needed for an ideal wedged MLL and report our initial deposition results to produce these structures.

  14. Wedged multilayer Laue lens

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, Ray; Liu Chian; Qian Jun; Kewish, Cameron M.; Macrander, Albert T.; Yan Hanfei; Maser, Joerg; Kang, Hyon Chol; Stephenson, G. Brian

    2008-05-15

    A multilayer Laue lens (MLL) is an x-ray focusing optic fabricated from a multilayer structure consisting of thousands of layers of two different materials produced by thin-film deposition. The sequence of layer thicknesses is controlled to satisfy the Fresnel zone plate law and the multilayer is sectioned to form the optic. An improved MLL geometry can be created by growing each layer with an in-plane thickness gradient to form a wedge, so that every interface makes the correct angle with the incident beam for symmetric Bragg diffraction. The ultimate hard x-ray focusing performance of a wedged MLL has been predicted to be significantly better than that of a nonwedged MLL, giving subnanometer resolution with high efficiency. Here, we describe a method to deposit the multilayer structure needed for an ideal wedged MLL and report our initial deposition results to produce these structures.

  15. Nanoscale molecular traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chia-Fu; Wei, Qihuo; Gu, Jian; Zenhausern, Frederic; Swami, Nathan

    2006-03-01

    We have constructed nanoscale molecular traps using electrodeless, or insulator-based, dielectrophoresis [1, 2]. The molecular traps consist an array of nanoscale dielectric constrictions defined using electron-beam lithography on nanofluidic passages. The device was then sealed using an extremely simple room-temperature sealing process with virtually no pressure applied. Upon the application of an external ac electric field, the field will be focused at the constrictions and high field gradient can be generated to trap molecules dynamically in aqueous solutions. We demonstrated the trapping of small protein molecules in an array of these nanoscale molecular traps down to 50 nm in size. [1] C.F. Chou, J.O. Tegenfeldt, O. Bakajin, S.S. Chan, E.C. Cox, N. Darnton, T.A.J. Duke, R.H. Austin (2002). ``Electrodeless Dielectrophoresis of Single and Double Stranded DNA'', Biophys. J. 83, 2170-2179. [2] C.F. Chou, F. Zenhausern (2003). ``Electrodeless Dielectrophoresis for Micro Total Analysis Systems'', IEEE Eng. Med. Biol., Nov./Dec., 62-67.

  16. Netlike knitting of polyelectrolyte multilayers on honeycomb-patterned substrate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Shen, Liyan; Wang, Jiaming; Fu, Ke; Ji, Jian

    2010-09-01

    The pH-amplified exponential growth layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly process was directly performed on honeycomb-patterned substrate for achievement of "guided patterning" of polyelectrolyte multilayers. Polyethylenimine (PEI) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were used as polyanions, and their pH were carefully tuned to achieve pH-enhanced exponential growth. Guided by underlying hexagonally patterned islandlike poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) arrays, the diffusive polyelectrolytes rapidly interweaved into linear, multilayered structures distributed along the grooves between the patterned protuberate and formed a regular network of multilayered film with uniform mesh size. Netlike "knitting" of polyelectrolyte multilayers on honeycomb-patterned substrate has been realized by following this procedure. Superhydrophobic surfaces could be readily obtained after several bilayers of LBL assembly (with thermal cross-linking and surface fluorination by chemical vapor deposition), indicating that successful fabrication of functional micro- and nanoscale hierarchical structures can be achieved. Both high- and low-adhesion superhydrophobic surfaces ("petal effect" and "lotus effect") can be obtained with different bilayers of assembly, proving that different levels of nano- to microstructural hierarchy can be realized using this method. Furthermore, we were able to get topographically asymmetric, free-standing, polyelectrolyte multilayer films in the case that we performed more than eight bilayers of assembly. This research reported template-directed LBL patterning assembly for the first time. It provides a beneficial exploration for the surface patterning technique for the LBL assembly process. PMID:20684559

  17. Characterization of the PvdS-regulated promoter motif in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 reveals regulon members and insights regarding PvdS function in other pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Swingle, Bryan; Thete, Deepti; Moll, Monica; Myers, Christopher R; Schneider, David J; Cartinhour, Samuel

    2008-05-01

    Bacteria that survive under variable conditions possess an assortment of genetic regulators to meet these challenges. The group IV or extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors regulate gene expression in response to specific environmental signals by altering the promoter specificity of RNA polymerase. We have undertaken a study of PvdS, a group IV sigma factor encoded by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000), a plant pathogen that is likely to encounter variations in nutrient availability as well as plant host defences. The gene encoding PvdS was previously identified by sequence similarity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa orthologue, which directs transcription of genes encoding the biosynthesis of pyoverdine, a siderophore involved in iron acquisition, and is responsible for the characteristic fluorescence of the pseudomonads. We identified 15 promoters regulated by PvdS in DC3000 and characterized the promoter motif using computational analysis. Mutagenesis of conserved nucleotides within the motif interfered with promoter function and the degree of the effect was different depending on which region of the motif was mutated. Hidden Markov models constructed from alignments of sequence motifs extracted from DC3000 and PAO1 were used to query genomes of DC3000 and other fluorescent pseudomonads for similar motifs. We conclude that the role of PvdS as a regulator of pyoverdine synthesis is conserved among the fluorescent pseudomonads, but the promoters recognized by PvdS orthologues may differ subtly from species to species. PMID:18363796

  18. Preparation of a PVdF-HFP/polyethylene composite gel electrolyte with shutdown function for lithium-ion secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingjiang; Kusawake, Hiroaki; Kuwajima, Saburo

    In order to improve the safety of lithium-ion secondary battery, a PVdF-HFP/polyethylene (PE) composite gel electrolyte with thermal shutdown function was prepared as an internal safety device. The composite gel electrolyte consists of a PVdF-HFP polymer, PE thermoplastic resin, and 1.0 mol/dm 3 LiClO 4/PC+EC (or LiPF 6/GBL+EC) plasticizer. When the PE content is over 23 wt.%, the electrical impedance of the composite gel electrolyte can increase rapidly by several orders, around the melting point of PE (mp: 90 or 104-115C). By the SEM observation it was found that the PE particles uniformly dispersed in the PVdF-HFP gel electrolyte could be fused and formed into a continuous film at or near the PE melting point. The continuous PE film exhibits an ability to cut off the ion diffusion between cathode and anode, thus preventing the cell from thermal runaway. Also, a three-layered film of pure PVdF-HFP gel/composite gel/pure PVdF-HFP with a higher ionic conductivity and good mechanical strength was prepared for assembling a coin-type lithium-ion cell.

  19. Advanced multilayer x ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbee, Troy W., Jr.

    1990-03-01

    Multilayer optics for the x ray, soft x ray and extreme ultra violet is a rapidly expanding and maturing field. A large part of the effort is directed to improving the quality of multilayer structures by developing a better understanding of synthesis-structure-property relationships. Although the quality of simple multilayer structures may be improved there are now significant instrumental applications for these reflecting structures and opportunities for the development of new optics. Results on a new class of diffraction grating, the multilayer grating, and two instruments, a multilayer two element fixed exit beam monochromator and a multilayer Cassegrain astronomical telescope, are presented and the implications discussed.

  20. Applications of multilayer optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanshan; Zhu, Jingtao; Mu, Baozhong; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Fengli; Xu, Jing; Li, Wenbin; Chen, Lingyan

    2010-11-01

    Recent development of multilayer mirror and its applications in extreme ultraviolet (EUV), soft X-ray ranges in China was reviewed in this paper. Three types of multilayer mirrors were developed with special performance for dense plasma diagnostics, EUV astronomical observation. Firstly, dual-periodic W/B 4C multilayer mirror was designed for Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) microscopy working at TiK? line (4.75 keV), which is highly reflective both at hard X-ray (CuK? line at 8.05 keV) and soft X-ray (4.75 keV). Using this mirror, the K-B system can be aligned conveniently in air using hard X-ray instead of in vacuum. The second mirror is aperiodic Mg/SiC multilayer, also a bi-functional mirror with high reflectivity for He-II emission line (30.4 nm) but suppressing He-I emission line (58.4 nm) in astronomy observation, which will replace the traditional combination of periodic multilayer and the fragile film filter. This will be more safe in satellite launching. The third mirror is Mo/Si periodic multilayer, depositing on a parabolic substrate with diameter of 230 mm, which is designed for EUV telescope for imaging of solar corona by selecting Fe-XII emission (19.5 nm). The uniformity of lateral layer thickness distribution is within 0.3% along the diameter of mirror, measured by X-ray reflectometry. The measured peak reflectivity is 42% at the wavelength of 19.5 nm. All these multilayer mirrors were prepared by using magnetron sputtering system in our group.

  1. Fabrication of nanoscale metal paths in oxide thin layers by noble-gas ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Hiromi; Hara, Michiko; Fuji, Yoshihiko; Fukuzawa, Hideaki

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the fabrication process of a nanostructure with alumina insulator layer and nanoscale Cu paths punching through an alumina layer inserted between magnetic multilayers. Ion-beam-assisted oxidation was applied to an AlCu layer, where ion beams with three kinds of noble gases of different mass, Ne, Ar and Xe, were compared. The heavy gas overcame the trade-off between the increasing purity of nanoscale Cu paths and the decreasing oxygen defects of the alumina. It is considered that the high mobility of surface atoms in the AlCu layer brought about by the heavy-gas ion beam promotes segregation of alumina and Cu.

  2. Nanotribology and Nanoscale Friction

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yi; Qu, Zhihua; Braiman, Yehuda; Zhang, Zhenyu; Barhen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Tribology is the science and technology of contacting solid surfaces in relative motion, including the study of lubricants, lubrication, friction, wear, and bearings. It is estimated that friction and wear cost the U.S. economy 6% of the gross national product (Persson, 2000). For example, 5% of the total energy generated in an automobile engine is lost to frictional resistance. The study of nanoscale friction has a technological impact in reducing energy loss in machines, in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and in the development of durable, low-friction surfaces and ultra-thin lubrication films.

  3. Tribo-electrochemical characterization of hafnium multilayer systems deposited on nitride/vanadium nitride AISI 4140 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, M.; Vera, E.; Aperador, W.

    2016-02-01

    In this work is presented the synergistic behaviour among corrosion/wear (tribocorrosion) of the multilayer coatings hafnium nitride/vanadium nitride [HfN/VN]n. The multilayers were deposited on AISI 4140 steel using the technique of physical vapor deposition PVD magnetron sputtering, the tests were performed using a pin-on-disk tribometer, which has an adapted potentiostat galvanostat with three-electrode electrochemical cell. Tribocorrosive parameters such as: Friction coefficient between the coating and the counter body (100 Cr6 steel ball); Polarization resistance by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique and corrosion rate by polarization curves were determined. It was observed an increase in the polarization resistance, a decrease in the corrosion rate and a low coefficient of friction in comparison with the substrate, due to an increase on the number of bilayers.

  4. The properties of B-Sb thin films prepared by molecular flow region PVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumashiro, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K.; Ohtsuka, M.; Ohishi, Y.; Nakano, M.; Doi, Y.

    2004-02-01

    The present paper is the first description on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of amorphous PVD B 12Sb 2 films prepared using the reaction of decaborane gas with evaporated antimony gas on Si (1900 ) / SiO x (3700 ) / Si (100) (625 ?m) substrate at the temperature 350C. Ohmic metals contacts of the film were examined by making evaporated Al, followed by annealing at 200C. The comparatively high mobility of 100 cm 2/V s and high thermoelectric figures-of-merit of 10 -4/K were confirmed.

  5. The preparation of B?Sb thin films by molecular flow region PVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumashiro, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Doi, Y.; Hirata, K.; Yokoyama, T.; Sato, K.

    2002-04-01

    The present paper is the first description on the preparation of B-Sb films by molecular flow region PVD method using the reaction of decaborane gas with evaporated antimony gas on Si(1 0 0) substrate at the temperatures 200-400C. The cracking of evaporated Sb 2 into Sb 1 produced the films with the composition of amorphous B 12Sb 2 determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectra. Ohmic metals of the films were examined by making evaporated Ag followed by annealing at 200C.

  6. PVD thermal barrier coating applications and process development for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigney, D. V.; Viguie, R.; Wortman, D. J.; Skelly, D. W.

    1997-06-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been developed for application to aircraft engine components to improve service life in an increasingly hostile thermal environment. The choice of TBC type is related to the component, intended use, and economics. Selection of electron beam physical vapor deposition proc-essing for turbine blade is due in part to part size, surface finish requirements, thickness control needs, and hole closure issues. Process development of PVD TBCs has been carried out at several different sites, including GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE). The influence of processing variables on microstructure is dis-cussed, along with the GEAE development coater and initial experiences of pilot line operation.

  7. Thermal shutdown behavior of PVdF-HFP based polymer electrolytes comprising heat sensitive cross-linkable oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. L.; Wan, C. C.; Wang, Y. Y.; Wu, M. S.

    PVdF-HFP (polyvinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) polymer electrolytes comprising cross-linkable PEGDMA (polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate) oligomers with thermal shutdown characteristic have been developed. In contrast to the melting mechanism of polyolefin, this new polymer electrolyte possesses a thermal shutdown characteristic by a rapid cross-linking reaction of PEGDMA. The cross-linked PEGDMA network inside the PVdF-HFP matrix can provide the mechanical strength for the electrolytes, while the un-cross-linked PEGDMA oligomers serve as plasticizers for PVdF-HFP to improve the mobility of lithium ions at normal operation temperatures. In addition, the un-cross-linked PEGDMA oligomers can initiate cross-linking upon a sudden rise of temperature and thus provide thermal shutdown protection at elevated temperatures.

  8. Control of Multilayer Networks.

    PubMed

    Menichetti, Giulia; Dall'Asta, Luca; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-01-01

    The controllability of a network is a theoretical problem of relevance in a variety of contexts ranging from financial markets to the brain. Until now, network controllability has been characterized only on isolated networks, while the vast majority of complex systems are formed by multilayer networks. Here we build a theoretical framework for the linear controllability of multilayer networks by mapping the problem into a combinatorial matching problem. We found that correlating the external signals in the different layers can significantly reduce the multiplex network robustness to node removal, as it can be seen in conjunction with a hybrid phase transition occurring in interacting Poisson networks. Moreover we observe that multilayer networks can stabilize the fully controllable multiplex network configuration that can be stable also when the full controllability of the single network is not stable. PMID:26869210

  9. Control of Multilayer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Menichetti, Giulia; Dall’Asta, Luca; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-01-01

    The controllability of a network is a theoretical problem of relevance in a variety of contexts ranging from financial markets to the brain. Until now, network controllability has been characterized only on isolated networks, while the vast majority of complex systems are formed by multilayer networks. Here we build a theoretical framework for the linear controllability of multilayer networks by mapping the problem into a combinatorial matching problem. We found that correlating the external signals in the different layers can significantly reduce the multiplex network robustness to node removal, as it can be seen in conjunction with a hybrid phase transition occurring in interacting Poisson networks. Moreover we observe that multilayer networks can stabilize the fully controllable multiplex network configuration that can be stable also when the full controllability of the single network is not stable. PMID:26869210

  10. Nanoscale relaxation oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Regan, Brian C.; Aloni, Shaul

    2009-04-07

    A nanoscale oscillation device is disclosed, wherein two nanoscale droplets are altered in size by mass transport, then contact each other and merge through surface tension. The device may also comprise a channel having an actuator responsive to mechanical oscillation caused by expansion and contraction of the droplets. It further has a structure for delivering atoms between droplets, wherein the droplets are nanoparticles. Provided are a first particle and a second particle on the channel member, both being made of a chargeable material, the second particle contacting the actuator portion; and electrodes connected to the channel member for delivering a potential gradient across the channel and traversing the first and second particles. The particles are spaced apart a specified distance so that atoms from one particle are delivered to the other particle by mass transport in response to the potential (e.g. voltage potential) and the first and second particles are liquid and touch at a predetermined point of growth, thereby causing merging of the second particle into the first particle by surface tension forces and reverse movement of the actuator. In a preferred embodiment, the channel comprises a carbon nanotube and the droplets comprise metal nanoparticles, e.g. indium, which is readily made liquid.

  11. Multilayered image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Francois G.; Averbuch, Amir Z.; Stroemberg, Jan-Olov; Coifman, Ronald R.

    1998-10-01

    The main contribution of this work is a new paradigm for image compression. We describe a new multi-layered representation technique for images. An image is encoded as the superposition of one main approximation, and a sequence of residuals. The strength of the multi-layered method comes from the fact that we use different bases to encode the main approximation and the residuals. For instance, we can use: a wavelet basis to encode a coarse main approximation of the image, wavelet packet bases to encode textured patterns, brushlet bases to encode localized oriented textured features, etc.

  12. Metallic multilayers and superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, C. M.

    An introduction to metal-metal multilayers and superlattices is presented, along with a brief review of some of the materials which have been made in our lab, and phenomena which have been observed so far. Results of a number of X-ray structural characterization techniques applied to these materials are described. These include Bragg THETA-2THETA X-ray diffraction, transmission and reflection Laue diffraction, and wide-film Debye-Scherrer diffraction. Emphasis is placed on recent results obtained in our laboratory with multilayers and superlattices produced by sputtering techniques.

  13. Adsorption-transport modeling of anions through PVD membrane in the presence of the screen phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madaeni, S. S.; Salehi, E.

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model for transport and adsorption of chloride and sulphate ions through PVD membrane is presented at two pressures; 8 and 15 bar and 40 °C. The PVD membrane is negatively charged. Saturated brine containing NaCl with the concentration higher than 97% was challenged with the membrane as the feed. Other available ions in the solution were Fe 2+, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and SO 42-. The screen effect of the cations on the membrane surface charge facilitates the passage of the anions through the membrane without any noticeable electrostatic repulsion. Hermia blocking laws combined with experimental results indicate that the internal pore closure of the membrane by anions and cake deposition on the membrane surface by cations are the separation mechanisms. The transmission of anions through the membrane may be predicted with a simple transport equation (convection and diffusion) combined with an adsorption isotherm. Both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were employed due to the simplicity and validity in liquid systems. The isotherm's parameters were determined at 10 bar during the unsteady state filtration. Under this condition, the permeate flux and concentration varied sharply due to adsorption. Finally, the model was compared with the experimental rejection data. An acceptable agreement around 95% at 8 bar and 92% at 15 bar was observed between theoretical model and experimental data.

  14. Investigation of Ti and Cr based PVD coatings deposited onto HSS Co 5 twist drills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kottfer, D.; Ferdinandy, M.; Kaczmarek, L.; Ma?kov, I.; Be?o, J.

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the properties and cutting performance of thin TiN, TiAlN, CrAlN and KTRN coatings applied by two PVD techniques. PVD techniques ARC and SARC (it denotes the arc method by STATON company, Slovakia - deposited with smaller microdrops) were used for the deposition of thin coatings onto twist drills prepared by powder metallurgy. Conventional types of coatings - monolayers TiN, TiAlN, CrAlN and advanced type of the coating - monolayer KTRN (denoted by producer - STATON company Slovakia) on the basis of Ti and Al deposited with smaller drops on the surface - were analyzed by standard techniques for surface status and quality assessment - coating thickness, chemical composition by EDX analysis, adhesion, hardness, roughness and tribological properties at room temperature. Durability testing of the twist drills was carried out according to the standard ISO 3685-1999. CrAlN and TiAlN monolayers achieved lower roughness when compared to monolayer TiN and advanced type of the monolayer KTRN. TiAlN and KTRN coatings which leads to the achievement of higher hardness and better coating quality. The microhardness values were ?35 GPa. The results showed two to four times lower flank wear VB of the evaluated drills with TiAlN and KTRN coatings in comparison with equivalent uncoated material of the drill. The deposited TiAlN and KTRN coatings contributed to the improvement of their durability.

  15. Magnetic Multilayers and Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinjo, Teruya; Mibu, Ko

    Mssbauer spectroscopy is a conventional technique to measure magnetic hyperfine fields. Particularly experiments on 57Fe and 119Sn are easy and observed hyperfine fields furnish us useful information not only for studies on magnetism but also generally to characterize condensed matters. In this article, the usefulness of Mssbauer spectroscopy for studies on magnetic multilayers is introduced. 57Fe spectra of Fe/Mg multilayers are shown as a function of Fe layer thickness and magnetic properties of ultrathin amorphous Fe layers are argued. From the results on Fe/Mn and Fe/Cr multilayers, the features of interfaces are discussed. The results on Fe/RE (rare-earth) indicate that anisotropy of interface plays an important role. Interface magnetic properties of Fe film in contact with MgO and those of Fe oxides have been studied using interface-selectively enriched samples. Finally, several recent studies on magnetic multilayers and also on Heusler alloy films by using 119Sn probes are also described.

  16. A Nanoscale Tale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Elba

    2008-10-01

    Experimentalists constantly seek to overcome technical limitations. This is especially true in the world of biophysics, where the drive to study molecular targets such as ion channels, a type of membrane transport protein, has resulted in methodological breakthroughs that have merited the Nobel Prize (Hodgkin and Huxley, 1963; Neher and Sakmann, 1991). In this presentation I will explain how nanoscale phenomena that are essential for sensory perception underlie the ability of dancers, gymnasts, and musicians to excel at their artistic endeavors. I will describe how our investigations of sensory mechanotransduction and the quest for improved signal amplification inspired a scientific journey that has culminated in an exciting new line of collaborative NIH-funded research with nanomaterials (quantum dots). I will conclude with a general discussion of how training in physics offers an ideal foundation for interdisciplinary research in health related fields, such as those that deal with neuroscience and disorders of the nervous system.

  17. Nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Degen, C. L.; Poggio, M.; Mamin, H. J.; Rettner, C. T.; Rugar, D.

    2009-01-01

    We have combined ultrasensitive magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) with 3D image reconstruction to achieve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with resolution <10 nm. The image reconstruction converts measured magnetic force data into a 3D map of nuclear spin density, taking advantage of the unique characteristics of the resonant slice that is projected outward from a nanoscale magnetic tip. The basic principles are demonstrated by imaging the 1H spin density within individual tobacco mosaic virus particles sitting on a nanometer-thick layer of adsorbed hydrocarbons. This result, which represents a 100 million-fold improvement in volume resolution over conventional MRI, demonstrates the potential of MRFM as a tool for 3D, elementally selective imaging on the nanometer scale. PMID:19139397

  18. Nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Degen, C L; Poggio, M; Mamin, H J; Rettner, C T; Rugar, D

    2009-02-01

    We have combined ultrasensitive magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) with 3D image reconstruction to achieve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with resolution <10 nm. The image reconstruction converts measured magnetic force data into a 3D map of nuclear spin density, taking advantage of the unique characteristics of the "resonant slice" that is projected outward from a nanoscale magnetic tip. The basic principles are demonstrated by imaging the (1)H spin density within individual tobacco mosaic virus particles sitting on a nanometer-thick layer of adsorbed hydrocarbons. This result, which represents a 100 million-fold improvement in volume resolution over conventional MRI, demonstrates the potential of MRFM as a tool for 3D, elementally selective imaging on the nanometer scale. PMID:19139397

  19. Nanoscale waveguiding methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chia-Jean; Lin, Lih Y.

    2007-05-01

    While 32 nm lithography technology is on the horizon for integrated circuit (IC) fabrication, matching the pace for miniaturization with optics has been hampered by the diffraction limit. However, development of nanoscale components and guiding methods is burgeoning through advances in fabrication techniques and materials processing. As waveguiding presents the fundamental issue and cornerstone for ultra-high density photonic ICs, we examine the current state of methods in the field. Namely, plasmonic, metal slot and negative dielectric based waveguides as well as a few sub-micrometer techniques such as nanoribbons, high-index contrast and photonic crystals waveguides are investigated in terms of construction, transmission, and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss in detail quantum dot (QD) arrays as a gain-enabled and flexible means to transmit energy through straight paths and sharp bends. Modeling, fabrication and test results are provided and show that the QD waveguide may be effective as an alternate means to transfer light on sub-diffraction dimensions.

  20. Nanoscale memristive radiofrequency switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Shuang; Ghadiri-Sadrabadi, Mohammad; Bardin, Joseph C.; Xia, Qiangfei

    2015-06-01

    Radiofrequency switches are critical components in wireless communication systems and consumer electronics. Emerging devices include switches based on microelectromechanical systems and phase-change materials. However, these devices suffer from disadvantages such as large physical dimensions and high actuation voltages. Here we propose and demonstrate a nanoscale radiofrequency switch based on a memristive device. The device can be programmed with a voltage as low as 0.4 V and has an ON/OFF conductance ratio up to 1012 with long state retention. We measure the radiofrequency performance of the switch up to 110 GHz and demonstrate low insertion loss (0.3 dB at 40 GHz), high isolation (30 dB at 40 GHz), an average cutoff frequency of 35 THz and competitive linearity and power-handling capability. Our results suggest that, in addition to their application in memory and computing, memristive devices are also a leading contender for radiofrequency switch applications.

  1. Anatomy of Nanoscale Propulsion.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vinita; Duan, Wentao; Butler, Peter J; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-01-01

    Nature supports multifaceted forms of life. Despite the variety and complexity of these forms, motility remains the epicenter of life. The applicable laws of physics change upon going from macroscales to microscales and nanoscales, which are characterized by low Reynolds number (Re). We discuss motion at low Re in natural and synthetic systems, along with various propulsion mechanisms, including electrophoresis, electrolyte diffusiophoresis, and nonelectrolyte diffusiophoresis. We also describe the newly uncovered phenomena of motility in non-ATP-driven self-powered enzymes and the directional movement of these enzymes in response to substrate gradients. These enzymes can also be immobilized to function as fluid pumps in response to the presence of their substrates. Finally, we review emergent collective behavior arising from interacting motile species, and we discuss the possible biomedical applications of the synthetic nanobots and microbots. PMID:26098511

  2. Characterization of PVdF(HFP) gel electrolytes based on 1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-3-methyl imidazolium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Ki-Sub; Choi, Sukjeong; Cha, Jong-Ho; Lee, Huen

    2005-09-29

    Poly(vinylidenefluoride)-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF(HFP))-ionic liquid gel electrolytes were prepared using ionic liquids based on 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate and 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate. A conventional metathesis reaction was used to prepare these ionic liquids, which have high purity and exhibit a liquid state at room temperature. The prepared polymer-ionic liquid gel proved to be a free-standing and rubbery film in which the degree of transparency differed according to the ratio and type of ionic liquid used. TGA and FTIR analyses confirmed that the solvent, N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAC), used for mixing PVdF(HFP) polymer with ionic liquid was almost totally removed during the gelling and drying processes. SEM photographs were taken of the surface structure of the PVdF(HFP)-ionic liquid gel in order to evaluate the morphology of the film's surface according to the mixing ratio and the nature of the ionic liquid. The thermal behaviors of PVdF(HFP)-ionic liquid gels were observed to be similar to those of neat ionic liquids through DSC analysis, and the compatibility between the polymer and ionic liquid was investigated by XRD analysis. The ionic conductivities of all the gels were 10(-3)-10(-5) S cm(-1) in a temperature range of 20-70 degrees C. PMID:16853301

  3. Rechargeable lithium battery employing a new ambient temperature hybrid polymer electrolyte based on PVK+PVdF-HFP (copolymer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, M. S.; Prabaharan, S. R. S.

    We describe here for the first time, our recent success in developing an ambient temperature Li + conducting solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) using the concept of polymer alloying upon blending two thermoplastic polymers such as poly(vinylidene) fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP-copolymer) and poly( N-vinylcarbazole), PVK and achieved the room temperature electrolytic conductivity ( ?i) of 0.710 -3 S/cm for a typical composition of PVdF-HFP copolymer/PVK blend mixed with EC/LiBF 4 molar composition. The ionic transference number of 0.49 was deduced from combined ac-impedance and dc polarization method. High-resolution optical microscopic examination revealed the disappearance of characteristic highly porous surface structure of PVdF-HFP matrix upon blending with PVK leading to the formation of resultant PVdF-HFP/PVK blend polymer alloy. The electrochemical stability of the polymer electrolyte membrane thus obtained was found to be stable up to 4.7 V versus Li/Li +. The new hybrid alloy polymer electrolyte membrane was found to exhibit good interfacial properties against lithium metal and thus, it was found to aid the room temperature operation as electrolytic membrane cum separator in all-solid state rechargeable lithium polymer test cell, LiCo 0.8Ni 0.2O 2/SPE/Li.

  4. Microstructural variations in Cu/Nb and Al/Nb nanometallic multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, M. N.; Hodge, A. M.; Courtois-Manara, E.; Wang, D.; Kuebel, C.; Chakravadhanula, K.; Helmholtz Institute Ulm, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen

    2013-06-17

    Miscible (Al/Nb) and immiscible (Cu/Nb) nanometallic multilayer systems were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy techniques, primarily by automated crystallographic orientation mapping, which allows for the resolution of crystal structures and orientations at the nanoscale. By using this technique, distinctive Nb orientations in relation to the crystallographic state of the Al and Cu layer structures can be observed. Specifically, the Al and Cu layers were found to consist of amorphous, semi-amorphous, and crystalline regions, which affect the overall multilayer microstructure.

  5. Nanoscale rotary apparatus formed from tight-fitting 3D DNA components

    PubMed Central

    Ketterer, Philip; Willner, Elena M.; Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    We report a nanoscale rotary mechanism that reproduces some of the dynamic properties of biological rotary motors in the absence of an energy source, such as random walks on a circle with dwells at docking sites. Our mechanism is built modularly from tight-fitting components that were self-assembled using multilayer DNA origami. The apparatus has greater structural complexity than previous mechanically interlocked objects and features a well-defined angular degree of freedom without restricting the range of rotation. We studied the dynamics of our mechanism using single-particle experiments analogous to those performed previously with actin-labeled adenosine triphosphate synthases. In our mechanism, rotor mobility, the number of docking sites, and the dwell times at these sites may be controlled through rational design. Our prototype thus realizes a working platform toward creating synthetic nanoscale rotary motors. Our methods will support creating other complex nanoscale mechanisms based on tightly fitting, sterically constrained, but mobile, DNA components. PMID:26989778

  6. Investigation of failure mechanism of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited by EB-PVD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, M. R.; Abbas, Musharaf

    2013-06-01

    Failure mechanism of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) prepared by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) technique owing to formation of micro cracks was investigated. The TBCs were deposited on the Ni-based super alloy IN-100 and the micro cracks were observed within the top ceramic coat of thermally cycled TBCs at 1050C. It was observed that these cracks propagate in the ceramic coat in the direction normal to interface while no cracks were observed in the bond coat. SEM/EDS studies revealed that some non-uniform oxides were formed on the interface between ceramic top and metallic bond coat just below the cracks. Study proposed that the cracks were initiated due to stress owing to big difference in Pilling-Bed worth ratio of non-uniform oxides as well as thermal stress, which caused the formation of cracks in top ceramic coat leading to failure of TBCs

  7. Physicochemical studies of PVdF-HFP-based polymer-ionic liquid composite electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalia, Boor Singh; Yamada, K.; Hundal, M. S.; Park, Jin-Soo; Park, Gu-Gon; Lee, Won-Yong; Kim, Chang-Soo; Sekhon, S. S.

    2009-08-01

    Polymer-ionic liquid composite electrolytes based on poly (vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) and room temperature ionic liquid: 2,3-dimethyl-1-octylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (DMOImPF6) have been synthesized and studied. The addition of dimethylacetamide (DMA) and propylene carbonate (PC), both with high dielectric constant and low viscosity, to polymer electrolytes has been found to result in an enhancement of conductivity by one order of magnitude. Composite polymer electrolytes containing ionic liquid have been found to be thermally stable upto 300C. Motional narrowing observed in the variation of line width of 1H and 19F NMR peaks with temperature suggests that both cations and anions are mobile in these electrolytes.

  8. Nanoscale Electrostatics in Mitosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardi, L. John; West, Patrick Michael

    2001-04-01

    Primitive biological cells had to divide with very little biology. This work simulates a physicochemical mechanism, based upon nanoscale electrostatics, which explains the anaphase A poleward motion of chromosomes. In the cytoplasmic medium that exists in biological cells, electrostatic fields are subject to strong attenuation by Debye screening, and therefore decrease rapidly over a distance equal to several Debye lengths. However, the existence of microtubules within cells changes the situation completely. Microtubule dimer subunits are electric dipolar structures, and can act as intermediaries that extend the reach of the electrostatic interaction over cellular distances. Experimental studies have shown that intracellular pH rises to a peak at mitosis, and decreases through cytokinesis. This result, in conjunction with the electric dipole nature of microtubule subunits and the Debye screened electrostatic force is sufficient to explain and unify the basic events during mitosis and cytokinesis: (1) assembly of asters, (2) motion of the asters to poles, (3) poleward motion of chromosomes (anaphase A), (4) cell elongation, and (5) cytokinesis. This paper will focus on a simulation of the dynamics if anaphase A motion based on this comprehensive model. The physicochemical mechanisms utilized by primitive cells could provide important clues regarding our understanding of cell division in modern eukaryotic cells.

  9. Nanoscale surface photoreactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, Garrett Austin

    Subnanometer-scale properties of molecules and materials have become extremely important to the development of nanoscale and molecular electronics devices, including advanced biological and chemical sensors. The energies (i.e., wavelengths) at which the LSPRs of individual nanoparticles are excited varies depending on their size, thickness, and shape, all of which can be controlled synthetically. Photon-coupled scanning tunneling microscopy uses a total internal reflection scheme to couple light into a tunneling junction, generating this specific LSPR in individual Au and Ag nanoprisms. By controlling and coupling this specific excitation to molecular assemblies, the effective photoreactivities and photoconductances of organic molecules can be measured and manipulated. Nanoparticle synthesis methods were developed to produce nanoprisms with appropriate dimensions and homogeneity. Functionalization of the sample surface using alkanedithiols and p-terphenyl-4,4"-dithiol enabled the adsorption dispersion of nanoprisms onto substrates with high density yet minimal stacking. Insertion into self-assembled monolayers was used to arrange single molecules on Au{111} and Ag{111} nanoprisms for selective surface plasmonic enhancement. Scanning tunneling microscopy measurements were collected for molecules adsorbed on the dispersed nanoprisms. Photon STM will be used to monitor the photoactivities of molecules on these substrates, such as photocurrent, photoconductance, and photoreaction.

  10. Electrostatics at the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, David A.; Kowalczyk, Bartlomiej; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2011-01-01

    Electrostatic forces are amongst the most versatile interactions to mediate the assembly of nanostructured materials. Depending on experimental conditions, these forces can be long- or short-ranged, can be either attractive or repulsive, and their directionality can be controlled by the shapes of the charged nano-objects. This Review is intended to serve as a primer for experimentalists curious about the fundamentals of nanoscale electrostatics and for theorists wishing to learn about recent experimental advances in the field. Accordingly, the first portion introduces the theoretical models of electrostatic double layers and derives electrostatic interaction potentials applicable to particles of different sizes and/or shapes and under different experimental conditions. This discussion is followed by the review of the key experimental systems in which electrostatic interactions are operative. Examples include electroactive and switchable nanoparticles, mixtures of charged nanoparticles, nanoparticle chains, sheets, coatings, crystals, and crystals-within-crystals. Applications of these and other structures in chemical sensing and amplification are also illustrated.

  11. Nanoscale memristive radiofrequency switches.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shuang; Ghadiri-Sadrabadi, Mohammad; Bardin, Joseph C; Xia, Qiangfei

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency switches are critical components in wireless communication systems and consumer electronics. Emerging devices include switches based on microelectromechanical systems and phase-change materials. However, these devices suffer from disadvantages such as large physical dimensions and high actuation voltages. Here we propose and demonstrate a nanoscale radiofrequency switch based on a memristive device. The device can be programmed with a voltage as low as 0.4 V and has an ON/OFF conductance ratio up to 10(12) with long state retention. We measure the radiofrequency performance of the switch up to 110 GHz and demonstrate low insertion loss (0.3 dB at 40 GHz), high isolation (30 dB at 40 GHz), an average cutoff frequency of 35 THz and competitive linearity and power-handling capability. Our results suggest that, in addition to their application in memory and computing, memristive devices are also a leading contender for radiofrequency switch applications. PMID:26108890

  12. Injection moulding of optical functional micro structures using laser structured, PVD-coated mould inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Schäfer, C.; Bobzin, K.; Bagcivan, N.; Brögelmann, T.; Theiß, S.; Münstermann, T.; Steger, M.

    2015-05-22

    Micro structured optical plastics components are intensively used i. e. in consumer electronics, for optical sensors in metrology, innovative LED-lighting or laser technology. Injection moulding has proven to be successful for the large-scale production of those parts. However, the production of those parts still causes difficulties due to challenges in the moulding and demoulding of plastics parts created with laser structured mould inserts. A complete moulding of the structures often leads to increased demoulding forces, which then cause a breaking of the structures and a clogging of the mould. An innovative approach is to combine PVD-coated (physical vapour deposition), laser structured inserts and a variothermal moulding process to create functional mic8iüro structures in a one-step process. Therefore, a PVD-coating is applied after the laser structuring process in order to improve the wear resistance and the anti-adhesive properties against the plastics melt. In a series of moulding trials with polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using different coated moulds, the mould temperature during injection was varied in the range of the glass transition and the melt temperature of the polymers. Subsequently, the surface topography of the moulded parts is evaluated by digital 3D laser-scanning microscopy. The influence of the moulding parameters and the coating of the mould insert on the moulding accuracy and the demoulding behaviour are being analysed. It is shown that micro structures created by ultra-short pulse laser ablation can be successfully replicated in a variothermal moulding process. Due to the mould coating, significant improvements could be achieved in producing micro structured optical plastics components.

  13. Injection moulding of optical functional micro structures using laser structured, PVD-coated mould inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Schäfer, C.; Bobzin, K.; Bagcivan, N.; Brögelmann, T.; Theiß, S.; Münstermann, T.; Steger, M.

    2015-05-01

    Micro structured optical plastics components are intensively used i. e. in consumer electronics, for optical sensors in metrology, innovative LED-lighting or laser technology. Injection moulding has proven to be successful for the large-scale production of those parts. However, the production of those parts still causes difficulties due to challenges in the moulding and demoulding of plastics parts created with laser structured mould inserts. A complete moulding of the structures often leads to increased demoulding forces, which then cause a breaking of the structures and a clogging of the mould. An innovative approach is to combine PVD-coated (physical vapour deposition), laser structured inserts and a variothermal moulding process to create functional mic8iüro structures in a one-step process. Therefore, a PVD-coating is applied after the laser structuring process in order to improve the wear resistance and the anti-adhesive properties against the plastics melt. In a series of moulding trials with polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using different coated moulds, the mould temperature during injection was varied in the range of the glass transition and the melt temperature of the polymers. Subsequently, the surface topography of the moulded parts is evaluated by digital 3D laser-scanning microscopy. The influence of the moulding parameters and the coating of the mould insert on the moulding accuracy and the demoulding behaviour are being analysed. It is shown that micro structures created by ultra-short pulse laser ablation can be successfully replicated in a variothermal moulding process. Due to the mould coating, significant improvements could be achieved in producing micro structured optical plastics components.

  14. Design and synthesis of bimetallic electrocatalyst with multilayered Pt-skin surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.; Chi, M.; Li, D.; Strmcnik, D.; van der Vliet, D.; Wang, G.; Komanicky, V.; Chang, K.-C.; Paulikas, A. P.; Tripkovic, D.; Pearson, J.; More, K. L.; Markovic, N. M.; Stamenkovic, V. R.

    2011-01-01

    Advancement in heterogeneous catalysis relies on the capability of altering material structures at the nanoscale, and that is particularly important for the development of highly active electrocatalysts with uncompromised durability. Here, we report the design and synthesis of a Pt-bimetallic catalyst with multilayered Pt-skin surface, which shows superior electrocatalytic performance for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This novel structure was first established on thin film extended surfaces with tailored composition profiles and then implemented in nanocatalysts by organic solution synthesis. Electrochemical studies for the ORR demonstrated that after prolonged exposure to reaction conditions, the Pt-bimetallic catalyst with multilayered Pt-skin surface exhibited an improvement factor of more than 1 order of magnitude in activity versus conventional Pt catalysts. The substantially enhanced catalytic activity and durability indicate great potential for improving the material properties by fine-tuning of the nanoscale architecture.

  15. Design and Synthesis of Bimetallic Electrocatalyst with Multilayered Pt-Skin Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Chi, Miaofang; Li, Dongguo; Strmcnik, Dusan; Van der Vliet, Dennis; Wang, Guofeng; Komanicky, Vladimir; Chang, Kee-Chul; Paulikas, Arvydas; Tripkovic, Dusan; Pearson, John; More, Karren Leslie; Markovic, Nenad; Stamenkovic, Vojislav

    2011-01-01

    Advancement in heterogeneous catalysis relies on the capability of altering material structures at the nanoscale, and that is particularly important for the development of highly active electrocatalysts with uncompromised durability. Here, we report the design and synthesis of a Pt-bimetallic catalyst with multilayered Pt-skin surface, which shows superior electrocatalytic performance for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This novel structure was first established on thin film extended surfaces with tailored composition profiles and then implemented in nanocatalysts by organic solution synthesis. Electrochemical studies for the ORR demonstrated that after prolonged exposure to reaction conditions, the Pt-bimetallic catalyst with multilayered Pt-skin surface exhibited an improvement factor of more than 1 order of magnitude in activity versus conventional Pt catalysts. The substantially enhanced catalytic activity and durability indicate great potential for improving the material properties by fine-tuning of the nanoscale architecture.

  16. Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers.

    PubMed

    Khajavikhan, M; Simic, A; Katz, M; Lee, J H; Slutsky, B; Mizrahi, A; Lomakin, V; Fainman, Y

    2012-02-01

    The effects of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED), caused by the interaction of matter and the electromagnetic field in subwavelength resonant structures, have been the subject of intense research in recent years. The generation of coherent radiation by subwavelength resonant structures has attracted considerable interest, not only as a means of exploring the QED effects that emerge at small volume, but also for its potential in applications ranging from on-chip optical communication to ultrahigh-resolution and high-throughput imaging, sensing and spectroscopy. One such strand of research is aimed at developing the 'ultimate' nanolaser: a scalable, low-threshold, efficient source of radiation that operates at room temperature and occupies a small volume on a chip. Different resonators have been proposed for the realization of such a nanolaser--microdisk and photonic bandgap resonators, and, more recently, metallic, metallo-dielectric and plasmonic resonators. But progress towards realizing the ultimate nanolaser has been hindered by the lack of a systematic approach to scaling down the size of the laser cavity without significantly increasing the threshold power required for lasing. Here we describe a family of coaxial nanostructured cavities that potentially solve the resonator scalability challenge by means of their geometry and metal composition. Using these coaxial nanocavities, we demonstrate the smallest room-temperature, continuous-wave telecommunications-frequency laser to date. In addition, by further modifying the design of these coaxial nanocavities, we achieve thresholdless lasing with a broadband gain medium. In addition to enabling laser applications, these nanoscale resonators should provide a powerful platform for the development of other QED devices and metamaterials in which atom-field interactions generate new functionalities. PMID:22318604

  17. Nucleation and Growth of Bubbles in He Ion Implanted V/Ag Multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Q. M.; Wang, Y. Q.; Nastasi, Michael; Misra, A.

    2011-11-18

    Microstructures of He ion-implanted pure Ag, pure V and polycrystalline V/Ag multilayers with individual layer thickness ranging from 1 nm to 50 nm were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bubbles in the Ag layer were faceted and larger than the non-faceted bubbles in the V layer under the same implantation conditions for both pure metals and multilayers. The substantially higher single defects surviving the spike phase and lower mobility of trapped He in bcc than those in fcc could account for this difference. For multilayers, the bubbles nucleate at interfaces but grow preferentially in Ag layers due to high mobility of trapped He in fcc Ag. In addition, the He concentration above which bubbles can be detected in defocused TEM images increases with decreasing layer thickness, from 0 for pure Ag to 45 at. % for 1 nm V/1 nm Ag multilayers. In contrast, the bubble size decreases with decreasing layer thickness, from approximately 4 nm in diameter in pure Ag to 1 nm in the 1 nm V/1 nm Ag multilayers. Elongated bubbles confined in the Ag layer by the VAg interfaces were observed in 1 nm multilayers. These observations show that bubble nucleation and growth can be suppressed to high He concentrations in nanoscale composites with interfaces that have high He solubility.

  18. Sensing at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Hierold, Christofer

    2013-11-01

    The merits of nanostructures in sensing may seem obvious, yet playing these attributes to their maximum advantage can be a work of genius. As fast as sensing technology is improving, expectations are growing, with demands for cheaper devices with higher sensitivities and an ever increasing range of functionalities and compatibilities. At the same time tough scientific challenges like low power operation, noise and low selectivity are keeping researchers busy. This special issue on sensing at the nanoscale with guest editor Christofer Hierold from ETH Zurich features some of the latest developments in sensing research pushing at the limits of current capabilities. Cheap and easy fabrication is a top priority. Among the most popular nanomaterials in sensing are ZnO nanowires and in this issue Dario Zappa and colleagues at Brescia University in Italy simplify an already cheap and efficient synthesis method, demonstrating ZnO nanowire fabrication directly onto silicon substrates [1]. Meanwhile Nicolae Barson and colleagues in Germany point out the advantages of flame spray pyrolysis fabrication in a topical review [2] and, maximizing on existing resources, researchers in Denmark and Taiwan report cantilever sensing using a US20 commercial DVD-ROM optical pickup unit as the readout source [3]. The sensor is designed to detect physiological concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a protein associated with inflammation due to HIV, cancer and other infectious diseases. With their extreme properties carbon nanostructures feature prominently in the issue, including the demonstration of a versatile and flexible carbon nanotube strain sensor [4] and a graphene charge sensor with sensitivities of the order of 1.3 × 10-3 e Hz-1/2 [5]. The issue of patterning for sensing devices is also tackled by researchers in the US who demonstrate a novel approach for multicomponent pattering metal/metal oxide nanoparticles on graphene [6]. Changes in electrical properties are an important indicator for sensing. In search of a better understanding of these systems Zhang et al from Southern Illinois University inspect the role of Joule heating, exothermal reactions and heat dissipation in gas sensing using nanowires [7]. The mechanisms behind electrical chemical sensors are also further scrutinized in a kinetics study by Joan Ramon Morante from the University of Barcelona in Spain. 'In spite of the growing commercial success many basic issues remain still open and under discussion limiting the broad use of this technology,' he explains. He discusses surface chemical reaction kinetics and the experimental results for different representative gas molecules to gain an insight into the chemical to electrical transduction mechanisms taking place [8]. Perhaps one of the most persistent targets in sensing research is increasing the sensitivity. Gauging environmental health issues around the commercial use of nanomaterials places high demands on low-level detection and spurred a collaboration of researchers in the UK, Croatia and Canada to look into the use of particle-impact voltammetry for detecting nanoparticles in environmental media [9]. At the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign in the US, researchers have applied wave transform analysis techniques to the oscillations of an atomic force microscopy cantilever and tailored a time-frequency-domain filter to identify the region of highest vibrational energy [10]. The approach allows them to improve the signal to noise ratio by a factor 32 on current high-performance devices. In addition, researchers in Korea report how doping NiO nanofibres can improve the sensitivity to a number of gases, including ethanol, where the response was enhanced by as much as a factor of 217.86 [11]. Biomedicine is one of the largest industries for the application of nanotechnology in sensing. Demonstrating the state of the art, researchers in China use silicon wafers decorated with gold nanoparticles for label-free detection of DNA at concentrations as low as 1-10 fM, a sensitivity comparable to the best signal amplification-assisted electrochemical sensors reported [12]. In another study actin-conjugated gold and silver nanorods are used to detect ATP, a common indicator of cell viability [13]. They show how aggregation induced by ATP-induced polymerization of the G-actin gives rise to a measurable change in the plasmon resonance absorbance of the nanorods. A review of the use of fluorescent silica nanoparticles for biomedical applications is provided by researchers at Dublin City University in Ireland [14]. The first scanning tunnelling microscope in the early 1980s and subsequent scanning probe developments brought the world of nanoscale structures into view in a manner that gorged the imaginations of scientists and the public. New ways of probing structures at this scale revealed a wealth of curious properties that triggered a surge of research activity in nanotechnology, now a multibillion dollar industry. One good turn deserves another and in fact nanostructures provide the perfect tools for the type of sensing and imaging applications that brought such widespread research interest to nanotechnology. This special issue highlights just how broad and innovative the range of sensing nanotechnologies has grown. References [1] Zappa D, Comini E and Sberveglieri G 2013 Thermally-oxidized zinc oxide nanowires chemical sensors Nanotechnology 24 444008 [2] Kemmler J A, Pokhrel S, Mädler L, Weimar U and Barsan N 2013 Flame spray pyrolysis for sensing at the nanoscale Nanotechnology 24 442001 [3] Bache M et al 2013 Nanomechanical recognition of prognostic biomarker suPAR with DVD-ROM optical technology Nanotechnology 24 444011 [4] Hu C-F, Wang J-Y, Liu Y-C, Tsai M-H and Fang W 2013 Development of 3D carbon nanotubes interdigitated finger electrodes on polymer substrate for flexible capacitive sensor application Nanotechnology 24 444006 [5] Neumann C, Volk C, Engels S and Stampfer C 2013 Graphene-based charge sensors Nanotechnology 24 444001 [6] Nagelli E, Naik R, Xu Y, Gao Y, Zhang M and Dai L 2013 Sensor arrays from multicomponent micropatterned nanoparticles and graphene Nanotechnology 24 444010 [7] Zhang J, Strelcov E and Kolmakov A 2013 Heat dissipation from suspended self-heated nanowires: gas sensor prospective Nanotechnology 24 444009 [8] Morante J R 2013 Chemical to electrical transduction mechanisms from single metal oxide nanowires measurements: response time constant analysis Nanotechnology 24 444004 [9] Stuart E J E, Tschulik K, Omanovi D, Cullen J T, Jurkschat K, Crossley A and Compton R G 2013 Electrochemical detection of commercial silver nanoparticles: identification, sizing and detection in environmental media Nanotechnology 24 444002 [10] Cho H, Felts J R, Yu M-F, Bergman L A, Vakakis A F and King W P 2013 Improved atomic force microscope infrared spectroscopy for rapid nanometer-scale chemical identification Nanotechnology 24 444007 [11] Yoon J-W, Kim H-J, Kim I-D and Lee J-H 2013 Electronic sensitization of C2H5OH response in p-type NiO nanofibers by Fe doping Nanotechnology 24 444005 [12] Guo Y, Su S, Wei X, Zhong Y, Su Y, Huang Q, Fan C and He Y A 2013 Silicon-based electrochemical sensor for highly sensitive, specific, label-free, and real-time DNA detection Nanotechnology 24 444012 [13] Liao Y-J, Shiang Y-C, Chen L-Y, Hsu C-L, Huang C-C and Chang H-T 2013 Detection of adenosine triphosphate through polymerization-induced aggregation of actinconjugated gold/silver nanorods Nanotechnology 24 444003 [14] Korzeniowska B, Nooney R, Wencel D and McDonagh C 2013 Silica nanoparticles for cell imaging and intracellular sensing Nanotechnology 24 442002

  19. Process for manufacturing multilayer capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1996-01-02

    The invention is directed to a method of manufacture of multilayer electrical components, especially capacitors, and components made by such a method. High capacitance dielectric materials and low cost metallizations layered with such dielectrics may be fabricated as multilayer electrical components by sintering the metallizations and the dielectrics during the fabrication process by application of microwave radiation. 4 figs.

  20. Process for manufacturing multilayer capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01

    The invention is directed to a method of manufacture of multilayer electrical components, especially capacitors, and components made by such a method. High capacitance dielectric materials and low cost metallizations layered with such dielectrics may be fabricated as multilayer electrical components by sintering the metallizations and the dielectrics during the fabrication process by application of microwave radiation.

  1. PVD Silicon Carbide as a Thin Film Packaging Technology for Antennas on LCP Substrates for Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Stanton, John W.; Ponchak, George E.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to develop a thin film packaging technology for microfabricated planar antennas on polymeric substrates based on silicon carbide (SiC) films deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The antennas are coplanar waveguide fed dual frequency folded slot antennas fabricated on liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates. The PVD SiC thin films were deposited directly onto the antennas by RF sputtering at room temperature at a chamber pressure of 30 mTorr and a power level of 300 W. The SiC film thickness is 450 nm. The return loss and radiation patterns were measured before and after the SiC-coated antennas were submerged into perchloric acid for 1 hour. No degradation in RF performance or physical integrity of the antenna was observed.

  2. Effects of interface morphology and TGO thickness on residual stress of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianwei; Zhao, Yang; Ma, Jian

    2015-04-01

    The residual stress of electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) thermal barrier coatings (TBC) is complex and difficult to be obtained. In this paper, the interface morphology of TBCs subjected to cyclic heating and cooling was observed by SEM. Based on the thermal elastic-plastic finite method, corresponding interface model of TBCs was established. The residual stress of EB-PVD TBCs with different interface morphologies and TGO thicknesses was calculated using the FE method without regard to the presence of cracks and defects. The result shows that the distribution of residual stress is significantly affected by the interface morphology, and the growth of TGO also has influence on the residual stress of TC and TGO.

  3. Magnetic metallic multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, R.Q.

    1994-04-01

    Utilizing self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations, several aspects of multilayers and interfaces are explored: enhancement and reduction of the local magnetic moments, magnetic coupling at the interfaces, magnetic arrangements within each film and among non-neighboring films, global symmetry of the systems, frustration, orientation of the various moments with respect to an outside applied field, and magnetic-field induced transitions. Magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic-normal-metal multilayers is found by solving the Boltzmann equation. Results explain the giant negative magnetoresistance encountered in these systems when an initial antiparallel arrangement is changed into a parallel configuration by an external magnetic field. The calculation depends on (1) geometric parameters (thicknesses of layers), (2) intrinsic metal parameters (number of conduction electrons, magnetization, and effective masses in layers), (3) bulk sample properties (conductivity relaxation times), (4) interface scattering properties (diffuse scattering versus potential scattering at the interfaces, and (5) outer surface scattering properties (specular versus diffuse surface scattering). It is found that a large negative magnetoresistance requires considerable asymmetry in interface scattering for the two spin orientations. Features of the interfaces that may produce an asymmetrical spin-dependent scattering are studied: varying interfacial geometric random roughness with no lateral coherence, correlated (quasi-periodic) roughness, and varying chemical composition of the interfaces. The interplay between these aspects of the interfaces may enhance or suppress the magnetoresistance, depending on whether it increases or decreases the asymmetry in the spin-dependent scattering of the conduction electrons.

  4. Ultrahard Multilayer Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzan, D.C.; Dugger, M.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Friedmann, T.A.; Knapp, J.A.; McCarty, K.F.; Medlin, D.L.; Mirkarimi, P.B.; Missert, N.; Newcomer, P.P.; Sullivan, J.P.; Tallant, D.R.

    1999-05-01

    We have developed a new multilayer a-tC material that is thick stress-free, adherent, low friction, and with hardness and stiffness near that of diamond. The new a-tC material is deposited by J pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature, and fully stress-relieved by a short thermal anneal at 600C. A thick multilayer is built up by repeated deposition and annealing steps. We measured 88 GPa hardness, 1100 GPa Young's modulus, and 0.1 friction coefficient (under high load). Significantly, these results are all well within the range reported for crystalline diamond. In fact, this material, if considered separate from crystalline diamond, is the 2nd hardest material known to man. Stress-free a-tC also has important advantages over thin film diamond; namely, it is smooth, processed at lower temperature, and can be grown on a much broader range of substrates. This breakthrough will enable a host of applications that we are actively pursuing in MEMs, sensors, LIGA, etc.

  5. NANOSCALE BIOSENSORS IN ECOSYSTEM EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This powerpoint presentation presented information on nanoscale biosensors in ecosystem exposure research. The outline of the presentation is as follows: nanomaterials environmental exposure research; US agencies involved in nanosensor research; nanoscale LEDs in biosensors; nano...

  6. Advanced STEM Characterization of Nanoscale Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanchita

    Nanoscale materials are the key structures in determining the properties of many technologically-important materials. Two such important nanoscale materials for different technological applications are investigated in this dissertation. They are: Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts and irradiated metallic bi-layers. Catalytic activity depends on the structural parameters such as size, shape, and distribution on support. On the other hand, the radiation resistance of the model metallic multi-layers is influenced by the presence of interphase, phase-boundaries, and grain-boundaries. The focus of this dissertation is to use different TEM and STEM techniques to understand the structure of these materials. This dissertation begins with a review of the microscopy techniques used in the experiments. Then, in the next two chapters, literature review followed by results and discussions on the two above-mentioned nano materials are presented. Future research directions are included in the concluding chapter. To obtain three-dimensional morphological information of the FT catalysts during reduced/active state, STEM tomography is used. The oxidized state and reduced state is clarified by using STEM-EELS (in the form of spectrum imaging). We used a special vacuum transfer tomography holder and ex-situ gas assembly for reduction, and the reduction parameters are optimized for complete reduction. It was observed that the particle was reduced with 99.99% H2, and at 400C for 15 minutes. The tomographic results in before-reduction condition depict that the Co-oxide particles are distributed randomly inside the alumina support. After reduction, the tomogram reveals that metallic Co nucleated and sintered towards the surface of the alumina support. The overall metallic Co distribution shows an outward segregation by subsurface diffusion mechanism. In the study of metallic bi-layer, He-irradiated gold twist grain boundary (AuTGB) was chosen as it is one of the least-studied systems in the area of model metallic multi-layers materials. Traditional TEM techniques such as two-beam imaging, weak beam imaging, and through-focal series have been applied to characterize the dislocation network and He bubble distribution. STEM Z-contrast imaging has also been applied to characterize the dislocation network and He bubble distribution. The TGB is found to consist of grid (square, rectangular) of screw dislocations with a line direction along <110> and with Burgers vector1/2a<110>. The He bubble distribution is found to be random across the thickness. The results showed that, because of STEM's characteristic dependence on atomic number, STEM imaging reduces the post-processing of images and provides 3D information about distribution of the radiation damage which is unobtainable by TEM. In summary, this dissertation makes important contributions to the knowledge of FT catalyst by providing direct, reliable representation of 3D structure of a FT catalyst after reduction and irradiated metallic-bilayer knowledge base by presenting new results which will help in designing new materials and fabrication techniques.

  7. Blending effect of poly (ethyl methacrylate) on lithium bis(perfluoroethanesulfonyl) imide-ferroceramic PVdF-HFP composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickraman, P.; Jayaraman, R.; Purushothaman, K.

    2013-06-01

    PEMA as a supportive host matrix is physically blended in five different proportions with PVdF-HFP based system containing LiBETI as a electrolyte, EC / DMC mixture in 1:1 v/v ratio as a plasticizer and BaTiO3 as a filler for improving ionic conductivity is attempted. The A.C impedance, DSC, and FTIR studies are carried out. The ionic conductivity measurements on these Polymer Blend Nano Composites(PBNC) showed that blending improved ionic conductivity, and enhancement in magnitude is observed for 22.5% PEMA blended PVdF-HFP (7.5 wt%) system with 7.5% BaTiO3. The DSC showed PEMA interaction with PVDF causing reorientation of VDF crystals and resulting conformational changes showed variations in melting endotherms, are observed. FTIR studies identified PEMA interaction with plasticizer and PVdF-HFP through the change in the C-F stretching and C=O Carbonyl bond.

  8. The effect of thermal aging on the thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed and EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, R.B.; Beecher, S.C.; Porter, W.D.; Nagaraj, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBCs is of primary importance. Electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EV-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The density of the APS coatings was controlled by varying the spray parameters. The low density APS yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (yttria-PSZ) coatings yielded a thermal conductivity that is lower than both the high density APS coatings and the EB-PVD coatings. The thermal aging of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia are compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposure to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the EB-PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, results suggest that they typically have a higher thermal conductivity than APS coatings before thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia have been found to be less than for plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia coatings.

  9. Nanoscale wicking methods and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Jijie (Inventor); Bronikowski, Michael (Inventor); Noca, Flavio (Inventor); Sansom, Elijah B. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A fluid transport method and fluid transport device are disclosed. Nanoscale fibers disposed in a patterned configuration allow transport of a fluid in absence of an external power source. The device may include two or more fluid transport components having different fluid transport efficiencies. The components may be separated by additional fluid transport components, to control fluid flow.

  10. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the pvdA gene encoding the pyoverdin biosynthetic enzyme L-ornithine N5-oxygenase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Visca, P; Ciervo, A; Orsi, N

    1994-01-01

    The enzyme L-ornithine N5-oxygenase catalyzes the hydroxylation of L-ornithine (L-Orn), which represents an early step in the biosynthesis of the peptidic moiety of the fluorescent siderophore pyoverdin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A gene bank of DNA from P. aeruginosa PAO1 (ATCC 15692) was constructed in the broad-host-range cosmid pLAFR3 and mobilized into the L-Orn N5-oxygenase-defective (pvdA) P. aeruginosa mutant PALS124. Screening for fluorescent transconjugants made it possible to identify the trans-complementing cosmid pPV4, which was able to restore pyoverdin synthesis and L-Orn N5-oxygenase activity in the pvdA mutant PALS124. The 17-kb PAO1 DNA insert of pPV4 contained at least two genetic determinants involved in pyoverdin synthesis, i.e., pvdA and pvdC4, as shown by complementation analysis of a set of mutants blocked in different steps of the pyoverdin biosynthetic pathway. Deletion analysis, subcloning, and transposon mutagenesis enabled us to locate the pvdA gene in a minimum DNA fragment of 1.7 kb flanked by two SphI restriction sites. Complementation of the pvdA mutation was under stringent iron control; both pyoverdin synthesis and L-Orn N5-oxygenase activity were undetectable in cells of the trans-complemented mutant which had been grown in the presence of 100 microM FeCl3. The entire nucleotide sequence of the pvdA gene, from which the primary structure of the encoded polypeptide was deduced, was determined. The pvdA structural gene is 1,278 bp; the cloned DNA fragment contains at the 5' end of the gene a putative ribosome-binding site but apparently lacks known promoterlike sequences. The P. aeruginosa L-Orn N5-oxygenase gene codes for a 426-amino-acid peptide with a predicted molecular mass of 47.7 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.1. The enzyme shows approximately 50% homology with functional analogs, i.e., L-lysine N6-hydroxylase of aerobactin-producing Escherichia coli and L-Orn N5-oxygenase of ferrichrome-producing Ustilago maydis. The pvdA gene was expressed in P. aeruginosa under the control of the T7 promoter. Induction of the T7 RNA polymerase system resulted in parallel increases of the L-Orn N5-oxygenase activity and of the amount of a 47.7-kDa polypeptide. We also constructed a site-specific pvdA mutant by insertion of a tetracycline-resistance cassette in the chromosomal pvdA gene of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Similarly to strain PALS124, the pvdA mutant obtained by gene disruption also disclosed no pyoverdin synthesis, lacked L-Orn N5-oxygenase activity, was complemented by the cloned pvdA gene, and produced pyoverdin at wild-type levels when fed with the biosynthetic precursor L-N5-OH-Orn. Southern blot analysis indicated that genes homologous to pvdA could be located within a 1.7-kb DNA fragment from SphI-digested genomic DNA of different hydroxamate-producing Pseudomonas spp. Our results suggest that omega-amino acid oxygenases have been conserved over a wide evolutionary range and probably evolved from a common ancestor. Images PMID:8106324

  11. Control of particle flux and energy on substrate in an inverted cylindrical magnetron for plasma PVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoran, A.; Mantel, M.; Bs, A.; Vachey, C.; Lacoste, A.

    2014-12-01

    Inverted cylindrical magnetrons (ICMs) are often used in dc, pulsed dc or mid-frequency ac mode for coating complex objects with thin films deposited by plasma PVD. Since in such a configuration the substrate is inherently surrounded by the target and hence by the plasma, the energy flux of the impinging particles represents the main contribution to the substrate heating. This can readily constitute a limiting factor in the deposition process, especially when it is not possible to cool and bias the substrate. This work concerns a dc-driven ICM configuration subjected to several constraints: not only is the substrate surface area small by comparison to the cathode surface area, but its imposed potential is the ground one, thus itself constituting the anode surface of the considered setup. Several important substrate heating factors are highlighted and, in order to reduce the most prominent of them, a means to raise the plasma potential is proposed. This is achieved by positively polarizing two additional electrodes with respect to the ground. This additional surface generates a redistribution of the current and consequently regulates the electron flux on the substrate. The results are shown as a function of bias applied on the auxiliary electrodes and discussed in terms of the impact on the substrate heating.

  12. Effect of Hf Additions to Pt Aluminide Bond Coats on EB-PVD TBC Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James; Nagaraj, Ben; Williams, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    Small Hf additions were incorporated into a Pt aluminide coating during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on single crystal RENE N5 substrates. Standard yttria-stabilized zirconia top coats were subsequently deposited onto the coated substrates by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The coated substrates underwent accelerated thermal cycle testing in a furnace at a temperature in excess of 1121 C (2050 F) (45 minute hot exposure, 15 minute cool to approximately 121 C (250 F)) until the thermal barrier coating (TBC) failed by spallation. Incorporating Hf in the bond coat increased the TBC life by slightly more than three times that of a baseline coating without added Hf. Scanning electron microscopy of the spalled surfaces indicated that the presence of the Hf increased the adherence of the thermally grown alumina to the Pt aluminide bond coat. The presence of oxide pegs growing into the coating from the thermally grown alumina may also partially account for the improved TBC life by creating a near-surface layer with a graded coefficient of thermal expansion.

  13. Evaluation of Osseous Integration of PVD-Silver-Coated Hip Prostheses in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, Gregor; Hardes, Jendrik; Gosheger, Georg; Blaske, Franziska; Wehe, Christoph; Karst, Uwe; Höll, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Infection associated with biomaterials used for orthopedic prostheses remains a serious complication in orthopedics, especially tumor surgery. Silver-coating of orthopedic (mega)prostheses proved its efficiency in reducing infections but has been limited to surface areas exposed to soft tissues due to concerns of silver inhibiting osseous integration of cementless stems. To close this gap in the bactericidal capacity of silver-coated orthopedic prostheses extension of the silver-coating on surface areas intended for osseous integration seems to be inevitable. Our study reports about a PVD- (physical-vapor-deposition-) silver-coated cementless stem in a canine model for the first time and showed osseous integration of a silver-coated titanium surface in vivo. Radiological, histological, and biomechanical analysis revealed a stable osseous integration of four of nine stems implanted. Silver trace elemental concentrations in serum did not exceed 1.82 parts per billion (ppb) and can be considered as nontoxic. Changes in liver and kidney functions associated with the silver-coating could be excluded by blood chemistry analysis. This was in accordance with very limited metal displacement from coated surfaces observed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) 12 months after implantation. In conclusion our results represent a step towards complete bactericidal silver-coating of orthopedic prostheses. PMID:25695057

  14. Properties of Al doped zinc oxide films prepared by electron beam-PVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, N.; Kuroyama, T.; Okuhara, Y.; Matsubara, H.

    2011-10-01

    Al doped ZnO (AZO) films were prepared on quartz substrates by the co-evaporation of ZnO and Al2O3 ingots by EB-PVD. EB power applied to the Al2O3 source was ranged from 3kW to 10kW, while EB power to the ZnO source was fixed at 3kW, at a substrate temperature of 400C. X-ray diffraction measurement showed that the AZO films were weakly c-axis oriented. Transmittance of All the AZO films was over 80% in the visible range. Highest reflectance in the near IR range was obtained at the EB power on Al2O3 of 5kW. The lowest resistivity of 3.05 10-4 ?cm was obtained for the film deposited with the EB power on Al2O3 of 5kW with the deposition time of 300s.

  15. Quantitative Tomography of Organic Photovoltaic Blends at the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Pfannmöller, M; Heidari, H; Nanson, L; Lozman, O R; Chrapa, M; Offermans, T; Nisato, G; Bals, S

    2015-10-14

    The success of semiconducting organic materials has enabled green technologies for electronics, lighting, and photovoltaics. However, when blended together, these materials have also raised novel fundamental questions with respect to electronic, optical, and thermodynamic properties. This is particularly important for organic photovoltaic cells based on the bulk heterojunction. Here, the distribution of nanoscale domains plays a crucial role depending on the specific device structure. Hence, correlation of the aforementioned properties requires 3D nanoscale imaging of materials domains, which are embedded in a multilayer device. Such visualization has so far been elusive due to lack of contrast, insufficient signal, or resolution limits. In this Letter, we introduce spectral scanning transmission electron tomography for reconstruction of entire volume plasmon spectra from rod-shaped specimens. We provide 3D structural correlations and compositional mapping at a resolution of approximately 7 nm within advanced organic photovoltaic tandem cells. Novel insights that are obtained from quantitative 3D analyses reveal that efficiency loss upon thermal annealing can be attributed to subtle, fundamental blend properties. These results are invaluable in guiding the design and optimization of future devices in plastic electronics applications and provide an empirical basis for modeling and simulation of organic solar cells. PMID:26390367

  16. Multilayer graphene condenser microphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorović, Dejan; Matković, Aleksandar; Milićević, Marijana; Jovanović, Djordje; Gajić, Radoš; Salom, Iva; Spasenović, Marko

    2015-12-01

    Vibrating membranes are the cornerstone of acoustic technology, forming the backbone of modern loudspeakers and microphones. Acoustic performance of a condenser microphone is derived mainly from the membrane’s size, surface mass and achievable static tension. The widely studied and available nickel has been a dominant membrane material for professional microphones for several decades. In this paper we introduce multilayer graphene as a membrane material for condenser microphones. The graphene device outperforms a high end commercial nickel-based microphone over a significant part of the audio spectrum, with a larger than 10 dB enhancement of sensitivity. Our experimental results are supported with numerical simulations, which also show that a 300 layer thick graphene membrane under maximum tension would offer excellent extension of the frequency range, up to 1 MHz.

  17. A multilayer sonic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, L.; Chiroiu, V.; Sireteanu, T.; Dumitriu, D.

    2015-10-01

    A non-periodic multilayer film was analyzed to show that, despite its non-periodicity, the film exhibits full band-gaps and localized modes at its interfaces, as well as in the sonic composites. The film consists of alternating layers of two different materials that follow a triadic Cantor sequence. The Cantor structure shows extremely low thresholds for subharmonic generation of ultrasonic waves, compared with homogeneous and periodic structures. The coupling between the extended-mode (phonon) and the localized-mode (fracton) vibration regimes explains the generation of full band-gaps, for which there are no propagating Lamb waves. The large enhancement of the nonlinear interaction results from a more favorable frequency and spatial matching of coupled modes. A full band-gap that excludes Love waves is also analyzed.

  18. Multilayer optical dielectric coating

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, John L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A highly damage resistant, multilayer, optical reflective coating includes alternating layers of doped and undoped dielectric material. The doping levels are low enough that there are no distinct interfaces between the doped and undoped layers so that the coating has properties nearly identical to the undoped material. The coating is fabricated at high temperature with plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques to eliminate defects, reduce energy-absorption sites, and maintain proper chemical stoichiometry. A number of differently-doped layer pairs, each layer having a thickness equal to one-quarter of a predetermined wavelength in the material are combined to form a narrowband reflective coating for a predetermined wavelength. Broadband reflectors are made by using a number of narrowband reflectors, each covering a portion of the broadband.

  19. Multi-layer thin-film electrolytes for metal supported solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydn, Markus; Ortner, Kai; Franco, Thomas; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Menzler, Norbert H.; Stöver, Detlev; Bräuer, Günter; Venskutonis, Andreas; Sigl, Lorenz S.; Buchkremer, Hans-Peter; Vaßen, Robert

    2014-06-01

    A key to the development of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (MSCs) is the manufacturing of gas-tight thin-film electrolytes, which separate the cathode from the anode. This paper focuses the electrolyte manufacturing on the basis of 8YSZ (8 mol.-% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2). The electrolyte layers are applied by a physical vapor deposition (PVD) gas flow sputtering (GFS) process. The gas-tightness of the electrolyte is significantly improved when sequential oxidic and metallic thin-film multi-layers are deposited, which interrupt the columnar grain structure of single-layer electrolytes. Such electrolytes with two or eight oxide/metal layers and a total thickness of about 4 μm obtain leakage rates of less than 3 × 10-4 hPa dm3 s-1 cm-2 (Δp: 100 hPa) at room temperature and therefore fulfill the gas tightness requirements. They are also highly tolerant with respect to surface flaws and particulate impurities which can be present on the graded anode underground. MSC cell tests with double-layer and multilayer electrolytes feature high power densities more than 1.4 W cm-2 at 850 °C and underline the high potential of MSC cells.

  20. Integrated Multilayer Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Integrated multilayer insulation (IMLI) is being developed as an improved alternative to conventional multilayer insulation (MLI), which is more than 50 years old. A typical conventional MLI blanket comprises between 10 and 120 metallized polymer films separated by polyester nets. MLI is the best thermal- insulation material for use in a vacuum, and is the insulation material of choice for spacecraft and cryogenic systems. However, conventional MLI has several disadvantages: It is difficult or impossible to maintain the desired value of gap distance between the film layers (and consequently, it is difficult or impossible to ensure consistent performance), and fabrication and installation are labor-intensive and difficult. The development of IMLI is intended to overcome these disadvantages to some extent and to offer some additional advantages over conventional MLI. The main difference between IMLI and conventional MLI lies in the method of maintaining the gaps between the film layers. In IMLI, the film layers are separated by what its developers call a micro-molded discrete matrix, which can be loosely characterized as consisting of arrays of highly engineered, small, lightweight, polymer (typically, thermoplastic) frames attached to, and placed between, the film layers. The term "micro-molded" refers to both the smallness of the frames and the fact that they are fabricated in a process that forms precise small features, described below, that are essential to attainment of the desired properties. The term "discrete" refers to the nature of the matrix as consisting of separate frames, in contradistinction to a unitary frame spanning entire volume of an insulation blanket.

  1. Deformation of metallic glass thin films and multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Alex

    Amorphous metals are the ultimate nanostructure for mechanical strength. Their macroscopic ductility can be limited, however, by the formation of shear bands. If these materials are to be used in structural applications, the formation of shear bands must be understood and ultimately controlled. The mechanical properties of sputtered thin films of amorphous Pd0.77Si0.23 (a-PdSi) were studied using tensile testing. By depositing thin films of metallic glass on compliant substrates, fracture of the composite specimens was avoided. This testing technique allowed, for the first time, measurement of homogeneous flow and homogeneous deformation-induced softening at room temperature in this material. The stress-strain behavior and formation of shear bands does not depend on sample size, strain rate (over a range of 10 -5 to 8 x 10-5 sec-1 ), or film adhesion. By geometrically confining thin films of metallic glass with layers of a crystalline metal, the formation of shear steps at the interface is counteracted elastically, and the formation of shear bands is suppressed. A Cu/a-PdSi/Cu trilayer exhibited a yield strength of 1180 MPa, a flow stress of 1680 MPa, and a plastic strain of 13% without fracture. Multilayers of crystalline Cu and a-PdSi were deformed to large strains by cold rolling and bending. Transmission electron microscopy showed the layered structure remained intact and that no shear bands formed. In rolled Cu/Nb multilayers extensive grain rotation about the transverse direction occurs on micron-scale Cu grains. This grain rotation is reduced in nanoscale Cu/a-PdSi multilayers presumably due to a change in the distribution of dislocations in the Cu grains. The strength of the crystalline/amorphous multilayers was modeled with confined layer slip, in which deformation occurs by the motion of threading dislocations in the thin crystalline layers.

  2. The effects of length scale on the deformation behavior of metallic multilayers-Part II : modeling /.

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, A.; Hirth, John Price,; Anderson, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental observations described in a companion presentation of the same title by Misra et al. highlight that unique, non-bulk rolling textures are achieved in nanoscale multilayered thin films. Specifically, Cu/Nb multilayers deposited with an initial Kudjumov-Sachs orientation relation between Cu and Nb grains and with an initial individual layer thickness of 75nm preserve that relation during rolling. In contrast, samples with micron-scale individual layer thickness do not. To help understand this layer-dependent response, a crystal plasticity model is presented in which the Cu and Nb phases respond by slip on {l_brace}111{r_brace}/<110> systems in the fcc Cu case, and {l_brace}110{r_brace} / <111 > systems in the bcc Nb phase. Grains within each layered phase are required to plastically deform by a reduction in thickness and corresponding elongation in the rolling direction, with zero plastic strain along the transverse axis. The model also adopts the observation for nano-scale multilayers that the Kudjumov-Sachs orientation relation is preserved; in particular, the e 1 11> Cu and e1 10> Nb directions remain parallel to the interface normal during rolling. The crystal plasticity model then furnishes the minimum plastic work to deform a grain, as a function of grain orientation. For Cu grains, the plastic work is invariant of grain orientation, provided the critical resolved shear stress is uniform on all fcc slip systems. However, the corresponding plastic work in Nb grains is very dependent on grain orientation and has a strong minimum. This large anisotropy serves as a driving force for Nb grains to rotate around their <110> interface normal, toward the minimum. The resulting prediction for rolling texture in Nb layers agrees well with experimental observations in nanoscale Cu/Nb multilayers.

  3. Mie Scattering by Concentric Multilayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Mie formulation for homogeneous spheres is generalized to handle concentric multilayers in a manner that exploits an analogy with stratified planar systems, enabling these structures to be treated as photonic bandgap materials.

  4. Mie Scattering by Concentric Multilayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Mie formulation for homogeneous spheres is generalized to handle concentric multilayers in a manner that exploits an analogy with stratified planar systems, enabling these structures to be treated as photonic bandgap materials.

  5. Multilayer coatings on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.M.; Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.; Coronado, C.A.; Bennett, W.D.; Stewart, D.C.

    1995-04-01

    Thin-film optical and non-optical multilayer coatings are deposited onto flexible substrates using a vacuum web coater developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The coater`s primary application is rapid prototyping of multilayer (1) polymer coatings, (2) polymer/metal coatings, (3) ceramic/metal coatings, and (4) hybrid polymer, ceramic, and metal coatings. The coater is fully automated and incorporates polymer evaporation and extrusion heads, high-rate magnetron sputtering cathodes, and e-beam evaporation sources. Polymer electrolytes are deposited by extrusion techniques. Flexible plastic, metal, and ceramic substrates can be coated using roll-to-roll or closed-loop configurations. Examples of multilayer optical coatings demonstrated to date are solar reflectors, heat mirrors, Fabry-Perot filters, and alpha particle sensors. Nonoptical coatings include multilayer magnetic metal/ceramic and lamellar composites.

  6. Multilayered Magnetic Gelatin Membrane Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sangram K; Goranov, Vitaly; Dash, Mamoni; Russo, Alessandro; Shelyakova, Tatiana; Graziosi, Patrizio; Lungaro, Lisa; Riminucci, Alberto; Uhlarz, Marc; Baobre-Lpez, Manuel; Rivas, Jose; Herrmannsdrfer, Thomas; Rajadas, Jayakumar; De Smedt, Stefaan; Braeckmans, Kevin; Kaplan, David L; Dediu, V Alek

    2015-10-21

    A versatile approach for the design and fabrication of multilayer magnetic scaffolds with tunable magnetic gradients is described. Multilayer magnetic gelatin membrane scaffolds with intrinsic magnetic gradients were designed to encapsulate magnetized bioagents under an externally applied magnetic field for use in magnetic-field-assisted tissue engineering. The temperature of the individual membranes increased up to 43.7 C under an applied oscillating magnetic field for 70 s by magnetic hyperthermia, enabling the possibility of inducing a thermal gradient inside the final 3D multilayer magnetic scaffolds. On the basis of finite element method simulations, magnetic gelatin membranes with different concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles were assembled into 3D multilayered scaffolds. A magnetic-gradient-controlled distribution of magnetically labeled stem cells was demonstrated in vitro. This magnetic biomaterial-magnetic cell strategy can be expanded to a number of different magnetic biomaterials for various tissue engineering applications. PMID:26451743

  7. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  8. Multilayer high performance insulation materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, J. M.

    1971-01-01

    A number of tests are required to evaluate both multilayer high performance insulation samples and the materials that comprise them. Some of the techniques and tests being employed for these evaluations and some of the results obtained from thermal conductivity tests, outgassing studies, effect of pressure on layer density tests, hypervelocity impact tests, and a multilayer high performance insulation ambient storage program at the Kennedy Space Center are presented.

  9. Artificial multilayers and nanomagnetic materials

    PubMed Central

    SHINJO, Teruya

    2013-01-01

    The author has been actively engaged in research on nanomagnetic materials for about 50 years. Nanomagnetic materials are comprised of ferromagnetic systems for which the size and shape are controlled on a nanometer scale. Typical examples are ultrafine particles, ultrathin films, multilayered films and nano-patterned films. In this article, the following four areas of the author’s studies are described. (1) Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of nanomagnetic materials and interface magnetism. (2) Preparation and characterization of metallic multilayers with artificial superstructures. (3) Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in magnetic multilayers. (4) Novel properties of nanostructured ferromagnetic thin films (dots and wires). A subject of particular interest in the author’s research was the artificially prepared multilayers consisting of metallic elements. The motivation to initiate the multilayer investigation is described and the physical properties observed in the artificial multilayers are introduced. The author’s research was initially in the field of pure physical science and gradually extended into applied science. His achievements are highly regarded not only from the fundamental point of view but also from the technological viewpoint. PMID:23391605

  10. Systems engineering at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkoski, Jason J.; Breidenich, Jennifer L.; Wei, Michael C.; Clatterbaughi, Guy V.; Keng, Pei Yuin; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    Nanomaterials have provided some of the greatest leaps in technology over the past twenty years, but their relatively early stage of maturity presents challenges for their incorporation into engineered systems. Perhaps even more challenging is the fact that the underlying physics at the nanoscale often run counter to our physical intuition. The current state of nanotechnology today includes nanoscale materials and devices developed to function as components of systems, as well as theoretical visions for "nanosystems," which are systems in which all components are based on nanotechnology. Although examples will be given to show that nanomaterials have indeed matured into applications in medical, space, and military systems, no complete nanosystem has yet been realized. This discussion will therefore focus on systems in which nanotechnology plays a central role. Using self-assembled magnetic artificial cilia as an example, we will discuss how systems engineering concepts apply to nanotechnology.

  11. Biosafe Nanoscale Pharmaceutical Adjuvant Materials

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shubin; Li, Shengliang; Wang, Chongxi; Liu, Juan; Yang, Xiaolong; Wang, Paul C.; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to developments in the field of nanotechnology over the past decades, more and more biosafe nanoscale materials have become available for use as pharmaceutical adjuvants in medical research. Nanomaterials possess unique properties which could be employed to develop drug carriers with longer circulation time, higher loading capacity, better stability in physiological conditions, controlled drug release, and targeted drug delivery. In this review article, we will review recent progress in the application of representative organic, inorganic and hybrid biosafe nanoscale materials in pharmaceutical research, especially focusing on nanomaterial-based novel drug delivery systems. In addition, we briefly discuss the advantages and notable functions that make these nanomaterials suitable for the design of new medicines; the biosafety of each material discussed in this article is also highlighted to provide a comprehensive understanding of their adjuvant attributes. PMID:25429253

  12. Biosafe nanoscale pharmaceutical adjuvant materials.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shubin; Li, Shengliang; Wang, Chongxi; Liu, Juan; Yang, Xiaolong; Wang, Paul C; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2014-09-01

    Thanks to developments in the field of nanotechnology over the past decades, more and more biosafe nanoscale materials have become available for use as pharmaceutical adjuvants in medical research. Nanomaterials possess unique properties which could be employed to develop drug carriers with longer circulation time, higher loading capacity, better stability in physiological conditions, controlled drug release, and targeted drug delivery. In this review article, we will review recent progress in the application of representative organic, inorganic and hybrid biosafe nanoscale materials in pharmaceutical research, especially focusing on nanomaterial-based novel drug delivery systems. In addition, we briefly discuss the advantages and notable functions that make these nanomaterials suitable for the design of new medicines; the biosafety of each material discussed in this article is also highlighted to provide a comprehensive understanding of their adjuvant attributes. PMID:25429253

  13. Cavitation dynamics on the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Kotaidis, Vassilios; Plech, Anton

    2005-11-21

    The ultrafast excitation of gold nanoparticle sols causes a strong nonequilibrium heating of the particle lattice and subsequently of the water shell close to the particle surface. Above a threshold in laser fluence, which is defined by the onset of homogeneous nucleation, nanoscale vapor bubbles develop around the particles, expand and collapse again within the first nanosecond after excitation. We show the existence of cavitation on the nanometer and subnanosecond time scale, described within the framework of continuum thermodynamics.

  14. Nanoscale scanning transmission electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Midgley, P A; Weyland, M; Yates, T J V; Arslan, I; Dunin-Borkowski, R E; Thomas, J M

    2006-09-01

    Electron tomography enables the study of complex three-dimensional objects with nanometre resolution. In materials science, scanning transmission electron microscopy provides images with minimal coherent diffraction effects and with high atomic number contrast that makes them ideal for electron tomographic reconstruction. In this study, we reviewed the topic of scanning transmission electron microscopy-based tomography and illustrated the power of the technique with a number of examples with critical dimensions at the nanoscale. PMID:17059526

  15. Technological Convergence from the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, William

    A series of scientific conferences and book-length publications predict that nanoscience will have its greatest impact through the convergence of four fields where research progress and engineering applications are expected to be especially significant. These are the so-called NBIC fields of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and new technologies based on cognitive science. This chapter is a first sociological reconnaissance of the convergenist movement in science and technology, based on the unity of nature at the nanoscale.

  16. Nanoscale plasticity in silica glass

    SciTech Connect

    Glosli, J.N.; Boercker, D.B.; Tesar, A.; Belak, J.

    1993-10-01

    Mechanisms of nano-scale plasticity and damage initiation in silica glass is examined using molecular dynamics simulation. Computer experiments are carried out by indenting a sharp diamond-like tool, containing 4496 atoms, into a silica slab consisting of 12288 atoms. Both elastic and plastic deformation of silica is observed during nanoindentation simulation; this transition occurs at an indentation of 1.25 nm, and the calculated hardness (15GPa for 1.5 nm indentation) agrees with experiment.

  17. Three-dimensional, flexible nanoscale field-effect transistors as localized bioprobes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bozhi; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Qing, Quan; Duan, Xiaojie; Xie, Ping; Lieber, Charles M

    2010-08-13

    Nanoelectronic devices offer substantial potential for interrogating biological systems, although nearly all work has focused on planar device designs. We have overcome this limitation through synthetic integration of a nanoscale field-effect transistor (nanoFET) device at the tip of an acute-angle kinked silicon nanowire, where nanoscale connections are made by the arms of the kinked nanostructure, and remote multilayer interconnects allow three-dimensional (3D) probe presentation. The acute-angle probe geometry was designed and synthesized by controlling cis versus trans crystal conformations between adjacent kinks, and the nanoFET was localized through modulation doping. 3D nanoFET probes exhibited conductance and sensitivity in aqueous solution, independent of large mechanical deflections, and demonstrated high pH sensitivity. Additionally, 3D nanoprobes modified with phospholipid bilayers can enter single cells to allow robust recording of intracellular potentials. PMID:20705858

  18. The use of low-energy SIMS (LE-SIMS) for nanoscale fuel cell material development

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R. J. H.; Fearn, Sarah; Perkins, James; Kilner, John; Dowsett, M. G.; Biegalski, Michael D; Rouleau, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    Low-energy secondary ion mass spectrometry has been used to investigate the matrix structure and interface attributes of a novel Ce0.85Sm0.15O2/CeO2 multilayer fuel cell material. Nanoscale oxide systems have shown enhanced ionic conductivities when produced to form highly oriented epitaxial structures. The Sm-doped CeO2 material system is of particular interest for fuel cell technology because of its inherently high ionic conductivity at low operating temperatures (600-800 C). For this study, a nanometer-scale Ce0.85Sm0.15O2/CeO2 multilayer was grown by pulsed laser deposition. The sample was annealed at 700 C in an oxygen ambience. High-resolution, low-energy depth profiling using Cs revealed some diffusion of the multilayer structure after annealing, along with a possible volume change for the Sm-doped layers. Changes in layer volume will lead to an increase in the mechanical strain and may cause the material to crack. The findings presented here suggest that the Ce0.85Sm0.15O2/CeO2 multilayer structure in its current form may not possess the level of thermal stability required for use within a fuel cell environment.

  19. Relation of thermal conductivity with process induced anisotropic void system in EB-PVD PYSZ thermal barrier coatings.

    SciTech Connect

    Renteria, A. F.; Saruhan, B.; Ilavsky, J.; German Aerospace Center

    2007-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited by Electron-beam physical deposition (EB-PVD) protect the turbine blades situated at the high pressure sector of the aircraft and stationary turbines. It is an important task to uphold low thermal conductivity in TBCs during long-term service at elevated temperatures. One of the most promising methods to fulfil this task is to optimize the properties of PYSZ-based ,TBC by tailoring its microstructure. Thermal conductivity of the EB-PVD produced PYSZ TBCs is influenced mainly by the size, shape, orientation and volume of the various types of porosity present in the coatings. These pores can be classified as open (inter-columnar and between feather arms gaps) and closed (intra-columnar pores). Since such pores are located within the three-dimensionally deposited columns and enclose large differences in their sizes, shapes, distribution and anisotropy, the accessibility for their characterization is very complex and requires the use of sophisticated methods. In this work, three different EB-PVD TBC microstructures were manufactured by varying the process parameters, yielding various characteristics of their pores. The corresponding thermal conductivities in as-coated state and after ageing at 1100C/1h and 100h were measured via Laser Flash Analysis Method (LFA). The pore characteristics and their individual effect on the thermal conductivity are analysed by USAXS which is supported by subsequent modelling and LFA methods, respectively. Evident differences in the thermal conductivity values of each microstructure were found in as-coated and aged conditions. In summary, broader columns introduce higher values in thermal conductivity. In general, thermal conductivity increases after ageing for all three investigated microstructures, although those with initial smaller pore surface area show smaller changes.

  20. Relation of Thermal Conductivity with Process Induced Anisotropic Void Systems in EB-PVD PYSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Renteria, A. Flores; Saruhan-Brings, B.; Ilavsky, J.

    2008-03-03

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited by Electron-beam physical deposition (EB-PVD) protect the turbine blades situated at the high pressure sector of the aircraft and stationary turbines. It is an important task to uphold low thermal conductivity in TBCs during long-term service at elevated temperatures. One of the most promising methods to fulfil this task is to optimize the properties of PYSZ-based TBC by tailoring its microstructure. Thermal conductivity of the EB-PVD produced PYSZ TBCs is influenced mainly by the size, shape, orientation and volume of the various types of porosity present in the coatings. These pores can be classified as open (inter-columnar and between feather arms gaps) and closed (intra-columnar pores). Since such pores are located within the three-dimensionally deposited columns and enclose large differences in their sizes, shapes, distribution and anisotropy, the accessibility for their characterization is very complex and requires the use of sophisticated methods. In this work, three different EB-PVD TBC microstructures were manufactured by varying the process parameters, yielding various characteristics of their pores. The corresponding thermal conductivities in as-coated state and after ageing at 11000C/1h and 100h were measured via Laser Flash Analysis Method (LFA). The pore characteristics and their individual effect on the thermal conductivity are analysed by USAXS which is supported by subsequent modelling and LFA methods, respectively. Evident differences in the thermal conductivity values of each microstructure were found in as-coated and aged conditions. In summary, broader columns introduce higher values in thermal conductivity. In general, thermal conductivity increases after ageing for all three investigated microstructures, although those with initial smaller pore surface area show smaller changes.

  1. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance was analyzed and improvements implemented to the Veeco PVD-AlN prototype system to establish a specification and baseline PVD-AlN films on sapphire and in parallel the evaluation of PVD AlN on silicon substrates began. In Phase II of the project a Beta tool based on a scaled-up process module capable of depositing uniform films on batches of 4”or 6” diameter substrates in a production worthy operation was developed and qualified. In Phase III, the means to increase the throughput of the PVD-AlN system was evaluated and focused primarily on minimizing the impact of the substrate heating and cooling times that dominated the overall cycle time.

  2. Nanoscale directional motion towards regions of stiffness.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tienchong; Zhang, Hongwei; Guo, Zhengrong; Guo, Xingming; Gao, Huajian

    2015-01-01

    How to induce nanoscale directional motion via some intrinsic mechanisms pertaining to a nanosystem remains a challenge in nanotechnology. Here we show via molecular dynamics simulations that there exists a fundamental driving force for a nanoscale object to move from a region of lower stiffness toward one of higher stiffness on a substrate. Such nanoscale directional motion is induced by the difference in effective van der Waals potential energy due to the variation in stiffness of the substrate; i.e., all other conditions being equal, a nanoscale object on a stiffer substrate has lower van der Waals potential energy. This fundamental law of nanoscale directional motion could lead to promising routes for nanoscale actuation and energy conversion. PMID:25615480

  3. Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (Program website, free access)   Currently there is no database matching your keyword search, but the NIST Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology website may be of interest. The Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology enables science and industry by providing essential measurement methods, instrumentation, and standards to support all phases of nanotechnology development, from discovery to production.

  4. Multilayer perceptron for nonlinear programming.

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Feldman, E. E.; Reactor Analysis

    2002-08-01

    A new method for solving nonlinear programming problems within the framework of a multilayer neural network perceptron is proposed. The method employs the Penalty Function method to transform a constrained optimization problem into a sequence of unconstrained optimization problems and then solves the sequence of unconstrained optimizations of the transformed problem by training a series of multilayer perceptrons. The neural network formulation is represented in such a way that the multilayer perceptron prediction error to be minimized mimics the objective function of the unconstrained problem, and therefore, the minimization of the objective function for each unconstrained optimization is attained by training a single perceptron. The multilayer perceptron allows for the transformation of problems with two-sided bounding constraints on the decision variables x, e.g., a{<=}x{sub n}{<=}b, into equivalent optimization problems in which these constraints do not explicitly appear. Hence, when these are the only constraints in the problem, the transformed problem is constraint free (i.e., the transformed objective function contains no penalty terms) and is solved by training a multilayer perceptron only once. In addition, we present a new Penalty Function method for solving nonlinear programming problems that is parameter free and guarantees that feasible solutions are obtained when the optimal solution is on the boundary of the feasible region. Simulation results, including an example from operations research, illustrate the proposed methods.

  5. Nonlinear multilayers as optical limiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner-Valle, Jennifer Anne

    1998-10-01

    In this work we present a non-iterative technique for computing the steady-state optical properties of nonlinear multilayers and we examine nonlinear multilayer designs for optical limiters. Optical limiters are filters with intensity-dependent transmission designed to curtail the transmission of incident light above a threshold irradiance value in order to protect optical sensors from damage due to intense light. Thin film multilayers composed of nonlinear materials exhibiting an intensity-dependent refractive index are used as the basis for optical limiter designs in order to enhance the nonlinear filter response by magnifying the electric field in the nonlinear materials through interference effects. The nonlinear multilayer designs considered in this work are based on linear optical interference filter designs which are selected for their spectral properties and electric field distributions. Quarter wave stacks and cavity filters are examined for their suitability as sensor protectors and their manufacturability. The underlying non-iterative technique used to calculate the optical response of these filters derives from recognizing that the multi-valued calculation of output irradiance as a function of incident irradiance may be turned into a single-valued calculation of incident irradiance as a function of output irradiance. Finally, the benefits and drawbacks of using nonlinear multilayer for optical limiting are examined and future research directions are proposed.

  6. Unfolding single- and multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Maria-Gema; Bons, Paul D.; Griera, Albert; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    When planar structures (e.g. sedimentary layers, veins, dykes, cleavages, etc.) are subjected to deformation, they have about equal chances to be shortened or stretched. The most common shortening and stretching structures are folds and boudinage, respectively. However, boudinage requires additional deformation mechanisms apart from viscous flow, like formation of fractures or strain localization. When folded layers are subjected to extension, they could potentially unfold back to straight layers. Although probably not uncommon, this would be difficult to recognize. Open questions are whether folded layers can unfold, what determines their mechanical behaviour and how we can recognize them in the field. In order to approach these questions, we present a series of numerical experiments that simulate stretching of previously folded single- and multi-layers in simple shear, using the two dimensional numerical modelling platform ELLE, including the finite element module BASIL that calculates viscous deformation. We investigate the parameters that affect a fold train once it rotates into the extensional field. The results show that the unfolding process strongly depends on the viscosity contrast between the layer and matrix (Llorens et al., 2013). Layers do not completely unfold when they experience softening before or during the stretching process or when other neighbouring competent layers prevent them from unfolding. The foliation refraction patterns are the main indicators of unfolded folds. Additionally, intrafolial folds and cusp-like folds adjacent to straight layers, as well as variations in fold amplitudes and limb lengths of irregular folds can also be used as indicators of stretching of a layer after shortening and folding. References: Llorens, M-.G., Bons, P.D., Griera, A. and Gomez-Rivas, E. 2013. When do folds unfold during progressive shear?. Geology, 41, 563-566.

  7. Design and fabrication of heat resistant multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, J.M.; Knight, L.V.; Peterson, B.G.; Perkins, R.T.; Gray, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Many promising applications of multilayer x-ray optical elements subject them to intense radiation. This paper discusses the selection of optimal pairs of materials to resist heat damage and presents simulations of multilayer performance under extreme heat loadings.

  8. Structural reducibility of multilayer networks.

    PubMed

    De Domenico, Manlio; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Arenas, Alexandre; Latora, Vito

    2015-01-01

    Many complex systems can be represented as networks consisting of distinct types of interactions, which can be categorized as links belonging to different layers. For example, a good description of the full protein-protein interactome requires, for some organisms, up to seven distinct network layers, accounting for different genetic and physical interactions, each containing thousands of protein-protein relationships. A fundamental open question is then how many layers are indeed necessary to accurately represent the structure of a multilayered complex system. Here we introduce a method based on quantum theory to reduce the number of layers to a minimum while maximizing the distinguishability between the multilayer network and the corresponding aggregated graph. We validate our approach on synthetic benchmarks and we show that the number of informative layers in some real multilayer networks of protein-genetic interactions, social, economical and transportation systems can be reduced by up to 75%. PMID:25904309

  9. Structural reducibility of multilayer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Domenico, Manlio; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Arenas, Alexandre; Latora, Vito

    2015-04-01

    Many complex systems can be represented as networks consisting of distinct types of interactions, which can be categorized as links belonging to different layers. For example, a good description of the full protein-protein interactome requires, for some organisms, up to seven distinct network layers, accounting for different genetic and physical interactions, each containing thousands of protein-protein relationships. A fundamental open question is then how many layers are indeed necessary to accurately represent the structure of a multilayered complex system. Here we introduce a method based on quantum theory to reduce the number of layers to a minimum while maximizing the distinguishability between the multilayer network and the corresponding aggregated graph. We validate our approach on synthetic benchmarks and we show that the number of informative layers in some real multilayer networks of protein-genetic interactions, social, economical and transportation systems can be reduced by up to 75%.

  10. Design of radiation resistant metallic multilayers for advanced nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhernenkov, Mikhail E-mail: gills@bnl.gov; Gill, Simerjeet E-mail: gills@bnl.gov; Stanic, Vesna; DiMasi, Elaine; Kisslinger, Kim; Ecker, Lynne; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Misra, Amit; Demkowicz, M. J.

    2014-06-16

    Helium implantation from transmutation reactions is a major cause of embrittlement and dimensional instability of structural components in nuclear energy systems. Development of novel materials with improved radiation resistance, which is of the utmost importance for progress in nuclear energy, requires guidelines to arrive at favorable parameters more efficiently. Here, we present a methodology that can be used for the design of radiation tolerant materials. We used synchrotron X-ray reflectivity to nondestructively study radiation effects at buried interfaces and measure swelling induced by He implantation in Cu/Nb multilayers. The results, supported by transmission electron microscopy, show a direct correlation between reduced swelling in nanoscale multilayers and increased interface area per unit volume, consistent with helium storage in Cu/Nb interfaces in forms that minimize dimensional changes. In addition, for Cu/Nb layers, a linear relationship is demonstrated between the measured depth-dependent swelling and implanted He density from simulations, making the reflectivity technique a powerful tool for heuristic material design.

  11. Synthesis of nanoscale antimony particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, L.; Dailly, A.; Schneider, R.; Billaud, D.; Willmann, P.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.-C.

    2005-09-01

    For the search of new negative electrodes of Li-ion batteries, a low-temperature method has been developed for the preparation of nanoscale antimony particles which uses an alkoxide-activated sodium hydride as reducing agent of antimony pentachloride. X-ray diffraction and TEM studies confirm the obtaining of amorphous Sb nanoparticles dispersed in an organic matrix. 121Sb Mssbauer spectroscopy gives evidence for the occurrence of interactions between antimony and the matrix. These interactions are modified by the washing treatments.

  12. Continuum mechanics modeling and experimental confirmation for the prediction of nanoscale transitional fracture behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Michael James

    2002-01-01

    A continuum mechanics-based model is used to explore the fracture properties of nanoscale multilayered materials. Length scale appears via inclusion of potential emission of discrete dislocations from a crack tip following the Rice-Thomson approach. For nanoscale multilayers, the high density of interfaces has a strong effect on the propensity for a crack to emit blunting dislocations, which relieve high local stresses, or not emit them, which promotes cleavage. The model is used to predict how material combination, layer thickness, crystal structure, and flaw size influence the effective fracture toughness of the material system for the "mesoscopic" size regime that bridges atomistics and continuum mechanics. To confirm validity of the continuum model at the nanoscale and test certain critical predictions, viz. the directions of dislocation emission from crack tips, Bragg bubble raft experiments are performed. Perfect (dislocation-free) two-dimensional bubble rafts with sharp internal and interfacial cracks are subjected to the bounding cases of uniform displacement or traction to examine the nucleation and emission of dislocations. The experiments verify, qualitatively and quantitatively, the trends predicted by the model. Theory and experiment demonstrate transitions in emission behavior that take place over a large range of crack dimensions, crack locations, and loading conditions. Remarkably, the continuum model is confirmed to predict the crack dislocation emission behavior down to length scales approaching several atomic (bubble) spacings. The continuum model is applied to materials and material systems to make predictions of nominal crack response as a function of specimen size and geometry. The model predicts substantial modifications to crack behavior on the nanoscale. Most notable are predictions of brittle-to-ductile transition in macroscopically brittle materials such as silicon and germanium. Finally, it is proposed that the theoretical model may have utility in making predictions of brittle-to-ductile transitions during precision machining operations involving nanoscale depths of cut. A preliminary investigation into an elastic cutting model, featuring a simple chip formation geometry, predicts a physical transition from purely elastic response to elastoplastic response in silicon and germanium on the nanoscale. These predictions exhibit intriguing consistency with experimental machining data.

  13. Nanocomposite metal amorphous-carbon thin films deposited by hybrid PVD and PECVD technique.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, V; Soares, P; Martins, A J; Carneiro, J; Cerqueira, F

    2009-07-01

    Carbon based films can combine the properties of solid lubricating graphite structure and hard diamond crystal structure, i.e., high hardness, chemical inertness, high thermal conductivity and optical transparency without the crystalline structure of diamond. Issues of fundamental importance associated with nanocarbon coatings are reducing stress, improving adhesion and compatibility with substrates. In this work new nanocomposite coatings with improved toughness based in nanocrystalline phases of metals and ceramics embedded in amorphous carbon matrix are being developed within the frame of a research project: nc-MeNxCy/a-C(Me) with Me = Mo, Si, Al, Ti, etc. Carbide forming metal/carbon (Me/C) composite films with Me = Mo, W or Ti possess appropriate properties to overcome the limitation of pure DLC films. These novel coating architectures will be adopted with the objective to decrease residual stress, improve adherence and fracture toughness, obtain low friction coefficient and high wear-resistance. Nanocomposite DLC's films were deposited by hybrid technique using a PVD-Physically Vapor Deposition (magnetron sputtering) and Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD), by the use of CH4 gas. The parameters varied were: deposition time, substrate temperature (180 degrees C) and dopant (Si + Mo) of the amorphous carbon matrix. All the depositions were made on silicon wafers and steel substrates precoated with a silicon inter-layer. The characterisation of the film's physico-mechanical properties will be presented in order to understand the influence of the deposition parameters and metal content used within the a-C matrix in the thin film properties. Film microstructure and film hybridization state was characterized by Raman Spectroscopy. In order to characterize morphology SEM and AFM will be used. Film composition was measured by Energy-Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The contact angle for the produced DLC's on silicon substrates were also measured. Thin film adherence was studied by micro-scratch test. Residual stresses in the produced coatings will be analysed by bending technique. PMID:19916409

  14. Preparation of porous, chemically cross-linked, PVdF-based gel polymer electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. L.; Wan, C. C.; Wang, Y. Y.

    This study reports the development of a new system of porous, chemically cross-linked, gel polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) copolymer as a polymer matrix, polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a plasticizer, and polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) as a chemical cross-linking oligomer. The electrolytes are prepared by a combination of controlled evaporation and thermal polymerization of PEGDMA. PVdF-HFP/PEG/PEGDMA gel polymer electrolytes with a composition of 5/3/2 exhibit both high ambient ionic conductivity, viz., >1 mS cm -1, and a high tensile modulus of 52 MPa, because of their porous and network structures. All the blends of electrolytes are electrochemically stable up to 5 V versus Li/Li + in the presence of 1 M LiPF 6/ethylene carbonate-diethyl carbonate (EC-DEC). With these polymer electrolytes, rechargeable lithium batteries composed of carbon anode and LiCoO 2 cathode have acceptable cycleability and a good rate capability.

  15. Investigation of thin layers deposited by two PVD techniques on high speed steel produced by powder metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubczyov, D.; Hvizdo, P.; Seleck, M.

    2012-04-01

    This study was intended to investigate the properties and cutting performance with thin layers applied by two PVD techniques. PVD techniques ARC and LARC were used for the deposition of thin coatings onto cutting tools prepared by powder metallurgy. Advanced types of layers - monolayer AlTiCrN and nanocomposite type of nc-AlTiN/Si3N4 layer - were analyzed by standard techniques for surface status and quality assessment - roughness, hardness, layer thickness, chemical composition by GDOES, tribological properties at room and elevated temperature. Durability testing of the cutting tools was carried out according to the standard ISO 3685-1999. The nanocomposite nc-AlTiN/Si3N4 layer achieved lower roughness when compared to monolayer AlTiCrN which leads to the achievement of higher hardness and better layer quality. The HV0.5 hardness values were ?26 GPa. The results showed a 2-3-times longer durability of the cutting tools in comparison with equivalent uncoated PM and traditional materials. The deposited coatings contributed to the improvement of their durability.

  16. Development and evaluation of two PVD-coated ?-titanium orthodontic archwires for fluoride-induced corrosion protection.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vinod; Krishnan, Anand; Remya, R; Ravikumar, K K; Nair, S Asha; Shibli, S M A; Varma, H K; Sukumaran, K; Kumar, K Jyothindra

    2011-04-01

    The present research was aimed at developing surface coatings on ? titanium orthodontic archwires capable of protection against fluoride-induced corrosion. Cathodic arc physical vapor deposition PVD (CA-PVD) and magnetron sputtering were utilized to deposit thin films of titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) and tungsten carbide/carbon (WC/C) coatings on ? titanium orthodontic archwires. Uncoated and coated specimens were immersed in a high fluoride ion concentration mouth rinse, following a specially designed cycle simulating daily use. All specimens thus obtained were subjected to critical evaluation of parameters such as electrochemical corrosion behaviour, surface analysis, mechanical testing, microstructure, element release, and toxicology. The results confirm previous research that ? titanium archwires undergo a degradation process when in contact with fluoride mouth rinses. The study confirmed the superior nature of the TiAlN coating, evident as many fewer changes in properties after fluoride treatment when compared with the WC/C coating. Thus, coating with TiAlN is recommended in order to reduce the corrosive effects of fluorides on ? titanium orthodontic archwires. PMID:21111072

  17. Superstatistics in nanoscale electrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Garca-Morales, Vladimir; Krischer, Katharina

    2011-12-01

    Stochastic electrochemical reaction steps on nanosized electrodes are non-Markovian when externally driven by an applied voltage. We show that, compared to the Markovian case (when external driving is absent), nanoscale electrochemical systems obey a superstatistics characterized by a superposition of Tsallis' q indices. The distribution of Tsallis' q indices along stochastic trajectories can be calculated from the electrochemical master equation and normal distributions from Boltzmann-Gibbs thermostatistics are recovered in the thermodynamic limit (the infinite electrode size limit). Although on the nanoscale the external control makes intricate correlations between the microstates, in the superstatistical frame one can still address the microstates as if they were uncorrelated. The resulting superstatistical entropic form is additive in this frame and Tsallis' indices have on the time-average values ? 1, which is, indeed, an example of a superstatistical system where no ad hoc distribution has to be assumed for the fluctuations; rather, the distribution is directly calculated from a mesoscopic master equation without freely adjustable parameters. PMID:22106266

  18. Multi-layer micro/nanofluid devices with bio-nanovalves

    DOEpatents

    Li, Hao; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Firestone, Millicent A.

    2013-01-01

    A user-friendly multi-layer micro/nanofluidic flow device and micro/nano fabrication process are provided for numerous uses. The multi-layer micro/nanofluidic flow device can comprise: a substrate, such as indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO glass); a conductive layer of ferroelectric material, preferably comprising a PZT layer of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) positioned on the substrate; electrodes connected to the conductive layer; a nanofluidics layer positioned on the conductive layer and defining nanochannels; a microfluidics layer positioned upon the nanofluidics layer and defining microchannels; and biomolecular nanovalves providing bio-nanovalves which are moveable from a closed position to an open position to control fluid flow at a nanoscale.

  19. Multilayer printed wiring board lamination

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.

    1980-06-01

    The relationship of delamination resistance of multilayer PWBs made from GF material to manufacturing process variables was investigated. A unique quantitative test method developed during this project shows that delamination resistance is highly sensitive to material conditioning, to innerlayer surface treatment, and to post-lamination storage conditions, but is relatively insensitive to cure cycle variations.

  20. Low-resistivity atomic-layer-deposited-TaN with atomic-layer-deposited-TaN/physical-vapor-deposited-Ta multilayer structure for multilevel Cu damascene interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Furuya, Akira; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Ohashi, Naofumi; Kondo, Seiichi; Ogawa, Shinichi

    2006-01-15

    One important issue for integrating atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) TaN barrier metal into Cu interconnects is a low thickness margin due to high electrical resistivity ({approx}50 m{omega} cm) of ALD-TaN. In investigating this issue, the median via resistance (0.16 {mu}m diameter vias) was found to increase from 0.5 to 26 {omega}/via as the ALD-TaN thickness was increased from 1 to 2 nm. To reduce the resistivity of ALD-TaN, its atomic concentration on various substrates was investigated. The N/Ta ratio of ALD-TaN was found to be about 4/5 on a SiO{sub 2} substrate but about 1/2 on a Ta substrate. We also confirmed that the Ta-rich ALD-TaN film on the Ta substrate had low electrical resistivity ({approx}2 m{omega} cm). We could thus successfully obtain low via resistance (5.4 {omega}/via) with thick ALD-TaN (5 nm) by using a PVD-Ta/ALD-TaN/PVD-Ta multilayer structure.

  1. Reducing virulence of the human pathogen Burkholderia by altering the substrate specificity of the quorum-quenching acylase PvdQ

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Gudrun; Nadal-Jimenez, Pol; Reis, Carlos R.; Muntendam, Remco; Bokhove, Marcel; Melillo, Elena; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Cool, Robbert H.; Quax, Wim J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of enzymes to interfere with quorum sensing represents an attractive strategy to fight bacterial infections. We used PvdQ, an effective quorum-quenching enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as a template to generate an acylase able to effectively hydrolyze C8-HSL, the major communication molecule produced by the Burkholderia species. We discovered that the combination of two single mutations leading to variant PvdQLα146W,Fβ24Y conferred high activity toward C8-HSL. Exogenous addition of PvdQLα146W,Fβ24Y dramatically decreased the amount of C8-HSL present in Burkholderia cenocepacia cultures and inhibited a quorum sensing-associated phenotype. The efficacy of this PvdQ variant to combat infections in vivo was further confirmed by its ability to rescue Galleria mellonella larvae upon infection, demonstrating its potential as an effective agent toward Burkholderia infections. Kinetic analysis of the enzymatic activities toward 3-oxo-C12-L-HSL and C8-L-HSL corroborated a substrate switch. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of quorum-quenching acylases as potential novel antimicrobial drugs. In addition, we demonstrate that their substrate range can be easily switched, thereby paving the way to selectively target only specific bacterial species inside a complex microbial community. PMID:24474783

  2. Extracytoplasmic Function (ECF) Sigma Factor Gene Regulation in Pseudomonas syringae: Integrated Molecular and Computational Characterization of PvdS-Regulated Promoters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor PvdS regulates the expression of genes required for the biosynthesis and transport of pyoverdine, a siderophore that functions in iron acquisition. The production of pyoverdine is a distinctive trait of the fluorescent pseudomonads and the regulation ...

  3. Multilayer Composite Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2005-01-01

    A method has been devised to enable the fabrication of lightweight pressure vessels from multilayer composite materials. This method is related to, but not the same as, the method described in gMaking a Metal- Lined Composite-Overwrapped Pressure Vessel h (MFS-31814), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 3 (March 2005), page 59. The method is flexible in that it poses no major impediment to changes in tank design and is applicable to a wide range of tank sizes. The figure depicts a finished tank fabricated by this method, showing layers added at various stages of the fabrication process. In the first step of the process, a mandrel that defines the size and shape of the interior of the tank is machined from a polyurethane foam or other suitable lightweight tooling material. The mandrel is outfitted with metallic end fittings on a shaft. Each end fitting includes an outer flange that has a small step to accommodate a thin layer of graphite/epoxy or other suitable composite material. The outer surface of the mandrel (but not the fittings) is covered with a suitable release material. The composite material is filament- wound so as to cover the entire surface of the mandrel from the step on one end fitting to the step on the other end fitting. The composite material is then cured in place. The entire workpiece is cut in half in a plane perpendicular to the axis of symmetry at its mid-length point, yielding two composite-material half shells, each containing half of the foam mandrel. The halves of the mandrel are removed from within the composite shells, then the shells are reassembled and bonded together with a belly band of cured composite material. The resulting composite shell becomes a mandrel for the subsequent steps of the fabrication process and remains inside the final tank. The outer surface of the composite shell is covered with a layer of material designed to be impermeable by the pressurized fluid to be contained in the tank. A second step on the outer flange of each end fitting accommodates this layer. Depending on the application, this layer could be, for example, a layer of rubber, a polymer film, or an electrodeposited layer of metal. If the fluid to be contained in the tank is a gas, then the best permeation barrier is electrodeposited metal (typically copper or nickel), which can be effective at a thickness of as little as 0.005 in (.0.13 mm). The electrodeposited metal becomes molecularly bonded to the second step on each metallic end fitting. The permeation-barrier layer is covered with many layers of filament-wound composite material, which could be the same as, or different from, the composite material of the inner shell. Finally, the filament-wound composite material is cured in an ov

  4. Charge-dependent transport switching of single molecular ions in a weak polyelectrolyte multilayer.

    PubMed

    Tauzin, Lawrence J; Shuang, Bo; Kisley, Lydia; Mansur, Andrea P; Chen, Jixin; de Leon, Al; Advincula, Rigoberto C; Landes, Christy F

    2014-07-22

    The tunable nature of weak polyelectrolyte multilayers makes them ideal candidates for drug loading and delivery, water filtration, and separations, yet the lateral transport of charged molecules in these systems remains largely unexplored at the single molecule level. We report the direct measurement of the charge-dependent, pH-tunable, multimodal interaction of single charged molecules with a weak polyelectrolyte multilayer thin film, a 10 bilayer film of poly(acrylic acid) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) PAA/PAH. Using fluorescence microscopy and single-molecule tracking, two modes of interaction were detected: (1) adsorption, characterized by the molecule remaining immobilized in a subresolution region and (2) diffusion trajectories characteristic of hopping (D ∼ 10(-9) cm(2)/s). Radius of gyration evolution analysis and comparison with simulated trajectories confirmed the coexistence of the two transport modes in the same single molecule trajectories. A mechanistic explanation for the probe and condition mediated dynamics is proposed based on a combination of electrostatics and a reversible, pH-induced alteration of the nanoscopic structure of the film. Our results are in good agreement with ensemble studies conducted on similar films, confirm a previously-unobserved hopping mechanism for charged molecules in polyelectrolyte multilayers, and demonstrate that single molecule spectroscopy can offer mechanistic insight into the role of electrostatics and nanoscale tunability of transport in weak polyelectrolyte multilayers. PMID:24960617

  5. Charge-Dependent Transport Switching of Single Molecular Ions in a Weak Polyelectrolyte Multilayer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The tunable nature of weak polyelectrolyte multilayers makes them ideal candidates for drug loading and delivery, water filtration, and separations, yet the lateral transport of charged molecules in these systems remains largely unexplored at the single molecule level. We report the direct measurement of the charge-dependent, pH-tunable, multimodal interaction of single charged molecules with a weak polyelectrolyte multilayer thin film, a 10 bilayer film of poly(acrylic acid) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) PAA/PAH. Using fluorescence microscopy and single-molecule tracking, two modes of interaction were detected: (1) adsorption, characterized by the molecule remaining immobilized in a subresolution region and (2) diffusion trajectories characteristic of hopping (D ? 109 cm2/s). Radius of gyration evolution analysis and comparison with simulated trajectories confirmed the coexistence of the two transport modes in the same single molecule trajectories. A mechanistic explanation for the probe and condition mediated dynamics is proposed based on a combination of electrostatics and a reversible, pH-induced alteration of the nanoscopic structure of the film. Our results are in good agreement with ensemble studies conducted on similar films, confirm a previously-unobserved hopping mechanism for charged molecules in polyelectrolyte multilayers, and demonstrate that single molecule spectroscopy can offer mechanistic insight into the role of electrostatics and nanoscale tunability of transport in weak polyelectrolyte multilayers. PMID:24960617

  6. Patterning of magnetic thin films and multilayers using nanostructured tantalum gettering templates.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenlan; Chang, Long; Lee, Dahye; Dannangoda, Chamath; Martirosyan, Karen; Litvinov, Dmitri

    2015-03-25

    This work demonstrates that a nonmagnetic thin film of cobalt oxide (CoO) sandwiched between Ta seed and capping layers can be effectively reduced to a magnetic cobalt thin film by annealing at 200 °C, whereas CoO does not exhibit ferromagnetic properties at room temperature and is stable at up to ∼400 °C. The CoO reduction is attributed to the thermodynamically driven gettering of oxygen by tantalum, similar to the exothermic reduction-oxidation reaction observed in thermite systems. Similarly, annealing at 200 °C of a nonmagnetic [CoO/Pd]N multilayer thin film sandwiched between Ta seed and Ta capping layers results in the conversion into a magnetic [Co/Pd]N multilayer, a material with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy that is of interest for magnetic data storage applications. A nanopatterning approach is introduced where [CoO/Pd]N multilayers is locally reduced into [Co/Pd]N multilayers to achieve perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanostructured array. This technique can potentially be adapted to nanoscale patterning of other systems for which thermodynamically favorable combination of oxide and gettering layers can be identified. PMID:25761738

  7. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Supported Lipid Bilayer Poly-l-Lysine Multilayers.

    PubMed

    Heath, George R; Li, Mengqiu; Polignano, Isabelle L; Richens, Joanna L; Catucci, Gianluca; O'Shea, Paul; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Butt, Julea N; Jeuken, Lars J C

    2016-01-11

    Multilayer lipid membranes perform many important functions in biology, such as electrical isolation (myelination of axons), increased surface area for biocatalytic purposes (thylakoid grana and mitochondrial cristae), and sequential processing (golgi cisternae). Here we develop a simple layer-by-layer methodology to form lipid multilayers via vesicle rupture onto existing supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) using poly l-lysine (PLL) as an electrostatic polymer linker. The assembly process was monitored at the macroscale by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and the nanoscale by atomic force microscopy (AFM) for up to six lipid bilayers. By varying buffer pH and PLL chain length, we show that longer chains (≥300 kDa) at pH 9.0 form thicker polymer supported multilayers, while at low pH and shorter length PLL, we create close packed layers (average lipid bilayers separations of 2.8 and 0.8 nm, respectively). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and AFM were used to show that the diffusion of lipid and three different membrane proteins in the multilayered membranes has little dependence on lipid stack number or separation between membranes. These approaches provide a straightforward route to creating the complex membrane structures that are found throughout nature, allowing possible applications in areas such as energy production and biosensing while developing our understanding of the biological processes at play. PMID:26642374

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of nanoscale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodas, Nathan Oken

    This work builds theoretical tools to better understand nanoscale systems, and it ex- plores experimental techniques to probe nanoscale dynamics using nonlinear optical microscopy. In both the theory and experiment, this work harnesses nonlinearity to explore new boundaries in the ongoing attempts to understand the amazing world that is much smaller than we can see. In particular, the first part of this work proves the upper-bounds on the number and quality of oscillations when the sys- tem in question is homogeneously driven and has discrete states, a common way of describing nanoscale motors and chemical systems, although it has application to networked systems in general. The consequences of this limit are explored in the context of chemical clocks and limit cycles. This leads to the analysis of sponta- neous oscillations in GFPmut2, where we postulate that the oscillations must be due to coordinated rearrangement of the beta-barrel. Next, we utilize nonlinear optics to probe the constituent structures of zebrafish muscle. By comparing experimental observations with computational models, we show how second harmonic generation differs from fluorescence for confocal imaging. We use the wavelength dependence of the second harmonic generation conversion efficiency to extract information about the microscopic organization of muscle fibers, using the coherent nature of second ix harmonic generation as an analytical probe. Finally, existing experiments have used a related technique, sum-frequency generation, to directly probe the dynamics of free OH bonds at the water-vapor boundary. Using molecular dynamic simulations of the water surface and by designating surface-sensitive free OH bonds on the water surface, many aspects of the sum-frequency generation measurements were calcu- lated and compared with those inferred from experiment. The method utilizes results available from independent IR and Raman experiments to obtain some of the needed quantities, rather than calculating them ab initio. The results provide insight into the microscopic dynamics at the air-water interface and have useful application in the field of on-water catalysis.

  9. Nanoscale materials for hyperthermal theranostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bennett E.; Roder, Paden B.; Zhou, Xuezhe; Pauzauskie, Peter J.

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the use of nanoscale materials has attracted considerable attention with the aim of designing personalized therapeutic approaches that can enhance both spatial and temporal control over drug release, permeability, and uptake. Potential benefits to patients include the reduction of overall drug dosages, enabling the parallel delivery of different pharmaceuticals, and the possibility of enabling additional functionalities such as hyperthermia or deep-tissue imaging (LIF, PET, etc.) that complement and extend the efficacy of traditional chemotherapy and surgery. This mini-review is focused on an emerging class of nanometer-scale materials that can be used both to heat malignant tissue to reduce angiogenesis and DNA-repair while simultaneously offering complementary imaging capabilities based on radioemission, optical fluorescence, magnetic resonance, and photoacoustic methods.

  10. Charge transport in nanoscale junctions.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjrnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Understanding the fundamentals of nanoscale charge transfer is pivotal for designing future nano-electronic devices. Such devices could be based on individual or groups of molecular bridges, nanotubes, nanoparticles, biomolecules and other 'active' components, mimicking wire, diode and transistor functions. These have operated in various environments including vacuum, air and condensed matter, in two- or three-electrode configurations, at ultra-low and room temperatures. Interest in charge transport in ultra-small device components has a long history and can be dated back to Aviram and Ratner's letter in 1974 (Chem. Phys. Lett. 29 277-83). So why is there a necessity for a special issue on this subject? The area has reached some degree of maturity, and even subtle geometric effects in the nanojunction and noise features can now be resolved and rationalized based on existing theoretical concepts. One purpose of this special issue is thus to showcase various aspects of nanoscale and single-molecule charge transport from experimental and theoretical perspectives. The main principles have 'crystallized' in our minds, but there is still a long way to go before true single-molecule electronics can be implemented. Major obstacles include the stability of electronic nanojunctions, reliable operation at room temperature, speed of operation and, last but not least, integration into large networks. A gradual transition from traditional silicon-based electronics to devices involving a single (or a few) molecule(s) therefore appears to be more viable from technologic and economic perspectives than a 'quantum leap'. As research in this area progresses, new applications emerge, e.g. with a view to characterizing interfacial charge transfer at the single-molecule level in general. For example, electrochemical experiments with individual enzyme molecules demonstrate that catalytic processes can be studied with nanometre resolution, offering a route towards optimizing biosensors at the molecular level. Nanoscale charge transport experiments in ionic liquids extend the field to high temperatures and to systems with intriguing interfacial potential distributions. Other directions may include dye-sensitized solar cells, new sensor applications and diagnostic tools for the study of surface-bound single molecules. Another motivation for this special issue is thus to highlight activities across different research communities with nanoscale charge transport as a common denominator. This special issue gathers 27 articles by scientists from the United States, Germany, the UK, Denmark, Russia, France, Israel, Canada, Australia, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Singapore; it gives us a flavour of the current state-of-the-art of this diverse research area. While based on contributions from many renowned groups and institutions, it obviously cannot claim to represent all groups active in this very broad area. Moreover, a number of world-leading groups were unable to take part in this project within the allocated time limit. Nevertheless, we regard the current selection of papers to be representative enough for the reader to draw their own conclusions about the current status of the field. Each paper is original and has its own merit, as all papers in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter special issues are subjected to the same scrutiny as regular contributions. The Guest Editors have deliberately not defined the specific subjects covered in this issue. These came out logically from the development of this area, for example: 'Traditional' solid state nanojunctions based on adsorbed layers, oxide films or nanowires sandwiched between two electrodes: effects of molecular structure (aromaticity, anchoring groups), symmetry, orientation, dynamics (noise patterns) and current-induced heating. Various 'physical effects': inelastic tunnelling and Coulomb blockade, polaron effects, switching modes, and negative differential resistance; the role of many particle excitations, new surface states in semiconductor electrodes, various mechanisms for

  11. Protein delivery with nanoscale precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qiling; Zhang, Yuexing; Chen, Liaohai; Yan, Funing; Wang, Rong

    2005-08-01

    A novel assay of protein delivery to a surface with nanoscale precision was established. This was achieved by combining recent advancements in atomic force microscopy (AFM) and bioconjugation. We utilized a heterobifunctional photocleavable cross linker to functionalize an AFM tip with proteins. Upon irradiation, the proteins were released from the tip due to a photolytic reaction of the cross linker. These proteins bound tightly to their binding partners on a substrate. When tip functionalization is carefully controlled, proteins can be locally delivered to a desired area. Importantly, the result of protein delivery can be examined immediately by high-resolution imaging in the same area using the protein-free tip. Successful protein delivery was also confirmed by fluorescence imaging and was proved to be reproducible. The approach allows protein delivery and subsequent imaging to be performed in the same local area with the same AFM tip, thus opening up the possibility of monitoring protein functions in living cells in real time.

  12. Nanoscale cryptography: opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, Massoud; Shi, Weidong; Xu, Lei

    2015-11-01

    While most of the electronics industry is dependent on the ever-decreasing size of lithographic transistors, this scaling cannot continue indefinitely. To improve the performance of the integrated circuits, new emerging and paradigms are needed. In recent years, nanoelectronics has become one of the most important and exciting forefront in science and engineering. It shows a great promise for providing us in the near future with many breakthroughs that change the direction of technological advances in a wide range of applications. In this paper, we discuss the contribution that nanotechnology may offer to the evolution of cryptographic hardware and embedded systems and demonstrate how nanoscale devices can be used for constructing security primitives. Using a custom set of design automation tools, it is demonstrated that relative to a conventional 45-nm CMOS system, performance gains can be obtained up to two orders of magnitude reduction in area and up to 50 % improvement in speed.

  13. Reactions inside nanoscale protein cages.

    PubMed

    Bode, Saskia A; Minten, Inge J; Nolte, Roeland J M; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M

    2011-06-01

    Chemical reactions are traditionally carried out in bulk solution, but in nature confined spaces, like cell organelles, are used to obtain control in time and space of conversion. One way of studying these reactions in confinement is the development and use of small reaction vessels dispersed in solution, such as vesicles and micelles. The utilization of protein cages as reaction vessels is a relatively new field and very promising as these capsules are inherently monodisperse, in that way providing uniform reaction conditions, and are readily accessible to both chemical and genetic modifications. In this review, we aim to give an overview of the different kinds of nanoscale protein cages that have been employed as confined reaction spaces. PMID:21461437

  14. Optical Spectroscopy at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xiaoping

    Recent advances in material science and fabrication techniques enabled development of nanoscale applications and devices with superior performances and high degree of integration. Exotic physics also emerges at nanoscale where confinement of electrons and phonons leads to drastically different behavior from those in the bulk materials. It is therefore rewarding and interesting to investigate and understand material properties at the nanoscale. Optical spectroscopy, one of the most versatile techniques for studying material properties and light-matter interactions, can provide new insights into the nanomaterials. In this thesis, I explore advanced laser spectroscopic techniques to probe a variety of different nanoscale phenomena. A powerful tool in nanoscience and engineering is scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Its capability in atomic resolution imaging and spectroscopy unveiled the mystical quantum world of atoms and molecules. However identification of molecular species under investigation is one of the limiting functionalities of the STM. To address this need, we take advantage of the molecular `fingerprints' - vibrational spectroscopy, by combining an infrared light sources with scanning tunneling microscopy. In order to map out sharp molecular resonances, an infrared continuous wave broadly tunable optical parametric oscillator was developed with mode-hop free fine tuning capabilities. We then combine this laser with STM by shooting the beam onto the STM substrate with sub-monolayer diamondoids deposition. Thermal expansion of the substrate is detected by the ultrasensitive tunneling current when infrared frequency is tuned across the molecular vibrational range. Molecular vibrational spectroscopy could be obtained by recording the thermal expansion as a function of the excitation wavelength. Another interesting field of the nanoscience is carbon nanotube, an ideal model of one dimensional physics and applications. Due to the small light absorption with nanometer size, individual carbon nanotube is not visible under any conventional microscopy and characterization of individual nanotube becomes a focused research interest. Although electron microscopies and optical spectroscopies are developed previously to study carbon nanotubes, none of them permitted versatile imaging and spectroscopy of individual nanotube in a non-invasive, high throughput and ambient way. In this thesis a new polarization-based optical microscopy and spectroscopy is developed with exceedingly better contrast for one dimensional nano-materials and capability of individual carbon nanotube imaging and spectroscopy. This development provides a reliable way to measure the absolute absorption cross-section of individual chirality-defined carbon nanotubes. It also enables fast profiling for growth optimization and in situ characterization for functioning carbon nanotube devices. Two dimensional systems constitute another important family of nanomaterials, ranging from semi-metal (graphene), semiconductors (transition metal dichalcogenides) to insulators (h-BN). Despite of their scientific significance, they present a complete set of 2D building blocks for two dimensional electronics and optoelectronics. Heterostructures purely made of 2D thin films hold great promises due to functionality, scalability and ultrathin nature. Understanding the properties of the coupled heterolayers will be important and intriguing for these applications. With the advanced ultrafast laser spectroscopy, we study the dynamics of charge transfer process in two dimensional atomically thin semiconductors heterostructures. An extremely efficient charge transfer process is identified in atomically thin MoS2/WS2 system, which is expected to form a type-II heterojunction. Our discovery would greatly facilitate further studies of 2D materials as a photovoltaic device.

  15. Mapping Elasticity at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Gheorghe; Price, William

    2006-03-01

    In the last few years Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy has been developed to investigate the elastic response of materials at the nanoscale ^[1],[2]. We have extended this technique to the real-time mapping of nanomechanical properties of material surfaces. This mapping allows us to investigate the local variation of elastic properties with nanometer resolution and to reduce the uncertainties that arise from single measurements. Quantitative measurements are acquired by first performing an accurate calibration of the elastic properties of the Atomic Force Microscopes probes with respect to single crystal reference materials. A wide variety of surfaces with different mechanical properties have been investigated to illustrate the applicability of this technique. ^[1] U. Rabe et al., Surf. Interface Anal. 33 , 65 (2002)^[2] D.C. Hurley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2347 (2003)

  16. Low pressure hand made PVD system for high crystalline metal thin film preparation in micro-nanometer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad; Hidayat, Aulia Fikri; Marimpul, Rinaldo; Syuhada, Ibnu; Winata, Toto

    2016-02-01

    High crystalline metal thin film preparation in application both for catalyst substrate or electrode in any electronic devices always to be considered in material functional material research and development. As a substrate catalyst, this metal take a role as guidance for material growth in order to resulted in proper surface structure although at the end it will be removed via etching process. Meanwhile as electrodes, it will dragging charges to be collected inside. This brief discussion will elaborate general fundamental principle of physical vapor deposition (PVD) system for metal thin film preparation in micro-nanometer scale. The influence of thermodynamic parameters and metal characteristic such as melting point and particle size will be elucidated. Physical description of deposition process in the chamber can be simplified by schematic evaporation phenomena which is supported by experimental measurement such as SEM and XRD.

  17. Studies on the effect of dispersoid(ZrO2) in PVdF-co-HFP based gel polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, M.; Subadevi, R.; Muthupradeepa, R.

    2013-06-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes containing poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-co-HFP)) / Lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfon)imide (LiTFSI) / mixture of ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate (EC+PC) with different concendration of ZrO2 has been prepared using the solution casting technique. The conductivity of the prepared electrolyte sample has been determined by AC impedance technique in the range 303-353K. The temperature dependent ionic conductivity plot seems to obey VTF relation. The maximum ionic conductivity value of 4.46 10-3S/cm has been obtained for PVdF-co-HFP(32%) - LiTFSI(8%) - EC+PC (60%) + ZrO2(6wt%) based polymer electrolyte. The surface morphology of the prepared electrolyte sample has been studied using SEM.

  18. New directions for nanoscale thermoelectric materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dresselhaus, M. S.; Chen, G.; Tang, M. Y.; Yang, R. G.; Lee, H.; Wang, D. Z.; Ren, F.; Fleurial, J. P.; Gogna, P.

    2005-01-01

    Many of the recent advances in enhancing the thermoelectric figure of merit are linked to nanoscale phenomena with both bulk samples containing nanoscale constituents and nanoscale materials exhibiting enhanced thermoelectric performance in their own right. Prior theoretical and experimental proof of principle studies on isolated quantum well and quantum wire samples have now evolved into studies on bulk samples containing nanostructured constituents. In this review, nanostructural composites are shown to exhibit nanostructures and properties that show promise for thermoelectric applications. A review of some of the results obtained to date are presented.

  19. Atom Probe Tomography of Nanoscale Electronic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, David J.; Prosa, Ty J.; Perea, Daniel E.; Inoue, Hidekazu; Mangelinck, D.

    2016-01-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) is a mass spectrometry based on time-of-flight measurements which also concurrently produces 3D spatial information. The reader is referred to any of the other papers in this volume or to the following references for further information 4–8. The current capabilities of APT, such as detecting a low number of dopant atoms in nanoscale devices or segregation at a nanoparticle interface, make this technique an important component in the nanoscale metrology toolbox. In this manuscript, we review some of the applications of APT to nanoscale electronic materials, including transistors and finFETs, silicide contact microstructures, nanowires, and nanoparticles.

  20. Macro- to Nanoscale Heat and Mass Transfer: The Lagging Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazanfarian, Jafar; Shomali, Zahra; Abbassi, Abbas

    2015-07-01

    The classical model of the Fourier's law is known as the most common constitutive relation for thermal transport in various engineering materials. Although the Fourier's law has been widely used in a variety of engineering application areas, there are many exceptional applications in which the Fourier's law is questionable. This paper gathers together such applications. Accordingly, the paper is divided into two parts. The first part reviews the papers pertaining to the fundamental theory of the phase-lagging models and the analytical and numerical solution approaches. The second part wrap ups the various applications of the phase-lagging models including the biological materials, ultra-high-speed laser heating, the problems involving moving media, micro/nanoscale heat transfer, multi-layered materials, the theory of thermoelasticity, heat transfer in the material defects, the diffusion problems we call as the non-Fick models, and some other applications. It is predicted that the interest in the field of phase-lagging heat transport has grown incredibly in recent years because they show good agreement with the experiments across a wide range of length and time scales.

  1. Switchable friction enabled by nanoscale self-assembly on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Patrick; Lee, Menyoung; Amet, Francois; Maksymovych, Petro; Wang, Jun; Wang, Shuopei; Lu, Xiaobo; Zhang, Guangyu; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2016-02-01

    Graphene monolayers are known to display domains of anisotropic friction with twofold symmetry and anisotropy exceeding 200%. This anisotropy has been thought to originate from periodic nanoscale ripples in the graphene sheet, which enhance puckering around a sliding asperity to a degree determined by the sliding direction. Here we demonstrate that these frictional domains derive not from structural features in the graphene but from self-assembly of environmental adsorbates into a highly regular superlattice of stripes with period 4-6 nm. The stripes and resulting frictional domains appear on monolayer and multilayer graphene on a variety of substrates, as well as on exfoliated flakes of hexagonal boron nitride. We show that the stripe-superlattices can be reproducibly and reversibly manipulated with submicrometre precision using a scanning probe microscope, allowing us to create arbitrary arrangements of frictional domains within a single flake. Our results suggest a revised understanding of the anisotropic friction observed on graphene and bulk graphite in terms of adsorbates.

  2. Switchable friction enabled by nanoscale self-assembly on graphene.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick; Lee, Menyoung; Amet, Francois; Maksymovych, Petro; Wang, Jun; Wang, Shuopei; Lu, Xiaobo; Zhang, Guangyu; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2016-01-01

    Graphene monolayers are known to display domains of anisotropic friction with twofold symmetry and anisotropy exceeding 200%. This anisotropy has been thought to originate from periodic nanoscale ripples in the graphene sheet, which enhance puckering around a sliding asperity to a degree determined by the sliding direction. Here we demonstrate that these frictional domains derive not from structural features in the graphene but from self-assembly of environmental adsorbates into a highly regular superlattice of stripes with period 4-6?nm. The stripes and resulting frictional domains appear on monolayer and multilayer graphene on a variety of substrates, as well as on exfoliated flakes of hexagonal boron nitride. We show that the stripe-superlattices can be reproducibly and reversibly manipulated with submicrometre precision using a scanning probe microscope, allowing us to create arbitrary arrangements of frictional domains within a single flake. Our results suggest a revised understanding of the anisotropic friction observed on graphene and bulk graphite in terms of adsorbates. PMID:26902595

  3. Switchable friction enabled by nanoscale self-assembly on graphene

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick; Lee, Menyoung; Amet, Francois; Maksymovych, Petro; Wang, Jun; Wang, Shuopei; Lu, Xiaobo; Zhang, Guangyu; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2016-01-01

    Graphene monolayers are known to display domains of anisotropic friction with twofold symmetry and anisotropy exceeding 200%. This anisotropy has been thought to originate from periodic nanoscale ripples in the graphene sheet, which enhance puckering around a sliding asperity to a degree determined by the sliding direction. Here we demonstrate that these frictional domains derive not from structural features in the graphene but from self-assembly of environmental adsorbates into a highly regular superlattice of stripes with period 4–6 nm. The stripes and resulting frictional domains appear on monolayer and multilayer graphene on a variety of substrates, as well as on exfoliated flakes of hexagonal boron nitride. We show that the stripe-superlattices can be reproducibly and reversibly manipulated with submicrometre precision using a scanning probe microscope, allowing us to create arbitrary arrangements of frictional domains within a single flake. Our results suggest a revised understanding of the anisotropic friction observed on graphene and bulk graphite in terms of adsorbates. PMID:26902595

  4. Ga(+) beam lithography for nanoscale silicon reactive ion etching.

    PubMed

    Henry, M D; Shearn, M J; Chhim, B; Scherer, A

    2010-06-18

    By using a dry etch chemistry which relies on the highly preferential etching of silicon, over that of gallium (Ga), we show resist-free fabrication of precision, high aspect ratio nanostructures and microstructures in silicon using a focused ion beam (FIB) and an inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etcher (ICP-RIE). Silicon etch masks are patterned via Ga(+) ion implantation in a FIB and then anisotropically etched in an ICP-RIE using fluorinated etch chemistries. We determine the critical areal density of the implanted Ga layer in silicon required to achieve a desired etch depth for both a Pseudo Bosch (SF(6)/C(4)F(8)) and cryogenic fluorine (SF(6)/O(2)) silicon etching. High fidelity nanoscale structures down to 30 nm and high aspect ratio structures of 17:1 are demonstrated. Since etch masks may be patterned on uneven surfaces, we utilize this lithography to create multilayer structures in silicon. The linear selectivity versus implanted Ga density enables grayscale lithography. Limits on the ultimate resolution and selectivity of Ga lithography are also discussed. PMID:20484788

  5. Multilayer weighted social network model.

    PubMed

    Murase, Yohsuke; Trk, Jnos; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertsz, Jnos

    2014-11-01

    Recent empirical studies using large-scale data sets have validated the Granovetter hypothesis on the structure of the society in that there are strongly wired communities connected by weak ties. However, as interaction between individuals takes place in diverse contexts, these communities turn out to be overlapping. This implies that the society has a multilayered structure, where the layers represent the different contexts. To model this structure we begin with a single-layer weighted social network (WSN) model showing the Granovetterian structure. We find that when merging such WSN models, a sufficient amount of interlayer correlation is needed to maintain the relationship between topology and link weights, while these correlations destroy the enhancement in the community overlap due to multiple layers. To resolve this, we devise a geographic multilayer WSN model, where the indirect interlayer correlations due to the geographic constraints of individuals enhance the overlaps between the communities and, at the same time, the Granovetterian structure is preserved. PMID:25493837

  6. Multilayer weighted social network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Yohsuke; Trk, Jnos; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertsz, Jnos

    2014-11-01

    Recent empirical studies using large-scale data sets have validated the Granovetter hypothesis on the structure of the society in that there are strongly wired communities connected by weak ties. However, as interaction between individuals takes place in diverse contexts, these communities turn out to be overlapping. This implies that the society has a multilayered structure, where the layers represent the different contexts. To model this structure we begin with a single-layer weighted social network (WSN) model showing the Granovetterian structure. We find that when merging such WSN models, a sufficient amount of interlayer correlation is needed to maintain the relationship between topology and link weights, while these correlations destroy the enhancement in the community overlap due to multiple layers. To resolve this, we devise a geographic multilayer WSN model, where the indirect interlayer correlations due to the geographic constraints of individuals enhance the overlaps between the communities and, at the same time, the Granovetterian structure is preserved.

  7. Anomalous magnetoresistance in Fibonacci multilayers.

    SciTech Connect

    Machado, L. D.; Bezerra, C. G.; Correa, M. A.; Chesman, C.; Pearson, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigated magnetoresistance curves in quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers for two different growth directions, namely, [110] and [100]. We considered identical ferromagnetic layers separated by nonmagnetic layers with two different thicknesses chosen based on the Fibonacci sequence. Using parameters for Fe/Cr multilayers, four terms were included in our description of the magnetic energy: Zeeman, cubic anisotropy, bilinear coupling, and biquadratic coupling. The minimum energy was determined by the gradient method and the equilibrium magnetization directions found were used to calculate magnetoresistance curves. By choosing spacers with a thickness such that biquadratic coupling is stronger than bilinear coupling, unusual behaviors for the magnetoresistance were observed: (i) for the [110] case, there is a different behavior for structures based on even and odd Fibonacci generations, and, more interesting, (ii) for the [100] case, we found magnetic field ranges for which the magnetoresistance increases with magnetic field.

  8. Tests Of Flexible Multilayer Insulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Pitts, W. C.

    1991-01-01

    Composite blankets containing reflective layers compared with fibrous silica insulation. Report describes experimental and theoretical study of 11 flexible insulating blankets ranging in thickness from 1.0 to 2.5 in. Multilayer insulations intended for use in partial vacuums of outer planetary atmospheres, where mean free paths of gas molecules much less than characteristic lengths of cells in insulation and consequently conductive and convective effects of gas minimal.

  9. Casting Of Multilayer Ceramic Tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Procedure for casting thin, multilayer ceramic membranes, commonly called tapes, involves centrifugal casting at accelerations of 1,800 to 2,000 times normal gravitational acceleration. Layers of tape cast one at a time on top of any previous layer or layers. Each layer cast from slurry of ground ceramic suspended in mixture of solvents, binders, and other components. Used in capacitors, fuel cells, and electrolytic separation of oxygen from air.

  10. Ultra-thin multilayer capacitors.

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, Timothy Jerome; Monson, Todd C.

    2009-06-01

    The fabrication of ultra-thin lanthanum-doped lead zirconium titanate (PLZT) multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) using a high-power pulsed ion beam was studied. The deposition experiments were conducted on the RHEPP-1 facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The goal of this work was to increase the energy density of ceramic capacitors through the formation of a multilayer device with excellent materials properties, dielectric constant, and standoff voltage. For successful device construction, there are a number of challenging requirements including achieving correct stoichiometric and crystallographic composition of the deposited PLZT, as well as the creation of a defect free homogenous film. This report details some success in satisfying these requirements, although 900 C temperatures were necessary for PLZT perovskite phase formation. These temperatures were applied to a previously deposited multi-layer film which was then post-annealed to this temperature. The film exhibited mechanical distress attributable to differences in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the various layers. This caused significant defects in the deposited films that led to shorts across devices. A follow-on single layer deposition without post-anneal produced smooth layers with good interface behavior, but without the perovskite phase formation. These issues will need to be addressed in order for ion beam deposited MLCCs to become a viable technology. It is possible that future in-situ heating during deposition may address both the CTE issue, and result in lowered processing temperatures, which in turn could raise the probability of successful MLCC formation.

  11. Nanoscale inhomogeneity of the Schottky barrier and resistivity in MoS2 multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannazzo, F.; Fisichella, G.; Piazza, A.; Agnello, S.; Roccaforte, F.

    2015-08-01

    Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) is employed to investigate the current injection from a nanometric contact (a Pt coated tip) to the surface of MoS2 thin films. The analysis of local current-voltage characteristics on a large array of tip positions provides high spatial resolution information on the lateral homogeneity of the tip /MoS2 Schottky barrier ?B and ideality factor n , and on the local resistivity ?loc of the MoS2 region under the tip. Here, ?B=300 24 meV , n =1.60 0.23 , and ?loc=2.99 0.68 ? cm are calculated from the distributions of locally measured values. A linear correlation is found between the ?loc and ?B values at each tip position, indicating a similar origin of the ?loc and ?B inhomogeneities. These findings are compared with recent literature results on the role of sulfur vacancy clusters on the MoS2 surface as preferential paths for current injection from metal contacts. Furthermore, their implications on the behavior of MoS2 based transistors are discussed.

  12. Stress-induced self-organization of nanoscale structures in SiGe/Si multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichert, C.; Lagally, M. G.; Peticolas, L. J.; Bean, J. C.; Tersoff, J.

    1996-06-01

    In the growth of Si1-xGex films on Si(001), the growth front undergoes a series of elastic stress relief mechanisms. We use these mechanisms in the molecular-beam-epitaxy growth of SiGe/Si superlattices to create relatively periodic surface and interface patterns of small coherent \\{105\\}-faceted SiGe crystallites. The self-organization of these islands is affected in different ways by tuning substrate miscut, alloy composition, and layer thickness. ©1996 The American Physical Society.

  13. Nanoscale Architectures for Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Stanislaus

    2009-03-01

    In my group, we have developed a number of different potential architecture systems for gaining insights into energy storage and photovoltaics. In one manifestation of our efforts, generating a heterojunction comprising nanotubes and nanocrystals, externally bound and connected, has been significant. The unique, innovative, and important aspect of this particular nanoscale architecture is that it takes advantage of the tunability, in terms of size, shape, and chemistry, of nanotubes and nanocrystals, to create a sharp junction interface, whose properties are inherently manipulable, tailorable, and hence, predictable. For example, the electrical resistance of nanotube-nanoparticle networks is dependent on the nanoscale junctions that exist between these constituent nanomaterials as well as on microscale and macroscale connectivity. Thus, rational design of these nanomaterials is critical to a fundamental understanding of charge transport in single molecules and the determination of their conductance. Results on these systems can therefore be used to increase understanding of intrinsic factors affecting carrier mobility, such as electronic structure, carrier trapping, and delocalization. In a second manifestation, three-dimensional, dendritic micron- scale spheres of alkali metal hydrogen titanate 1D nanostructures (i.e.: nanowires and nanotubes) have been generated using a modified hydrothermal technique in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and an alkali metal hydroxide solution. Sea-urchin-like assemblies of these 1D nanostructures have been transformed into their hydrogen titanate analogues by neutralization as well as into their corresponding semiconducting, anatase titania nanostructured counterparts through a moderate high-temperature annealing dehydration process without destroying the 3D hierarchical structural motif. The as-prepared hollow spheres of titanate and titania 1D nanostructures have overall diameters, ranging from 0.8 ?m to 1.2 ?m, while the interior of these aggregates are vacuous with a diameter range of 100 to 200 nm. We have demonstrated that these assemblies are useful for example as active photocatalysts for the degradation of synthetic Procion Red dye under UV light illumination. In a third set of experiments, a size- and shape-dependent morphological transformation was demonstrated during the hydrothermal soft chemical transformation, in neutral solution, of titanate nanostructures into their anatase titania counterparts. Our results indicate that as-synthesized titania nanostructures possessed higher photocatalytic activity than the commercial titania precursors from whence they were derived.

  14. Structural transitions in nanoscale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Mina

    In this work I investigate three different materials: nanoscale carbon systems, ferrofluid systems, and molecular-electronic devices. In particular, my study is focused on the theoretical understanding of structural changes and the associated electronic, mechanical, and magnetic properties of these materials. To study the equilibrium packing of fullerenes in carbon nanotube peapods optimization techniques were applied. In agreement with experimental measurements, my results for nanotubes containing fullerenes with 60--84 atoms indicate that the axial separation between the fullerenes is smaller than in the bulk crystal. The reduction of the inter-fullerene distance and also the structural relaxation of fullerenes result from a large internal pressure within the peapods. This naturally induced "static" pressure may qualify nanotubes as nanoscale autoclaves for chemical reactions. Combining total energy calculations with a search of phase space, I investigated the microscopic fusion mechanism of C60 fullerenes. I show that the (2+2) cycloaddition reaction, a necessary precursor for fullerene fusion, can be accelerated inside a nanotube. Fusion occurs along the minimum energy path as a finite sequence of Stone-Wales (SW) transformations. A detailed analysis of the transition states shows that Stone-Wales transformations are multi-step processes. I propose a new microscopic mechanism to explain the unusually fast fusion process of carbon nanotubes. The detailed pathway for two adjacent (5, 5) nanotubes to gradually merge into a (10, 10) tube, and the transition states have been identified. The propagation of the fused region is energetically favorable and proceeds in a morphology reminiscent of a Y-junction via a so called zipper mechanism, involving only SW bond rearrangements with low activation barriers. Using density functional theory, the equilibrium structure, stability, and electronic properties of nanostructured, hydrogen terminated diamond fragments have been studied. Such diamondoids can enter spontaneously into carbon nanotubes where polymerization of diamondoids is favourable. I studied the equilibrium structure of large but finite aggregates of magnetic dipoles, modeling a colloidal suspension of magnetite particles in a ferrofluid. With increasing system size, the structural motif evolves from chains and rings to multi-chain and multi-ring assemblies. These structural changes depend on external parameters and result from a competition between various energy terms, which can be described analytically within a continuum approximation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  15. Shear piezoelectricity in bone at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Yu, Min-Feng

    2010-10-01

    Recent demonstration of shear piezoelectricity in an isolated collagen fibril, which is the origin of piezoelectricity in bone, necessitates investigation of shear piezoelectric behavior in bone at the nanoscale. Using high resolution lateral piezoresponse force microcopy (PFM), shear piezoelectricity in a cortical bone sample was studied at the nanoscale. Subfibrillar structure of individual collagen fibrils with a periodicity of 60-70 nm were revealed in PFM map, indicating the direct contribution of collagen fibrils to the shear piezoelectricity of bone.

  16. Multi-layer seal for electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung [Richland, WA; Meinhardt, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-09-14

    Multi-layer seals are provided that find advantageous use for reducing leakage of gases between adjacent components of electrochemical devices. Multi-layer seals of the invention include a gasket body defining first and second opposing surfaces and a compliant interlayer positioned adjacent each of the first and second surfaces. Also provided are methods for making and using the multi-layer seals, and electrochemical devices including said seals.

  17. Multi-layer seal for electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung [Richland, WA; Meinhardt, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-11-16

    Multi-layer seals are provided that find advantageous use for reducing leakage of gases between adjacent components of electrochemical devices. Multi-layer seals of the invention include a gasket body defining first and second opposing surfaces and a compliant interlayer positioned adjacent each of the first and second surfaces. Also provided are methods for making and using the multi-layer seals, and electrochemical devices including said seals.

  18. Repair of high performance multilayer coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, D.P. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Ceglio, N.M. ); Vernon, S.P. ); Krumrey, M.; Mueller, P. . VUV Radiometric Lab.)

    1991-07-01

    Fabrication and environmental damage issues may require that the multilayer x-ray reflection coatings used in soft x-ray projection lithography be replaced or repaired. Two repair strategies were investigated. The first was to overcoat defective multilayers with a new multilayer. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated by depositing high reflectivity (61% at 130 {Angstrom}) molybdenum silicon (Mo/Si) multilayers onto fused silica figured optics that had already been coated with a Mo/Si multilayer. Because some types of damage mechanisms and fabrication errors are not repairable by this method, a second method of repair was investigated. The multilayer was stripped from the optical substrate by etching a release layer which was deposited onto the substrate beneath the multilayer. The release layer consisted of a 1000 {Angstrom} aluminum film deposited by ion beam sputtering or by electron beam evaporation, with a 300 {Angstrom} SiO{sub 2} protective overcoat. The substrates were superpolished zerodur optical flats. The normal incidence x-ray reflectivity of multilayers deposited on these aluminized substrates was degraded, presumably due to the roughness of the aluminum films. Multilayers, and the underlying release layers, have been removed without damaging the substrates.

  19. Vacuum multilayer lamination of printed wiring boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkus, J. W.

    1992-11-01

    This experiment investigates vacuum multilayer lamination of rigid/flex, epoxy glass, polyimide glass, and polyimide quartz printed wiring boards. The effectiveness of the vacuum in removing entrapped air during the lamination cycle is demonstrated. The results of the experiment have also shown that vacuum lamination of epoxy glass multilayers improves the delamination resistance. Thus, epoxy glass multilayers that have been vacuum laminated will be able to withstand soldering temperatures longer without delaminating. Also, the experiment shows that vacuum multilayer lamination does not significantly change thickness, layer-to-layer registration, glass transition temperature, dielectric spacing between conductors, electrical resistance following thermal shock test, and other critical printed wiring board properties.

  20. Molecular Photovoltaics in Nanoscale Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Burtman, Vladimir; Zelichonok, Alexander; Pakoulev, Andrei V.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the intrinsic charge transport in organic photovoltaic (PVC) devices and field-effect transistors (SAM-OFETs) fabricated by vapor phase molecular self-assembly (VP-SAM) method. The dynamics of charge transport are determined and used to clarify a transport mechanism. The 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic diphenylimide (NTCDI) SAM devices provide a useful tool to study the fundamentals of polaronic transport at organic surfaces and to discuss the performance of organic photovoltaic devices in nanoscale. Time-resolved photovoltaic studies allow us to separate the charge annihilation kinetics in the conductive NTCDI channel from the overall charge kinetic in a SAM-OFET device. It has been demonstrated that tuning of the type of conductivity in NTCDI SAM-OFET devices is possible by changing Si substrate doping. Our study of the polaron charge transfer in organic materials proposes that a cation-radical exchange (redox) mechanism is the major transport mechanism in the studied SAM-PVC devices. The role and contribution of the transport through delocalized states of redox active surface molecular aggregates of NTCDI are exposed and investigated. This example of technological development is used to highlight the significance of future technological development of nanotechnologies and to appreciate a structure-property paradigm in organic nanostructures. PMID:21339983

  1. Nanoscale Mixing of Soft Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S.

    2013-03-07

    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ({sup 1}H and {sup 2}H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  2. Molecular photovoltaics in nanoscale dimension.

    PubMed

    Burtman, Vladimir; Zelichonok, Alexander; Pakoulev, Andrei V

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the intrinsic charge transport in organic photovoltaic (PVC) devices and field-effect transistors (SAM-OFETs) fabricated by vapor phase molecular self-assembly (VP-SAM) method. The dynamics of charge transport are determined and used to clarify a transport mechanism. The 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic diphenylimide (NTCDI) SAM devices provide a useful tool to study the fundamentals of polaronic transport at organic surfaces and to discuss the performance of organic photovoltaic devices in nanoscale. Time-resolved photovoltaic studies allow us to separate the charge annihilation kinetics in the conductive NTCDI channel from the overall charge kinetic in a SAM-OFET device. It has been demonstrated that tuning of the type of conductivity in NTCDI SAM-OFET devices is possible by changing Si substrate doping. Our study of the polaron charge transfer in organic materials proposes that a cation-radical exchange (redox) mechanism is the major transport mechanism in the studied SAM-PVC devices. The role and contribution of the transport through delocalized states of redox active surface molecular aggregates of NTCDI are exposed and investigated. This example of technological development is used to highlight the significance of future technological development of nanotechnologies and to appreciate a structure-property paradigm in organic nanostructures. PMID:21339983

  3. First Principles Modeling of Metal/Ceramic Multilayer Nano-heterostructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Satyesh K.; Wang, Jian; Misra, Amit; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Ramprasad, Ramamurthy

    2012-07-31

    Nanoscaled multilayer films composed of metals and ceramics have been explored for their potential applications as ductile, yet strong, materials. It is believed that at the nanoscale, the interfaces between the two materials constituting the multilayer assume an increasingly important role in determining the properties, as they comprise a more significant volume fraction of the multilayer with decreasing layer thickness. In this ab initio work, density functional theory was used to calculate the ideal shear strengths of pure Al, pure TiN, the Al/TiN interfacial region, and Al/TiN multilayers. The ideal shear strength of the Al/TiN interface was found to vary from very low (on the order of the ideal shear strength of Al) to very high (on the order of the ideal shear strength of TiN), depending on whether the TiN at the interface was Ti- or N-terminated, respectively. The results suggest that the shear properties of Al/TiN depend strongly on the chemistry of the interface, Al:N versus Al:Ti terminations. Nevertheless, for the Al/TiN multilayers, the ideal shear strength was limited by shear in the Al layer away from the interface, even when the individual layer thickness is less than a nanometer. Further we found an unusual structural rotation of bulk single-crystal Al under uniaxial compressive strains. It was found that under strains either along the <11-2> or the <111> directions, beyond a critical stress of about 13 GPa, the Al crystal can rotate through shear in the Shockley partial direction (i.e.,<11-2>) on the {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane, in an attempt to relieve internal stresses. This phenomenon reveals a possible mechanism leading to the onset of homogeneous dislocation nucleation in Al under high uniaxial compressions.

  4. Magnetic Alloys in Nanoscale Biomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Leventouri, T. H.; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich; Sorge, Korey D.; Klein, Kate L; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Rack, P. D.; Anderson, Ian M; Thompson, James R; McKnight, Timothy E; Simpson, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    Fe-Co composition gradient and Fe-Pt multilayer alloy films were tested as catalysts for growing vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The Fe-Co film yielded nanofibers with alloy tips in a wide compositional range varying from 8.15 pct Fe at the Co-rich end to 46.29 pct Fe in the middle of the wafer as determined by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Two Fe-Co cubic phases (SG Pm3m, Pm{bar 3}m) were identified by preliminary X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Magnetic measurements showed a substantially greater hysteresis loop area and coercivity in Fe-Co catalyst nanoparticles as compared to the as deposited Fe-Co film. The Fe-Pt film did not break into FePt alloy nanoparticles under the applied processing parameters and thus the utility of FePt as a VACNF catalyst has been inconclusive.

  5. Plasmon bands in multilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachsmuth, P.; Hambach, R.; Benner, G.; Kaiser, U.

    2014-12-01

    High-energy collective electronic excitations (plasmons) in freestanding multilayer graphene are studied by momentum-resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). For normal incidence, only the high-energy plasmon band is excited and we measure a blueshift of the ? -plasmon dispersion with increasing thickness. The observed transition between two-dimensional and three-dimensional behavior is explained using a layered-electron-gas (LEG) model. We propose a method to measure all individual plasmon bands by tilting the sample with respect to the electron beam. As a proof of concept, EELS experiments for three-layer graphene are compared with predictions from the LEG model.

  6. Multilayer Laue Lens Sequence Compiler

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-10-01

    For the growth of a new kind of x-ray focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens, a device is constructed in which each layer of alernating high-z and low-z is placed in the appropriate place according to the Fresnel zone plate law. This requires that each layer have a different layer thickness. Because each layer is grown using DC magnetron sputter deposition, these layer thicknesses are not only dictated by the zone plate law, butmore » are adjusted to account for various drifting in the growth chamber due to target erosion, etc.« less

  7. Method of making coherent multilayer crystals

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Falco, Charles M. (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A new material consisting of a coherent multilayer crystal of two or more elements where each layer is composed of a single element. Each layer may vary in thickness from about 2 .ANG. to 2500 .ANG.. The multilayer crystals are prepared by sputter deposition under conditions which slow the sputtered atoms to near substrate temperatures before they contact the substrate.

  8. Coherent multilayer crystals and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, I.K.; Falco, C.M.

    1980-10-30

    A new material is described consisting of a coherent multilayer crystal of two or more elements where each layer is composed of a single element. Each layer may vary in thickness from about 2 A to 2500 A. The multilayer crystals are prepared by sputter deposition under conditions which slow the sputtered atoms to near substrate temperatures before they contact the substrate.

  9. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  10. The quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactone acylase PvdQ is an Ntn-hydrolase with an unusual substrate-binding pocket

    PubMed Central

    Bokhove, Marcel; Jimenez, Pol Nadal; Quax, Wim J.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2010-01-01

    In many Gram-negative pathogens, their virulent behavior is regulated by quorum sensing, in which diffusible signals such as N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) act as chemical messaging compounds. Enzymatic degradation of these diffusible signals by, e.g., lactonases or amidohydrolases abolishes AHL regulated virulence, a process known as quorum quenching. Here we report the first crystal structure of an AHL amidohydrolase, the AHL acylase PvdQ from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PvdQ has a typical ?/? heterodimeric Ntn-hydrolase fold, similar to penicillin G acylase and cephalosporin acylase. However, it has a distinct, unusually large, hydrophobic binding pocket, ideally suited to recognize C12 fatty acid-like chains of AHLs. Binding of a C12 fatty acid or a 3-oxo-C12 fatty acid induces subtle conformational changes to accommodate the aliphatic chain. Furthermore, the structure of a covalent ester intermediate identifies Ser?1 as the nucleophile and Asn?269 and Val?70 as the oxyanion hole residues in the AHL degradation process. Our structures show the versatility of the Ntn-hydrolase scaffold and can serve as a structural paradigm for Ntn-hydrolases with similar substrate preference. Finally, the quorum-quenching capabilities of PvdQ may be utilized to suppress the quorum-sensing machinery of pathogens. PMID:20080736

  11. [Standardized testing of bone implant surfaces with an osteoblast cell culture cyste. III. PVD hard coatings and Ti6Al4V].

    PubMed

    Steinert, A; Hendrich, C; Merklein, F; Rader, C P; Schtze, N; Thull, R; Eulert, J

    2000-12-01

    The effect of titanium-based PVD coatings and a titanium alloy on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts was investigated using a standardised cell culture system. Human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19) were cultured on titanium-niobium-nitride ([Ti,Nb]N), titanium-niobium-oxy-nitride coatings ([Ti,Nb]ON) and titanium-aluminium-vanadium alloy (Ti6Al4V) for 17 days. Cell culture polystyrene (PS) was used as reference. For the assessment of proliferation, the numbers and viability of the cells were determined, while alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen I and osteocalcin synthesis served as differentiation parameters. On the basis of the cell culture experiments, a cytotoxic effect of the materials can be excluded. In comparison with the other test surfaces, [Ti,Nb]N showed greater cell proliferation. The [Ti,Nb]N coating was associated with the highest level of osteocalcin production, while all other differentiation parameters were identical on all three surfaces. The test system described reveals the influence of PVD coatings on the osteoblast differentiation cycle. The higher oxygen content of the [Ti,Nb]ON surface does not appear to have any positive impact on cell proliferation. The excellent biocompatibility of the PVD coatings is confirmed by in vivo findings. The possible use of these materials in the fields of osteosynthesis and articular surfaces is still under discussion. PMID:11194641

  12. Numerical investigations of failure in EB-PVD thermal barrier coating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, Michael L.

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems are used in high temperature applications in turbine engines. TBCs are applied on superalloy substrates and are multilayered coatings comprised of a metallic bond coat, a thermally grown oxide (TGO) and a ceramic top coat. They provide thermal protection for the superalloy substrate and are considered to hold the greatest potential for increased operating temperatures. Failure of the TBC system most commonly occurs as a result of large scale buckling and spallation. The buckling is a consequence of many small-scale delaminations that arise in the top coat above local imperfections in the TGO, and durability of the TBC system is governed by a sequence of crack nucleation, propagation and coalescence. The numerical investigations that are employed in this dissertation are used to determine the stress development near the imperfections and are based on microstructural observations and measured material properties of TBC test buttons supplied by GE Aircraft Engines. The test buttons were subject to thermal cycling at GE and cycled to different percentages of TBC life. Numerical simulations of two different types of TBC tests are used to show that the top coat out-of-plane stress increases with a decrease of the substrate radius of curvature and a decrease in the heating rate. An inherent scaling parameter in the TBC system is identified and used to demonstrate that the stress developed in the top coat is governed by the evolution of an imperfection in the TGO. The effect of a martensitic phase transformation in the bond coat, related to a change in bond coat chemistry, is shown to significantly increase the top coat out-of-plane tensile stress. Finally, a subsurface crack is simulated in the top coat and used to determine the influence of the bond coat on failure of the TBC system. While the bond coat inelastic properties are the most important factors in determining the extent of the crack opening displacement, the bond coat martensitic phase transformation governs when the crack propagates. The crack propagates during heat-up when the martensitic phase transformation is included, and it propagates during cool-down when the transformation is not included.

  13. Nanoscale optimization of quantum dot solar sells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanshu; Sergeev, Andrei; Vagidov, Nizami; Mitin, Vladimir; Sablon, Kimberly; State Univ of NY-Buffalo Team; Army Research Laboratory Team

    2015-03-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) offer possibilities for nanoscale control of photoelectron processes via engineering the band structure and potential profile. Nanoscale potential profile (potential barriers) and nanoscale band engineering (AlGaAs atomically thin barriers) effectively suppress the photoelectron capture to QDs. QDs also increase conversion efficiency of the above-bandgap photons due to extraction of electrons from QDs via Coulomb interaction with hot electrons that excited by high-energy photons. To study the effects of the band structure engineering and nanoscale potential barriers on the photovoltaic performance we fabricated 3- ?m base GaAs devices with various InAs quantum dot media and selective doping. All quantum dot devices show improvement in conversion efficiency compared with the reference cell. Quantum efficiency measurements allow us to associate the spectral characteristics of photoresponse enhancement with nanoscale structure of QD media. The dark current analysis provides valuable information about recombination in QD solar cells. The two-diode model well fit the scope of data and recovers the measured open circuit voltage.

  14. Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Chapman; Henry N. , Taylor; John S.

    2010-02-16

    A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

  15. Multilayer Nanoporous Graphene Membranes for Water Desalination.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Tanugi, David; Lin, Li-Chiang; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2016-02-10

    While single-layer nanoporous graphene (NPG) has shown promise as a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination membrane, multilayer graphene membranes can be synthesized more economically than the single-layer material. In this work, we build upon the knowledge gained to date toward single-layer graphene to explore how multilayer NPG might serve as a RO membrane in water desalination using classical molecular dynamic simulations. We show that, while multilayer NPG exhibits similarly promising desalination properties to single-layer membranes, their separation performance can be designed by manipulating various configurational variables in the multilayer case. This work establishes an atomic-level understanding of the effects of additional NPG layers, layer separation, and pore alignment on desalination performance, providing useful guidelines for the design of multilayer NPG membranes. PMID:26806020

  16. Impact on multilayered composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, B. S.; Moon, F. C.

    1977-01-01

    Stress wave propagation in a multilayer composite plate due to impact was examined by means of the anisotropic elasticity theory. The plate was modelled as a number of identical anisotropic layers and the approximate plate theory of Mindlin was then applied to each layer to obtain a set of difference-differential equations of motion. Dispersion relations for harmonic waves and correction factors were found. The governing equations were reduced to difference equations via integral transforms. With given impact boundary conditions these equations were solved for an arbitrary number of layers in the plate and the transient propagation of waves was calculated by means of a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. The multilayered plate problem was extended to examine the effect of damping layers present between two elastic layers. A reduction of the interlaminar normal stress was significant when the thickness of damping layer was increased but the effect was mostly due to the softness of the damping layer. Finally, the problem of a composite plate with a crack on the interlaminar boundary was formulated.

  17. Polyelectrolyte Multilayers in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Detzel, Christopher J.; Larkin, Adam L.

    2011-01-01

    The layer-by-layer assembly of sequentially adsorbed, alternating polyelectrolytes has become increasingly important over the past two decades. The ease and versatility in assembling polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) has resulted in numerous wide ranging applications of these materials. More recently, PEMs are being used in biological applications ranging from biomaterials, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery. The ability to manipulate the chemical, physical, surface, and topographical properties of these multilayer architectures by simply changing the pH, ionic strength, thickness, and postassembly modifications render them highly suitable to probe the effects of external stimuli on cellular responsiveness. In the field of regenerative medicine, the ability to sequester growth factors and to tether peptides to PEMs has been exploited to direct the lineage of progenitor cells and to subsequently maintain a desired phenotype. Additional novel applications include the use of PEMs in the assembly of three-dimensional layered architectures and as coatings for individual cells to deliver tunable payloads of drugs or bioactive molecules. This review focuses on literature related to the modulation of chemical and physical properties of PEMs for tissue engineering applications and recent research efforts in maintaining and directing cellular phenotype in stem cell differentiation. PMID:21210759

  18. Nanoscale assemblies and their biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Tais A. P. F.; Raman, Senthilkumar; Dey, Raja; Burkhard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale assemblies are a unique class of materials, which can be synthesized from inorganic, polymeric or biological building blocks. The multitude of applications of this class of materials ranges from solar and electrical to uses in food, cosmetics and medicine. In this review, we initially highlight characteristic features of polymeric nanoscale assemblies as well as those built from biological units (lipids, nucleic acids and proteins). We give special consideration to protein nanoassemblies found in nature such as ferritin protein cages, bacterial microcompartments and vaults found in eukaryotic cells and designed protein nanoassemblies, such as peptide nanofibres and peptide nanotubes. Next, we focus on biomedical applications of these nanoscale assemblies, such as cell targeting, drug delivery, bioimaging and vaccine development. In the vaccine development section, we report in more detail the use of virus-like particles and self-assembling polypeptide nanoparticles as new vaccine delivery platforms. PMID:23303217

  19. Bench-scale synthesis of nanoscale materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. F.; Darab, J. G.; Matson, D. W.; Linehan, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    A novel flow-through hydrothermal method used to synthesize nanoscale powders is introduced by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The process, Rapid Thermal Decomposition of precursors in Solution (RTDS), uniquely combines high-pressure and high-temperature conditions to rapidly form nanoscale particles. The RTDS process was initially demonstrated on a laboratory scale and was subsequently scaled up to accommodate production rates attractive to industry. The process is able to produce a wide variety of metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. The powders are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopic methods, surface-area measurements, and x-ray diffraction. Typical crystallite sizes are less than 20 nanometers, with BET surface areas ranging from 100 to 400 sq m/g. A description of the RTDS process is presented along with powder characterization results. In addition, data on the sintering of nanoscale ZrO2 produced by RTDS are included.

  20. lectrolytes-gels pour piles au lithium systme PVdF-HFP/SiO2/VL-LiTFSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillon-Caravanier, M.; Claude-Montigny, B.; Lemordant, D.; Bosser, G.

    2002-04-01

    Les lectrolytes-gels tudis sont constitus du copolymre poly (fluorure de vinylidne-hexafluoropropylne) (PVdF-HFP) contenant o non de la silice et ayant absorb un lectrolyte liquide obtenu par dissolution du (trifluoromthyl sulfone) imidure de lithium (LiTFSI) dans la gamma-valrolactone (VL) ou dans le mlange VL:EC (90:10 en moles) (EC:carbonate d'thylne). L'influence du pourcentage en sel de lithium dans l'lectrolyte liquide, de la proportion de silice dans le copolymre sec et de la temprature sur la capacit d'absorption est tudie. L'volution de la conductivit en fonction de la composition de l'lectrolyte-gel et de la temprature ainsi que l'tude de la solvatation de l'ion Li^+ par spectroscopie RAMAN ont permis de proposer un modle de conductivit ionique pour ces matriaux. Aprs avoir dtermin le domaine d'lectroactivit des gels, l'volution des spectres d'impdance l'interface Li / gel est interprte par le modle couche polymre solide" (SPL).

  1. Nanoscale calibration of n-type ZnO staircase structures by scanning capacitance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Laurent, J.; Chauveau, J. M.; Sallet, V.; Jomard, F.; Brémond, G.

    2015-11-01

    Cross-sectional scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) was performed on n-type ZnO multi-layer structures homoepitaxially grown by molecular beam epitaxy method. Highly contrasted SCM signals were obtained between the ZnO layers with different Ga densities. Through comparison with dopant depth profiles from secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurement, it is demonstrated that SCM is able to distinguish carrier concentrations at all levels of the samples (from 2 × 1017 cm-3 to 3 × 1020 cm-3). The good agreement of the results from the two techniques indicates that SCM can be a useful tool for two dimensional carrier profiling at nanoscale for ZnO nanostructure development. As an example, residual carrier concentration inside the non-intentionally doped buffer layer was estimated to be around 2 × 1016 cm-3 through calibration analysis.

  2. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Conley, Ray; Chu, Yong S

    2016-01-01

    We developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray's superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioning it. PMID:26846188

  3. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Conley, Ray; Chu, Yong S.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray’s superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioning it. PMID:26846188

  4. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Conley, Ray; Chu, Yong S.

    2016-02-01

    We developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray’s superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioning it.

  5. Nanoscale switch for vortex polarization mediated by Bloch core formation in magnetic hybrid systems

    PubMed Central

    Wohlhter, Phillip; Bryan, Matthew Thomas; Warnicke, Peter; Gliga, Sebastian; Stevenson, Stephanie Elizabeth; Heldt, Georg; Saharan, Lalita; Suszka, Anna Kinga; Moutafis, Christoforos; Chopdekar, Rajesh Vilas; Raabe, Jrg; Thomson, Thomas; Hrkac, Gino; Heyderman, Laura Jane

    2015-01-01

    Vortices are fundamental magnetic topological structures characterized by a curling magnetization around a highly stable nanometric core. The control of the polarization of this core and its gyration is key to the utilization of vortices in technological applications. So far polarization control has been achieved in single-material structures using magnetic fields, spin-polarized currents or spin waves. Here we demonstrate local control of the vortex core orientation in hybrid structures where the vortex in an in-plane Permalloy film coexists with out-of-plane maze domains in a Co/Pd multilayer. The vortex core reverses its polarization on crossing a maze domain boundary. This reversal is mediated by a pair of magnetic singularities, known as Bloch points, and leads to the transient formation of a three-dimensional magnetization structure: a Bloch core. The interaction between vortex and domain wall thus acts as a nanoscale switch for the vortex core polarization. PMID:26238042

  6. Visualizing Optoelectronic Processes at the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Puneet; Komeda, Tadahiro

    2015-11-24

    In this issue of ACS Nano, Nienhaus et al. report the optoelectronic properties of carbon nanotube chiral junctions with nanometer resolution in the presence of strong electric fields (∼1 V/nm). Here, we provide an overview of recent studies that combine scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and laser or microwave illumination. These techniques reveal nanoscale laser- or microwave-induced phenomena utilizing the intrinsic atomic resolution of the tunneling current, and do not require substantial modification of the STM itself. The merits of atomic-scale spatial resolution and chemical sensitivity of the laser or microwave spectroscopes make these techniques useful for nanoscale characterization. PMID:26524228

  7. Effects of induced birefringence in nanoscale heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulakova, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    The influence of a complex of elastic strains caused by technological stresses and external shear strains on the optical properties of cubic crystals has been analyzed. Data on the changes in optical symmetry of such crystals have been obtained. The changes in polarization characteristics of the radiation during propagation in both strained crystal and shear-strained nanoscale heterostructures have been studied. The effects of the acoustoelectronic and photoelastic deformation mechanisms on the changes in polarization properties of the radiation of nanoscale heterostructures have been compared.

  8. Biologically templated organic polymers with nanoscale order

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Bert; Eubanks, Lisa M.; Wood, Malcolm R.; Janda, Kim D.; Dickerson, Tobin J.; Lerner, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Methods for the construction of ordered nanoscale arrays have been implicated in fields ranging from separation technologies to microelectronics. Yet, despite the plethora of nanoscale structures assembled in nature that use a templating strategy, chemists have been unable to replicate this success. A technology is reported for templated organic polymers composed of filamentous bacteriophage-polyacrylamide biomacromolecules that self-assemble into highly ordered helical bundles displaying hexagonal close packing. The results align with a previously reported mathematical prediction for the close packing of flexible tubes. This biopolymeric assembly can be viewed as a magnification of the inherent microscopic chirality and helicity present in individual phage particles at the macroscale level. PMID:18216240

  9. NV magnetic imaging of topological spin patterns in magnetic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casola, Francesco; Dovzhenko, Yuliya; Zhou, Xu; Warner, Marc; Schlotter, Sarah; Beach, Geoffrey; Walsworth, Ronald; Yacoby, Amir

    2015-05-01

    Scanning diamond microscopes with an atom-like nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center near the probe tip have recently emerged as a leading tool for the study of nanoscale magnetism in a broad range of systems. We report on the development of a new approach for positiong a single NV centre at a few nanometres from the sample of interest. This is achieved by fabricating our magnetic device at the top of a polished quartz fiber, whose distance from a diamond nanopillar containing NV centers is then controlled via an atomic force microscope feedback. We employ this method for the investigation of thin ferromagnetic Co/Pt multilayers, where interfacial spin-orbit coupling is expected to stabilize complex topologically protected spin textures. The few-nanometers real-space extension of an isolated skyrmion structure in thin magnetic films makes its detection via standard spectroscopic techniques challenging, suggesting how NV magnetometry can be a unique candidate for the study of novel mesoscopic magnetism.

  10. A benchtop method for the fabrication and patterning of nanoscale structures on polymers.

    PubMed

    Helt, James M; Drain, Charles M; Batteas, James D

    2004-01-21

    A benchtop method for the facile production of nanoscale metal structures on polymers is demonstrated. This approach allows for the design and patterning of a wide range of metallic structures on inexpensive polymer surfaces, affording the fabrication of nanoscaled platforms for use in the design of sensors, actuators, and disposable electronic and photonic devices. Numerous structures, from simple nanowires to multilayered metallic gratings, are demonstrated, with sizes ranging from microns to the nanoscale. The process involves molding a malleable metal film deposited on a rigid substrate such as mica, by the compression of a plastic polymer stamp with the desired pattern against the metal film. While under compression, an etchant is then used to modify the metal. Upon separation of the stamp from the support, micro- to nanoscaled metallic structures are found on the stamp and/or on the substrate. The sizes of the structures formed depend on the sizes of the features on the stamp but can be fine-tuned by about 4-fold through variations in both pressure and duration of etching. Also, depending on the processing, multiple dimension metallic structures can be obtained simultaneously in a single stamping procedure. The metallic structures formed on the stamp can also be subsequently transferred to another surface allowing for the construction of multilayered materials such as band gap gratings or the application of electrical contacts. Using this approach, fabrication of both simple and complex micro- to nanoscaled structures can be accomplished by most any researcher as even the grating structure of commercial compact disks may be used as stamps, eliminating the requirement of expensive lithographic processes to form simple structures. PMID:14719962

  11. Atomistic Design and Simulations of Nanoscale Machines and Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, William A., III; Cagin, Tahir; Walch, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Over the three years of this project, we made significant progress on critical theoretical and computational issues in nanoscale science and technology, particularly in:(1) Fullerenes and nanotubes, (2) Characterization of surfaces of diamond and silicon for NEMS applications, (3) Nanoscale machine and assemblies, (4) Organic nanostructures and dendrimers, (5) Nanoscale confinement and nanotribology, (6) Dynamic response of nanoscale structures nanowires (metals, tubes, fullerenes), (7) Thermal transport in nanostructures.

  12. Preface: Friction at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusc, Claudio; Smith, Roger; Urbakh, Michael; Vanossi, Andrea

    2008-09-01

    Interfacial friction is one of the oldest problems in physics and chemistry, and certainly one of the most important from a practical point of view. Everyday operations on a broad range of scales, from nanometer and up, depend upon the smooth and satisfactory functioning of countless tribological systems. Friction imposes serious constraints and limitations on the performance and lifetime of micro-machines and, undoubtedly, will impose even more severe constraints on the emerging technology of nano-machines. Standard lubrication techniques used for large objects are expected to be less effective in the nano-world. Novel methods for control and manipulation are therefore needed. What has been missing is a molecular level understanding of processes occurring between and close to interacting surfaces to help understand, and later manipulate friction. Friction is intimately related to both adhesion and wear, and all three require an understanding of highly non-equilibrium processes occurring at the molecular level to determine what happens at the macroscopic level. Due to its practical importance and the relevance to basic scientific questions there has been major increase in activity in the study of interfacial friction on the microscopic level during the last decade. Intriguing structural and dynamical features have been observed experimentally. These observations have motivated theoretical efforts, both numerical and analytical. This special issue focusses primarily on discussion of microscopic mechanisms of friction and adhesion at the nanoscale level. The contributions cover many important aspects of frictional behaviour, including the origin of stick-slip motion, the dependence of measured forces on the material properties, effects of thermal fluctuations, surface roughness and instabilities in boundary lubricants on both static and kinetic friction. An important problem that has been raised in this issue, and which has still to be resolved, concerns the possibility of controlling frictional response. The ability to control and manipulate frictional forces is extremely important for a variety of applications. These include magnetic storage and recording systems, miniature motors, and more. This special issue aims to provide an overview of current theoretical and experimental works on nanotribology and possible applications. In selecting the papers we have tried to maintain a balance between new results and review-like aspects, so that the present issue is self-contained and, we hope, readily accessible to non-specialists in the field. We believe that the particular appeal of this collection of papers also lies in the fusion of both experiment and theory, thus providing the connection to reality of the sometimes demanding, mathematically inclined contributions. Profound thanks go to all our colleagues and friends who have contributed to this special issue. Each has made an effort not only to present recent results in a clear and lucid way, but also to provide an introductory review that helps the reader to understand the different topics.

  13. Experimental investigations of multilayer insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapat, S. L.; Narayankhedkar, K. G.; Lukose, T. P.

    1990-08-01

    Multilayer insulation (MLI), using alternate layers of shield and spacer in high vacuum, is the most effective cryogenic insulation developed to date. Due to unpredictable changes in parameters such as winding pressure, uniform contact pressure and interstitial pressure, accurate theoretical prediction of MLI performance is very difficult. Thus, an experimental investigation has been carried out on a few indigenous MLI materials. The investigations are centred on the influence of the number of layers and layer density, with the cold boundary at the same temperature as liquid nitrogen. The experiments have been carried out using a cylindrical vessel with guard vessels on the top and bottom flat surfaces. The interstitial pressure, which depends on conditions pertaining to specific parameters, such as outgassing rate of materials, cryopumping speed and time for evacuation, has also been measured. The results are compared with those obtained from a theoretical analysis carried out for the same combination of shield and spacer materials.

  14. Fracture characterization of multilayered reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, L.K.; Larsen, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Fracture treatment optimization techniques have been developed using Long-Spaced-Digital-Sonic (LSDS) log, pumpin-flowback, mini-frac, and downhole treating pressure data. These analysis techniques have been successfully applied in massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) of ''tight gas'' wells. Massive hydraulic fracture stimulations have been used to make many tight gas reservoirs commercially attractive. However, studies have shown that short highly conductive fractures are optimum for the successful stimulation of wells in moderate permeability reservoirs. As a result, the ability to design and place optimal fractures in these reservoirs is critical. This paper illustrates the application of fracture analysis techniques to a moderate permeability multi-layered reservoir. These techniques were used to identify large zonal variations in rock properties and pore pressure which result from the complex geology. The inclusion of geologic factors in fracture treatment design allowed the placement of short highly conductive fractures which were used to improve injectivity and vertical sweep, and therefore, ultimate recovery.

  15. Magnetic-plasmonic multilayered nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumthan, Orathai

    Multilayered nanorods which consist of alternating magnetic layers separated by Au layers combine two distinctive properties, magnetic properties and surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) properties into one nano-entity. Their magnetic properties are tunable by changing the layer thickness, varying from single domain to superparamagnetic state. Superparamagnetic is a key requirement for magnetic nanoparticles for bioapplications. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles exhibit high magnetic moments at low applied magnetic field while retain no magnetic moments when magnetic field is removed preventing them from aggregation due to magnetic attraction. Au layers in the nanorods provide anchorage sites for functional group attachment. Also, Au nanodisks exhibit SPR properties. The SPR peak can be tuned from 540 nm to 820 nm by controlling the thickness of magnetic segments while keeping Au thickness constant. In this research, there are three types of multilayered nanorod have been fabricated: Au/NiFe nanorods, Au/Fe nanorods, and Au/Co nanorods. These magnetic nanorods were fabricated by templated electrodeposition into the channels in Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) membrane. The setup for AAO fabrication was developed as a part of this research. Our fabricated AAO membrane has channels with a diameter ranging from 40nm to 80 nm and a thickness of 10um to 12um. Magnetic properties of nanorods such as saturation field, saturation moment, coercivity and remanence are able to manipulate through their shape anisotropy. The magnetization will be easier in long axis rather than short axis of particle. In addition, Au nanodisks in the nanorod structure are not only serving as anchorage sites for functional groups but also provide SPR properties. Under irradiation of light Au nanodisks strongly absorb light at SPR frequency which ranging from 540 nm to 820 nm by controlling the thickness of magnetic segments while keeping Au thickness constant. The SPR tunability of nanorods in near-infrared region can be used in in-vivo biomedical applications such as photo thermal therapy because tissue has an absorption maximum in the infrared range. The magnetic nanorods were explored for the following two applications: 1) as active component orientation-tunable ferrogel for cell culture matrix, 2) as MRI contrast agent. The results show that Au/NiFe magnetic nanorods can be aligned along applied magnetic field. Using MTT assay for 3T3 fibroblast cells, the biocompatibility of Au/Co nanorods was investigated. It shows that cell proliferation after 72 hours of incubation with nanorods decreases as the concentration of nanorods increases. However, cell viability quantified by counting dead cell/live cell reveals that only few cells died after three days of incubation. Au/Co multilayered nanorods were tested as T2 MRI-contrast agent, and a very large relaxivity was observed. In summary, we have successfully fabricated multilayered nanorods with tunability in both magnetic and SPR properties. These nanorods can potentially be used in biological and biomedical fields.

  16. Multilayer composites and manufacture of same

    DOEpatents

    Holesinger, Terry G.; Jia, Quanxi

    2006-02-07

    The present invention is directed towards a process of depositing multilayer thin films, disk-shaped targets for deposition of multilayer thin films by a pulsed laser or pulsed electron beam deposition process, where the disk-shaped targets include at least two segments with differing compositions, and a multilayer thin film structure having alternating layers of a first composition and a second composition, a pair of the alternating layers defining a bi-layer wherein the thin film structure includes at least 20 bi-layers per micron of thin film such that an individual bi-layer has a thickness of less than about 100 nanometers.

  17. The effect of ion irradiation and elevated temperature on the microstructure and the properties of C/W/C/B multilayer coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlcak, Petr

    2016-03-01

    C/W/C/B multi-layer PVD coating with a layer period of 10 nm and 500 nm in thickness was irradiated with 45 keV N ions at fluence of 1 × 1017 cm-2. Ion irradiation was performed at room temperature or at an elevated temperature of 500 °C. The microstructure was investigated by X-ray diffraction, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and by Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that implanted N ions bond both with W atoms and with C atoms. N ion irradiation induced the formation of WC and WC1-x phases. The energetic ions transformed the C bonds in defect sp2 and defect sp3 hybridizations, resulting in graphitization of the carbon fraction in the multilayer coating. Ion irradiation reduced the cohesive strength of the monolayers, reduced hardness of the C/W/C/B coating, increased its surface roughness and increased its friction coefficient. An elevated temperature during ion irradiation caused a better arrangement of the WC phase and further graphitization of the carbon fraction, in comparison with a coating treated by ion irradiation at room temperature. There is discussion of the causes of the observed changes in surface properties.

  18. Highly Efficient Multilayer Thermoelectric Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boufelfel, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Multilayer thermoelectric devices now at the prototype stage of development exhibit a combination of desirable characteristics, including high figures of merit and high performance/cost ratios. These devices are capable of producing temperature differences of the order of 50 K in operation at or near room temperature. A solvent-free batch process for mass production of these state-of-the-art thermoelectric devices has also been developed. Like prior thermoelectric devices, the present ones have commercial potential mainly by virtue of their utility as means of controlled cooling (and/or, in some cases, heating) of sensors, integrated circuits, and temperature-critical components of scientific instruments. The advantages of thermoelectric devices for such uses include no need for circulating working fluids through or within the devices, generation of little if any noise, and high reliability. The disadvantages of prior thermoelectric devices include high power consumption and relatively low coefficients of performance. The present development program was undertaken in the hope of reducing the magnitudes of the aforementioned disadvantages and, especially, obtaining higher figures of merit for operation at and near room temperature. Accomplishments of the program thus far include development of an algorithm to estimate the heat extracted by, and the maximum temperature drop produced by, a thermoelectric device; solution of the problem of exchange of heat between a thermoelectric cooler and a water-cooled copper block; retrofitting of a vacuum chamber for depositing materials by sputtering; design of masks; and fabrication of multilayer thermoelectric devices of two different designs, denoted I and II. For both the I and II designs, the thicknesses of layers are of the order of nanometers. In devices of design I, nonconsecutive semiconductor layers are electrically connected in series. Devices of design II contain superlattices comprising alternating electron-acceptor (p)-doped and electron-donor (n)-doped, nanometer- thick semiconductor layers.

  19. Dynamic structural disorder in supported nanoscale catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Rehr, J. J.; Vila, F. D.

    2014-04-07

    We investigate the origin and physical effects of dynamic structural disorder (DSD) in supported nano-scale catalysts. DSD refers to the intrinsic fluctuating, inhomogeneous structure of such nano-scale systems. In contrast to bulk materials, nano-scale systems exhibit substantial fluctuations in structure, charge, temperature, and other quantities, as well as large surface effects. The DSD is driven largely by the stochastic librational motion of the center of mass and fluxional bonding at the nanoparticle surface due to thermal coupling with the substrate. Our approach for calculating and understanding DSD is based on a combination of real-time density functional theory/molecular dynamics simulations, transient coupled-oscillator models, and statistical mechanics. This approach treats thermal and dynamic effects over multiple time-scales, and includes bond-stretching and -bending vibrations, and transient tethering to the substrate at longer ps time-scales. Potential effects on the catalytic properties of these clusters are briefly explored. Model calculations of molecule-cluster interactions and molecular dissociation reaction paths are presented in which the reactant molecules are adsorbed on the surface of dynamically sampled clusters. This model suggests that DSD can affect both the prefactors and distribution of energy barriers in reaction rates, and thus can significantly affect catalytic activity at the nano-scale.

  20. Probing and manipulating magnetization at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarth, Nitin

    2012-02-01

    Combining semiconductors with magnetism in hetero- and nano-structured geometries provides a powerful means of exploring the interplay between spin-dependent transport and nanoscale magnetism. We describe two recent studies in this context. First, we use spin-dependent transport in ferromagnetic semiconductor thin films to provide a new window into nanoscale magnetism [1]: here, we exploit the large anomalous Hall effect in a ferromagnetic semiconductor as a nanoscale probe of the reversible elastic behavior of magnetic domain walls and gain insight into regimes of domain wall behavior inaccessible to more conventional optical techniques. Next, we describe novel ways to create self-assembled hybrid semiconductor/ferromagnet core-shell nanowires [2] and show how magnetoresistance measurements in single nanowires, coupled with micromagnetic simulations, can provide detailed insights into the magnetization reversal process in nanoscale ferromagnets [3]. The work described here was carried out in collaboration with Andrew Balk, Jing Liang, Nicholas Dellas, Mark Nowakowski, David Rench, Mark Wilson, Roman Engel-Herbert, Suzanne Mohney, Peter Schiffer and David Awschalom. This work is supported by ONR, NSF and the NSF-MRSEC program.[4pt] [1] A. L. Balk et al., Phys. Rev.Lett. 107, 077205 (2011).[0pt] [2] N. J. Dellas et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 072505 (2010).[0pt] [3] J. Liang et al., in preparation.

  1. PREFACE: New Physics at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Hideaki; Itoh, Tadashi

    2007-11-01

    Advancements in technology have led to the continual reduction in the size and cost of new devices whilst increasing their capacities and capabilities. To keep up with the rate of these advancements, scientists recognize the need to further understand and take advantage of the new physics at the nanoscale. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is a compilation of research dedicated to this topic. There are a total of ten articles in this volume. The first three articles are investigations on the formation at the nanoscale of an SrF2 insulator monolayer on Si(111), nanoporous structures in Ge surfaces, and ultra-small carbon nanotubes formed in zeolite crystal channels. The next two articles discuss new findings on perylene diamide dendrimers and silicon nanocrystals, and are followed by studies on the optical/electronic properties and spin relaxation in quantum dots. The next two articles provide the necessary theoretical frameworks for phenomena applicable at the nanoscale. Last, but not least, is an article on the computational design of novel nanomaterials for catalytic applications. This special issue is not intended to be a comprehensive collection of the current state of research at the nanoscale. However, we do hope that by incorporating a balanced variety of subject mattersranging from formation, optical, electronic and spin properties, theoretical framework to design of nanomaterialsthe readers will gain a good overview and even greater fascination for this new and diverse field of physics.

  2. Direct temperature mapping of nanoscale plasmonic devices.

    PubMed

    Desiatov, Boris; Goykhman, Ilya; Levy, Uriel

    2014-02-12

    Side by side with the great advantages of plasmonics in nanoscale light confinement, the inevitable ohmic loss results in significant joule heating in plasmonic devices. Therefore, understanding optical-induced heat generation and heat transport in integrated on-chip plasmonic devices is of major importance. Specifically, there is a need for in situ visualization of electromagnetic induced thermal energy distribution with high spatial resolution. This paper studies the heat distribution in silicon plasmonic nanotips. Light is coupled to the plasmonic nanotips from a silicon nanowaveguide that is integrated with the tip on chip. Heat is generated by light absorption in the metal surrounding the silicon nanotip. The steady-state thermal distribution is studied numerically and measured experimentally using the approach of scanning thermal microscopy. It is shown that following the nanoscale heat generation by a 10 mW light source within a silicon photonic waveguide the temperature in the region of the nanotip is increased by ? 15 C compared with the ambient temperature. Furthermore, we also perform a numerical study of the dynamics of the heat transport. Given the nanoscale dimensions of the structure, significant heating is expected to occur within the time frame of picoseconds. The capability of measuring temperature distribution of plasmonic structures at the nanoscale is shown to be a powerful tool and may be used in future applications related to thermal plasmonic applications such as control heating of liquids, thermal photovoltaic, nanochemistry, medicine, heat-assisted magnetic memories, and nanolithography. PMID:24422562

  3. Benchtop Nanoscale Patterning Using Soft Lithography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meenakshi, Viswanathan; Babayan, Yelizaveta; Odom, Teri W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines several benchtop nanoscale patterning experiments that can be incorporated into undergraduate laboratories or advanced high school chemistry curricula. The experiments, supplemented by an online video lab manual, are based on soft lithographic techniques such as replica molding, micro-molding in capillaries, and micro-contact

  4. Traceable nanoscale measurement at NML-SIRIM

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlan, Ahmad M.; Abdul Hapip, A. I.

    2012-06-29

    The role of national metrology institute (NMI) has always been very crucial in national technology development. One of the key activities of the NMI is to provide traceable measurement in all parameters under the International System of Units (SI). Dimensional measurement where size and shape are two important features investigated, is one of the important area covered by NMIs. To support the national technology development, particularly in manufacturing sectors and emerging technology such nanotechnology, the National Metrology Laboratory, SIRIM Berhad (NML-SIRIM), has embarked on a project to equip Malaysia with state-of-the-art nanoscale measurement facility with the aims of providing traceability of measurement at nanoscale. This paper will look into some of the results from current activities at NML-SIRIM related to measurement at nanoscale particularly on application of atomic force microscope (AFM) and laser based sensor in dimensional measurement. Step height standards of different sizes were measured using AFM and laser-based sensors. These probes are integrated into a long-range nanoscale measuring machine traceable to the international definition of the meter thus ensuring their traceability. Consistency of results obtained by these two methods will be discussed and presented. Factors affecting their measurements as well as their related uncertainty of measurements will also be presented.

  5. Benchtop Nanoscale Patterning Using Soft Lithography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meenakshi, Viswanathan; Babayan, Yelizaveta; Odom, Teri W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines several benchtop nanoscale patterning experiments that can be incorporated into undergraduate laboratories or advanced high school chemistry curricula. The experiments, supplemented by an online video lab manual, are based on soft lithographic techniques such as replica molding, micro-molding in capillaries, and micro-contact…

  6. Fats, Oils, & Colors of a Nanoscale Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisensky, George C.; Horoszewski, Dana; Gentry, Kenneth L.; Zenner, Greta M.; Crone, Wendy C .

    2006-01-01

    Phase changes and intermolecular forces are important physical science concepts but are not always easy to present in an active learning format. This article presents several interactive activities in which students plot the melting points of some fatty acids and explore the effect that the nanoscale size and shape of molecules have on the…

  7. Fats, Oils, & Colors of a Nanoscale Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisensky, George C.; Horoszewski, Dana; Gentry, Kenneth L.; Zenner, Greta M.; Crone, Wendy C .

    2006-01-01

    Phase changes and intermolecular forces are important physical science concepts but are not always easy to present in an active learning format. This article presents several interactive activities in which students plot the melting points of some fatty acids and explore the effect that the nanoscale size and shape of molecules have on the

  8. Nanoscale precipitation in hot rolled sheet steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun

    Some newer hot rolled high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels with a single phase ferrite matrix have obtained substantial strengthening from nanoscale precipitation. These HSLA are reported to have a good combination of strength, ductility and hole-expansion ability. In the current work, Gleeble 3500 torsion testing was employed to simulate the hot rolling process with varying run-out table cooling rates and coiling temperatures on five microalloyed steels with additions of Ti, Nb, Mo, Cr and V, to investigate the effects of microalloy additions and processing conditions on microstructures as well as mechanical properties. Subsized tensile specimens obtained from as-twisted torsion samples were used to evaluate mechanical properties. The precipitation states of the five steels with different processing conditions were characterized using extraction replica TEM. Comparison of microstructures and mechanical properties was discussed. Characterization of the microstructure via light optical microscopy showed the matrix microstructure was mainly influenced by coiling temperature, which indicates that the transformation from austenite to ferrite occurred during the coiling period. A higher Ti content was shown to reduce the second constituent fractions. Investigation of carbon extraction replica specimens via TEM revealed the presence of nanoscale precipitation. Extensive nanoscale precipitation was observed in most of the specimens having a polygonal ferrite matrix, while in the granular bainite/ferrite microstructure at lower temperatures, fewer microalloy carbides were present. The specimens with polygonal ferrite had similar or higher yield strength than the specimens with granular bainite microstructure, which suggests the effectiveness of precipitation strengthening from extensive nanoscale precipitates. In the Nb-Mo steel, more significant strengthening due to grain refinement was evident. Yield strength values were less than reported for JFE's "NANOHITEN" steel in specimens with similar microstructure (polygonal ferrite matrix with extensive nanoscale precipitation).

  9. Interactions between glide dislocations and parallel interfacial dislocations in nanoscale strained layers

    SciTech Connect

    Akasheh, F.; Zbib, H. M.; Hirth, J. P.; Hoagland, R. G.; Misra, A.

    2007-08-01

    Plastic deformation in nanoscale multilayered structures is thought to proceed by the successive propagation of single dislocation loops at the interfaces. Based on this view, we simulate the effect of predeposited interfacial dislocation on the stress (channeling stress) needed to propagate a new loop parallel to existing loops. Single interfacial dislocations as well as finite parallel arrays are considered in the computation. When the gliding dislocation and the predeposited interfacial array have collinear Burgers vectors, the channeling stress increases monotonically as the density of dislocations in the array increases. In the case when their Burgers vectors are inclined at 60 deg. , a regime of perfect plasticity is observed which can be traced back to an instability in the flow stress arising from the interaction between the glide dislocation and a single interfacial dislocation dipole. This interaction leads to a tendency for dislocations of alternating Burgers vectors to propagate during deformation leading to nonuniform arrays. Inclusion of these parallel interactions in the analysis improves the strength predictions as compared with the measured strength of a Cu-Ni multilayered system in the regime where isolated glide dislocation motion controls flow, but does not help to explain the observed strength saturation when the individual layer thickness is in the few nanometer range.

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of thermoelectric multilayer films

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, A.V.; Foreman, R.J.; Summers, L.J.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Farmer, J.C.

    1996-03-21

    The deposition of compositionally modulated (Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}){sub 2}(Te{sub 1-y}Se{sub y}){sub 3} thermoelectric multilayer films by magnetron sputtering has been demonstrated. Structures with a period of 140{Angstrom} are shown to be stable to interdiffusion at the high deposition temperatures necessary for growth of single layer crystalline films with ZT {gt} 0.5. These multilayers are of the correct dimension to exhibit the electronic properties of quantum well structures. Furthermore it is shown that the Seebeck coefficient of the films is not degraded by the presence of this multilayer structure. It may be possible to synthesize a multilayer thermoelectric material with enhanced ZT by maximizing the barrier height through optimization of the composition of the barrier.

  11. Multilayer soft x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, Charles M.

    2014-10-01

    Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) is able to produce high purity, epitaxial multilayer films with well defined interfaces. This precise deposition control along with a number of in situ characterization instruments allows a high degree of control over the formation of multilayers. We have three MBE systems, each with characteristics suitable for a subset of possible materials, that we have used to produce a large variety of x-ray multilayers. Together these MBE systems contain Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED), Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS), and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). Here I provide an overview of the techniques the students, postdocs, visiting scientists, and collaborators have used to select the materials pairs we have grown and analyzed for our x-ray multilayers.

  12. Ultrasonic Linear Motor Using Multilayer Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funakubo, Tomoki; Tsubata, Toshiharu; Taniguchi, Yoshihisa; Kumei, Kazuhiro; Fujimura, Takanao; Abe, Chikara

    1995-05-01

    In order to lower operating voltage and improve the lifetime of an ultrasonic linear motor, we have developed an ultrasonic oscillator with multilayer piezoelectric actuators. Multilayer piezoelectric actuators are operable at low voltage. However, the tensile strength of the multilayer piezoelectric actuator is small. Therefore, the multilayer piezoelectric actuators are build within an elastic body to lower the tensile stress with a compressive preload. Elliptical oscillations are generated by synthesizing two degenerated modes, a first longitudinal mode and a second flexural mode, with ?/2 phase difference. As a result of estimating the characteristics of the ultrasonic linear motor with the ultrasonic oscillator, the operating voltage of 10 Vp-p, maximum thrust force of 8 N and lifetime of over 5000 hours have been obtained.

  13. Process for making a multilayer interconnect system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zachry, Clyde L. (Inventor); Niedzwiecke, Andrew J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A process for making an interconnect system for a multilayer circuit pattern. The interconnect system is formed having minimized through-hole space consumption so as to be suitable for high density, closely meshed circuit patterns.

  14. Fabrication of wedged multilayer Laue lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Prasciolu, M.; Leontowich, A. F. G.; Krzywinski, J.; Andrejczuk, A.; Chapman, H. N.; Bajt, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method to fabricate wedged multilayer Laue lenses, in which the angle of diffracting layers smoothly varies in the lens to achieve optimum diffracting efficiency across the entire pupil of the lens. This was achieved by depositing a multilayer onto a flat substrate placed in the penumbra of a straight-edge mask. The distance between the mask and the substrate was calibrated and the multilayer Laue lens was cut in a position where the varying layer thickness and the varying layer tilt simultaneously satisfy the Fresnel zone plate condition and Bragg’s law for all layers in the stack. This method can be used to extend the achievable numerical aperture of multilayer Laue lenses to reach considerably smaller focal spot sizes than achievable with lenses composed of parallel layers.

  15. Fabrication of wedged multilayer Laue lenses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Prasciolu, M.; Leontowich, A. F. G.; Krzywinski, J.; Andrejczuk, A.; Chapman, H. N.; Bajt, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method to fabricate wedged multilayer Laue lenses, in which the angle of diffracting layers smoothly varies in the lens to achieve optimum diffracting efficiency across the entire pupil of the lens. This was achieved by depositing a multilayer onto a flat substrate placed in the penumbra of a straight-edge mask. The distance between the mask and the substrate was calibrated and the multilayer Laue lens was cut in a position where the varying layer thickness and the varying layer tilt simultaneously satisfy the Fresnel zone plate condition and Bragg’s law for all layers in the stack.more » This method can be used to extend the achievable numerical aperture of multilayer Laue lenses to reach considerably smaller focal spot sizes than achievable with lenses composed of parallel layers.« less

  16. Plasma etchback of multilayer printed wiring boards

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, F.L.

    1980-06-01

    Removal of epoxy smear and glass fiber protrusions in multilayer printed wiring board holes was investigated. Gas plasma techniques, using a mixture of carbon tetrafluoride and oxygen, removed the eposies; however, the glass fibers were not affected.

  17. Polyimide-glass multilayer printed wiring boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lula, J. W.

    1984-07-01

    Multilayer printed wiring boards (PWBs) from a polyimide/glass reinforced copper clad laminate and prepreg were manufactured. A lamination cycle and innerlayer copper surface treatment that gave satisfactory delamination resistance at soldering temperatures were developed. When compared to similar epoxy/glass multilayer PWBs, the polyimide PWBs had higher thermal stability, greater resistance to raised lands, fewer plating voids, less outgassing, and adhesion that was equivalent to urethane foam encapsulants.

  18. Spherical cloaking with homogeneous isotropic multilayered structures.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Hu, Li; Xu, Xiaofei; Feng, Yijun

    2009-04-01

    We propose a practical realization of electromagnetic spherical cloaking by layered structure of homogeneous isotropic materials. By mimicking the classic anisotropic cloak by many alternating thin layers of isotropic dielectrics, the permittivity and permeability in each isotropic layer can be properly determined by effective medium theory in order to achieve invisibility. The model greatly facilitates modeling by Mie theory and realization by multilayer coating of dielectrics. Eigenmode analysis is also presented to provide insights of the discretization in multilayers. PMID:19518392

  19. Pulsed laser irradiation of metal multilayers.

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, David Price; McDonald, Joel Patrick

    2010-11-01

    Vapor-deposited, exothermic metal-metal multilayer foils are an ideal class of materials for detailed investigations of pulsed laser-ignited chemical reactions. Created in a pristine vacuum environment by sputter deposition, these high purity materials have well-defined reactant layer thicknesses between 1 and 1000 nm, minimal void density and intimate contact between layers. Provided that layer thicknesses are made small, some reactive metal-metal multilayer foils can be ignited at a point by laser irradiation and exhibit subsequent high-temperature, self-propagating synthesis. With this presentation, we describe the pulsed laser-induced ignition characteristics of a single multilayer system (equiatomic Al/Pt) that exhibits self-propagating synthesis. We show that the thresholds for ignition are dependent on (i) multilayer design and (ii) laser pulse duration. With regard to multilayer design effects on ignition, there is a large range of multilayer periodicity over which ignition threshold decreases as layer thicknesses are made small. We attribute this trend of decreased ignition threshold to reduced mass transport diffusion lengths required for rapid exothermic mixing. With regard to pulse duration effects, we have determined how ignition threshold of a single Al/Pt multilayer varies with pulse duration from 10{sup -2} to {approx} 10{sup -13} sec (wavelength and spot size are held constant). A higher laser fluence is required for ignition when using a single laser pulse {approx} 100 fs or 1 ps compared with nanosecond or microsecond exposure, and we attribute this, in part, to the effects of reactive material being ablated when using the shorter pulse durations. To further understand these trends and other pulsed laser-based processes, our discussion concludes with an analysis of the heat-affected depths in multilayers as a function of pulse duration.

  20. Pulsed laser deposition of multilayered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, Miroslav; Olsan, V.; Trtik, V.

    1994-12-01

    Epitaxial superconductive and ferroelectric thin films, buffer layers and multilayers were created by laser ablation deposition on monocrystalline and technological substrates. Deposition of complex multilayer systems composed of YBaCuO, YSZ, ZrO2, CeO2, SrTiO3, PZT, PLZT, and PMN layers, and some properties of these systems characterized by XRD and electrical measurements are presented.

  1. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Lunt, Richard R

    2015-01-13

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  2. Cylindrical multilayer metal-dielectric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasin, M. E.; Il'inskaya, N. D.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Kaliteevskaya, N. A.; Lazarenko, A. A.; Mazlin, V. A.; Brunkov, P. N.; Pavlov, S. I.; Kaliteevski, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    A method of creating a cylindrical structures consisting of thin metallic layer and dielectric multilayer Bragg reflector is described. Formation of the structures is observed experimentally as a result of separation and twisting away from the substrate a thin layer of gold coated with a multilayer SiO2/TiO2 Bragg reflector. It is suggested that such structures may be of interest for the creation of novel optoelectronic devices.

  3. Optical multistability in a nonlinear Fibonacci multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta Gupta, Subhasish; Ray, Deb Shankar

    1988-08-01

    The transmission properties of a multilayered medium consisting of N nonlinear slabs are studied. A general characteristic matrix formalism is applied to obtain the power dependence of the transmission coefficient. As an application, a nonlinear Fibonacci multilayer with as many as 55 and 233 nonlinear slabs is considered. The nonlinear quasiperiodic system is shown to offer a wide variety of bi- stable and multistable operations.

  4. Process capability of etched multilayer EUV mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Kosuke; Iida nee Sakurai, Noriko; Kamo, Takashi; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Hayashi, Naoya

    2015-10-01

    With shrinking pattern size at 0.33NA EUV lithography systems, mask 3D effects are expected to become stronger, such as horizontal/vertical shadowing, best focus shifts through pitch and pattern shift through focus. Etched multilayer EUV mask structures have been proposed in order to reduce mask 3D effects. It is estimated that etched multilayer type mask is also effective in reducing mask 3D effects at 0.33NA with lithographic simulation, and it is experimentally demonstrated with NXE3300 EUV Lithography system. We obtained cross-sectional TEM image of etched multilayer EUV mask pattern. It is observed that patterned multilayer width differs from pattern physical width. This means that effective reflecting width of etched multilayer pattern is smaller than pattern width measured by CD-SEM. In this work, we evaluate mask durability against both chemical and physical cleaning process to check the feasibility of etched multilayer EUV mask patterning against mask cleaning for 0.33NA EUV extension. As a result, effective width can be controlled by suitable cleaning chemicals because sidewall film works as a passivation film. And line and space pattern collapse is not detected by DUV mask pattern inspection tool after mask physical cleaning that includes both megasonic and binary spray steps with sufficient particle removal efficiency.

  5. Capability of etched multilayer EUV mask fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Kosuke; Murano, Koji; Kamo, Takashi; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Hayashi, Naoya

    2014-09-01

    Recently, development of next generation extremely ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) equipment with high-NA (Numerical Aperture) optics for less than hp10nm node is accelerated. Increasing magnification of projection optics or mask size using conventional mask structure has been studied, but these methods make lithography cost high because of low through put and preparing new large mask infrastructures. To avoid these issues, etched multilayer EUV mask has been proposed. As a result of improvement of binary etched multilayer mask process, hp40nm line and space pattern on mask (hp10nm on wafer using 4x optics) has been demonstrated. However, mask patterns are easily collapsed by wet cleaning process due to their low durability caused by high aspect ratio. We propose reducing the number of multilayer pairs from 40 to 20 in order to increase durability against multilayer pattern collapse. With 20pair multilayer blank, durable minimum feature size of isolated line is extended from 80nm to 56nm. CD uniformity and linearity of 20pair etched multilayer pattern are catching up EUV mask requirement of 2014.

  6. PREFACE: Nanoscale science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2008-11-01

    Over the last decade, rapid progress in the field of nanoscience has been increasingly driving the attention of the scientific community as well as society at large on the corresponding technological applications, which are the object of so-called nanotechnology. A strong interest in assessing the current state of the art of this fast growing field, as well as stimulating research networking, prompted the organization of the International School and Workshop 'Nanoscience & Nanotechnology (n&n2007)', under the patronage of the Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), the University of Rome Tor Vergata, the Tor Vergata Polyclinic, and the Catholic University of Rome, with generous sponsorship from 3M, 2M Strumenti, MTS, Ape Research, Crisel Instruments, Veeco and Amira. The aims of this event were as follows: to foster the concrete planning of future devices based on innovative (nano)materials, involving both industrial entities and public research institutes; to allow sponsoring firms to present their instrumentation and success stories, based on current use by significant customers; to lend an opportunity for preparing and presenting joint projects, involving both industry and public research, see e.g. the EU 7th Framework Programs; to explore the possibility of integrating nanodevices from their concept into system projects. The conference http://www.lnf.infn.it/conference/nn2007/ gathered at Villa Mondragone in Monte Porzio Catone, Italy, with leading experts in research and innovative technologies in biology, medicine, aerospace, optoelectronics, materials and instrumentation, coming both from academic research and industrial areas, as well as national security and military defense experts in attendence. Several successful meetings in this field have taken place in the past, such as the Nanotubes & Nanostructures (N&N) School and Workshop Series [1, 2, 3, 4] including: N&N2000, S Margherita di Pula (Cagliari), Italy, 24 September-4 October 2000, http://www.lnf.infn.it/conference/nn2000/default.html N&N2001, Frascati (Roma), Italy, 17-27 October 2001, http://www.lnf.infn.it/conference/nn2001/Welcome.html N&N2002, Frascati (Roma), Italy, 23-28 September 2002, http://www.lnf.infn.it/conference/nn2002/ N&N2003, Frascati (Roma), Italy, 15-19 September 2003, http://www.lnf.infn.it/conference/nn2003/ N&N2004, Frascati (Roma), Italy, 14-20 October 2004, http://www.lnf.infn.it/conference/nn2004/ n&n2005, Monteporzio Catone (Roma), Italy, 14-16 November 2005, http://www.lnf.infn.it/conference/nn2005/ n&n2006, Monteporzio Catone (Roma), Italy, 6-9 November 2006, http://www.lnf.infn.it/conference/nn2006/ In order to enable the exchange of knowledge and collaboration among the different scientists in the field of nanotechnology, whilst also offering an opportunity for those who are just beginning to get involved with it, allowing them to meet contacts and get prime, up-to-date information from the experts, a special poster and equipment session displayed various firm's institutional activities in selected areas of application where nanoscience can have a deep impact. The participants were also able to get involved with sample testing. Tutorial lectures were delivered at the school, addressing general and basic questions about nanotechnology, such as what they are, how does one go about them, what purposes can they serve. In tutorial sessions the nature of nanotechnology, the instruments of current use in its characterizations and the possible applicative uses were described at an introductory level. The first day was devoted to three sessions: Aerospace, defense, biomedicine. Electronics and mechanical properties. Materials and characterizations. The first session was opened by a lecture by J Kenny, who talked about the use of carbon nanotubes for polymer matrix nanocomposites. He reported how plasma functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (F-SWNTs) reacted with a primary aliphatic amine can be used for preparing an integrated nanotube composite material. The results show the emergence of specific interactions of cross-linking between a thermosetting matrix and amino-functionalized SWNTs during the cure reaction with an improvement of the mechanical properties with respect to those prepared with unfunctionalized SWNTs. The possibility of using amino-functionalized SWNT to make a 'mix and match' approach towards classes of hybrid materials was reported suggesting the possibility of tuning the electrical properties by combining the electric field in the assembling processing. Moreover, it was demonstrated as electrophoretically deposited SWNT thin films provide a simple route to obtain layered functional nanostructures by growing homogeneous films of carbon nanotubes and infiltrating polymer or monomer, followed by in situ polymerization. Some examples where electrophoretically deposited SWCNT films were infiltrated with monomer and then the monomer was polymerized were reported. The invited lecture by S D'Auria explored the advantages of using either enzymes or binding proteins to develop non-consuming substrate fluorescence nano-biosensors. He reported a novel approach to address the consumption of substrate by enzyme-based biosensors, namely the utilization of apo-enzymes as non-active forms of proteins which are still able to bind the ligand but cannot transform it into product. He also reported recent studies in which fluorescence labelling proteins by a fluorescent probe allows a wireless monitoring of toxic compounds. Then, he presented a cutting-edge methodology for the detection of target analytes at very low concentration, namely single molecule detection. C Falessi described how the 'Finmeccanica Focus Group Nano' is coordinating a multiscale nanoscience engineering integration initiative that is an emerging and unified strategy to link the customer operative requirements with innovative high-tech product. He introduced the audience to the 'NanoTechnology Multiscale Project (NMP)', as a complete realization of the vertical and horizontal integration recognized as a condition for nanotehnology application to industry and society, including the definition and development of integrated methodologies and environments to study, design, develop and test nanotechnology based metamaterials, devices, sensors and systems. F Canganella presented research activities concerning the biofilm properties of some reference bacteria on materials commonly used for the aerospace industry. His group evaluated the effect on these materials on a mixture of biosurfactants produced by the Pseudomonas strain AD1 recently isolated by the research group. The following materials were investigated: Kevlar, Nomex, Betacloth, aluminized Kapton, conventional Kapton, Combitherm, Mylar, copper foil, Teflon, aluminum, carbon fiber composite, aluminum thermo-dissipating textile and aluminum tape. Results showed a diverse affinity of materials for the bacterial biofilm development and in some cases sessile colonization was rejected. Pre-conditioning with biosurfactants led, in some cases, to a diminish of biofilm development compared to untreated materials, taking into account both concentrations and experimental conditions. Obtained data may be useful to screen and select appropriate material to be used for life support hardware to avoid or decrease the risk of surface biocontamination. M Chiaretti reported on the biological effects of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, CNT for short) on laboratory animals in vivo, on the immunological effects and the effects on three different cell types. Large numbers of researchers are directly involved in the handling of nanomaterials such as CNT, nanoparticles. It is important to assess the potential health risks related to their daily exposure to nanoparticles. The administration of sterilized nanosamples has been performed on laboratory animals in acute and chronic administration and the pathological effects on the parenchymal tissues have been studied. The research group studied the serum immunological modifications after CNTs intraperitoneal administration. No antigenic reaction was observed, because the screening of ANA, anti-ENA, anti-cardiolipin, C-ANCA and P-ANCA was negative. No quantitative modifications of immunoglobulins were observed and so no modifications of umoral immunity were documented. The research group also studied the effects of CNTs on the proliferation of three different cell types. MCF-7 showed a significant inhibition of proliferation at all the conditions studied, whereas hSMCs demonstrated a reduction of cell growth only at the highest CNTs concentrations at 72 h and no growth modification was observed in the Caco-2 cell line. It was observed that a low quantity of CNTs does not provoke any inflammatory reaction, although it is important to build a CNT plait and net to study the implantation effects. Moreover, it has to be emphasized that this study does not, at the moment, address the carcinogenicity of CBNs, which requires a detailed follow-up investigation on that specific topic. In view of their subsequent and more extensive use, as to say in applications where carbon nanotubes are injected into the human body for drug delivery as a contrast agent carrying entities for MRI, or as the material of a new prosthesis generation, other extended tests and experimentation are going to be necessary. L Ghibelli showed how to set up a wide field systematic cyto-toxicological study with multiple variables to envisage the critical points that may affect CNT biocompatibility. To this purpose, she made use of MWCNT and SWCNT, of different sizes, prepared with different modalities (i.e., arc discharge or catalysis) containing different contaminants (i.e., Fe2+; graphite; amorphous C), at different concentrations and times of incubation. The biological targets selected are the following: cytotoxicity (viability, apoptosis, necrosis); sensitization/desensitization to chemotherapic-induced apoptosis; cell proliferation and cell cycle; differentiation; oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species and glutathione levels); mitochondria; calcium parameters. The group focused on blood cells, since nanoparticles can enter the blood stream upon inhalation, accidental bruises, and may be possibly purposely injected in the future for drug delivery, thus being potential targets of CNT. The selected cell systems are human tumor cells (monocytes, U937, and T lymphocytes, Jurkat) and the normal counterparts, i.e., lymphocytes and monocytes from peripheral blood. From the analyses, it can be concluded that: (a), the type of biological effects depend on the target cell type, i.e., on Jurkat cells, CNT induce apoptosis, act as radical scavengers, and do not affect proliferation, whereas in U937 cells they strongly inhibit proliferation, increase radical species production, and do not induce apoptosis or necrosis; (b), the size and type of CNT clearly influence the biological effects, the smaller being the more effective; (c) the contaminants influences the effects, according to their own characteristics. A presentation about nanotechnologies and occupational safety & health, describing the fundamental aspects of research and networking in Italy and Europe was given by S Iavicoli. The scope of M S Sarto's talk 'Carbon nanotube technology for next-generation nanointerconects', which opened the second session of the day was to present the most recent results of research on next-generation nanointerconnects and to discuss the internationally most advanced state-of-art technology in this field. The aspects related to the EM modelling of CNT-nanointerconnects in the frequency range up to several tens of GHz were also presented. Unconventional interconnects and innovative materials are being studied as replacements for copper interconnects. Because of their exceptional and unique physical properties carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have aroused a lot of research interest that make them promising candidates as nano-interconnects for future high-speed electronics. Sarto illustrated how a specific focus on European research on nanointerconnects was addressed in the first call of ICT priority of the FP7, within the FET proactive initiative and outlined the successful presentation of the recently approved collaborative project CATHERINE. N Pugno introduced a new concept, of smart flexible—a property that could be crucial for smart drug delivery—nanovectors, based on smart adhesion. Targeting, in addition to the classical strategies, is enhanced by designing the nanovector in order to activate an adhesion force larger than the drag force only in the capillaries. A hierarchical architecture is used to model a real vasculature. During adhesion, the smart nanovector considerably changes its shape in a controllable way and, in case, can implode due to buckling. Such a mechanism will cleverly deliver the drug in a controllable way, ideally aborting the tumor colonization. M Pavese presented the growth and the physico/mechanical characterization of millimeters thick layers of self-standing vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The MWCNT 'forest' was obtained by thermal decomposition of camphor over a silicon substrate, in the presence of ferrocene as a catalyst. Alcohol vapors sensory properties of nanostructured conjugated polymers were presented by A Bearzotti. He showed how conjugated polymer (PPA = polyphenylacetylene) and co-polymer (P(PA/HEMA)=(poly[phenylacetylene-(co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)])) were prepared by the modified emulsion polymerisation technique; the nanostructured morphology enhances the properties of these materials mainly because of their increase in surface/volume ratio rendering them adapted for applications like sensitive membranes. The presentation by M Fajfrowski provided a practical reference for using instrumented-indentation testing (IIT), placing emphasis on the equipment, data-analysis, and calibrations required for accurate and meaningful measurements on a variety of materials. IIT has been developed over the last decade for the purpose of probing the mechanical properties of very small volumes of material. IIT is ideal for mechanically characterizing thin films, coatings, and surface layers including those modified by ion implantation, because the layer does not have to be removed from its substrate. Because indents can be positioned to within about 1 micron, IIT also provides the ability to map the spatial distribution of surface mechanical properties with good resolution; for example, one could map out the mechanical properties within and around a weld site. Even when the material sample is sufficiently large to be tested by other means, IIT often remains the method of choice because it requires little sample preparation. A new method for nanoindentation was proposed in the presentation of L Calabri. It allows hardness measurement with standard sharp AFM probes; the use of these probes enables a simultaneous high-resolution imaging (which is not achievable with standard indenters—cube corner and berkovich). How the shape of the indenter and the tip radius of curvature affect the hardness measurement was then analyzed to find a relationship between the measured hardness of a material, the corner angle of the pyramidal indenter and its tip radius of curvature. To experimentally understand this effect a photoresist material has been indented with focused ion beam nanofabricated probes with different corner angles. Then the results obtained experimentally were compared with those obtained by numerical simulations and by theoretical models. The spectral characterization of AlN, macrosized and nanostructured was the focus of B Berzina's talk, who opened the third session by reporting on the analysis and comparison of the spectral (luminescent) characteristics of the different types of AlN. The results obtained examining the luminescence processes of AlN (ceramics, nanorods, nanotips, nanopowders) were discussed. Ab initio simulations on the atomic and electronic structure of single-walled BN nanotubes and nanoarches were illustrated by Yu F Zhukovskii. M B Muradov talked about nanoparticles of cadmium selenide and cadmium sulfide, which yield one of the perspective materials for application to solar cell elements, high-speed computing systems, catalyses and biomarkers in medicine. In the presentation, the process of transformation of nanoparticles cadmium of sulfide to nanoparticles of cadmium selenide by an ionic exchange from solutions of electrolytes was considered. The size of particles was controlled by the quantity of growth cycles. After manufacturing, the structures were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM). Structures CdS:polymer transformed into CdSe:polymer with the help of ion-exchange. For the realization of the process of ionic exchange, solutions were prepared containing bivalent ions of selenium as follows: NaBH4 and Se in a weight parity 2:1 added in water 4NaBH4+2Se+7H2O→2NaHSe+Na2B4O7+14H2 In the prepared solution nanostructures CdS:polymer were immersed. Time of endurance was 2 h. After an ionic exchange the obtained structures were investigated by means of EDAX on a chemical composition. Results of analyses have shown that atoms of sulfur are completely replaced by selenium. The band gap of nanoparticles in comparison with initial samples is displaced in the long-wave area. It is connected with the fact that the width of the band gap of bulk crystals CdSe (1.74 eV) is smaller than the band gap of CdS (2.42 eV). Optical microscopy with spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit obtained by using near field techniques was the subject of S Prato's talk. Scanning near field optical microscopy (SNOM) has developed into a powerful tool to investigate local optical properties that depend on heterogeneity of materials at nanoscale and to study nanoenvironment of biosystems. Crucial topics in SNOM are: force sensitivity and optical throughput of the probe and scanning position accuracy. Prato showed a method to characterize force sensitivity of piezoelectric transducers and we've implemented a test system for off line characterization of probes. Recent improvements in aperture SNOM were also illustrated in this talk by some biological applications. H Stadler showed the development of a new instrumentation, combining optical and scanning probe microscopy (SPM) multimodal characterization, specifically designed for SPM based life science research and full integration with optical microscopy. The prerequisites and design of such equipment besides newer application examples in this area were discussed. Stadler also overviewed work on improving quantitative mechanical characterization on the nanoscale. This included hardware like SPM control electronics and probe development as theoretical aspects and software for data evaluation. Comparative field emission studies of as-produced CNTs vis á vis commercially obtained SWCNT were presented by A Tiberia. Carbon nanotubes synthesized at INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati in the nanotechnology group of S Bellucci by DC thermal plasma process were analyzed by electron microscope and studied for their field emission properties. These carbon nanotubes were deposited on a tungsten wire, which acted as the cathode. Care was taken to ensure complete covering of the wire. The emission studies were performed in a stainless steel chamber under a dynamic vacuum in the range of 10-8 Torr. The field emitted current was detected using a phosphorous coated ITO (indium tin oxide) glass plate. The phosphorous coat also helped in imaging the tips of the nanotubes. This was crucial in accurately estimating the emitting area and thus the field enhancement factor. The I-V curves for the field emission were recorded for various distances between the electrodes. Similar studies were performed for commercially obtained single walled carbon nanotubes and the results compared with the as-produced nanotubes. The second day was dedicated to three more sessions: Characterization and excitations in nanostructures. Superconductivity at the nanoscale. Transport in low-dimensional electron systems and spin effects. The first session of this second day was opened by G Stefani with a lecture on Auger spectroscopies. Then E Perfetto showed the results of a study on electron correlations in carbon nanotubes and graphite from Auger spectroscopy. He determined the screened on-site Coulomb repulsion in graphite and single wall carbon nanotubes by measuring their Auger spectra and performing a new theoretical analysis based on an extended Cini-Sawatzky approach where only one fit parameter is employed. The experimental lineshape is very well reproduced by the theory and this allows the value of the screened on-site repulsion between 2p states to be determined, which is found to be 2.1 eV in graphite and 4.6 eV in nanotubes. The latter is robust by varying the nanotube radius from 1 to 2 nm. S Ugenti gave a presentation setting up a model aimed for the calculation of three-hole features like the ones due to core-valence-valence Auger decays following Coster-Kronig transitions. While several experiments made in the 1970s and in the 1990s on the Auger LMM spectra of transition metals showed the existence of these structures, a theory able to explain and predict them is still missing today. The described model is grounded on the one-step approach, but the use of a valence band fully below the Fermi level allowed the authors to treat their calculations in a three-step approach, so keeping in this exploratory work complications to a minimum. The Hamiltonian of the system is placed in an Anderson-like picture and the spectra are computed evaluating a three-body Green's function. Within this model one arrives to a simple and closed formula covering the whole range between weak and strong correlation. It is found that in general the satellites cover separated spectral regions with three-hole multiplets, shifted and broadened two-hole features and distorted band-like continua. The second session of the day started with an invited presentation by I Batov who studied the magnetotransport and differential current-voltage characteristics in small hybrid junctions formed by InGaAs/InP heterostructures coupled to superconducting and normal metal terminals. Highly transparent superconducting contacts to a two-dimensional electron gas located in a InGaAs/InP heterostructure have been realized by using a Au/NbN system. A decrease in the differential resistance with pronounced double dip structure has been observed within the superconducting energy gap. It is argued that the double-dip structure in the differential resistance is related to the transport in SN-2DEG contacts in the ballistic regime. It has been found that the reduced subgap resistance is preserved in high quantizing magnetic fields. The magnetoresistance of the S/2DEG/N junctions has been investigated at various dc bias currents and temperatures. It was found that at dc bias currents below a critical value, the resistance of the S/2DEG/N structures develops a strong oscillatory dependence on the magnetic field, with an amplitude of the oscillations considerably larger than that of the reference N/2DEG/N structures. The experimental findings can be interpreted within the framework of recent theoretical models describing Andreev reflection across a S/2DEG interface in the presence of a magnetic field. M Cini spoke about superconductivity from repulsive interactions in low-dimensional systems. The local symmetry conditions that allow for the existence of W = 0 bound pairs from repulsive interactions were highlighted. A case was made about a key role of symmetry related ideas in explaining the occurrence of superconductivity in a class of low dimensional systems as a correlation effect. Among these, it was argued about Cuprates, which fail to superconduct at low doping, when the lattice gets distorted, and also about some kinds of doped carbon nanotubes, where a crossover from Luttinger liquid to W = 0 superconductivity is likely. An investigation of the Cooper-pair propagation and the Josephson effect in graphene under conditions in which the distance L between superconducting electrodes is much larger than the width W of the contacts was presented by J Gonzalez. In the case of undoped graphene, he showed that supercurrents may exist with a spatial decay proportional to W2/L3, reminiscent of the behavior of the critical current in disordered normal metals. One can observe that there is in general a crossover temperature T* ~ vF/kBL that marks the onset of the strong decay of the supercurrent, and that corresponds to the scale above which the Cooper pairs are disrupted by thermal effects during their propagation. It was also shown that the spatial decay of the critical current changes upon doping into a 1/L2 behavior, opening the possibility to observe a supercurrent over length scales above 1 μm at suitable doping levels. The DC Josephson effect has been observed in submicron quasi-ballistic In0.75Ga0.25As nanostructures inserted between superconducting Nb leads. F Carillo reported his findings of IcRn values among the highest measured on hybrid super/semi/super devices (400 μV). A theory based on quasiclassical equations for diffusive systems can both qualitatively and quantitatively account for the observed ICRN values and IC(T) curves. In ring shaped In0.75Ga0.25As nanostructure Josephson current modulates with a contrast up to 65%. Superconducting MgB2 nanostructures have been studied with EBL-based techniques by Eugenio Monticone. He reported on the fabrication and characterization of MgB2 nanostructures on different substrates, such as silicon nitride and sapphire. Magnesium diboride films are fabricated by all in situ methods consisting in the co-evaporation of B and Mg followed by in situ annealing at higher temperature. Samples thus obtained are characterized at low temperature and show a Tc of about 38 K. The nanostructures are then defined by electron beam lithography combined with physical etching by RIE and ion milling. By this method MgB2 nanostructures and meanders are obtained with nice electrical and transport properties both on SiN and on sapphire. The morphological properties of films and nanostructures on both type of substrates were investigated by atomic force microscope and scanning electron Microscope. The analysis of the AFM images by the height-height correlation function shows that the films have a self-affine smooth textured surface with a RMS roughness of 20 nm. Furthermore, the nanobridges are continuous, with a well-defined geometry and a rounded profile, and the nanostructuration process does not significantly affect the film morphology. Electrical and transport characterization of nanobridges and meanders is performed at low temperature, and a critical current density of 8 MA/cm2 is measured, for meander with width down to 300 nm. For the sake of comparison the measurements are performed as well on 10 μm wide strip patterned on the same sample. The results show that the nanostructuring process does not affect the superconducting properties of the structure. The flexibility of the EBL approach makes it interesting, in view of the fabrication of MgB2 superconducting devices, such as photon detectors. In the final session J Lorenzana discussed a dynamical version of the Gutzwiller approximation inspired on nuclear physics techniques. The approximation is shown to perform very well by comparing dynamical correlation functions with exact results. Applications on optical properties, magnetic neutron scattering, ferromagnetism and Auger spectroscopy were shown in this presentation. The quasiclassical Green's function method has been very effective in the study of non-equilibrium and transport properties of superconductors and disordered electron systems. The main reason for this is that it provides, in a well-defined regime of physical parameters, a systematic way to derive semiclassical macroscopic kinetic equations from microscopically defined models. In his talk R Raimondi presented the extension of the method to the study of the spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas in the presence of an internal magnetic field due to a generic spin-orbit coupling. The method allows one to study spin and charge transport from ballistic to diffusive regimes and spin-charge coupled continuity equations are automatically incorporated. In the clean limit Raimondi showed the connection between the spin-Hall conductivity and the Berry phase in momentum space. For infinite diffusive systems he showed how the cancellation of spin Hall conductivity arises as a consequence of the linear-in-momentum Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Gate-tunable band-gap in bilayer graphene devices were presented by J B Oostinga. Graphene systems, consisting of one or a few crystalline monolayers of carbon, stand out because of their unusual electronic properties and for their potential for application in nanoelectronics. Carrier mobility values as high as 10 000 cm2/Vs at room temperature—ten times higher than in silicon—are routinely obtained in these materials, without the need for sophisticated preparation techniques. Both the high mobility and the envisioned possibility of low-cost mass-production provide a strong drive to explore the use of graphene for future high-speed integrated electronic circuits. However, in order to develop such 'graphene-based electronics' several problems need to be overcome. Perhaps the most important obstacle is the absence of an energy gap separating the valence and conduction band of graphene. Since graphene is a zero-gap semiconductor, electrical conduction cannot be switched off by using control voltages, which is essential for the operation of conventional transistors. In his presentation Oostinga showed that in a graphene bilayer a band-gap can be opened and controlled by applying an electric field perpendicular to the bilayer. The gap manifests itself in the appearance of an insulating temperature dependence of the conductivity, which becomes more pronounced for larger applied electric fields. This result demonstrates the capability to controllably switch off transport through a graphene bilayer in nano-electronic devices equipped with gate electrodes, and it represents the first step towards the realization of electrostatically controlled graphene-based devices. D Ercolani presented low temperature transport measurements of a few-electron quantum dot (QD), that manifests a Kondo resonance in the two-electron, integer-spin state, with no external magnetic field applied. The dot is defined in the two-dimensional electron gas of a MBE-grown InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Confinement is obtained by surface metal gates fabricated by e-beam lithography. A nearby quantum point contact is used to unambiguously determine the number, N, of electrons in the QD. The Kondo resonance for N = 2 is studied as a function of temperature, magnetic field and dot-lead coupling strength. Ercolani found that the reduction of the dot-lead coupling leads to the evolution of the strong zero-bias Kondo resonance into a weaker double-peak structure. Additionally, the two-dimensional electron gas has been characterized with Hall and Shubnikov-de Haas measurements as a function of a top gate voltage, and the results are compared with Poisson-Schrödinger simulations, resulting in accurate understanding of the subband energies. Observing the Kondo effect in a two-electron system is extremely rare at zero magnetic field, since the ground state is usually a spin singlet and the spin triplet states lie well above in energy. In the considered QDs, however, the presence of the Kondo effect can be explained by a quasi-degeneracy (compared to the Kondo temperature) of the singlet and triplet energy levels. This quasi-degeneracy occurs due to an anomalously large two-electron exchange energy, which approaches the energy spacing between the lowest single-particle orbital levels. The small but finite singlet-triplet splitting (of the order of 70 μeV) emerges as a split Kondo resonance for weaker tunnel coupling between the QD and its leads. G Stefanucci investigated the long-time dynamics of open Kohn-Sham systems relevant to quantum transport. The open system is connected to macroscopic metallic reservoir and perturbed by time-dependent electric fields. A general formula for the exact time-dependent density and current was obtained, which includes initial-state correlations, as well as time-dependent correlations. The speaker showed that the steady-state assumption is consistent provided that the density of states is smooth. The resulting steady-state current generalizes the Landauer formula to interacting electrons. On the contrary, the steady-state assumption leads to a contradiction if the asymptotic Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian has bound eigenstates. The density oscillates with history-dependent amplitudes and, as a consequence, the effective potential of TDDFT oscillates too. Such time dependence might open new conductive channels, an effect which is not accounted for in any steady-state approach and might deserve further investigations. The poster session included the following contributions. Albumin-manganese ferrite nanoparticles for target drug delivery by M Bellusci reported on a process able to produce a high encapsulation degree of magnetic nanoparticles in a polymeric matrix. An aqueous suspension of albumin containing manganese ferrite nanoparticles was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde inside aqueous nanodroplets dispersed in cyclohexane and stabilized by sorbitan monoleate surfactant (water in oil reverse microemulsion). Albumin-nanoferrite compound showed superparamagnetic behavior. The obtained composite powder was successfully functionalized with a model drug and the biological activity was evaluated. Microstructure of Ag2BI4 (B = Ag, Cd) superionics studied by SEM, impedance spectroscopy and fractal dimension analysis by I Bolesta, dealt with a series of experiment and theoretical estimations, including porousity measurements, SEM imaging, density calculations and fractal dimension analysis. Channeling of protons through carbon nanotubes in dielectric media by D Borka focused on how dynamic polarization of carbon valence electrons influences both the angular and spatial distributions of protons channeled in a (11, 9) single-wall carbon nanotube placed in vacuum and in different dielectric media. Scaling laws in science were analyzed in the poster by A Carpinteri and N Pugno, where size-scale effects on the mechanical properties of complex materials have been considered. According to the authors' interpretation [5] one can rigorously predict the strength of a material by varying the size-scale. One example is the prediction of the strength of macroscopic nanotube bundles from that of a single nanotube [6] The result suggests that long nanotube bundles could have a key role in realizing a new generation of kilometer-long bridges, as needed for the three kilometers wide Straits of Messina. The preliminary study on IR active modes in sterilized carbon nanotubes: a sterilization procedure for in vivo nanotoxicity tests by G De Bellis et al, focused on the health risks related to their daily exposure to potentially hazardous nanomaterials. The aim of the authors was to investigate the effect of three different types of sterilization procedures on morphological and chemical properties of both multi wall (MWCNTs) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Three different sterilization processes were used in order to obtain bacteria/spores free CNTs. The preparation of sterile nanosamples is necessary in view of their subsequent use in in vivo toxicity tests on lab rats. The processes that were carried out for CNTs sterilization were: humid heat autoclave, UV light source and ethylene oxide treatment. The best of these treatments, i.e. the one that least affected the morphology and chemical properties of CNTs, has been selected for future in vivo tests on rats. FIR reflectivity of microcrystalline Ag2CdI4 between 10 and 420 K by I Karbovnyk reported the experimental results of far-infrared spectroscopy investigations on microcrystalline Ag2CdI4 samples prepared by the solid state synthesis, carried out in the wide temperature range of 10-420 K, which includes the temperature of the superionic phase transitions, the material is known to undergo. The purpose of our measurements lies in finding changes in frequencies and other parameters of phonon modes near the phase transitions temperatures. Infrared measurements were carried out at SINBAD infrared beamline of Daphne Light Laboratory (LNF, Frascati, Italy). TT nanojunctions with spin-orbit interaction as spintronic single-qubit gates by S Bellucci addressed the issue of quantum interference effects in nanometric devices, which provide suitable means for controlling spin at mesoscopic scales. The authors applied such a control mechanism to the spin-dependent transport in a ballistic TT cross junction patterned in two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). The study was essentially based on the spin-orbit (SO) interaction arising from the asymmetry in quantum well potential that confines the 2DEG (Rashba SO term). The authors focused on single-channel transport and solve analytically the spin polarization of the current. The TT cross junction acts as a one-qubit spintronic quantum gate, whose properties can be varied by tuning the strength of the spin-orbit interaction, as well as by changing the relative position of the junctions. P Onorato presented two posters: spin currents in ballistic low dimensional nanodevices; spin filtering and spin Hall accumulation in an asymmetric ballistic nanojunction with Rashba spin-orbit interaction. In the first one the authors discussed several topics about the spin Hall effect in low dimensional nanometric electron systems. The basic bricks of these systems are the quantum wires (QWs) patterned in two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). First we discuss the presence of an integer spin Hall effect in ballistic quantum wires with a spin orbit coupling not of the Rashba type. Next it was shown how nanometric ballistic cross junctions can be used to check the presence of a transverse spin Hall current; we benchmark the effects of two different kinds of spin orbit interactions. The first one (α-SOC) is due to the interface electric field that confines electrons to a two-dimensional layer, whereas the second one (β-SOC) corresponds to the interaction generated by a lateral confining potential. Indeed, the spin Hall effect is due to the presence of an effective small transverse magnetic field corresponding to the Spin Orbit coupling generated by the confining potential. The strength of the field and the junction shape characterize the quenching Hall regime, usually studied by applying semi-classical approaches. The authors discussed how a quantum mechanical relativistic effect, such as the spin orbit one, can be observed in a low energy system and explained by using classical mechanics techniques. In the second poster presented by Onorato, the authors proposed a new scheme of spin filtering employing ballistic nanojunctions patterned in a two dimensional electron gases (2DEG). The proposal is essentially based on the spin-orbit (SO) interaction which results from asymmetric confinement in semiconductor nanostructures. The authors demonstrated that the injection of an unpolarized current through an opportune ballistic cross junction with this spin-orbit coupling induces a spin accumulation in a finite region which is an observable signature of the spin Hall effect in these devices. Moreover it was shown that this device acts as a spin filter, and the spin polarization of the exiting current can be modulated by tuning the strength of the spin-orbit interaction as well as by changing a constructive parameter of the junctions. Nanomechanical properties of conch shell by M Petraroli, showed how to use nanoindentation methods to explore, at the nanoscale, the mechanical properties of the Conus Mediterraneus conch, in order to compare nanohardness and elastic modulus with respect to the microstructural architecture and sample orientation. For the experimental tests a Nano Indenter XP (MTS Nano Instruments, Oak Ridge TN) has been used. The mechanical tests have been carried out on the inner surface of the shell and on three layers of its cross section (inner, middle and outer). On each of these surfaces the indentation has been performed at different maximum depth: from 250 nm to 4 μm, with a step of 250 nm. Data obtained suggest the following considerations: the inner surface of the conch shell, from the mechanical point of view, results homogeneous, while the shell structure is not homogeneous along its cross section; nanohardness and elastic modulus grow from the inner side to the outer side. No sensible difference has been observed with regards to the nanoindentation depth. The analysis supports the idea that artificial bio-inspired super-composites could be realized in the near future. CsPbCl3 nanocrystals dispersed in the Rb0,8Cs0,2Cl matrix: vibrational studies by P Savchyn reported the results of the infrared spectroscopy measurements and analysis intended to clarify the influence of CsPbCl3 nano-complexes, dispersed in the Rb0,8Cs0,2Cl matrix on the vibrational spectra of the host. Selected papers, based on conference original presentations and follow-up discussions, appear in the present dedicated issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. Tutorial lectures delivered at the school will be published by Springer Verlag Heidelberg, Germany, in their Lecture Notes in Nanoscale Science and Technology Series. The next edition of the meeting, n&n2008, planned in 20-23 October 2008, at INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Italy, http://www.lnf.infn.it/conference/nn2008/, will cover a large range of topics of current interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology, including aerospace, defense, national security, biology, medicine, electronics. Selected Bibliography [1] Bellucci S (ed) 2000 Proc. Of the School and Workshop on Nanotubes & Nanostructures (Santa Margherita di Pula (Cagliari), Italy, Sept. 2000) [2] De Crescenzi M and Bellucci S (ed) 2003 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15 (issue 34) [3] Bellucci S (ed) 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 S1967-238 [4] Bellucci S (ed) 2007 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 390301-395024 [5] Carpinteri A and Pugno N 2005 Nature Mater. 4 421-3 [6] Pugno N 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 S1971-90 [7] Bellucci S (ed) 2009 Nanoparticles and Nanodevices in Biological Applications. The INFN Lectures - Vol I (Lecture Notes in Nanoscale Science and Technology vol 4) (Berlin: Springer)

  7. Advanced process control and novel test methods for PVD silicon and elastomeric silicone coatings utilized on ion implant disks, heatsinks and selected platens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, J.; Allen, B.; Wriggins, W.; Kuzbyt, R.; Sinclair, R.

    2012-11-01

    Coatings play multiple key roles in the proper functioning of mature and current ion implanters. Batch and serial implanters require strategic control of elemental and particulate contamination which often includes scrutiny of the silicon surface coatings encountering direct beam contact. Elastomeric Silicone Coatings must accommodate wafer loading and unloading as well as direct backside contact during implant plus must maintain rigid elemental and particulate specifications. The semiconductor industry has had a significant and continuous effort to obtain ultra-pure silicon coatings with sustained process performance and long life. Low particles and reduced elemental levels for silicon coatings are a major requirement for process engineers, OEM manufacturers, and second source suppliers. Relevant data will be presented. Some emphasis and detail will be placed on the structure and characteristics of a relatively new PVD Silicon Coating process that is very dense and homogeneous. Wear rate under typical ion beam test conditions will be discussed. The PVD Silicon Coating that will be presented here is used on disk shields, wafer handling fingers/fences, exclusion zones of heat sinks, beam dumps and other beamline components. Older, legacy implanters can now provide extended process capability using this new generation PVD silicon - even on implanter systems that were shipped long before the advent of silicon coating for contamination control. Low particles and reduced elemental levels are critical performance criteria for the silicone elastomers used on disk heatsinks and serial implanter platens. Novel evaluation techniques and custom engineered tools are used to investigate the surface interaction characteristics of multiple Elastomeric Silicone Coatings currently in use by the industry - specifically, friction and perpendicular stiction. These parameters are presented as methods to investigate the critical wafer load and unload function. Unique tools and test methods have been developed that deliver accurate and repeatable data, which will be described.

  8. Advanced process control and novel test methods for PVD silicon and elastomeric silicone coatings utilized on ion implant disks, heatsinks and selected platens

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, J.; Allen, B.; Wriggins, W.; Kuzbyt, R.; Sinclair, R.

    2012-11-06

    Coatings play multiple key roles in the proper functioning of mature and current ion implanters. Batch and serial implanters require strategic control of elemental and particulate contamination which often includes scrutiny of the silicon surface coatings encountering direct beam contact. Elastomeric Silicone Coatings must accommodate wafer loading and unloading as well as direct backside contact during implant plus must maintain rigid elemental and particulate specifications. The semiconductor industry has had a significant and continuous effort to obtain ultra-pure silicon coatings with sustained process performance and long life. Low particles and reduced elemental levels for silicon coatings are a major requirement for process engineers, OEM manufacturers, and second source suppliers. Relevant data will be presented. Some emphasis and detail will be placed on the structure and characteristics of a relatively new PVD Silicon Coating process that is very dense and homogeneous. Wear rate under typical ion beam test conditions will be discussed. The PVD Silicon Coating that will be presented here is used on disk shields, wafer handling fingers/fences, exclusion zones of heat sinks, beam dumps and other beamline components. Older, legacy implanters can now provide extended process capability using this new generation PVD silicon - even on implanter systems that were shipped long before the advent of silicon coating for contamination control. Low particles and reduced elemental levels are critical performance criteria for the silicone elastomers used on disk heatsinks and serial implanter platens. Novel evaluation techniques and custom engineered tools are used to investigate the surface interaction characteristics of multiple Elastomeric Silicone Coatings currently in use by the industry - specifically, friction and perpendicular stiction. These parameters are presented as methods to investigate the critical wafer load and unload function. Unique tools and test methods have been developed that deliver accurate and repeatable data, which will be described.

  9. The pvc Gene Cluster of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Role in Synthesis of the Pyoverdine Chromophore and Regulation by PtxR and PvdS

    PubMed Central

    Stintzi, Alain; Johnson, Zaiga; Stonehouse, Martin; Ochsner, Urs; Meyer, Jean-Marie; Vasil, Michael L.; Poole, Keith

    1999-01-01

    A putative operon of four genes implicated in the synthesis of the chromophore moiety of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa siderophore pyoverdine, dubbed pvcABCD (where pvc stands for pyoverdine chromophore), was cloned and sequenced. Mutational inactivation of the pvc genes abrogated pyoverdine biosynthesis, consistent with their involvement in the biosynthesis of this siderophore. pvcABCD expression was negatively regulated by iron and positively regulated by both PvdS, the alternate sigma factor required for pyoverdine biosynthesis, and PtxR, a LysR family activator previously implicated in exotoxin A regulation. PMID:10383985

  10. Multilayer heterostructures and their manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Scott R; Reese, Matthew; Rupert, Benjamin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Clavin; Olson, Dana; Ginley, David S

    2015-11-04

    A method of synthesizing multilayer heterostructures including an inorganic oxide layer residing on a solid substrate is described. Exemplary embodiments include producing an inorganic oxide layer on a solid substrate by a liquid coating process under relatively mild conditions. The relatively mild conditions include temperatures below 225.degree. C. and pressures above 9.4 mb. In an exemplary embodiment, a solution of diethyl aluminum ethoxide in anhydrous diglyme is applied to a flexible solid substrate by slot-die coating at ambient atmospheric pressure, and the diglyme removed by evaporation. An AlO.sub.x layer is formed by subjecting material remaining on the solid substrate to a relatively mild oven temperature of approximately 150.degree. C. The resulting AlO.sub.x layer exhibits relatively high light transmittance and relatively low vapor transmission rates for water. An exemplary embodiment of a flexible solid substrate is polyethylene napthalate (PEN). The PEN is not substantially adversely affected by exposure to 150.degree. C

  11. Supplemental multilayer insulation research facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, P.J.; Stochl, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF) provides a small scale test bed for conducting cryogenic experiments in a vacuum environment. The facility vacuum system is capable of simulating a Space Shuttle launch pressure profile as well as providing a steady space vacuum environment of 1.3{times}10{sup -4} N/m{sup 2}(1 x 10{sup -6} torr). Warm side boundary temperatures can be maintained constant between 111 K(200 R) and 361 K(650 R) using a temperature controlled shroud. The shroud can also simulate a typical lunar day-night temperature profile. The test hardware consists of a cryogenic calorimeter supported by the lid of the vacuum chamber. A 0.45 m{sup 3} (120 gal) vacuum jacketed storage/supply tank is available for conditioning the cryogen prior to use in the calorimeter. The facility was initially designed to evaluate the thermal performance of insulation systems for long-term storage in space. The facility has recently been used to evaluate the performance of various new insulation systems for LH{sub 2} and LN{sub 2} ground storage dewars.

  12. Supplemental multilayer insulation research facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, P.J.; Stochl, R.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF) provides a small scale test bed for conducting cryogenic experiments in a vacuum environment. The facility vacuum system is capable of simulating a Space Shuttle launch pressure profile as well as providing a steady space vacuum environment of 1.3 x 10(exp -4) Newton/sq meter (1 x 10(exp -6) torr). Warm side boundary temperatures can be maintained constant between 111 K (200 R) and 361 K (650 R) using a temperature controlled shroud. The shroud can also simulate a typical lunar day-night temperature profile. The test hardware consists of a cryogenic calorimeter supported by the lid of the vacuum chamber. A 0.45 cu meter (120 gallon) vacuum jacketed storage/supply tank is available for conditioning the cryogen prior to use in the calorimeter. The facility was initially designed to evaluate the thermal performance of insulation systems for long-term storage in space. The facility has recently been used to evaluate the performance of various new insulation systems for LH2 and LN2 ground storage dewars.

  13. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  14. Supplemental multilayer insulation research facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, P. J.; Stochl, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF) provides a small scale test bed for conducting cryogenic experiments in a vacuum environment. The facility vacuum system is capable of simulating a Space Shuttle launch pressure profile as well as providing a steady space vacuum environment of 1.3 x 10(exp -4) Newton/sq meter (1 x 10(exp -6) torr). Warm side boundary temperatures can be maintained constant between 111 K (200 R) and 361 K (650 R) using a temperature controlled shroud. The shroud can also simulate a typical lunar day-night temperature profile. The test hardware consists of a cryogenic calorimeter supported by the lid of the vacuum chamber. A 0.45 cu meter (120 gallon) vacuum jacketed storage/supply tank is available for conditioning the cryogen prior to use in the calorimeter. The facility was initially designed to evaluate the thermal performance of insulation systems for long-term storage in space. The facility has recently been used to evaluate the performance of various new insulation systems for LH2 and LN2 ground storage dewars.

  15. Interference in multilayer relativistic mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzanejhad, Saeed; Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Babaei, Javad; Taghipour, Meisam; Mohammadzadeh, Zahra

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, reflection coefficient of a relativistic ultra-thin electron multilayer is calculated using electromagnetic interference procedures. The relativistic electron layers are assumed to be formed by nonlinear plasma wake waves that constitute the electron density cusps. It is shown that the interference between successive relativistic mirrors is restricted by the condition, τ p ≫ ( 2 γ 0 ) 5 / 2 / ω p 0 , where τp is the laser pulse duration. The results showed that tailoring the pulse amplitude, incident wave frequency value, incidence angle, and plasma density leads to increasing reflection coefficient a few orders of magnitudes. This constructive interference condition can be used for increasing conversion efficiency in the reflected energy from relativistic mirrors for the purpose of generating ultra-short coherence pulses in the extreme ultraviolet and x-ray regions. We also performed reflection from relativistic thin electron layers using relativistic 1D3V electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It was found that the results of PIC simulation are in agreement with analytical considerations.

  16. Subwavelength Multilayer Dielectrics: Ultrasensitive Transmission and Breakdown of Effective-Medium Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzig Sheinfux, Hanan; Kaminer, Ido; Plotnik, Yonatan; Bartal, Guy; Segev, Mordechai

    2014-12-01

    We show that a purely dielectric structure made of alternating layers of deep subwavelength thicknesses exhibits novel transmission effects which completely contradict conventional effective medium theories exactly in the regime in which those theories are commonly used. We study waves incident at the vicinity of the effective medium's critical angle for total internal reflection and show that the transmission through the multilayer structure depends strongly on nanoscale variations even at layer thicknesses smaller than ? /50 . In such deep subwavelength structures, we demonstrate dramatic changes in the transmission for variations in properties such as periodicity, order of the layers, and their parity. In addition to its conceptual importance, such sensitivity has important potential applications in sensing and switching.

  17. Review of thermoelectric characterization techniques suitable for SiGe multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchi, Stefano; Ferre Llin, Lourdes; Etzelstorfer, Tanja; Samarelli, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Thermoelectric materials have great potential for a range of energy harvesting applications, while the thin film approach is promising for the realization of integrated thermoelectric micro-devices. Silicon-germanium heterostructures are interesting candidates for on-chip cooling or energy harvesting, guaranteeing reliable manufacturing and integrability with silicon technology. Material research is nowadays focused on the engineering of nanostructured materials with improved thermoelectric performances. Therefore, the development of efficient methods for the characterizazion of the thermoelectric properties at the micro- and nano-scale is fundamental. We report here microfabrication based methods for the in-plane and cross-plane thermoelectric characterization of silicon-germanium multilayer heterostructures monolithically integrated on silicon. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Silicon and Silicon-related Materials for Thermoelectricity", edited by Dario Narducci.

  18. MoRu/Be multilayers for extreme ultraviolet applications

    DOEpatents

    Bajt, Sasa C. (Livermore, CA); Wall, Mark A. (Stockton, CA)

    2001-01-01

    High reflectance, low intrinsic roughness and low stress multilayer systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography comprise amorphous layers MoRu and crystalline Be layers. Reflectance greater than 70% has been demonstrated for MoRu/Be multilayers with 50 bilayer pairs. Optical throughput of MoRu/Be multilayers can be 30-40% higher than that of Mo/Be multilayer coatings. The throughput can be improved using a diffusion barrier to make sharper interfaces. A capping layer on the top surface of the multilayer improves the long-term reflectance and EUV radiation stability of the multilayer by forming a very thin native oxide that is water resistant.

  19. Programmed assembly of nanoscale structures using peptoids.

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jianhua; Russell, Scott; Morishetti, Kiran; Robinson, David B.; Zuckermann, Ronald N.; Buffleben, George M.; Hjelm, Rex P.; Kent, Michael Stuart

    2011-02-01

    Sequence-specific polymers are the basis of the most promising approaches to bottom-up programmed assembly of nanoscale materials. Examples include artificial peptides and nucleic acids. Another class is oligo(N-functional glycine)s, also known as peptoids, which permit greater sidegroup diversity and conformational control, and can be easier to synthesize and purify. We have developed a set of peptoids that can be used to make inorganic nanoparticles more compatible with biological sequence-specific polymers so that they can be incorporated into nucleic acid or other biologically based nanostructures. Peptoids offer degrees of modularity, versatility, and predictability that equal or exceed other sequence-specific polymers, allowing for rational design of oligomers for a specific purpose. This degree of control will be essential to the development of arbitrarily designed nanoscale structures.

  20. Phase transitions in nanoscale ferroelectric structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Streiffer, S. K.; Fong, D. D.

    2009-01-01

    Over decades of effort, investigations of the intrinsic phase transition behavior of nanoscale ferroelectric structures have been greatly complicated by materials processing variations and by the common and uncontrolled occurrence of spacecharge, which interacts directly with the polarization and can obscure fundamental behavior. These challenges have largely been overcome, and great progress in understanding the details of this class of phase transitions has been made, largely based on advances in the growth of high-quality, epitaxial ferroelectric films and in the theory and simulation of ferroelectricity. Here we will discuss recent progress in understanding the ferroelectric phase transition in a particular class of model systems: nanoscale perovskite thin-film heterostructures. The outlook for ferroelectric technology based on these results is promising, and extensions to laterally confined nanostructures will be described.

  1. Nanoscale Thermal Mapping of VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivonka, Adam; Huefner, Magdalena; Ko, Changhyun; Frenzel, Alex; O'Connor, Kevin; Ramanathan, Shriram; Hudson, Eric; Hoffman, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    We present a method for nanoscale thermal imaging of insulating thin films. We image the local temperature of the metal-insulator transition in a VO2 film, and investigate the role of Joule heating in two-terminal geometry. By sweeping the voltage applied to a conducting atomic force microscope tip in contact mode, we locally trigger and detect the transition to the metallic phase. By fitting the Poole-Frenkel conduction regime immediately preceding the transition, we extract the local temperature. Finally, we find grains displaying two electronic transitions, consistent with a locally stable intermediate insulating phase. We acknowledge financial support from Harvard's Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center, funded by NSF grant PHY 01-17795 and the Sloan Fellowship. Adam Pivonka acknowledges the support of the New York Community Trust-George Merck Fund. Magdalena Huefner acknowledges the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (HU 1960/11).

  2. Light-driven nanoscale plasmonic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Zentgraf, Thomas; Liu, Yongmin; Bartal, Guy; Zhang, Xiang

    2010-08-01

    When Sir William Crookes developed a four-vaned radiometer, also known as the light-mill, in 1873, it was believed that this device confirmed the existence of linear momentum carried by photons, as predicted by Maxwell's equations. Although Reynolds later proved that the torque on the radiometer was caused by thermal transpiration, researchers continued to search for ways to take advantage of the momentum of photons and to use it for generating rotational forces. The ability to provide rotational force at the nanoscale could open up a range of applications in physics, biology and chemistry, including DNA unfolding and sequencing and nanoelectromechanical systems. Here, we demonstrate a nanoscale plasmonic structure that can, when illuminated with linearly polarized light, generate a rotational force that is capable of rotating a silica microdisk that is 4,000 times larger in volume. Furthermore, we can control the rotation velocity and direction by varying the wavelength of the incident light to excite different plasmonic modes.

  3. Mapping plasmonic topological states at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinev, Ivan S.; Mukhin, Ivan S.; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P.; Poddubny, Alexander N.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Samusev, Anton K.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the first experimental observation of topological edge states in zigzag chains of plasmonic nanodisks. We demonstrate that such edge states can be selectively excited with the linear polarization of the incident light, and visualize them directly by near-field scanning optical microscopy. Our work provides experimental verification of a novel paradigm for manipulating light at the nanoscale in topologically nontrivial structures.We report on the first experimental observation of topological edge states in zigzag chains of plasmonic nanodisks. We demonstrate that such edge states can be selectively excited with the linear polarization of the incident light, and visualize them directly by near-field scanning optical microscopy. Our work provides experimental verification of a novel paradigm for manipulating light at the nanoscale in topologically nontrivial structures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00231a

  4. Trapping atoms using nanoscale quantum vacuum forces

    PubMed Central

    Chang, D. E.; Sinha, K.; Taylor, J. M.; Kimble, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here we theoretically show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. Our proposed trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground-state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited-state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyse realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement. PMID:25008119

  5. Nanoscale fluid transportation through individual carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jin; Cao, Di; Pang, Pei; Luo, Tao; Lindsay, Stuart; Kristic, Predrag; Nuckolls, Colin

    2011-03-01

    There are great interest in both simulation and experiment of fluid flow on the nanoscale. Carbon nanotubes, with their extremely small inner diameter (usually below 2 nm) and atomic smooth inner surface, are ideal materials for studying nanoconfinement and ion and molecule nanoscale translocation. The excellent electrical properties of CNTs can also be integrated to achieve nanoelectrofluidic device. This presentation describes our recent progress in studying fluid transport through individual carbon nanotubes, including simultaneously ionic and electronic measurements during water, ion and molecule translocation. This work was supported by the DNA Sequencing Technology Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute (1RC2HG005625-01, 1R21HG004770-01).

  6. Layer-by-layer assembly of a streptavidin-fibronectin multilayer on biotinylated TiO(X).

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Michael; Rosin, Christopher; Knoll, Wolfgang; Veith, Michael

    2013-02-12

    The biomodification of surfaces, especially titanium, is an important issue in current biomedical research. Regarding titanium, it is also important to ensure a specific protein modification of its surface because here protein binding that is too random can be observed. Specific nanoscale architectures can be applied to overcome this problem. As recently shown, streptavidin can be used as a coupling agent to immobilize biotinylated fibronectin (bFn) on a TiO(X) surface. Because of the conformation of adsorbed biotinylated fibronectin on a streptavidin monolayer, it is possible to adsorb more streptavidin and biotinylated fibronectin layers. On this basis, an alternating protein multilayer can be built up. In contrast to common layer-by-layer technology, in this procedure the mechanism of layer adsorption is very specific because of the interaction of biotin and streptavidin. In addition, we showed that the assembly of this multilayer system and its stability are dependent on the degree of labeling of biotinylated fibronectin. Hence we conclude that it is possible to build up well-defined nanoscale protein architectures by varying the degree of labeling of biotinylated fibronectin. PMID:23311964

  7. Exploiting Hydrophobic Interactions at the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Grzelczak, Marek; Liz-Marzn, Luis M

    2014-07-17

    Hydrophobic effects are ubiquitous and manifest themselves in everyday processes such as solubilizing oil, precipitating molecules, and formation of particles or foam. Although this phenomenon is often intuitively recognized, it is not straightforward to predict it and, in particular, to control it experimentally. Hydrophobic effects are however progressively gaining recognition as an important tool providing control at the nanoscale, which may ultimately lead to the design of responsive metamaterials with unprecedented functionalities under nonequilibrium conditions. PMID:26277815

  8. Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Lowndes, D. H.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Alper, M.; Averback, R. S.; Jacob Barhen, J.; Eastman, J. A.; Imre, D.; Lowndes, D. H.; McNulty, I.; Michalske, T. A.; Ho, K-M; Nozik, A. J.; Russell, T. P.; Valentin, R. A.; Welch, D. O.; Barhen, J.; Agnew, S. R.; Bellon, P.; Blair, J.; Boatner, L. A.; Braiman, Y.; Budai, J. D.; Crabtree, G. W.; Feldman, L. C.; Flynn, C. P.; Geohegan, D. B.; George, E. P.; Greenbaum, E.; Grigoropoulos, C.; Haynes, T. E.; Heberlein, J.; Hichman, J.; Holland, O. W.; Honda, S.; Horton, J. A.; Hu, M. Z.-C.; Jesson, D. E.; Joy, D. C.; Krauss, A.; Kwok, W.-K.; Larson, B. C.; Larson, D. J.; Likharev, K.; Liu, C. T.; Majumdar, A.; Maziasz, P. J.; Meldrum, A.; Miller, J. C.; Modine, F. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pharr, G. M.; Phillpot, S.; Price, D. L.; Protopopescu, V.; Poker, D. B.; Pui, D.; Ramsey, J. M.; Rao, N.; Reichl, L.; Roberto, J.; Saboungi, M-L; Simpson, M.; Strieffer, S.; Thundat, T.; Wambsganss, M.; Wendleken, J.; White, C. W.; Wilemski, G.; Withrow, S. P.; Wolf, D.; Zhu, J. H.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zunger, A.; Lowe, S.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes important future research directions in nanoscale science, engineering and technology. It was prepared in connection with an anticipated national research initiative on nanotechnology for the twenty-first century. The research directions described are not expected to be inclusive but illustrate the wide range of research opportunities and challenges that could be undertaken through the national laboratories and their major national scientific user facilities with the support of universities and industry.

  9. Nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymers and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Bradley R. (Brentwood, CA); Talley, Chad E. (Brentwood, CA)

    2008-06-10

    Nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) having polymer features wherein the size, shape and position are predetermined can be fabricated using an xy piezo stage mounted on an inverted microscope and a laser. Using an AMF controller, a solution containing polymer precursors and a photo initiator are positioned on the xy piezo and hit with a laser beam. The thickness of the polymeric features can be varied from a few nanometers to over a micron.

  10. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003–2012

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, David G. Braun, Paul V.; Chen, Gang; Clarke, David R.; Fan, Shanhui; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Keblinski, Pawel; King, William P.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Majumdar, Arun; Maris, Humphrey J.; Phillpot, Simon R.; Pop, Eric; Shi, Li

    2014-03-15

    A diverse spectrum of technology drivers such as improved thermal barriers, higher efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion, phase-change memory, heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal management of nanoscale electronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies are motivating studies of the applied physics of thermal transport at the nanoscale. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces become increasingly important on small length scales. Research during the past decade has extended studies of interfaces between simple metals and inorganic crystals to interfaces with molecular materials and liquids with systematic control of interface chemistry and physics. At separations on the order of ∼1 nm, the science of radiative transport through nanoscale gaps overlaps with thermal conduction by the coupling of electronic and vibrational excitations across weakly bonded or rough interfaces between materials. Major advances in the physics of phonons include first principles calculation of the phonon lifetimes of simple crystals and application of the predicted scattering rates in parameter-free calculations of the thermal conductivity. Progress in the control of thermal transport at the nanoscale is critical to continued advances in the density of information that can be stored in phase change memory devices and new generations of magnetic storage that will use highly localized heat sources to reduce the coercivity of magnetic media. Ultralow thermal conductivity—thermal conductivity below the conventionally predicted minimum thermal conductivity—has been observed in nanolaminates and disordered crystals with strong anisotropy. Advances in metrology by time-domain thermoreflectance have made measurements of the thermal conductivity of a thin layer with micron-scale spatial resolution relatively routine. Scanning thermal microscopy and thermal analysis using proximal probes has achieved spatial resolution of 10 nm, temperature precision of 50 mK, sensitivity to heat flows of 10 pW, and the capability for thermal analysis of sub-femtogram samples.

  11. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, David G.; Braun, Paul V.; Chen, Gang; Clarke, David R.; Fan, Shanhui; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Keblinski, Pawel; King, William P.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Majumdar, Arun; Maris, Humphrey J.; Phillpot, Simon R.; Pop, Eric; Shi, Li

    2014-03-01

    A diverse spectrum of technology drivers such as improved thermal barriers, higher efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion, phase-change memory, heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal management of nanoscale electronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies are motivating studies of the applied physics of thermal transport at the nanoscale. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces become increasingly important on small length scales. Research during the past decade has extended studies of interfaces between simple metals and inorganic crystals to interfaces with molecular materials and liquids with systematic control of interface chemistry and physics. At separations on the order of 1 nm , the science of radiative transport through nanoscale gaps overlaps with thermal conduction by the coupling of electronic and vibrational excitations across weakly bonded or rough interfaces between materials. Major advances in the physics of phonons include first principles calculation of the phonon lifetimes of simple crystals and application of the predicted scattering rates in parameter-free calculations of the thermal conductivity. Progress in the control of thermal transport at the nanoscale is critical to continued advances in the density of information that can be stored in phase change memory devices and new generations of magnetic storage that will use highly localized heat sources to reduce the coercivity of magnetic media. Ultralow thermal conductivitythermal conductivity below the conventionally predicted minimum thermal conductivityhas been observed in nanolaminates and disordered crystals with strong anisotropy. Advances in metrology by time-domain thermoreflectance have made measurements of the thermal conductivity of a thin layer with micron-scale spatial resolution relatively routine. Scanning thermal microscopy and thermal analysis using proximal probes has achieved spatial resolution of 10 nm, temperature precision of 50 mK, sensitivity to heat flows of 10 pW, and the capability for thermal analysis of sub-femtogram samples.

  12. Mapping photovoltaic performance with nanoscale resolution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kutes, Yasemin; Aguirre, Brandon A.; Bosse, James L.; Cruz-Campa, Jose L.; Zubia, David; Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-10-16

    Photo-conductive AFM spectroscopy (‘pcAFMs’) is proposed as a high-resolution approach for investigating nanostructured photovoltaics, uniquely providing nanoscale maps of photovoltaic (PV) performance parameters such as the short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power, or fill factor. The method is demonstrated with a stack of 21 images acquired during in situ illumination of micropatterned polycrystalline CdTe/CdS, providing more than 42,000 I/V curves spatially separated by ~5 nm. For these CdTe/CdS microcells, the calculated photoconduction ranges from 0 to 700 picoSiemens (pS) upon illumination with ~1.6 suns, depending on location and biasing conditions. Mean short circuit currents of 2 pA, maximummore » powers of 0.5 pW, and fill factors of 30% are determined. The mean voltage at which the detected photocurrent is zero is determined to be 0.7 V. Significantly, enhancements and reductions in these more commonly macroscopic PV performance metrics are observed to correlate with certain grains and grain boundaries, and are confirmed to be independent of topography. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the benefits of nanoscale resolved PV functional measurements, reiterate the importance of microstructural control down to the nanoscale for 'PV devices, and provide a widely applicable new approach for directly investigating PV materials.« less

  13. Mapping photovoltaic performance with nanoscale resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kutes, Yasemin; Aguirre, Brandon A.; Bosse, James L.; Cruz-Campa, Jose L.; Zubia, David; Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-10-16

    Photo-conductive AFM spectroscopy (‘pcAFMs’) is proposed as a high-resolution approach for investigating nanostructured photovoltaics, uniquely providing nanoscale maps of photovoltaic (PV) performance parameters such as the short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power, or fill factor. The method is demonstrated with a stack of 21 images acquired during in situ illumination of micropatterned polycrystalline CdTe/CdS, providing more than 42,000 I/V curves spatially separated by ~5 nm. For these CdTe/CdS microcells, the calculated photoconduction ranges from 0 to 700 picoSiemens (pS) upon illumination with ~1.6 suns, depending on location and biasing conditions. Mean short circuit currents of 2 pA, maximum powers of 0.5 pW, and fill factors of 30% are determined. The mean voltage at which the detected photocurrent is zero is determined to be 0.7 V. Significantly, enhancements and reductions in these more commonly macroscopic PV performance metrics are observed to correlate with certain grains and grain boundaries, and are confirmed to be independent of topography. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the benefits of nanoscale resolved PV functional measurements, reiterate the importance of microstructural control down to the nanoscale for 'PV devices, and provide a widely applicable new approach for directly investigating PV materials.

  14. Small is Different: Nanoscale Computational Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landman, Uzi

    2015-03-01

    Finite materials systems of reduced sizes exhibit discrete quantized energy level spectra and specific structures and morphologies, which are manifested in unique, nonscalable, size-dependent physical and chemical properties. Indeed, when the scale of materials structures is reduced to the nanoscale, emergent phenomena often occurs, that is not commonly expected, or deduced, from knowledge learned at larger sizes. Characterization and understanding of the size-dependent evolution of the properties of materials aggregates are among the major challenges of modern materials science. Computer-based classical and quantum computations and simulations are tools of discovery of nanoscale emergent behavior. We highlight such behavior in diverse systems, including: (i) Atomistic simulations of nanoscale liquid jets and bridges and the stochastic hydrodynamic description of their properties; (ii) Metal nanoclusters and their self-assembled superlattices exhibiting stabilities and properties originating from superatom electronic shell-closing, atom packing, and interactions between protecting ligands; (iii) Electric-field-induced shape-transitions and electrocrystallization of liquid droplets, and (iv) Symmetry-breaking and formation of highly-correlated Wigner molecules between electrons in 2D quantum dots and bosons in traps.

  15. Elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Koutsos, Vasileios; Cheung, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    We report the experimental determination of the elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2, a promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting material combined with high optical quality. The suspended WSe2 membranes have been fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of bulk WSe2 and transfer of the exfoliated multilayer WSe2 flakes onto SiO2/Si substrates pre-patterned with hole arrays. Then, indentation experiments have been performed on these membranes with an atomic force microscope. The results show that the 2D elastic modulus of the multilayer WSe2 membranes increases linearly while the prestress decreases linearly as the number of layers increases. The interlayer interaction in WSe2 has been observed to be strong enough to prevent the interlayer sliding during the indentation experiments. The Young's modulus of multilayer WSe2 (167.3 ± 6.7 GPa) is statistically independent of the thickness of the membranes, whose value is about two thirds of other most investigated 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, MoS2 and WS2. Moreover, the multilayer WSe2 can endure ˜12.4 GPa stress and ˜7.3% strain without fracture or mechanical degradation. The 2D WSe2 can be an attractive semiconducting material for application in flexible optoelectronic devices and nano-electromechanical systems.

  16. Multilayer thin film thermoelectrics produced by sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, A.V.; Foreman, R.J.; Summers, L.J.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Farmer, J.C.

    1995-06-19

    In this work we explore the possibility of achieving bulk electrical properties in single layer sputter deposited films grown epitaxially on (111) oriented BaF{sub 2} substrates. There are a number of sputter deposition parameters that can be varied in order to optimize the film quality. It is important to understand the effect of varying the deposition temperature, Ar sputtering gas pressure, and the substrate bias. We will consider only Bi and Bi{sub 0.86}Sb{sub 0.14} films in this paper. These materials were chosen since they have the same simple structure, two different band gaps and do not change significantly either in physical or electrical properties with small amounts of cross contamination. We will also present our work on multilayer thermoelectrics made of Bi and Bi{sub 0.86}Sb{sub 0.14} layers. There has been considerable interest in this multilayer structure in the literature. Theoretical calculations of the band structure and interface states of these multilayer structures have been made by Mustafaev and Agassi et al. respectively [6,7]. Experimentally Yoshida et al. have examined similar multilayer structures grown by MBE as well as Bi/Sb multilayer samples in which report an anomalous thermoelectric power [8].

  17. Interaction of 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide with an electrospun PVdF membrane: Temperature dependence of the concentration of the anion conformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitucci, F. M.; Palumbo, O.; Trequattrini, F.; Brubach, J.-B.; Roy, P.; Meschini, I.; Croce, F.; Paolone, A.

    2015-09-01

    We measured the temperature dependence of the infrared absorption spectrum of 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PY R14-TFSI) between 160 and 330 K, through all the phase transitions presented by this compound. The comparison of the experimental spectra with the calculated vibration modes of different conformers of the ions composing the ionic liquid allowed to detect the presence of both conformers of TFSI in the liquid, supercooled, and glass phases, while only the trans-conformer is retained in both solid phases. When the ionic liquid swells a polyvinylidenefluoride (PVdF) electrospun membrane, the cis-rotamer is detected in all phases, since the interaction between the polymer and the ionic liquid inhibits the complete transformation of TFSI into the trans-conformer in the solid phases. Computational results confirm that in the presence of a PVdF chain, cis-TFSI becomes the lowest energy conformer. Therefore, the interaction with the polymer alters the physical properties of the ionic liquid.

  18. Interaction of 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide with an electrospun PVdF membrane: Temperature dependence of the concentration of the anion conformers.

    PubMed

    Vitucci, F M; Palumbo, O; Trequattrini, F; Brubach, J-B; Roy, P; Meschini, I; Croce, F; Paolone, A

    2015-09-01

    We measured the temperature dependence of the infrared absorption spectrum of 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PY R14-TFSI) between 160 and 330 K, through all the phase transitions presented by this compound. The comparison of the experimental spectra with the calculated vibration modes of different conformers of the ions composing the ionic liquid allowed to detect the presence of both conformers of TFSI in the liquid, supercooled, and glass phases, while only the trans-conformer is retained in both solid phases. When the ionic liquid swells a polyvinylidenefluoride (PVdF) electrospun membrane, the cis-rotamer is detected in all phases, since the interaction between the polymer and the ionic liquid inhibits the complete transformation of TFSI into the trans-conformer in the solid phases. Computational results confirm that in the presence of a PVdF chain, cis-TFSI becomes the lowest energy conformer. Therefore, the interaction with the polymer alters the physical properties of the ionic liquid. PMID:26342383

  19. High Spectral Resolution With Multilayer Gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Andre, J.-M.; Le Guen, K.; Jonnard, P.

    2010-04-06

    The improvement of spectral resolution brought about by the use of multilayer grating (MG) instead of multilayer mirror (MM) is analyzed. The spectrum of a complex sample containing various elements excited under electron irradiation is studied. This sample is a pellet made by pressing powders of Cu and compounds with Fe and F atoms. The MM is a Mo/B{sub 4}C periodic multilayer with a period of about 6 nm; for the MG a grating of 1 {mu}m period has been etched in the MM. It is shown that the MG can easily resolve the F Kalpha and Fe Lalpha emissions, separated by about 30 eV, whereas the MM is unable to give such a performance. A comparison with an EDS (SDD) detector is also given. It is also shown that the MG can improve the detection limit. Finally the role of the slit placed in front of the detector is discussed.

  20. Laser bonding of multilayer polymer microfluidic chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Jianjun; Yuan, Hui; Yi, Xin-Jian; Liu, Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Polymer microfluidic chips have stimulated great instrests in the field of biochemical and medical analysis due to their low prices, easy fabrication and biocompatibility. Recently multilayer microfluidic chips have been fabricated by adhesive bonding to form 3-D multilayer laminate. However adhesive bonding may introduce pollution as well as complexity in coating. A bonding system with compact diode laser is introduced and a novel method based on transparent bonding line for multilayer microfluidic chips is developed. This bonding method is based on transmission laser microwelding technique. In this method, a special colorless dye as laser absorber, thus transparent polymer sheets can be stacked and bonded layer by layer. Initial results and bonding performance have demonstrate the feasibility of this method.

  1. Multilayer ferroelectret-based energy harvesting insole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Z.; Zhu, D.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a flexible energy harvesting insole made of multilayer ferroelectrets, and demonstrates that this insole can power a wireless signal transmission. We have previously studied the energy harvesting characteristics of single and 10-layer ferroelectrets under compressive forces with quantified amplitudes and frequencies. In this work, we fabricate a flexible insole using multilayer ferroelectrets, and increase the number of layers from 10 up to 80, then use this insole to harvest energy from footsteps. We use this insole to power a commercial ZigBee wireless transmitter, and successfully demonstrate that an 8-bit data transmission can be solely powered by the energy harvested from this insole for every 3 to 4 footsteps. It confirms the anticipation from our previous work that the multilayer ferroelectrets are capable of powering the start-up and transmission of a low-power chipset, and shows a potential of using this energy harvesting insole in wearable applications.

  2. Investigation of multilayer magnetic domain lattice file

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torok, E. J.; Kamin, M.; Tolman, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of the self structured multilayered bubble domain memory as a mass memory medium for satellite applications is examined. Theoretical considerations of multilayer bubble supporting materials are presented, in addition to the experimental evaluation of current accessed circuitry for various memory functions. The design, fabrication, and test of four device designs is described, and a recommended memory storage area configuration is presented. Memory functions which were demonstrated include the current accessed propagation of bubble domains and stripe domains, pinning of stripe domain ends, generation of single and double bubbles, generation of arrays of coexisting strip and bubble domains in a single garnet layer, and demonstration of different values of the strip out field for single and double bubbles indicating adequate margins for data detection. All functions necessary to develop a multilayer self structured bubble memory device were demonstrated in individual experiments.

  3. Optimized capping layers for EUV multilayers

    DOEpatents

    Bajt, Sasa (Livermore, CA); Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA); Spiller, Eberhard A. (Livermore, CA)

    2004-08-24

    A new capping multilayer structure for EUV-reflective Mo/Si multilayers consists of two layers: A top layer that protects the multilayer structure from the environment and a bottom layer that acts as a diffusion barrier between the top layer and the structure beneath. One embodiment combines a first layer of Ru with a second layer of B.sub.4 C. Another embodiment combines a first layer of Ru with a second layer of Mo. These embodiments have the additional advantage that the reflectivity is also enhanced. Ru has the best oxidation resistance of all materials investigated so far. B.sub.4 C is an excellent barrier against silicide formation while the silicide layer formed at the Si boundary is well controlled.

  4. Localized modes in defective multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Roshan Entezar, S.; Namdar, A.

    2009-07-15

    In this paper, we investigate the localized surface modes in a defective multilayer structure. We show that the defective multilayer structure can support two different kinds of localized modes, depending on the position and the thickness of the defect layer. In one kind, the modes are localized at the interface between the multilayer structure and a homogeneous medium (the so-called surface modes). While, in the other one, the modes are localized at the defect layer (defect-localized modes). We reveal that in the presence of the defect layer, the dispersion curve of the surface modes are pushed to the lower (upper) edge of the photonic band gap when the homogeneous medium is a left-handed (right-handed) material. Therefore, the existence regions of the surface modes are restricted due to the defect layer. Moreover, the effect of defect on the energy flow velocity of the surface modes is discussed.

  5. The Impact of Dopant Segregation on the Maximum Carrier Density in Si:P Multilayers.

    PubMed

    Keizer, Joris G; McKibbin, Sarah R; Simmons, Michelle Y

    2015-07-28

    Abrupt dopant profiles and low resistivity are highly sought after qualities in the silicon microelectronics industry and, more recently, in the development of an all epitaxial Si:P based quantum computer. If we increase the active carrier density in silicon to the point where the material becomes superconducting, while maintaining a low thermal budget, it will be possible to fabricate nanoscale superconducting devices using the highly successful technique of depassivation lithography. In this work, we investigate the dopant profile and activation in multiple high density Si:P ?-layers fabricated by stacking individual layers with intervening silicon growth. We determine that dopant activation is ultimately limited by the formation of P-P dimers due to the segregation of dopants between multilayers. By increasing the encapsulation thickness between subsequent layers, thereby minimizing the formation of these deactivating defects, we are able to achieve an active carrier density of ns = 4.5 10(14) cm(-2) for a triple layer. The results of electrical characterization are combined with those of secondary ion mass spectroscopy to construct a model that accurately describes the impact of P segregation on the final active carrier density in Si:P multilayers. Our model predicts that a 3D active carrier density of 8.5 10(20) cm(-3) (1.7 atom %) can be achieved. PMID:26083628

  6. Systematic modification of the rheological properties of colloidal suspensions with polyelectrolyte multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Andreas; Pretzl, Melanie; Heymann, Lutz; Fery, Andreas; Aksel, Nuri

    2011-09-01

    Tailoring rheological properties of colloidal suspensions with the adsorption of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) is based on the idea of controlling macroscopic mechanical properties by modifying the particle surface in a reproducible and well-understood manner. With layer-by-layer self-assembly, monodisperse polystyrene particles are coated with up to ten layers of the oppositely charged strong polyelectrolytes: poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) and poly(styrene sulfonate). The conformation of the adsorbed polyelectrolyte is controlled by the ionic strength of the used aqueous polyelectrolyte solution. For 1M NaCl solution, a brushlike adsorption of the polyelectrolyte is expected. The ability of PEMs to serve on a nanoscale level as surface modifiers and influence macroscopic rheological properties like viscoelasticity, yield stress, and shear banding is discussed. The mechanical behavior of these suspensions is qualitatively described by the theory of Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek with short-range repulsion and long-range attraction. A scaling rule is proposed which distinguishes between the precusor and the multilayer regime.

  7. Yield stress and scaling of polyelectrolyte multilayer modified suspensions: effect of polyelectrolyte conformation during multilayer assembly.

    PubMed

    Hess, Andreas; Aksel, Nuri

    2013-09-10

    The yield stress of polyelectrolyte multilayer modified suspensions exhibits a surprising dependence on the polyelectrolyte conformation of multilayer films. The rheological data scale onto a universal master curve for each polyelectrolyte conformation as the particle volume fraction, ?, and the ionic strength of the background fluid, I, are varied. It is shown that rough films with highly coiled, brushy polyelectrolytes significantly enhance the yield stress. Moreover, via the ionic strength I of the background fluid, the dynamic yield stress of brushy polyelectrolyte multilayers can be finely adjusted over 2 decades. PMID:23952570

  8. Synthesis and electrical conductivity of multilayer silicene

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, P. E-mail: bruno.grandidier@isen.iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Bruhn, T.; Capiod, P.; Berthe, M.; Grandidier, B. E-mail: bruno.grandidier@isen.iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Resta, A.; De Padova, P.; Le Lay, G.

    2014-01-13

    The epitaxial growth and the electrical resistance of multilayer silicene on the Ag(111) surface has been investigated. We show that the atomic structure of the first silicene layer differs from the next layers and that the adsorption of Si induces the formation of extended silicene terraces surrounded by step bunching. Thanks to the controlled contact formation between the tips of a multiple probe scanning tunneling microscope and these extended terraces, a low sheet resistance, albeit much higher than the electrical resistance of the underlying silver substrate, has been measured, advocating for the electrical viability of multilayer silicene.

  9. Multilayered Piezoelectric Transformers for Small Power Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endow, Tsutomu; Hirose, Seiji

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, new piezoelectric transformers for AC-DC converters and DC-DC converters are presented. These piezoelectric transformers operate in a higher vibration mode. They were designed to be multilayered in the thickness direction to achieve high-power operation. First, we performed the simulation for designing a transformer using finite element method (FEM) analysis, and calculated its size using Vin=100 V, Vout=10 V, Pout=20 W, and an efficiency η of more than 90%. Second, we simulated some electrode patterns of a multilayered piezoelectric transformer. We investigated experimentally the transformers manufactured using the simulation results, and the highest efficiency of 93.7% was obtained.

  10. Interface resistance of disordered magnetic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, K.; Kelly, P. J.; Bauer, G. E.; Turek, I.; Kudrnovsk, J.; Drchal, V.

    2001-02-01

    We study the effect of interface disorder on the spin-dependent interface resistances of Co/Cu, Fe/Cr, and Au/Ag multilayers using a newly developed method for calculating transmission matrices from first-principles. The efficient implementation using tight-binding linear-muffin-tin orbitals allows us to model interface disorder using large lateral supercells whereby specular and diffuse scattering are treated on an equal footing. Without introducing any free parameters, quantitative agreement with experiment is obtained. We predict that disorder reduces the majority-spin interface resistance of Fe/Cr(100) multilayers by a factor 3.

  11. Giant magnetostrictive spring magnet type multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Quandt, E.; Ludwig, A.; Betz, J.; Mackay, K.; Givord, D.

    1997-04-01

    Thin film magnetostrictive materials can be extremely useful as the active material in microactuators. In this article, some results on a novel type of multilayer structure which combines exchange coupled giant magnetostrictive materials and materials with large magnetic polarizations are presented for the first time. Giant magnetostrictions are achieved at low fields, due to the polarization enhancement in such multilayers. Therefore such composite materials should be much more appropriate for applications than the simple homogeneous alloy films studied up to now. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Exchange Bias at the Nanoscale: Bulk or Interface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basaran, Ali Cemil

    One of the most interesting topics in material science is the effect of geometric confinement on nanoscale magnetic structures. Confinement produces new phenomena not observed in bulk materials and has led to a large number of technologies. An important structure featuring a geometric confinement effect is a thin film multilayer. In particular, the exchange bias effect, which is present in some ferromagnet / antiferromagnet bilayers, is used in applications such as magnetic recording, sensing, and spintronic devices. Although exchange bias has been the focus of many experimental and theoretical investigations, the details of its mechanism are still elusive. Above all, the contributions of magnetic structures in regions away from the interface remain ambiguous. This dissertation studies the individual contributions of each region of the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic bilayer on the exchange bias. We consider the exchange bias effect in magnetic thin films as defined by the three components of the spin structure: i) at the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interface, ii) in the antiferromagnetic layer, and iii) in the ferromagnetic layer. We performed experiments to address individually these three constituents and found that the exchange bias is significantly affected by the bulk of both the antiferromagnetic and the ferromagnetic layers. We used Ni/FeF2 bilayers as a prototypical exchange bias system. First, we explored magnetization reversal in cross shaped nano-junctions using the planar Hall Effect. We demonstrated how to find the direction of magnetization rotation and obtained the angular distribution of the unidirectional anisotropy axes. Second, we investigated the contribution from the antiferromagnetic bulk using ion bombardment to induce controllable depth dependent defects. We unambiguously showed that the exchange bias can be tuned without altering the interface or the ferromagnetic layer. Third, we investigated the ferromagnetic layer thickness dependence on the exchange bias. We found a strong deviation from the inverse proportionality law and demonstrated the importance of the spin structure in the ferromagnetic layer. An incomplete domain wall model was used to quantitatively account for the experimental results. Our studies show that the bulk of the antiferromagnetic and the ferromagnetic layers, together with the interface, are crucial ingredients in the establishment and the control of the exchange bias.

  13. Piezoelectric multilayer actuator life test.

    PubMed

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Jones, Christopher M; Aldrich, Jack B; Blodget, Chad J; Moore, James D; Carson, John W; Goullioud, Renaud

    2011-04-01

    Potential NASA optical missions such as the Space Interferometer Mission require actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of nanometers. Commercially available multilayer piezoelectric stack actuators are being considered for driving these precision mirror positioning mechanisms. These mechanisms have potential mission operational requirements that exceed 5 years for one mission life. To test the feasibility of using these commercial actuators for these applications and to determine their reliability and the redundancy requirements, a life test study was undertaken. The nominal actuator requirements for the most critical actuators on the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) in terms of number of cycles was estimated from the Modulation Optics Mechanism (MOM) and Pathlength control Optics Mechanism (POM) and these requirements were used to define the study. At a nominal drive frequency of 250 Hz, one mission life is calculated to be 40 billion cycles. In this study, a set of commercial PZT stacks configured in a potential flight actuator configuration (pre-stressed to 18 MPa and bonded in flexures) were tested for up to 100 billion cycles. Each test flexure allowed for two sets of primary and redundant stacks to be mechanically connected in series. The tests were controlled using an automated software control and data acquisition system that set up the test parameters and monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The samples were driven between 0 and 20 V at 2000 Hz to accelerate the life test and mimic the voltage amplitude that is expected to be applied to the stacks during operation. During the life test, 10 primary stacks were driven and 10 redundant stacks, mechanically in series with the driven stacks, were open-circuited. The stroke determined from a strain gauge, the temperature and humidity in the chamber, and the temperature of each individual stack were recorded. Other properties of the stacks, including the displacement from a capacitance gap sensor and impedance spectra were measured at specific intervals. The average degradation in the stroke over the life test was found to be small (<3%) for the primary stacks and <4% for the redundant stacks. It was noted that about half of the stroke reduction occurred within the first 10 billion cycles. At the end of the life test, it was found that the actuator could recover about half of the lost stroke by applying a dc voltage of 100 V at room temperature. The data up to 100 billion cycles for these tests and the analysis of the experimental results are presented in this paper. PMID:21507759

  14. Combined single cell AFM manipulation and TIRFM for probing the molecular stability of multilayer fibrinogen matrices

    PubMed Central

    Christenson, W.; Yermolenko, I.; Plochberger, B.; Camacho-Alanis, F.; Ros, A.; Ugarova, T.P.; Ros, R.

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption of fibrinogen on various surfaces produces a nanoscale multilayer matrix, which strongly reduces the adhesion of platelets and leukocytes with implications for hemostasis and blood compatibility of biomaterials. The nonadhesive properties of fibrinogen matrices are based on their extensibility, ensuing the inability to transduce strong mechanical forces via cellular integrins and resulting in weak intracellular signaling. In addition, reduced cell adhesion may arise from the weaker associations between fibrinogen molecules in the superficial layers of the matrix. Such reduced stability would allow integrins to pull fibrinogen molecules out of the matrix with comparable or smaller forces than required to break integrinfibrinogen bonds. To examine this possibility, we developed a method based on the combination of total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, single cell manipulation with an atomic force microscope and microcontact printing to study the transfer of fibrinogen molecules out of a matrix onto cells. We calculated the average fluorescence intensities per pixel for wild-type HEK 293 (HEK WT) and HEK 293 cells expressing leukocyte integrin Mac-1 (HEK Mac-1) before and after contact with multilayered matrices of fluorescently labeled fibrinogen. For contact times of 500 s, HEK Mac-1 cells show a median increase of 57% of the fluorescence intensity compared to 6% for HEKWT cells. The results suggest that the integrin Mac-1-fibrinogen interactions are stronger than the intermolecular fibrinogen interactions in the superficial layer of the matrix. The low mechanical stability of the multilayer fibrinogen surface may contribute to the reduced cell adhesive properties of fibrinogen-coated substrates. We anticipate that the described method can be applied to various cell types to examine their integrin-mediated adhesion to the extracellular matrices with a variable protein composition. PMID:24239757

  15. EDITORIAL: Light Control at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kral, Petr; Shapiro, Moshe

    2007-06-01

    It is customary to denote as 'nano-systems' entities whose size varies between 1 and 100 nm. Such systems span an immense variety of structures, ranging from large molecules, quantum dots, and nanowires, to viruses. Their existence is based on, and accompanied by, an amazing abundance of phenomena, depending on a huge number of parameters, all of which can in principle be used for nanoscale control. One of the most potent means of controlling nano-systems is light: it can serve as a tool for the addressing, preparation, stabilization and excitation of nano-systems. Design of light control scenarios is based on the laser techniques of coherent and optimal control at wavelengths and time sequencing most appropriate to the nano-systems, or on more traditional, incoherent forms of light-matter interactions. This special issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (J. Phys. B) devoted to the subject of light control at the nanoscale contains a collection of articles that cover several key areas in this fast-growing field. These include: preparation and manipulation of nano-systems by light, nanoscale plasmonics and spintronics, Bose-Einstein condensation and excitation of novel molecular and crystalline systems. We have grouped the papers according to these general areas. The guest editors gratefully acknowledge the help of the staff of J. Phys. B, especially that of Alice Malhador from the editorial team, and Adrian Corrigan from production, in preparing this issue, and Professor Jan-Michel Rost, the Editor-in-Chief, for his support of this project.

  16. Dustiness of Fine and Nanoscale Powders

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Douglas E.; Baron, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Dustiness may be defined as the propensity of a powder to form airborne dust by a prescribed mechanical stimulus; dustiness testing is typically intended to replicate mechanisms of dust generation encountered in workplaces. A novel dustiness testing device, developed for pharmaceutical application, was evaluated in the dustiness investigation of 27 fine and nanoscale powders. The device efficiently dispersed small (mg) quantities of a wide variety of fine and nanoscale powders, into a small sampling chamber. Measurements consisted of gravimetrically determined total and respirable dustiness. The following materials were studied: single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and carbon blacks; fumed oxides of titanium, aluminum, silicon, and cerium; metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, manganese, and silver) silicon carbide, Arizona road dust; nanoclays; and lithium titanate. Both the total and respirable dustiness spanned two orders of magnitude (0.337.9% and 0.131.8% of the predispersed test powders, respectively). For many powders, a significant respirable dustiness was observed. For most powders studied, the respirable dustiness accounted for approximately one-third of the total dustiness. It is believed that this relationship holds for many fine and nanoscale test powders (i.e. those primarily selected for this study), but may not hold for coarse powders. Neither total nor respirable dustiness was found to be correlated with BET surface area, therefore dustiness is not determined by primary particle size. For a subset of test powders, aerodynamic particle size distributions by number were measured (with an electrical low-pressure impactor and an aerodynamic particle sizer). Particle size modes ranged from approximately 300nm to several micrometers, but no modes below 100nm, were observed. It is therefore unlikely that these materials would exhibit a substantial sub-100nm particle contribution in a workplace. PMID:23065675

  17. Layer-by-layer assembly of {nanoclay-(sol-gel oxide)}n and {nanoclay-(oxide nanoparticle)}n multilayers: Synthesis and growth mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao

    Two new classes of all-inorganic nanostructured multilayers, {MMT x-(sol-gel oxide)}n and {MMTx-(oxide nanoparticle)} n, have been successfully synthesized for the first time. They were made by adapting a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method initially developed to synthesize polyelectrolyte-based multilayers. In most previous studies, this electrostatic-assisted LbL assembly method used polyelectrolytes/polymers as the "structural glue" to prepare multilayers. The synthesis of {MMTx-(sol-gel ZrO2)}n multilayers demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of making sol-gel oxide "glued" all-inorganic multilayers, thereby introducing an innovative nanoscale fabrication concept. The synthesis of {MMTx-(oxide nanoparticle)}n multilayers further illustrates the versatility of LbL assembly technique by achieving a second new type of all-inorganic multilayers with a novel "plate-ball" architecture. The feasibility of synthesizing other types of multilayer structures, including {MMTx-(ionic liquid)}n, {(carbon nanotube)-(sol-gel ZrO2)}n, and {polymer-(sol-gel ZrO2)} n, were also explored. Systematical investigations of the growth kinetics of {MMTx-(sol-gel ZrO2)}n multilayers reveal unique underlying mechanisms for electrostatic-assisted growth of sol-gel films and LbL assembly. The growth of the MMT and sol-gel ZrO2 layers is strongly coupled. For fresh aqueous ZrO2 precursors, the growth rates of sol-gel ZrO2 layers on MMT surfaces as functions of time and precursor concentration do not follow the standard mass transfer or interfacial reaction controlled kinetic models. Furthermore, the growth of the sol-gel oxide layers on MMT surfaces is self-limited to a maximum thickness of 50-60 nm. These observations suggest a surface-mediated growth of sol-gel 'oxide layers on MMT surfaces, one that is likely controlled by electrostatic interactions. These new findings significantly advance the general understanding of the LbL electrostatic assembly process. For the aged precursors, the growth mechanism differs; the growth of sol-gel oxide layers is controlled by hydrodynamics and follows the Landau-Levich model. For as-deposited multilayers, isothermal annealing at 400C dehydrates them and removes the residue acetate groups without damaging the MMT nanoplatelets and the ordered layer structures. Nanomechanical measurements show that the elastic modulus of the multilayers can be intentionally tuned by changing the multilayer design and that significant porosity is present in the multilayers even after annealing. In addition, free-standing multilayers are successfully made via using sacrificial substrates, and the newly developed methodology for {MMTx-(sol-gel oxide)} n can be extended, using other metal oxides, e.g., SnO2, as the inorganic "glue." Potential applications of these new nanostructured multilayers are discussed.

  18. Nanoscale Sensing with Nitrogen Vacancy Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, Elana; Lovchinsky, Igor; Sushkov, Alex; Park, Hongkun; Lukin, Mikhail

    2015-05-01

    In the last several decades Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a powerful tool in science and technology. Conventional MRI technology, however, relies on measuring magnetic fields from a large (macroscopic) number of molecules, for example tissues in specific areas of the brain. Extending these techniques to the nanoscale could enable revolutionary advances in the physical, biological and medical sciences. Here we report on recent progress in using Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond to detect small numbers of nuclear spins in biological molecules. In particular, we have demonstrated detection of single proteins attached to the diamond surface.

  19. Nanoscale investigation of organic - inorganic halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacovich, S.; Divitini, G.; Vru?ini?, M.; Sadhanala, A.; Friend, R. H.; Sirringhaus, H.; Deschler, F.; Ducati, C.

    2015-10-01

    Over the last few years organic - inorganic halide perovskite-based solar cells have exhibited a rapid evolution, reaching certified power conversion efficiencies now surpassing 20%. Nevertheless the understanding of the optical and electronic properties of such systems on the nanoscale is still an open problem. In this work we investigate two model perovskite systems (based on iodine - CH3NH3PbI3 and bromine - CH3NH3PbBr3), analysing the local elemental composition and crystallinity and identifying chemical inhomogeneities.

  20. Synthesis, dynamics and photophysics of nanoscale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkovic, Tihana

    The emerging field of nanotechnology, which spans diverse areas such as nanoelectronics, medicine, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, biotechnology and computation, focuses on the development of devices whose improved performance is based on the utilization of self-assembled nanoscale components exhibiting unique properties owing to their miniaturized dimensions. The first phase in the conception of such multifunctional devices based on integrated technologies requires the study of basic principles behind the functional mechanism of nanoscale components, which could originate from individual nanoobjects or result as a collective behaviour of miniaturized unit structures. The comprehensive studies presented in this thesis encompass the mechanical, dynamical and photophysical aspects of three nanoscale systems. A newly developed europium sulfide nanocrystalline material is introduced. Advances in synthetic methods allowed for shape control of surface-functionalized EuS nanocrystals and the fabrication of multifunctional EuS-CdSe hybrid particles, whose unique structural and optical properties hold promise as useful attributes of integrated materials in developing technologies. A comprehensive study based on a new class of multifunctional nanomaterials, derived from the basic unit of barcoded metal nanorods is presented. Their chemical composition affords them the ability to undergo autonomous motion in the presence of a suitable fuel. The nature of their chemically powered self-propulsion locomotion was investigated, and plausible mechanisms for various motility modes were presented. Furthermore functionalization of striped metallic nanorods has been realized through the incorporation of chemically controlled flexible hinges displaying bendable properties. The structural aspect of the light harvesting machinery of a photosynthetic cryptophyte alga, Rhodomonas CS24, and the mobility of the antenna protein, PE545, in vivo were investigated. Information obtained through a combination of steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy in conjunction with quantum chemical calculations aided in the elucidation of the dynamics and the mechanism of light harvesting in the multichromophoric phycobiliprotein phycocyanin PC645 in vitro. Investigation of the light-harvesting efficiency and optimization of energy transfer with respect to the structural organization of light-harvesting chromophores on the nanoscale, can provide us with fundamental information necessary for the development of synthetic light-harvesting devices capable of mimicking the efficiency of the natural system.

  1. Nanoscale growth twins in sputtered metal films

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Amit; Anderoglu, Osman; Hoagland, Richard G; Zhang, X

    2008-01-01

    We review recent studies on the mechanical properties of sputtered Cu and 330 stainless steel films with {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} nanoscale growth twins preferentially oriented perpendicular to growth direction. The mechanisms of formation of growth twins during sputtering and the deformation mechanisms that enable usually high strengths in nanotwinned structures are highlighted. Growth twins in sputtered films possess good thermal stability at elevated temperature, providing an approach to extend the application of high strength nanostructured metals to higher temperatures.

  2. Long Range Interactions in Nanoscale Science

    SciTech Connect

    French, Roger H; Parsegian, V Adrian; Podgonik, Rudolph; Rajter, Rick; Jagota, Anand; Luo, Jian; Asthagiri, Dilip; Chaudhury, Manoj; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Granick, Steve; Kalinin, Sergei V; Kardar, Mehran; Kjellander, Roland; Langreth, David C.; Lewis, Jennifer; Lustig, Steve; Wesolowski, David J; Wettlaufer, John; Ching, Wai-Yim; Finnis, Mike; Houlihan, Frank; Von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Van Oss, Carel; Zemb, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the long range electrodynamic, electrostatic, and polar interactions that dominate the organization of small objects at separations beyond an interatomic bond length is reviewed. From this basic-forces perspective, a large number of systems are described from which one can learn about these organizing forces and how to modulate them. The many practical systems that harness these nanoscale forces are then surveyed. The survey reveals not only the promise of new devices and materials, but also the possibility of designing them more effectively.

  3. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Tiziana C; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-11-03

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  4. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    DOEpatents

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2014-07-22

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  5. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    DOEpatents

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-07-14

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  6. EduXs: Multilayer Educational Services Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Li-Jie; Yang, Jie-Chi; Deng, Yi-Chan; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2003-01-01

    How to use the online social learning communities to improve quality and quantity of interactions in physical social learning communities is an important issue. This work describes the design and implementation of multilayer educational services platforms that enable learners to establish their own online social learning communities and integrate

  7. Polarimetry of multi-layer biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolenko, Sergej; Prydij, Alexander; Vladychenko, Konstantin

    2008-05-01

    Our research was directed to determining the potentialities of laser polarimetry in diagnostics of oncological changes of optically thick, multilayer tissues of human prostate. The analysis of the obtained results showed high diagnostic sensitivity of statistic moments of the 3rd and 4th orders of coordinate distributions of matrix elements of both types of biotissues to the changes of optical-geometric structure.

  8. Thermal expansion properties of thin multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xianchao; Morawe, Christian; Peffen, Jean-Christophe; Zhang, Lin

    2014-09-01

    Under synchrotron radiation white beam exposure, strong mechanical stress can build up in multilayer optics, caused by the thermal mismatch between layer material and substrate material. To study the stability and performance of multilayer optics under heat load, Pd, Cr, and B4C single layers of thicknesses in the nanometer range and [Pd/B4C] multilayers were prepared in the sputter-depositing facility of the ESRF Multilayer Laboratory. Curvature changes versus temperature were measured using a Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor. Films coated on 200 ?m thin Si wafers induced significant curvature changes over a temperature range from 60C to 200C. A combined parameter K including Young's modulus and thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) was defined to describe the thermal deformation properties of the thin-film layer. The investigation shows that all three materials in thin film cause less thermal expansion than expected from material properties for bulk material in the literature. In particular, the thermal expansion of B4C films appears to be close to that of the Si substrate.

  9. Fabrication of multilayer pancakelike basic magnesium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinhe; Jia, Yongzhong; Yan Jing; Yao, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2014-10-01

    The properties of nanomaterials was strongly affected by their microstructures. Here Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 x 4H2O multilayer pancakelike structures were fabricated successfully by reaction of MgCl2 and Na2CO3 in aqueous solution at 363 K. The growth process of nanostructures was observed by XRD and SEM. Several transition states of multilayer pancakelike basic magnesium carbonates were observed, which help to understand better the formation process of this hierarchical nanostructures. The formation mechanism of Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 x 4H2O multilayer pancakelike structures was discussed and helical growth was proposed. The amorphous nanoparticles were formed firstly. Then nanopartilces aggregated and oriented assembly under the direction of chemical bonds with the help of water molecules. The multilayer pancakelike basic magnesium carbonates was formed by helical growth of wafers along (100) and (001) direction. The diameter and volume decreased with the increasing concentration of reactants. PMID:25942931

  10. Coherent multilayer crystals and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Falco, Charles M. (Tucson, AZ)

    1984-01-01

    A new material consisting of a multilayer crystalline structure which is coherent perpendicular to the layers and where each layer is composed of a single crystalline element. The individual layers may vary from 2.ANG. to 100.ANG. or more in thickness.

  11. Reliable Communications Using Multi-layer Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assimi, Abdel-Nasser; Poulliat, Charly; Fijalkow, Inbar

    In this paper, we propose a MIMO approach for packet combining in hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) protocols using single-carrier multi-layer transmission over block fading channels. Based on this model, the problem of the optimization of the linear superposition coefficients is briefly addressed.

  12. Multilayer Reflectors for Soft X-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Felix Eugenio

    1987-11-01

    Current technology has made possible the fabrication of multilayered optical elements for soft x-ray radiation. These structures find a variety of important applications. Difficulties in the design and fabrication of multilayers for soft x -rays are related to the lack of information about the properties of materials in the very thin layers (~ 5-100 A) required. Imperfections cause the measured optical properties of the multilayers to deviate strongly from ideal behavior. Realistic calculations of reflectance must take these imperfections into account. We review the pertinent theory, with attention to the problem of including non-ideal properties. We also review characterization techniques suitable for the measurement of relevant structural and stoichiometric parameters of the multilayer. A detailed characterization procedure is presented. This procedure is capable of accurately determining the layer thicknesses, material densities, interfacial rms roughness or diffusion values, crystalline structure, concentration of contaminants, and extent of surface oxidation. The techniques used included low-angle x-ray theta-2theta diffraction with parallel-beam and Bragg-Brentano geometries, wide-film Debye-Scherrer ("Read") camera and Seemann-Bohlin diffractometer, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Si/W multilayer mirrors were designed for normal -incidence 210 A radiation. Samples were fabricated using a magnetically-confined-plasma dc-triode sputtering technique. Our characterization procedure was applied to these samples. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a comprehensive set of characterization techniques has been applied to a multilayer x-ray optical element. The same samples were tested with synchrotron radiation over a wide spectral range, and for several incidence angles. The measured reflectance is in excellent agreement with curves calculated using the information obtained from the characterization results, with no adjustable parameters. The Si/W combination is shown to have good layering characteristics. The near -normal reflectance of the multilayers was 20 to 30 times better than the reflectivity of the best single-surface mirrors at the same wavelengths.

  13. Probing Nanoscale Thermal Transport in Surfactant Solutions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fangyu; Liu, Ying; Xu, Jiajun; He, Yadong; Hammouda, B; Qiao, Rui; Yang, Bao

    2015-01-01

    Surfactant solutions typically feature tunable nanoscale, internal structures. Although rarely utilized, they can be a powerful platform for probing thermal transport in nanoscale domains and across interfaces with nanometer-size radius. Here, we examine the structure and thermal transport in solution of AOT (Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate) in n-octane liquids using small-angle neutron scattering, thermal conductivity measurements, and molecular dynamics simulations. We report the first experimental observation of a minimum thermal conductivity occurring at the critical micelle concentration (CMC): the thermal conductivity of the surfactant solution decreases as AOT is added till the onset of micellization but increases as more AOT is added. The decrease of thermal conductivity with AOT loading in solutions in which AOT molecules are dispersed as monomers suggests that even the interfaces between individual oleophobic headgroup of AOT molecules and their surrounding non-polar octane molecules can hinder heat transfer. The increase of thermal conductivity with AOT loading after the onset of micellization indicates that the thermal transport in the core of AOT micelles and across the surfactant-oil interfaces, both of which span only a few nanometers, are efficient. PMID:26534840

  14. Structure of nanoscale gas bubbles in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, A.; Schwen, D.; Martinez, E.

    2013-11-01

    A usual way to estimate the amount of gas in a bubble inside a metal is to assume thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e., the gas pressure P equals the capillarity force 2γ/R, with γ the surface energy of the host material and R the bubble radius; under this condition there is no driving force for vacancies to be emitted or absorbed by the bubble. In contrast to the common assumption that pressure inside a gas or fluid bubble is constant, we show that at the nanoscale this picture is no longer valid. P and density can no longer be defined as global quantities determined by an equation of state (EOS), but they become functions of position because the bubble develops a core-shell structure. We focus on He in Fe and solve the problem using both continuum mechanics and empirical potentials to find a quantitative measure of this effect. We point to the need of redefining an EOS for nanoscale gas bubbles in metals, which can be obtained via an average pressure inside the bubble. The resulting EOS, which is now size dependent, gives pressures that differ by a factor of two or more from the original EOS for bubble diameters of 1 nm and below.

  15. Nanoscale Fluid Mechanics and Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X; Xu, BX; Liu, L

    2014-05-29

    Under nanoconfinement, fluid molecules and ions exhibit radically different configurations, properties, and energetics from those of their bulk counterparts. These unique characteristics of nanoconfined fluids, along with the unconventional interactions with solids at the nanoscale, have provided many opportunities for engineering innovation. With properly designed nanoconfinement, several nanofluidic systems have been devised in our group in the past several years to achieve energy conversion functions with high efficiencies. This review is dedicated to elucidating the unique characteristics of nanofluidics, introducing several novel nanofluidic systems combining nanoporous materials with functional fluids, and to unveiling their working mechanisms. In all these systems, the ultra-large surface area available in nanoporous materials provides an ideal platform for seamlessly interfacing with nanoconfined fluids, and efficiently converting energy between the mechanical, thermal, and electrical forms. These systems have been demonstrated to have great potentials for applications including energy dissipation/absorption, energy trapping, actuation, and energy harvesting. Their efficiencies can be further enhanced by designing efforts based upon improved understanding of nanofluidics, which represents an important addition to classical fluid mechanics. Through the few systems exemplified in this review, the emerging research field of nanoscale fluid mechanics may promote more exciting nanofluidic phenomena and mechanisms, with increasing applications by encompassing aspects of mechanics, materials, physics, chemistry, biology, etc.

  16. Nanoscale Single-Element Color Filters.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Jerome K; Kang, Taehee; Baek, Hyeonjun; Kim, Dai-sik; Yi, Gyu-chul

    2015-09-01

    Visible-light filters constructed from nanostructured materials typically consist of a metallic grating and rely on the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). In order to operate at full efficiency, the number of grating elements needs to be maximized such that light can couple more efficiently to the SPPs through improved diffraction. Such conditions impose a limitation on the compactness of the filter since a larger number of grating elements represents a larger effective size. For emerging applications involving nanoscale transmitters or receivers, a device that can filter localized excitations is highly anticipated but is challenging to realize through grating-type filters. In this work, we present the design of an optical filter operating with a single element, marking a departure from diffractive plasmonic coupling. Our device consists of a ZnO nanorod enclosed by two layers of Ag film. For diffraction-limited light focused on the nanorod, narrow passbands can be realized and tuned via variation of the nanorod diameter across the visible spectrum. The spectral and spatial filtering originates from scattering cancellation localized at the nanorod due to the cavity and nanorod exhibiting opposite effective dipole moments. This ability to realize high-performance optical filtering at the ultimate size introduces intriguing possibilities for nanoscale near-field communication or ultrahigh resolution imaging pixels. PMID:26237349

  17. Viscosity measurements of nanoscale liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramkowski, Edward; Wilson, David; Khan, Shah; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis; Hoffmann, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Measuring the viscosity of nanoscale films of liquids can be quite challenging. This difficulty has resulted in contradictory claims regarding the change in viscosity upon nanoscale confinement of liquids. Recently, we showed through a careful analysis, that in weakly interacting liquids, such as non-polar oils, the viscosity seems unchanged from the bulk value even under extreme confinement down to just a few molecular layers. Moreover, above a critical shear rate, shear thinning is observed. These measurements also have practical significance, in that traditional methods for characterizing the viscosity of solutions, while accurate, require the use of a few grams of the material being investigated. As the production methods of prototype materials becomes more costly, devising techniques that can accurately measure physical properties with much smaller volumes of material would be highly desirable. To this end, we aim to design a quick, reliable, and cost-effective method of measuring viscosity through the use of an atomic force microscope, which requires only nanograms of the sample being tested. Here we will introduce preliminary results, comparing the AFM-determined viscosity with values attained through the use of other commonly used measurement devices.

  18. Convex lens-induced nanoscale templating

    PubMed Central

    Berard, Daniel J.; Michaud, Franois; Mahshid, Sara; Ahamed, Mohammed Jalal; McFaul, Christopher M. J.; Leith, Jason S.; Brub, Pierre; Sladek, Rob; Reisner, Walter; Leslie, Sabrina R.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a new platform, convex lens-induced nanoscale templating (CLINT), for dynamic manipulation and trapping of single DNA molecules. In the CLINT technique, the curved surface of a convex lens is used to deform a flexible coverslip above a substrate containing embedded nanotopography, creating a nanoscale gap that can be adjusted during an experiment to confine molecules within the embedded nanostructures. Critically, CLINT has the capability of transforming a macroscale flow cell into a nanofluidic device without the need for permanent direct bonding, thus simplifying sample loading, providing greater accessibility of the surface for functionalization, and enabling dynamic manipulation of confinement during device operation. Moreover, as DNA molecules present in the gap are driven into the embedded topography from above, CLINT eliminates the need for the high pressures or electric fields required to load DNA into direct-bonded nanofluidic devices. To demonstrate the versatility of CLINT, we confine DNA to nanogroove and nanopit structures, demonstrating DNA nanochannel-based stretching, denaturation mapping, and partitioning/trapping of single molecules in multiple embedded cavities. In particular, using ionic strengths that are in line with typical biological buffers, we have successfully extended DNA in sub30-nm nanochannels, achieving high stretching (90%) that is in good agreement with Odijk deflection theory, and we have mapped genomic features using denaturation analysis. PMID:25092333

  19. Probing Nanoscale Thermal Transport in Surfactant Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fangyu; Liu, Ying; Xu, Jiajun; He, Yadong; Hammouda, B.; Qiao, Rui; Yang, Bao

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant solutions typically feature tunable nanoscale, internal structures. Although rarely utilized, they can be a powerful platform for probing thermal transport in nanoscale domains and across interfaces with nanometer-size radius. Here, we examine the structure and thermal transport in solution of AOT (Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate) in n-octane liquids using small-angle neutron scattering, thermal conductivity measurements, and molecular dynamics simulations. We report the first experimental observation of a minimum thermal conductivity occurring at the critical micelle concentration (CMC): the thermal conductivity of the surfactant solution decreases as AOT is added till the onset of micellization but increases as more AOT is added. The decrease of thermal conductivity with AOT loading in solutions in which AOT molecules are dispersed as monomers suggests that even the interfaces between individual oleophobic headgroup of AOT molecules and their surrounding non-polar octane molecules can hinder heat transfer. The increase of thermal conductivity with AOT loading after the onset of micellization indicates that the thermal transport in the core of AOT micelles and across the surfactant-oil interfaces, both of which span only a few nanometers, are efficient.

  20. Channeling technique to make nanoscale ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, V. M.; Bellucci, S.; Guidi, V.

    2005-04-01

    Particle channeling in a bent crystal lattice has led to an efficient instrument for beam steering at accelerators [Biryukov et al., Crystal Channeling and its Application at High Energy Accelerators, Springer, Berlin, 1997], demonstrated from MeV to TeV energies. In particular, crystal focusing of high-energy protons to micron size has been demonstrated at IHEP with the results well in match with Lindhard (critical angle) prediction. Channeling in crystal microstructures has been proposed as a unique source of a microbeam of high-energy particles [Bellucci et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6 (2003) 033502]. Channeling in nanostructures (single-wall and multi-wall nanotubes) offers the opportunities to produce ion beams on nanoscale. Particles channeled in a nanotube (with typical diameter of about 1 nm) are trapped in two dimensions and can be steered (deflected, focused) with the efficiency similar to that of crystal channeling or better. This technique has been a subject of computer simulations, with experimental efforts under way in several high-energy labs, including IHEP. We present the theoretical outlook for making channeling-based nanoscale ion beams and report the experience with crystal-focused microscale proton beams.

  1. Light-driven nanoscale plasmonic motors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Zentgraf, Thomas; Liu, Yongmin; Bartal, Guy; Zhang, Xiang

    2010-08-01

    When Sir William Crookes developed a four-vaned radiometer, also known as the light-mill, in 1873, it was believed that this device confirmed the existence of linear momentum carried by photons, as predicted by Maxwell's equations. Although Reynolds later proved that the torque on the radiometer was caused by thermal transpiration, researchers continued to search for ways to take advantage of the momentum of photons and to use it for generating rotational forces. The ability to provide rotational force at the nanoscale could open up a range of applications in physics, biology and chemistry, including DNA unfolding and sequencing and nanoelectromechanical systems. Here, we demonstrate a nanoscale plasmonic structure that can, when illuminated with linearly polarized light, generate a rotational force that is capable of rotating a silica microdisk that is 4,000 times larger in volume. Furthermore, we can control the rotation velocity and direction by varying the wavelength of the incident light to excite different plasmonic modes. PMID:20601945

  2. Visualizing copper assisted graphene growth in nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi; Yusop, Mohd Zamri; Kalita, Golap; Yaakob, Yazid; Takahashi, Chisato; Tanemura, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Control synthesis of high quality large-area graphene on transition metals (TMs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most fascinating approach for practical device applications. Interaction of carbon atoms and TMs is quite critical to obtain graphene with precise layer number, crystal size and structure. Here, we reveal a solid phase reaction process to achieve Cu assisted graphene growth in nanoscale by in-situ transmission electron microscope (TEM). Significant structural transformation of amorphous carbon nanofiber (CNF) coated with Cu is observed with an applied potential in a two probe system. The coated Cu particle recrystallize and agglomerate toward the cathode with applied potential due to joule heating and large thermal gradient. Consequently, the amorphous carbon start crystallizing and forming sp2 hybridized carbon to form graphene sheet from the tip of Cu surface. We observed structural deformation and breaking of the graphene nanoribbon with a higher applied potential, attributing to saturated current flow and induced Joule heating. The observed graphene formation in nanoscale by the in-situ TEM process can be significant to understand carbon atoms and Cu interaction. PMID:25523645

  3. Synthesis and properties of nanoscale titanium boride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimova, K. A.; Galevskiy, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the scientific and technological grounds for plasma synthesis of titanium diboride, including thermodynamic and kinetic conditions of boride formation when titanium and titanium dioxide are interacting with products resulting from boron gasification in the nitrogen - hydrogen plasma flow, and two variations of its behavior using the powder mixtures: titanium - boron and titanium dioxide - boron. To study these technology variations, the mathematical models were derived, describing the relation between element contents in the synthesized products of titanium and free boron and basic parameters. The probable mechanism proposed for forming titanium diboride according to a "vapour - melt - crystal" pattern was examined, covering condensation of titanium vapour in the form of aerosol, boriding of nanoscale melt droplets by boron hydrides and crystallization of titanium - boron melt. The comprehensive physical - chemical certification of titanium diboride was carried out, including the study of its crystal structure, phase and chemical composition, dispersion, morphology and particle oxidation. Technological application prospects for use of titanium diboride nanoscale powder as constituent element in the wettable coating for carbon cathodes having excellent physical and mechanical performance and protective properties.

  4. Probing Nanoscale Thermal Transport in Surfactant Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fangyu; Liu, Ying; Xu, Jiajun; He, Yadong; Hammouda, B.; Qiao, Rui; Yang, Bao

    2015-01-01

    Surfactant solutions typically feature tunable nanoscale, internal structures. Although rarely utilized, they can be a powerful platform for probing thermal transport in nanoscale domains and across interfaces with nanometer-size radius. Here, we examine the structure and thermal transport in solution of AOT (Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate) in n-octane liquids using small-angle neutron scattering, thermal conductivity measurements, and molecular dynamics simulations. We report the first experimental observation of a minimum thermal conductivity occurring at the critical micelle concentration (CMC): the thermal conductivity of the surfactant solution decreases as AOT is added till the onset of micellization but increases as more AOT is added. The decrease of thermal conductivity with AOT loading in solutions in which AOT molecules are dispersed as monomers suggests that even the interfaces between individual oleophobic headgroup of AOT molecules and their surrounding non-polar octane molecules can hinder heat transfer. The increase of thermal conductivity with AOT loading after the onset of micellization indicates that the thermal transport in the core of AOT micelles and across the surfactant-oil interfaces, both of which span only a few nanometers, are efficient. PMID:26534840

  5. Visualizing copper assisted graphene growth in nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi; Yusop, Mohd Zamri; Kalita, Golap; Yaakob, Yazid; Takahashi, Chisato; Tanemura, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Control synthesis of high quality large-area graphene on transition metals (TMs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most fascinating approach for practical device applications. Interaction of carbon atoms and TMs is quite critical to obtain graphene with precise layer number, crystal size and structure. Here, we reveal a solid phase reaction process to achieve Cu assisted graphene growth in nanoscale by in-situ transmission electron microscope (TEM). Significant structural transformation of amorphous carbon nanofiber (CNF) coated with Cu is observed with an applied potential in a two probe system. The coated Cu particle recrystallize and agglomerate toward the cathode with applied potential due to joule heating and large thermal gradient. Consequently, the amorphous carbon start crystallizing and forming sp(2) hybridized carbon to form graphene sheet from the tip of Cu surface. We observed structural deformation and breaking of the graphene nanoribbon with a higher applied potential, attributing to saturated current flow and induced Joule heating. The observed graphene formation in nanoscale by the in-situ TEM process can be significant to understand carbon atoms and Cu interaction. PMID:25523645

  6. Visualizing copper assisted graphene growth in nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi; Yusop, Mohd Zamri; Kalita, Golap; Yaakob, Yazid; Takahashi, Chisato; Tanemura, Masaki

    2014-12-01

    Control synthesis of high quality large-area graphene on transition metals (TMs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most fascinating approach for practical device applications. Interaction of carbon atoms and TMs is quite critical to obtain graphene with precise layer number, crystal size and structure. Here, we reveal a solid phase reaction process to achieve Cu assisted graphene growth in nanoscale by in-situ transmission electron microscope (TEM). Significant structural transformation of amorphous carbon nanofiber (CNF) coated with Cu is observed with an applied potential in a two probe system. The coated Cu particle recrystallize and agglomerate toward the cathode with applied potential due to joule heating and large thermal gradient. Consequently, the amorphous carbon start crystallizing and forming sp2 hybridized carbon to form graphene sheet from the tip of Cu surface. We observed structural deformation and breaking of the graphene nanoribbon with a higher applied potential, attributing to saturated current flow and induced Joule heating. The observed graphene formation in nanoscale by the in-situ TEM process can be significant to understand carbon atoms and Cu interaction.

  7. Structure of nanoscale gas bubbles in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Caro, A. Schwen, D.; Martinez, E.

    2013-11-18

    A usual way to estimate the amount of gas in a bubble inside a metal is to assume thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e., the gas pressure P equals the capillarity force 2?/R, with ? the surface energy of the host material and R the bubble radius; under this condition there is no driving force for vacancies to be emitted or absorbed by the bubble. In contrast to the common assumption that pressure inside a gas or fluid bubble is constant, we show that at the nanoscale this picture is no longer valid. P and density can no longer be defined as global quantities determined by an equation of state (EOS), but they become functions of position because the bubble develops a core-shell structure. We focus on He in Fe and solve the problem using both continuum mechanics and empirical potentials to find a quantitative measure of this effect. We point to the need of redefining an EOS for nanoscale gas bubbles in metals, which can be obtained via an average pressure inside the bubble. The resulting EOS, which is now size dependent, gives pressures that differ by a factor of two or more from the original EOS for bubble diameters of 1?nm and below.

  8. Diffraction gratings based on asymmetric-cut multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasciolu, Mauro; Chapman, Henry N.; Bajt, Saša.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the fabrication of novel diffraction gratings for soft x-ray and extreme ultra-violet (EUV) photon energies based on asymmetric-cut multilayer structures. Asymmetric-cut multilayers are highly dispersive and highly efficient gratings obtained by slicing a thick multilayer coating. Multilayer deposition techniques enable sub-ångström precision in layer thickness control, which leads to close to perfect blazed gratings. However, the final grating size is limited by the maximum multilayer thickness for which one can still control the layer thickness, stress and roughness. Here, we present a new approach in which we substantially extend the grating size by combining specially prepared substrates, thick multilayer deposition and final polishing. Gratings prepared by this method, like asymmetric multilayers deposited on plane substrates, are highly dispersive and efficient. Their extended size make them ideal for use in monochromators, spectrometers and pulse compressors.

  9. Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the <span class=Nanoscale Silver Final report"> This final report presents a case study of engineered nanoscale silver (nano-Ag), focusing on...

  10. Quantifying Nanoscale Order in Amorphous Materials via Fluctuation Electron Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogle, Stephanie Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) has been used to study the nanoscale order in various amorphous materials. The method is explicitly sensitive to 3- and 4-body atomic correlation functions in amorphous materials; this is sufficient to establish the existence of structural order on the nanoscale, even when the radial distribution function…

  11. Bumpy, Sticky, and Shaky: Nanoscale Science and the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Amy; Jones, Gail; Pearl, Thomas P.

    2008-01-01

    Nanoscience, or the study of the world at the size of a billionth of a meter, has the potential to help students see how all of the sciences are related. Behavior of materials at the nanoscale differs from materials at the macroscale. This article introduces three nanoscale properties and how they relate to various science domains. Three

  12. Quantifying Nanoscale Order in Amorphous Materials via Fluctuation Electron Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogle, Stephanie Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) has been used to study the nanoscale order in various amorphous materials. The method is explicitly sensitive to 3- and 4-body atomic correlation functions in amorphous materials; this is sufficient to establish the existence of structural order on the nanoscale, even when the radial distribution function

  13. Effective dechlorination of HCB by nanoscale Cu/Fe particles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Nairuo; Luan, Hongwei; Yuan, Songhu; Chen, Jing; Wu, Xiaohui; Wang, Linling

    2010-04-15

    We previously reported that microscale Cu/Fe bimetal could be used for the dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a representative polychlorinated persistent organic pollutant (POPs). But slow reduction rate and rather incomplete dechlorination were reached. In this study, HCB dechlorination by nanoscale Fe and Cu/Fe was evaluated. It was found that HCB reduction by nanoscale Fe was rather slow, and the reduction was significantly increased by nanoscale Cu/Fe. Near complete reduction of HCB was obtained by nanoscale Cu/Fe for 48 h treatment. HCB was quickly dechlorinated to PeCB, TeCBs, TCBs and DCBs without selectivity via a stepwise process. The reduction rate and dechlorination extent were much higher compared with microscale Cu/Fe. Lowering pH during reduction showed slightly negative influence on HCB reduction by nanoscale Cu/Fe due to retarded co-precipitation. A catalytic hydrogenation process on Cu surface through iron oxide film was suggested for the increased HCB reduction by Cu coating on nanoscale Fe. This study proved that using a much cheaper bimetallic iron of nanoscale Cu/Fe than nanoscale Pd/Fe could also achieve the effective dechlorination of HCB. PMID:19969417

  14. Fabrication of Nanoscale Circuits on Inkjet-Printing Patterned Substrates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuoran; Su, Meng; Zhang, Cong; Gao, Meng; Bao, Bin; Yang, Qiang; Su, Bin; Song, Yanlin

    2015-07-01

    Nanoscale circuits are fabricated by assembling different conducting materials (e.g., metal nanoparticles, metal nano-wires, graphene, carbon nanotubes, and conducting polymers) on inkjet-printing patterned substrates. This non-litho-graphy strategy opens a new avenue for integrating conducting building blocks into nanoscale devices in a cost-efficient manner. PMID:26011403

  15. Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the <span class=Nanoscale Silver Final report"> This final report presents a case study of engineered nanoscale silver (nano-Ag), focusing on...

  16. Method to determine thermal profiles of nanoscale circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Zettl, Alexander K; Begtrup, Gavi E

    2013-04-30

    A platform that can measure the thermal profiles of devices with nanoscale resolution has been developed. The system measures the local temperature by using an array of nanoscale thermometers. This process can be observed in real time using a high resolution imagining technique such as electron microscopy. The platform can operate at extremely high temperatures.

  17. Molecular dynamics studies on nanoscale gas transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barisik, Murat

    Three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nanoscale gas flows are studied to reveal surface effects. A smart wall model that drastically reduces the memory requirements of MD simulations for gas flows is introduced. The smart wall molecular dynamics (SWMD) represents three-dimensional FCC walls using only 74 wall Molecules. This structure is kept in the memory and utilized for each gas molecule surface collision. Using SWMD, fluid behavior within nano-scale confinements is studied for argon in dilute gas, dense gas, and liquid states. Equilibrium MD method is employed to resolve the density and stress variations within the static fluid. Normal stress calculations are based on the Irving-Kirkwood method, which divides the stress tensor into its kinetic and virial parts. The kinetic component recovers pressure based on the ideal gas law. The particle-particle virial increases with increased density, while the surface-particle virial develops due to the surface force field effects. Normal stresses within nano-scale confinements show anisotropy induced primarily by the surface force-field and local variations in the fluid density near the surfaces. For dilute and dense gas cases, surface-force field that extends typically 1nm from each wall induces anisotropic normal stress. For liquid case, this effect is further amplified by the density fluctuations that extend beyond the three field penetration region. Outside the wall force-field penetration and density fluctuation regions the normal stress becomes isotropic and recovers the thermodynamic pressure, provided that sufficiently large force cut-off distances are utilized in the computations. Next, non-equilibrium SWMD is utilized to investigate the surface-gas interaction effects on nanoscale shear-driven gas flows in the transition and free molecular flow regimes. For the specified surface properties and gas-surface pair interactions, density and stress profiles exhibit a universal behavior inside the wall force penetration region at different flow conditions. Shear stress results are utilized to calculate the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient (TMAC) between argon gas and FCC walls. The TMAC value is shown to he independent of the now properties and Knudsen number in all simulations. Velocity profiles show distinct deviations from the kinetic theory based solutions inside the wall force penetration depth, while they match the linearized Boltzmann equation solution outside these zones. Afterwards, surface effects are studied as a function of the surface-gas potential strength ratio (epsilon wf/epsilonff) for the shear driven argon gas flows in the early transition and tree molecular flow regimes. Results show that increased epsilonwf/epsilon ff results in increased gas density, leading towards monolayer adsorption on surfaces. The near wall velocity profile shows reduced gas slip, and eventually velocity stick with increased epsilonwf/epsilon ff. Similarly, using MD predicted shear stress values and kinetic theory, TMAC are calculated as a function of epsilonwf/epsilon ff and TMAC values are shown to be independent of the Knudsen number. Results indicate emergence of the wall force field penetration depth as an additional length scale for gas flows in nano-channels, breaking the dynamic similarity between rarefied and nano-scale gas flows solely based on the Knudsen and Mach numbers.

  18. Preparation and characterization on nano-hybrid composite solid polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP /MG49-ZrO2 for battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee T., K.; Ahmad, A.; Hasyareeda, N.

    2014-09-01

    Initial study on nano composite polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP/MG49-ZrO2 has been done. The zirconium was synthesis via in-situ sol-gel method in a dissolved polymer blends. The effects of different concentrations of zirconium and pH values have been investigated on nano composite polymer (NCP). Analysis impedance show that only at 6 wt. % of zirconium for all pH values show a semi-circle arc which have lowest value of bulk resistance. No ionic conductivity value is obtain due to the absent of ion charge carriers. Analysis of XRD revealed that crystallinity phase of the nano composite polymer was affect by different pH values. However, no significant changes have been observed in IR bands. This could well indicate that different pH medium did not affect the chemical bonding in the structure.

  19. Charge-discharge studies on a lithium cell composed of PVdF-HFP polymer membranes prepared by phase inversion technique with a nanocomposite cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel Stephan, A.; Teeters, Dale

    A novel polymer membrane of poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) co-polymer was prepared by the phase inversion technique with two different non-solvents, 1-butanol or hexane. The prepared films were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and nitrogen absorption/desorption techniques. The change in the morphology and pore diameter of the films prepared with different non-solvents correlates with the structure of the non-solvents used. This electrolyte membrane was coupled with a nanocomposite LiAl 0.01Co 0.99O 2 cathode which was prepared by a solid-state reaction method and subsequently by ball-milling. Lithium cells consisting of LiAl 0.01Co 0.99O 2/polymer electrolyte/Li were assembled and their charge-discharge studies were investigated.

  20. Preparation and characterization on nano-hybrid composite solid polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP /MG49-ZrO{sub 2} for battery application

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T. K.; Ahmad, A.; Hasyareeda, N.

    2014-09-03

    Initial study on nano composite polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP/MG49-ZrO{sub 2} has been done. The zirconium was synthesis via in-situ sol-gel method in a dissolved polymer blends. The effects of different concentrations of zirconium and pH values have been investigated on nano composite polymer (NCP). Analysis impedance show that only at 6 wt. % of zirconium for all pH values show a semi-circle arc which have lowest value of bulk resistance. No ionic conductivity value is obtain due to the absent of ion charge carriers. Analysis of XRD revealed that crystallinity phase of the nano composite polymer was affect by different pH values. However, no significant changes have been observed in IR bands. This could well indicate that different pH medium did not affect the chemical bonding in the structure.

  1. Impact of ethylene carbonate on ion transport characteristics of PVdF-AgCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} polymer electrolyte system

    SciTech Connect

    Austin Suthanthiraraj, S.; Joice Sheeba, D.; Joseph Paul, B.

    2009-07-01

    The ionic transport in thin film plasticized polymer electrolytes based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) as the polymer host, silver triflate (AgCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) as salt and ethylene carbonate (EC) as plasticizer prepared by solution casting technique has been reported. Addition of silver triflate has resulted in an increase in the room temperature (298 K) electrical conductivity of the polymer from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} whereas incorporation of EC as the plasticizer has further enhanced the conductivity value by an order of magnitude to 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} owing to the possible decrease in crystallinity of the polymer matrix as revealed by the detailed temperature-dependent complex impedance, silver ionic transference number, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction measurements.

  2. Fine tuning of activity for nanoscale catalysts.

    SciTech Connect

    Strmcnik, D.; van derVliet, D.; Lucas, C.; Karapetrov, G.; Markovic, N.; Stamenkovic, V.; Materials Science Division

    2008-01-01

    Ability to tune the electronic and structural properties of nanocatalysts can potentially lead towards the superior catalytic enhancement that was reported for the Pt{sub 3}Ni(111)-skin surface. Here we report investigation of the extended well-defined surfaces of Pt and PtM alloys (M=Ni,Co,Fe,V,Ti,Re) as well as Pt(hkl) single crystalline surfaces for various catalytic reaction. The electrode surfaces were initially characterized in ultra-high vacuum by AES, LEIS and UPS before controlled transfer into electrochemical environment. Catalytic properties have been determined in three compartment electrochemical cell for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by rotational disk electrode technique. The single crystalline surfaces of Pt electrodes have been used to benchmark the activity range that could be expected on pure Pt electrodes. We have proposed that surface modifications induced by the second metal, and consequent catalytic enhancements could occur through the following effects: (1) Electronic effect, due to changes in the metallic d-band center position vs. Fermi level; and (2) Structural effect, which reflects relationship between atomic geometry, and/or surface chemistry, i.e., dissolution - surface roughening. It has been reported that Pt bimetallic alloys, could form surfaces with two different compositions. Due to surface segregation annealed surfaces can form the outermost Pt-skin surface layer, while the lightly sputtered surfaces have the bulk ratio of alloying components and form Pt-skeleton outermost layers as a result of dissolution of non-precious atoms. In principle, different near-surface compositions (Pt-skin, Pt-skeleton and polycrystalline Pt) have been found to have different electronic structures. Modification in Pt electronic properties alters adsorption/catalytic properties of corresponding materials. The most active systems for the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are established to be the Pt-skin near-surface formation. The similar levels of catalytic enhancement have been established for corresponding nanoscale materials. In addition to electronic properties we have found how catalytic activity could be affected by the arrangement of surface defects on nanoscale surfaces. Ability to control surface and near surface catalyst properties enables fine tuning of catalytic activity and stability of nanoscale surfaces.

  3. Probing nanoscale ferroelectricity by ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenne, Dmitri

    2007-03-01

    Conventional vibrational spectroscopies operating in visible and infrared range fail to measure the phonon spectra of nanoscale ferroelectric structures because of extremely weak signals and the overwhelming substrate contribution. In this talk, application of ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy for studies of lattice dynamics and ferroelectric phase transitions in nanoscale ferroelectrics will be presented. We demonstrate that UV Raman spectroscopy is an effective technique allowing the observation of phonons and determination of the ferroelectric phase transition temperature (Tc) in nanoscale ferroelectrics, specifically, BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices having the ferroelectric BaTiO3 layers as thin as 1 unit cell, and single BaTiO3 layers as thin as 4 nm. BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices and ultrathin BaTiO3 films studied were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on SrTiO3 as well as GdScO3 and DyScO3 substrates. Excellent epitaxial quality and atomically abrupt interfaces are evidenced by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. UV Raman results show that one-unit-cell thick BaTiO3 layers in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices are ferroelectric with the Tc as high as 250 K, and induce the polarization in much thicker SrTiO3 layers adjacent to them. The Tc in superlattices was tuned by hundreds of degrees from 170 to 650 K by varying the thicknesses of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 layers. Using scandate substrates enables growth of superlattices with systematically changed coherent strain, thus allowing studying the stress effect on the ferroelectric phase transitions. UV Raman data are supported by the thermodynamic calculations of polarization in superlattices as a function of temperature. The work was done in collaboration with A. Soukiassian, W. Tian, D.G. Schlom, Y.L. Li, L.-Q. Chen, X.X. Xi (Pennsylvania State University), A. Bruchhausen, A. Fainstein (Centro Atomico Bariloche & Instituto Balseiro, Argentina), R. S. Katiyar (University of Puerto Rico), A. Cantarero (University of Valencia, Spain), K.J. Choi, D.M. Kim, C.-B. Eom (University of Wisconsin), H.P. Sun, X.Q. Pan (University of Michigan), S.M. Nakhmanson; K.M. Rabe (Rutgers University), Q.X. Jia (Los Alamos National Laboratory)

  4. Design and development of multilayer vascular graft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Krishna

    2011-07-01

    Vascular graft is a widely-used medical device for the treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysm as well as for the use of vascular access and pediatric shunt, which are major causes of mortality and morbidity in this world. Dysfunction of vascular grafts often occurs, particularly for grafts with diameter less than 6mm, and is associated with the design of graft materials. Mechanical strength, compliance, permeability, endothelialization and availability are issues of most concern for vascular graft materials. To address these issues, we have designed a biodegradable, compliant graft made of hybrid multilayer by combining an intimal equivalent, electrospun heparin-impregnated poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanofibers, with a medial equivalent, a crosslinked collagen-chitosan-based gel scaffold. The intimal equivalent is designed to build mechanical strength and stability suitable for in vivo grafting and to prevent thrombosis. The medial equivalent is designed to serve as a scaffold for the activity of the smooth muscle cells important for vascular healing and regeneration. Our results have shown that genipin is a biocompatible crosslinker to enhance the mechanical properties of collagen-chitosan based scaffolds, and the degradation time and the activity of smooth muscle cells in the scaffold can be modulated by the crosslinking degree. For vascular grafting and regeneration in vivo, an important design parameter of the hybrid multilayer is the interface adhesion between the intimal and medial equivalents. With diametrically opposite affinities to water, delamination of the two layers occurs. Physical or chemical modification techniques were thus used to enhance the adhesion. Microscopic examination and graft-relevant functional characterizations have been performed to evaluate these techniques. Results from characterization of microstructure and functional properties, including burst strength, compliance, water permeability and suture strength, showed that the multilayer graft possessed properties mimicking those of native vessels. Achieving these FDA-required functional properties is essential because they play critical roles in graft performances in vivo such as thrombus formation, occlusion, healing, and bleeding. In addition, cell studies and animal studies have been performed on the multilayer graft. Our results show that the multilayer graft support mimetic vascular culture of cells and the acellular graft serves as an artery equivalent in vivo to sustain the physiological conditions and promote appropriate cellular activity. In conclusion, the newly-developed hybrid multilayer graft provides a proper balance of biomechanical and biochemical properties and demonstrates the potential for the use of vascular tissue engineering and regeneration.

  5. Method to adjust multilayer film stress induced deformation of optics

    DOEpatents

    Spiller, Eberhard A.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Montcalm, Claude; Bajt, Sasa; Folta, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Stress compensating systems that reduces/compensates stress in a multilayer without loss in reflectivity, while reducing total film thickness compared to the earlier buffer-layer approach. The stress free multilayer systems contain multilayer systems with two different material combinations of opposite stress, where both systems give good reflectivity at the design wavelengths. The main advantage of the multilayer system design is that stress reduction does not require the deposition of any additional layers, as in the buffer layer approach. If the optical performance of the two systems at the design wavelength differ, the system with the poorer performance is deposited first, and then the system with better performance last, thus forming the top of the multilayer system. The components for the stress reducing layer are chosen among materials that have opposite stress to that of the preferred multilayer reflecting stack and simultaneously have optical constants that allow one to get good reflectivity at the design wavelength. For a wavelength of 13.4 nm, the wavelength presently used for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, Si and Be have practically the same optical constants, but the Mo/Si multilayer has opposite stress than the Mo/Be multilayer. Multilayer systems of these materials have practically identical reflectivity curves. For example, stress free multilayers can be formed on a substrate using Mo/Be multilayers in the bottom of the stack and Mo/Si multilayers at the top of the stack, with the switch-over point selected to obtain zero stress. In this multilayer system, the switch-over point is at about the half point of the total thickness of the stack, and for the Mo/Be--Mo/Si system, there may be 25 deposition periods Mo/Be to 20 deposition periods Mo/Si.

  6. Nanoscale control of phonon excitations in graphene

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Won; Ko, Wonhee; Ku, JiYeon; Jeon, Insu; Kim, Donggyu; Kwon, Hyeokshin; Oh, Youngtek; Ryu, Seunghwa; Kuk, Young; Hwang, Sung Woo; Suh, Hwansoo

    2015-01-01

    Phonons, which are collective excitations in a lattice of atoms or molecules, play a major role in determining various physical properties of condensed matter, such as thermal and electrical conductivities. In particular, phonons in graphene interact strongly with electrons; however, unlike in usual metals, these interactions between phonons and massless Dirac fermions appear to mirror the rather complicated physics of those between light and relativistic electrons. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the underlying physics through systematic studies of phonon interactions and excitations in graphene is crucial for realising graphene-based devices. In this study, we demonstrate that the local phonon properties of graphene can be controlled at the nanoscale by tuning the interaction strength between graphene and an underlying Pt substrate. Using scanning probe methods, we determine that the reduced interaction due to embedded Ar atoms facilitates electron–phonon excitations, further influencing phonon-assisted inelastic electron tunnelling. PMID:26109454

  7. Transmission of torque at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ian; O?uz, Erdal C.; Speck, Thomas; Bartlett, Paul; Lwen, Hartmut; Royall, C. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In macroscopic mechanical devices, torque is transmitted through gearwheels and clutches. In the construction of devices at the nanoscale, torque and its transmission through soft materials will be a key component. However, this regime is dominated by thermal fluctuations leading to dissipation. Here we demonstrate the principle of torque transmission for a disc-like colloidal assembly exhibiting clutch-like behaviour, driven by 27 particles in optical traps. These are translated on a circular path to form a rotating boundary that transmits torque to additional particles confined to the interior. We investigate this transmission and find that it is determined by solid-like or fluid-like behaviour of the device and a stick-slip mechanism reminiscent of macroscopic gearwheels slipping. The transmission behaviour is predominantly governed by the rotation rate of the boundary and the density of the confined system. We determine the efficiency of our device and thus optimize conditions to maximize power output.

  8. Nanoscale characterization of engineered cementitious composites (ECC)

    SciTech Connect

    Sakulich, Aaron Richard Li, Victor C.

    2011-02-15

    Engineered cementitious composites (ECC) are ultra-ductile fiber-reinforced cementitious composites. The nanoscale chemical and mechanical properties of three ECC formulae (one standard formula, and two containing nanomaterial additives) were studied using nanoindentation, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Nanoindentation results highlight the difference in modulus between bulk matrix ({approx} 30 GPa) and matrix/fiber interfacial transition zones as well as between matrix and unreacted fly ash ({approx} 20 GPa). The addition of carbon black or carbon nanotubes produced little variation in moduli when compared to standard M45-ECC. The indents were observed by electron microscopy; no trace of the carbon black particles could be found, but nanotubes, including nanotubes bridging cracks, were easily located in ultrafine cracks near PVA fibers. Elemental analysis failed to show a correlation between modulus and chemical composition, implying that factors such as porosity have more of an effect on mechanical properties than elemental composition.

  9. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOEpatents

    Helble, Joseph J. (Andover, MA); Moniz, Gary A. (Windham, NH); Morse, Theodore F. (Little Compton, RI)

    1997-02-04

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  10. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOEpatents

    Helble, Joseph J. (Andover, MA); Moniz, Gary A. (Windham, NH); Morse, Theodore F. (Little Compton, RI)

    1995-09-05

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  11. Detecting nanoscale vibrations as signature of life

    PubMed Central

    Kasas, Sandor; Ruggeri, Francesco Simone; Benadiba, Carine; Maillard, Caroline; Stupar, Petar; Tournu, Hlne; Dietler, Giovanni; Longo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The existence of life in extreme conditions, in particular in extraterrestrial environments, is certainly one of the most intriguing scientific questions of our time. In this report, we demonstrate the use of an innovative nanoscale motion sensor in life-searching experiments in Earth-bound and interplanetary missions. This technique exploits the sensitivity of nanomechanical oscillators to transduce the small fluctuations that characterize living systems. The intensity of such movements is an indication of the viability of living specimens and conveys information related to their metabolic activity. Here, we show that the nanomotion detector can assess the viability of a vast range of biological specimens and that it could be the perfect complement to conventional chemical life-detection assays. Indeed, by combining chemical and dynamical measurements, we could achieve an unprecedented depth in the characterization of life in extreme and extraterrestrial environments. PMID:25548177

  12. Nanoscale magnetic heat pumps and engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Bretzel, Stefan; Brataas, Arne; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2010-01-01

    We present the linear-response matrix for a sliding domain wall in a rotatable magnetic nanowire, which is driven out of equilibrium by temperature and voltage bias, mechanical torque, and magnetic field. An expression for heat-current-induced domain-wall motion is derived. Application of Onsager’s reciprocity relation leads to a unified description of the Barnett and Einstein-de Haas effects as well as spin-dependent thermoelectric properties. We envisage various heat pumps and engines, such as coolers driven by magnetic fields or mechanical rotation as well as nanoscale motors that convert temperature gradients into useful work. All parameters (with the exception of mechanical friction) can be computed microscopically by the scattering theory of transport.

  13. Exploring Transport Effects in Nanoscale Graphene Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worne, Jeff; Galande, Charudatta; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Ajayan, Pulickel; Natelson, Douglas

    2011-03-01

    Graphene, the single- to few-atomic layers cousin to graphite, has become a very interesting topic of research owing to its unique mechanical, optical, thermal and electrical properties. Many of the properties of graphene can be traced to its structural uniformity, allowing both electrons and holes to travel long distances (up to several microns) before scattering. However, studying graphene on the micron level can mask its true nanoscale behavior. Using very short length scales allows for the investigation of the behavior of charge impurities, contact effects and ballistic transport. In this work, we fabricate sub-30 nanometer suspended graphene 3-terminal devices on gold and platinum electrodes. We present data from electrical measurements on charge impurities that are apparent at this length scale and the effect of electrode work function on contact resistance. We compare this to mechanically exfoliated graphene on a silicon/SiO2 substrate with gold electrodes.

  14. Detecting nanoscale vibrations as signature of life.

    PubMed

    Kasas, Sandor; Ruggeri, Francesco Simone; Benadiba, Carine; Maillard, Caroline; Stupar, Petar; Tournu, Hlne; Dietler, Giovanni; Longo, Giovanni

    2015-01-13

    The existence of life in extreme conditions, in particular in extraterrestrial environments, is certainly one of the most intriguing scientific questions of our time. In this report, we demonstrate the use of an innovative nanoscale motion sensor in life-searching experiments in Earth-bound and interplanetary missions. This technique exploits the sensitivity of nanomechanical oscillators to transduce the small fluctuations that characterize living systems. The intensity of such movements is an indication of the viability of living specimens and conveys information related to their metabolic activity. Here, we show that the nanomotion detector can assess the viability of a vast range of biological specimens and that it could be the perfect complement to conventional chemical life-detection assays. Indeed, by combining chemical and dynamical measurements, we could achieve an unprecedented depth in the characterization of life in extreme and extraterrestrial environments. PMID:25548177

  15. Control of friction at the nanoscale

    DOEpatents

    Barhen, Jacob; Braiman, Yehuda Y.; Protopopescu, Vladimir

    2010-04-06

    Methods and apparatus are described for control of friction at the nanoscale. A method of controlling frictional dynamics of a plurality of particles using non-Lipschitzian control includes determining an attribute of the plurality of particles; calculating an attribute deviation by subtracting the attribute of the plurality of particles from a target attribute; calculating a non-Lipschitzian feedback control term by raising the attribute deviation to a fractionary power .xi.=(2m+1)/(2n+1) where n=1, 2, 3 . . . and m=0, 1, 2, 3 . . . , with m strictly less than n and then multiplying by a control amplitude; and imposing the non-Lipschitzian feedback control term globally on each of the plurality of particles; imposing causes a subsequent magnitude of the attribute deviation to be reduced.

  16. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  17. Nanoscale defect detection by heterodyne interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Haoshan; Li Yuhe; Wang Dongsheng; Tong Xiaolei; Liu Mei

    2009-03-10

    We construct an instrument that facilitates the measurement of nanoscale defects. It is based on heterodyne interferometry with phase measurement that utilizes a polarizing beam splitter to form a measuring signal and an oscillating cantilever tip that acts as a scanning probe to get the measurement values of sample topography. The dependence of the tip displacement on the variation of tip-sample distance and the comb scanning of the sample topography are investigated by experiments. The results prove that the tip displacement increases and is enough to be discriminated in various positions where the sample is approached. The system has been successfully utilized to measure the defect characterization by measuring the pitch of the standard sample. The results also show that the heterodyne system has good repeatability, a large measurement range, and high accuracy, with a measurement stability of 0.5 nm.

  18. Bayesian localisation microscopy reveals nanoscale podosome dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Susan; Rosten, Edward; Monypenny, James; Jovanovic-Talisman, Tijana; Burnette, Dylan T.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Jones, Gareth E.; Heintzmann, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a localization microscopy analysis method that is able to extract results in live cells using standard fluorescent proteins and Xenon arc lamp illumination. Our Bayesian analysis of blinking and bleaching (3B analysis) method models the entire dataset simultaneously as being generated by a number of fluorophores which may or may not be emitting light at any given time. The resulting technique allows many overlapping fluorophores in each frame, and unifies the analysis of localization from blinking and bleaching events. By modeling the entire dataset we are able to use each reappearance of a fluorophore to improve the localization accuracy. The high performance of this technique allows us to reveal the nanoscale dynamics of podosome formation and dissociation with a resolution of 50 nm on a four second timescale. PMID:22138825

  19. Modular Synthesis of Functional Nanoscale Coordination Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wenbin; Rieter, William J.; Taylor, Kathryn M. L.

    2013-01-01

    The coordination-directed assembly of metal ions and organic bridging ligands has afforded a variety of bulk-scale hybrid materials with promising characteristics for a number of practical applications, such as gas storage and heterogeneous catalysis. Recently, so-called coordination polymers have emerged as a new class of hybrid nanomaterials. Herein, we highlight advances in the syntheses of both amorphous and crystalline nanoscale coordination polymers. We also illustrate how scaling down these materials to the nano-regime has enabled their use in a broad range of applications including catalysis, spin-crossover, templating, biosensing, biomedical imaging, and anticancer drug delivery. These results underscore the exciting opportunities of developing next-generation functional nanomaterials based on molecular components. PMID:19065692

  20. Carbon-bearing fluids at nanoscale interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, David; Ok, Salim; Phan, A; Rother, Gernot; Striolo, Alberto; Vlcek, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of fluids at mineral surfaces or in confined geometries (pores, fractures) typically differs from their bulk behaviour in many ways due to the effects of large internal surfaces and geometrical confinement. We summarize research performed on C-O-H fluids at nanoscale interfaces in materials of interest to the earth and material sciences (e.g., silica, alumina, zeolites, clays, rocks, etc.), emphasizing those techniques that assess microstructural modification and/or dynamical behaviour such as gravimetric analysis, small-angle (SANS) neutron scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations will be described that provide atomistic characterization of interfacial and confined fluid behaviour as well as aid in the interpretation of the neutron scattering results.

  1. PREFACE: Superconductivity in ultrathin films and nanoscale systems Superconductivity in ultrathin films and nanoscale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Antonio; Bose, Sangita; Garcia-Garcia, Antonio Miguel

    2012-12-01

    The recent technological developments in the synthesis and characterization of high-quality nanostructures and developments in the theoretical techniques needed to model these materials, have motivated this focus section of Superconductor Science and Technology. Another motivation is the compelling evidence that all new superconducting materials, such as iron pnictides and chalcogenides, diborides (doped MgB2) and fullerides (alkali-doped C60 compounds), are heterostrucures at the atomic limit, such as the cuprates made of stacks of nanoscale superconducting layers intercalated by different atomic layers with nanoscale periodicity. Recently a great amount of interest has been shown in the role of lattice nano-architecture in controlling the fine details of Fermi surface topology. The experimental and theoretical study of superconductivity in the nanoscale started in the early 1960s, shortly after the discovery of the BCS theory. Thereafter there has been rapid progress both in experiments and the theoretical understanding of nanoscale superconductors. Experimentally, thin films, granular films, nanowires, nanotubes and single nanoparticles have all been explored. New quantum effects appear in the nanoscale related to multi-component condensates. Advances in the understanding of shape resonances or Fano resonances close to 2.5 Lifshitz transitions near a band edge in nanowires, 2D films and superlattices [1, 2] of these nanosized modules, provide the possibility of manipulating new quantum electronic states. Parity effects and shell effects in single, isolated nanoparticles have been reported by several groups. Theoretically, newer techniques based on solving Richardson's equation (an exact theory incorporating finite size effects to the BCS theory) numerically by path integral methods or solving the entire Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation in these limits have been attempted, which has improved our understanding of the mechanism of superconductivity in these confined systems. In addition, the role of thermodynamic fluctuations on superconducting properties has been extensively studied in the context of nanoparticles and nanowires both experimentally and theoretically. In the past decade, a lot of work has been initiated in the area of interface superconductivity where different techniques have been demonstrated to tune Tc. Although the progress in this field has deepened our understanding of nanoscale superconductors, there are several open and key questions which need to be addressed. Some of these are: (1) can superconductivity be enhanced and Tc increased in nanostructures with respect to the bulk limit and if so, how can it be controlled? (2) What are the theoretical and experimental limits for the enhancement and control of superconductivity? (3) Can the phenomena identified in conventional nanostructures shed light on phenomena in high Tc superconductors and vice versa? (4) How will the new fundamental physics of superconductivity at the nanoscale promote advances in nanotechnology applications and vice versa? The papers in this focus section reflect the advances made in this field, in particular in nanowires and nanofilms, but also attempt to answer some of the key open questions outlined above. The theoretical papers explore unconventional quantum phenomena such as the role of confinement in the dynamics of single Cooper pairs in isolated grains [1] and Fano resonances in superconducting gaps in multi-condensate superconductors near a 2.5 Lifshitz transition [2]. Here a new emerging class of quantum phenomena of fundamental physics appear at the Bose-BCS crossover in multi-condensate superconductors [2]. Nanosize effects can now be manipulated by controlling defects in layered oxides [3]. A new approach is provided by controlling the self-organization of oxygen interstitials in layered copper oxides that show an intrinsic nanoscale phase separation [4]. In this case a non-trivial distribution of superconducting nanograins appears to enhance the critical temperature [4]. This is a hot topic as in the past year many works have clarified the nanoscale phase separation in electron-doped chalcogenides, showing the key role of a complex texture of nanograins and opening new avenues for the fundamental understanding of quantum phenomena in networks of superconducting nanograins. The advances in nanotechnology allow the exploration of the possible existence of superconductivity in single carbon nanotubes [5]. The technological applications presented by Gomez [6] and Lehtinen [7] show the fundamental physics of superconductivity at the nanoscale to promote new advances in quantum devices. We hope that this combination will make these focus papers in Superconductor Science and Technology interesting and promote cross-fertilization among the different sub-branches of the field which all share the same goal of addressing the key questions on nanoscale superconductors. References [1]Croitoru M D, Vagov A, Shanenko A A and Axt V M 2012 The Cooper problem in nanoscale: enhancement of the coupling due to confinement Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25 124001 [2]Perali A, Innocenti A, Valletta A and Bianconi A 2012 Anomalous isotope effect near a 2.5 Lifshitz transition in a multi-band multi-condensate superconductor made of a superlattice of stripes Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25 124002 [3]Zeng S W, Huang Z, Wang X, L W M, Liu Z Q, Zhang B M, Dhar S, Venkatesan T and Ariando 2012 The influence of La substitution and oxygen reduction in ambipolar La-doped YBa2Cu3Oy thin films Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25 124003 [4]Poccia N, Bianconi A, Campi G, Fratini M and Ricci A 2012 Size evolution of the oxygen interstitial nanowires in La2CuO4+y by thermal treatments and x-ray continuous illumination Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25 124004 [5]Yang Y, Fedorov G, Zhang J, Tselev A, Shafranjuk S and Barbara P 2012 The search for superconductivity at van Hove singularities in carbon nanotubes Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25 124005 [6]Gomez A, Gonzalez E M and Vicent J L 2012 Superconducting vortex dynamics on arrays with bicrystal-like structures: matching and rectifier effects Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25 124006 [7]Lehtinen J S and Arutyunov K Yu 2012 The quantum phase slip phenomenon in superconducting nanowires with a low-Ohmic environment Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25 124007

  2. Nondestructive characterization of nanoscale layered samples.

    PubMed

    Baake, Olaf; Hoffmann, Peter S; Flege, Stefan; Ortner, Hugo M; Gottschalk, Sebastian; Berky, Wolfram; Balogh, Adam G; Ensinger, Wolfgang; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Kolbe, Michael; Gerlach, Martin; Pollakowski, Beatrix; Weser, Jan; Ulm, Gerhard; Haschke, Michael; Blokhina, Elena; Peter, Markus; Porta, Dominique; Heck, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Multilayered samples consisting of Al, Co and Ni nanolayers were produced by MBE and characterized nondestructively by means of SRXRF, mu-XRF, WDXRF, RBS, XRR, and destructively with SIMS. The main aims were to identify the elements, to determine their purity and their sequence, and also to examine the roughness, density, homogeneity and thickness of each layer. Most of these important properties could be determined by XRF methods, e.g., on commercial devices. For the thickness, it was found that all of the results obtained via XRR, RBS, SIMS and various XRF methods (SRXRF, mu-XRF, WDXRF) agreed with each other within the limits of uncertainty, and a constant deviation from the presets used in the MBE production method was observed. Some serious preliminary discrepancies in the results from the XRF methods were examined, but all deviations could be explained by introducing various corrections into the evaluation methods and/or redetermining some fundamental parameters. PMID:18998118

  3. Transformation of chlorinated methanes by nanoscale iron particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lien, H.L.; Zhang, W.X.

    1999-11-01

    This paper examines the potential of using laboratory-synthesized nanoscale iron particles to transform chlorinated methanes. The iron particles have diameters on the order of 1--100 nm. Palladized iron particles were prepared by depositing palladium on the surface of iron. Batch experiments were conducted to compare reactions of chlorinated methanes with palladized nanoscale iron, nanoscale iron, and commercial grade iron particles. Rapid transformations of tetrachloromethane (CT) and trichloromethane (CF) were achieved with the palladized nanoscale iron particles. Typically 0.1 mM CT or CF was reduced below detection limits within 1 h. Methane and dichloromethane (DCM) were the major end products. Yields of methane and DCM from CT were 52% and 23%, respectively. Little degradation of DCM was observed within 72 h. With the nanoscale iron and commercial-grade iron particles, much slower reactions of chlorinated methanes were observed. Kinetic analyses indicated that the surface area-normalized rate coefficients k{sub SA} of the nanoscale iron and commercial grade iron particles were one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of the palladized nanoscale iron.

  4. The structure and dynamics of multilayer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaletti, S.; Bianconi, G.; Criado, R.; del Genio, C. I.; Gmez-Gardees, J.; Romance, M.; Sendia-Nadal, I.; Wang, Z.; Zanin, M.

    2014-11-01

    In the past years, network theory has successfully characterized the interaction among the constituents of a variety of complex systems, ranging from biological to technological, and social systems. However, up until recently, attention was almost exclusively given to networks in which all components were treated on equivalent footing, while neglecting all the extra information about the temporal- or context-related properties of the interactions under study. Only in the last years, taking advantage of the enhanced resolution in real data sets, network scientists have directed their interest to the multiplex character of real-world systems, and explicitly considered the time-varying and multilayer nature of networks. We offer here a comprehensive review on both structural and dynamical organization of graphs made of diverse relationships (layers) between its constituents, and cover several relevant issues, from a full redefinition of the basic structural measures, to understanding how the multilayer nature of the network affects processes and dynamics.

  5. Multilayer self-structured bubble memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamin, M.; Krawczak, J. A.; Lins, S. J.; Torok, E. J.; Stermer, R. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Research work on multilayer self-structured bubble memories is at an early stage. The coupling of bubbles to stripes is investigated theoretically and experimentally and shown to be adequate for propagation. Propagation of stripes is demonstrated both by current access and field access techniques. These propagation techniques are of prime interest because they can eliminate most photographic features from the storage area. Multilayer films offer great promise for higher-capacity higher-density memories in which most of the photolithography has been eliminated and the minimum feature size of much of the remaining has been increased. Furthermore, stripe propagation can be carried out with current access, providing a significant reduction in packaging cost and power consumption over field access devices.

  6. Characterization of multilayers for extended ultraviolet optics

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, F.E.; Falco, C.M.; Dhez, P.; Khandar-Shahabad, A.; Nevot, L.; Pardo, B.; Corno, J.; Vidal, B.

    1987-09-21

    We describe an extensive characterization procedure developed to study multilayers for extended ultraviolet (XUV, 1 Aapprox. multilayers designed as normal-incidence XUV reflectors for --200 A. Techniques used were low-angle x-ray diffraction, Bragg--Brentano and Seemann--Bohlin diffraction, wide-film Debye--Scherrer (Read) camera, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Reflectances at several incidence angles were measured with synchrotron radiation and found to agree very well with reflectance curves calculated without adjustable parameters. The information obtained from the different techniques forms a coherent picture of the structure of these materials.

  7. Characterization of multilayers for extended ultraviolet optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernndez, Flix E.; Falco, Charles M.; Dhez, P.; Khandar-Shahabad, A.; Nvot, L.; Pardo, B.; Corno, J.; Vidal, B.

    1987-09-01

    We describe an extensive characterization procedure developed to study multilayers for extended ultraviolet (XUV, 1 ???1000 ) optics. We present results of this procedure applied to sputtered Si/W multilayers designed as normal-incidence XUV reflectors for 200 . Techniques used were low-angle x-ray diffraction, Bragg-Brentano and Seemann-Bohlin diffraction, wide-film Debye-Scherrer (Read) camera, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Reflectances at several incidence angles were measured with synchrotron radiation and found to agree very well with reflectance curves calculated without adjustable parameters. The information obtained from the different techniques forms a coherent picture of the structure of these materials.

  8. Multiple wavelength photolithography for preparing multilayer microstructures

    DOEpatents

    Dentinger, Paul Michael (Livermore, CA); Krafcik, Karen Lee (Livermore, CA)

    2003-06-24

    The invention relates to a multilayer microstructure and a method for preparing thereof. The method involves first applying a first photodefinable composition having a first exposure wavelength on a substrate to form a first polymeric layer. A portion of the first photodefinable composition is then exposed to electromagnetic radiation of the first exposure wavelength to form a first pattern in the first polymeric layer. After exposing the first polymeric layer, a second photodefinable composition having a second exposure wavelength is applied on the first polymeric layer to form a second polymeric layer. A portion of the second photodefinable composition is then exposed to electromagnetic radiation of the second exposure wavelength to form a second pattern in the second polymeric layer. In addition, a portion of each layer is removed according to the patterns to form a multilayer microstructure having a cavity having a shape that corresponds to the portions removed.

  9. Topological edge modes in multilayer graphene systems.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lixin; Wang, Li; Xiao, Meng; Wen, Weijia; Chan, C T; Han, Dezhuan

    2015-08-24

    Plasmons can be supported on graphene sheets as the Dirac electrons oscillate collectively. A tight-binding model for graphene plasmons is a good description as the field confinement in the normal direction is strong. With this model, the topological properties of plasmonic bands in multilayer graphene systems are investigated. The Zak phases of periodic graphene sheet arrays are obtained for different configurations. Analogous to Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model in electronic systems, topological edge plasmon modes emerge when two periodic graphene sheet arrays with different Zak phases are connected. Interestingly, the dispersion of these topological edge modes is the same as that in the monolayer graphene and is invariant as the geometric parameters of the structure such as the separation and period change. These plasmonic edge states in multilayer graphene systems can be further tuned by electrical gating or chemical doping. PMID:26368137

  10. Multi-layer waste containment barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.M.; Gardner, B.M.; Nickelson, D.F.

    1999-10-05

    An apparatus is described for constructing an underground containment barrier for containing an in-situ portion of earth. The apparatus includes an excavating device for simultaneously (1) excavating earthen material from beside the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming an open side trench defined by opposing earthen sidewalls, and (2) excavating earthen material from beneath the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming a generally horizontal underground trench beneath the in-situ portion defined by opposing earthen sidewalls. The apparatus further includes a barrier-forming device attached to the excavating device for simultaneously forming a side barrier within the open trench and a generally horizontal, multi-layer barrier within the generally horizontal trench. The multi-layer barrier includes at least a first layer and a second layer.

  11. Acoustic analysis of anisotropic poroelastic multilayered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra Martinez, Juan Pablo; Dazel, Olivier; Göransson, Peter; Cuenca, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    The proposed method allows for an extended analysis of the wave analysis, internal powers, and acoustic performance of anisotropic poroelastic media within semi-infinite multilayered systems under arbitrary excitation. Based on a plane wave expansion, the solution is derived from a first order partial derivative as proposed by Stroh. This allows for an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms controlling the acoustic behaviour in terms of internal powers and wave properties in the media. In particular, the proposed approach is used to highlight the influence of the phenomena intrinsic to anisotropic poroelastic media, such as compression-shear coupling related to the material alignment, the frequency shift of the fundamental resonance, or the appearance of particular geometrical coincidences in multilayered systems with such materials.

  12. Resonant evanescent complex fields on dielectric multilayers.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Angelo

    2015-12-15

    Complex light fields, including evanescent Bessel beams, can be generated at dielectric interfaces by means of oil-immersion optics operating in total internal reflection conditions. Here we report on the observation of evanescent complex fields produced on a dielectric multilayer through the interference of surface modes resonantly sustained by the multilayer itself. The coupling to surface modes is attained by modifying the wavefront of an incident laser beam in such a way that the resulting intensity distribution in k-space matches the dispersion of the surface mode. The phase of surface modes can be further controlled, and two-dimensional vortex beams can also be produced according to the same working principle. PMID:26670502

  13. Functionalized multilayered graphene platform for urea sensor.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Saurabh; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Mahlotra, Bansi D; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Srivastava, Anchal

    2012-01-24

    Multilayered graphene (MLG) is an interesting material for electrochemical sensing and biosensing because of its very large 2D electrical conductivity and large surface area. We propose a less toxic, reproducible, and easy method for producing functionalized multilayer graphene from multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in mass scale using only concentrated H(2)SO(4)/HNO(3). Electron microscopy results show the MLG formation, whereas FTIR and XPS data suggest its carboxylic and hydroxyl-functionalized nature. We utilize this functionalized MLG for the fabrication of a novel amperometric urea biosensor. This biosensor shows linearity of 10-100 mg dL(-1), sensitivity of 5.43 ?A mg(-1) dL cm(-2), lower detection limit of 3.9 mg dL(-1), and response time of 10 s. Our results suggest that MLG is a promising material for electrochemical biosensing applications. PMID:22117758

  14. Multilayered (Hg,Cd)Te infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rae, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    Multilayered mercury-cadmium telluride photoconductive detectors were developed which are capable of providing individual coverage of three separate spectral wavelength bands without the use of beam splitters. The multilayered "three-color" detector on a single dewar takes the place of three separate detector/filter/dewar units and enables simpler and more reliable mechanical and optical designs for multispectral scanners and radiometers. Wavelength channel design goals (in micrometers) were: 10.1 to 11.0, 11.0 to 12.0, and 13.0. Detectivity for all channels was 1 x 10 to the 10th power cm-Hz 1/2/Watt. A problem occurred in finding an epoxy layer which had good infrared transmission properties and which also was chemically and mechanically compatible with HgCdTe processing techniques. Data on 6 candidate bonding materials are surveyed and discussed.

  15. Computerized multilevel analysis for multilayered fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    A FORTRAN 4 computer code for the micromechanics, macromechanics, and laminate analysis of multilayered fiber composite structural components is described. The code can be used either individually or as a subroutine within a complex structural analysis/synthesis program. The inputs to the code are constituent materials properties, composite geometry, and loading conditions. The outputs are various properties for ply and composite; composite structural response, including bending-stretching coupling; and composite stress analysis, including comparisons with failure criteria for combined stress. The code was used successfully in the analysis and structural synthesis of flat panels, in the buckling analysis of flat panels, in multilayered composite material failure studies, and lamination residual stresses analysis.

  16. Deconvolution of mixed magnetism in multilayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, Akshaya Kumar; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2014-06-16

    Magnetic properties of graphite modified at the edges by KCl and exfoliated graphite in the form of twisted multilayered graphene (<4 layers) are analyzed to understand the evolution of magnetic behavior in the absence of any magnetic impurities. The mixed magnetism in multilayer graphene is deconvoluted using Low field-high field hysteresis loops at different temperatures. In addition to temperature and the applied magnetic field, the density of edge state spins and the interaction between them decides the nature of the magnetic state. By virtue of magnetometry and electron spin resonance studies, we demonstrate that ferromagnetism is intrinsic and is due to the interactions among various paramagnetic centers. The strength of these magnetic correlations can be controlled by modifying the structure.

  17. Multi-layer waste containment barrier

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nickelson, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for constructing an underground containment barrier for containing an in-situ portion of earth. The apparatus includes an excavating device for simultaneously (i) excavating earthen material from beside the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming an open side trench defined by opposing earthen sidewalls, and (ii) excavating earthen material from beneath the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming a generally horizontal underground trench beneath the in-situ portion defined by opposing earthen sidewalls. The apparatus further includes a barrier-forming device attached to the excavating device for simultaneously forming a side barrier within the open trench and a generally horizontal, multi-layer barrier within the generally horizontal trench. The multi-layer barrier includes at least a first layer and a second layer.

  18. Lead-free multilayer piezoelectric transformer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingsen; Jiang, X P; Lam, K H; Wang, S; Sun, C L; Chan, Helen L W; Zhao, X Z

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a multilayer piezoelectric transformer based on lead-free Mn-doped 0.94(Bi(12)Na(12))TiO(3)-0.06BaTiO(3) ceramics is presented. This piezoelectric transformer, with a multilayered construction in the thickness direction, is 8.3 mm long, 8.3 mm wide, and 2.3 mm thick. It operates in the second thickness extensional vibration mode. For a temperature rise of 20 degrees C, the transformer has an output power of >0.3 W. With a matching load resistance of 10 Omega, its maximum efficiency approaches 81.5%, and the maximum voltage gain is 0.14. It has potential to be used in low voltage power supply units such as low power adapter and other electronic circuits. PMID:17503954

  19. Multilayer adsorption by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Mateo, J.; Salmern Snchez, M.; Monlen Pradas, M.; Torregrosa Cabanilles, C.

    2012-10-01

    Adsorption phenomena are characterized by models that include free parameters trying to reproduce experimental results. In order to understand the relationship between the model parameters and the material properties, the adsorption of small molecules on a crystalline plane surface has been simulated using the bond fluctuation model. A direct comparison between the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model for multilayer adsorption and computer simulations allowed us to establish correlations between the adsorption model parameters and the simulated interaction potentials.

  20. Superabsorption of light by multilayer nanowires.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Ali; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2015-11-14

    We suggest a new strategy for tailoring and enhancing the absorption of light by multilayered nanowires. We use the multipole expansion method and experimental data for dielectric and plasmonic materials and demonstrate that the absorption for one of the polarizations can be substantially enhanced due to an overlap of different resonant modes in nanowires. We show that our approach can be employed for a design of multiband tunable optical absorption across a wide spectral range for both TE and TM polarizations. PMID:26462974

  1. Characterizing reliability of multilayer PZT actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooker, S. A.

    2006-03-01

    Many new applications are emerging for piezoelectric ceramics including adaptive structures, active-flow-control devices, and vibration and noise suppression systems. Additionally, there are opportunities to use these devices in the biomedical field for miniature pumps, ultrasonic surgical tools, micro-needle arrays, and nanorobotics. In each of these instances, actuator stability is critical, representing a significant challenge for piezoelectric ceramic materials. In particular, the properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) have been found to degrade, often significantly, during continuous operation due to a combination of domain pinning, relaxation of interfacial stress, and, in the worst cases, micro-crack formation. This degradation, referred to as actuator fatigue, can be even more pronounced when high voltages are used to achieve maximum displacement or more complex actuator designs are required. For example, multilayer actuators, such as co-fired stacks, are important for many emerging applications and are now being produced with very small physical dimensions, lowering power requirements. However, multilayer components may be highly susceptible to long-term fatigue due to the large number of interfaces involved in their configuration. In this work, we report a method for rapidly characterizing the reliability of multilayer PZT actuators by monitoring degradation in switching polarization over time. To verify this approach, a series of miniature (3 mm x 3 mm x 2 mm) multilayer actuators were characterized over 1 million cumulative cycles. These actuators were produced commercially from soft PZT materials, and the sintering temperature was varied to tailor the ceramic microstructure and performance characteristics. Evaluation of cyclic polarization degradation was found to be an effective method for illuminating differences among the different actuators tested, as well as serving to predict their long-term resistance to fatigue.

  2. Semiconductor Laser With Multilayer Dielectric Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Multilayer dielectric reflector included in proposed surface-emitting, distributed-feedback, grating semiconductor laser (e.g., a GaAlAs device). Contributes to efficiency and output power of laser by reducing amount of light entering substrate, where wasted by absorption. Index of refraction in reflector sublayers alternates between higher and lower value. Higher value less than effective index of refraction of waveguide layer.

  3. Multilayer nanofilms as substrates for hepatocellular applications.

    PubMed

    Wittmer, Corinne R; Phelps, Jennifer A; Lepus, Christin M; Saltzman, William M; Harding, Martha J; Van Tassel, Paul R

    2008-10-01

    Multilayer nanofilms, formed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption of positively and negatively charged polyelectrolytes, are promising substrates for tissue engineering. We investigate here the attachment and function of hepatic cells on multilayer films in terms of film composition, terminal layer, rigidity, charge, and presence of biofunctional species. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells, adult rat hepatocytes (ARH), and human fetal hepatoblasts (HFHb) are studied on films composed of the polysaccharides chitosan (CHI) and alginate (ALG), the polypeptides poly(l-lysine) (PLL) and poly(l-glutamic acid) (PGA), and the synthetic polymers poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS). The influence of chemical cross-linking following LbL assembly is also investigated. We find HepG2 to reach confluence after 7 days of culture on only 2 of 18 candidate multilayer systems: (PAH-PSS)(n) (i.e. nPAH-PSS bilayers) and cross-linked (PLL-ALG)(n)-PLL. Cross-linked PLL-ALG and PLL-PGA films support attachment and function of ARH, independently of the terminal layer, provided collagen is adsorbed to the top of the film. (PAH-PSS)(n), cross-linked (PLL-ALG)(n), and cross-linked (PLL-PGA)(n)-PLL films all support attachment, layer confluence, and function of HFHb, with the latter film promoting the greatest level of function at 8 days. Overall, film composition, terminal layer, and rigidity are key variables in promoting attachment and function of hepatic cells, while film charge and biofunctionality are somewhat less important. These studies reveal optimal candidate multilayer biomaterials for human liver tissue engineering applications. PMID:18653230

  4. Multilayer Nanofilms as Substrates for Hepatocellular Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wittmer, Corinne R.; Phelps, Jennifer A.; Lepus, Christin M.; Saltzman, W. Mark; Harding, Martha J.; Van Tassel, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Multilayer nanofilms, formed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption of positively and negatively charged polyelectrolytes, are promising substrates for tissue engineering. We investigate here the attachmemt and function of hepatic cells on multilayer films in terms of film composition, terminal layer, rigidity, charge, and presence of biofunctional species. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2), adult rat hepatocytes (ARH), and human fetal hepatoblasts (HFHb) are studied on films composed of the polysaccharides chitosan (CHI) and alginate (ALG), the polypeptides poly(L-lysine) (PLL) and poly(L-glutamic acid) (PGA), and the synthetic polymers poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS). The influence of chemical cross-linking following LbL assembly is also investigated. We find HepG2 to reach confluence after seven days of culture on only 2 of 18 candidate multilayer systems: (PAH-PSS)n (i.e. n PAH-PSS bilayers) and cross-linked (PLL-ALG)n-PLL. These two systems, as well as cross-linked (PLL-PGA)n-PLL, support attachment and function (in terms of albumin production) of ARH, provided collagen is adsorbed to the top of the film. (PAH-PSS)n, cross-linked (PLL-ALG)n, and cross-linked (PLL-PGA)n-PLL films all support attachment, layer confluence, and function of HFHb, with the latter film promoting the greatest level of function at 8 days. Overall, film composition, terminal layer, and rigidity are key variables in promoting attachment and function of hepatic cells, while film charge and biofunctionality are somewhat less important. These studies reveal optimal candidate multilayer biomaterials for human liver tissue engineering applications. PMID:18653230

  5. Training trajectories by continuous recurrent multilayer networks.

    PubMed

    Leistritz, L; Galicki, M; Witte, H; Kochs, E

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of training trajectories by means of continuous recurrent neural networks whose feedforward parts are multilayer perceptrons. Such networks can approximate a general nonlinear dynamic system with arbitrary accuracy. The learning process is transformed into an optimal control framework where the weights are the controls to be determined. A training algorithm based upon a variational formulation of Pontryagin's maximum principle is proposed for such networks. Computer examples demonstrating the efficiency of the given approach are also presented. PMID:18244431

  6. Response time for multilayered platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, D. K.; Ash, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Response time constants for several multilayered temperature transducers were determined numerically by using Martin Marietta's MITAS software package which is available at NASA Langley Research Center. Present results were found in close agreement with the solutions reported in the literature, thus, the capability of MITAS was justified. On the basis of experiences gained, the MITAS is recommended for use in predicting the response time constants of sensors by an in-situ technique.

  7. Adsorption of ammonia on multilayer iron phthalocyanine

    SciTech Connect

    Isvoranu, Cristina; Knudsen, Jan; Ataman, Evren; Andersen, Jesper N.; Schnadt, Joachim; Schulte, Karina; Wang Bin; Bocquet, Marie-Laure

    2011-03-21

    The adsorption of ammonia on multilayers of well-ordered, flat-lying iron phthalocyanine (FePc) molecules on a Au(111) support was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find that the electron-donating ammonia molecules coordinate to the metal centers of iron phthlalocyanine. The coordination of ammonia induces changes of the electronic structure of the iron phthalocyanine layer, which, in particular, lead to a modification of the FePc valence electron spin.

  8. Nonlinear waves in a multilayer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanovskii, Ilya B.; Viviani, Antonio; Dubois, Frank; Legros, Jean-Claude

    2009-02-01

    The joint action of buoyant and thermocapillary mechanisms of instability in a multilayer system, is investigated. The nonlinear convective regimes are studied by the finite difference method. The periodic boundary conditions on the lateral boundaries, are considered. It is found that the competition of both mechanisms of instability may lead to the appearance of a buoyant-thermocapillary traveling wave and a modulated traveling wave. To cite this article: I.B. Simanovskii et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  9. A note on multilayer acoustic antireflection coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, B. G.

    New approaches to layered acoustic antireflection (AR) coatings on a substrate which are based on optical techniques are reviewed. Topics discussed include results from conventional acoustical theory, the use of symmetric multilayers, and application of a characteristic matrix technique to quarter- and half-wave layers to calculate acoustical AR properties. It is concluded that optical techniques provide a very useful approach to design acoustical AR coatings which can be used to improve ultrasonic transducer performance.

  10. Multilayer network decoding versatility and trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Yadav, Alok; Jalan, Sarika

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, the multilayer networks have increasingly been realized as a more realistic framework to understand emergent physical phenomena in complex real-world systems. We analyze massive time-varying social data drawn from the largest film industry of the world under a multilayer network framework. The framework enables us to evaluate the versatility of actors, which turns out to be an intrinsic property of lead actors. Versatility in dimers suggests that working with different types of nodes are more beneficial than with similar ones. However, the triangles yield a different relation between type of co-actor and the success of lead nodes indicating the importance of higher-order motifs in understanding the properties of the underlying system. Furthermore, despite the degree-degree correlations of entire networks being neutral, multilayering picks up different values of correlation indicating positive connotations like trust, in the recent years. The analysis of weak ties of the industry uncovers nodes from a lower-degree regime being important in linking Bollywood clusters. The framework and the tools used herein may be used for unraveling the complexity of other real-world systems.

  11. Supramolecular structures in nanocomposite multilayered films.

    PubMed

    Stefanescu, Eduard A; Dundigalla, Avinash; Ferreiro, Vincent; Loizou, Elena; Porcar, Lionel; Negulescu, Ioan; Garno, Jayne; Schmidt, Gudrun

    2006-04-14

    We investigate the multilayered structures of poly(ethylene)oxide/montmorillonite nanocomposite films made from solution. The shear orientation of a polymer-clay network in solution combined with simultaneous solvent evaporation leads to supramolecular multilayer formation in the film. The resulting films have highly ordered structures with sheet-like multilayers on the micrometer length scale. The polymer covered clay platelets were found to orient in interconnected blob-like chains and layers on the nanometer length scale. Inside the blobs, scattering experiments indicate the polymer covered and stacked clay platelets oriented in the plane of the film. The polymer is found to be partially crystalline although this is not visible by optical microscopy. Atomic force microscopy suggests that the excess polymer, which is not directly adsorbed to the clay, is wrapped around the stacked platelets building blobs and the polymer also interconnects the polymer-clay layers. Overall our results suggest the re-intercalation of clay platelets in films made from exfoliated polymer-clay solutions as well as the supramolecular order and hierarchical structuring on the nanometer, via micrometer to the centimeter length scale. PMID:16633659

  12. Polyelectrolyte multilayers: An odyssey through interdisciplinary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, Jad A.

    This dissertation provides an overview of a self assembled multilayer technique based on the alternating deposition of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes onto charged solid supports. The basic principles and methodologies governing this technique are laid down, and new strategies are built upon the latter, in an effort to develop innovative technologies that would be beneficial for making new products or improving the quality of existing ones. Fundamental studies to characterize the water content, efficiency of ion-pairing, differential strength of electrostatic interactions, topology, and viscoelastic properties of polyelectrolyte multilayers, PEMUs, are illustrated and conducted. In addition, polyelectrolyte multilayers that are stimulus responsive, or support active and controlled bio-motor protein interactions are described. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared, (ATR), spectroscopy was used to compare the extent of swelling and doping within PAH/PSS and PDADMA/PSS polyelectrolyte multilayers. Unlike PDADMA/PSS, whose water content depended on the solution ionic strength, PAH/PSS was resistant to swelling by salt. It was stable up to 4.0 M sodium chloride, with 6 water molecules per ion-pair. Using the infrared active perchlorate sodium salt, the amount of residual persistent extrinsic sites in both PDADMA/PSS and PAH/PSS was determined to be 3% and 6%, respectively. The free energy of association between the polymer segments, in the presence of sodium perchlorate, was in the order of 4.5 kJ mol-1 and -9.5 kJ mol-1 for PDADMA/PSS and PAH/PSS correspondingly. Thus, indicating the relatively strong electrostatic association between the polymer segments in a PAH/PSS relative to PDADMA/PSS multilayer. Adjusting the pH of the solution in contact with the PAH/PSS multilayer to 11.5 resulted in a first order discontinuous dissociation of the Pol+Pol- bonds. Techniques used to study the mechanical properties of single muscle fiber were adapted to characterize the topology, viscoelastic behavior, complex modulus and loss factor of PDADMA/PSS multilayers, over a range of frequencies and strain amplitudes. Tensile mode (transient uniaxial stretching) of a PEMU microcoupon using a capacitative-type force transducer located on a modified stage of inverted microscope revealed evidence on the viscous-like behavior of polymer chains within PEMU. Dependence of viscosity was primarily on the ionic strength of the bathing solution, with appreciable stress relaxation occurring at high salt concentrations. Dynamic mechanical analysis was then used to determine the damping properties of PEMU where the length was oscillated sinusoidally, and the resulting force, amplitude and phase shift were observed. Compared to other commercially available polymer damping materials such as acrylic and rubber adhesives, PEMU demonstrated up to 250% enhancement in damping properties over the frequency range of 0.3-10 Hz. This was obtained while the multilayer dry thickness was 3000% less then that of the conventional adhesives. The synthesis of charged copolymers of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), (PNIPAM), and their use in constructing thermally responsive PEMU were demonstrated. The temperature dependent water content of the thin film, studied in situ using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, revealed microscopic and macroscopic transitions at 33 and 45C, respectively. About 7 water molecules per NIPAM repeat unit were found to be reversibly lost from, or recovered by, the film upon cycling over a temperature range of 10 to 55C. Assuming that each ion-pair represents a crosslink, swelling theory was used to translate these results into polymer-solvent interaction parameters and enthalpies of mixing for the various polymer components. In addition, the flux of a charged probe molecule, potassium ferricyanide, through the NIPAM-rich multilayer was assessed with rotating disk electrode voltammetry. Thermally reversible modulation of ion transport was demonstrated. Positive polyelectrolytes were investigated as new surface coatings for promoting in vitro actomyosin motility. Two surface arrangements were studied: a monolayer of the polyelectrolyte PAH, and multilayers consisting of 11-41 layers of alternating polypositive PAH/polynegative PSS electrolytes. For in vitro motility assays, rabbit skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin (HMM) was applied to the PAH surface of both polyelectrolyte mono and multilayers. Myosin driven motion of actin filaments labeled with rhodamine-phalloidin was recorded at 30C using epifluorescence microscopy. Actin filaments were found to have a mean speed of 2.9+/-0.08 mum sec-1 on the multilayer surface compared to 2.5+/-0.06 mum sec-1 on the monolayer surface. Average filament's length and speed increased respectively when nonionic surfactant was added to HMM and ionic strength of the motility buffer increased. Micro-contact printing with a water-insoluble charged block copolymer on PAH produced patterned surfaces that restricted filament motion to PAH tracks.

  13. Quantum Spin Hall phase in multilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Noel; Lado, Jose Luis; Fernandez-Rossier, Joaquin; Theory of Nanostructures Team

    2015-03-01

    We address the question of whether multilayer graphene systems are Quantum Spin Hall (QSH) insulators. Since interlayer coupling coples pz orbitals to s orbitals of different layers and Spin-Orbit (SO) couples pz orbitals with px and py of opposite spins, new spins mixing channels appear in the multilayer scenario that were not present in the monolayer. These new spin-mixing channels cast a doubt on the validity of the spin-conserving Kane-Mele model for multilayers and motivates our choice of a four orbital tight-binding model in the Slater-Koster approximation with intrinsic Spin-Orbit interaction. To completely determine if the QSH phase is present we calculate for different number of layers both the Z2 invariant for different stackings (only for inversion symmetric systems), and the density of states at the edge of semi-infinite graphene ribbon with armchair termination. We find that systems with even number of layers are normal insulators while systems with odd number of layers are QSH insulators, regardless of the stacking. We acknowledge financial support by Marie-Curie-ITN 607904-SPINOGRAPH.

  14. Ultrasonic wave propagation in multilayered piezoelectric substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, H.T.; Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.

    1994-04-11

    Due to the increasing demand for higher operating frequency, lower attenuation, and stronger piezoelectricity, use of the layered structure has become necessary. Theoretical studies are carried out for ultrasonic waves propagating in the multilayered piezoelectric substrates. Each layer processes up to as low as monoclinic symmetry with various thickness and orientation. A plane acoustic wave is assumed to be incident, at varied frequency and incidence angle, from a fluid upon a multilayered substrate. Simple analytical expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived from which all propagation characteristics are identified. Such expressions contain, as a by-product, the secular equation for the propagation of free harmonic waves on the multilayered piezoelectric substrates. Solutions are obtained for the individual layers which relate the field variables at the upper layer surfaces. The response of the total system proceeds by satisfying appropriate interfacial conditions across the layers. Based on the boundary conditions, two cases, {open_quotes}shorted{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}free{close_quotes}, are derived from which a so-called piezoelectric coupling factor is calculated to show the piezoelectric efficiency. Our results are rather general and show that the phase velocity is a function of frequency, layer thickness, and orientation.

  15. Evolutionary games on multilayer networks: a colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-05-01

    Networks form the backbone of many complex systems, ranging from the Internet to human societies. Accordingly, not only is the range of our interactions limited and thus best described and modeled by networks, it is also a fact that the networks that are an integral part of such models are often interdependent or even interconnected. Networks of networks or multilayer networks are therefore a more apt description of social systems. This colloquium is devoted to evolutionary games on multilayer networks, and in particular to the evolution of cooperation as one of the main pillars of modern human societies. We first give an overview of the most significant conceptual differences between single-layer and multilayer networks, and we provide basic definitions and a classification of the most commonly used terms. Subsequently, we review fascinating and counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes that emerge due to different types of interdependencies between otherwise independent populations. The focus is on coupling through the utilities of players, through the flow of information, as well as through the popularity of different strategies on different network layers. The colloquium highlights the importance of pattern formation and collective behavior for the promotion of cooperation under adverse conditions, as well as the synergies between network science and evolutionary game theory.

  16. Automation Enhancement of Multilayer Laue Lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Lauer K. R.; Conley R.

    2010-12-01

    X-ray optics fabrication at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been facilitated by a new, state of the art magnetron sputtering physical deposition system. With its nine magnetron sputtering cathodes and substrate carrier that moves on a linear rail via a UHV brushless linear servo motor, the system is capable of accurately depositing the many thousands of layers necessary for multilayer Laue lenses. I have engineered a versatile and automated control program from scratch for the base system and many subsystems. Its main features include a custom scripting language, a fully customizable graphical user interface, wireless and remote control, and a terminal-based interface. This control system has already been successfully used in the creation of many types of x-ray optics, including several thousand layer multilayer Laue lenses.Before reaching the point at which a deposition can be run, stencil-like masks for the sputtering cathodes must be created to ensure the proper distribution of sputtered atoms. Quality of multilayer Laue lenses can also be difficult to measure, given the size of the thin film layers. I employ my knowledge of software and algorithms to further ease these previously painstaking processes with custom programs. Additionally, I will give an overview of an x-ray optic simulator package I helped develop during the summer of 2010. In the interest of keeping my software free and open, I have worked mostly with the multiplatform Python and the PyQt application framework, utilizing C and C++ where necessary.

  17. Physical Properties of PC-PMMA Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Arifur; Baer, Eric; Chipara, Alin Cristian; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pullickel M.; Hinthorne, James; Elamin, Ibrahim; Chipara, Mircea; Eric Baer Collaboration; Pullickel Ajayan Collaboration; Mircea Chipara Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Multilayers of polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have been obtained by the layer multiplying coextrusion method. Each sample (1024 layers, of equal thickness, with individual thickness between 10 and 200 nm) has been investigated at room temperature by Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering (WAXS) using a Bruker Discovery 8 spectrometer (Cu K ? radiation), Raman spectroscopy (Bruker Senterra confocal Raman spectrometer operating at 785 nm), FTIR spectroscopy (Tensor 27 Bruker), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Further details about the glass transition temperature in these samples have been obtained by Dynamical Mechanical Analysis, DMA, (TA Instruments Q800) at various frequencies in the range 1 to 100 Hz. Isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC, (TA Instruments Q200) was used to investigate the effect of the thickness of the polymeric film on the crystallization processes. Non-isothermal DSC measurements aimed at the identification and location of the main phase transitions (glass, crystallization, and melting) occurring in these multilayers. The effects of confinement on the phase transitions occurring in these multilayers are discussed in detail.

  18. Heat Transfer in High Temperature Multilayer Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Miller, Steve D.; Cunnington, George R.

    2007-01-01

    High temperature multilayer insulations have been investigated as an effective component of thermal-protection systems for atmospheric re-entry of reusable launch vehicles. Heat transfer in multilayer insulations consisting of thin, gold-coated, ceramic reflective foils and Saffil(TradeMark) fibrous insulation spacers was studied both numerically and experimentally. A finite volume numerical thermal model using combined conduction (gaseous and solid) and radiation in porous media was developed. A two-flux model with anisotropic scattering was used for radiation heat transfer in the fibrous insulation spacers between the reflective foils. The thermal model was validated by comparison with effective thermal conductivity measurements in an apparatus based on ASTM standard C201. Measurements were performed at environmental pressures in the range from 1x10(exp -4) to 760 torr over the temperature range from 300 to 1300 K. Four multilayer samples with nominal densities of 48 kg/cu m were tested. The first sample was 13.3 mm thick and had four evenly spaced reflective foils. The other three samples were 26.6 mm thick and utilized either one, two, or four reflective foils, located near the hot boundary with nominal foil spacing of 1.7 mm. The validated thermal model was then used to study relevant design parameters, such as reflective foil spacing and location in the stack-up and coating of one or both sides of foils.

  19. Technique for etching monolayer and multilayer materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Conley, Raymond P.; Divan, Ralu; Macrander, Albert

    2015-10-06

    A process is disclosed for sectioning by etching of monolayers and multilayers using an RIE technique with fluorine-based chemistry. In one embodiment, the process uses Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) alone or in combination with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) using fluorine-based chemistry alone and using sufficient power to provide high ion energy to increase the etching rate and to obtain deeper anisotropic etching. In a second embodiment, a process is provided for sectioning of WSi.sub.2/Si multilayers using RIE in combination with ICP using a combination of fluorine-based and chlorine-based chemistries and using RF power and ICP power. According to the second embodiment, a high level of vertical anisotropy is achieved by a ratio of three gases; namely, CHF.sub.3, Cl.sub.2, and O.sub.2 with RF and ICP. Additionally, in conjunction with the second embodiment, a passivation layer can be formed on the surface of the multilayer which aids in anisotropic profile generation.

  20. Normal incidence multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, R. A.; Haisch, B. M.; Joki, E. G.; Catura, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sputtered multilayer coatings allow the use of normal incidence optics in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region below 500 A. Multilayer mirrors can be tailored to provide images at strong EUV lines in the sun and stars, in many cases making more efficient use of the telescope aperture than grazing incidence optics. Alternatively, the bandpass can be broadened at the expense of peak effective area, by varying the multilayer structure over the mirror surface. Such mirrors can also serve as optical elements in spectrographs for investigation of specific emission and absorption line complexes, and are self-filtering in that they reject nearby geocoronal and cosmic resonance line backgrounds. Current efforts at the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory in the design, fabrication, and testing of EUV multilayer mirrors are discussed. This program includes the design and fabrication of normal incidence EUV multilayer mirrors, and the deposition of multilayers on lacquer-coated substrates.

  1. Multiperiodicity in plasmonic multilayers: General description and diversity of topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Alexey A.; Krylova, Anastasia K.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Belov, Pavel A.

    2014-07-01

    We introduce multiperiodicity in periodic metal-dielectric multilayers by stacking more than two types of metal and/or dielectric layers into the unit cell. A simple way to characterize arbitrary multiperiodic multilayers using permutation vectors is suggested and employed. Effects of multiperiodicity up to its fourth order are investigated. We demonstrate that various topologies of multiple-sheet isofrequency and dispersion surfaces exist for such plasmonic multilayers, including a photonic realization of nontrivial isolated Dirac cones.

  2. Ultrasound Method of Multi-Layer Material Thickness Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuts, Y. V.; Yeremenko, V. S.; Monchenko, E. V.; Protasov, A. G.

    2009-03-01

    The new multi-layer materials are widely used in air-space industry. We present the new method of multi-layer material thickness measurement, which is based on the digital Hilbert transformation and the signal unwrapped phase analysis. The results indicate that a phase unwrapping of a signal from transducer is able to detect the phase jumps, which are produced by the eho signal superposition during ultrasound nondestructive examination of a multi-layer material.

  3. Multilayered film monitoring using terahertz reflective time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jindoo; Kwon, Won Sik; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2015-07-01

    We present qualitative monitoring of multilayered films by noninvasive investigation in the terahertz frequencies. Three multilayered films composed of marine paint are characterized in reflective, non-orthogonal measurements in ambient atmosphere. The spectra of the constituent marine paint layers EH2350, Interthane 989, BEA777, and ENA300 present sufficient spectral information for effective monitoring of the multilayered structures. Our experimental findings show promise in noninvasive monitoring of layered structures in realistic industrial evaluation applications.

  4. Theory of the acoustical properties of symmetric multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, B. G.

    1989-09-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made of the acoustical properties of symmetrical multilayer structures. Acoustic symmetric multilayers (ASMs) exhibit behavior analogous to that of optical symmetric multilayers. For a three-layer ASM, a range of effective acoustic impedances is possible merely by varying the thickness of the middle layer for a given frequency. This has the advantage that one can design an antireflection coating for virtually any substrate impedance. Some illustrative examples are given.

  5. Etched-multilayer phase shifting masks for EUV lithography

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Taylor, John S.

    2005-04-05

    A method is disclosed for the implementation of phase shifting masks for EUV lithography. The method involves directly etching material away from the multilayer coating of the mask, to cause a refractive phase shift in the mask. By etching into the multilayer (for example, by reactive ion etching), rather than depositing extra material on the top of the multilayer, there will be minimal absorption loss associated with the phase shift.

  6. Electrical nanowelding and bottom-up nano-construction together using nanoscale solder.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Peng Y; Cullis T; Inkson BJ

    2010-11-01

    A new bottom-up nanowelding technique enabling the welding of complex 3D nanoarchitectures assembled from individual building blocks using nanovolumes of metal solder is reported in this work. The building blocks of gold nanowires, (Co72Pt28/Pt)n multilayer nanowires, and nanosolder Sn99Au1 alloy nanowires were successfully fabricated by a template technique. Individual metallic nanowires dispersed on Si/SiO2(100 nm) wafers were manipulated and assembled together. Conductive nanostructures were then welded together by the new electrical nanowelding technique using nanovolumes of similar or dissimilar nanosolder. At the weld sites, nanoscale volumes of a chosen metal are deposited using nanosolder of a sacrificial nanowire, which ensures that the nanoobjects to be bonded retain their structural integrity. The whole nanowelding process is clean, controllable and reliable, and ensures both mechanically strong and electrically conductive contacts. The quality check of nanoweld achieve a resistance as low as 20 omega by using Sn99Au1 alloy solder. This technique should provide a promising way to conquer the challenge of the integration obstacle for bottom-up nanotechnology.

  7. Electrical nanowelding and bottom-up nano-construction together using nanoscale solder.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong; Cullis, Tony; Inkson, Beverley J

    2010-11-01

    A new bottom-up nanowelding technique enabling the welding of complex 3D nanoarchitectures assembled from individual building blocks using nanovolumes of metal solder is reported in this work. The building blocks of gold nanowires, (Co72Pt28/Pt)n multilayer nanowires, and nanosolder Sn99Au1 alloy nanowires were successfully fabricated by a template technique. Individual metallic nanowires dispersed on Si/SiO2(100 nm) wafers were manipulated and assembled together. Conductive nanostructures were then welded together by the new electrical nanowelding technique using nanovolumes of similar or dissimilar nanosolder. At the weld sites, nanoscale volumes of a chosen metal are deposited using nanosolder of a sacrificial nanowire, which ensures that the nanoobjects to be bonded retain their structural integrity. The whole nanowelding process is clean, controllable and reliable, and ensures both mechanically strong and electrically conductive contacts. The quality check of nanoweld achieve a resistance as low as 20 omega by using Sn99Au1 alloy solder. This technique should provide a promising way to conquer the challenge of the integration obstacle for bottom-up nanotechnology. PMID:21137943

  8. Effect of ion structure on nanoscale friction in protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, James; Webber, Grant B; Rutland, Mark W; Atkin, Rob

    2014-08-21

    The effect of ionic liquid (IL) molecular structure on nanoscale friction has been investigated using colloidal probe Friction Force Microscopy (FFM). The ILs studied were ethylammonium formate (EAF), ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), propylammonium formate (PAF), propylammonium nitrate (PAN), dimethylethylammonium formate (DMEAF), and ethanolammonium nitrate (EtAN). ILs were confined between a silica colloid probe and a mica surface, and the friction force was measured as a function of normal load for sliding velocities between 10 and 40 ?m s(-1). At low normal forces, multiple IL layers are found between the probe and the surface, but at higher force, in the boundary layer regime, a single ion layer separates the probe and the surface. In the boundary layer regime energy is dissipated by two main pathways. Firstly, the ionic liquid near the surface, with the exception of the boundary layer, is expelled from the advancing contact made by the probe on the surface. This disruption in the interactions between the boundary layer and the near surface multilayers, leads to energy dissipation and depends on the strength of the attraction between the boundary and near surface layers. The second pathway is via rotations and twists of ions in the boundary layer, primarily associated with the cation terminal methyl group. The friction coefficient did not vary over the limited range of sliding speeds investigated. PMID:24992959

  9. Effect of nano-scale characteristics of graphene on electrochemical performance of activated carbon supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasni, M. R. M.; Deraman, M.; Suleman, M.; Hamdan, E.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Nor, N. S. M.; Shamsudin, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Graphene with its typical nano-scale characteristic properties has been widely used as an additive in activated carbon electrodes in order to enhance the performance of the electrodes for their use in high performance supercapacitors. Activated carbon monoliths (ACMs) electrodes have been prepared by carbonization and activation of green monoliths (GMs) of pre-carbonized fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches or self-adhesive carbon grains (SACGs) and SACGs added with 6 wt% of KOH-treated multi-layer graphene. ACMs electrodes have been assembled in symmetrical supercapacitor cells that employed aqueous KOH electrolyte (6 M). The cells have been tested with cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge discharge methods to investigate the effect of graphene addition on the specific capacitance (Csp), specific energy (E), specific power (P), equivalent series resistance (ESR) and response time (τo) of the supercapacitor cells. The results show that the addition of graphene in the GMs change the values of Csp, Emax, Pmax, ESR and τo from (61-96) F/g, 2 Wh/kg, 104 W/kg, 2.6 Ω and 38 s, to the respective values of (110-124) F/g, 3 Wh/kg, 156 W/kg, 3.4 Ω and 63 s. This study demonstrates that the graphene addition in the GMs has a significant effect on the electrochemical behavior of the electrodes.

  10. Reactive Functionalized Multilayer Polymers in Coextrusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamnawar, Khalid; Maazouz, Abderrahim

    2007-04-01

    Coextrusion technologies are commonly used to produce multilayered composite sheets or films with a large range of applications. The contrast of rheological properties between layers can lead to interfacial instabilities during flow. Important theoretical and experimental advances have been made during the last decades on the stability of compatible and incompatible polymers using a mechanical approach. The present study deals with the influence of this affinity on interfacial instabilities for functionalized incompatible polymers between the neighboring layers. Polyamide (PA6)/Polyethylene-grafted (GMA) or pure PE were studied with different viscosity and elasticity ratios. We have experimentally confirmed, in this case, that the weak disturbance can be predicted by considering an interphase of non-zero thickness (corresponding to interdiffusion/reaction zone) instead of a purely geometrical interface between the two reactive layers. As a first step, rheological behavior of multilayer coextruded cast films was investigated to probe: (i) the competition between polymer/polymer interdiffusion and the interfacial reaction and (ii) the influence of the interphase. The contribution of this one effect has been studied along with the increase of the number of layers. The results show that the variation in dynamic modulus of the multilayer system reflects both diffusion and chemical reaction. Finally, and in order to quantify the contribution of the effect of the interface/interphase with a specific interfacial area, an expression was developed to take into account the interphase triggered between the neighboring layers and allowed us to estimate its thickness at a specific welding time and shear rate. As the second step, we formulate an experimental strategy to optimize the process by listing the different parameters controlling the stability of the reactive multilayer flows. The plastic films of two, three and five layers were coextruded in symmetrical and asymmetrical configurations in which PA6 is a middle layer. Indeed, for reactive multilayered system, the interfacial flow instability can be reduced or eliminated, for example, by (i) increasing the residence time or temperature in the coextrusion feed block (for T over reaction temperature) and (ii) reducing the total extrusion flow rate. Hence, based on this analysis guide-lines for stable Coextrusion of reactive functionalized polymers can be provided.

  11. Soft X-UV silver silicon multilayer mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Jian-Da; Fan, Zhengxiu; Guo, Yong H.; Jin, Lei

    1991-11-01

    In the soft x-ray domain (near 10 nm), the reported optical constants of silver and silicon are sufficiently different to make them attractive for a multilayer design. In this paper, design and fabrication of silver/silicon multilayer to be used as normal-incidence reflectors for 11.4 nm radiation are presented. Characterization of these multilayer structures was accomplished using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and little-angle x-ray diffraction (LXD). As a result of our experiments, we came to realize that silver/silicon multilayer can provide high quality structures and reach a certain reflectance.

  12. Interface controlled amorphization of crystalline Ni/Ti multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A. F.; Hayes, J. P.; Ramsey, P. B.

    1993-12-01

    Solid-State Amorphization (SSA) of crystalline interfaces is observed in the Ni/Ti multilayer system. The amorphization reaction nucleates at location(s) of crystallographic disorder, i.e. the multilayer interfaces. Microstructural analyses reveal the sputter-deposited growth structure to be epitaxial with semi-coherent interfaces. Strain energy originating from interface lattice distortions varies as a function of the multilayer repeat spacing. Therefore, the interfacial energy effects the onset conditions for SSA. Differential thermal analysis is used to measure the critical temperature T{sub c}, to the nucleation of the SSA, which is found to vary with the Ni/Ti multilayer pair spacing.

  13. Stabilization of layer-by-layer engineered multilayered hollow microspheres.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Polymer multilayered hollow microspheres prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly attract more and more interest due to their unique application, especially as drug delivery system (DDS). Unfortunately, the multilayered hollow microspheres assembled via weak linkages could fuse and/or aggregate in high ionic strength media or strong acidic or basic media. This severely restricts the practical applications of the multilayered hollow microspheres as DDS in human physiological medium. In the present work, the progress in stabilization of the multilayered hollow microspheres is reviewed, with emphasis on the assembling process and their crosslinking mechanism. PMID:24321861

  14. Stable multilayer thin films composed of gold nanoparticles and lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yan-lei; Li, Chao

    2008-01-01

    It needs appropriately attractive forces to construct multilayer thin films by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique. It is feasible to prepare multilayer thin films on glass slides with negatively charged gold nanoparticles and positively charged lysozyme through the electrostatic LBL assembly technique. The gold nanoparticles/lysozyme multilayer thin films are highly stable; immersion in 0.1 M HCl, NaOH, and surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate aqueous solutions cannot destroy the films. The highly stable gold nanoparticles/lysozyme multilayer thin films have potential application in long-term antibacterial coating.

  15. Characterization of multi-layered fish scales (Atractosteus spatula) using nanoindentation, X-ray CT, FTIR, and SEM.

    PubMed

    Allison, Paul G; Rodriguez, Rogie I; Moser, Robert D; Williams, Brett A; Poda, Aimee R; Seiter, Jennifer M; Lafferty, Brandon J; Kennedy, Alan J; Chandler, Mei Q

    2014-01-01

    The hierarchical architecture of protective biological materials such as mineralized fish scales, gastropod shells, ram's horn, antlers, and turtle shells provides unique design principles with potentials for guiding the design of protective materials and systems in the future. Understanding the structure-property relationships for these material systems at the microscale and nanoscale where failure initiates is essential. Currently, experimental techniques such as nanoindentation, X-ray CT, and SEM provide researchers with a way to correlate the mechanical behavior with hierarchical microstructures of these material systems1-6. However, a well-defined standard procedure for specimen preparation of mineralized biomaterials is not currently available. In this study, the methods for probing spatially correlated chemical, structural, and mechanical properties of the multilayered scale of A. spatula using nanoindentation, FTIR, SEM, with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and X-ray CT are presented. PMID:25046233

  16. Characterization Of Multi-layered Fish Scales (Atractosteus spatula) Using Nanoindentation, X-ray CT, FTIR, and SEM

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Paul G.; Rodriguez, Rogie I.; Moser, Robert D.; Williams, Brett A.; Poda, Aimee R.; Seiter, Jennifer M.; Lafferty, Brandon J.; Kennedy, Alan J.; Chandler, Mei Q.

    2014-01-01

    The hierarchical architecture of protective biological materials such as mineralized fish scales, gastropod shells, ram’s horn, antlers, and turtle shells provides unique design principles with potentials for guiding the design of protective materials and systems in the future. Understanding the structure-property relationships for these material systems at the microscale and nanoscale where failure initiates is essential. Currently, experimental techniques such as nanoindentation, X-ray CT, and SEM provide researchers with a way to correlate the mechanical behavior with hierarchical microstructures of these material systems1-6. However, a well-defined standard procedure for specimen preparation of mineralized biomaterials is not currently available. In this study, the methods for probing spatially correlated chemical, structural, and mechanical properties of the multilayered scale of A. spatula using nanoindentation, FTIR, SEM, with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and X-ray CT are presented. PMID:25046233

  17. Biosynthesis of calcium hydroxylapatite coating on sputtered Ti/TiN nano multilayers and their corrosion behavior in simulated body solution.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Balasubramanian; Dhandapani, Perumal; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Jayachandran, Muthirulandi

    2012-02-01

    Titanium/titanium nitride (Ti/TiN) nanoscale multilayered films were deposited onto 316L stainless steel substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering using a Ti target. Coatings characterized by X-ray diffraction showed that the stack possesses centered cubic structure. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy survey spectra on the etched surfaces of the stack film on steel exhibited the characteristic Ti2p, N1s, and O1s peaks at the corresponding binding energies 454.5, 397.0, and 530.6 eV, respectively. Platelet adhesion experiments were carried out to examine the interaction between blood and the materials in vitro. The results indicated that the smoothness and lower isoelectric point contribute to better hemocompatibility of the Ti/TiN nanoscale multilayered coating. The biomediated synthesis of calcium hydroxylapatite (HA) was carried out on coated substrates using calcium-depositing bacteria. The observation of low corrosion current density (I(corr)) for the calcium HA-coated Ti/TiN specimens in simulated body fluid confirmed their highly resistive nature under the testing condition. PMID:20819919

  18. Democratization of Nanoscale Imaging and Sensing Tools Using Photonics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Providing means for researchers and citizen scientists in the developing world to perform advanced measurements with nanoscale precision can help to accelerate the rate of discovery and invention as well as improve higher education and the training of the next generation of scientists and engineers worldwide. Here, we review some of the recent progress toward making optical nanoscale measurement tools more cost-effective, field-portable, and accessible to a significantly larger group of researchers and educators. We divide our review into two main sections: label-based nanoscale imaging and sensing tools, which primarily involve fluorescent approaches, and label-free nanoscale measurement tools, which include light scattering sensors, interferometric methods, photonic crystal sensors, and plasmonic sensors. For each of these areas, we have primarily focused on approaches that have either demonstrated operation outside of a traditional laboratory setting, including for example integration with mobile phones, or exhibited the potential for such operation in the near future. PMID:26068279

  19. Democratization of Nanoscale Imaging and Sensing Tools Using Photonics.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Euan; Wei, Qingshan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-07-01

    Providing means for researchers and citizen scientists in the developing world to perform advanced measurements with nanoscale precision can help to accelerate the rate of discovery and invention as well as improve higher education and the training of the next generation of scientists and engineers worldwide. Here, we review some of the recent progress toward making optical nanoscale measurement tools more cost-effective, field-portable, and accessible to a significantly larger group of researchers and educators. We divide our review into two main sections: label-based nanoscale imaging and sensing tools, which primarily involve fluorescent approaches, and label-free nanoscale measurement tools, which include light scattering sensors, interferometric methods, photonic crystal sensors, and plasmonic sensors. For each of these areas, we have primarily focused on approaches that have either demonstrated operation outside of a traditional laboratory setting, including for example integration with mobile phones, or exhibited the potential for such operation in the near future. PMID:26068279

  20. Electromagnetic energy transfer in nanoscale metallic waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Wang, Guo Ping

    2004-04-01

    Electromagnetic(EM) energy can propagate along optical waveguides made by using the dependence of surface plasmon polaritons(SPPs) on nanometer gap width between two parallel metallic plates. Finite-difference timedomain (FDTD) was employed to calculate the propagation constant of this nanoscale metallic waveguide. The agreement between the calculated values and results predicted by the theory of metallic waveguide is quite satisfactory. We then demonstrate a branched structure with right-angle bends and structures that can be used as nanoscale interferometers by using the ideal of nanoscale metallic waveguides. EM energy transfer was simulated in these structures by using FDTD method. The results show that bend and insertion losses both remain at an acceptable level. We also simulated EM energy transfer in nanoscale metallic waveguide arrays. It is found that the energy spreads into two main lobes as the light propagates along the waveguides. The separation angle of the two lobes is determined by the period of the array.

  1. Nanoscale Interpenetrating Phase Composites for Industrial and Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study that will explore the technical and economic feasibility of producing nanoscale IPC components of a usable size for actual testing/implementation in a real application.

  2. Manufacturing of Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that will develop a technology that will enable nanoscale and microscale superhydrophobic (SHP) features to be imaged onto surfaces for the high-volume manufacturing of water-repellent components and coatings.

  3. Analysis of nanoscale mechanical grasping under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hui; Lambert, Pierre; Rgnier, Stphane

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, in order to understand mechanical grasping at the nanoscale, contact mechanics between nanogrippers and nanoobjects is studied. Contact models are introduced to simulate elastic contacts between various profiles of a flat surface, sphere and cylinder for different types of nanoobjects and nanogrippers. Analyses and evaluation instances indicate that friction forces, commonly used in macro-grasping to overcome gravity, at the nanoscale are often insufficient to overcome the relatively strong adhesion forces when picking up the nanoobject deposited on a substrate due to the tiny contact area. For stable nanoscale grasping, nonparallel two-finger grippers with a 'V' configuration are demonstrated to have better grasping capabilities than parallel grippers. To achieve mechanical nanoscale grasping, a nanogripper constructed from two microcantilevers is presented. Experimental results for the pick-and-place manipulation of silicon nanowires validate the theoretical analyses and capabilities of the proposed nanogripper.

  4. The development, characterization, and application of biomimetic nanoscale enzyme immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Nicholas R.

    The utilization of enzymes is of interest for applications such as biosensors and biofuel cells. Immobilizing enzymes provides a means to develop these applications. Previous immobilization efforts have been accomplished by exposing surfaces on which silica-forming molecules are present to solutions containing an enzyme and a silica precursor. This approach leads to the enzyme being entrapped in a matrix three orders of magnitude larger than the enzyme itself, resulting in low retention of enzyme activity. The research herein introduces a method for the immobilization of enzymes during the layer-by-layer buildup of Si-O and Ti-O coatings which are nanoscale in thickness. This approach is an application of a peptide-induced mineral deposition method developed in the Sandhage and Kroger groups, and it involves the alternating exposure of a surface to solutions containing the peptide protamine and then an aqueous precursor solution of silicon- or titanium-oxide at near-neutral pH. A method has been developed that enables in situ immobilization of enzymes in the protamine/mineral oxide coatings. Depending on the layer and mineral (silica or titania) within which the enzyme is incorporated, the resulting multilayer biocatalytic hybrid materials retain 20 -- 100% of the enzyme activity. Analyses of kinetic properties of the immobilized enzyme, coupled with characterization of physical properties of the mineral-bearing layers (thickness, porosity, pore size distribution), indicates that the catalytic activities of the enzymes immobilized in the different layers are largely determined by substrate diffusion. The enzyme was also found to be substantially stabilized against heat-induced denaturation and largely protected from proteolytic attack. These functional coatings are then developed for use as antimicrobial materials. Glucose oxidase, which catalyzes production of the cytotoxic agent hydrogen peroxide, was immobilized with silver nanoparticles, can release antimicrobial silver ions. It is demonstrated that these two antimicrobial agents work in a synergistic manner for enhanced antimicrobial efficacy. Evidence of the proposed mechanism of synergy, namely enhanced release of silver ions by reaction of H2O2 with silver nanoparticles, is provided. Finally, the deployment of these materials in silk fibroins for development as wound dressings is also presented. Protamine cross-linking was then extended to the oxygen-reducing enzyme laccase to explore the use of this modified enzyme in an enzymatic biocathode. In this application laccase accepts electrons from the electrode and uses them to reduce oxygen to water molecules. The protamine-cross-linked enzyme exhibits a higher degree of immobilization, better retention of activity once immobilized, and superior electrochemical activity versus the native enzyme. Finally, preliminary research on the structure-function relationships of 16-mer peptides which adsorb to surfaces and deposit titanium oxide is presented. Specifically, the effect of content and distribution of arginine residues on the ability of peptides to adsorb to surfaces and subsequently deposit mineral oxides was investigated. The data demonstrate that surface adsorption of the peptides relies on both a critical number of arginine residues and their position within the peptide. Furthermore, the exchange of serine against arginine residues in surface-adsorbed peptides is detrimental to Ti-O deposition.

  5. Nanoscale Reinforced, Polymer Derived Ceramic Matrix Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendra Bordia

    2009-07-31

    The goal of this project was to explore and develop a novel class of nanoscale reinforced ceramic coatings for high temperature (600-1000 C) corrosion protection of metallic components in a coal-fired environment. It was focused on developing coatings that are easy to process and low cost. The approach was to use high-yield preceramic polymers loaded with nano-size fillers. The complex interplay of the particles in the polymer, their role in controlling shrinkage and phase evolution during thermal treatment, resulting densification and microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and effectiveness as corrosion protection coatings were investigated. Fe-and Ni-based alloys currently used in coal-fired environments do not possess the requisite corrosion and oxidation resistance for next generation of advanced power systems. One example of this is the power plants that use ultra supercritical steam as the working fluid. The increase in thermal efficiency of the plant and decrease in pollutant emissions are only possible by changing the properties of steam from supercritical to ultra supercritical. However, the conditions, 650 C and 34.5 MPa, are too severe and result in higher rate of corrosion due to higher metal temperatures. Coating the metallic components with ceramics that are resistant to corrosion, oxidation and erosion, is an economical and immediate solution to this problem. Good high temperature corrosion protection ceramic coatings for metallic structures must have a set of properties that are difficult to achieve using established processing techniques. The required properties include ease of coating complex shapes, low processing temperatures, thermal expansion match with metallic structures and good mechanical and chemical properties. Nanoscale reinforced composite coatings in which the matrix is derived from preceramic polymers have the potential to meet these requirements. The research was focused on developing suitable material systems and processing techniques for these coatings. In addition, we investigated the effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties and oxidation protection ability of the coatings. Coatings were developed to provide oxidation protection to both ferritic and austentic alloys and Ni-based alloys. The coatings that we developed are based on low viscosity pre-ceramic polymers. Thus they can be easily applied to any shape by using a variety of techniques including dip-coating, spray-coating and painting. The polymers are loaded with a variety of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles have two primary roles: control of the final composition and phases (and hence the properties); and control of the shrinkage during thermal decomposition of the polymer. Thus the selection of the nanoparticles was the most critical aspect of this project. Based on the results of the processing studies, the performance of selected coatings in oxidizing conditions (both static and cyclic) was investigated.

  6. Integrated nanoscale tools for interrogating living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgolli, Marsela

    The development of next-generation, nanoscale technologies that interface biological systems will pave the way towards new understanding of such complex systems. Nanowires -- one-dimensional nanoscale structures -- have shown unique potential as an ideal physical interface to biological systems. Herein, we focus on the development of nanowire-based devices that can enable a wide variety of biological studies. First, we built upon standard nanofabrication techniques to optimize nanowire devices, resulting in perfectly ordered arrays of both opaque (Silicon) and transparent (Silicon dioxide) nanowires with user defined structural profile, densities, and overall patterns, as well as high sample consistency and large scale production. The high-precision and well-controlled fabrication method in conjunction with additional technologies laid the foundation for the generation of highly specialized platforms for imaging, electrochemical interrogation, and molecular biology. Next, we utilized nanowires as the fundamental structure in the development of integrated nanoelectronic platforms to directly interrogate the electrical activity of biological systems. Initially, we generated a scalable intracellular electrode platform based on vertical nanowires that allows for parallel electrical interfacing to multiple mammalian neurons. Our prototype device consisted of 16 individually addressable stimulation/recording sites, each containing an array of 9 electrically active silicon nanowires. We showed that these vertical nanowire electrode arrays could intracellularly record and stimulate neuronal activity in dissociated cultures of rat cortical neurons similar to patch clamp electrodes. In addition, we used our intracellular electrode platform to measure multiple individual synaptic connections, which enables the reconstruction of the functional connectivity maps of neuronal circuits. In order to expand and improve the capability of this functional prototype device we designed and fabricated a new hybrid chip that combines a front-side nanowire-based interface for neuronal recording with backside complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits for on-chip multiplexing, voltage control for stimulation, signal amplification, and signal processing. Individual chips contain 1024 stimulation/recording sites enabling large-scale interfacing of neuronal networks with single cell resolution. Through electrical and electrochemical characterization of the devices, we demonstrated their enhanced functionality at a massively parallel scale. In our initial cell experiments, we achieved intracellular stimulations and recordings of changes in the membrane potential in a variety of cells including: HEK293T, cardiomyocytes, and rat cortical neurons. This demonstrated the device capability for single-cell-resolution recording/stimulation which when extended to a large number of neurons in a massively parallel fashion will enable the functional mapping of a complex neuronal network.

  7. Dielectrophoretic trapping of multilayer DNA origami nanostructures and DNA origami-induced local destruction of silicon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Shen, Boxuan; Linko, Veikko; Dietz, Hendrik; Toppari, J Jussi

    2015-01-01

    DNA origami is a widely used method for fabrication of custom-shaped nanostructures. However, to utilize such structures, one needs to controllably position them on nanoscale. Here we demonstrate how different types of 3D scaffolded multilayer origamis can be accurately anchored to lithographically fabricated nanoelectrodes on a silicon dioxide substrate by DEP. Straight brick-like origami structures, constructed both in square (SQL) and honeycomb lattices, as well as curved "C"-shaped and angular "L"-shaped origamis were trapped with nanoscale precision and single-structure accuracy. We show that the positioning and immobilization of all these structures can be realized with or without thiol-linkers. In general, structural deformations of the origami during the DEP trapping are highly dependent on the shape and the construction of the structure. The SQL brick turned out to be the most robust structure under the high DEP forces, and accordingly, its single-structure trapping yield was also highest. In addition, the electrical conductivity of single immobilized plain brick-like structures was characterized. The electrical measurements revealed that the conductivity is negligible (insulating behavior). However, we observed that the trapping process of the SQL brick equipped with thiol-linkers tended to induce an etched "nanocanyon" in the silicon dioxide substrate. The nanocanyon was formed exactly between the electrodes, that is, at the location of the DEP-trapped origami. The results show that the demonstrated DEP-trapping technique can be readily exploited in assembling and arranging complex multilayered origami geometries. In addition, DNA origamis could be utilized in DEP-assisted deformation of the substrates onto which they are attached. PMID:25225147

  8. Nanoscale tissue engineering: spatial control over cell-materials interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wheeldon, Ian; Farhadi, Arash; Bick, Alexander G.; Jabbari, Esmaiel; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Cells interact with the surrounding environment by making tens to hundreds of thousands of nanoscale interactions with extracellular signals and features. The goal of nanoscale tissue engineering is to harness the interactions through nanoscale biomaterials engineering in order to study and direct cellular behaviors. Here, we review the nanoscale tissue engineering technologies for both two- and three-dimensional studies (2- and 3D), and provide a holistic overview of the field. Techniques that can control the average spacing and clustering of cell adhesion ligands are well established and have been highly successful in describing cell adhesion and migration in 2D. Extension of these engineering tools to 3D biomaterials has created many new hydrogel and nanofiber scaffolds technologies that are being used to design in vitro experiments with more physiologically relevant conditions. Researchers are beginning to study complex cell functions in 3D, however, there is a need for biomaterials systems that provide fine control over the nanoscale presentation of bioactive ligands in 3D. Additionally, there is a need for 2- and 3D techniques that can control the nanoscale presentation of multiple bioactive ligands and the temporal changes in cellular microenvironment. PMID:21451238

  9. Polyelectrolyte multilayer-assisted fabrication of non-periodic silicon nanocolumn substrates for cellular interface applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seyeong; Kim, Dongyoon; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Taesoo; Kim, Dong-Yu; Yoon, Myung-Han

    2015-08-01

    Recent advances in nanostructure-based biotechnology have resulted in a growing demand for vertical nanostructure substrates with elaborate control over the nanoscale geometry and a high-throughput preparation. In this work, we report the fabrication of non-periodic vertical silicon nanocolumn substrates via polyelectrolyte multilayer-enabled randomized nanosphere lithography. Owing to layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte adhesives, uniformly-separated polystyrene nanospheres were securely attached on large silicon substrates and utilized as masks for the subsequent metal-assisted silicon etching in solution. Consequently, non-periodic vertical silicon nanocolumn arrays were successfully fabricated on a wafer scale, while each nanocolumn geometric factor, such as the diameter, height, density, and spatial patterning, could be fully controlled in an independent manner. Finally, we demonstrate that our vertical silicon nanocolumn substrates support viable cell culture with minimal cell penetration and unhindered cell motility due to the blunt nanocolumn morphology. These results suggest that vertical silicon nanocolumn substrates may serve as a useful cellular interface platform for performing a statistically meaningful number of cellular experiments in the fields of biomolecular delivery, stem cell research, etc.Recent advances in nanostructure-based biotechnology have resulted in a growing demand for vertical nanostructure substrates with elaborate control over the nanoscale geometry and a high-throughput preparation. In this work, we report the fabrication of non-periodic vertical silicon nanocolumn substrates via polyelectrolyte multilayer-enabled randomized nanosphere lithography. Owing to layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte adhesives, uniformly-separated polystyrene nanospheres were securely attached on large silicon substrates and utilized as masks for the subsequent metal-assisted silicon etching in solution. Consequently, non-periodic vertical silicon nanocolumn arrays were successfully fabricated on a wafer scale, while each nanocolumn geometric factor, such as the diameter, height, density, and spatial patterning, could be fully controlled in an independent manner. Finally, we demonstrate that our vertical silicon nanocolumn substrates support viable cell culture with minimal cell penetration and unhindered cell motility due to the blunt nanocolumn morphology. These results suggest that vertical silicon nanocolumn substrates may serve as a useful cellular interface platform for performing a statistically meaningful number of cellular experiments in the fields of biomolecular delivery, stem cell research, etc. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02384j

  10. Design of a nanoscale silicon laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, S. L.; Simpson, J. T.; Withrow, S. P.; White, C. W.; Norris, P. M.

    The recent observation of optical gain from silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 opens an opportunity to develop a nanoscale silicon-based laser. However, the challenge remains to design and develop a laser architecture using CMOS-compatible materials. In this paper we present two designs for a waveguide laser in which silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 are used as the optical gain media. One design employs a SiO2 membrane containing encapsulated Si nanocrystals. Preliminary calculations given here show that a highly resonant laser cavity can be produced in a SiO2 membrane using sub-wavelength structures. This photonic crystal architecture, used to guide and contain the light, can be combined with a gain medium of optically active Si nanocrystals synthesized in the SiO2 membrane using ion implantation/thermal annealing to produce a Si-based laser. The laser cavity dimensions can be matched to the near-infrared wavelengths where optical gain has been observed from Si nanocrystals. The second design utilizes silicon nanocrystals embedded in a distributed-feedback laser cavity fabricated in SiO2. Lasing action over a broad wavelength range centered at 770 nm should be possible in both of these configurations.

  11. Nonlocal normal modes in nanoscale dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, S.; Gilchrist, D.; Murmu, T.; McCarthy, M. A.

    2015-08-01

    This paper introduces the idea of nonlocal normal modes arising in the dynamic analysis of nanoscale structures. A nonlocal finite element approach is developed for the axial vibration of nanorods, bending vibration of nanobeams and transverse vibration of nanoplates. Explicit expressions of the element mass and stiffness matrices are derived in closed-form as functions of a length-scale parameter. In general the mass matrix can be expressed as a sum of the classical local mass matrix and a nonlocal part. The nonlocal part of the mass matrix is scale-dependent and vanishes for systems with larger lengths. Classical modal analysis and perturbation method are used to understand the dynamic behaviour of discrete nonlocal systems in the light of classical local systems. The conditions for the existence of classical normal modes for undamped and damped nonlocal systems are established. Closed-form approximate expressions of nonlocal natural frequencies, modes and frequency response functions are derived. Results derived in the paper are illustrated using examples of axial and bending vibration of nanotubes and transverse vibration of graphene sheets.

  12. Nanoscale buckling deformation in layered copolymer materials

    PubMed Central

    Makke, Ali; Perez, Michel; Lame, Olivier; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    In layered materials, a common mode of deformation involves buckling of the layers under tensile deformation in the direction perpendicular to the layers. The instability mechanism, which operates in elastic materials from geological to nanometer scales, involves the elastic contrast between different layers. In a regular stacking of hard and soft layers, the tensile stress is first accommodated by a large deformation of the soft layers. The inhibited Poisson contraction results in a compressive stress in the direction transverse to the tensile deformation axis. The hard layers sustain this transverse compression until buckling takes place and results in an undulated structure. Using molecular simulations, we demonstrate this scenario for a material made of triblock copolymers. The buckling deformation is observed to take place at the nanoscale, at a wavelength that depends on strain rate. In contrast to what is commonly assumed, the wavelength of the undulation is not determined by defects in the microstructure. Rather, it results from kinetic effects, with a competition between the rate of strain and the growth rate of the instability. PMID:22203970

  13. Nanoscale optical tomography with cathodoluminescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Atre, Ashwin C; Brenny, Benjamin J M; Coenen, Toon; Garca-Etxarri, Aitzol; Polman, Albert; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2015-05-01

    Tomography has enabled the characterization of the Earth's interior, visualization of the inner workings of the human brain, and three-dimensional reconstruction of matter at the atomic scale. However, tomographic techniques that rely on optical excitation or detection are generally limited in their resolution by diffraction. Here, we introduce a tomographic technique--cathodoluminescence spectroscopic tomography--to probe optical properties in three dimensions with nanometre-scale spatial and spectral resolution. We first obtain two-dimensional cathodoluminescence maps of a three-dimensional nanostructure at various orientations. We then use the method of filtered back-projection to reconstruct the cathodoluminescence intensity at each wavelength. The resulting tomograms allow us to locate regions of efficient cathodoluminescence in three dimensions across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, with contributions from material luminescence and radiative decay of electromagnetic eigenmodes. The experimental signal can be further correlated with the radiative local density of optical states in particular regions of the reconstruction. We demonstrate how cathodoluminescence tomography can be used to achieve nanoscale three-dimensional visualization of light-matter interactions by reconstructing a three-dimensional metal-dielectric nanoresonator. PMID:25849788

  14. Nanoscale optical tomography with cathodoluminescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atre, Ashwin C.; Brenny, Benjamin J. M.; Coenen, Toon; Garca-Etxarri, Aitzol; Polman, Albert; Dionne, Jennifer A.

    2015-05-01

    Tomography has enabled the characterization of the Earth's interior, visualization of the inner workings of the human brain, and three-dimensional reconstruction of matter at the atomic scale. However, tomographic techniques that rely on optical excitation or detection are generally limited in their resolution by diffraction. Here, we introduce a tomographic techniquecathodoluminescence spectroscopic tomographyto probe optical properties in three dimensions with nanometre-scale spatial and spectral resolution. We first obtain two-dimensional cathodoluminescence maps of a three-dimensional nanostructure at various orientations. We then use the method of filtered back-projection to reconstruct the cathodoluminescence intensity at each wavelength. The resulting tomograms allow us to locate regions of efficient cathodoluminescence in three dimensions across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, with contributions from material luminescence and radiative decay of electromagnetic eigenmodes. The experimental signal can be further correlated with the radiative local density of optical states in particular regions of the reconstruction. We demonstrate how cathodoluminescence tomography can be used to achieve nanoscale three-dimensional visualization of light-matter interactions by reconstructing a three-dimensional metal-dielectric nanoresonator.

  15. Nanoscale hydroxyapatite particles for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongjian; Lee, Jaebeom

    2011-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) exhibits excellent biocompatibility with soft tissues such as skin, muscle and gums, making it an ideal candidate for orthopedic and dental implants or components of implants. Synthetic HAp has been widely used in repair of hard tissues, and common uses include bone repair, bone augmentation, as well as coating of implants or acting as fillers in bone or teeth. However, the low mechanical strength of normal HAp ceramics generally restricts its use to low load-bearing applications. Recent advancements in nanoscience and nanotechnology have reignited investigation of nanoscale HAp formation in order to clearly define the small-scale properties of HAp. It has been suggested that nano-HAp may be an ideal biomaterial due to its good biocompatibility and bone integration ability. HAp biomedical material development has benefited significantly from advancements in nanotechnology. This feature article looks afresh at nano-HAp particles, highlighting the importance of size, crystal morphology control, and composites with other inorganic particles for biomedical material development. PMID:21440094

  16. Microtubule Assembly Dynamics at the Nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Schek, Henry T.; Gardner, Melissa K.; Cheng, Jun; Odde, David J.; Hunt, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background: The labile nature of microtubules is critical for establishing cellular morphology and motility, yet the molecular basis of assembly remains unclear. Here we use optical tweezers to track microtubule polymerization against microfabricated barriers, permitting unprecedented spatial resolution. Results: We find that microtubules exhibit extensive nanometer-scale variability in growth rate, and often undergo shortening excursions, in some cases exceeding 5 tubulin layers, during periods of overall net growth. This result indicates that the GTP cap does not exist as a single layer as previously proposed. We also find that length increments (over 100 ms time intervals, N=16,762) are small, 0.81 +/? 6.60 nm (mean +/? s.d.), and very rarely exceed 16 nm (?two dimer lengths), indicating that assembly occurs almost exclusively via single subunit addition rather than via oligomers as was recently suggested. Finally, the assembly rate depends only weakly on load, with the average growth rate decreasing only 2-fold as the force increases 7-fold from 0.4 pN to 2.8 pN. Conclusions: The data are consistent with a mechanochemical model where a spatially extended GTP cap allows substantial shortening on the nanoscale, while still preventing complete catastrophe in most cases. PMID:17683936

  17. Fabrication of a nanoscale electric field sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yun; King, Todd; Stewart, Daniel; Getty, Stephanie

    2009-05-01

    A new nanoscale electric field sensor was developed for studying triboelectric charging in terrestrial and Martian dust devils. The sensor was fabricated using MEMS techniques, integrated at the system level, and deployed during a dust devil field campaign. The two-terminal piezoresistive sensor consists of a micron-scale network of suspended singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) that are mechanically coupled to a free-standing electrically conductor. Electrostatic coupling of the conductor to the electric field is expected to produce a deflection of the conductor and a corresponding change in nanotube device resistance, based on the known piezoresistive properties of SWCNTs. The projected device performance will allow measurement of the large electric fields for large dust devils without saturation. With dimensions on the 100 μm scale and power consumption of only tens of nW, the sensor features dramatically reduced mass, power, and footprint. Recent field testing of the sensor demonstrated the robustness of suspended SWCNT devices to temperature fluctuations, mechanical shock, dust, and other environmental factors.

  18. Nanoscale magnetic biotransport with application to magnetofection.

    PubMed

    Furlani, E P; Ng, K C

    2008-06-01

    We present a model for predicting the transport of biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles in a passive magnetophoretic system that consists of a fluidic chamber positioned above a rare-earth magnet. The model is based on a drift-diffusion equation that governs the particle concentration in the chamber. We solve this equation numerically using the finite volume method. We apply the model to the magnetofection process wherein the magnetic force produced by the magnet attracts magnetic carrier particles with surface-bound gene vectors toward the bottom of the chamber for transfection with target cells. We study particle transport and accumulation as a function of key variables. Our analysis indicates that the particles are magnetically focused toward the center of the chamber during transport, and that the rate of accumulation at the base can be enhanced using larger particles and/or by reducing the spacing between the magnet and the chamber. The model provides insight into the physics of particle transport at the nanoscale and enables rapid parametric analysis of particle accumulation, which is useful for optimizing novel magnetofection systems. PMID:18643307

  19. Sulfidation of Cadmium at the Nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Cabot, Andreu; Smith, Rachel; Yin, Yadong; Zheng, Haimei; Reinhard, Bjorn; Liu, Haitao; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-05-22

    We investigate the evolution of structures that result when spherical Cd nanoparticles of a few hundred nanometers in diameter react with dissolved molecular sulfur species in solution to form hollow CdS. Over a wide range of temperatures and concentrations, we find that rapid Cd diffusion through the growing CdS shell localizes the reaction front at the outermost CdS/S interface, leading to hollow particles when all the Cd is consumed. When we examine partially reacted particles, we find that this system differs significantly from others in which the nanoscale Kirkendall effect has been used to create hollow particles. In previously reported systems, partial reaction creates a hollow particle with a spherically symmetric metal core connected to the outer shell by filaments. In contrast, here we obtain a lower symmetry structure, in which the unreacted metal core and the coalesced vacancies separate into two distinct spherical caps, minimizing the metal/void interface. This pattern of void coalescence is likely to occur in situations where the metal/vacancy self-diffusivities in the core are greater than the diffusivity of the cations through the shell.

  20. Magnetically Driven Swimming of Nanoscale Colloidal Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breidenich, Jennifer; Benkoski, Jason; Baird, Lance; Deacon, Ryan; Land, H. Bruce; Hayes, Allen; Keng, Pei; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2009-03-01

    At microscopic length scales, locomotion can only be generated through asymmetric conformation changes, such as the undulating flagellum employed by protozoa. This simple yet elegant design is optimized according to the dueling needs of miniaturization and the fluid dynamics of the low Reynolds number environment. In this study, we fabricate nanoscale colloidal assemblies that mimic the head + tail structure of flagellates. The assemblies consist of two types of magnetic colloids: 25 nm polystyrene-coated Co nanoparticles, and 250 nm polyethylene glycol coated magnetite nanoparticles. When mixed together in N-dimethylformamide, the Co nanoparticles assemble into flexible, segmented chains ranging in length from 1 - 5 ?m. These chains then attach at one end to the larger magnetic beads due to magnetic attraction. This head + tail structure aligns with an external uniform magnetic field and is actuated by an oscillating transverse field. We examine the effects of Co nanoparticle concentration, magnetite bead concentration, magnetic field strength, and oscillation frequency on the formation of swimmers and the speed of locomotion.