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Sample records for nanoscale structural engineering

  1. Structure-property relationships of nanoscale engineered perovskite oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Wei

    Recent advances in the synthesis of nanoscale customized structure have demonstrated that reactive molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) can be used to construct nanostructure of oxides with atomic control. The ability to engineer the structure and chemistry of oxides at the nanometer scale makes possible for the creation of new functional materials that can be designed to have exceptional properties. This thesis focused on understanding structure-property relationships of such nanoscale customized oxides utilizing state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Epitaxial thin films of n = 1--5 members of Ruddlesden-Popper homologous series Srn+1Ti nO3n+1 were synthesized by reactive MBE. We investigated the structure and microstructure of these thin films by x-ray diffraction along with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) in combination with computer image simulations. We found that the thin films of n = 1--3 members are nearly free of intergrowths, e.g. phase-pure, while n = 4 and 5 thin films contain noticeably more intergrowth defects and anti-phase boundaries in their perovskite sheets. We show that these results are consistent with what is known about the thermodynamics of Sr n+1TinO3 n+1 phases. We also investigated the atomic structure and interfacial structure of artificial PbTiO3/SrTiO3 and BaTiO3/SrTiO 3 superlattices grown by MBE both with and without digital compositional grading. Both of these systems form a solid solution over their entire composition range. Thus, these layered heterostructures are metastable. We demonstrated, however, that the thermodynamically metastable superlattices can be kinetically stabilized via layer-by-layer growth. In addition, we found that the interfaces between two constituents in the heterostructures are atomically-abrupt. The superlattice thin films were made fully coherent with the substrates, resulting in a homogeneous large strain in the BaTiO3 layers due to the lattice mismatch between BaTiO3

  2. Crystal structure engineering for improved performance of emerging nanoscale devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimalgi, Vinay Uday

    Recent advances in growth techniques and increasing number of experimental studies have made nanostructures grown along different crystallographic directions a reality. These new structures could not only benefit the electronic devices used in mainstream information technology but also show great promise for applications in lasers, solid-state lighting, near-field photolithography, free-space quantum cryptography, consumer displays, quantum computation, as well as diagnostic medicine and imaging. However, only few theoretical investigations have been performed on these structures due to the complex nature of the interplay of atomicity, structural fields, polarization, and quantum size-quantization, all strong function of the crystallographic direction. The objective of this work is mainly four-fold: (1) Integrate a computational framework employing a combination of fully atomistic valence force-field molecular mechanics and 20-band sp3s*d5-SO tight-binding based electronic band­structure models, and numerically investigate the effects of internal fields on the electronic and optical properties of zincblende InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown on (100), (110), and (111) orientated substrates. (2) Augment/extend the open source NEMO 3-D bandstructure simulator by incorporating a recently proposed first principles based model to gauge the importance of nonlinear piezoelectricity on the single-particle electronic states and interband optical transitions in emerging In(Ga)N/GaN disk-in-wire LED structures having c-plane and m-plane wurtzite crystal symmetry. (3) Coupling the NEMO 3-D software toolkit with a commercial TCAD simulator to determine the terminal electrical and optical characteristics of InGaN/GaN disk-in-wire LEDs; and (4) Finding an optimum crystallographic device for InGaN/GaN disk-in-wire LEDs to achieve improved internal quantum efficiency (IQE).

  3. Nanoscale Engineering of Structures and Devices on Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yitamben, Esmeralda

    2014-03-01

    The relentless increase in both density and speed that has characterized microelectronics, and now nanoelectronics, will require a new paradigm to continue beyond current technologies. One proposed such paradigm shift demands the ultimate control over the number and position of dopants in a device, which includes quantum information processing and variety of semiconductor device materials and architectures aimed at solving end-of-Moore's law issues. Such a work requires the development of a tool for the design of atomically precise devices on silicon and other surfaces, in hope of studying the effect of local interactions between atomic-scale structures, their microscopic behavior, and how quantum mechanical effects might influence nano-device behavior in very small structures. Demonstrations of remarkable 2D nanostructures down to single atom devices are reported here thanks to the development of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as an imaging and patterning tool. These include the formation of molecular chiral superstructures on metallic surfaces, as well as the atomic-scale depassivation of a hydrogen terminated surface with an STM, toward the incorporation of dopants in silicon. I will spend some time at the end, talking about my experience working at a national laboratory.

  4. Recent Advances in Organic Photovoltaics: Device Structure and Optical Engineering Optimization on the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guoping; Ren, Xingang; Zhang, Su; Wu, Hongbin; Choy, Wallace C H; He, Zhicai; Cao, Yong

    2016-03-23

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, which can directly convert absorbed sunlight to electricity, are stacked thin films of tens to hundreds of nanometers. They have emerged as a promising candidate for affordable, clean, and renewable energy. In the past few years, a rapid increase has been seen in the power conversion efficiency of OPV devices toward 10% and above, through comprehensive optimizations via novel photoactive donor and acceptor materials, control of thin-film morphology on the nanoscale, device structure developments, and interfacial and optical engineering. The intrinsic problems of short exciton diffusion length and low carrier mobility in organic semiconductors creates a challenge for OPV designs for achieving optically thick and electrically thin device structures to achieve sufficient light absorption and efficient electron/hole extraction. Recent advances in the field of OPV devices are reviewed, with a focus on the progress in device architecture and optical engineering approaches that lead to improved electrical and optical characteristics in OPV devices. Successful strategies are highlighted for light wave distribution, modulation, and absorption promotion inside the active layer of OPV devices by incorporating periodic nanopatterns/nanostructures or incorporating metallic nanomaterials and nanostructures. PMID:26856789

  5. Nanoscale Engineering of Designer Cellulosomes.

    PubMed

    Gunnoo, Melissabye; Cazade, Pierre-André; Galera-Prat, Albert; Nash, Michael A; Czjzek, Mirjam; Cieplak, Marek; Alvarez, Beatriz; Aguilar, Marina; Karpol, Alon; Gaub, Hermann; Carrión-Vázquez, Mariano; Bayer, Edward A; Thompson, Damien

    2016-07-01

    Biocatalysts showcase the upper limit obtainable for high-speed molecular processing and transformation. Efforts to engineer functionality in synthetic nanostructured materials are guided by the increasing knowledge of evolving architectures, which enable controlled molecular motion and precise molecular recognition. The cellulosome is a biological nanomachine, which, as a fundamental component of the plant-digestion machinery from bacterial cells, has a key potential role in the successful development of environmentally-friendly processes to produce biofuels and fine chemicals from the breakdown of biomass waste. Here, the progress toward so-called "designer cellulosomes", which provide an elegant alternative to enzyme cocktails for lignocellulose breakdown, is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to rational design via computational modeling coupled with nanoscale characterization and engineering tools. Remaining challenges and potential routes to industrial application are put forward. PMID:26748482

  6. Nanoscale Engineering in the Biosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Daniel J.; Whitlow, Harry J.

    Biological matter is one of the most diverse and important classes of materials. Products of living organisms (wood, bone, cotton, wool, leather, coal, oil, drugs, etc.) are vital to humanity as foodstuffs, energy sources, engineering and construction materials, and chemicals; and by the way, they shape the environment of the biosphere.

  7. Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Lowndes, D. H.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Alper, M.; Averback, R. S.; Jacob Barhen, J.; Eastman, J. A.; Imre, D.; Lowndes, D. H.; McNulty, I.; Michalske, T. A.; Ho, K-M; Nozik, A. J.; Russell, T. P.; Valentin, R. A.; Welch, D. O.; Barhen, J.; Agnew, S. R.; Bellon, P.; Blair, J.; Boatner, L. A.; Braiman, Y.; Budai, J. D.; Crabtree, G. W.; Feldman, L. C.; Flynn, C. P.; Geohegan, D. B.; George, E. P.; Greenbaum, E.; Grigoropoulos, C.; Haynes, T. E.; Heberlein, J.; Hichman, J.; Holland, O. W.; Honda, S.; Horton, J. A.; Hu, M. Z.-C.; Jesson, D. E.; Joy, D. C.; Krauss, A.; Kwok, W.-K.; Larson, B. C.; Larson, D. J.; Likharev, K.; Liu, C. T.; Majumdar, A.; Maziasz, P. J.; Meldrum, A.; Miller, J. C.; Modine, F. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pharr, G. M.; Phillpot, S.; Price, D. L.; Protopopescu, V.; Poker, D. B.; Pui, D.; Ramsey, J. M.; Rao, N.; Reichl, L.; Roberto, J.; Saboungi, M-L; Simpson, M.; Strieffer, S.; Thundat, T.; Wambsganss, M.; Wendleken, J.; White, C. W.; Wilemski, G.; Withrow, S. P.; Wolf, D.; Zhu, J. H.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zunger, A.; Lowe, S.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes important future research directions in nanoscale science, engineering and technology. It was prepared in connection with an anticipated national research initiative on nanotechnology for the twenty-first century. The research directions described are not expected to be inclusive but illustrate the wide range of research opportunities and challenges that could be undertaken through the national laboratories and their major national scientific user facilities with the support of universities and industry.

  8. Simulations of Metallic Nanoscale Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Karsten W.

    2003-03-01

    Density-functional-theory calculations can be used to understand and predict materials properties based on their nanoscale composition and structure. In combination with efficient search algorithms DFT can furthermore be applied in the nanoscale design of optimized materials. The first part of the talk will focus on two different types of nanostructures with an interesting interplay between chemical activity and conducting states. MoS2 nanoclusters are known for their catalyzing effect in the hydrodesulfurization process which removes sulfur-containing molecules from oil products. MoS2 is a layered material which is insulating. However, DFT calculations indicates the exsistence of metallic states at some of the edges of MoS2 nanoclusters, and the calculations show that the conducting states are not passivated by for example the presence of hydrogen gas. The edge states may play an important role for the chemical activity of MoS_2. Metallic nanocontacts can be formed during the breaking of a piece of metal, and atomically thin structures with conductance of only a single quantum unit may be formed. Such open metallic structures are chemically very active and susceptible to restructuring through interactions with molecular gases. DFT calculations show for example that atomically thin gold wires may incorporate oxygen atoms forming a new type of metallic nanowire. Adsorbates like hydrogen may also affect the conductance. In the last part of the talk I shall discuss the possibilities for designing alloys with optimal mechanical properties based on a combination of DFT calculations with genetic search algorithms. Simulaneous optimization of several parameters (stability, price, compressibility) is addressed through the determination of Pareto optimal alloy compositions within a large database of more than 64000 alloys.

  9. Miniature all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries as a tool for engineering and structural diagnostics of nanoscale electrochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleshko, Vladimir P.; Lam, Thomas; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Haney, Paul; Lezec, Henri J.; Davydov, Albert V.; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Cumings, John; Talin, A. Alec

    2014-09-01

    Complex interfacial phenomena and phase transformations that govern the operation of Li-ion batteries require detailed nanoscale 3D structural and compositional characterization that can be directly related to their capacity and electrical transport properties. For this purpose, we have designed model miniature all solid-state radial heterostructure Li-ion batteries composed of LiCoO2 cathode, LiPON electrolyte and amorphous Si anode shells, which were deposited around metallized high-aspect-ratio Si nanowires as a scaffolding core. Such diagnostic batteries, the smallest, complete secondary Li-ion batteries realized to date, were specifically designed for in situ electrical testing in a field-emission scanning electron microscope and/or transmission electron microscope. The results of electrochemical testing were described in detail in a previous publication (Nano Lett., 2012, 12, 505-511). The model Li-ion batteries allow analysis of the correlations between electrochemical properties and their structural evolution during cycling in various imaging, diffraction and spectroscopic modes down to the atomic level. Employing multimode analytical scanning/transmission electron microscopy imaging coupled with correlative multivariate statistical analysis and tomography, we have analyzed and quantified the 3D morphological and structural arrangement of the batteries, including textured platelet-like LiCoO2 nanocrystallites, buried electrode-electrolyte interfaces and hidden internal defects to clarify effects of scaling on a battery's electrochemical performance. Characterization of the nanoscale interfacial processes using model heterostructure nanowire-based Li-ion batteries provides useful guidelines for engineering of prospective nano-sized building blocks in future electrochemical energy storage systems.Complex interfacial phenomena and phase transformations that govern the operation of Li-ion batteries require detailed nanoscale 3D structural and compositional

  10. Miniature all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries as a tool for engineering and structural diagnostics of nanoscale electrochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Oleshko, Vladimir P; Lam, Thomas; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Haney, Paul; Lezec, Henri J; Davydov, Albert V; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Cumings, John; Talin, A Alec

    2014-10-21

    Complex interfacial phenomena and phase transformations that govern the operation of Li-ion batteries require detailed nanoscale 3D structural and compositional characterization that can be directly related to their capacity and electrical transport properties. For this purpose, we have designed model miniature all solid-state radial heterostructure Li-ion batteries composed of LiCoO2 cathode, LiPON electrolyte and amorphous Si anode shells, which were deposited around metallized high-aspect-ratio Si nanowires as a scaffolding core. Such diagnostic batteries, the smallest, complete secondary Li-ion batteries realized to date, were specifically designed for in situ electrical testing in a field-emission scanning electron microscope and/or transmission electron microscope. The results of electrochemical testing were described in detail in a previous publication (Nano Lett., 2012, 12, 505-511). The model Li-ion batteries allow analysis of the correlations between electrochemical properties and their structural evolution during cycling in various imaging, diffraction and spectroscopic modes down to the atomic level. Employing multimode analytical scanning/transmission electron microscopy imaging coupled with correlative multivariate statistical analysis and tomography, we have analyzed and quantified the 3D morphological and structural arrangement of the batteries, including textured platelet-like LiCoO2 nanocrystallites, buried electrode-electrolyte interfaces and hidden internal defects to clarify effects of scaling on a battery's electrochemical performance. Characterization of the nanoscale interfacial processes using model heterostructure nanowire-based Li-ion batteries provides useful guidelines for engineering of prospective nano-sized building blocks in future electrochemical energy storage systems. PMID:25157420

  11. Nanoscale characterization of engineered cementitious composites (ECC)

    SciTech Connect

    Sakulich, Aaron Richard Li, Victor C.

    2011-02-15

    Engineered cementitious composites (ECC) are ultra-ductile fiber-reinforced cementitious composites. The nanoscale chemical and mechanical properties of three ECC formulae (one standard formula, and two containing nanomaterial additives) were studied using nanoindentation, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Nanoindentation results highlight the difference in modulus between bulk matrix ({approx} 30 GPa) and matrix/fiber interfacial transition zones as well as between matrix and unreacted fly ash ({approx} 20 GPa). The addition of carbon black or carbon nanotubes produced little variation in moduli when compared to standard M45-ECC. The indents were observed by electron microscopy; no trace of the carbon black particles could be found, but nanotubes, including nanotubes bridging cracks, were easily located in ultrafine cracks near PVA fibers. Elemental analysis failed to show a correlation between modulus and chemical composition, implying that factors such as porosity have more of an effect on mechanical properties than elemental composition.

  12. Nanoscale magnetic heat pumps and engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Bretzel, Stefan; Brataas, Arne; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2010-01-01

    We present the linear-response matrix for a sliding domain wall in a rotatable magnetic nanowire, which is driven out of equilibrium by temperature and voltage bias, mechanical torque, and magnetic field. An expression for heat-current-induced domain-wall motion is derived. Application of Onsager’s reciprocity relation leads to a unified description of the Barnett and Einstein-de Haas effects as well as spin-dependent thermoelectric properties. We envisage various heat pumps and engines, such as coolers driven by magnetic fields or mechanical rotation as well as nanoscale motors that convert temperature gradients into useful work. All parameters (with the exception of mechanical friction) can be computed microscopically by the scattering theory of transport.

  13. Nanoscale strain engineering of graphene and graphene-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, N.-C.; Hsu, C.-C.; Teague, M. L.; Wang, J.-Q.; Boyd, D. A.; Chen, C.-C.

    2016-02-01

    Structural distortions in nano-materials can induce dramatic changes in their electronic properties. This situation is well manifested in graphene, a two-dimensional honeycomb structure of carbon atoms with only one atomic layer thickness. In particular, strained graphene can result in both charging effects and pseudo-magnetic fields, so that controlled strain on a perfect graphene lattice can be tailored to yield desirable electronic properties. Here, we describe the theoretical foundation for strain-engineering of the electronic properties of graphene, and then provide experimental evidence for strain-induced pseudo-magnetic fields and charging effects in monolayer graphene. We further demonstrate the feasibility of nano-scale strain engineering for graphene-based devices by means of theoretical simulations and nano-fabrication technology.

  14. Nanoscale strain engineering of graphene and graphene-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, N.-C.; Hsu, C.-C.; Teague, M. L.; Wang, J.-Q.; Boyd, D. A.; Chen, C.-C.

    2016-06-01

    Structural distortions in nano-materials can induce dramatic changes in their electronic properties. This situation is well manifested in graphene, a two-dimensional honeycomb structure of carbon atoms with only one atomic layer thickness. In particular, strained graphene can result in both charging effects and pseudo-magnetic fields, so that controlled strain on a perfect graphene lattice can be tailored to yield desirable electronic properties. Here, we describe the theoretical foundation for strain-engineering of the electronic properties of graphene, and then provide experimental evidence for strain-induced pseudo-magnetic fields and charging effects in monolayer graphene. We further demonstrate the feasibility of nano-scale strain engineering for graphene-based devices by means of theoretical simulations and nano-fabrication technology.

  15. Nanoscale engineering of radiation tolerant silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanwen; Ishimaru, Manabu; Varga, Tamas; Oda, Takuji; Hardiman, Chris; Xue, Haizhou; Katoh, Yutai; Shannon, Steven; Weber, William J

    2012-10-14

    Radiation tolerance is determined by how effectively the microstructure can remove point defects produced by irradiation. Engineered nanocrystalline SiC with a high-density of stacking faults (SFs) has significantly enhanced recombination of interstitials and vacancies, leading to self-healing of irradiation-induced defects. While single crystal SiC readily undergoes an irradiation-induced crystalline to amorphous transformation at room temperature, the nano-engineered SiC with a high-density of SFs exhibits more than an order of magnitude increase in radiation resistance. Molecular dynamics simulations of collision cascades show that the nano-layered SFs lead to enhanced mobility of interstitial Si atoms. The remarkable radiation resistance in the nano-engineered SiC is attributed to the high-density of SFs within nano-sized grain structures that significantly enhance point defect annihilation. PMID:22948711

  16. Nanoscale tissue engineering: spatial control over cell-materials interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wheeldon, Ian; Farhadi, Arash; Bick, Alexander G.; Jabbari, Esmaiel; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Cells interact with the surrounding environment by making tens to hundreds of thousands of nanoscale interactions with extracellular signals and features. The goal of nanoscale tissue engineering is to harness the interactions through nanoscale biomaterials engineering in order to study and direct cellular behaviors. Here, we review the nanoscale tissue engineering technologies for both two- and three-dimensional studies (2- and 3D), and provide a holistic overview of the field. Techniques that can control the average spacing and clustering of cell adhesion ligands are well established and have been highly successful in describing cell adhesion and migration in 2D. Extension of these engineering tools to 3D biomaterials has created many new hydrogel and nanofiber scaffolds technologies that are being used to design in vitro experiments with more physiologically relevant conditions. Researchers are beginning to study complex cell functions in 3D, however, there is a need for biomaterials systems that provide fine control over the nanoscale presentation of bioactive ligands in 3D. Additionally, there is a need for 2- and 3D techniques that can control the nanoscale presentation of multiple bioactive ligands and the temporal changes in cellular microenvironment. PMID:21451238

  17. Collective instability of micro- and nanoscale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ziguang

    Engineering objects or systems with a very small size in dimension can have strikingly different mechanical properties from their bulk counterparts found in our everyday lives. Furthermore, when the spacing or distance among these small structures is also small, weak interactions that are usually ignored can play an important role. For these reasons, collective behaviors or properties of small structures are considered in this thesis. The bulk of this thesis is devoted to the exploration of new ways to analyze the collective instability in nanometer and micrometer scale structures, including beams, columns, and spheres. At such a scale, it can be shown that the surrounding media brings about significant effects. For instance, the deformation of one object could trigger the deformation of the media, which further affects the other neighboring objects; nontrivial forces between closely spaced bodies, e.g., van der Waals, lead to exotic dynamic behaviors to the final assembly. Chapter 1 provides a general background on instability studies in nanometer and micrometer scale structures. Chapter 2 gives examples on how to analyze collective buckling of a two-dimensional array of nanoscale columns with their lower ends built into an elastic substrate. From this, the model was extended into a molecular type of multi-stacks or lamellae to explain the findings of a two dimensional (2D) hierarchical buckling. In Chapter 3, further consideration was given to the elastic deformation in the small objects instead of simply treating them as rigid ones in Chapter 2. Following these theoretical analyses, Chapter 4-6 investigates the assembly of sphere-like particles, including the mechanical property of particle-fibers as well as the buckling of particle-composed bi-layers. The final Chapter lays out theoretical questions and directions that can be used for future research. It is the hope that presenting this thesis partially fills a knowledge gap concerning the instability or

  18. Current nanoscience and nanoengineering at the Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, A. M.; Singh, R. S.; Singh, V. P.

    2006-07-01

    The Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CeNSE) at the University of Kentucky is a multidisciplinary group of faculty, students, and staff, with a shared vision and cutting-edge research facilities to study and develop materials and devices at the nanoscale. Current research projects at CeNSE span a number of diverse nanoscience thrusts in bio- engineering and medicine (nanosensors and nanoelectrodes, nanoparticle-based drug delivery), electronics (nanolithography, molecular electronics, nanotube FETs), nanotemplates for electronics and gas sensors (functionalization of carbon nanotubes, aligned carbon nanotube structures for gate-keeping, e-beam lithography with nanoscale precision), and nano--optoelectronics (nanoscale photonics for laser communications, quantum confinement in photovoltaic devices, and nanostructured displays). This paper provides glimpses of this research and future directions.

  19. Dynamic structural disorder in supported nanoscale catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Rehr, J. J.; Vila, F. D.

    2014-04-07

    We investigate the origin and physical effects of “dynamic structural disorder” (DSD) in supported nano-scale catalysts. DSD refers to the intrinsic fluctuating, inhomogeneous structure of such nano-scale systems. In contrast to bulk materials, nano-scale systems exhibit substantial fluctuations in structure, charge, temperature, and other quantities, as well as large surface effects. The DSD is driven largely by the stochastic librational motion of the center of mass and fluxional bonding at the nanoparticle surface due to thermal coupling with the substrate. Our approach for calculating and understanding DSD is based on a combination of real-time density functional theory/molecular dynamics simulations, transient coupled-oscillator models, and statistical mechanics. This approach treats thermal and dynamic effects over multiple time-scales, and includes bond-stretching and -bending vibrations, and transient tethering to the substrate at longer ps time-scales. Potential effects on the catalytic properties of these clusters are briefly explored. Model calculations of molecule-cluster interactions and molecular dissociation reaction paths are presented in which the reactant molecules are adsorbed on the surface of dynamically sampled clusters. This model suggests that DSD can affect both the prefactors and distribution of energy barriers in reaction rates, and thus can significantly affect catalytic activity at the nano-scale.

  20. Dynamic structural disorder in supported nanoscale catalysts.

    PubMed

    Rehr, J J; Vila, F D

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the origin and physical effects of "dynamic structural disorder" (DSD) in supported nano-scale catalysts. DSD refers to the intrinsic fluctuating, inhomogeneous structure of such nano-scale systems. In contrast to bulk materials, nano-scale systems exhibit substantial fluctuations in structure, charge, temperature, and other quantities, as well as large surface effects. The DSD is driven largely by the stochastic librational motion of the center of mass and fluxional bonding at the nanoparticle surface due to thermal coupling with the substrate. Our approach for calculating and understanding DSD is based on a combination of real-time density functional theory/molecular dynamics simulations, transient coupled-oscillator models, and statistical mechanics. This approach treats thermal and dynamic effects over multiple time-scales, and includes bond-stretching and -bending vibrations, and transient tethering to the substrate at longer ps time-scales. Potential effects on the catalytic properties of these clusters are briefly explored. Model calculations of molecule-cluster interactions and molecular dissociation reaction paths are presented in which the reactant molecules are adsorbed on the surface of dynamically sampled clusters. This model suggests that DSD can affect both the prefactors and distribution of energy barriers in reaction rates, and thus can significantly affect catalytic activity at the nano-scale. PMID:24712802

  1. Nanoscale structures and mechanics of barnacle cement.

    PubMed

    Sullan, Ruby May A; Gunari, Nikhil; Tanur, Adrienne E; Chan, Yuri; Dickinson, Gary H; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Dan; Walker, Gilbert C

    2009-01-01

    Polymerized barnacle glue was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemical staining. Nanoscale structures exhibiting rod-shaped, globular and irregularly-shaped morphologies were observed in the bulk cement of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite (=Balanus amphitrite) by AFM. SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) provided chemical composition information, making evident the organic nature of the rod-shaped nanoscale structures. FTIR spectroscopy gave signatures of beta-sheet and random coil conformations. The mechanical properties of these nanoscale structures were also probed using force spectroscopy and indentation with AFM. Indentation data yielded higher elastic moduli for the rod-shaped structures when compared with the other structures in the bulk cement. Single molecule AFM force-extension curves on the matrix of the bulk cement often exhibited a periodic sawtooth-like profile, observed in both the extend and retract portions of the force curve. Rod-shaped structures stained with amyloid protein-selective dyes (Congo red and thioflavin-T) revealed that about 5% of the bulk cement were amyloids. A dominant 100 kDa cement protein was found to be mechanically agile, using repeating hydrophobic structures that apparently associate within the same protein or with neighbors, creating toughness on the 1-100 nm length scale. PMID:19180351

  2. Nanoscale contact engineering for Silicon/Silicide nanowire devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yung-Chen

    attributed to the high compressive stress built-in in the core/shell NW structure that retards the diffusion of the nickel atom as well as limits the volume expansion of the metal-rich phases. As a result, the high stress at this finite scale hinders the continuous growth of Ni31Si 12 into the core/shell NWs and totally eliminates the formation of Ni 2Si in core/shell NWs with thick oxide shells (˜ 50 nm). Through these studies, we have demonstrated first time the phase formation sequences of nickel silicides in Si and Si/SiOx NW structures, which is of great importance for reliable contact engineering for Si NW devices. Furthermore, we have provided a clear picture of the hindered nickel silicide growth in confined nanoscale environment and showed the deviated behavior of silicides growth under stress. The information rendered here will be useful for Si NW device applications as well as for the silicon device engineering at nanoscale in general. To further investigate the oxide shell effect, Mn5Si 3 and Fe5Ge3 NW were grown within various oxide thickness to explore the nucleation and growth in the nanowire structure. A oxide shell exerted a compressive stress on the silicide or germanide materials will make those materials with single-crystal properties. Interestingly, single-crystal growth of contact materials can be also implemented for germanide materials. The iron-rich germanide, Fe5Ge3, was successfully grown with single-crystal properties. It shows ferromagnetic properties with a Curie temperature above the room temperature verified by magnetic force microscope (MFM). Two different epitaxial relations found at germanide/germanium interface due to the different sizes of the germanium NW templates. These two different crystal structures exhibited magnetic anisotropy in magnetic force microscope (MFM) measurement, showing differently preferred domain orientations. In-plane and out-of-plane magnetization in the Fe5Ge3 NWs are observed in our experiment. The crystal

  3. Structure sensitivity and nanoscale effects in electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, Marc T. M.

    2011-05-01

    This review discusses the role of the detailed nanoscale structure of catalytic surfaces on the activity of various electrocatalytic reactions of importance for fuel cells, hydrogen production, and other environmentally important catalytic reactions, such as carbon monoxide oxidation, methanol and ethanol oxidation, ammonia oxidation, nitric oxide reduction, hydrogen evolution, and oxygen reduction. Specifically, results and insights obtained from surface-science single-crystal-based model experiments are linked to experiments on well-defined shape-controlled nanoparticles. A classification of structure sensitive effects in electrocatalysis is suggested, based both on empirical grounds and on quantum-chemical viz. thermochemical considerations. The mutual relation between the two classification schemes is also discussed. The review underscores the relevance of single-crystal modeling of nanoscale effects in catalysis, and points to the special role of two kinds of active sites for electrocatalysis on nanoparticulate surfaces: (i) steps and defects in (111) terraces or facets, and (ii) long-range (100) terraces or facets.

  4. Programmed assembly of nanoscale structures using peptoids.

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jianhua; Russell, Scott; Morishetti, Kiran; Robinson, David B.; Zuckermann, Ronald N.; Buffleben, George M.; Hjelm, Rex P.; Kent, Michael Stuart

    2011-02-01

    Sequence-specific polymers are the basis of the most promising approaches to bottom-up programmed assembly of nanoscale materials. Examples include artificial peptides and nucleic acids. Another class is oligo(N-functional glycine)s, also known as peptoids, which permit greater sidegroup diversity and conformational control, and can be easier to synthesize and purify. We have developed a set of peptoids that can be used to make inorganic nanoparticles more compatible with biological sequence-specific polymers so that they can be incorporated into nucleic acid or other biologically based nanostructures. Peptoids offer degrees of modularity, versatility, and predictability that equal or exceed other sequence-specific polymers, allowing for rational design of oligomers for a specific purpose. This degree of control will be essential to the development of arbitrarily designed nanoscale structures.

  5. Nanoscale Structure at Mineral-Fluid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturchio, N. C.; Sturchio, N. C.; Fenter, P.; Cheng, L.; Park, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Nagy, K. L.; Schlegel, M. L.

    2001-12-01

    The nature of nanoparticles and their role in the natural environment is currently a subject of renewed interest. The high surface area (and surface area-to-volume ratio) of nanoparticles exerts a widespread influence on geochemical reactions and transport processes. A thorough understanding of the nanoscale world remains largely hypothetical, however, because of the challenges associated with characterizing nanoscale structures and processes. Recent insights gained from high-resolution synchrotron x-ray reflectivity measurements at the solid-fluid interfaces of macroscopic (i.e., mm-scale) mineral particles may provide relevant guidelines for expected nanoparticle surface structures. For example, at calcite-water and barite-water interfaces, undercoordinated surface cations bond with water species of variable protonation, and modest relaxations (to several hundredths of a nanometer) affect the outermost unit cells [1,2]. Undercoordinated tetrahedral ions at aluminosilicate surfaces also bond with water species, whereas interstitial or interlayer alkali or alkaline earth ions at the surface may readily exchange with hydronium or other ions; modest relaxations also affect the outermost unit cells [3,4]. Modulation of liquid water structure out to about one nanometer has been observed at the (001) cleavage surface of muscovite in deionized water, and may be present at other mineral-fluid interfaces [4]. Dissolution mechanisms at the orthoclase-water interface have been clarified by combining x-ray reflectivity and scanning force microscopy measurements [5]. Further progress in understanding nanoscale structures and processes at macroscopic mineral-water interfaces is likely to benefit nanoparticle studies. [1] Fenter et al. (2000) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 1221-1228. [2] Fenter et al. (2001) J. Phys. Chem. B 105(34), 8112-8119. [3] Fenter et al. (2000) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 3663-3673. [4] Cheng et al. (2001) Phys. Rev. Lett., (in press). [5] Teng et al

  6. Molecular engineering of nanoscale order in organic electro-optic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Scott R.; Sinness, Jessica; Dubbury, Sara; Firestone, Kimberly A.; Benedict, Jason B.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Clot, Olivier; Reid, Philip J.; Dalton, Larry R.

    2012-06-28

    The rational design of bulk nanoscale order in organic electro-optic materials, where the strong dipole-dipole interactions tend to dominate over the weaker forces exploited for self-assembly processes, remains an attractive yet elusive goal. Towards this end, a series of pseudo-discotic dipolar nonlinear optical chromophores have been synthesized and fully characterized. Theoretical guidance and an iterative molecular design process have succeeded in engineering long-range nanoscale order in organic electro-optic glasses. Small-angle thin-film X-ray diffraction experiments demonstrate a self-assembled lamellar morphology in a majority of these materials. Cryogenic crystallography, using a synchrotron X-ray source, afforded the structure of a representative system. This structure, in concert with thin-film X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy, and refractive index experiments elucidated the nanoscale order in the films. Application of these materials in electro-optics is discussed.

  7. PREFACE: Selected papers from the Fourth Topical Conference on Nanoscale Science and Engineering of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Michael S.; Lee, Gil U.

    2005-07-01

    This special issue of Nanotechnology contains research papers contributed by the participants of the Fourth Topical Conference on Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), which was held in Austin, Texas, USA, 7-12 November, 2004. This conference saw 284 oral presentations from institutions around the world, which is the highest number for this topical conference series to date. These presentations were organized into 64 sessions, covering the range of nanotechnology subject areas in which chemical engineers are currently engaged. These sessions included the following areas. • Fundamentals: thermodynamics at the nanoscale; applications of nanostructured fluids; transport properties in nanophase and nanoscale systems; molecular modelling methods; self and directed assembly at the nanoscale; nanofabrication and nanoscale processing; manipulation of nanophases by external fields; nanoscale systems; adsorption and transport in carbon nanotubes; nanotribology; making the transition from materials and phenomena to new technologies; operation of micro-and nano-systems. • Materials: nanoparticle synthesis and stabilization; nanoscale structure in polymers; nanotemplating of polymers; synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; nanowires; nanoparticle assemblies and superlattices; nanoelectronic materials; self-assembly of templated inorganic materials; nanostructured hybrid organic/inorganic materials; gas phase synthesis of nanoparticles; multicomponent structured particles; nano energetic materials; liquid-phase synthesis of nanoparticles. • Energy: synthesis and characterization of nanostructured catalytic materials; nanomaterials and devices for energy applications. • Biotechnology: nanobiotechnology; nanotechnology for the biotechnology and pharmaceuticals industries; nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology for sensors; advances in biomaterials, bionanotechnology, biomimetic

  8. Structure of nanoscale gas bubbles in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Caro, A. Schwen, D.; Martinez, E.

    2013-11-18

    A usual way to estimate the amount of gas in a bubble inside a metal is to assume thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e., the gas pressure P equals the capillarity force 2γ/R, with γ the surface energy of the host material and R the bubble radius; under this condition there is no driving force for vacancies to be emitted or absorbed by the bubble. In contrast to the common assumption that pressure inside a gas or fluid bubble is constant, we show that at the nanoscale this picture is no longer valid. P and density can no longer be defined as global quantities determined by an equation of state (EOS), but they become functions of position because the bubble develops a core-shell structure. We focus on He in Fe and solve the problem using both continuum mechanics and empirical potentials to find a quantitative measure of this effect. We point to the need of redefining an EOS for nanoscale gas bubbles in metals, which can be obtained via an average pressure inside the bubble. The resulting EOS, which is now size dependent, gives pressures that differ by a factor of two or more from the original EOS for bubble diameters of 1 nm and below.

  9. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    DOEpatents

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2014-07-22

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  10. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    DOEpatents

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-07-14

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  11. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Tiziana C; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-11-03

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  12. Fano resonances in nanoscale plasmonic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yundong; Li, Hui; Wu, Yongfeng; Zhang, Xuenan

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between plasmonic resonances, sharp modes, and light in nanoscale plasmonic systems often leads to Fano interference effects. This occurs because the plasmonic excitations are usually spectrally broad and the characteristic narrow asymmetric Fano line-shape results upon interaction with spectrally sharper modes. We investigate a plasmonic waveguide system using the finite-difference time-domain method, which consists of a metal-insulator-metal waveguide coupled with a circle and a disk cavity. Numerical simulations results show that the sharp and asymmetric Fano-line shapes can be created in the waveguide. Fano resonance strongly depends on the structural parameters. This has important applications in highly sensitive and multiparameter sensing in the complicated environments.

  13. Engineering size-scaling of plastic deformation in nanoscale asperities

    PubMed Central

    Ward, D. K.; Farkas, D.; Lian, J.; Curtin, W. A.; Wang, J.; Kim, K.-S.; Qi, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Size-dependent plastic flow behavior is manifested in nanoindentation, microbending, and pillar-compression experiments and plays a key role in the contact mechanics and friction of rough surfaces. Recent experiments using a hard flat plate to compress single-crystal Au nano-pyramids and others using a Berkovich indenter to indent flat thin films show size scaling into the 100-nm range where existing mechanistic models are not expected to apply. To bridge the gap between single-dislocation nucleation at the 1-nm scale and dislocation-ensemble plasticity at the 1-μm scale, we use large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to predict the magnitude and scaling of hardness H versus contact size ℓc in nano-pyramids. Two major results emerge: a regime of near-power-law size scaling H ≈ ℓc−η exists, with ηMD ≈ 0.32 compared with ηexpt ≈ 0.75, and unprecedented quantitative and qualitative agreement between MD and experiments is achieved, with HMD ≈ 4 GPa at ℓc = 36 nm and Hexpt ≈ 2.5 GPa at ℓc = 100 nm. An analytic model, incorporating the energy costs of forming the geometrically necessary dislocation structures that accommodate the deformation, is developed and captures the unique magnitude and size scaling of the hardness at larger MD sizes and up to experimental scales while rationalizing the transition in scaling between MD and experimental scales. The model suggests that dislocation–dislocation interactions dominate at larger scales, whereas the behavior at the smallest MD scales is controlled by nucleation over energy barriers. These results provide a basic framework for understanding and predicting size-dependent plasticity in nanoscale asperities under contact conditions in realistic engineered surfaces. PMID:19497857

  14. Strain engineering on silicon/germanium nanoscale heterostructures using molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yumi

    Nanoscale architectures provide additional variables to engineer electronic/mechanical properties of material systems due to their high surface volume ratio and physics that arise from their extremely small size. To date, the device performance of microelectronics has been improved largely by miniaturization. However, with feature sizes below 100 nm, the fundamental challenges demand development of new architectures, new materials, and strain engineering. Strain engineering has been one of the most widely used techniques to achieve desired electronic properties of materials. For example, uniaxial compression and tension are desirable for high speed p-and n-MOSFET, respectively. However, accurate experimental characterization of strain in nanomaterials remains challenges such as resolving strain components and quantifying strain gradient which can affect electronic properties. Molecular dynamics (MD) describe materials with atomic resolution and it can provide invaluable information and insight into nanoscale strain engineering. MD simulations are used to study strain relaxation in Si/Ge heteroepitaxial structures of interest to nanoelectonic applications. Nanopatterning is considered as an avenue for strain engineering to achieve uniaxial strain state from epitaxially integrated Si/Ge heterostructures. Using MD, it is studied how size affect strain relaxation on strained Si/Ge/Si nanobars representing the structures obtained by patterning the films in nanoscale. The MD results demonstrate that Ge with a roughly square cross section has a uniaxial strain state desirable for hole mobility enhancement. Also, process-induced strain relaxation on Si/Ge heterostructures is discussed. The simulations suggest that, by engineering the aspect ratio of Si/Ge nanolaminates, local amorphization followed by recrystallization can be used for either preserving the engineered strain or achieving the desired strain state in crystalline region, showing a possibility as a new avenue

  15. Nanoscale contact engineering for Silicon/Silicide nanowire devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yung-Chen

    Si nanowire shows an abrupt resistance reduction due to the spin ordering at ˜29.7 K. A negative magnetoresistance (MR) ˜1.8% under 5 Tesla at 1.6 K is achieved, demonstrating the ferromagnetic behavior of MnSi. Furthermore, using the MnSi/p-Si/MnSi heterostructure, we have studied the charge injection at various temperatures via the Schottky barrier, and the spin scattering was observed through magnetotransport studies of MnSi/p-Si/MnSi heterojunction. Our results represent the first report of magnetic contact fabrication through the formation of single crystal heterojunction nanowires and the first demonstration of spin injection and detection in such Si nanowire devices. The magnetic silicides approach thus opens a new pathway to create ferromagnetic/semiconductor junction with clean and sharp interface, and may significantly impact the future of spintronics. Beyond those applications, silicide phase control at nanoscale is investigated. Three nickel phases, Ni31Si12, Ni2Si and NiSi2 are observed in one step annealing at 550 °C. NiSi2 grows initially through the Si NW and then the area close to nickel pad transforms into the nickel-rich phase, Ni31Si12. With prolonged annealing over 5 minutes, the Ni2Si starts to show up in between Ni31 Si12 and NiSi2. The growth sequence is different from the thin film system where Ni2Si usually appears as the initial phase in the beginning as the annealing temperature is higher than 400 °C. Interfacial energy differences and surface free energy are believed to play an important role here at the nanoscale, which lead to the formation of normally unfavorable silicide phases in Si NWs. In addition, Si/SiOx core/shell NW structure is used to explore the phase transformation of silicides in the structure-confined nano environment. Nickel silicides in the structure-confined core/shell Si NW shares the similar phase formation sequences as those appeared in the bared SiNWs, while the growth rate is significantly retarded. This may be

  16. Study of nanoscale structural biology using advanced particle beam microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boseman, Adam J.

    This work investigates developmental and structural biology at the nanoscale using current advancements in particle beam microscopy. Typically the examination of micro- and nanoscale features is performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but in order to decrease surface charging, and increase resolution, an obscuring conductive layer is applied to the sample surface. As magnification increases, this layer begins to limit the ability to identify nanoscale surface structures. A new technology, Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), is used to examine uncoated surface structures on the cuticle of wild type and mutant fruit flies. Corneal nanostructures observed with HIM are further investigated by FIB/SEM to provide detailed three dimensional information about internal events occurring during early structural development. These techniques are also used to reconstruct a mosquito germarium in order to characterize unknown events in early oogenesis. Findings from these studies, and many more like them, will soon unravel many of the mysteries surrounding the world of developmental biology.

  17. The Vanderbilt University nanoscale science and engineering fabrication laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmelo, Anthony B.; Belbusti, Edward F.; Smith, Mark L.; Brice, Sean J.; Wheaton, Robert F.

    2005-08-01

    Vanderbilt University has realized the design and construction of a 1635 sq. ft. Class 10,000 cleanroom facility to support the wide-ranging research mission associated with the Vanderbilt Institute for Nanoscale Science and Engineering (VINSE). By design we have brought together disparate technologies and researchers formerly dispersed across the campus to work together in a small contiguous space intended to foster interaction and synergy of nano-technologies not often found in close proximity. The space hosts a variety of tools for lithographic patterning of substrates, the deposition of thin films, the synthesis of diamond nanostructures and carbon nanotubes, and a variety of reactive ion etchers for the fabrication of nanostructures on silicon substrates. In addition, a separate 911 sq. ft. chemistry laboratory supports nanocrystal synthesis and the investigation of biomolecular films. The design criteria required an integrated space that would support the scientific agenda of the laboratory while satisfying all applicable code and safety concerns. This project required the renovation of pre-existing laboratory space with minimal disruption to ongoing activities in a mixed-use building, while meeting the requirements of the 2000 edition of the International Building Code for the variety of potentially hazardous processes that have been programmed for the space. In this paper we describe how architectural and engineering challenges were met in the areas of mitigating floor vibration issues, shielding our facility against EMI emanations, design of the contamination control facility itself, chemical storage and handling, toxic gas use and management, as well as mechanical, electrical, plumbing, lab security, fire and laboratory safety issues.

  18. Advances in the use of nanoscale bilayers to study membrane protein structure and function.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Ketan; Alder, Nathan N

    2014-10-01

    Within the last decade, nanoscale lipid bilayers have emerged as powerful experimental systems in the analysis of membrane proteins (MPs) for both basic and applied research. These discoidal lipid lamellae are stabilized by annuli of specially engineered amphipathic polypeptides (nanodiscs) or polymers (SMALPs/Lipodisqs®). As biomembrane mimetics, they are well suited for the reconstitution of MPs within a controlled lipid environment. Moreover, because they are water-soluble, they are amenable to solution-based biochemical and biophysical experimentation. Hence, due to their solubility, size, stability, and monodispersity, nanoscale lipid bilayers offer technical advantages over more traditional MP analytic approaches such as detergent solubilization and reconstitution into lipid vesicles. In this article, we review some of the most recent advances in the synthesis of polypeptide- and polymer-bound nanoscale lipid bilayers and their application in the study of MP structure and function. PMID:25023464

  19. Instabilities of structured metal films on nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Nanyi; Wu, Yueying; Fowlkes, Jason; Rack, Philip; Kondic, Lou

    2014-11-01

    We consider instabilities of metal films on nanoscale, with particular focus on the interplay between the initial geometry and instability development. In experiments, metal films are deposited lithographically, allowing for precise control of the initial shape, and then exposed to laser pulses that liquefy them. The considered geometries involve various shapes (cylinders or prisms) superimposed on top of a flat film. We consider this problem within the framework of the long wave (lubrication) theory. Our simulations show that the main features of the instability development could be captured, as long as destabilizing liquid-solid interaction is considered in the model. We conclude by discussing the influence of the distance between the imposed perturbations, their shape, as well as experimental noise on the evolution. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET-1235710.

  20. Structural Engineering: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation presents the work of the Structural Engineering Division of the Engineering Directorate. The work includes: providing technical expertise and leadership for the development, evaluation, and operation of structural, mechanical, and thermal spaceflight systems.

  1. Applying systems engineering methodologies to the micro- and nanoscale realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison Darrin, M. Ann

    2012-06-01

    Micro scale and nano scale technology developments have the potential to revolutionize smart and small systems. The application of systems engineering methodologies that integrate standalone, small-scale technologies and interface them with macro technologies to build useful systems is critical to realizing the potential of these technologies. This paper covers the expanding knowledge base on systems engineering principles for micro and nano technology integration starting with a discussion of the drivers for applying a systems approach. Technology development on the micro and nano scale has transition from laboratory curiosity to the realization of products in the health, automotive, aerospace, communication, and numerous other arenas. This paper focuses on the maturity (or lack thereof) of the field of nanosystems which is emerging in a third generation having transitioned from completing active structures to creating systems. The emphasis of applying a systems approach focuses on successful technology development based on the lack of maturity of current nano scale systems. Therefore the discussion includes details relating to enabling roles such as product systems engineering and technology development. Classical roles such as acquisition systems engineering are not covered. The results are also targeted towards small-scale technology developers who need to take into account systems engineering processes such as requirements definition, verification, and validation interface management and risk management in the concept phase of technology development to maximize the likelihood of success, cost effective micro and nano technology to increase the capability of emerging deployed systems and long-term growth and profits.

  2. Nanoscale Building Blocks and Nanoassembly of Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkan, Cengiz

    2003-03-01

    Electronics and photonics industries are highly interested in developing new methods for nanofabrication in order to be able to continue their long-term trend of building ever smaller, faster and less expensive devices. Conventional patterning strategies must be augmented by new techniques in order to truly take advantage of the quantum nature of novel nanoscale devices. In our research, we are developing a bottom-up approach to fabricate building blocks, which can be used to assemble nanostructures and devices. This involves the assembly of atom- and molecule-like nanostructures into functional 2-D and 3-D units. This will take advantage of the unique optical, electronic, and size-tunable properties of nanostructures and permit the use of these properties for "real" applications in a larger system (> 10 nm and < 1 um). Here, we demonstrate a novel technique for the fabrication of nano-assemblies of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and quantum dots (QD) (CNT-QD conjugates) for the first time using a zero length cross-linker. CNT's are primarily functionalized with carboxylic end groups by oxidation in concentrated sulfuric acid. Thiol stabilized QD's in aqueous solution with amino end groups were prepared in the laboratory. The ethylene carbodiimide coupling reaction was used to achieve the CNT-QD conjugation. Sulfo-N-Hydroxysuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) was used to enhance this coupling procedure. We present EDS and FTIR data for the chemical modification and SEM images of the first nano-building blocks. Current work includes the more complex 3-D assembly of QD's and nanotubes on Anodized Aluminum Oxide (AAO) template for nanodevices. Potential future applications of our method include the fabrication of novel electronic and photonic devices, crystal displays and biosensors.

  3. Nanoscale structural order from the atomic pair distribution function (PDF): There's plenty of room in the middle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2008-07-01

    Emerging materials of scientific and technological interest are generally complex and often nanostructured: they have atomic orderings that extend on nanometer length-scales. These can be discrete nanoparticles; bulk crystals with nanoscale chemical or displacive order within them; mesoporous materials that are bulk materials containing nanoscale holes; and nanocomposites that are intimate heterogeneous mixtures of nano-sized constituents. As always, a quantitative knowledge of the atomic structure within these materials is a prerequisite to understanding and engineering their properties. Traditional crystallographic methods for obtaining this information break down at the nanoscale, sometimes referred to as “the nanostructure problem”. We describe here some emerging methods for studying nanoscale structure. We present some examples of recent successes. Finally, we discuss future directions and opportunities and draw attention to limitations and potential problems.

  4. Detection of nanoscale structural changes in bone using random lasers

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qinghai; Xu, Zhengbin; Choi, Seung Ho; Sun, Xuanhao; Xiao, Shumin; Akkus, Ozan; Kim, Young L.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that the unique characteristics of random lasing in bone can be used to assess nanoscale structural alterations as a mechanical or structural biosensor, given that bone is a partially disordered biological nanostructure. In this proof-of-concept study, we conduct photoluminescence experiments on cortical bone specimens that are loaded in tension under mechanical testing. The ultra-high sensitivity, the large detection area, and the simple detection scheme of random lasers allow us to detect prefailure damage in bone at very small strains before any microscale damage occurs. Random laser-based biosensors could potentially open a new possibility for highly sensitive detection of nanoscale structural and mechanical alterations prior to overt microscale changes in hard tissue and biomaterials. PMID:21258558

  5. Nanoscale structural and mechanical characterization of natural nanocomposites: Seashells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaodong

    2007-03-01

    Seashells are natural nanocomposites with superior mechanical strength and toughness. What is the secret recipe that Mother Nature uses to fabricate seashells? What roles do the nanoscale structures play in the inelasticity and toughening of seashells? Can we learn from this to produce seashell-like nanocomposites? The focus of this article is nacre (mother-of-pearl). The recent discovery of nanoparticles in nacre is summarized, and the role these nanoparticles play in nacre’s toughness is elucidated. It was found that rotation and deformation of aragonite nanoparticles are the two prominent mechanisms contributing to energy dissipation in nacre. The biopolymer spacing between nanoparticles facilitates the particle rotation process. This article also presents future challenges in the study of nacre’s nanoscale structure and mechanical properties.

  6. Computer Simulation Methods for Defect Configurations and Nanoscale Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fei

    2010-01-01

    This chapter will describe general computer simulation methods, including ab initio calculations, molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte-Carlo method, and their applications to the calculations of defect configurations in various materials (metals, ceramics and oxides) and the simulations of nanoscale structures due to ion-solid interactions. The multiscale theory, modeling, and simulation techniques (both time scale and space scale) will be emphasized, and the comparisons between computer simulation results and exprimental observations will be made.

  7. Electron Diffraction Determination of Nanoscale Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, Joel H

    2013-03-01

    Dominant research results on adsorption on gold clusters are reviewed, including adsorption of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} on gold cluster cations and anions, kinetics of CO adsorption to middle sized gold cluster cations, adsorption of CO on Au{sub n}{sup +} with induced changes in structure, and H{sub 2}O enhancement of CO adsorption.

  8. Phosphoramidate Ligation of Oligonucleotides in Nanoscale Structures.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Matthäus; Haug, Rüdiger; Said, Hassan; Piasecka, Sylwia; Kramer, Markus; Richert, Clemens

    2016-06-16

    The folding of long DNA strands into designed nanostructures has evolved into an art. Being based on linear chains only, the resulting nanostructures cannot readily be transformed into covalently linked frameworks. Covalently linking strands in the context of folded DNA structures requires a robust method that avoids sterically demanding reagents or enzymes. Here we report chemical ligation of the 3'-amino termini of oligonucleotides and 5'-phosphorylated partner strands in templated reactions that produce phosphoramidate linkages. These reactions produce inter-nucleotide linkages that are isoelectronic and largely isosteric to phosphodiesters. Ligations were performed at three levels of complexity, including the extension of branched DNA hybrids and the ligation of six scaffold strands in a small origami. PMID:27225865

  9. Nanoscale modification of porous gelatin scaffolds with chondroitin sulfate for corneal stromal tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Li, Ya-Ting; Cho, Ching-Hsien; Yu, Ting-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies reflect the importance of using naturally occurring biopolymers as three-dimensional corneal keratocyte scaffolds and suggest that the porous structure of gelatin materials may play an important role in controlling nutrient uptake. In the current study, the authors further consider the application of carbodiimide cross-linked porous gelatin as an alternative to collagen for corneal stromal tissue engineering. The authors developed corneal keratocyte scaffolds by nanoscale modification of porous gelatin materials with chondroitin sulfate (CS) using carbodiimide chemistry. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the amount of covalently incorporated polysaccharide was significantly increased when the CS concentration was increased from 0% to 1.25% (w/v). In addition, as demonstrated by dimethylmethylene blue assays, the CS content in these samples was in the range of 0.078–0.149 nmol per 10 mg scaffold. When compared with their counterparts without CS treatment, various CS-modified porous gelatin membranes exhibited higher levels of water content, light transmittance, and amount of permeated nutrients but possessed lower Young’s modulus and resistance against protease digestion. The hydrophilic and mechanical properties of scaffolds modified with 0.25% CS were comparable with those of native corneas. The samples from this group were biocompatible with the rabbit corneal keratocytes and showed enhanced proliferative and biosynthetic capacity of cultured cells. In summary, the authors found that the nanoscale-level modification has influence on the characteristics and cell-material interactions of CS-containing gelatin hydrogels. Porous membranes with a CS content of 0.112 ± 0.003 nmol per 10 mg scaffold may hold potential for use in corneal stromal tissue engineering. PMID:22403490

  10. Nanoscale modification of porous gelatin scaffolds with chondroitin sulfate for corneal stromal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Li, Ya-Ting; Cho, Ching-Hsien; Yu, Ting-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies reflect the importance of using naturally occurring biopolymers as three-dimensional corneal keratocyte scaffolds and suggest that the porous structure of gelatin materials may play an important role in controlling nutrient uptake. In the current study, the authors further consider the application of carbodiimide cross-linked porous gelatin as an alternative to collagen for corneal stromal tissue engineering. The authors developed corneal keratocyte scaffolds by nanoscale modification of porous gelatin materials with chondroitin sulfate (CS) using carbodiimide chemistry. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the amount of covalently incorporated polysaccharide was significantly increased when the CS concentration was increased from 0% to 1.25% (w/v). In addition, as demonstrated by dimethylmethylene blue assays, the CS content in these samples was in the range of 0.078-0.149 nmol per 10 mg scaffold. When compared with their counterparts without CS treatment, various CS-modified porous gelatin membranes exhibited higher levels of water content, light transmittance, and amount of permeated nutrients but possessed lower Young's modulus and resistance against protease digestion. The hydrophilic and mechanical properties of scaffolds modified with 0.25% CS were comparable with those of native corneas. The samples from this group were biocompatible with the rabbit corneal keratocytes and showed enhanced proliferative and biosynthetic capacity of cultured cells. In summary, the authors found that the nanoscale-level modification has influence on the characteristics and cell-material interactions of CS-containing gelatin hydrogels. Porous membranes with a CS content of 0.112 ± 0.003 nmol per 10 mg scaffold may hold potential for use in corneal stromal tissue engineering. PMID:22403490

  11. Methods and devices for fabricating three-dimensional nanoscale structures

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John A.; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Jangung

    2010-04-27

    The present invention provides methods and devices for fabricating 3D structures and patterns of 3D structures on substrate surfaces, including symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns of 3D structures. Methods of the present invention provide a means of fabricating 3D structures having accurately selected physical dimensions, including lateral and vertical dimensions ranging from 10s of nanometers to 1000s of nanometers. In one aspect, methods are provided using a mask element comprising a conformable, elastomeric phase mask capable of establishing conformal contact with a radiation sensitive material undergoing photoprocessing. In another aspect, the temporal and/or spatial coherence of electromagnetic radiation using for photoprocessing is selected to fabricate complex structures having nanoscale features that do not extend entirely through the thickness of the structure fabricated.

  12. Ordering stripe structures of nanoscale rods in diblock copolymer scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kang; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2002-05-01

    We report a simulation on the formation of ordered stripe structures of nanoscale rods driven by symmetric diblock copolymer melts. Due to the preferential adsorption of one species of the diblock onto the mobile rods, the phase ordering process will couple with the movement of rods. We find that the self-assembly of rods on the copolymer scaffold produces the highly ordered nanowires of rods, and copolymer blends in turn form the well-oriented lamellar structure. This is due to the interplay among the micro-phase separating dynamics in the diblock copolymer, the wetting interaction between rods and diblock copolymer, and the nematic ordering dynamics of rods. We examine the influence of the domain size, the wetting strength, and the rod number density on the formation of such a nanoscale structure. Additionally, we indicate that the orientation of the pattern can be well controlled by external fields acting on the rods. The results suggest that our model system may provide a novel and simple way to control and design the ordering nanowire structure.

  13. Laser-induced nanoscale superhydrophobic structures on metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jagdheesh, R; Pathiraj, B; Karatay, E; Römer, G R B E; Huis in't Veld, A J

    2011-07-01

    The combination of a dual-scale (nano and micro) roughness with an inherent low-surface energy coating material is an essential factor for the development of superhydrophobic surfaces. Ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) machining/structuring is a promising technique for obtaining the dual-scale roughness. Sheets of stainless steel (AISI 304 L SS) and Ti-6Al-4V alloys were laser-machined with ultraviolet laser pulses of 6.7 ps, with different numbers of pulses per irradiated area. The surface energy of the laser-machined samples was reduced via application of a layer of perfluorinated octyltrichlorosilane (FOTS). The influence of the number of pulses per irradiated area on the geometry of the nanostructure and the wetting properties of the laser-machined structures has been studied. The results show that with an increasing number of pulses per irradiated area, the nanoscale structures tend to become predominantly microscale. The top surface of the microscale structures is seen covered with nanoscale protrusions that are most pronounced in Ti-6Al-4V. The laser-machined Ti-6Al-4V surface attained superhydrophobicity, and the improvement in the contact angle was >27% when compared to that of a nontextured surface. PMID:21627133

  14. A nanoscale transmission system with novel-structured carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Biao; Ding, Jianning; Zhang, Yongbin; Zhang, Zhongqiang; Cheng, Guanggui

    2013-01-01

    We present a prototype of nanoscale transmission system consisted of three novel-structured carbon nanotubes, namely, the "T," "I," and "Ω" type nanotubes. Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) serve as joints and linear bearings in this system. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the transmission properties. The obtained results show that this system can work at ultrahigh rotation speeds ˜109 rps with a broad temperature range 10-1000 K. The maximum variations of the output displacement in the stroke and lateral directions caused by the vibration are, respectively, 2.3-2.6 Å and 0.27-0.95 Å, which are 6.1%-7.0% and 0.7%-2.5% of the stroke length, respectively. Moreover, the displacement precision can be effectively improved by decreasing the input rotation speed or the temperature. The small change of the van der Waals potential energy in the DWCNTs indicates ultra low frictions in the joints, which contributes to the smooth transmission motion of the system. These results may suggest a new approach to the design of nanoscale electromechanical systems by taking different types of novel-structured carbon nanotubes.

  15. Brownian Gyrator: A Minimal Heat Engine on the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filliger, Roger; Reimann, Peter

    2007-12-01

    A Brownian particle moving in the vicinity of a generic potential minimum under the influence of dissipation and thermal noise from two different heat baths is shown to act as a minimal heat engine, generating a systematic torque onto the physical object at the origin of the potential and an opposite torque onto the medium generating the dissipation.

  16. Nanoscale control of low-dimensional spin structures in manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Wang; Iftikhar, Ahmed Malik; Renrong, Liang; Wen, Huang; Renkui, Zheng; Jinxing, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Due to the upcoming demands of next-generation electronic/magnetoelectronic devices with low-energy consumption, emerging correlated materials (such as superconductors, topological insulators and manganites) are one of the highly promising candidates for the applications. For the past decades, manganites have attracted great interest due to the colossal magnetoresistance effect, charge-spin-orbital ordering, and electronic phase separation. However, the incapable of deterministic control of those emerging low-dimensional spin structures at ambient condition restrict their possible applications. Therefore, the understanding and control of the dynamic behaviors of spin order parameters at nanoscale in manganites under external stimuli with low energy consumption, especially at room temperature is highly desired. In this review, we collected recent major progresses of nanoscale control of spin structures in manganites at low dimension, especially focusing on the control of their phase boundaries, domain walls as well as the topological spin structures (e.g., skyrmions). In addition, capacitor-based prototype spintronic devices are proposed by taking advantage of the above control methods in manganites. This capacitor-based structure may provide a new platform for the design of future spintronic devices with low-energy consumption. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB920902), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61306105 and 51572278), the Information Science and Technology (TNList) Cross-discipline Foundation from Tsinghua National Laboratory, China and the Fund from the State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China.

  17. Nanoscale Structure Of Organic Matter Explain Its Recalcitrance To Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnol, M.; Salati, S.; Papa, G.; Tambone, F.; Adani, F.

    2009-04-01

    Recalcitrance can be defined as the natural resistance of organic matter (OM) to microbial and enzymatic deconstruction (Himmel et al., 2007). The nature of OM recalcitrance remained not completely understood and more studies need above all to elucidate the role of the chemical topography of the OM at nanometer scale. Hydrolytic enzymes responsible of OM degradation have a molecular weight of 20-25 kD, corresponding to a size of about 4 nm, hardly penetrate into micropores (i.e. the pore having a diameter < 2 nm) and small mesopores (i.e. pores having a diameter 2 < 50 nm) of OM structures, so that their activities are confined only to a portion of the total surface (Zimmerman et al., 2004; Chesson, 1997; Adani et al., 2006). As consequence of that the characterization of the organic matter at nano-scale became interesting in view to explain OM recalcitrance. The aim of this work was to asses the effect of the nano-scale structure of OM versus its recalcitrance. The evolution of organic matter of organic matrices was studied in two systems: plant residue-soil system and simulated landfill system. Plant residues were incubated in soil for one year and recalcitrant fraction, i.e. humic acid, was isolated and studied. Laboratory simulated landfill considered organic fraction of municipal solid waste sampled at different stages of evolution from a full scale plant and incubated under anaerobic condition for one year. In addition the nano-scale structure of fossilized OM (leonardite, chair coal and graphite) was detected as used as model of recalcitrant OM. Nano-scale structures were detected by using meso and microporosity detection. In particular microporosity was determined by adsorption method using CO2 at 273 K and Non Local Density Functional Theory (NLDFT) method was applied to measure the CO2 adsorption isotherms. On the other hand mesoporosity was detected by using N2 adsorption method at 77 K. The BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) equation and the BJH (Barret

  18. Nanoscale biomaterial interface modification for advanced tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, V.; Zykova, A.; Smolik, J.; Rogovska, R.; Donkov, N.; Goltsev, A.; Dubrava, T.; Rassokha, I.; Georgieva, V.

    2012-03-01

    Recently, various stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have been found to have considerable potential for application in tissue engineering and future advanced therapies due to their biological capability to differentiate into specific lineages. Modified surface properties, such as composition, nano-roughness and wettability, affect the most important processes at the biomaterial interface. The aim of the present is work is to study the stem cells' (MSCs) adhesive potential, morphology, phenotypical characteristics in in vitro tests, and to distinguish betwen the different factors influencing the cell/biomaterial interaction, such as nano-topography, surface chemistry and surface free energy.

  19. “MICRO- AND NANOSCALE ENGINEERING OF CELL SIGNALING”

    PubMed Central

    Kam, L.C.; Shen, K.; Dustin, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    It is increasing recognized that cell signaling, as a chemical process, must be considered at the local, micrometer scale. Micro- and nano-fabrication techniques provide access to these dimensions, with the potential to capture and manipulate the spatial complexity of intracellular signaling in experimental models. This review focuses on recent advances in adapting surface engineering for use with biomolecular systems that interface with cell signaling, particularly with respect to surfaces that interact with multiple receptor systems on individual cells. The utility of this conceptual and experimental approach is demonstrated in the context of epithelial cells and T lymphocytes, two system for which the convergence and balance of multiple signaling pathways has dramatic impacts on the ability of these cells to provide their physiological function. PMID:23862677

  20. Pathogen-like particles: biomimetic vaccine carriers engineered at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Joseph A; Chen, Linxiao; Baker, Jenny L; Putnam, David; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2014-08-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are an essential component of vaccine design, helping to generate immunity to pathogen antigens in the absence of infection. Recent advances in nanoscale engineering have created a new class of particulate bionanotechnology that uses biomimicry to better integrate adjuvant and antigen. These pathogen-like particles, or PLPs, can come from a variety of sources, ranging from fully synthetic platforms to biologically derived, self-assembling systems. By employing molecularly engineered targeting and stimulation of key immune cells, recent studies utilizing PLPs as vaccine delivery platforms have shown great promise against high-impact, unsolved vaccine targets ranging from bacterial and viral pathogens to cancer and addiction. PMID:24832075

  1. Computational engine structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Johns, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    A significant research activity at the NASA Lewis Research Center is the computational simulation of complex multidisciplinary engine structural problems. This simulation is performed using computational engine structural analysis (CESA) which consists of integrated multidisciplinary computer codes in conjunction with computer post-processing for problem-specific application. A variety of the computational simulations of specific cases are described in some detail in this paper. These case studies include: (1) aeroelastic behavior of bladed rotors, (2) high velocity impact of fan blades, (3) blade-loss transient response, (4) rotor/stator/squeeze-film/bearing interaction, (5) blade-fragment/rotor-burst containment, and (6) structural behavior of advanced swept turboprops. These representative case studies are selected to demonstrate the breath of the problems analyzed and the role of the computer including post-processing and graphical display of voluminous output data.

  2. Development of functional biomaterials with micro- and nanoscale technologies for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Min; Sant, Shilpa; Kashyap, Aditya; Ahari, Amir F.; Kwon, Chung Hoon; Nichol, Jason W.; Manoucheri, Sam; Zamanian, Behnam; Wang, Yadong; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Micro- and nanotechnologies have emerged as potentially effective fabrication tools for addressing the challenges faced in tissue engineering and drug delivery. The ability to control and manipulate polymeric biomaterials on the micron and nanometer scale with these fabrication techniques has allowed for the creation of controlled cellular environments, engineering of functional tissues, and development of better drug delivery systems. In tissue engineering, micro- and nanotechnologies have enabled the recapitulating of the micro- and nanoscale detail of cell’s environment through controlling surface chemistry and topography of materials, generating 3D cellular scaffolds, and regulating cell-cell interactions. Furthermore, these technologies have led to advances in high-throughput screening (HTS), enabling rapid and efficient discovery of a library of materials and screening of drugs that induce cell-specific responses. In drug delivery, controlling the size and geometry of drug carriers with micro- and nanotechnologies have allowed for modulation of parameters such as bioavailability, pharmacodynamics, and cell-specific targeting. In this review, we introduce recent developments in micro- and nanoscale engineering of polymeric biomaterials with an emphasis on lithographic techniques, and present an overview of their applications in tissue engineering, HTS, and drug delivery. PMID:22711442

  3. Nanoscale engineering materials by supercritical fluid and atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qing

    With the development of material science and technology, modification of substrates, which have random geometry and high aspect ratio three dimensional (3D) complex structures, with desired functional, reactive and stable coatings becomes important and challenging. The ability to fabricate mono- or multi-layers of functional materials with precisely controlled dimensions, finely tuned composition and molecular structures, attracts significant interests in materials science and is the key to construct such devices and structures at nano- and micro-scale with desired properties. In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) has been studied as an alternative route for modifying substrates due to the unique gas-like (low viscosity, high diffusivity and zero surface tension) and liquid-like properties (high density). (1) The reaction kinetics of metal oxides thin film deposition from pyrolysis of metal organics in scCO2 was studied in detail. This method was demonstrated as a powerful technique to coat oxides, including Al2O3, Ga2O3 and others, into 3D high aspect ratio complex structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) forest. (2) The low temperature scCO 2 based hydrogenolysis process was developed as a useful way to functionalize aligned CNTs forest with dense Nickel nanoparticles. On the second part of this work, atomic layer deposition (ALD)/molecular layer deposition (MLD), as a vapor phase, stepwise and self-limiting vacuum based deposition process, was demonstrated as a powerful way to form highly conformal and uniform film onto substrates, even into highly complex 3D complex structures. In this study, (4) Metal oxide ALD is applied onto 3D electrospun polymer microfiber mats template to illustrate an effective and robust strategy to fabricate long and uniform metal oxide microtubes with precisely controllable wall thickness. Designer tubes of various sizes and different materials were demonstrated by using this method. (5) By further extending this technique

  4. Understanding electronic structure and transport properties in nanoscale junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhungana, Kamal B.

    Understanding the electronic structure and the transport properties of nanoscale materials are pivotal for designing future nano-scale electronic devices. Nanoscale materials could be individual or groups of molecules, nanotubes, semiconducting quantum dots, and biomolecules. Among these several alternatives, organic molecules are very promising and the field of molecular electronics has progressed significantly over the past few decades. Despite these progresses, it has not yet been possible to achieve atomic level control at the metal-molecule interface during a conductance measurement, which hinders the progress in this field. The lack of atomic level information of the interface also makes it much harder for theorist to interpret the experimental results. To identify the junction configuration that possibly exists during the experimental measurement of conductance in molecular junction, we created an ensemble of Ruthanium-bis(terpyridine) molecular devices, and studied the transport behavior in these molecular junctions. This helps us identifying the junction geometry that yields the experimentally measured current-voltage characteristics. Today's electronic devices mostly ignore the spin effect of an electron. The inclusion of spin effect of an electron on solid-state transistor allows us to build more efficient electronic devices; this also alleviates the problem of huge heat dissipation in the nanoscale electronic devices. Different materials have been utilized to build three terminals spin transistor since its inception in 1950. In search of suitable candidates for the molecular spin transistor, we have recently designed a spin-valve transistor based on an organometallic molecule; a large amplification (320 %) in tunnel magneto-resistance (TMR) is found to occur at an experimentally accessible gate field. This suggests that the organic molecules can be utilized for making the next generation three terminal spintronic devices. Similarly, we have designed a

  5. Characterization of the nanoscale structure of milk fat.

    PubMed

    Ramel, Pere Randy R; Peyronel, Fernanda; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2016-07-15

    The nanoscale structure of milk fat (MF) crystal networks is extensively described for the first time through the characterization of milk fat-crystalline nanoplatelets (MF-CNPs). Removing oil by washing with cold isobutanol and breaking-down crystal aggregates by controlled homogenization allowed for the extraction and visualization of individual MF-CNPs that are mainly composed of high melting triacylglycerols (TAGs). By image analysis, the length and width of MF-CNPs were measured (600 nm × 200 nm-900 nm × 300 nm). Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), crystalline domain size, (i.e., thickness of MF-CNPs), was determined (27 nm (d001)). Through interpretation of ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) patterns of MF using Unified Fit and Guinier-Porod models, structural properties of MF-CNPs (smooth surfaces) and MF-CNP aggregations were characterized (RLCA aggregation of MF-CNPs to form larger structures that present diffused surfaces). Elucidation of MF-CNPs provides a new dimension of analysis for describing MF crystal networks and opens-up opportunities for modifying MF properties through nanoengineering. PMID:26948609

  6. Engineering nanoscale stem cell niche: direct stem cell behavior at cell-matrix interface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Gordon, Andrew; Qian, Weiyi; Chen, Weiqiang

    2015-09-16

    Biophysical cues on the extracellular matrix (ECM) have proven to be significant regulators of stem cell behavior and evolution. Understanding the interplay of these cells and their extracellular microenvironment is critical to future tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, both of which require a means of controlled differentiation. Research suggests that nanotopography, which mimics the local, nanoscale, topographic cues within the stem cell niche, could be a way to achieve large-scale proliferation and control of stem cells in vitro. This Progress Report reviews the history and contemporary advancements of this technology, and pays special attention to nanotopographic fabrication methods and the effect of different nanoscale patterns on stem cell response. Finally, it outlines potential intracellular mechanisms behind this response. PMID:26222885

  7. Engineered nano-scale ceramic supports for PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, Eric L; Blackmore, Karen J; Burrell, Anthony K; Henson, Neil J; Phillips, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    cell conditions must also exhibit high surface area as a necessary adjunct to obtaining high Pt dispersions and Pt utilization targets. Our goal in this work is to identify new synthesis approaches together with materials that will lead to ceramic supports with high surface areas and high Pt dispersions. Several strong candidates for use as PEMFC catalyst supports include: transition metal nitrides and substoichiometric titanium oxides, which hither to now have been prepared by other researcher groups with relatively low surface areas (ca. 1-50 m{sup 2}/g typical). To achieve our goals of engineering high surface area, conductive ceramic support for utilization in PEMFCs, a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary team with experience synthesizing and investigating these materials has been assembled. This team is headed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and includes Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of New Mexico. This report describes our fiscal year 2010 technical progress related to applying advanced synthetiC methods towards the development of new ceramic supports for Pt catalysts for PEM fuel cells.

  8. Brillouin resonance broadening due to structural variations in nanoscale waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, C.; Van Laer, R.; Steel, M. J.; Eggleton, B. J.; Poulton, C. G.

    2016-02-01

    We study the impact of structural variations (that is slowly varying geometry aberrations and internal strain fields) on the width and shape of the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) resonance in nanoscale waveguides. We find that they lead to an inhomogeneous resonance broadening through two distinct mechanisms: firstly, the acoustic frequency is directly influenced via mechanical nonlinearities; secondly, the optical wave numbers are influenced via the opto-mechanical nonlinearity leading to an additional acoustic frequency shift via the phase-matching condition. We find that this second mechanism is proportional to the opto-mechanical coupling and, hence, related to the SBS-gain itself. It is absent in intra-mode forward SBS, while it plays a significant role in backward scattering. In backward SBS increasing the opto-acoustic overlap beyond a threshold defined by the fabrication tolerances will therefore no longer yield the expected quadratic increase in overall Stokes amplification. Finally, we illustrate in a numerical example that in backward SBS and inter-mode forward SBS the existence of two broadening mechanisms with opposite sign also opens the possibility to compensate the effect of geometry-induced broadening. Our results can be transferred to other micro- and nano-structured waveguide geometries such as photonic crystal fibres.

  9. Ultrafast optical demagnetization manipulates nanoscale spin structure in domain walls

    PubMed Central

    Pfau, B.; Schaffert, S.; Müller, L.; Gutt, C.; Al-Shemmary, A.; Büttner, F.; Delaunay, R.; Düsterer, S.; Flewett, S.; Frömter, R.; Geilhufe, J.; Guehrs, E.; Günther, C.M.; Hawaldar, R.; Hille, M.; Jaouen, N.; Kobs, A.; Li, K.; Mohanty, J.; Redlin, H.; Schlotter, W.F.; Stickler, D.; Treusch, R.; Vodungbo, B.; Kläui, M.; Oepen, H.P.; Lüning, J.; Grübel, G.; Eisebitt, S.

    2012-01-01

    During ultrafast demagnetization of a magnetically ordered solid, angular momentum has to be transferred between the spins, electrons, and phonons in the system on femto- and picosecond timescales. Although the intrinsic spin-transfer mechanisms are intensely debated, additional extrinsic mechanisms arising due to nanoscale heterogeneity have only recently entered the discussion. Here we use femtosecond X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser to study thin film samples with magnetic domain patterns. We observe an infrared-pump-induced change of the spin structure within the domain walls on the sub-picosecond timescale. This domain-topography-dependent contribution connects the intrinsic demagnetization process in each domain with spin-transport processes across the domain walls, demonstrating the importance of spin-dependent electron transport between differently magnetized regions as an ultrafast demagnetization channel. This pathway exists independent from structural inhomogeneities such as chemical interfaces, and gives rise to an ultrafast spatially varying response to optical pump pulses. PMID:23033076

  10. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Materials (NOHMs) - Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Lynden

    2014-03-01

    Polymer-particle composites are used today in virtually every field of technology. When the particles approach nanometer dimensions, large interfacial regions are created in their polymer hosts, which present opportunities and challenges for research, as well as for applications. This talk will focus on a novel class of polymer-particle composite fluids created by densely grafting short organic polymer chains or ionic liquid molecules to inorganic nanostructures. By manipulating the nanoparticle size, polymer molecular weight and surface chemistry, we show that it is possible to create self-suspended suspensions of nanoparticles in which each particle in suspension carries around a discrete share of the suspending medium. The talk will explore consequences of the self-suspended state on fluid structure, rheology, and tethered polymer & particle dynamics in these so-called nanoscale organic hybrid materials (NOHMs). The talk will also discuss particle and tethered polymer dynamics in single-component NOHMs and phase stability, structure, and rheology of NOHMs/polymer blends. This presentation is based on work supported in part by the National Science Foundation, Award No. DMR-1006323.

  11. Imaging and manipulating the structural machinery of living cells on the micro- and nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Chown, Matthew G; Kumar, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    The structure, physiology, and fate of living cells are all highly sensitive to mechanical forces in the cellular microenvironment, including stresses and strains that originate from encounters with the extracellular matrix (ECM), blood and other flowing materials, and neighbouring cells. This relationship between context and physiology bears tremendous implications for the design of cellular micro-or nanotechnologies, since any attempt to control cell behavior in a device must provide the appropriate physical microenvironment for the desired cell behavior. Cells sense, process, and respond to biophysical cues in their environment through a set of integrated, multi-scale structural complexes that span length scales from single molecules to tens of microns, including small clusters of force-sensing molecules at the cell surface, micron-sized cell-ECM focal adhesion complexes, and the cytoskeleton that permeates and defines the entire cell. This review focuses on several key technologies that have recently been developed or adapted for the study of the dynamics of structural micro-and nanosystems in living cells and how these systems contribute to spatially-and temporally-controlled changes in cellular structure and mechanics. We begin by discussing subcellular laser ablation, which permits the precise incision of nanoscale structural elements in living cells in order to discern their mechanical properties and contributions to cell structure. We then discuss fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and fluorescent speckle microscopy, two live-cell fluorescence imaging methods that enable quantitative measurement of the binding and transport properties of specific proteins in the cell. Finally, we discuss methods to manipulate cellular structural networks by engineering the extracellular environment, including microfabrication of ECM distributions of defined geometry and microdevices designed to measure cellular traction forces at micron-scale resolution. Together

  12. Nanoscale engineering of a cellular interface with semiconductor nanoparticle films for photoelectric stimulation of neurons.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Todd C; Wickramanyake, W M Shan; Jan, Edward; Motamedi, Massoud; Brodwick, Malcolm; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2007-02-01

    The remarkable optical and electrical properties of nanostructured materials are considered now as a source for a variety of biomaterials, biosensing, and cell interface applications. In this study, we report the first example of hybrid bionanodevice where absorption of light by thin films of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles of HgTe produced by the layer-by-layer assembly stimulate adherent neural cells via a sequence of photochemical and charge-transfer reactions. We also demonstrate an example of nanoscale engineering of the material driven by biological functionalities. PMID:17298018

  13. The structure of nanoscale polaron correlations in the layered manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Branton

    2002-03-01

    Recent x-ray and neutron scattering experiments have uncovered nanoscale polaron correlations that play an essential role in the colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) behavior of the perovskite manganites. Short-range polaronic order decreases the charge-carrier mobility of the high-temperature paramagnetic state, and subsequently becomes unstable at the ferromagnetic transition, contributing to a pronounced resistivity decrease at T_C. In the bilayered perovskite system La_2-2xSr_1+2xMn_2O7 (0.3 < x < 0.5), weak x-ray diffuse scattering maxima reveal a one-dimensional incommensurate structural modulation with wavevector q = (0.3, 0, ± 1) and a correlation length of 10 to 30 Angstroms. A crystallographic analysis of the diffuse satellite intensities yields a longitudinal Jahn-Teller stretch mode suggestive of charge-density-wave fluctuations. Within the correlated regions, polaronic eg electrons form a striped pattern of occupied d(3x^2-r^2) orbitals. Dynamic polaron correlations of the zig-zag orbital type are also observed above TC and exhibit distinctly glassy behavior. These structures provide unique insights into the nature of strongly correlated polaronic systems. Collaborators: R. Osborn, D.N. Argyriou, S. Rosenkranz, L. Vasiliu-Doloc, J.F. Mitchell, S.K. Sinha, J.W. Lynn, C.D. Ling, Z. Islam, U. Ruett, and A. Berger. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Science contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

  14. Controlling magnetoelectric coupling by nanoscale phase transformation instrain engineered bismuth ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. Y.; Vasudevan, Rama K; Pan, K.; Xie, S. H.; Liang, W. -I.; Kumar, Amit; Jesse, Stephen; Chen, Y. -C.; Chu, Y.-H.; Nagarajan, Valanoor; Kalinin, Sergei V; Li, J. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic materials is promising for a wide range of applications, yet manipulating magnetic ordering by electric field proves elusive to obtain and difficult to control. In this paper, we explore the prospect of controlling magnetic ordering in misfit strained bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3, BFO) films, combining theoretical analysis, numerical simulations, and experimental characterizations. Electric field induced transformation from a tetragonal phase to a distorted rhombohedral one in strain engineered BFO films has been identified by thermodynamic analysis, and realized by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) experiment. By breaking the rotational symmetry of a tip-induced electric field as suggested by phase field simulation, the morphology of distorted rhombohedral variants has been delicately controlled and regulated. Such capabilities enable nanoscale control of magnetoelectric coupling in strain engineered BFO films that is difficult to achieve otherwise, as demonstrated by phase field simulations.

  15. Engineered interfaces and nano-scale thin films for solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.

    Solid state electrolytes with high oxygen ionic conductivity at low temperatures are required to develop cost effective and efficient solid oxide fuel cells. This study investigates the influence of engineered interfaces on the oxygen ionic conductivity of nano-scale multilayer thin film electrolytes. The epitaxial Sm2O3 doped CeO2 (SDC) and Sc2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (ScSZ) are selected as the alternative layers for the proposed multilayer thin film electrolyte based on the optimum structural, chemical, and electrical properties reported in the previous studies. The epitaxial SDC(111)/ScSZ(111) multilayer thin films are grown on high purity Al2O3(0001) substrates by oxygen-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Prior to the deposition of multilayers, the growth parameters are optimized for epitaxial CeO 2, ZrO2, SDC, and ScSZ thin films. The epitaxial orientation and surface morphology of CeO2 thin films shows dependency on the growth rate. Epitaxial CeO2(111) is obtained at relatively high growth rates (>9 A/min) at a substrate temperature of 650°C and an oxygen partial pressure of 2 x 10 -5 Torr. The same growth parameters are used for the deposition of ZrO2 thin films. ZrO2 exhibits both monoclinic and cubic phases, which is stabilized in the cubic structure by doping with Sc 2O3. The Sm and Sc evaporation rates are varied during the growth to obtain thin films of 15 mol % SmO1.5 doped CeO2 and 20 mol % ScO1.5 stabilized ZrO2, respectively. The SDC/ScSZ multilayer thin films are grown using the same growth parameters by varying the number of layers. The SDC/ScSZ multilayer thin films show significant enhancement in the oxygen ionic conductivity in comparison to single layer SDC and ScSZ thin films. The increase in the oxygen ionic conductivity with the increase in number of layers can be attributed to lattice mismatch induced ionic conductivity along the interfaces. The 8-layer film exhibits the maximum oxygen ionic conductivity with one order of magnitude

  16. Nanoscale cues regulate the structure and function of macroscopic cardiac tissue constructs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deok-Ho; Lipke, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Pilnam; Cheong, Raymond; Thompson, Susan; Delannoy, Michael; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Tung, Leslie; Levchenko, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Heart tissue possesses complex structural organization on multiple scales, from macro- to nano-, but nanoscale control of cardiac function has not been extensively analyzed. Inspired by ultrastructural analysis of the native tissue, we constructed a scalable, nanotopographically controlled model of myocardium mimicking the in vivo ventricular organization. Guided by nanoscale mechanical cues provided by the underlying hydrogel, the tissue constructs displayed anisotropic action potential propagation and contractility characteristic of the native tissue. Surprisingly, cell geometry, action potential conduction velocity, and the expression of a cell–cell coupling protein were exquisitely sensitive to differences in the substratum nanoscale features of the surrounding extracellular matrix. We propose that controlling cell–material interactions on the nanoscale can stipulate structure and function on the tissue level and yield novel insights into in vivo tissue physiology, while providing materials for tissue repair. PMID:20018748

  17. Fabrication of surface nanoscale axial photonics structures with a femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fangcheng; Shu, Xuewen; Zhang, Lin; Sumetsky, M

    2016-06-15

    Surface nanoscale axial photonics (SNAP) structures are fabricated with a femtosecond laser for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The inscriptions introduced by the laser pressurize the fiber and cause its nanoscale effective radius variation. We demonstrate the subangstrom precise fabrication of individual and coupled SNAP microresonators having the effective radius variation of several nanometers. Our results pave the way to a novel ultraprecise SNAP fabrication technology based on the femtosecond laser inscription. PMID:27304291

  18. Investigation of depth-resolved nanoscale structural changes in regulated cell proliferation and chromatin decondensation

    PubMed Central

    Uttam, Shikhar; Bista, Rajan K.; Staton, Kevin; Alexandrov, Sergey; Choi, Serah; Bakkenist, Christopher J.; Hartman, Douglas J.; Brand, Randall E.; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    We present depth-resolved spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy, a simple approach that utilizes coherence gating to construct a depth-resolved structural feature vector quantifying sub-resolution axial structural changes at different optical depths within the sample. We show that this feature vector is independent of sample thickness variation, and identifies nanoscale structural changes in clinically prepared samples. We present numerical simulations and experimental validation to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. We also perform experiments using unstained cells to investigate the nanoscale structural changes in regulated cell proliferation through cell cycle and chromatin decondensation induced by histone acetylation. PMID:23577294

  19. Micro/nanoscale continuous printing: direct-writing of wavy micro/nano structures via electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Feiyu; Du, Zefeng; Zeng, Jun; Zhu, Ziming; Chen, Xin; Chen, Xindu; Lv, Yuanjun; Wang, Han

    2015-07-01

    Micro/nanofibers that are created by direct-writing using an electrospinning (ES) technique have aroused much recent attention, owing to their intriguing physical properties and great potential as building blocks for micro/nanoscale devices. In this work, a wavy direct-writing (WDW) process was developed to directly write wavy micro/nanostructures suitable for the fabrication of micro/nanoscale devices. The low voltage WDW technique is anticipated to be useful for a broad range of applications including flexible/stretchable electronics, micro optoelectronics, nano-antennas, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and biomedical engineering.

  20. Engineered Bacterial Metal-binding Proteins for Nanoscale Self-assembly and heavy Metal Tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall Sedlak, Ruth Amanda

    Implementing biological principles in material synthesis and assembly is one way to expand our abilities to efficiently assemble nanoscale materials and devices. Specifically, recent advances in identifying peptides that bind inorganic materials with high affinity and specificity has spurred investigation of protein models for nanoscale inorganic assembly. This dissertation presents the results of my studies of several E. coli proteins engineered to bind inorganic materials through simple peptide motifs. I demonstrate that these proteins modulate the self-assembly of DNA-based nanostructures and can introduce heavy metal tolerance into metal-sensitive bacteria. Chapter 2 explores use of the engineered F plasmid DNA relaxase/helicase TraI for the self-assembly of complex DNA-protein-gold nanostructures. The full-length protein is engineered with a gold binding motif at an internal permissive site (TraI369GBP1-7x), while a truncated version of TraI is engineered with the same gold binding motif at the C-terminus (TraI361GBP1-7x). Both constructs bind gold nanoparticles while maintaining their DNA binding activity, and transmission electron microscopy reveals TraI369GBP1-7x utilizes its non-specific DNA binding activity to decorate single-stranded and double-stranded DNA with gold nanoparticles. The self assembly principles demonstrated in this work will be fundamental to constructing higher ordered hybrid nanostructures through DNA-protein-nanoparticle interactions. Chapter 3 studies the effects of expressing inorganic binding peptides within cells. I identified a silver binding peptide that, when fused to the periplasmic maltose binding protein, protects E. coli from silver toxicity in batch culture and reduces silver ions to silver nanoparticles within the bacterial periplasm. Engineered metal-ion tolerant microorganisms such as this E. coli could potentially be used in applications ranging from remediation to interrogation of biomolecule-metal interactions in vivo

  1. Fabrication of a highly oriented line structure on an aluminum surface and the nanoscale patterning on the nanoscale structure using highly functional molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Y.; Kato, H.; Takemura, S.; Watanabe, H.; Hayakawa, K.; Kimura, S.; Okumura, D.; Sugiyama, T.; Hiramatsu, T.; Nanba, N.; Nishikawa, O.; Taniguchi, M.

    2009-07-15

    The surface of an Al plate was treated with a combination of chemical and electrochemical processes for fabrication of surface nanoscale structures on Al plates. Chemical treatments by using acetone and pure water under supersonic waves were conducted on an Al surface. Additional electrochemical process in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution created a finer and oriented nanoscale structure on the Al surface. Dynamic force microscopy (DFM) measurement clarified that the nanoscale highly oriented line structure was successfully created on the Al surface. The line distance was estimated approximately 30-40 nm. At the next stage, molecular patterning on the highly oriented line structure by functional molecules such as copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and fullerene C{sub 60} was also conducted. CuPc or C{sub 60} molecules were deposited on the highly oriented line structure on Al. A toluene droplet containing CuPc molecules was cast on the nanostructured Al plate and was extended on the surface. CuPc or C{sub 60} deposition on the nanostructured Al surface proceeded by evaporation of toluene. DFM and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that a unique molecular pattern was fabricated so that the highly oriented groove channels were filled with the functional molecules.

  2. Composite mechanics for engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    1989-01-01

    Recent research activities and accomplishments at Lewis Research Center on composite mechanics for engine structures are summarized. The activities focused mainly on developing procedures for the computational simulation of composite intrinsic and structural behavior. The computational simulation encompasses all aspects of composite mechanics, advanced three-dimensional finite-element methods, damage tolerance, composite structural and dynamic response, and structural tailoring and optimization.

  3. Composite mechanics for engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent research activities and accomplishments at Lewis Research Center on composite mechanics for engine structures are summarized. The activities focused mainly on developing procedures for the computational simulation of composite intrinsic and structural behavior. The computational simulation encompasses all aspects of composite mechanics, advanced three-dimensional finite-element methods, damage tolerance, composite structural and dynamic response, and structural tailoring and optimization.

  4. Two-dimensional defects and the problem of the identification of a nanoscale particle structure

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimov, K. S.

    2011-12-15

    It is shown that twins and antiphase boundaries can coexist in nanoscale objects. It ishas been established that twinning and ordering domains affectthe diffraction features, by distorting the reflection series in electron diffraction patterns. The structure and phase relation of nanoparticles cannot be adequately explained without preliminary studies of their defect structure.

  5. Computational structural mechanics for engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The computational structural mechanics (CSM) program at Lewis encompasses: (1) fundamental aspects for formulating and solving structural mechanics problems, and (2) development of integrated software systems to computationally simulate the performance/durability/life of engine structures. It is structured to mainly supplement, complement, and whenever possible replace, costly experimental efforts which are unavoidable during engineering research and development programs. Specific objectives include: investigate unique advantages of parallel and multiprocesses for: reformulating/solving structural mechanics and formulating/solving multidisciplinary mechanics and develop integrated structural system computational simulators for: predicting structural performances, evaluating newly developed methods, and for identifying and prioritizing improved/missing methods needed. Herein the CSM program is summarized with emphasis on the Engine Structures Computational Simulator (ESCS). Typical results obtained using ESCS are described to illustrate its versatility.

  6. Nanoscale phase engineering of thermal transport with a Josephson heat modulator.

    PubMed

    Fornieri, Antonio; Blanc, Christophe; Bosisio, Riccardo; D'Ambrosio, Sophie; Giazotto, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Macroscopic quantum phase coherence has one of its pivotal expressions in the Josephson effect, which manifests itself both in charge and energy transport. The ability to master the amount of heat transferred through two tunnel-coupled superconductors by tuning their phase difference is the core of coherent caloritronics, and is expected to be a key tool in a number of nanoscience fields, including solid-state cooling, thermal isolation, radiation detection, quantum information and thermal logic. Here, we show the realization of the first balanced Josephson heat modulator designed to offer full control at the nanoscale over the phase-coherent component of thermal currents. Our device provides magnetic-flux-dependent temperature modulations up to 40 mK in amplitude with a maximum of the flux-to-temperature transfer coefficient reaching 200 mK per flux quantum at a bath temperature of 25 mK. Foremost, it demonstrates the exact correspondence in the phase engineering of charge and heat currents, breaking ground for advanced caloritronic nanodevices such as thermal splitters, heat pumps and time-dependent electronic engines. PMID:26641530

  7. Nanoscale phase engineering of thermal transport with a Josephson heat modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornieri, Antonio; Blanc, Christophe; Bosisio, Riccardo; D'Ambrosio, Sophie; Giazotto, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Macroscopic quantum phase coherence has one of its pivotal expressions in the Josephson effect, which manifests itself both in charge and energy transport. The ability to master the amount of heat transferred through two tunnel-coupled superconductors by tuning their phase difference is the core of coherent caloritronics, and is expected to be a key tool in a number of nanoscience fields, including solid-state cooling, thermal isolation, radiation detection, quantum information and thermal logic. Here, we show the realization of the first balanced Josephson heat modulator designed to offer full control at the nanoscale over the phase-coherent component of thermal currents. Our device provides magnetic-flux-dependent temperature modulations up to 40 mK in amplitude with a maximum of the flux-to-temperature transfer coefficient reaching 200 mK per flux quantum at a bath temperature of 25 mK. Foremost, it demonstrates the exact correspondence in the phase engineering of charge and heat currents, breaking ground for advanced caloritronic nanodevices such as thermal splitters, heat pumps and time-dependent electronic engines.

  8. Controlling magnetism by ultrashort laser pulses: from fundamentals to nanoscale engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossini, D.; Rasing, Th.

    2016-06-01

    From the discovery of sub-picosecond demagnetization over a decade ago [1] to the recent demonstration of magnetization reversal by a single 40 femtosecond laser pulse [2], the manipulation of spins by ultra-short laser pulses has become a fundamentally challenging topic with a potentially high impact for future spintronics, data storage and manipulation and quantum computation [3]. It was realized that the femtosecond laser induced all-optical switching (AOS) as observed in ferrimagnets exploits the laser induced strongly non-equilibrium dynamics and the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between their sublattices [4-6]. This opens the way to engineer new magnetic materials for AOS [7,8], though for real applications nanoscale control of inhomogeneities appears to be relevant [9]. Besides the intruiging technological implications of these observations, they broadened remarkably the frontiers of our fundamental knowledge of magnetic phenomena. The laser driven out-of-equilibrium states cannot be described in term of the well-established thermodynamical approach, which is based on the concepts of equilibrium and adiabatic transformations. Theoretical efforts, although in their infancy, have already demonstrated [5,6] that light-induced spin dynamics on the (sub)-picosecond time scale results in phenomena utterly forbidden in a thermodynamical framework. Another challenge is how to bring the optical manipulation of magnetic media to the required nanoscale. This is clearly a key element for the perspectives in terms of magnetic recording. In addition, it would allow to explore a novel regime of spin dynamics, since the investigation of magnets on the femtosecond time-scale and the nanometer length-scale simultaneously is unexplored. One experimental approach which may be successful makes use of wave-shaping techniques [10]. Recent results with engineered hybrid magnetic materials and nanofocusing via a plasmonic antenna showed the practical potential of AOS: the

  9. Structural Signature of Plasticity Unveiled by Nano-Scale Viscoelastic Contact in a Metallic Glass.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y M; Zeng, J F; Wang, S; Sun, B A; Wang, Q; Lu, J; Gravier, S; Bladin, J J; Wang, W H; Pan, M X; Liu, C T; Yang, Y

    2016-01-01

    Room-temperature plasticity in metallic glasses (MGs) is commonly associated with local structural heterogeneity; however, direct observation of the subtle structural change caused by plasticity is vitally important but the data are extremely scarce. Based on dynamic atomic force microscopy (DAFM), here we show that plasticity-induced structural evolution in a Zr-Ni MG can be revealed via nano-scale viscoelastic contacts between an AFM tip and plastically deformed MG surface layers. Our experimental results clearly show a spatial amplification of the nano-scale structural heterogeneity caused by the distributed plastic flow, which can be linked to the limited growth, reorientation and agglomeration of some nano-scale energy-absorbing regions, which are reminiscent of the behavior of the defect-like regions with non-affine deformation as conceived in many theories and models. Furthermore, we are able to experimentally extract the thermodynamic properties of these nano-scale regions, which possess an energy barrier of 0.3-0.5 eV, about half of that for a typical shear transformation event that usually occurs at the onset of plasticity. The outcome of our current work sheds quantitative insights into the correlation between plasticity and structural heterogeneity in MGs. PMID:27383387

  10. Structural Signature of Plasticity Unveiled by Nano-Scale Viscoelastic Contact in a Metallic Glass

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y. M.; Zeng, J. F.; Wang, S.; Sun, B. A.; Wang, Q.; Lu, J.; Gravier, S.; Bladin, J. J.; Wang, W. H.; Pan, M. X.; Liu, C. T.; Yang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Room-temperature plasticity in metallic glasses (MGs) is commonly associated with local structural heterogeneity; however, direct observation of the subtle structural change caused by plasticity is vitally important but the data are extremely scarce. Based on dynamic atomic force microscopy (DAFM), here we show that plasticity-induced structural evolution in a Zr-Ni MG can be revealed via nano-scale viscoelastic contacts between an AFM tip and plastically deformed MG surface layers. Our experimental results clearly show a spatial amplification of the nano-scale structural heterogeneity caused by the distributed plastic flow, which can be linked to the limited growth, reorientation and agglomeration of some nano-scale energy-absorbing regions, which are reminiscent of the behavior of the defect-like regions with non-affine deformation as conceived in many theories and models. Furthermore, we are able to experimentally extract the thermodynamic properties of these nano-scale regions, which possess an energy barrier of 0.3–0.5 eV, about half of that for a typical shear transformation event that usually occurs at the onset of plasticity. The outcome of our current work sheds quantitative insights into the correlation between plasticity and structural heterogeneity in MGs. PMID:27383387

  11. Structural Signature of Plasticity Unveiled by Nano-Scale Viscoelastic Contact in a Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y. M.; Zeng, J. F.; Wang, S.; Sun, B. A.; Wang, Q.; Lu, J.; Gravier, S.; Bladin, J. J.; Wang, W. H.; Pan, M. X.; Liu, C. T.; Yang, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Room-temperature plasticity in metallic glasses (MGs) is commonly associated with local structural heterogeneity; however, direct observation of the subtle structural change caused by plasticity is vitally important but the data are extremely scarce. Based on dynamic atomic force microscopy (DAFM), here we show that plasticity-induced structural evolution in a Zr-Ni MG can be revealed via nano-scale viscoelastic contacts between an AFM tip and plastically deformed MG surface layers. Our experimental results clearly show a spatial amplification of the nano-scale structural heterogeneity caused by the distributed plastic flow, which can be linked to the limited growth, reorientation and agglomeration of some nano-scale energy-absorbing regions, which are reminiscent of the behavior of the defect-like regions with non-affine deformation as conceived in many theories and models. Furthermore, we are able to experimentally extract the thermodynamic properties of these nano-scale regions, which possess an energy barrier of 0.3–0.5 eV, about half of that for a typical shear transformation event that usually occurs at the onset of plasticity. The outcome of our current work sheds quantitative insights into the correlation between plasticity and structural heterogeneity in MGs.

  12. Engine Structural Analysis Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKnight, R. L.; Maffeo, R. J.; Schrantz, S.; Hartle, M. S.; Bechtel, G. S.; Lewis, K.; Ridgway, M.; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The report describes the technical effort to develop: (1) geometry recipes for nozzles, inlets, disks, frames, shafts, and ducts in finite element form, (2) component design tools for nozzles, inlets, disks, frames, shafts, and ducts which utilize the recipes and (3) an integrated design tool which combines the simulations of the nozzles, inlets, disks, frames, shafts, and ducts with the previously developed combustor, turbine blade, and turbine vane models for a total engine representation. These developments will be accomplished in cooperation and in conjunction with comparable efforts of NASA Glenn Research Center.

  13. The Identification of Nanoscale Structures According to a Parameters of Acoustic Structuroscopy Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababkov, N. V.; Smirnov, A. N.; Bykova, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    The fracture surface of a destroyed steam turbine rotor is studied by acoustic structuroscopy method. The structural-phase state of the metal of the destroyed rotor of a steam turbine is studied using the methods of electron microscopy. It was established that in the areas of control, where the values of the acoustic characteristics have significant differences from the rest of the metal, detected nanocrystalline structure. The possibility of determining the structure of the nanoscale metal by acoustic structuroscopy is shown.

  14. Molecular engineering of nanoscale quadrupolar chromophores for two-photon absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porres, Laurent; Mongin, Olivier; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille H.; Ventelon, Lionel; Barzoukas, Marguerite; Moreaux, Laurent; Pons, Thomas; Mertz, Jerome

    2003-02-01

    Our aim has been the design of optimized NLO-phores with very high two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-sections (s2) in the red-NIR region, while maintaining high linear transparency and high fluorescence quantum yield. Our molecular engineering strategy is based on the push-push or pull-pull functionalization of semi-rigid nanoscale conjugated systems. The central building blocks were selected as rigid units that may assist quadrupolar intramolecular charge transfer by acting either as a (weak) donor or acceptor core. Quadrupolar molecules derived either from a phenyl unit, a rigidified biphenyl moiety or a fused bithiophene unit have been considered. Conjugated oligomers made of phenylene-vinylene and/or phenylene-ethynylene units were selected as connecting spacers between the core and the electroactive end groups to ensure effective electronic conjugation while maintaining suitable transparency/fluorescence. The TPA cross-sections were determined by investigating the two-photon-excited fluorescence properties using a Ti:sapphire laser delivering fs pulses. Both the nature of the end groups and of the core moiety play an important role in determining the TPA spectra. In addition, by adjusting the length and nature of the conjugated extensor, both amplification and spectral tuning of TPA cross-sections can be achieved. As a result, push-push fluorophores which demonstrate giant TPA cross-sections (up to 3000 GM) in the visible red, high fluorescence quantum yields and good transparency in the visible range have been obtained.

  15. Computational structural mechanics for engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    1989-01-01

    The computational structural mechanics (CSM) program at Lewis encompasses the formulation and solution of structural mechanics problems and the development of integrated software systems to computationally simulate the performance, durability, and life of engine structures. It is structured to supplement, complement, and, whenever possible, replace costly experimental efforts. Specific objectives are to investigate unique advantages of parallel and multiprocessing for reformulating and solving structural mechanics and formulating and solving multidisciplinary mechanics and to develop integrated structural system computational simulators for predicting structural performance, evaluating newly developed methods, and identifying and prioritizing improved or missing methods.

  16. Computational structural mechanics for engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    1988-01-01

    The computational structural mechanics (CSM) program at Lewis encompasses the formulation and solution of structural mechanics problems and the development of integrated software systems to computationally simulate the performance, durability, and life of engine structures. It is structured to supplement, complement, and, whenever possible, replace costly experimental efforts. Specific objectives are to investigate unique advantages of parallel and multiprocessing for reformulating and solving structural mechanics and formulating and solving multidisciplinary mechanics and to develop integrated structural system computational simulators for predicting structural performance, evaluating newly developed methods, and identifying and prioritizing improved or missing methods.

  17. Engineering the spatial selectivity of surfaces at the nanoscale using particle lithography combined with vapor deposition of organosilanes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie-Ren; Lusker, Kathie L; Yu, Jing-Jiang; Garno, Jayne C

    2009-07-28

    Particle lithography is a practical approach to generate millions of organosilane nanostructures on various surfaces, without the need for vacuum environments or expensive instrumentation. This report describes a stepwise chemistry route to prepare organosilane nanostructures and then apply the patterns as a spatially selective foundation to attach gold nanoparticles. Sites with thiol terminal groups were sufficiently small to localize the attachment of clusters of 2-5 nanoparticles. Basic steps such as centrifuging, drying, heating, and rinsing were used to generate arrays of regular nanopatterns. Close-packed films of monodisperse latex spheres can be used as an evaporative mask to spatially direct the placement of nanoscopic amounts of water on surfaces. Vapor phase organosilanes deposit selectively at areas of the surface containing water residues to generate nanostructures with regular thickness, geometry, and periodicity as revealed in atomic force microscopy images. The area of contact underneath the mesospheres is effectively masked for later synthetic steps, providing exquisite control of surface coverage and local chemistry. By judicious selection in designing the terminal groups of organosilanes, surface sites can be engineered at the nanoscale for building more complex structures. The density of the nanopatterns and surface coverage scale predictably with the diameter of the mesoparticle masks. The examples presented definitively illustrate the capabilities of using the chemistry of molecularly thin films of organosilanes to spatially define the selectivity of surfaces at very small size scales. PMID:19572752

  18. Toward Surface Plasmon-Enhanced Optical Parametric Amplification (SPOPA) with Engineered Nanoparticles: A Nanoscale Tunable Infrared Source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Manjavacas, Alejandro; Hogan, Nathaniel J; Zhou, Linan; Ayala-Orozco, Ciceron; Dong, Liangliang; Day, Jared K; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2016-05-11

    Active optical processes such as amplification and stimulated emission promise to play just as important a role in nanoscale optics as they have in mainstream modern optics. The ability of metallic nanostructures to enhance optical nonlinearities at the nanoscale has been shown for a number of nonlinear and active processes; however, one important process yet to be seen is optical parametric amplification. Here, we report the demonstration of surface plasmon-enhanced difference frequency generation by integration of a nonlinear optical medium, BaTiO3, in nanocrystalline form within a plasmonic nanocavity. These nanoengineered composite structures support resonances at pump, signal, and idler frequencies, providing large enhancements of the confined fields and efficient coupling of the wavelength-converted idler radiation to the far-field. This nanocomplex works as a nanoscale tunable infrared light source and paves the way for the design and fabrication of a surface plasmon-enhanced optical parametric amplifier. PMID:27089276

  19. Nanoscale structure in AgSbTe2 determined by diffuse elastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, Eliot D; Ma, Jie; Delaire, Olivier A; Budai, John D; May, Andrew F; Karapetrova, Evguenia A.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse elastic neutron scattering measurements confirm that AgSbTe2 has a hierarchical structure, with defects on length scales from nanometers to microns. While scattering from mesoscale structure is consistent with previously-proposed structures in which Ag and Sb order on a NaCl lattice, more diffuse scattering from nanoscale structure suggests a structural rearrangement in which hexagonal layers form a combination of (ABC), (ABA), and (AAB) stacking sequences. The AgCrSe2 structure is the best-fitting model for the local atomic arrangements.

  20. Nanoscale surface structuring during ion bombardment of elemental semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzenberg, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    Nano-patterning of surfaces with uniform ion bombardment yields a rich phase-space of topographic patterns. Particle irradiation can cause surface ultra-smoothing or self-organized nanoscale pattern formation in surface topography. Topographic pattern formation has previously been attributed to the effects of the removal of target atoms by sputter erosion. In this thesis, the surface morphology evolution of Si(100) and Ge(100) during low energy ion bombardment of Ar+ and Kr+ ions, respectively, is studied. Our facilities for studies of surface processes at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) allow in-situ characterization of surface morphology evolution during ion bombardment using grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS). This technique is used to measure in reciprocal space the kinetics of formation or decay of correlated nanostructures on the surface, effectively measuring the height-height correlations. A linear model is used to characterize the early time kinetic behavior during ion bombardment as a function of ion beam incidence angle. The curvature coefficients predicted by the widely used erosive model of Bradley and Harper are quantitatively negligible and of the wrong sign when compared to the observed effect in both Si and Ge. A mass-redistribution model explains the observed ultra-smoothing at low angles, exhibits an instability at higher angles, and predicts the observed 45° critical angle separating these two regimes in Si. The Ge surface evolution during Kr+ irradiation is qualitatively similar to that observed for Ar+ irradiation of Si at the same ion energy. However, the critical angle for Ge cannot be quantitatively reproduced by the simple mass redistribution model. Crater function theory, as developed by Norris et al., incorporates both mass redistributive and erosive effects, and predicts constraining relationships between curvature coefficients. These constraints are compared to experimental data of both Si and Ge

  1. Correlative nanoscale 3D imaging of structure and composition in extended objects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Helfen, Lukas; Suhonen, Heikki; Elgrabli, Dan; Bayat, Sam; Reischig, Péter; Baumbach, Tilo; Cloetens, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Structure and composition at the nanoscale determine the behavior of biological systems and engineered materials. The drive to understand and control this behavior has placed strong demands on developing methods for high resolution imaging. In general, the improvement of three-dimensional (3D) resolution is accomplished by tightening constraints: reduced manageable specimen sizes, decreasing analyzable volumes, degrading contrasts, and increasing sample preparation efforts. Aiming to overcome these limitations, we present a non-destructive and multiple-contrast imaging technique, using principles of X-ray laminography, thus generalizing tomography towards laterally extended objects. We retain advantages that are usually restricted to 2D microscopic imaging, such as scanning of large areas and subsequent zooming-in towards a region of interest at the highest possible resolution. Our technique permits correlating the 3D structure and the elemental distribution yielding a high sensitivity to variations of the electron density via coherent imaging and to local trace element quantification through X-ray fluorescence. We demonstrate the method by imaging a lithographic nanostructure and an aluminum alloy. Analyzing a biological system, we visualize in lung tissue the subcellular response to toxic stress after exposure to nanotubes. We show that most of the nanotubes are trapped inside alveolar macrophages, while a small portion of the nanotubes has crossed the barrier to the cellular space of the alveolar wall. In general, our method is non-destructive and can be combined with different sample environmental or loading conditions. We therefore anticipate that correlative X-ray nano-laminography will enable a variety of in situ and in operando 3D studies. PMID:23185554

  2. Correlative Nanoscale 3D Imaging of Structure and Composition in Extended Objects

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Helfen, Lukas; Suhonen, Heikki; Elgrabli, Dan; Bayat, Sam; Reischig, Péter; Baumbach, Tilo; Cloetens, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Structure and composition at the nanoscale determine the behavior of biological systems and engineered materials. The drive to understand and control this behavior has placed strong demands on developing methods for high resolution imaging. In general, the improvement of three-dimensional (3D) resolution is accomplished by tightening constraints: reduced manageable specimen sizes, decreasing analyzable volumes, degrading contrasts, and increasing sample preparation efforts. Aiming to overcome these limitations, we present a non-destructive and multiple-contrast imaging technique, using principles of X-ray laminography, thus generalizing tomography towards laterally extended objects. We retain advantages that are usually restricted to 2D microscopic imaging, such as scanning of large areas and subsequent zooming-in towards a region of interest at the highest possible resolution. Our technique permits correlating the 3D structure and the elemental distribution yielding a high sensitivity to variations of the electron density via coherent imaging and to local trace element quantification through X-ray fluorescence. We demonstrate the method by imaging a lithographic nanostructure and an aluminum alloy. Analyzing a biological system, we visualize in lung tissue the subcellular response to toxic stress after exposure to nanotubes. We show that most of the nanotubes are trapped inside alveolar macrophages, while a small portion of the nanotubes has crossed the barrier to the cellular space of the alveolar wall. In general, our method is non-destructive and can be combined with different sample environmental or loading conditions. We therefore anticipate that correlative X-ray nano-laminography will enable a variety of in situ and in operando 3D studies. PMID:23185554

  3. Military engine computational structures technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, Daniel E.

    1992-01-01

    Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology Initiative (IHPTET) goals require a strong analytical base. Effective analysis of composite materials is critical to life analysis and structural optimization. Accurate life prediction for all material systems is critical. User friendly systems are also desirable. Post processing of results is very important. The IHPTET goal is to double turbine engine propulsion capability by the year 2003. Fifty percent of the goal will come from advanced materials and structures, the other 50 percent will come from increasing performance. Computer programs are listed.

  4. Ultrafast Kikuchi diffraction: nanoscale stress-strain dynamics of wave-guiding structures.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Aycan; Schaefer, Sascha; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2012-07-11

    Complex structural dynamics at the nanoscale requires sufficiently small probes to be visualized. In conventional imaging using electron microscopy, the dimension of the probe is large enough to cause averaging over the structures present. However, by converging ultrafast electron bunches, it is possible to select a single nanoscale structure and study the dynamics, either in the image or using electron diffraction. Moreover, the span of incident wave vectors in a convergent beam enables sensitivity levels and information contents beyond those of parallel-beam illumination with a single wave vector Bragg diffraction. Here, we report the observation of propagating strain waves using ultrafast Kikuchi diffraction from nanoscale volumes within a wedge-shaped silicon single crystal. It is found that the heterogeneity of the strain in the lateral direction is only 100 nm. The transient elastic wave gives rise to a coherent oscillation with a period of 30 ps and with an envelope that has a width of 140 ps. The origin of this elastic deformation is theoretically examined using finite element analysis; it is identified as propagating shear waves. The wedge-shaped structure, unlike parallel-plate structure, is the key behind the traveling nature of the waves as its angle permits "transverse" propagation; the parallel-plate structure only exhibits the "longitudinal" motion. The studies reported suggest extension to a range of applications for nanostructures of different shapes and for exploring their ultrafast eigen-modes of stress-strain profiles. PMID:22667321

  5. Nanoscale superstructures assembled by polymerase chain reaction (PCR): programmable construction, structural diversity, and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Hua; Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-11-19

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an essential tool in biotechnology laboratories and is becoming increasingly important in other areas of research. Extensive data obtained over the last 12 years has shown that the combination of PCR with nanoscale dispersions can resolve issues in the preparation DNA-based materials that include both inorganic and organic nanoscale components. Unlike conventional DNA hybridization and antibody-antigen complexes, PCR provides a new, effective assembly platform that both increases the yield of DNA-based nanomaterials and allows researchers to program and control assembly with predesigned parameters including those assisted and automated by computers. As a result, this method allows researchers to optimize to the combinatorial selection of the DNA strands for their nanoparticle conjugates. We have developed a PCR approach for producing various nanoscale assemblies including organic motifs such as small molecules, macromolecules, and inorganic building blocks, such as nanorods (NRs), metal, semiconductor, and magnetic nanoparticles (NPs). We start with a nanoscale primer and then modify that building block using the automated steps of PCR-based assembly including initialization, denaturation, annealing, extension, final elongation, and final hold. The intermediate steps of denaturation, annealing, and extension are cyclic, and we use computer control so that the assembled superstructures reach their predetermined complexity. The structures assembled using a small number of PCR cycles show a lower polydispersity than similar discrete structures obtained by direct hybridization between the nanoscale building blocks. Using different building blocks, we assembled the following structural motifs by PCR: (1) discrete nanostructures (NP dimers, NP multimers including trimers, pyramids, tetramers or hexamers, etc.), (2) branched NP superstructures and heterochains, (3) NP satellite-like superstructures, (4) Y-shaped nanostructures and DNA

  6. Physical principles of genomic regulation through cellular nanoscale structure and implications for initiation of carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, Vadim

    2011-03-01

    Although compelling evidence suggests that cellular nanoarchitecture and nanoscale environment where molecular interactions take place would be expected to significantly affect macromolecular processes, biological ramifications of cellular nanoscale organization have been largely unexplored. This understanding has been hampered in part by the diffraction limited resolution of optical microscopy. The talk will discuss a novel optical microscopy technique, partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy, that is capable of quantifying statistical properties of cell structure at the nanoscale. Animal and human studies demonstrated that an alteration in the statistical properties of the nanoscale mass density distribution in the cell nucleus (e.g. nuclear nanoarchitecture) is one of the earliest and ubiquitous events in carcinogenesis and precedes any other known morphological changes at larger length scales (e.g. microarchitecture). The talk will also discuss the physical principles of how the alteration in nuclear nanoarchitecture may modulate genomic processes and, in particular, gene transcription. Work done in collaboration with Hariharan Subramanian, Prabhakar Pradhan, Dhwanil Damania, Lusik Cherkezyan, Yolanda Stypula, Jun Soo Kim, Igal Szleifer, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, Hemant K. Roy, Northshore University HealthSystems, Evanston, IL

  7. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a rotor portion having axially stacked adjacent ceramic rotor parts. A ceramic/ceramic joint structure transmits torque between the rotor parts while maintaining coaxial alignment and axially spaced mutually parallel relation thereof despite thermal and centrifugal cycling.

  8. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a hybrid ceramic/metallic rotor member having ceramic/metal joint structure. The disclosed joint is able to endure higher temperatures than previously possible, and aids in controlling heat transfer in the rotor member.

  9. On the relationship between the dynamic behavior and nanoscale staggered structure of the bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qwamizadeh, Mahan; Zhang, Zuoqi; Zhou, Kun; Zhang, Yong Wei

    2015-05-01

    Bone, a typical load-bearing biological material, composed of ordinary base materials such as organic protein and inorganic mineral arranged in a hierarchical architecture, exhibits extraordinary mechanical properties. Up to now, most of previous studies focused on its mechanical properties under static loading. However, failure of the bone occurs often under dynamic loading. An interesting question is: Are the structural sizes and layouts of the bone related or even adapted to the functionalities demanded by its dynamic performance? In the present work, systematic finite element analysis was performed on the dynamic response of nanoscale bone structures under dynamic loading. It was found that for a fixed mineral volume fraction and unit cell area, there exists a nanoscale staggered structure at some specific feature size and layout which exhibits the fastest attenuation of stress waves. Remarkably, these specific feature sizes and layouts are in excellent agreement with those experimentally observed in the bone at the same scale, indicating that the structural size and layout of the bone at the nanoscale are evolutionarily adapted to its dynamic behavior. The present work points out the importance of dynamic effect on the biological evolution of load-bearing biological materials.

  10. First-Principles Mobility Calculations and Atomic-Scale Interface Roughness in Nanoscale Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Matthew H; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Joannopoulos, J. D.; Pantelides, Sokrates T

    2005-01-01

    Calculations of mobilities have so far been carried out using approximate methods that suppress atomic-scale detail. Such approaches break down in nanoscale structures. Here we report the development of a method to calculate mobilities using atomic-scale models of the structures and density functional theory at various levels of sophistication and accuracy. The method is used to calculate the effect of atomic-scale roughness on electron mobilities in ultrathin double-gate silicon-on-insulator structures. The results elucidate the origin of the significant reduction in mobility observed in ultrathin structures at low electron densities.

  11. Cobalt oxide hollow microspheres with micro- and nano-scale composite structure: Fabrication and electrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Feifei; Gao, Cuiling; Wen, Zhenhai; Wang, Qiang; Li, Jinghong; Xu, Zheng

    2009-05-01

    Co 3O 4 hollow microspheres with micro- and nano-scale composite structure self-assembled by nanosheets were successfully fabricated by the template-free wet-chemical approach. This method is simple, facile and effective. The Co 3O 4 hollow microspheres with good purity and homogeneous size were well characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP). The formation mechanism was deeply studied. The micro- and nano-scale composite structure constructed by the porous nanosheets promotes to improve the electrochemical properties of Co 3O 4 hollow microspheres. The high discharge capacity of 1048 mAh g -1 indicates it to be the potential application in electrode materials of Li-ion battery.

  12. Nanoscale Distribution of Sulfonic Acid Groups Determines Structure and Binding of Water in Nafion Membranes.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xiao; Bonn, Mischa; Parekh, Sapun H; Domke, Katrin F

    2016-03-14

    The connection between the nanoscale structure of two chemically equivalent, yet morphologically distinct Nafion fuel-cell membranes and their macroscopic chemical properties is demonstrated. Quantification of the chemical interactions between water and Nafion reveals that extruded membranes have smaller water channels with a reduced sulfonic acid head group density compared to dispersion-cast membranes. As a result, a disproportionally large amount of non-bulk water molecules exists in extruded membranes, which also exhibit larger proton conductivity and larger water mobility compared to cast membranes. The differences in the physicochemical properties of the membranes, that is, the chemical constitution of the water channels and the local water structure, and the accompanying differences in macroscopic water and proton transport suggest that the chemistry of nanoscale channels is an important, yet largely overlooked parameter that influences the functionality of fuel-cell membranes. PMID:26895211

  13. Nanoscale structure of protamine/DNA complexes for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Simona; Brocca, Paola; Del Favero, Elena; Rondelli, Valeria; Cantù, Laura; Amici, Augusto; Pozzi, Daniela; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the internal packing of gene carriers is a key-factor to realize both gene protection during transport and de-complexation at the delivery site. Here, we investigate the structure of complexes formed by DNA fragments and protamine, applied in gene delivery. We found that complexes are charge- and size-tunable aggregates, depending on the protamine/DNA ratio, hundred nanometers in size. Their compactness and fractal structure depend on the length of the DNA fragments. Accordingly, on the local scale, the sites of protamine/DNA complexation assume different morphologies, seemingly displaying clumping ability for the DNA network only for shorter DNA fragments.

  14. Nanoscale Structure, Dynamics, and Aging Behavior of Metallic Glass Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, J. A. J.; Holt, C. M. B.; Luber, E. J.; Fortin, D. C.; Popowich, G.; Zahiri, B.; Concepcion, P.; Mitlin, D.; Freeman, M. R.

    2016-08-01

    Scanning tunnelling microscopy observations resolve the structure and dynamics of metallic glass Cu100‑xHfx films and demonstrate scanning tunnelling microscopy control of aging at a metallic glass surface. Surface clusters exhibit heterogeneous hopping dynamics. Low Hf concentration films feature an aged surface of larger, slower clusters. Argon ion-sputtering destroys the aged configuration, yielding a surface in constant fluctuation. Scanning tunnelling microscopy can locally restore the relaxed state, allowing for nanoscale lithographic definition of aged sections.

  15. Nanoscale Structure, Dynamics, and Aging Behavior of Metallic Glass Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, J. A. J.; Holt, C. M. B.; Luber, E. J.; Fortin, D. C.; Popowich, G.; Zahiri, B.; Concepcion, P.; Mitlin, D.; Freeman, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Scanning tunnelling microscopy observations resolve the structure and dynamics of metallic glass Cu100−xHfx films and demonstrate scanning tunnelling microscopy control of aging at a metallic glass surface. Surface clusters exhibit heterogeneous hopping dynamics. Low Hf concentration films feature an aged surface of larger, slower clusters. Argon ion-sputtering destroys the aged configuration, yielding a surface in constant fluctuation. Scanning tunnelling microscopy can locally restore the relaxed state, allowing for nanoscale lithographic definition of aged sections. PMID:27498698

  16. Nanoscale investigation of mesoscopic phenomena in superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giorgio, C.; Moore, S. A.; Putilov, A.; Lechner, E.; Pearson, J. E.; Novosad, V.; Karapetrov, G.; Iavarone, M.

    Superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) heterostructures exhibit unique electronic phenomena which strongly depend on the nature of the constituent materials and the coupling between the layers. Using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy we have investigated S/F structures in the regimes of magnetic and proximity coupling. Here, in the case of S/F systems made of convential low-Tc lead films with different ferromagnet materials, the spatial and temperature dependent effects on the local density of states which emerge at the nanoscale will be discussed. Work at Temple University was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0004556.

  17. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend monolith with nanoscale porous structure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A stimuli-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) blend monolith with nanoscale porous (mesoporous) structure is successfully fabricated by thermally impacted non-solvent induced phase separation (TINIPS) method. The PVA/SA blend monolith with different SA contents is conveniently fabricated in an aqueous methanol without any templates. The solvent suitable for the fabrication of the present blend monolith by TINIPS is different with that of the PVA monolith. The nanostructural control of the blend monolith is readily achieved by optimizing the fabrication conditions. Brunauer Emmett Teller measurement shows that the obtained blend monolith has a large surface area. Pore size distribution plot for the blend monolith obtained by the non-local density functional theory method reveals the existence of the nanoscale porous structure. Fourier transform infrared analysis reveals the strong interactions between PVA and SA. The pH-responsive property of the blend monolith is investigated on the basis of swelling ratio in different pH solutions. The present blend monolith of biocompatible and biodegradable PVA and SA with nanoscale porous structure has large potential for applications in biomedical and environmental fields. PMID:24093494

  18. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend monolith with nanoscale porous structure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    A stimuli-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) blend monolith with nanoscale porous (mesoporous) structure is successfully fabricated by thermally impacted non-solvent induced phase separation (TINIPS) method. The PVA/SA blend monolith with different SA contents is conveniently fabricated in an aqueous methanol without any templates. The solvent suitable for the fabrication of the present blend monolith by TINIPS is different with that of the PVA monolith. The nanostructural control of the blend monolith is readily achieved by optimizing the fabrication conditions. Brunauer Emmett Teller measurement shows that the obtained blend monolith has a large surface area. Pore size distribution plot for the blend monolith obtained by the non-local density functional theory method reveals the existence of the nanoscale porous structure. Fourier transform infrared analysis reveals the strong interactions between PVA and SA. The pH-responsive property of the blend monolith is investigated on the basis of swelling ratio in different pH solutions. The present blend monolith of biocompatible and biodegradable PVA and SA with nanoscale porous structure has large potential for applications in biomedical and environmental fields. PMID:24093494

  19. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend monolith with nanoscale porous structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    A stimuli-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) blend monolith with nanoscale porous (mesoporous) structure is successfully fabricated by thermally impacted non-solvent induced phase separation (TINIPS) method. The PVA/SA blend monolith with different SA contents is conveniently fabricated in an aqueous methanol without any templates. The solvent suitable for the fabrication of the present blend monolith by TINIPS is different with that of the PVA monolith. The nanostructural control of the blend monolith is readily achieved by optimizing the fabrication conditions. Brunauer Emmett Teller measurement shows that the obtained blend monolith has a large surface area. Pore size distribution plot for the blend monolith obtained by the non-local density functional theory method reveals the existence of the nanoscale porous structure. Fourier transform infrared analysis reveals the strong interactions between PVA and SA. The pH-responsive property of the blend monolith is investigated on the basis of swelling ratio in different pH solutions. The present blend monolith of biocompatible and biodegradable PVA and SA with nanoscale porous structure has large potential for applications in biomedical and environmental fields.

  20. Nanoscale Structure of Organic Matter Could Explain Litter Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, G.; Adani, F.

    2014-12-01

    According to the literature biochemical catalyses are limited in their actions because of the complex macroscopic and, above all, microscopic structures of cell wall that limit mass transportation (i.e. 3D structure). Our study on energy crop showed that plant digestibility increased by modifying the 3D cell wall microstructure. Results obtained were ascribed to the enlargement, such as effectively measured, of the pore spaces between cellulose fibrils. Therefore we postulated that 3 D structure of plant residues drives degradability in soil determining its recalcitrance in short time. Here we focused on the drivers of short-term decomposition of organic matter (plant residues) in soils evaluating the architecture of plant tissues, captured via measurements of the microporosiy of the cell walls. Decomposition rates of a wide variety of biomass types were studied conducting experiments in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. Different analytical approaches were applied in order to characterize biomass at both chemical and physical level. Combined statistical approaches were used to examine the relationships between carbon mineralization and chemical/physical characteristics. The results revealed that degradation was significantly and negatively correlated with the micro-porosity surface (MiS) (surface of pores of 0.3-1.5 nm of diameter). The multiple regressions performed by using partial least square model enabled describing biomass biodegradability under either aerobic and anaerobic condition by using micro-porosity and aromatic-C content (assumed to be representative of lignin) as independent variables (R2 =0.97, R2cv =0.95 for aerobic condition; R2 =0.99, R2cv =0.98 for anaerobic condition, respectively). These results corroborate the hypothesis that plant tissues are physically protected from enzymatic attack by a microporous "sheath" that limit penetration into cell wall, and demonstrate the key role played by aromatic carbon, because of its chemical

  1. Nanoscale structural features determined by AFM for single virus particles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-wen W; Odorico, Michael; Meillan, Matthieu; Vellutini, Luc; Teulon, Jean-Marie; Parot, Pierre; Bennetau, Bernard; Pellequer, Jean-Luc

    2013-11-21

    In this work, we propose "single-image analysis", as opposed to multi-image averaging, for extracting valuable information from AFM images of single bio-particles. This approach allows us to study molecular systems imaged by AFM under general circumstances without restrictions on their structural forms. As feature exhibition is a resolution correlation, we have performed AFM imaging on surfaces of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to demonstrate variations of structural patterns with probing resolution. Two AFM images were acquired with the same tip at different probing resolutions in terms of pixel width, i.e., 1.95 and 0.49 nm per pixel. For assessment, we have constructed an in silico topograph based on the three-dimensional crystal structure of TMV as a reference. The prominent artifacts observed in the AFM-determined shape of TMV were attributed to tip convolutions. The width of TMV rod was systematically overestimated by ~10 nm at both probing resolutions of AFM. Nevertheless, the effects of tip convolution were less severe in vertical orientation so that the estimated height of TMV by AFM imaging was in close agreement with the in silico X-ray topograph. Using dedicated image processing algorithms, we found that at low resolution (i.e., 1.95 nm per pixel), the extracted surface features of TMV can be interpreted as a partial or full helical repeat (three complete turns with ~7.0 nm in length), while individual protein subunits (~2.5 nm) were perceivable only at high resolution. The present study shows that the scales of revealed structural features in AFM images are subject to both probing resolution and processing algorithms for image analysis. PMID:24056758

  2. Communication: Nanoscale structure of tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium based ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettige, Jeevapani J.; Araque, Juan C.; Kashyap, Hemant K.; Margulis, Claudio J.

    2016-03-01

    In a recent communication [J. J. Hettige et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 111102 (2014)], we investigated the anomalous temperature dependence of the X-ray first sharp diffraction peak (or prepeak) in the tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide ionic liquid. Contrary to what was expected and often observed, the first sharp diffraction peak in this system was shown to increase in intensity with increasing temperature. This implies higher intermediate-range periodicity at a higher temperature. Is this counter-intuitive behavior specific to the combination of cation and anion? The current work analyzes the structural behavior of the same cation coupled with six different anions ranging from the small and spherically symmetric Cl- to the more structurally complex and charge-diffuse NTf2-. In all cases, the same temperature behavior trend for the prepeak is observed independent of anionic nature. We will show that the intensity increase in the prepeak region is associated with the structural behavior of charged liquid subcomponents. Instead, upon a temperature increase, the apolar subcomponents contribute to what would be an expected decrease of prepeak intensity.

  3. Structure, Mechanics and Synthesis of Nanoscale Carbon and Boron Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldo, Steven G.

    This thesis is divided into two parts. In Part I, we examine the properties of thin sheets of carbon and boron nitride. We begin with an introduction to the theory of elastic sheets, where the stretching and bending modes are considered in detail. The coupling between stretching and bending modes is thought to play a crucial role in the thermodynamic stability of atomically-thin 2D sheets such as graphene. In Chapter 2, we begin by looking at the fabrication of suspended, atomically thin sheets of graphene. We then study their mechanical resonances which are read via an optical transduction technique. The frequency of the resonators was found to depend on their temperature, as was their quality factor. We conclude by offering some interpretations of the data in terms of the stretching and bending modes of graphene. In Chapter 3, we look briefly at the fabrication of thin sheets of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes. We examine the structure of the sheets using transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, respectively). We then show a technique by which one can make sheets suspended over a trench with adjustable supports. Finally, DC measurements of the resistivity of the sheets in the temperature range 600 -- 1400 C are presented. In Chapter 4, we study the folding of few-layer graphene oxide, graphene and boron nitride into 3D aerogel monoliths. The properties of graphene oxide are first considered, after which the structure of graphene and boron nitride aerogels is examined using TEM and SEM. Some models for their structure are proposed. In Part II, we look at synthesis techniques for boron nitride (BN). In Chapter 5, we study the conversion of carbon structures of boron nitride via the application of carbothermal reduction of boron oxide followed by nitridation. We apply the conversion to a wide variety of morphologies, including aerogels, carbon fibers and nanotubes, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. In the latter chapters, we look at the

  4. Morphology and electronic structure of nanoscale powders of calcium hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurgan, Nataly; Karbivskyy, Volodymyr; Kasyanenko, Vasyl

    2015-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and NMR studied morphological and physicochemical properties of calcium hydroxyapatite powders produced by changing the temperature parameters of synthesis. Features of morphology formation of calcium hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with an annealing temperature within 200°C to 1,100°C were determined. It is shown that the particle size of the apatite obtained that annealed 700°C is 40 nm corresponding to the particle size of apatite in native bone. The effect of dimension factor on structural parameters of calcium hydroxyapatite is manifested in a more local symmetry of the PO4 3- tetrahedra at nanodispersed calcium hydroxyapatite.

  5. Nanoscale structure and atomic disorder in the iron-based chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal Saini, Naurang

    2013-02-01

    The multiband iron-based superconductors have layered structure with a phase diagram characterized by a complex interplay of charge, spin and lattice excitations, with nanoscale atomic structure playing a key role in their fundamental electronic properties. In this paper, we briefly review nanoscale structure and atomic disorder in iron-based chalcogenide superconductors. We focus on the Fe(Se,S)1-xTex (11-type) and K0.8Fe1.6Se2 (122-type) systems, discussing their local structure obtained by extended x-ray absorption fine structure. Local structure studies on the Fe(Se,S)1-xTex system reveal clear nanoscale phase separation characterized by coexisting components of different atomic configurations, similar to the case of random alloys. In fact, the Fe-Se/S and Fe-Te distances in the ternary Fe(Se,S)1-xTex are found to be closer to the respective distances in the binary FeSe/FeS and FeTe systems, showing significant divergence of the local structure from the average one. The observed features are characteristic of ternary random alloys, indicating breaking of the local symmetry in these materials. On the other hand, K0.8Fe1.6Se2 is known for phase separation in an iron-vacancy ordered phase and an in-plane compressed lattice phase. The local structure of these 122-type chalcogenides shows that this system is characterized by a large local disorder. Indeed, the experiments suggest a nanoscale glassy phase in K0.8Fe1.6Se2, with the superconductivity being similar to the granular materials. While the 11-type structure has no spacer layer, the 122-type structure contains intercalated atoms unlike the 1111-type REFeAsO (RE = rare earth) oxypnictides, having well-defined REO spacer layers. It is clear that the interlayer atomic correlations in these iron-based superconducting structures play an important role in structural stability as well as superconductivity and magnetism.

  6. Performance assessment and optimization of an irreversible nano-scale Stirling engine cycle operating with Maxwell-Boltzmann gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Mohammad-Ali; Pourfayaz, Fathollah

    2015-09-01

    Developing new technologies like nano-technology improves the performance of the energy industries. Consequently, emerging new groups of thermal cycles in nano-scale can revolutionize the energy systems' future. This paper presents a thermo-dynamical study of a nano-scale irreversible Stirling engine cycle with the aim of optimizing the performance of the Stirling engine cycle. In the Stirling engine cycle the working fluid is an Ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann gas. Moreover, two different strategies are proposed for a multi-objective optimization issue, and the outcomes of each strategy are evaluated separately. The first strategy is proposed to maximize the ecological coefficient of performance (ECOP), the dimensionless ecological function (ecf) and the dimensionless thermo-economic objective function ( F . Furthermore, the second strategy is suggested to maximize the thermal efficiency ( η), the dimensionless ecological function (ecf) and the dimensionless thermo-economic objective function ( F). All the strategies in the present work are executed via a multi-objective evolutionary algorithms based on NSGA∥ method. Finally, to achieve the final answer in each strategy, three well-known decision makers are executed. Lastly, deviations of the outcomes gained in each strategy and each decision maker are evaluated separately.

  7. Nanoscale Magnetic Structure of Ferromagnet/Antiferromagnet Manganite Multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Niebieskikwiat, D.; Hueso, L. E.; Borchers, J. A.; Mathur, N. D.; Salamon, M. B.

    2007-12-14

    We use polarized neutron reflectometry and dc magnetometry to obtain a comprehensive picture of the magnetic structure of a series of La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3}/Pr{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO/PCMO) superlattices, with varying thickness of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) PCMO layers (0{<=}t{sub A}{<=}7.6 nm). While LSMO presents a few magnetically frustrated monolayers at the interfaces with PCMO, in the latter a magnetic contribution due to ferromagnetic (FM) inclusions within the AFM matrix is maximized at t{sub A}{approx}3 nm. This enhancement of FM moment occurs at the matching between layer thickness and cluster size, implying the possibility of tuning phase separation by imposing appropriate geometrical constraints which favor the accommodation of FM nanoclusters within the ''non-FM'' material.

  8. Nanoscale Magnetic Structure of Non-Joulian Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasena, Ravini; Yang, Weibing; Scholl, Andreas; Minar, Jan; Shafer, Padraic; Arenholz, Elke; Ebert, Hubert; Gray, Alexander; Chopra, Harsh Deep

    Strain dependence of magnetic anisotropy energy produces Joule magnetostriction that is a volume conserving process, whereas sensitivity of isotropic exchange energy to interatomic distance is the cause of volume magnetostriction. In a typical magnet, Joule magnetostriction dominates as the volume fraction occupied by regions of uniform spin alignment (domains) is 2-4 orders of magnitude higher than that which is occupied by regions with magnetoelastic gradients (domain walls). Recently, `giant' non-volume conserving or non-Joulian magnetostriction has been discovered in iron-gallium alloys. Here we show using high-resolution polarization-dependent photoelectron microscopy that non-Joulian magnetism arises from an unusual partition of the crystal into nm-scale lamellar domains and domain walls within highly periodic magnetic microcells. High-resolution x-ray circular dichroism measurements at the Fe and Ga L absorption edges further provide evidence of weak iron-induced magnetism on gallium atoms via negative exchange. The results are in excellent agreement with the state-of-the-art theoretical electronic-structure calculations.

  9. Oxide films at the nanoscale: new structures, new functions, and new materials.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Livia; Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2011-11-15

    flexibility, electronic modifications, and nanoporosity) are now largely understood, thus paving the way for the rational design of new catalytic systems based on oxide ultrathin films. Many of the mechanisms involved (electron tunneling, work function changes, defects engineering, and so forth) are typical of semiconductor physics and allow a direct link between the two fields. A related conceptual framework, the "electronic theory of catalysis", was proposed a long time ago but has been largely neglected by the catalytic community. A renewed appreciation of this catalytic framework, together with spectacular advances in modeling and electronic structure methods, now makes it possible to combine theory with advanced experimental setups and meet the challenge of designing new materials with tailored properties. In this Account, we discuss some of the recent advances with nanoscale oxide films, highlighting contributions from our laboratory. Once mastered, ultrathin oxide films on metals will provide vast and unforeseen opportunities in heterogeneous catalysis as well as in other fields of science and technology. PMID:21805966

  10. Nanoscale Structure and Elasticity of Pillared DNA Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Himanshu; Kaushik, Atul; Seeman, Nadrian C; Maiti, Prabal K

    2016-08-23

    We present an atomistic model of pillared DNA nanotubes (DNTs) and their elastic properties which will facilitate further studies of these nanotubes in several important nanotechnological and biological applications. In particular, we introduce a computational design to create an atomistic model of a 6-helix DNT (6HB) along with its two variants, 6HB flanked symmetrically with two double helical DNA pillars (6HB+2) and 6HB flanked symmetrically by three double helical DNA pillars (6HB+3). Analysis of 200 ns all-atom simulation trajectories in the presence of explicit water and ions shows that these structures are stable and well behaved in all three geometries. Hydrogen bonding is well maintained for all variants of 6HB DNTs. From the equilibrium bending angle distribution, we calculate the persistence lengths of these tubes. The measured persistence lengths of these nanotubes are ∼10 μm, which is 2 orders of magnitude larger than that of dsDNA. We also find a gradual increase of persistence length with an increasing number of pillars, in quantitative agreement with previous experimental findings. To have a quantitative understanding of the stretch modulus of these tubes, we carried out nonequilibrium steered molecular dynamics (SMD). The linear part of the force-extension plot gives a stretch modulus in the range 6500 pN for 6HB without pillars, which increases to 11 000 pN for tubes with three pillars. The values of the stretch modulus calculated using contour length distribution obtained from equilibrium MD simulations are similar to those obtained from nonequilibrium SMD simulations. The addition of pillars makes these DNTs very rigid. PMID:27400249

  11. Soft embossing of nanoscale optical and plasmonic structures in glass.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jimin; Le, An-Phong; Schulmerich, Matthew V; Maria, Joana; Lee, Tae-Woo; Gray, Stephen K; Bhargava, Rohit; Rogers, John A; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2011-07-26

    We describe here soft nanofabrication methods using spin-on glass (SOG) materials for the fabrication of both bulk materials and replica masters. The precision of soft nanofabrication using SOG is tested using features on size scales ranging from 0.6 nm to 1.0 μm. The performance of the embossed optics is tested quantitatively via replica patterning of new classes of plasmonic crystals formed by soft nanoimprinting of SOG. These crystals are found to offer significant improvements over previously reported plasmonic crystals fabricated using embossed polymeric substrate materials in several ways. The SOG structures are shown to be particularly robust, being stable in organic solvent environments and at high temperatures (∼450 °C), thus extending the capacities and scope of plasmonic crystal applications to sensing in these environments. They also provide a stable, and particularly high-performance, platform for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. We further illustrate that SOG embossed nanostructures can serve as regenerable masters for the fabrication of plasmonic crystals. Perhaps most significantly, we show how the design rules of plasmonic crystals replicated from a single master can be tuned during the embossing steps of the fabrication process to provide useful modifications of their optical responses. We illustrate how the strongest feature in the transmission spectrum of a plasmonic crystal formed using a single SOG master can be shifted precisely in a SOG replica between 700 and 900 nm for an exemplary design of a full 3D plasmonic crystal by careful manipulation of the process parameters used to fabricate the optical device. PMID:21711004

  12. Anti-plane transverse waves propagation in nanoscale periodic layered piezoelectric structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, A-Li; Yan, Dong-Jia; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, anti-plane transverse wave propagation in nanoscale periodic layered piezoelectric structures is studied. The localization factor is introduced to characterize the wave propagation behavior. The transfer matrix method based on the nonlocal piezoelectricity continuum theory is used to calculate the localization factor. Additionally, the stiffness matrix method is applied to compute the wave transmission spectra. A cut-off frequency is found, beyond which the elastic waves cannot propagate through the periodic structure. The size effect or the influence of the ratio of the internal to external characteristic lengths on the cut-off frequency and the wave propagation behavior are investigated and discussed. PMID:26518526

  13. Nanoscale lead and noble gas inclusions in aluminum: structures and properties.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erik; Andersen, Hans Henrik; Dahmen, Ulrich

    2004-08-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used for structural and physical characterization of nanoscale inclusions of lead and noble gases in aluminum. When the inclusion sizes approach nanoscale dimensions, many of their properties are seen to deviate from similar properties in bulk and in most cases the deviations will increase as the inclusion sizes decrease. Binary alloys of lead and noble gases with aluminum are characterized by extremely low mutual solubilities and inclusions will, therefore, exist as practically pure components embedded in the aluminum matrix. Furthermore, the thermal vacancy mobility in aluminum at and above room temperature is sufficiently high to accommodate volume strains associated with the inclusions thus leading to virtually strain free crystals. The inclusions grow in parallel cube alignment with the aluminum matrix and have a cuboctahedral shape, which reflects directly the anisotropy of the interfacial energies. Inclusions in grain boundaries can have single crystalline or bicrystalline morphology that can be explained from a generalized Wulff analysis such as the xi-vector construction. The inclusions have been found to display a variety of nanoscale features such as high Laplace pressure, size-dependent superheating during melting, deviations from the Wulff shape displaying magic size effects, a shape dependence of edge energy, and so on. All these effects have been observed and monitored by TEM using conventional imaging conditions and high-resolution conditions in combination with in-situ analysis at elevated temperatures. PMID:15549703

  14. Implementation of nanoscale circuits using dual metal gate engineered nanowire MOSFET with high-k dielectrics for low power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles Pravin, J.; Nirmal, D.; Prajoon, P.; Ajayan, J.

    2016-09-01

    This work covers the impact of dual metal gate engineered Junctionless MOSFET with various high-k dielectric in Nanoscale circuits for low power applications. Due to gate engineering in junctionless MOSFET, graded potential is obtained and results in higher electron velocity of about 31% for HfO2 than SiO2 in the channel region, which in turn improves the carrier transport efficiency. The simulation is done using sentaurus TCAD, ON current, OFF current, ION/IOFF ratio, DIBL, gain, transconductance and transconductance generation factor parameters are analysed. When using HfO2, DIBL shows a reduction of 61.5% over SiO2. The transconductance and transconductance generation factor shows an improvement of 44% and 35% respectively. The gain and output resistance also shows considerable improvement with high-k dielectrics. Using this device, inverter circuit is implemented with different high-k dielectric material and delay have been decreased by 4% with HfO2 when compared to SiO2. In addition, a significant reduction in power dissipation of the inverter circuit is obtained with high-k dielectric Dual Metal Surround Gate Junctionless Transistor than SiO2 based device. From the analysis, it is found that HfO2 will be a better alternative for the future nanoscale device.

  15. Engine Structures Modeling Software System (ESMOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Engine Structures Modeling Software System (ESMOSS) is the development of a specialized software system for the construction of geometric descriptive and discrete analytical models of engine parts, components, and substructures which can be transferred to finite element analysis programs such as NASTRAN. The NASA Lewis Engine Structures Program is concerned with the development of technology for the rational structural design and analysis of advanced gas turbine engines with emphasis on advanced structural analysis, structural dynamics, structural aspects of aeroelasticity, and life prediction. Fundamental and common to all of these developments is the need for geometric and analytical model descriptions at various engine assembly levels which are generated using ESMOSS.

  16. Nanoscale interface engineering in ZnO twin nanorods for proposed phonon tunnel devices.

    PubMed

    Singh, Avanendra; Senapati, Kartik; Satpati, Biswarup; Kumar, Mohit; Sahoo, Pratap K

    2015-02-14

    Zinc oxide twin nanorods, with two identical crystalline sections connected by an amorphous layer, were reproducibly grown using a simple one-step hydrothermal technique. The thickness of the amorphous layer between the crystalline segments was tunable with growth parameters, as confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The photoluminescence spectra of these twin nanorods exhibit strong near band edge emission in the UV range, with convoluted phonon sidebands. De-convolution analyses of these spectra showed that the amorphous interlayers act as effective phonon barriers beyond a certain thickness. Such oriented grown individual crystalline-amorphous-crystalline structures may be a suitable test system for fundamental studies of phonon tunneling in the nanostructure. While physical vapor deposition techniques are seriously constrained in realizing crystalline-amorphous-crystalline structures, our results show the viability of engineering embedded interfaces via chemical routes. PMID:25572135

  17. The Structure and Transport of Water and Hydrated Ions Within Hydrophobic, Nanoscale Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, J K; Herberg, J L; Wu, Y; Schwegler, E; Mehta, A

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this project includes an experimental and modeling investigation into water and hydrated ion structure and transport at nanomaterials interfaces. This is a topic relevant to understanding the function of many biological systems such as aquaporins that efficiently shuttle water and ion channels that permit selective transport of specific ions across cell membranes. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are model nanoscale, hydrophobic channels that can be functionalized, making them artificial analogs for these biological channels. This project investigates the microscopic properties of water such as water density distributions and dynamics within CNTs using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and the structure of hydrated ions at CNT interfaces via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Another component of this work is molecular simulation, which can predict experimental measurables such as the proton relaxation times, chemical shifts, and can compute the electronic structure of CNTs. Some of the fundamental questions this work is addressing are: (1) what is the length scale below which nanoscale effects such as molecular ordering become important, (2) is there a relationship between molecular ordering and transport?, and (3) how do ions interact with CNT interfaces? These are questions of interest to the scientific community, but they also impact the future generation of sensors, filters, and other devices that operate on the nanometer length scale. To enable some of the proposed applications of CNTs as ion filtration media and electrolytic supercapacitors, a detailed knowledge of water and ion structure at CNT interfaces is critical.

  18. Possible Diamond-Like Nanoscale Structures Induced by Slow Highly-Charged Ions on Graphite (HOPG)

    SciTech Connect

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Schenkel, T.; Shrivastava, S.; Makgato, T.; Batra, A.; Weis, C. D.; Persaud, A.; Erasmus, R.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2009-01-06

    The interaction between slow highly-charged ions (SHCI) of different charge states from an electron-beam ion trap and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces is studied in terms of modification of electronic states at single-ion impact nanosizeareas. Results are presented from AFM/STM analysis of the induced-surface topological features combined with Raman spectroscopy. I-V characteristics for a number of different impact regions were measured with STM and the results argue for possible formation of diamond-like nanoscale structures at the impact sites.

  19. The Mathematical Disposition of Structural Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainsburg, Julie

    2007-01-01

    This ethnographic study investigated the mathematical disposition of engineers. Structural engineers in two firms were observed in everyday practice. Observation and interview data were analyzed to elucidate the role of mathematics in solving engineering problems and the engineers' perceptions of the status of mathematics relative to other…

  20. Numerical analysis of micro-/nanoscale gas-film lubrication of sliding surface with complicated structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kawagoe, Yoshiaki; Isono, Susumu; Takeno, Takanori; Yonemura, Shigeru; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Miki, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-09

    It has been reported that the friction between a partially polished diamond-coated surface and a metal surface was drastically reduced to zero when they are slid at a few m/s. Since the sliding was noiseless, it seems that the diamond-coated surface was levitated over the counter surface and the sliding mechanism was the gas film lubrication. Recently, the mechanism of levitation of a slider with a micro/nanoscale surface structure on a rotating disk was theoretically clarified [S. Yonemura et al., Tribol. Lett., (2014), doi:10.1007/s11249-014-0368-2]. Probably, the partially polished diamond-coated surface may be levitated by high gas pressure generated by the micro/nanoscale surface structure on it. In this study, in order to verify our deduction, we performed numerical simulations of sliding of partially polished diamond-coated surface by reproducing its complicated surface structure using the data measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). As a result, we obtained the lift force which is large enough to levitate the slider used in the experiment.

  1. Nanoscale assembly of lanthanum silica with dense and porous interfacial structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballinger, Benjamin; Motuzas, Julius; Miller, Christopher R.; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C.

    2015-02-01

    This work reports on the nanoscale assembly of hybrid lanthanum oxide and silica structures, which form patterns of interfacial dense and porous networks. It was found that increasing the molar ratio of lanthanum nitrate to tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in an acid catalysed sol-gel process alters the expected microporous metal oxide silica structure to a predominantly mesoporous structure above a critical lanthanum concentration. This change manifests itself by the formation of a lanthanum silicate phase, which results from the reaction of lanthanum oxide nanoparticles with the silica matrix. This process converts the microporous silica into the denser silicate phase. Above a lanthanum to silica ratio of 0.15, the combination of growth and microporous silica consumption results in the formation of nanoscale hybrid lanthanum oxides, with the inter-nano-domain spacing forming mesoporous volume. As the size of these nano-domains increases with concentration, so does the mesoporous volume. The absence of lanthanum hydroxide (La(OH)3) suggests the formation of La2O3 surrounded by lanthanum silicate.

  2. Integration of nano-scale components and supports in micromachined 3D silicon structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, J.; Azimi, S.; Y Dang, Z.; Breese, M. B. H.

    2014-04-01

    We have developed a process for the three-dimensional (3D) machining of p-type silicon on a micro- and nano-scale using high-energy ion beam irradiation with one or more energies and fluences, followed by electrochemical anodization in hydrofluoric acid. We present a study of the dependence of our fabricated structures on irradiating ion energies, fluences, geometries and wafer resistivity. All these factors determine whether the micro- and nano-scale features are properly connected to the supports in the 3D silicon structures. If wrongly chosen, any of these factors may cause a breakage at the connection through localized over-etching. Under optimum irradiation and anodization conditions, free-standing patterned membranes can be fabricated with feature dimensions of 100 nm over areas of many square millimeters. This investigation is based on silicon structures but is relevant to any electro-assisted etching process for 3D fabrication, paving the way for achieving free-standing silicon photonics, mechanical resonators and micro-/nano-electromechanical systems.

  3. Nanoscale assembly of lanthanum silica with dense and porous interfacial structures

    PubMed Central

    Ballinger, Benjamin; Motuzas, Julius; Miller, Christopher R.; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C.

    2015-01-01

    This work reports on the nanoscale assembly of hybrid lanthanum oxide and silica structures, which form patterns of interfacial dense and porous networks. It was found that increasing the molar ratio of lanthanum nitrate to tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in an acid catalysed sol-gel process alters the expected microporous metal oxide silica structure to a predominantly mesoporous structure above a critical lanthanum concentration. This change manifests itself by the formation of a lanthanum silicate phase, which results from the reaction of lanthanum oxide nanoparticles with the silica matrix. This process converts the microporous silica into the denser silicate phase. Above a lanthanum to silica ratio of 0.15, the combination of growth and microporous silica consumption results in the formation of nanoscale hybrid lanthanum oxides, with the inter-nano-domain spacing forming mesoporous volume. As the size of these nano-domains increases with concentration, so does the mesoporous volume. The absence of lanthanum hydroxide (La(OH)3) suggests the formation of La2O3 surrounded by lanthanum silicate. PMID:25644988

  4. Numerical analysis of micro-/nanoscale gas-film lubrication of sliding surface with complicated structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawagoe, Yoshiaki; Yonemura, Shigeru; Isono, Susumu; Takeno, Takanori; Miki, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    2014-12-01

    It has been reported that the friction between a partially polished diamond-coated surface and a metal surface was drastically reduced to zero when they are slid at a few m/s. Since the sliding was noiseless, it seems that the diamond-coated surface was levitated over the counter surface and the sliding mechanism was the gas film lubrication. Recently, the mechanism of levitation of a slider with a micro/nanoscale surface structure on a rotating disk was theoretically clarified [S. Yonemura et al., Tribol. Lett., (2014), doi:10.1007/s11249-014-0368-2]. Probably, the partially polished diamond-coated surface may be levitated by high gas pressure generated by the micro/nanoscale surface structure on it. In this study, in order to verify our deduction, we performed numerical simulations of sliding of partially polished diamond-coated surface by reproducing its complicated surface structure using the data measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). As a result, we obtained the lift force which is large enough to levitate the slider used in the experiment.

  5. Nanoscale Bio-engineering Solutions for Space Exploration: The Nanopore Sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor; Cozmuta, Ioana

    2004-01-01

    Characterization of biological systems at the molecular level and extraction of essential information for nano-engineering design to guide the nano-fabrication of solid-state sensors and molecular identification devices is a computational challenge. The alpha hemolysin protein ion channel is used as a model system for structural analysis of nucleic acids like DNA. Applied voltage draws a DNA strand and surrounding ionic solution through the biological nanopore. The subunits in the DNA strand block ion flow by differing amounts. Atomistic scale simulations are employed using NASA supercomputers to study DNA translocation, with the aim to enhance single DNA subunit identification. Compared to protein channels, solid-state nanopores offer a better temporal control of the translocation of DNA and the possibility to easily tune its chemistry to increase the signal resolution. Potential applications for NASA missions, besides real-time genome sequencing include astronaut health, life detection and decoding of various genomes.

  6. Nanoscale Structure and Interaction of Compact Assemblies of Carbon Nano-Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timsina, Raju; Qiu, Xiangyun

    Carbon-based nano-materials (CNM) are a diverse family of multi-functional materials under research and development world wide. Our work is further motivated by the predictive power of the physical understanding of the underlying structure-interaction-function relationships. Here we present results form recent studies of the condensed phases of several model CNMs in complexation with biologically derived molecules. Specifically, we employ X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine nanoscale structures and use the osmotic stress method to quantify their interactions. The systems under investigation are dsDNA-dispersed carbon nanotubes (dsDNA-CNT), bile-salt-dispersed carbon nanotubes, and surfactant-assisted assemblies of graphene oxides. We found that salt and molecular crowding are both effective in condensing CNMs but the resultant structures show disparate phase behaviors. The molecular interactions driving the condensation/assembly sensitively depend on the nature of CNM complex surface chemistry and range from hydrophobic to electrostatic to entropic forces.

  7. Teachers' incorporation of nanoscale science and engineering lessons into the classroom and factors that influence this incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Kelly M.

    Previous research has shown that teachers face a number of challenges when incorporating innovative science content into their curricula. These challenges include: lack of science equipment; lack of support from a professional development team; lack of time to plan and teach the lessons; weak teacher content knowledge; and problems created by teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning including, their beliefs about reform efforts (Peers, Diezmann, & Watters, 2003; Roehrig, Kruse, & Kern, 2007). One innovative and interdisciplinary science field currently under investigation is nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) due to its emerging prominence in society, the need to help students gain entry into the job market, and the need to educate informed citizens. As teachers and science educators begin to incorporate nanoscale science and engineering concepts into existing science curricula, many factors will influence the incorporation of the NSE concepts. This study was specifically designed to examine how middle- and high-school teachers incorporated NSE lessons into their current curricula and the factors that influenced how these lessons were incorporated. Interviews were the primary data source for this study, with teachers' reflective narratives and classroom observations contributing to the data. The constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Patton, 2002) was used in analyzing the data to determine the themes that emerged. The results of this study demonstrated that although teachers indicated many factors that influenced their decision to incorporate NSE into the curriculum. Teachers' content knowledge, teachers' beliefs about student abilities, and teachers' beliefs about the fit of NSE lessons to the current science curriculum were the most influential factors in determining the way teachers' incorporated NSE lessons. If teachers did not have the content knowledge nor were confident in their content knowledge, NSE incorporation did not occur

  8. Imaging nanoscale magnetic structures with polarized soft x-ray photons

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.

    2010-01-18

    Imaging nanoscale magnetic structures and their fast dynamics is scientifically interesting and technologically of highest relevance. The combination of circularly polarized soft X-ray photons which provide a strong X-ray magnetic circular dichroism effect at characteristic X-ray absorption edges, with a high resolution soft X-ray microscope utilizing Fresnel zone plate optics allows to study in a unique way the stochastical behavior in the magnetization reversal process of thin films and the ultrafast dynamics of magnetic vortices and domain walls in confined ferromagnetic structures. Future sources of fsec short and high intense soft X-ray photon pulses hold the promise of magnetic imaging down to fundamental magnetic length and time scales.

  9. Element-specific X-ray phase tomography of 3D structures at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Claire; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Scagnoli, Valerio; Holler, Mirko; Huthwelker, Thomas; Menzel, Andreas; Vartiainen, Ismo; Müller, Elisabeth; Kirk, Eugenie; Gliga, Sebastian; Raabe, Jörg; Heyderman, Laura J

    2015-03-20

    Recent advances in fabrication techniques to create mesoscopic 3D structures have led to significant developments in a variety of fields including biology, photonics, and magnetism. Further progress in these areas benefits from their full quantitative and structural characterization. We present resonant ptychographic tomography, combining quantitative hard x-ray phase imaging and resonant elastic scattering to achieve ab initio element-specific 3D characterization of a cobalt-coated artificial buckyball polymer scaffold at the nanoscale. By performing ptychographic x-ray tomography at and far from the Co K edge, we are able to locate and quantify the Co layer in our sample to a 3D spatial resolution of 25 nm. With a quantitative determination of the electron density we can determine that the Co layer is oxidized, which is confirmed with microfluorescence experiments. PMID:25839287

  10. Molecular Organization of the Nanoscale Surface Structures of the Dragonfly Hemianax papuensis Wing Epicuticle

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Elena P.; Nguyen, Song Ha; Webb, Hayden K.; Hasan, Jafar; Truong, Vi Khanh; Lamb, Robert N.; Duan, Xiaofei; Tobin, Mark J.; Mahon, Peter J.; Crawford, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular organization of the epicuticle (the outermost layer) of insect wings is vital in the formation of the nanoscale surface patterns that are responsible for bestowing remarkable functional properties. Using a combination of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques, including Synchrotron-sourced Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), we have identified the chemical components that constitute the nanoscale structures on the surface of the wings of the dragonfly, Hemianax papuensis. The major components were identified to be fatty acids, predominantly hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid, and n-alkanes with even numbered carbon chains ranging from C14 to C30. The data obtained from XPS depth profiling, in conjunction with that obtained from GCMS analyses, enabled the location of particular classes of compounds to different regions within the epicuticle. Hexadecanoic acid was found to be a major component of the outer region of the epicuticle, which forms the surface nanostructures, and was also detected in deeper layers along with octadecanoic acid. Aliphatic compounds were detected throughout the epicuticle, and these appeared to form a third discrete layer that was separate from both the inner and outer epicuticles, which has never previously been reported. PMID:23874463

  11. Electron Microscopy and Analytical X-ray Characterization of Compositional and Nanoscale Structural Changes in Fossil Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatman, Elizabeth Marie

    The nanoscale structure of compact bone contains several features that are direct indicators of bulk tissue mechanical properties. Fossil bone tissues represent unique opportunities to understand the compact bone structure/property relationships from a deep time perspective, offering a possible array of new insights into bone diseases, biomimicry of composite materials, and basic knowledge of bioapatite composition and nanoscale bone structure. To date, most work with fossil bone has employed microscale techniques and has counter-indicated the survival of bioapatite and other nanoscale structural features. The obvious disconnect between the use of microscale techniques and the discernment of nanoscale structure has prompted this work. The goal of this study was to characterize the nanoscale constituents of fossil compact bone by applying a suite of diffraction, microscopy, and spectrometry techniques, representing the highest levels of spatial and energy resolution available today, and capable of complementary structural and compositional characterization from the micro- to the nanoscale. Fossil dinosaur and crocodile long bone specimens, as well as modern ratite and crocodile femurs, were acquired from the UC Museum of Paleontology. Preserved physiological features of significance were documented with scanning electron microscopy back-scattered imaging. Electron microprobe wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS) revealed fossil bone compositions enriched in fluorine with a complementary loss of oxygen. X-ray diffraction analyses demonstrated that all specimens were composed of apatite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging revealed preserved nanocrystallinity in the fossil bones and electron diffraction studies further identified these nanocrystallites as apatite. Tomographic analyses of nanoscale elements imaged by TEM and small angle X-ray scattering were performed, with the results of each analysis further indicating that nanoscale structure is

  12. Optimizing Cr(VI) and Tc(VII) remediation through nano-scale biomineral engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Cutting, R. S.; Coker, V. S.; Telling, N. D.; Kimber, R. L.; Pearce, C. I.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R.A.D.; Vaughan, D.J.; Arenholz, E.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2009-09-09

    To optimize the production of biomagnetite for the bioremediation of metal oxyanion contaminated waters, the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by two biogenic magnetites and a synthetic magnetite was evaluated under batch and continuous flow conditions. Results indicate that nano-scale biogenic magnetite produced by incubating synthetic schwertmannite powder in cell suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens is more efficient at reducing Cr(VI) than either biogenic nano-magnetite produced from a suspension of ferrihydrite 'gel' or synthetic nano-scale Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder. Although X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements obtained from post-exposure magnetite samples reveal that both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are associated with nanoparticle surfaces, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) studies indicate that some Cr(III) has replaced octahedrally coordinated Fe in the lattice of the magnetite. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements of total aqueous Cr in the associated solution phase indicated that, although the majority of Cr(III) was incorporated within or adsorbed to the magnetite samples, a proportion ({approx}10-15 %) was released back into solution. Studies of Tc(VII) uptake by magnetites produced via the different synthesis routes also revealed significant differences between them as regards effectiveness for remediation. In addition, column studies using a {gamma}-camera to obtain real time images of a {sup 99m}Tc(VII) radiotracer were performed to visualize directly the relative performances of the magnetite sorbents against ultra-trace concentrations of metal oxyanion contaminants. Again, the magnetite produced from schwertmannite proved capable of retaining more ({approx}20%) {sup 99m}Tc(VII) than the magnetite produced from ferrihydrite, confirming that biomagnetite production for efficient environmental remediation can be fine-tuned through careful selection of the initial Fe(III) mineral substrate

  13. Scaling up nanoscale water-driven energy conversion into evaporation-driven engines and generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Goodnight, Davis; Gao, Zhenghan; Cavusoglu, Ahmet H.; Sabharwal, Nina; Delay, Michael; Driks, Adam; Sahin, Ozgur

    2015-06-01

    Evaporation is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the natural environment and a dominant form of energy transfer in the Earth's climate. Engineered systems rarely, if ever, use evaporation as a source of energy, despite myriad examples of such adaptations in the biological world. Here, we report evaporation-driven engines that can power common tasks like locomotion and electricity generation. These engines start and run autonomously when placed at air-water interfaces. They generate rotary and piston-like linear motion using specially designed, biologically based artificial muscles responsive to moisture fluctuations. Using these engines, we demonstrate an electricity generator that rests on water while harvesting its evaporation to power a light source, and a miniature car (weighing 0.1 kg) that moves forward as the water in the car evaporates. Evaporation-driven engines may find applications in powering robotic systems, sensors, devices and machinery that function in the natural environment.

  14. Scaling up nanoscale water-driven energy conversion into evaporation-driven engines and generators.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Goodnight, Davis; Gao, Zhenghan; Cavusoglu, Ahmet H; Sabharwal, Nina; DeLay, Michael; Driks, Adam; Sahin, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the natural environment and a dominant form of energy transfer in the Earth's climate. Engineered systems rarely, if ever, use evaporation as a source of energy, despite myriad examples of such adaptations in the biological world. Here, we report evaporation-driven engines that can power common tasks like locomotion and electricity generation. These engines start and run autonomously when placed at air-water interfaces. They generate rotary and piston-like linear motion using specially designed, biologically based artificial muscles responsive to moisture fluctuations. Using these engines, we demonstrate an electricity generator that rests on water while harvesting its evaporation to power a light source, and a miniature car (weighing 0.1 kg) that moves forward as the water in the car evaporates. Evaporation-driven engines may find applications in powering robotic systems, sensors, devices and machinery that function in the natural environment. PMID:26079632

  15. Scaling up nanoscale water-driven energy conversion into evaporation-driven engines and generators

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Goodnight, Davis; Gao, Zhenghan; Cavusoglu, Ahmet H.; Sabharwal, Nina; DeLay, Michael; Driks, Adam; Sahin, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the natural environment and a dominant form of energy transfer in the Earth's climate. Engineered systems rarely, if ever, use evaporation as a source of energy, despite myriad examples of such adaptations in the biological world. Here, we report evaporation-driven engines that can power common tasks like locomotion and electricity generation. These engines start and run autonomously when placed at air–water interfaces. They generate rotary and piston-like linear motion using specially designed, biologically based artificial muscles responsive to moisture fluctuations. Using these engines, we demonstrate an electricity generator that rests on water while harvesting its evaporation to power a light source, and a miniature car (weighing 0.1 kg) that moves forward as the water in the car evaporates. Evaporation-driven engines may find applications in powering robotic systems, sensors, devices and machinery that function in the natural environment. PMID:26079632

  16. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  17. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  18. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  19. Structure of internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, N.; Endo, H.; Oshio, S.; Ebisudani, T.; Ito, M.; Mizukami, T.; Kishimoto, M.

    1988-09-20

    This patent describes a structure of internal combustion engine, comprising a cylinder member formed with a cylinder which demarcates a combustion chamber in cooperation with a piston connected with a crankshaft, a crankcase provided in succession with the lower end of the cylinder member to accommodate the crankshaft, a valve actuating mechanism actuating valves provided in the combustion chamber in response to rotation of the crankshaft, at least a part of the valve actuating mechanism being accommodated in a rocker case provided on the upper end of the cylinder member, an oil return passage constituting means opening at one end into the rocker case, the other end being open into the crankcase at one side which is partitioned by a plane containing the cylinder axis of the cylinder member and the axis of the crankshaft and is occupied by a crank pin of the crankshaft when the piston rises, thereby constituting a passage for leading oil in the rocker case into the crankcase, and a restraining means provided in relation to the oil return passage constituting means so that an air flow around the axis of the crankshaft within the crankcase owing to the rotation of the crankshaft is restrained from entering into the passage through the opening of the other end.

  20. Nanoscale engineering of thin film morphology for efficient organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Richa

    Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) have received significant industrial and academic interest in the last decade as a promising source of inexpensive renewable energy. However, further improvements in device performance and improved lifetimes are required for the commercialization of OPVs. This work is primarily focused on developing a novel device architecture to improve device performance and characterizing structure-property-performance relationships for OPVs. The excitonic nature of organic semiconductors necessitates the use of an electron donor-acceptor (D-A) heterojunction for efficient exciton dissociation and the generation of photocurrent. In many organic semiconductors, the optical absorption length is much larger than the exciton diffusion length. This trade-off between absorption and exciton diffusion is often overcome by increasing the area of the dissociating D-A interface using engineered film morphologies. This thesis presents an approach to maximize cell efficiency using a continuously graded D-A heterojunction. The graded heterojunction allows for an increase in the D-A interface area for an enhanced exciton diffusion efficiency, while also preserving the charge collection efficiency, leading to a significant improvement in device performance relative to that of optimized planar and uniformly mixed OPVs. In addition, this work correlates the optimized D-A composition gradient to the underlying film morphology and charge transport properties of uniform D-A mixtures. Subsequently, a new characterization technique to calculate the charge collection efficiency of OPVs is discussed. This technique is used to demonstrate the enhanced charge collection efficiency in graded heterojunctions relative to uniformly mixed heterojunctions. Afterwards, the properties of a new material and its potential as an electron donor material in OPVs are examined. Finally, an overview of the results and the ideas for future work are presented.

  1. Dynamic force microscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies of conducting polymer thin film on nanoscale structured Al surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hitoshi; Takemura, Susumu; Ishii, Atsuro; Takarai, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Yohei; Sugiyama, Takeharu; Hiramatsu, Tomoyasu; Nanba, Noriyuki; Nishikawa, Osamu; Taniguchi, Masahiro

    2007-09-01

    A nanoscale linked-crater structure was fabricated on an Al surface by chemical and electrochemical combination processes. The surface of an Al plate was treated with Semi Clean and was successively processed in anodization in H IISO 4. Dynamic force microscopy image (DFM) showed that a linked-crater structure was formed on the Al surface. At the next stage, the authors conducted the thin film growth of conducting polymer polythiophene on the Al surface by an electrochemical method. The electrochemical polymerization on the Al surface was performed in acetonitrile containing thiophene monomer and (Et) 4NBF 4 as a supporting electrolyte. After being electrochemically processed, the contour image of each crater was still recognized implying that the polymer nanofilm was grown on the nanoscale structured Al surface. The cross section analysis demonstrated that the nanofilm was grown along the linked-crater structure because the contour of each crater became thick. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurement also supported the polymer nanofilm growth because C 1s and S 2p lines were detected. Furthermore, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules are injected into the polymer nanofilm grown on the nanoscale structured Al surface by diffusing method in order to functionalize the nanoscale hybrid material.

  2. Outer planet probe engineering model structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smittkamp, J. A.; Gustin, W. H.; Griffin, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    A series of proof of concept structural tests was performed on an engineering model of the Outer Planets Atmospheric Entry Probe. The tests consisted of pyrotechnic shock, dynamic and static loadings. The tests partially verified the structural concept.

  3. Atomic calligraphy: the direct writing of nanoscale structures using a microelectromechanical system.

    PubMed

    Imboden, Matthias; Han, Han; Chang, Jackson; Pardo, Flavio; Bolle, Cristian A; Lowell, Evan; Bishop, David J

    2013-07-10

    We present a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based method for the resist-free patterning of nanostructures. Using a focused ion beam to customize larger MEMS machines, we fabricate apertures with features less than 50 nm in diameter on plates that can be moved with nanometer precision over an area greater than 20 × 20 μm(2). Depositing thermally evaporated gold atoms though the apertures while moving the plate results in the deposition of nanoscale metal patterns. Adding a shutter positioned micrometers above the aperture enables high speed control of not only where but also when atoms are deposited. With this shutter, different-sized apertures can be opened and closed selectively for nanostructure fabrication with features ranging from nano- to micrometers in scale. The ability to evaporate materials with high precision, and thereby fabricate circuits and structures in situ, enables new kinds of experiments based on the interactions of a small number of atoms and eventually even single atoms. PMID:23782403

  4. Independently Relaxing Nanoscale Inhomogeneities as model for Structural Relaxation: Light Scattering around the Glass Transition Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mierie; Schroeder, John; Saha, Susanta K.; Moynihan, Cornelius T.

    1996-03-01

    Recent observations of anomalous light scattering (Rayleigh, Brillouin, and Raman) in the glass transition region indicate that the apparent distribution of structural relaxation times corresponds to a physical distribution of nanoscale inhomogeneities (density fluctuation) with varying properties. A modified version of the Tool-Narayanaswamy model incorporating this feature has been developed. Parameters obtained by fitting heat capacity heating curves with this model are found to give an excellent prediction of the anomalous light scattering of B_2O3 glass in the transition region. Other examples from Halide glasses will also be discussed. The measurement of Boson peaks in glasses and their interpretation with respect to density fluctuations is presented. The range and degree of disorder in a glass is obtained in a quantitative sense from the behavior of the spectral form of the Boson peaks with temperature.

  5. Non-exponential Structural Relaxation, Anomalous Light Scattering, and Nanoscale Inhomogeneities in Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Moynihan, C. T.; Schroeder, J.

    1997-03-01

    Light scattering from glasses in the glass transition region exhibits an anomalous Rayleigh scattering. We observe a maximum in the scattering intensity versus temperature curves during heating. It is shown that this behavior is consistent with the presence of nanoscale inhomogeneities (density fluctions) which relax at different rates. Recent observations of anomalous light scattering were carried out on strong glass formers and fragile glass formers. In all cases a hysteresis effect is seen in the light scattering upon heating versus cooling each sample from room temperature through the glass transition region. From these measurements it is suggested that this could be the source of non-exponential structural relaxation kinetics. A model based upon the modified Tool-Narayanaswamy model is found to be in agreement with the calculations based on the experimental results.

  6. Nanoscale calibration of n-type ZnO staircase structures by scanning capacitance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Laurent, J.; Chauveau, J. M.; Sallet, V.; Jomard, F.; Brémond, G.

    2015-11-01

    Cross-sectional scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) was performed on n-type ZnO multi-layer structures homoepitaxially grown by molecular beam epitaxy method. Highly contrasted SCM signals were obtained between the ZnO layers with different Ga densities. Through comparison with dopant depth profiles from secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurement, it is demonstrated that SCM is able to distinguish carrier concentrations at all levels of the samples (from 2 × 1017 cm-3 to 3 × 1020 cm-3). The good agreement of the results from the two techniques indicates that SCM can be a useful tool for two dimensional carrier profiling at nanoscale for ZnO nanostructure development. As an example, residual carrier concentration inside the non-intentionally doped buffer layer was estimated to be around 2 × 1016 cm-3 through calibration analysis.

  7. Size and shape of grain boundary network components and their atomic structures in polycrystalline nanoscale materials

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tao; Li, Mo

    2015-10-28

    Microstructure in polycrystalline materials is composed of grain boundary plane, triple junction line, and vertex point. They are the integral parts of the grain boundary network structure and the foundation for the structure-property relations. In polycrystalline, especially nanocrystalline, materials, it becomes increasingly difficult to probe the atomistic structure of the microstructure components directly in experiment due to the size limitation. Here, we present a numerical approach using pair correlation function from atomistic simulation to obtain the detailed information for atomic order and disorder in the grain boundary network in nanocrystalline materials. We show that the atomic structures in the different microstructural components are related closely to their geometric size and shape, leading to unique signatures for atomic structure in microstructural characterization at nanoscales. The dependence varies systematically with the characteristic dimension of the microstructural component: liquid-like disorder is found in vertex points, but a certain order persists in triple junctions and grain boundaries along the extended dimensions of these microstructure components.

  8. Nano-scale engineering using lead chalcogenide nanocrystals for opto-electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fan

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) or nanocrystals of inorganic semiconductors exhibit exceptional optoelectronic properties such as tunable band-gap, high absorption cross-section and narrow emission spectra. This thesis discusses the characterizations and physical properties of lead-chalcogenide nanocrystals, their assembly into more complex nanostructures and applications in solar cells and near-infrared light-emitting devices. In the first part of this work, we demonstrate that the band edge emission of PbS quantum dots can be tuned from the visible to the mid-infrared region through size control, while the self-attachment of PbS nanocrystals can lead to the formation of 1-D nanowires, 2-D quantum dot monolayers and 3-D quantum dot solids. In particular, the assembly of closely-packed quantum dot solids has attracted enormous attention. A series of distinctive optoelectronic properties has been observed, such as superb multiple exciton generation efficiencies, efficient hot-electron transfer and cold-exciton recycling. Since the surfactant determines the quantum dot surface passivation and inter dot electronic coupling, we examine the influence of different cross-linking surfactants on the optoelectronic properties of the quantum dot solids. Then, we discuss the ability to tune the quantum dot band-gap combined with the controllable assembly of lead-chalcogenide quantum dots, which opens new possibilities to engineer the properties of quantum dot solids. The PbS and PbSe quantum dot cascade structures and PbS/PbSe quantum dot heterojunctions are assembled using the layer-by-layer deposition method. We show that exciton funnelling and trap state-bound exciton recycling in the quantum dot cascade structure dramatically enhances the quantum dots photoluminescence. Moreover, we show that both type-I and type-II PbS/PbSe quantum dot heterojunctions can be assembled by carefully choosing the quantum dot sizes. In type-I heterojunctions, the excited electron-hole pairs tend

  9. Real time nanoscale structural evaluation of gold structures on Si (100) surface using in-situ transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, A. E-mail: ashutosh.phy@gmail.com E-mail: pvsatyam22@gmail.com; Juluri, R. R.; Satyam, P. V. E-mail: ashutosh.phy@gmail.com E-mail: pvsatyam22@gmail.com

    2014-05-14

    Transport behavior of gold nanostructures on Si(100) substrate during annealing under high vacuum has been investigated using in-situ real time transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A comparative study has been done on the morphological changes due to annealing under different vacuum environments. Au thin films of thickness ∼2.0 nm were deposited on native oxide covered silicon substrate by using thermal evaporation system. In-situ real time TEM measurements at 850 °C showed the isotropic growth of rectangular/square shaped gold-silicon alloy structures. During the growth, it is observed that the alloying occurs in liquid phase followed by transformation into the rectangular shapes. For similar system, ex-situ annealing in low vacuum (10{sup −2} millibars) at 850 °C showed the spherical gold nanostructures with no Au-Si alloy formation. Under low vacuum annealing conditions, the rate of formation of the oxide layer dominates the oxide desorption rate, resulting in the creation of a barrier layer between Au and Si, which restricts the inter diffusion of Au in to Si. This work demonstrates the important role of interfacial oxide layer on the growth of nanoscale Au-Si alloy structures during the initial growth. The time dependent TEM images are presented to offer a direct insight into the fundamental dynamics of the sintering process at the nanoscale.

  10. Real time nanoscale structural evaluation of gold structures on Si (100) surface using in-situ transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, A.; Juluri, R. R.; Satyam, P. V.

    2014-05-01

    Transport behavior of gold nanostructures on Si(100) substrate during annealing under high vacuum has been investigated using in-situ real time transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A comparative study has been done on the morphological changes due to annealing under different vacuum environments. Au thin films of thickness ˜2.0 nm were deposited on native oxide covered silicon substrate by using thermal evaporation system. In-situ real time TEM measurements at 850 °C showed the isotropic growth of rectangular/square shaped gold-silicon alloy structures. During the growth, it is observed that the alloying occurs in liquid phase followed by transformation into the rectangular shapes. For similar system, ex-situ annealing in low vacuum (10-2 millibars) at 850 °C showed the spherical gold nanostructures with no Au-Si alloy formation. Under low vacuum annealing conditions, the rate of formation of the oxide layer dominates the oxide desorption rate, resulting in the creation of a barrier layer between Au and Si, which restricts the inter diffusion of Au in to Si. This work demonstrates the important role of interfacial oxide layer on the growth of nanoscale Au-Si alloy structures during the initial growth. The time dependent TEM images are presented to offer a direct insight into the fundamental dynamics of the sintering process at the nanoscale.

  11. Nanoscale stiffness topography reveals structure and mechanics of the transport barrier in intact nuclear pore complexes

    PubMed Central

    Labokha, Aksana A.; Osmanović, Dino; Liashkovich, Ivan; Orlova, Elena V.; Ford, Ian J.; Charras, Guillaume; Fassati, Ariberto; Hoogenboom, Bart W.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the gate for transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm. Small molecules cross the NPC by passive diffusion, but molecules larger than ~5 nm must bind to nuclear transport receptors to overcome a selective barrier within the NPC1. Whilst the structure and shape of the cytoplasmic ring of the NPC are relatively well characterized2-5, the selective barrier is situated deep within the central channel of the NPC and depends critically on unstructured nuclear pore proteins5,6, and is therefore not well understood. Here, we show that stiffness topography7 with sharp atomic force microscopy tips can generate nanoscale cross sections of the NPC. The cross sections reveal two distinct structures, a cytoplasmic ring and a central plug structure, which are consistent with the three-dimensional NPC structure derived from electron microscopy2-5. The central plug persists after reactivation of the transport cycle and resultant cargo release, indicating that the plug is an intrinsic part of the NPC barrier. Added nuclear transport receptors accumulate on the intact transport barrier and lead to a homogenization of the barrier stiffness. The observed nanomechanical properties in the NPC indicate the presence of a cohesive barrier to transport, and are quantitatively consistent with the presence of a central condensate of nuclear pore proteins in the NPC channel. PMID:25420031

  12. Conformational Switching and Nanoscale Assembly of Human Prion Protein into Polymorphic Amyloids via Structurally Labile Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Vijit; Arya, Shruti; Bhattacharya, Mily; Mukhopadhyay, Samrat

    2015-12-29

    Conformational switching of the prion protein (PrP) from an α-helical normal cellular form (PrP(C)) to an aggregation-prone and self-propagating β-rich scrapie form (PrP(Sc)) underlies the molecular basis of pathogenesis in prion diseases. Anionic lipids play a critical role in the misfolding and conformational conversion of the membrane-anchored PrP into the amyloidogenic pathological form. In this work, we have used a diverse array of techniques to interrogate the early intermediates during amyloid formation from recombinant human PrP in the presence of a membrane mimetic anionic detergent such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. We have been able to detect and characterize two distinct types of interconvertible oligomers. Our results demonstrate that highly ordered large β-oligomers represent benign off-pathway intermediates that lack the ability to mature into amyloid fibrils. On the contrary, structurally labile small oligomers are capable of switching to an ordered amyloid-state that exhibits profound toxicity to mammalian cells. Our fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements revealed that the partially disordered PrP serves as precursors to small amyloid-competent oligomers. These on-pathway oligomers are eventually sequestered into higher order supramolecular assemblies that conformationally mature into polymorphic amyloids possessing varied nanoscale morphology as evident by the atomic force microscopy imaging. The nanoscale diversity of fibril architecture is attributed to the heterogeneous ensemble of early obligatory oligomers and offers a plausible explanation for the existence of multiple prion strains in vivo. PMID:26645611

  13. Engineered Magnetic Core-Shell Structures.

    PubMed

    Alavi Nikje, Mir Mohammad; Vakili, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, engineered magnetic core-shell structures are playing an important role in the wide range of various applications. These magnetic core-shell structures have attracted considerable attention because of their unique properties and various applications. Also, the synthesis of engineered magnetic core-shell structures has attracted practical interest because of potential applications in areas such as ferrofluids, medical imaging, drug targeting and delivery, cancer therapy, separations, and catalysis. So far a large number of engineered magnetic core-shell structures have been successfully synthesized. This review article focuses on the recent progress in synthesis and characterization of engineered magnetic core-shell structures. Also, this review gives a brief description of the various application of these structures. It is hoped that this review will play some small part in helping future developments in important field. PMID:26377655

  14. Optimizing Cr(VI) and Tc(VII) remediation through nanoscale biomineral engineering.

    PubMed

    Cutting, Richard S; Coker, Victoria S; Telling, Neil D; Kimber, Richard L; Pearce, Carolyn I; Ellis, Beverly L; Lawson, Richard S; van der Laan, Gerrit; Pattrick, Richard A D; Vaughan, David J; Arenholz, Elke; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2010-04-01

    The influence of Fe(III) starting material on the ability of magnetically recoverable biogenic magnetites produced by Geobacter sulfurreducens to retain metal oxyanion contaminants has been investigated. The reduction/removal of aqueous Cr(VI) was used to probe the reactivity of the biomagnetites. Nanomagnetites produced by the bacterial reduction of schwertmannite powder were more efficient at reducing Cr(VI) than either ferrihydrite "gel"-derived biomagnetite or commercial nanoscale Fe(3)O(4). Examination of post-exposure magnetite surfaces indicated both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were present. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) studies at the Fe L(2,3)-edge showed that the amount of Fe(III) "gained" by Cr(VI) reduction could not be entirely accounted for by "lost" Fe(II). Cr L(2,3)-edge XMCD spectra found Cr(III) replaced approximately 14%-20% of octahedral Fe in both biogenic magnetites, producing a layer resembling CrFe(2)O(4). However, schwertmannite-derived biomagnetite was associated with approximately twice as much Cr as ferrihydrite-derived magnetite. Column studies using a gamma-camera to image a (99)mTc(VII) radiotracer were performed to visualize the relative performances of biogenic magnetites at removing aqueous metal oxyanion contaminants. Again, schwertmannite-derived biomagnetite proved capable of retaining more (approximately 20%) (99)mTc(VII) than ferrihydrite-derived biomagnetite, confirming that the production of biomagnetite can be fine-tuned for efficient environmental remediation through careful selection of the Fe(III) mineral substrate supplied to Fe(III)-reducing bacteria. PMID:20196588

  15. Nanoscale Interactions between Engineered Nanomaterials and Black Carbon (Biochar) in Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding of the interactions between engineered nanomaterials (NMs) and soil constituents, and a comprehension of how these interactions may affect biological uptake and toxicity are currently lacking. Charcoal black carbon is a normal constituent of soils due to fire history, and can be pre...

  16. Middle-and High-School Students' Interest in Nanoscale Science and Engineering Topics and Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Kelly; Bodner, George M.; Lynn, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that an increase in students' interest in science and engineering can have a positive effect on their achievement (Baird, 1986; Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; French, Immekus & Oakes, 2005; Schiefele, Krapp, & Winteler, 1992; Schwartz Bloom & Haplin, 2003; Weinburgh, 1995). Whereas many NSF-funded programs in materials…

  17. Nanoscale interactions between engineered nanomaterials and black carbon (Biochar) in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Engineered nanomaterials (NMs) enter agricultural soils directly as additives in agrichemical formulations1 and indirectly as contaminants in municipal sewage sludge.2 NIFA has a vested interest in developing predictive models for the fate and nanotoxicity of NMs in agroecosystems. An understanding ...

  18. Molecular- and Nano-Scale Structure and Reactivity of Biogenic Uranium(IV) Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, E. J.; Bargar, J. R.; Veeramani, H.; Sharp, J. O.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Survova, E.; Giammar, D. E.; Ulrich, K.; Mehta, A.; Webb, S. M.; Conradson, S. D.; Clark, D. L.; Ilton, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    Bioremediation has been proposed and extensively researched as an in-situ immobilization strategy for uranium contamination in the subsurface with nanoparticulate uraninite (UO2) being the commonly reported product. Little detail is known about the structure and reactivity of this material, but based on comparison to its closest abiotic analog, UO2+x (0 < x < 0.25), we expect that it is complex and disordered and capable of structurally incorporating common groundwater cations. In addition, it has been predicted that the nanoparticulate form would induce strain and increase the solubility, and therefore reduce the effectiveness of this method as a remediation technology. In this study, the local-, intermediate- and long-range atomic and nano-scale structure of biogenic UO2 (formed at varying pH and divalent cation concentration, using Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1) was characterized using EXAFS, SR-based powder diffraction and TEM. The lattice parameter of the nanoparticulate phase is seen to be consistent with bulk UO2. There is no evidence for hyperstoichiometry or strain of the UO2 particles, the latter indicating that surface energy is relatively modest. Similar results were obtained for biogenic UO2 particles produced by other metal reducing bacteria indicating that biological variability may play a minimal role in structure. In agreement with the structural analysis, the surface area-normalized dissolution rate of the biogenic UO2 was found to be comparable to that of coarser, synthetic UO2.00. Mn2+ was found to attenuate the particle size of biogenic UO2+xand to be structurally incorporated. This finding suggests that groundwater composition can have a pronounced impact on the structure and properties of biogenic uraninite.

  19. Control of interface nanoscale structure created by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Peri, Someswara R; Akgun, Bulent; Satija, Sushil K; Jiang, Hao; Enlow, Jesse; Bunning, Timothy J; Foster, Mark D

    2011-09-01

    Tailoring the structure of films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to specific applications requires a depth-resolved understanding of how the interface structures in such films are impacted by variations in deposition parameters such as feed position and plasma power. Analysis of complementary X-ray and neutron reflectivity (XR, NR) data provide a rich picture of changes in structure with feed position and plasma power, with those changes resolved on the nanoscale. For plasma-polymerized octafluorocyclobutane (PP-OFCB) films, a region of distinct chemical composition and lower cross-link density is found at the substrate interface for the range of processing conditions studied and a surface layer of lower cross-link density also appears when plasma power exceeds 40 W. Varying the distance of the feed from the plasma impacts the degree of cross-linking in the film center, thickness of the surface layer, and thickness of the transition region at the substrate. Deposition at the highest power, 65 W, both enhances cross-linking and creates loose fragments with fluorine content higher than the average. The thickness of the low cross-link density region at the air interface plays an important role in determining the width of the interface built with a layer subsequently deposited atop the first. PMID:21875044

  20. Disruption of Thermally-Stable Nanoscale Grain Structures by Strain Localization

    PubMed Central

    Khalajhedayati, Amirhossein; Rupert, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Nanocrystalline metals with average grain sizes of only a few nanometers have recently been observed to fail through the formation of shear bands. Here, we investigate this phenomenon in nanocrystalline Ni which has had its grain structure stabilized by doping with W, with a specific focus on understanding how strain localization drives evolution of the nanoscale grain structure. Shear banding was initiated with both microcompression and nanoindentation experiments, followed by site-specific transmission electron microscopy to characterize the microstructure. Grain growth and texture formation were observed inside the shear bands, which had a wide variety of thicknesses. These evolved regions have well-defined edges, which rules out local temperature rise as a possible formation mechanism. No structural evolution was found in areas away from the shear bands, even in locations where significant plastic deformation had occurred, showing that plastic strain alone is not enough to cause evolution. Rather, intense strain localization is needed to induce mechanically-driven grain growth in a thermally-stable nanocrystalline alloy. PMID:26030826

  1. Stripe-like nanoscale structural phase separation in superconducting BaPb1−xBixO3

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Zhang, Y.; Parra, C.; Manoharan, H.C.; Beasley, M.R.; Geballe, T.H.; Kramer, M.J.; Fisher, I.R.

    2015-01-01

    The phase diagram of BaPb1−xBixO3 exhibits a superconducting dome in the proximity of a charge density wave phase. For the superconducting compositions, the material coexists as two structural polymorphs. Here we show, via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, that the structural dimorphism is accommodated in the form of partially disordered nanoscale stripes. Identification of the morphology of the nanoscale structural phase separation enables determination of the associated length scales, which we compare with the Ginzburg–Landau coherence length. We find that the maximum Tc occurs when the superconducting coherence length matches the width of the partially disordered stripes, implying a connection between the structural phase separation and the shape of the superconducting dome. PMID:26373890

  2. Stripe-like nanoscale structural phase separation in superconducting BaPb1-xBixO3

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Zhang, Y.; Parra, C.; Manoharan, H. C.; Beasley, M. R.; Geballe, T. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Fisher, I. R.

    2015-09-16

    The phase diagram of BaPb1-xBixO3 exhibits a superconducting “dome” in the proximity of a charge density wave phase. For the superconducting compositions, the material coexists as two structural polymorphs. Here we show, via high resolution transmission electron microscopy, that the structural dimorphism is accommodated in the form of partially disordered nanoscale stripes. Identification of the morphology of the nanoscale structural phase separation enables determination of the associated length scales, which we compare to the Ginzburg-Landau coherence length. Thus, we find that the maximum Tc occurs when the superconducting coherence length matches the width of the partially disordered stripes, implying amore » connection between the structural phase separation and the shape of the superconducting dome.« less

  3. Stable storage of helium in nanoscale platelets at semicoherent interfaces.

    PubMed

    Kashinath, A; Misra, A; Demkowicz, M J

    2013-02-22

    He implanted into metals precipitates into nanoscale bubbles that may later grow into voids, degrading the properties of engineering alloys. Using multiscale modeling, we show that a different class of He precipitates may form at semicoherent interfaces: nanoscale platelets. These platelets grow by wetting high-energy interface regions, remain stable under irradiation, and reduce He-induced swelling. Stable storage of He at interfaces may impart unprecedented He resistance to future structural materials. PMID:23473167

  4. An Optimized Table-Top Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Set-up for the Nanoscale Structural Analysis of Soft Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibillano, T.; de Caro, L.; Altamura, D.; Siliqi, D.; Ramella, M.; Boccafoschi, F.; Ciasca, G.; Campi, G.; Tirinato, L.; di Fabrizio, E.; Giannini, C.

    2014-11-01

    The paper shows how a table top superbright microfocus laboratory X-ray source and an innovative restoring-data algorithm, used in combination, allow to analyze the super molecular structure of soft matter by means of Small Angle X-ray Scattering ex-situ experiments. The proposed theoretical approach is aimed to restore diffraction features from SAXS profiles collected from low scattering biomaterials or soft tissues, and therefore to deal with extremely noisy diffraction SAXS profiles/maps. As biological test cases we inspected: i) residues of exosomes' drops from healthy epithelial colon cell line and colorectal cancer cells; ii) collagen/human elastin artificial scaffolds developed for vascular tissue engineering applications; iii) apoferritin protein in solution. Our results show how this combination can provide morphological/structural nanoscale information to characterize new artificial biomaterials and/or to get insight into the transition between healthy and pathological tissues during the progression of a disease, or to morphologically characterize nanoscale proteins, based on SAXS data collected in a room-sized laboratory.

  5. Study of Structural Morphology of Hemp Fiber from the Micro to the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bei; Sain, Mohini; Oksman, Kristiina

    2007-03-01

    The focus of this work has been to study how high pressure defibrillation and chemical purification affect the hemp fiber morphology from micro to nanoscale. Microscopy techniques, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to study the structure and properties of the prepared micro and nanofibers. Microscopy studies showed that the used individualization processes lead to a unique morphology of interconnected web-like structure of hemp fibers. The nanofibers are bundles of cellulose fibers of widths ranging between 30 and 100 nm and estimated lengths of several micrometers. The chemical analysis showed that selective chemical treatments increased the α-cellulose content of hemp nanofibers from 75 to 94%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study showed that the pectins were partially removed during the individualization treatments. X-ray analysis showed that the relative crystallinity of the studied fibers increased after each stage of chemical and mechanical treatments. It was also observed that the hemp nanofibers had an increased crystallinity of 71 from 57% of untreated hemp fibers.

  6. Ultrafast switching in nanoscale phase-change random access memory with superlattice-like structures.

    PubMed

    Loke, Desmond; Shi, Luping; Wang, Weijie; Zhao, Rong; Yang, Hongxin; Ng, Lung-Tat; Lim, Kian-Guan; Chong, Tow-Chong; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2011-06-24

    Phase-change random access memory cells with superlattice-like (SLL) GeTe/Sb(2)Te(3) were demonstrated to have excellent scaling performance in terms of switching speed and operating voltage. In this study, the correlations between the cell size, switching speed and operating voltage of the SLL cells were identified and investigated. We found that small SLL cells can achieve faster switching speed and lower operating voltage compared to the large SLL cells. Fast amorphization and crystallization of 300 ps and 1 ns were achieved in the 40 nm SLL cells, respectively, both significantly faster than those observed in the Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) (GST) cells of the same cell size. 40 nm SLL cells were found to switch with low amorphization voltage of 0.9 V when pulse-widths of 5 ns were employed, which is much lower than the 1.6 V required by the GST cells of the same cell size. These effects can be attributed to the fast heterogeneous crystallization, low thermal conductivity and high resistivity of the SLL structures. Nanoscale PCRAM with SLL structure promises applications in high speed and low power memory devices. PMID:21572204

  7. Chemically stable and mechanically durable superamphiphobic aluminum surface with a micro/nanoscale binary structure.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shan; Yang, Xiaojun; Tian, Dong; Deng, Wenli

    2014-09-10

    We developed a simple fabrication method to prepare a superamphiphobic aluminum surface. On the basis of a low-energy surface and the combination of micro- and nanoscale roughness, the resultant surface became super-repellent toward a wide range of liquids with surface tensions of 25.3-72.1 mN m(-1). The applied approach involved (1) the formation of an irregular microplateau structure on an aluminum surface, (2) the fabrication of a nanoplatelet structure, and (3) fluorination treatment. The chemical stability and mechanical durability of the superamphiphobic surface were evaluated in detail. The results demonstrated that the surface presented an excellent chemical stability toward cool corrosive liquids (HCl/NaOH solutions, 25 °C) and 98% concentrated sulfuric acid, hot liquids (water, HCl/NaOH solutions, 30-100 °C), solvent immersion, high temperature, and a long-term period. More importantly, the surface also exhibited robust mechanical durability and could withstand multiple-fold, finger-touch, intensive scratching by a sharp blade, ultrasonication treatment, boiling treatment in water and coffee, repeated peeling by adhesive tape, and even multiple abrasion tests under 500 g of force without losing superamphiphobicity. The as-prepared superamphiphobic surface was also demonstrated to have excellent corrosion resistance. This work provides a simple, cost-effective, and highly efficient method to fabricate a chemically stable and mechanically robust superamphiphobic aluminum surface, which can find important outdoor applications. PMID:25116143

  8. Nanoscale fluid-structure interaction: flow resistance and energy transfer between water and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Ma, Ming; Jin, Kai; Liu, Jefferson Zhe; Shen, Luming; Zheng, Quanshui; Xu, Zhiping

    2011-10-01

    We investigate here water flow passing a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT), through analysis based on combined atomistic and continuum mechanics simulations. The relation between drag coefficient C(D) and Reynolds number Re is obtained for a wide range of flow speed u from 5 to 600 m/s. The results suggest that Stokes law for creep flow works well for small Reynolds numbers up to 0.1 (u ≈ 100 m/s), and indicates a linear dependence between drag force and flow velocity. Significant deviation is observed at elevated Re values, which is discussed by considering the interfacial slippage, reduction of viscosity due to friction-induced local heating, and flow-induced structural vibration. We find that interfacial slippage has a limited contribution to the reduction of the resistance, and excitations of low-frequency vibration modes in the carbon nanotube play an important role in energy transfer between water and carbon nanotubes, especially at high flow speeds where drastic enhancement of the carbon nanotube vibration is observed. The results reported here reveal nanoscale fluid-structure interacting mechanisms, and lay the ground for rational design of nanofluidics and nanoelectromechanical devices operating in a fluidic environment. PMID:22181268

  9. Can OCT be sensitive to nanoscale structural alterations in biological tissue?

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ji; Radosevich, Andrew J.; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Norris, Sam C.P.; Çapoğlu, İlker R.; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of nanoscale tissue structures is crucial in understanding biological processes. Although novel optical microscopy methods have been developed to probe cellular features beyond the diffraction limit, nanometer-scale quantification remains still inaccessible for in situ tissue. Here we demonstrate that, without actually resolving specific geometrical feature, OCT can be sensitive to tissue structural properties at the nanometer length scale. The statistical mass-density distribution in tissue is quantified by its autocorrelation function modeled by the Whittle-Mateŕn functional family. By measuring the wavelength-dependent backscattering coefficient μb(λ) and the scattering coefficient μs, we introduce a technique called inverse spectroscopic OCT (ISOCT) to quantify the mass-density correlation function. We find that the length scale of sensitivity of ISOCT ranges from ~30 to ~450 nm. Although these sub-diffractional length scales are below the spatial resolution of OCT and therefore not resolvable, they are nonetheless detectable. The sub-diffractional sensitivity is validated by 1) numerical simulations; 2) tissue phantom studies; and 3) ex vivo colon tissue measurements cross-validated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, the 3D imaging capability of ISOCT is demonstrated with ex vivo rat buccal and human colon samples. PMID:23571994

  10. Can OCT be sensitive to nanoscale structural alterations in biological tissue?

    PubMed

    Yi, Ji; Radosevich, Andrew J; Rogers, Jeremy D; Norris, Sam C P; Çapoğlu, İlker R; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2013-04-01

    Exploration of nanoscale tissue structures is crucial in understanding biological processes. Although novel optical microscopy methods have been developed to probe cellular features beyond the diffraction limit, nanometer-scale quantification remains still inaccessible for in situ tissue. Here we demonstrate that, without actually resolving specific geometrical feature, OCT can be sensitive to tissue structural properties at the nanometer length scale. The statistical mass-density distribution in tissue is quantified by its autocorrelation function modeled by the Whittle-Mateŕn functional family. By measuring the wavelength-dependent backscattering coefficient μb(λ) and the scattering coefficient μs, we introduce a technique called inverse spectroscopic OCT (ISOCT) to quantify the mass-density correlation function. We find that the length scale of sensitivity of ISOCT ranges from ~30 to ~450 nm. Although these sub-diffractional length scales are below the spatial resolution of OCT and therefore not resolvable, they are nonetheless detectable. The sub-diffractional sensitivity is validated by 1) numerical simulations; 2) tissue phantom studies; and 3) ex vivo colon tissue measurements cross-validated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, the 3D imaging capability of ISOCT is demonstrated with ex vivo rat buccal and human colon samples. PMID:23571994

  11. Structure-mechanical function relations at nano-scale in heat-affected human dental tissue.

    PubMed

    Sui, Tan; Sandholzer, Michael A; Le Bourhis, Eric; Baimpas, Nikolaos; Landini, Gabriel; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2014-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanical properties of dental materials related to their hierarchical structure is essential for understanding and predicting the effect of microstructural alterations on the performance of dental tissues in the context of forensic and archaeological investigation as well as laser irradiation treatment of caries. So far, few studies have focused on the nano-scale structure-mechanical function relations of human teeth altered by chemical or thermal treatment. The response of dental tissues to thermal treatment is thought to be strongly affected by the mineral crystallite size, their spatial arrangement and preferred orientation. In this study, synchrotron-based small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques were used to investigate the micro-structural alterations (mean crystalline thickness, crystal perfection and degree of alignment) of heat-affected dentine and enamel in human dental teeth. Additionally, nanoindentation mapping was applied to detect the spatial and temperature-dependent nano-mechanical properties variation. The SAXS/WAXS results revealed that the mean crystalline thickness distribution in dentine was more uniform compared with that in enamel. Although in general the mean crystalline thickness increased both in dentine and enamel as the temperature increased, the local structural variations gradually reduced. Meanwhile, the hardness and reduced modulus in enamel decreased as the temperature increased, while for dentine, the tendency reversed at high temperature. The analysis of the correlation between the ultrastructure and mechanical properties coupled with the effect of temperature demonstrates the effect of mean thickness and orientation on the local variation of mechanical property. This structural-mechanical property alteration is likely to be due to changes of HAp crystallites, thus dentine and enamel exhibit different responses at different temperatures. Our results enable an improved understanding of

  12. Structural tailoring of engine blades (STAEBL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, C. E.; Pratt, T. K.; Brown, K. W.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical optimization procedure was developed for the structural tailoring of engine blades and was used to structurally tailor two engine fan blades constructed of composite materials without midspan shrouds. The first was a solid blade made from superhybrid composites, and the second was a hollow blade with metal matrix composite inlays. Three major computerized functions were needed to complete the procedure: approximate analysis with the established input variables, optimization of an objective function, and refined analysis for design verification.

  13. Engineering Protocells: Prospects for Self-Assembly and Nanoscale Production-Lines

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David M.; Gulbis, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing ease of producing nucleic acids and proteins to specification offers potential for design and fabrication of artificial synthetic “organisms” with a myriad of possible capabilities. The prospects for these synthetic organisms are significant, with potential applications in diverse fields including synthesis of pharmaceuticals, sources of renewable fuel and environmental cleanup. Until now, artificial cell technology has been largely restricted to the modification and metabolic engineering of living unicellular organisms. This review discusses emerging possibilities for developing synthetic protocell “machines” assembled entirely from individual biological components. We describe a host of recent technological advances that could potentially be harnessed in design and construction of synthetic protocells, some of which have already been utilized toward these ends. More elaborate designs include options for building self-assembling machines by incorporating cellular transport and assembly machinery. We also discuss production in miniature, using microfluidic production lines. While there are still many unknowns in the design, engineering and optimization of protocells, current technologies are now tantalizingly close to the capabilities required to build the first prototype protocells with potential real-world applications. PMID:25815781

  14. Engineering protocells: prospects for self-assembly and nanoscale production-lines.

    PubMed

    Miller, David M; Gulbis, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    The increasing ease of producing nucleic acids and proteins to specification offers potential for design and fabrication of artificial synthetic "organisms" with a myriad of possible capabilities. The prospects for these synthetic organisms are significant, with potential applications in diverse fields including synthesis of pharmaceuticals, sources of renewable fuel and environmental cleanup. Until now, artificial cell technology has been largely restricted to the modification and metabolic engineering of living unicellular organisms. This review discusses emerging possibilities for developing synthetic protocell "machines" assembled entirely from individual biological components. We describe a host of recent technological advances that could potentially be harnessed in design and construction of synthetic protocells, some of which have already been utilized toward these ends. More elaborate designs include options for building self-assembling machines by incorporating cellular transport and assembly machinery. We also discuss production in miniature, using microfluidic production lines. While there are still many unknowns in the design, engineering and optimization of protocells, current technologies are now tantalizingly close to the capabilities required to build the first prototype protocells with potential real-world applications. PMID:25815781

  15. Harnessing biological motors to engineer systems for nanoscale transport and assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Anita; Vogel, Viola

    2008-08-01

    Living systems use biological nanomotors to build life's essential molecules-such as DNA and proteins-as well as to transport cargo inside cells with both spatial and temporal precision. Each motor is highly specialized and carries out a distinct function within the cell. Some have even evolved sophisticated mechanisms to ensure quality control during nanomanufacturing processes, whether to correct errors in biosynthesis or to detect and permit the repair of damaged transport highways. In general, these nanomotors consume chemical energy in order to undergo a series of shape changes that let them interact sequentially with other molecules. Here we review some of the many tasks that biomotors perform and analyse their underlying design principles from an engineering perspective. We also discuss experiments and strategies to integrate biomotors into synthetic environments for applications such as sensing, transport and assembly.

  16. Correlation of nanoscale structure with electronic and magnetic properties in semiconductor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Li

    , with ferromagnetism/paramagnetism transition temperature in the range of 20-200 K. The magnetic properties of 300-350°C implanted Ge:Mn (which produced crystalline Ge films) varied significantly with implantation dose and annealing condition due to precipitation and phase transformation of MnxGe1-x secondary phase particles, Mn5Ge3, Mn11Ge8 and Mn5Ge2 (zeta). The third part of this work aimed at design of a new experimental method to correlate the structure and energy levels of individual quantum dots (QD) by combining TEM and ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES). A p-type delta doping layer to flatten the QD energy band (otherwise, the Schottky barrier at the BEES metal base/n-type semiconductor interface causes band bending), and an etch-stop layer to prevent etching holes in TEM samples was included in the QD sample structure. TEM analysis found QDs to be of cone shape with the base diameter ranging from about 10 to 50 nm. Preliminary BEES characterization on a sample without QD marks detected a QD energy level 0.12 eV below the In0.5Al0.3Ga0.2P matrix layer conduction band. Micron- and nanometer-scale marks were fabricated by FIB milling and TEM electron beam induced carbon deposition, respectively, to index individual QDs so that TEM and BEES characterization could be performed on the same QDs in the future. Overall, this work explored different semiconductor nanostructures with the broad goal of correlation of nanoscale structure with electronic and magnetic properties. The originality of this research lies in the design and performance of novel experimental methods, and the improved understanding of structure-property relationships at the nanoscale.

  17. Effect of ion structure on nanoscale friction in protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, James; Webber, Grant B; Rutland, Mark W; Atkin, Rob

    2014-08-21

    The effect of ionic liquid (IL) molecular structure on nanoscale friction has been investigated using colloidal probe Friction Force Microscopy (FFM). The ILs studied were ethylammonium formate (EAF), ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), propylammonium formate (PAF), propylammonium nitrate (PAN), dimethylethylammonium formate (DMEAF), and ethanolammonium nitrate (EtAN). ILs were confined between a silica colloid probe and a mica surface, and the friction force was measured as a function of normal load for sliding velocities between 10 and 40 μm s(-1). At low normal forces, multiple IL layers are found between the probe and the surface, but at higher force, in the boundary layer regime, a single ion layer separates the probe and the surface. In the boundary layer regime energy is dissipated by two main pathways. Firstly, the ionic liquid near the surface, with the exception of the boundary layer, is expelled from the advancing contact made by the probe on the surface. This disruption in the interactions between the boundary layer and the near surface multilayers, leads to energy dissipation and depends on the strength of the attraction between the boundary and near surface layers. The second pathway is via rotations and twists of ions in the boundary layer, primarily associated with the cation terminal methyl group. The friction coefficient did not vary over the limited range of sliding speeds investigated. PMID:24992959

  18. Nanoscale SiC production by ballistic ion beam mixing of C/Si multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistig, G.; Zolnai, Z.; Németh, A.; Panjan, P.; Menyhárd, M.

    2016-05-01

    The ion beam-induced mixing process using Ar+, Ga+, and Xe+ ion irradiation has been used to form SiC rich layers on the nanometer scale at the interfaces of C/Si/C/Si/C multilayer structures. The SiC depth distributions were determined by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling and were compared to the results of analytical models developed for ballistic ion mixing and local thermal spike induced mixing. In addition, the measured SiC depth distributions were correlated to the Si and C mixing profiles simulated by the TRIDYN code which can follow the ballistic ion mixing process as a function of ion fluence. Good agreement has been found between the distributions provided by AES depth profiling and TRIDYN on the assumption that the majority of the Si (C) atoms transported to the neighboring C (Si) layer form the SiC compound. The ion beam mixing process can be successfully described by ballistic atomic transport processes. The results show that SiC production as a function of depth can be predicted, and tailored compound formation on the nanoscale becomes feasible, thus leading to controlled synthesis of protective SiC coatings at room temperature.

  19. Nanoscale calibration of n-type ZnO staircase structures by scanning capacitance microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L. Laurent, J.; Brémond, G.; Chauveau, J. M.; Sallet, V.; Jomard, F.

    2015-11-09

    Cross-sectional scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) was performed on n-type ZnO multi-layer structures homoepitaxially grown by molecular beam epitaxy method. Highly contrasted SCM signals were obtained between the ZnO layers with different Ga densities. Through comparison with dopant depth profiles from secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurement, it is demonstrated that SCM is able to distinguish carrier concentrations at all levels of the samples (from 2 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} to 3 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}). The good agreement of the results from the two techniques indicates that SCM can be a useful tool for two dimensional carrier profiling at nanoscale for ZnO nanostructure development. As an example, residual carrier concentration inside the non-intentionally doped buffer layer was estimated to be around 2 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3} through calibration analysis.

  20. Nanoscale structure of the BMP antagonist chordin supports cooperative BMP binding.

    PubMed

    Troilo, Helen; Zuk, Alexandra V; Tunnicliffe, Richard B; Wohl, Alexander P; Berry, Richard; Collins, Richard F; Jowitt, Thomas A; Sengle, Gerhard; Baldock, Clair

    2014-09-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) orchestrate key cellular events, such as proliferation and differentiation, in development and homeostasis. Extracellular antagonists, such as chordin, are essential regulators of BMP signaling. Chordin binds to BMPs blocking interaction with receptors, and cleavage by tolloid proteinases is thought to relieve this inhibition. A model has been previously proposed where chordin adopts a horseshoe-like arrangement enabling BMP binding cooperatively by terminal domains (1). Here, we present the nanoscale structure of human chordin using electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering, and solution-based biophysical techniques, which together show that chordin indeed has a compact horseshoe-shaped structure. Chordin variants were used to map domain locations within the chordin molecule. The terminal BMP-binding domains protrude as prongs from the main body of the chordin structure, where they are well positioned to interact with the growth factor. The spacing provided by the chordin domains supports the principle of a cooperative BMP-binding arrangement that the original model implied in which growth factors bind to both an N- and C-terminal von Willebrand factor C domain of chordin. Using binding and bioactivity assays, we compared full-length chordin with two truncated chordin variants, such as those produced by partial tolloid cleavage. Cleavage of either terminal domain has little effect on the affinity of chordin for BMP-4 and BMP-7 but C-terminal cleavage increases the efficacy of chordin as a BMP-4 inhibitor. Together these data suggest that partial tolloid cleavage is insufficient to ablate BMP inhibition and the C-terminal chordin domains play an important role in BMP regulation. PMID:25157165

  1. Nanoscale structure of the BMP antagonist chordin supports cooperative BMP binding

    PubMed Central

    Troilo, Helen; Zuk, Alexandra V.; Tunnicliffe, Richard B.; Wohl, Alexander P.; Berry, Richard; Collins, Richard F.; Jowitt, Thomas A.; Sengle, Gerhard; Baldock, Clair

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) orchestrate key cellular events, such as proliferation and differentiation, in development and homeostasis. Extracellular antagonists, such as chordin, are essential regulators of BMP signaling. Chordin binds to BMPs blocking interaction with receptors, and cleavage by tolloid proteinases is thought to relieve this inhibition. A model has been previously proposed where chordin adopts a horseshoe-like arrangement enabling BMP binding cooperatively by terminal domains (1). Here, we present the nanoscale structure of human chordin using electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering, and solution-based biophysical techniques, which together show that chordin indeed has a compact horseshoe-shaped structure. Chordin variants were used to map domain locations within the chordin molecule. The terminal BMP-binding domains protrude as prongs from the main body of the chordin structure, where they are well positioned to interact with the growth factor. The spacing provided by the chordin domains supports the principle of a cooperative BMP-binding arrangement that the original model implied in which growth factors bind to both an N- and C-terminal von Willebrand factor C domain of chordin. Using binding and bioactivity assays, we compared full-length chordin with two truncated chordin variants, such as those produced by partial tolloid cleavage. Cleavage of either terminal domain has little effect on the affinity of chordin for BMP-4 and BMP-7 but C-terminal cleavage increases the efficacy of chordin as a BMP-4 inhibitor. Together these data suggest that partial tolloid cleavage is insufficient to ablate BMP inhibition and the C-terminal chordin domains play an important role in BMP regulation. PMID:25157165

  2. RAPID COMMUNICATION: High performance superconducting wire in high applied magnetic fields via nanoscale defect engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Sung Hun; Goyal, Amit; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia

    2008-09-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying large critical currents with low dissipation levels in high applied magnetic fields are needed for a wide range of applications. In particular, for electric power applications involving rotating machinery, such as large-scale motors and generators, a high critical current, Ic, and a high engineering critical current density, JE, in applied magnetic fields in the range of 3-5 Tesla (T) at 65 K are required. In addition, exceeding the minimum performance requirements needed for these applications results in a lower fabrication cost, which is regarded as crucial to realize or enable many large-scale bulk applications of HTS materials. Here we report the fabrication of short segments of a potential superconducting wire comprised of a 4 µm thick YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) layer on a biaxially textured substrate with a 50% higher Ic and JE than the highest values reported previously. The YBCO film contained columns of self-assembled nanodots of BaZrO3 (BZO) roughly oriented along the c-axis of YBCO. Although the YBCO film was grown at a high deposition rate, three-dimensional self-assembly of the insulating BZO nanodots still occurred. For all magnetic field orientations, minimum Ic and JE at 65 K, 3 T for the wire were 353 A cm-1 and 65.4 kA cm-2, respectively.

  3. High Performance Superconducting Wire in High Applied Magnetic Fields via Nanoscale Defect Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung Hun; Zuev, Yuri L; Cantoni, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying large critical currents with low dissipation levels in high applied magnetic fields are needed for a wide range of applications. In particular, for electric power applications involving rotating machinery, such as large-scale motors and generators, a high critical current, Ic, and a high engineering critical current density, JE, in applied magnetic fields in the range of 3 5 Tesla (T) at 65 K are required. In addition, exceeding the minimum performance requirements needed for these applications results in a lower fabrication cost, which is regarded as crucial to realize or enable many large-scale bulk applications of HTS materials. Here we report the fabrication of short segments of a potential superconducting wire comprised of a 4 m thick YBa2Cu3O7− (YBCO) layer on a biaxially textured substrate with a 50% higher Ic and JE than the highest values reported previously. The YBCO film contained columns of self-assembled nanodots of BaZrO3 (BZO) roughly oriented along the c-axis of YBCO. Although the YBCO film was grown at a high deposition rate, three-dimensional self-assembly of the insulating BZO nanodots still occurred. For all magnetic field orientations, minimum Ic and JE at 65 K, 3 T for the wire were 353 A cm−1 and 65.4 kA cm−2, respectively.

  4. Nanoscale surface modification of plastic substrates for advanced tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkov, N.; Safonov, V.; Zykova, A.; Smolik, J.; Rogovska, R.; Goltsev, A.; Dubrava, T.; Rossokha, I.; Georgieva, V.

    2012-12-01

    Modified surface properties such as composition, nano roughness, wettability have effect on the most important processes at biomaterial interface. The research of stem cells (MSCs) adhesive potential, morphology, phenotypical characteristics on oxide coated and plastic substrate with different surface parameters was made. The oxide coatings deposition on plastic substrates shifts the surface properties at the more hydrophilic region and results in next positive cell/ biomaterial response in vitro tests. The MSCs marker number increases on the oxide nano structural surface of plastic substrates.

  5. Probabilistic structural analysis methods of hot engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Development of probabilistic structural analysis methods for hot engine structures at Lewis Research Center is presented. Three elements of the research program are: (1) composite load spectra methodology; (2) probabilistic structural analysis methodology; and (3) probabilistic structural analysis application. Recent progress includes: (1) quantification of the effects of uncertainties for several variables on high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFT) turbine blade temperature, pressure, and torque of the space shuttle main engine (SSME); (2) the evaluation of the cumulative distribution function for various structural response variables based on assumed uncertainties in primitive structural variables; and (3) evaluation of the failure probability. Collectively, the results demonstrate that the structural durability of hot engine structural components can be effectively evaluated in a formal probabilistic/reliability framework.

  6. The application of POSS nanostructures in cartilage tissue engineering: the chondrocyte response to nanoscale geometry.

    PubMed

    Oseni, Adelola O; Butler, Peter E; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2015-11-01

    Despite extensive research into cartilage tissue engineering (CTE), there is still no scaffold ideal for clinical applications. Various synthetic and natural polymers have been investigated in vitro and in vivo, but none have reached widespread clinical use. The authors investigate the potential of POSS-PCU, a synthetic nanocomposite polymer, for use in CTE. POSS-PCU is modified with silsesquioxane nanostructures that improve its biological and physical properties. The ability of POSS-PCU to support the growth of ovine nasoseptal chondrocytes was evaluated against a polymer widely used in CTE, polycaprolactone (PCL). Scaffolds with varied concentrations of the POSS molecule were also synthesized to investigate their effect on chondrocyte growth. Chondrocytes were seeded onto scaffold disks (PCU negative control; POSS-PCU 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%; PCL). Cytocompatibilty was evaluated using cell viability, total DNA, collagen and GAG assays. Chondrocytes cultured on POSS-PCU (2% POSS) scaffolds had significantly higher viability than PCL scaffolds (p < 0.001). Total DNA, collagen and sGAG protein were also greater on POSS-PCU scaffolds compared with PCL (p > 0.05). POSS-PCU (6% and 8% POSS) had improved viability and proliferation over an 18 day culture period compared with 2% and 4% POSS-PCU (p < 0.0001). Increasing the percentage of POSS in the scaffolds increased the size of the pores found in the scaffolds (p < 0.05). POSS-PCU has excellent potential for use in CTE. It supports the growth of chondrocytes in vitro and the POSS modification significantly enhances the growth and proliferation of nasoseptal chondrocytes compared with traditional scaffolds such as PCL. PMID:23576328

  7. Laboratory micro- and nanoscale X-ray tomographic investigation of Al–7 at.%Cu solidification structures

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, B.M. Henderson, K.C.; Gibbs, P.J.; Imhoff, S.D.; Clarke, A.J.

    2014-09-15

    X-ray computed tomography across multiple length scales provides an opportunity to non-destructively visualize and quantify the micro- to nano-scale microstructural features of solidification structures in three dimensions. Aluminum–7 at.%copper samples were directionally solidified at three cooling rates (0.44, 0.67, and 1.33 °C/s), resulting in systematic changes in the as-solidified microstructure, which are difficult to quantify using traditional microscopic techniques. The cooling rate of a material affects its ultimate microstructure, and characterizing that microstructure is key to predicting and understanding its bulk properties. Here, two different laboratory X-ray computed tomography instruments were used to characterize as-solidified microstructures, including micro-scale computed tomography with approximately 1 mm field-of-view, ∼ 1.7 μm resolution, and nano-scale X-ray computed tomography ∼ 65 μm FOV, 150 nm resolution. Micro-scale X-ray radiography and computed tomography enabled a quantitative investigation of changes in the primary dendritic solidification structure with increasing cooling rate. Nano-scale absorption contrast X-ray computed tomography resolved the distinct phases of the lamellar eutectic structure and three dimensional measurements of the ∼ 1 μm interlamellar spacing. It is found that the lamella eutectic structure thickness is inversely proportional to the cooling rate. Nano-scale Zernike phase contrast was also used to image voids at eutectic colony boundaries. The application and resolution of these two instruments are discussed with respect to the resolvable features of the solidification structures. - Highlights: • Al–Cu eutectic is a model system for studying solidification microstructure. • X-ray computed tomography provides a 3D picture of these complex structures. • Micro-scale tomography images the primary and secondary dendritic structures. • Nano-scale tomography images the eutectic lamella and

  8. Interface structure in nanoscale multilayers near continuous-to-discontinuous regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, P. C.; Majhi, A.; Nayak, M.; Mangla Nand, Rajput, P.; Shukla, D. K.; Biswas, A.; Rai, S. K.; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Phase, D. M.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2016-07-01

    Interfacial atomic diffusion, reaction, and formation of microstructure in nanoscale level are investigated in W/B4C multilayer (ML) system as functions of thickness in ultrathin limit. Hard x-ray reflectivity (XRR) and x-ray diffuse scattering in conjunction with x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) in soft x-ray and hard x-ray regimes and depth profiling x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to precisely evaluate detailed interfacial structure by systematically varying the individual layer thickness from continuous-to-discontinuous regime. It is observed that the interfacial morphology undergoes an unexpected significant modification as the layer thickness varies from continuous-to-discontinuous regime. The interfacial atomic diffusion increases, the physical density of W layer decreases and that of B4C layer increases, and further more interestingly the in-plane correlation length decreases substantially as the layer thickness varies from continuous-to-discontinuous regime. This is corroborated using combined XRR and x-ray diffused scattering analysis. XANES and XPS results show formation of more and more tungsten compounds at the interfaces as the layer thickness decreases below the percolation threshold due to increase in the contact area between the elements. The formation of compound enhances to minimize certain degree of disorder at the interfaces in the discontinuous region that enables to maintain the periodic structure in ML. The degree of interfacial atomic diffusion, interlayer interaction, and microstructure is correlated as a function of layer thickness during early stage of film growth.

  9. Investigations on Void Formation in Composite Molding Processes and Structural Damping in Fiber-Reinforced Composites with Nanoscale Reinforcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeValve, Caleb Joshua

    Fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) offer a stronger and lighter weight alternative to traditional materials used in engineering components such as wind turbine blades and rotorcraft structures. Composites for these applications are often fabricated using liquid molding techniques, such as injection molding or resin transfer molding. One significant issue during these processing methods is void formation due to incomplete wet-out of the resin within the fiber preform, resulting in discontinuous material properties and localized failure zones in the material. A fundamental understanding of the resin evolution during processing is essential to designing processing conditions for void-free filling, which is the first objective of the dissertation. Secondly, FRCs used in rotorcraft experience severe vibrational loads during service, and improved damping characteristics of the composite structure are desirable. To this end, a second goal is to explore the use of matrix-embedded nanoscale reinforcements to augment the inherent damping capabilities in FRCs. The first objective is addressed through a computational modeling and simulation of the infiltrating dual-scale resin flow through the micro-architectures of woven fibrous preforms, accounting for the capillary effects within the fiber bundles. An analytical model is developed for the longitudinal permeability of flow through fibrous bundles and applied to simulations which provide detailed predictions of local air entrapment locations as the resin permeates the preform. Generalized design plots are presented for predicting the void content and processing time in terms of the Capillary and Reynolds Numbers governing the molding process. The second portion of the research investigates the damping enhancement provided to FRCs in static and rotational configurations by different types and weight fractions of matrix-embedded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in high fiber volume fraction composites. The damping is measured using

  10. Engineering single-molecule, nanoscale, and microscale bio-functional materials via click chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniele, Michael Angelo-Anthony

    To expand the design envelope and supplement the materials library available to biomaterials scientists, the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuCAAC) was explored as a route to design, synthesize and characterize bio-functional small-molecules, nanoparticles, and microfibers. In each engineered system, the use of click chemistry provided facile, bio-orthogonal control for materials synthesis; moreover, the results provided a methodology and more complete, fundamental understanding of the use of click chemistry as a tool for the synergy of biotechnology, polymer and materials science. Fluorophores with well-defined photophysical characteristics (ranging from UV to NIR fluorescence) were used as building blocks for small-molecule, fluorescent biosensors. Fluorophores were paired to exhibit fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) and used to probe the metabolic activity of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO). The FRET pair exhibited a significant variation in PL response with exposure to the lysate of Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10, an organism which can degrade variants of both the donor and acceptor fluorophores. Nanoparticle systems were modified via CuCAAC chemistry to carry affinity tags for CARDO and were subsequently utilized for affinity based bioseparation of CARDO from crude cell lysate. The enzymes were baited with an azide-modified carbazolyl-moiety attached to a poly(propargyl acrylate) nanoparticle. Magnetic nanocluster systems were also modified via CuCAAC chemistry to carry fluorescent imaging tags. The iron-oxide nanoclusters were coated with poly(acrylic acid-co-propargyl acrylate) to provide a clickable surface. Ultimately, alternate Cu-free click chemistries were utilized to produce biohybrid microfibers. The biohybrid microfibers were synthesized under benign photopolymerization conditions inside a microchannel, allowing the encapsulation of viable bacteria. By adjusting pre-polymer solutions and laminar flow rates within the

  11. Nanoscale Interfaces in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells: Physical Insights and Materials Engineering Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Kyle Wayne

    With growing global energy demand there will be an increased need for sources of renewable energy such as solar cells. To make these photovoltaic technologies more competitive with conventional energy sources such as coal and natural gas requires further reduction in manufacturing costs that can be realized by solution processing and roll-to-roll printing. Colloidal quantum dots are a bandgap tunable, solution processible, semiconductor material which may offer a path forward to efficient, inexpensive photovoltaics. Despite impressive progress in performance with these materials, there remain limitations in photocarrier collection that must be overcome. This dissertation focuses on the characterization of charge recombination and transport in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics, and the application of this knowledge to the development of new and better materials. Core-shell, PbS-CdS, quantum dots were investigated in an attempt to achieve better surface passivation and reduce electronic defects which can limit performance. Optimization of this material led to improved open circuit voltage, exceeding 0.6 V for the first time, and record published performance of 6% efficiency. Using temperature-dependent and transient photovoltage measurements we explored the significance of interface recombination on the operation of these devices. Careful engineering of the electrode using atomic layer deposition of ZnO helped lead to better TiO2 substrate materials and allowed us to realize a nearly two-fold reduction in recombination rate and an enhancement upwards of 50 mV in open circuit voltage. Carrier extraction efficiency was studied in these devices using intensity dependent current-voltage data of an operational solar cell. By developing an analytical model to describe recombination loss within the active layer of the device we were able to accurately determine transport lengths ranging up to 90 nm. Transient absorption and photoconductivity techniques were used to study

  12. Semiconductor alloys - Structural property engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Van Schilfgaarde, M.; Berding, M.; Chen, A.-B.

    1987-01-01

    Semiconductor alloys have been used for years to tune band gaps and average bond lengths to specific applications. Other selection criteria for alloy composition, and a growth technique designed to modify their structural properties, are presently considered. The alloys Zn(1-y)Cd(y)Te and CdSe(y)Te(1-y) are treated as examples.

  13. Rotation of a bulky triptycene in the solid state: toward engineered nanoscale artificial molecular machines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xing; Rodríguez-Molina, Braulio; Nazarian, Narega; Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A

    2014-06-25

    We report the design and dynamics of a solid-state molecular rotor with a large triptycene rotator. With a cross-section and surface area that are 2 and 3 times larger than those of the phenylene rotators previously studied in the solid state, it is expected that van der Waals forces and steric hindrance will render the motion of the larger triptycene more difficult. To address this challenge, we used a rigid and shape-persistent stator in a dendritic structure that reaches ca. 3.6 nm in length. Using variable-temperature solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy, we determined a symmetric three-fold rotational potential with a barrier of 10.2 kcal/mol and a pre-exponential factor of 1.1 × 10(10) s(-1), which correspond to ca. 4600 Brownian jumps per second in the solid state at 300 K. PMID:24911467

  14. Designing, engineering, and testing wood structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce basic structural engineering concepts in a clear, simple manner while actively involving students. This project emphasizes the fact that a good design uses materials efficiently. The test structure in this experiment can easily be built and has various design options. Even when the structure is loaded to collapsing, only one or two pieces usually break, leaving the remaining pieces intact and reusable.

  15. The flexible pocketome engine for structural chemogenomics.

    PubMed

    Abagyan, Ruben; Kufareva, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Biological metabolites, substrates, cofactors, chemical probes, and drugs bind to flexible pockets in multiple biological macromolecules to exert their biological effect. The rapid growth of the structural databases and sequence data, including SNPs and disease-related genome modifications, complemented by the new cutting-edge 3D docking, scoring, and profiling methods has created a unique opportunity to develop a comprehensive structural map of interactions between any small molecule and biopolymers. Here we demonstrate that a comprehensive structural genomics engine can be built using multiple pocket conformations, experimentally determined or generated with a variety of modeling methods, and new efficient ensemble docking algorithms. In contrast to traditional ligand-activity-based engines trained on known chemical structures and their activities, the structural pocketome and docking engine will allow prediction of poses and activities for new, previously unknown, protein binding sites, and new, previously uncharacterized, chemical scaffolds. This de novo structure-based activity prediction engine may dramatically accelerate the discovery of potent and specific therapeutics with reduced side effects. PMID:19727619

  16. Nanoscale Structural and Mechanical Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Spores Inactivated with Rapid Dry Heating

    PubMed Central

    Felker, Daniel L.; Burggraf, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    Effective killing of Bacillus anthracis spores is of paramount importance to antibioterrorism, food safety, environmental protection, and the medical device industry. Thus, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of spore resistance and inactivation is highly desired for developing new strategies or improving the known methods for spore destruction. Previous studies have shown that spore inactivation mechanisms differ considerably depending upon the killing agents, such as heat (wet heat, dry heat), UV, ionizing radiation, and chemicals. It is believed that wet heat kills spores by inactivating critical enzymes, while dry heat kills spores by damaging their DNA. Many studies have focused on the biochemical aspects of spore inactivation by dry heat; few have investigated structural damages and changes in spore mechanical properties. In this study, we have inactivated Bacillus anthracis spores with rapid dry heating and performed nanoscale topographical and mechanical analysis of inactivated spores using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results revealed significant changes in spore morphology and nanomechanical properties after heat inactivation. In addition, we also found that these changes were different under different heating conditions that produced similar inactivation probabilities (high temperature for short exposure time versus low temperature for long exposure time). We attributed the differences to the differential thermal and mechanical stresses in the spore. The buildup of internal thermal and mechanical stresses may become prominent only in ultrafast, high-temperature heat inactivation when the experimental timescale is too short for heat-generated vapor to efficiently escape from the spore. Our results thus provide direct, visual evidences of the importance of thermal stresses and heat and mass transfer to spore inactivation by very rapid dry heating. PMID:24375142

  17. Nanoscale structural and mechanical analysis of Bacillus anthracis spores inactivated with rapid dry heating.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yun; Li, Alex; Felker, Daniel L; Burggraf, Larry W

    2014-03-01

    Effective killing of Bacillus anthracis spores is of paramount importance to antibioterrorism, food safety, environmental protection, and the medical device industry. Thus, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of spore resistance and inactivation is highly desired for developing new strategies or improving the known methods for spore destruction. Previous studies have shown that spore inactivation mechanisms differ considerably depending upon the killing agents, such as heat (wet heat, dry heat), UV, ionizing radiation, and chemicals. It is believed that wet heat kills spores by inactivating critical enzymes, while dry heat kills spores by damaging their DNA. Many studies have focused on the biochemical aspects of spore inactivation by dry heat; few have investigated structural damages and changes in spore mechanical properties. In this study, we have inactivated Bacillus anthracis spores with rapid dry heating and performed nanoscale topographical and mechanical analysis of inactivated spores using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results revealed significant changes in spore morphology and nanomechanical properties after heat inactivation. In addition, we also found that these changes were different under different heating conditions that produced similar inactivation probabilities (high temperature for short exposure time versus low temperature for long exposure time). We attributed the differences to the differential thermal and mechanical stresses in the spore. The buildup of internal thermal and mechanical stresses may become prominent only in ultrafast, high-temperature heat inactivation when the experimental timescale is too short for heat-generated vapor to efficiently escape from the spore. Our results thus provide direct, visual evidences of the importance of thermal stresses and heat and mass transfer to spore inactivation by very rapid dry heating. PMID:24375142

  18. Modified structural and frequency dependent impedance formalism of nanoscale BaTiO3 due to Tb inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Manjit; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2016-05-01

    We report the effect of Tb-doping on the structural and high frequency impedance response of the nanoscale BaTiO3 (BT) systems. While exhibiting a mixed phase crystal structure, the nano-BT systems are found to evolve with edges, and facets. The interplanar spacing of crystal lattice fringes is ~0.25 nm. The Cole-Cole plots, in the impedance formalism, have demonstrated semicircles which are the characteristic feature of grain boundary resistance of several MΩ. A lowering of ac conductivity with doping was believed to be due to the manifestation of oxygen vacancies and vacancy ordering.

  19. Microscale and nanoscale hierarchical structured mesh films with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties induced by long-chain fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shutao; Song, Yanlin; Jiang, Lei

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the lotus effect, we fabricate new microscale and nanoscale hierarchical structured copper mesh films by a simple electrochemical deposition. After modification of the long-chain fatty acid monolayer, these films show superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties, which could be used for the effective separation of oil and water. The length of the fatty acid chain strongly influences the surface wettability of as-prepared films. It is confirmed that the cooperative effect of the hierarchical structure of the copper film and the nature of the long-chain fatty acid contribute to this unique surface wettability.

  20. Skeleton of Euplectella sp.: Structural Hierarchy from the Nanoscale to the Macroscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Weaver, James C.; Thanawala, Monica S.; Sundar, Vikram C.; Morse, Daniel E.; Fratzl, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Structural materials in nature exhibit remarkable designs with building blocks, often hierarchically arranged from the nanometer to the macroscopic length scales. We report on the structural properties of biosilica observed in the hexactinellid sponge Euplectella sp. Consolidated, nanometer-scaled silica spheres are arranged in well-defined microscopic concentric rings glued together by organic matrix to form laminated spicules. The assembly of these spicules into bundles, effected by the laminated silica-based cement, results in the formation of a macroscopic cylindrical square-lattice cagelike structure reinforced by diagonal ridges. The ensuing design overcomes the brittleness of its constituent material, glass, and shows outstanding mechanical rigidity and stability. The mechanical benefits of each of seven identified hierarchical levels and their comparison with common mechanical engineering strategies are discussed.

  1. Probabilistic structural analysis methods of hot engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Development of probabilistic structural analysis methods for hot engine structures is a major activity at Lewis Research Center. Recent activities have focused on extending the methods to include the combined uncertainties in several factors on structural response. This paper briefly describes recent progress on composite load spectra models, probabilistic finite element structural analysis, and probabilistic strength degradation modeling. Progress is described in terms of fundamental concepts, computer code development, and representative numerical results.

  2. Teaching Structural Design in Civil Engineering Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metwally, Ashraf

    This paper is a description of a college course in structural design, which in this case serves as the capstone of the program in Civil Engineering Technology at the College of Staten Island (New York). Fourteen weeks of class lecture topics, activities, and assignments are delineated. Coverage includes building codes, loads calculation,…

  3. Analytical subthreshold modeling of dual material gate engineered nano-scale junctionless surrounding gate MOSFET considering ECPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Sudhansu Mohan; Baral, Biswajit; De, Debashis; Sarkar, Angsuman

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a new two-dimensional (2-D) analytical model of dual material junctionless surrounding gate MOSFET (DMJLSRG MOSFET). The expressions of potential and Electric Field of the gate engineered MOSFET structure have been obtained by solving the 2-D Poisson's equation in subthreshold regime using a parabolic potential approximation considering effective conduction path effect (ECPE). The developed potential model accurately predicts the perceivable step function in the potential profile, responsible for effective screening of the drain potential variation in order to reduce DIBL and threshold voltage roll-off. In this work, effectiveness of dual material gate engineered (DM) design for junctionless MOSFET was scrutinized by comparing the results with a single material gate junctionless surrounding gate MOSFET (SMJLSRG MOSFET) of same dimension. From the developed potential model, a simple and accurate analytical expression of threshold voltage is also derived. Results reveal that DMJLSRG devices offer superior performance as compared to SMJLSRG devices. An improvement of hot-carrier effects (HCEs) and a reduction of short-channel effects (SCEs) have been demonstrated for gate-engineered DMJLDG device over the corresponding conventional (SMJLDG) device. The proposed model can be used as a basic design guideline for gate-engineered junctionless surrounding gate MOSFETs.

  4. Effect of ion beam parameters on engineering of nanoscale voids and their stability under post-growth annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooda, Sonu; Khan, S. A.; Satpati, B.; Stange, D.; Buca, D.; Bala, M.; Pannu, C.; Kanjilal, D.; Kabiraj, Debdulal

    2016-03-01

    Swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of damaged germanium (d-Ge) layer results in porous structure with voids aligned along ion trajectory due to local melting and resolidification during high electronic energy deposition. The present study focuses on the irradiation temperature- and incident angle-dependent growth dynamics and shape evolution of these voids due to 100 MeV Ag ions irradiation. The d-Ge layers were prepared by multiple low-energy Ar ion implantations in single crystalline Ge with damage formation of ~7 displacements per atom. Further, these d-Ge layers were irradiated using 100 MeV Ag ions at two different temperatures (77 and 300 K) and three different angles (7°, 30° and 45°). After SHI irradiation, substantial volume expansion of d-Ge layer is detected which is due to formation of nanoscale voids. The volume expansion is observed to be more in the samples irradiated at 77 K as compared to 300 K at a given irradiation fluence. It is observed that the voids are of spherical shape at low ion irradiation fluence. The voids grow in size and change their shape from spherical to prolate spheroid with increasing ion fluence. The major axis of spheroid is observed to be aligned approximately along the ion beam direction which has been confirmed by irradiation at three different angles. The change in shape is a consequence of combination of compressive strain and plastic flow developed due to thermal spike generated along ion track. Post-SHI irradiation annealing shows increase in size of voids and reversal of shape from prolate spheroid towards spherical through strain relaxation. The stability of voids was studied with the effect of post-growth annealing.

  5. Computational strategies for the automated design of RNA nanoscale structures from building blocks using NanoTiler☆

    PubMed Central

    Bindewald, Eckart; Grunewald, Calvin; Boyle, Brett; O’Connor, Mary; Shapiro, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    One approach to designing RNA nanoscale structures is to use known RNA structural motifs such as junctions, kissing loops or bulges and to construct a molecular model by connecting these building blocks with helical struts. We previously developed an algorithm for detecting internal loops, junctions and kissing loops in RNA structures. Here we present algorithms for automating or assisting many of the steps that are involved in creating RNA structures from building blocks: (1) assembling building blocks into nanostructures using either a combinatorial search or constraint satisfaction; (2) optimizing RNA 3D ring structures to improve ring closure; (3) sequence optimisation; (4) creating a unique non-degenerate RNA topology descriptor. This effectively creates a computational pipeline for generating molecular models of RNA nanostructures and more specifically RNA ring structures with optimized sequences from RNA building blocks. We show several examples of how the algorithms can be utilized to generate RNA tecto-shapes. PMID:18838281

  6. Nanoscale 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenders, Ludger; Ducourtieux, Sebastien

    2014-04-01

    The accurate determination of the properties of micro- and nano-structures is essential in research and development. It is also a prerequisite in process control and quality assurance in industry. In most cases, especially at the nanometer range, knowledge of the dimensional properties of structures is the fundamental base, to which further physical properties are linked. Quantitative measurements presuppose reliable and stable instruments, suitable measurement procedures as well as calibration artifacts and methods. This special issue of Measurement Science and Technology presents selected contributions from the NanoScale 2013 seminar held in Paris, France, on 25 and 26 April. It was the 6th Seminar on NanoScale Calibration Standards and Methods and the 10th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy (the first being held in 1995). The seminar was jointly organized with the Nanometrology Group of the Technical Committee-Length of EURAMET, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt and the Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais. Three satellite meetings related to nanometrology were coupled to the seminar. The first one was an open Symposium on Scanning Probe Microscopy Standardization organized by the ISO/TC 201/SC9 technical committee. The two others were specific meetings focused on two European Metrology Research Projects funded by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET) (see www.euramet.org), the first one focused on the improvement of the traceability for high accuracy devices dealing with sub-nm length measurement and implementing optical interferometers or capacitive sensors (JRP SIB08 subnano), the second one aiming to develop a new metrological traceability for the measurement of the mechanical properties of nano-objects (JRP NEW05 MechProNo). More than 100 experts from industry, calibration laboratories and metrology institutes from around the world joined the NanoScale 2013 Seminar to attend 23 oral and 64 poster

  7. Modeling investigation of the stability and irradiation-induced evolution of nanoscale precipitates in advanced structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Brian

    2015-04-08

    Materials used in extremely hostile environment such as nuclear reactors are subject to a high flux of neutron irradiation, and thus vast concentrations of vacancy and interstitial point defects are produced because of collisions of energetic neutrons with host lattice atoms. The fate of these defects depends on various reaction mechanisms which occur immediately following the displacement cascade evolution and during the longer-time kinetically dominated evolution such as annihilation, recombination, clustering or trapping at sinks of vacancies, interstitials and their clusters. The long-range diffusional transport and evolution of point defects and self-defect clusters drive a microstructural and microchemical evolution that are known to produce degradation of mechanical properties including the creep rate, yield strength, ductility, or fracture toughness, and correspondingly affect material serviceability and lifetimes in nuclear applications. Therefore, a detailed understanding of microstructural evolution in materials at different time and length scales is of significant importance. The primary objective of this work is to utilize a hierarchical computational modeling approach i) to evaluate the potential for nanoscale precipitates to enhance point defect recombination rates and thereby the self-healing ability of advanced structural materials, and ii) to evaluate the stability and irradiation-induced evolution of such nanoscale precipitates resulting from enhanced point defect transport to and annihilation at precipitate interfaces. This project will utilize, and as necessary develop, computational materials modeling techniques within a hierarchical computational modeling approach, principally including molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo and spatially-dependent cluster dynamics modeling, to identify and understand the most important physical processes relevant to promoting the “selfhealing” or radiation resistance in advanced materials containing

  8. 46 CFR 11.505 - Engineer officer structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Engineer officer structure. 11.505 Section 11.505... OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.505 Engineer officer structure. The following diagram illustrates the engineering endorsement structure including cross over...

  9. Engineering Nanoscale Multiferroic Composites for Memory Applications with Atomic Layer Deposition of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Diana

    This work focuses on the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) for lead zirconate titanate, Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O 3 (PZT). Leveraging the surface-reaction controlled process based on alternating self-limiting surface reactions, PZT can be synthesized not only with elemental precision to realize the desired composition (Zr/Ti = 52/48) but also with outstanding conformality. The latter enables the integration of PZT with a ferromagnetic phase to realize multiferroism (MF) and magnetoelectric (ME) effect. Since PZT is one of the best known ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials due the large displacements of the Pb ions at the morphotropic phase boundary, PZT based MF composites could lead to stronger ME coupling through strain coupling at the interface. Specifically, ALD PZT thin films were synthesized by using beta-diketonate metalorganic precursors Pb(TMHD)2, Zr(TMHD)4, and Ti(O.i-Pr) 2(TMHD)2 and H2O. The number of local cycles and global cycles were regulated to achieve the desired stoichiometry and thickness, respectively. ALD of PZT was studied to obtain (100) textured PZT on Pt (111) oriented platinized silicon substrates. In order to attain a highly oriented PZT thin film, a (100) textured PbTiO3 seed layer was required because PZT orientation is governed by nucleation. MF nanocomposites were engineered using ALD PZT thin films to achieve controlled complex nanoscale structures, enabling porosity to be studied as a new additional parameter for nanocomposite architectures to enhance ME effect. Specifically, 3--6 nm-thick ALD PZT thin films were deposited to uniformly coat the walls of mesoporous cobalt ferrite (CFO) template. The PZT/CFO nanocomposites were electrically poled ex-situ and the change in magnetic moment was measured. The inverse magnetoelectric coupling coefficient, a, was determined to be 85.6 Oe-cm/mV. The in-plane results show no significant change in magnetization (1--4%) as a function of electric field, which was expected due to the effect

  10. Structural Evolution of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) in Anoxic Co2+Soultion : Interactional Performance and Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The nanoscale particle and low oxidation reduction potential make nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) an efficient sorbent and reductant for treating many kinds of organic contaminants and heavy metals.The structures of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles are evolving in reactions, and the reactions are influenced by the evolved structures. In order to understand the detail removal process, it is important to investigate the interactions between reactions and structural evolution. In this work, reactions between nZVI and Co2+ at different initial concentrations in anoxic aqueous solutions (to eliminate the effects of O2) were tracked for 10 days using a variety of methods including inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Continuous removal and reduction of Co2+ by nZVI caused by structural evolution were revealed in reaction processes. The system pH (pH measured in mixture), which controls the stability of coprecipitation and the corrosion rate of nZVI, was deemed as the determining factors of structural evolutions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that the formation and dissolution of sheet structure impacts on the ratio of Fe (0) on nZVI's surface and the surface reduction of Co2+. The cavity structure provides the possibility of Co migrating from surface to inside of nZVI leading a continuous removal. A subacidity condition could accelerate the evolution to improve the removal of Co2+ and the results of structural controlled reactions further indicated that the removal was suspended by sheet structure and enhanced by cavity structure. The results in this study revealed "structural influence" for fully and dynamically understanding nZVI's reactions.

  11. Probing and tuning the size, morphology, chemistry and structure of nanoscale cerium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana Vnt

    Cerium oxide (ceria)-based materials in the nanoscale regime are of significant fundamental and technological interest. Nanoceria in pure and doped forms has current and potential use in solid oxide fuel cells, catalysis, UV-screening, chemical mechanical planarization, oxygen sensors, and bio-medical applications. The characteristic feature of Ce to switch between the +3 and +4 oxidation states renders oxygen buffering capability to ceria. The ease of this transformation was expected to be enhanced in the nanoceria. In most the practical scenarios, it is necessary to have a stable suspension of ceria nanoparticles (CNPs) over longer periods of time. However, the existing literature is confined to short term studies pertaining to synthesis and property evaluation. Having understood the need for a comprehensive understanding of the CNP suspensions, this dissertation is primarily aimed at understanding the behavior of CNPs in various chemical and physical environments. We have synthesized CNPs in the absence of any surfactants at room temperature and studied the aging characteristics. After gaining some understanding about the behavior of this functional oxide, the synthesis environment and aging temperature were varied, and their affects were carefully analyzed using various materials analysis techniques such as high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). When the CNPs were aged at room temperature in as-synthesized condition, they were observed to spontaneously assemble and evolve as fractal superoctahedral structures. The reasons for this unique polycrystalline morphology were attributed to the symmetry driven assembly of the individual truncated octahedral and octahedral seed of the ceria. HRTEM and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analyses were used to explain the agglomeration behavior and evolution of the octahedral morphology. Some of the observations were supported by

  12. Integrated chemical and biological systems in nanowire structures towards nano-scale sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Rose M.

    Nanowires composed of metal and conducting polymers with integrated proteins and chemical systems have been investigated as building blocks for next-generation nano-scale sensors and assemblies. These nanowires were fabricated by combining chemical and electrochemical methods of synthesis of gold and conducting polymers in nanopores of anodized alumina membranes. Polymer nanowires were synthesized from buffer solutions as a mean to promote a biocompatible environment for the incorporation of proteins. A variety of proteins were incorporated into the polymer matrix by entrapment during polymerization that imparted the polymer material with biological functionality. Another class of composite nanowires containing electro-active conducting polymer junctions was developed for applications in chemical sensor arrays. The methodologies described in this thesis provide an inexpensive and straightforward approach to the synthesis of anisotropic nanoparticles incorporating a variety of biological and inorganic species that can be integrated to current microelectronic technologies for the development of nano-scale sensor arrays.

  13. Correlation between magnetic spin structure and the three-dimensional geometry in chemically synthesized nanoscale magnetite rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltschka, M.; Kläui, M.; Rüdiger, U.; Kasama, T.; Cervera-Gontard, L.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Luo, F.; Heyderman, L. J.; Jia, C.-J.; Sun, L.-D.; Yan, C.-H.

    2008-06-01

    The correlation between magnetic spin structure and geometry in nanoscale chemically synthesized Fe3O4 rings has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. We find primarily the flux closure vortex states but in rings with thickness variations, an effective stray field occurs. Using tomography, we determine the complete three-dimensional geometries of thicker rings. A direct correlation between the geometry and the magnetization which points out of plane in the thickest parts of the ring yielding an intermediate magnetic state between the vortex state and the tube state is found. The interaction between exchange coupled rings leads to antiparallel vortex states and extended onion states.

  14. Balancer structure for three-cylinder engines

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a balancer structure for a three-cylinder in-line engine. The in-line engine is indicated in the patent as having a crankshaft having crank arms configured at angles of 120/sup 0/ with respect to each other and operatively connected to a piston assembly within each of the cylinders. This crankshaft and assembly, which serves as a balancer structure as one of its applications, is further characterized in the patent as consisting of a number of component parts. The first component described is a single countershaft adjacent and parallel to the crankshaft. It is specified in the patent that this countershaft must rotate at the same speed as the crankshaft but in an opposite direction in order to fulfill its role in the balancer structure. The patent also details an element of the balancer structure which consists of a means utilizing counterweights mounted on the crankshaft at the first and third cylinder positions. These weights are indicated as partially balancing the inertia forces of reciprocating masses and the entire inertia forces of rotating masses present in the described engine. The required position of these counterweights is indicated as being a location more than 90/sup 0/ from the crank arm for the corresponding cylinder and perpendicular to the second cylinder crank arm. The last component described consists of two balancers mounted on both ends of the countershaft which balance the remainder of the inertia forces of reciprocating masses and the inertia of the crankshaft about axes perpendicular to itself.

  15. Nanoscale Friction Behaviors of Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Structure of Diamond-like Carbon Films with Various Humidity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Young-Jun; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Noritsugu

    Superhydrophobic double roughening structure of DLC film was prepared by 2.45 GHz surface wave-excited plasma CVD with the mixture of methane (CH4) and tetramethylsilane (TMS: Si(CH3)4) gases on the undulated DLC film by a series of plasma Ar etching, coating process and plasma Ar etching. Static wetting angle of water was observed that double roughening structure of DLC was superhydrophobicity such as wetting angle 161°. This approach also increased in air pockets easily trap among the needle-like posts. For the low friction at nanoscale, the surface wettability of the solid lubrication played a significant role, when the DLC film modified from flat to double roughening structure, the friction was constantly inner humidity conditions. Results generally showed that humidity had insignificant effect on the nanoscale friction at superhydrophobic DLC surface. The effect of the superhydrophobic double roughening DLC and friction were discussed with the following factors; the surface morphology affinity to needle-like shape, a reduction of the real area of contact, graphitization and easily occur to slip at small contact interface due to superhydrophobicity.

  16. Fabrication of 3D fractal structures using nanoscale anisotropic etching of single crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenschot, Erwin J. W.; Jansen, Henri V.; Tas, Niels R.

    2013-05-01

    When it comes to high-performance filtration, separation, sunlight collection, surface charge storage or catalysis, the effective surface area is what counts. Highly regular fractal structures seem to be the perfect candidates, but manufacturing can be quite cumbersome. Here it is shown--for the first time—that complex 3D fractals can be engineered using a recursive operation in conventional micromachining of single crystalline silicon. The procedure uses the built-in capability of the crystal lattice to form self-similar octahedral structures with minimal interference of the constructor. The silicon fractal can be used directly or as a mold to transfer the shape into another material. Moreover, they can be dense, porous, or like a wireframe. We demonstrate, after four levels of processing, that the initial number of octahedral structures is increased by a factor of 625. Meanwhile the size decreases 16 times down to 300 nm. At any level, pores of less than 100 nm can be fabricated at the octahedral vertices of the fractal. The presented technique supports the design of fractals with Hausdorff dimension D free of choice and up to D = 2.322.

  17. Structural Evolution of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) in Anoxic Co2+ Solution: Interactional Performance and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yalei; Chen, Wen; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhou, Chuanlong; Zhou, Xuefei

    2015-01-01

    The structures of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles evolving during reactions, and the reactions are influenced by the evolved structures. To understand the removal process in detail, it is important to investigate the relationships between the reactions and structural evolution. Using high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), typical evolved structures (sheet coprecipitation and cavity corrosion) of nZVI in anoxic Co2+ solutions were revealed. The system pH (pH measured in mixture), which controls the stability of coprecipitation and the nZVI corrosion rate, were found to be the determining factors of structural evolutions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicated that the formation and dissolution of sheet structure impacts on the ratio of Fe(0) on the nZVI surface and the surface Co2+ reduction. The cavity structure provides the possibility of Co migration from the surface to the bulk of nZVI, leading to continuous removal. Subacidity conditions could accelerate the evolution and improve the removal; the results of structurally controlled reactions further indicated that the removal was suspended by the sheet structure and enhanced by cavity structure. The results and discussion in this paper revealed the “structural influence” crucial for the full and dynamical understanding of nZVI reactions. PMID:26355955

  18. Structural Evolution of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) in Anoxic Co2+ Solution: Interactional Performance and Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yalei; Chen, Wen; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhou, Chuanlong; Zhou, Xuefei

    2015-09-01

    The structures of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles evolving during reactions, and the reactions are influenced by the evolved structures. To understand the removal process in detail, it is important to investigate the relationships between the reactions and structural evolution. Using high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), typical evolved structures (sheet coprecipitation and cavity corrosion) of nZVI in anoxic Co2+ solutions were revealed. The system pH (pH measured in mixture), which controls the stability of coprecipitation and the nZVI corrosion rate, were found to be the determining factors of structural evolutions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicated that the formation and dissolution of sheet structure impacts on the ratio of Fe(0) on the nZVI surface and the surface Co2+ reduction. The cavity structure provides the possibility of Co migration from the surface to the bulk of nZVI, leading to continuous removal. Subacidity conditions could accelerate the evolution and improve the removal; the results of structurally controlled reactions further indicated that the removal was suspended by the sheet structure and enhanced by cavity structure. The results and discussion in this paper revealed the “structural influence” crucial for the full and dynamical understanding of nZVI reactions.

  19. Structural Evolution of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) in Anoxic Co(2+) Solution: Interactional Performance and Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yalei; Chen, Wen; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhou, Chuanlong; Zhou, Xuefei

    2015-01-01

    The structures of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles evolving during reactions, and the reactions are influenced by the evolved structures. To understand the removal process in detail, it is important to investigate the relationships between the reactions and structural evolution. Using high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), typical evolved structures (sheet coprecipitation and cavity corrosion) of nZVI in anoxic Co(2+) solutions were revealed. The system pH (pH measured in mixture), which controls the stability of coprecipitation and the nZVI corrosion rate, were found to be the determining factors of structural evolutions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicated that the formation and dissolution of sheet structure impacts on the ratio of Fe(0) on the nZVI surface and the surface Co(2+) reduction. The cavity structure provides the possibility of Co migration from the surface to the bulk of nZVI, leading to continuous removal. Subacidity conditions could accelerate the evolution and improve the removal; the results of structurally controlled reactions further indicated that the removal was suspended by the sheet structure and enhanced by cavity structure. The results and discussion in this paper revealed the "structural influence" crucial for the full and dynamical understanding of nZVI reactions. PMID:26355955

  20. EDITORIAL: Nanoscale metrology Nanoscale metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picotto, G. B.; Koenders, L.; Wilkening, G.

    2009-08-01

    Instrumentation and measurement techniques at the nanoscale play a crucial role not only in extending our knowledge of the properties of matter and processes in nanosciences, but also in addressing new measurement needs in process control and quality assurance in industry. Micro- and nanotechnologies are now facing a growing demand for quantitative measurements to support the reliability, safety and competitiveness of products and services. Quantitative measurements presuppose reliable and stable instruments and measurement procedures as well as suitable calibration artefacts to ensure the quality of measurements and traceability to standards. This special issue of Measurement Science and Technology presents selected contributions from the Nanoscale 2008 seminar held at the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), Torino, in September 2008. This was the 4th Seminar on Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods and the 8th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy (the first being held in 1995). The seminar was jointly organized by the Nanometrology Group within EUROMET (The European Collaboration in Measurement Standards), the German Nanotechnology Competence Centre 'Ultraprecise Surface Figuring' (CC-UPOB), the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and INRIM. A special event during the seminar was the 'knighting' of Günter Wilkening from PTB, Braunschweig, Germany, as the 1st Knight of Dimensional Nanometrology. Günter Wilkening received the NanoKnight Award for his outstanding work in the field of dimensional nanometrology over the last 20 years. The contributions in this special issue deal with the developments and improvements of instrumentation and measurement methods for scanning force microscopy (SFM), electron and optical microscopy, high-resolution interferometry, calibration of instruments and new standards, new facilities and applications including critical dimension (CD) measurements on small and medium structures and nanoparticle

  1. Fatigue Reliability of Gas Turbine Engine Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, Thomas A.; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Tryon, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    The results of an investigation are described for fatigue reliability in engine structures. The description consists of two parts. Part 1 is for method development. Part 2 is a specific case study. In Part 1, the essential concepts and practical approaches to damage tolerance design in the gas turbine industry are summarized. These have evolved over the years in response to flight safety certification requirements. The effect of Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods on these methods is also reviewed. Assessment methods based on probabilistic fracture mechanics, with regard to both crack initiation and crack growth, are outlined. Limit state modeling techniques from structural reliability theory are shown to be appropriate for application to this problem, for both individual failure mode and system-level assessment. In Part 2, the results of a case study for the high pressure turbine of a turboprop engine are described. The response surface approach is used to construct a fatigue performance function. This performance function is used with the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) to determine the probability of failure and the sensitivity of the fatigue life to the engine parameters for the first stage disk rim of the two stage turbine. A hybrid combination of regression and Monte Carlo simulation is to use incorporate time dependent random variables. System reliability is used to determine the system probability of failure, and the sensitivity of the system fatigue life to the engine parameters of the high pressure turbine. 'ne variation in the primary hot gas and secondary cooling air, the uncertainty of the complex mission loading, and the scatter in the material data are considered.

  2. Dynamic and Structural Gas Turbine Engine Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turso, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Model the interactions between the structural dynamics and the performance dynamics of a gas turbine engine. Generally these two aspects are considered separate, unrelated phenomena and are studied independently. For diagnostic purposes, it is desirable to bring together as much information as possible, and that involves understanding how performance is affected by structural dynamics (if it is) and vice versa. This can involve the relationship between thrust response and the excitation of structural modes, for instance. The job will involve investigating and characterizing these dynamical relationships, generating a model that incorporates them, and suggesting and/or developing diagnostic and prognostic techniques that can be incorporated in a data fusion system. If no coupling is found, at the least a vibration model should be generated that can be used for diagnostics and prognostics related to blade loss, for instance.

  3. Engineering and building RF structures - the works

    SciTech Connect

    Schrage, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    The translation of the physics designs of linear accelerators into engineering and manufacturing requirements is discussed. The stages of conceptual design, prototyping, final design, construction, and installation are described for both superconducting (LANL {beta} = 0.175 Spoke Cavity) and normal-conducting (APT/LEDA 6.7 MeV RFQ) accelerators. An overview of codes which have linked accelerator cavity and thermal/structural analysis modules is provided. The linked RF/thermal/CFD/structural codes do work. Workers at laboratories throughout the world have been successful in predicting the thermal and structural performance of accelerator cavities using these codes. Use of these codes allows accurate prediction of resonant frequencies, Lorentz force de-tuning, tuning sensitivities and mechanical resonant frequencies. Most important, these codes allow cost-effective optimization of the cavity geometry and, for superconducting cavities, the location and shape of external stiffeners.

  4. Dynamic templating: a large area processing route for the assembly of periodic arrays of sub-micrometer and nanoscale structures.

    PubMed

    Farzinpour, Pouyan; Sundar, Aarthi; Gilroy, Kyle D; Eskin, Zachary E; Hughes, Robert A; Neretina, Svetlana

    2013-03-01

    A substrate-based templated assembly route has been devised which offers large-area, high-throughput capabilities for the fabrication of periodic arrays of sub-micrometer and nanometer-scale structures. The approach overcomes a significant technological barrier to the widespread use of substrate-based templated assembly by eliminating the need for periodic templates having nanoscale features. Instead, it relies upon the use of a dynamic template with dimensions that evolve in time from easily fabricated micrometer dimensions to those on the nanoscale as the assembly process proceeds. The dynamic template consists of a pedestal of a sacrificial material, typically antimony, upon which an ultrathin layer of a second material is deposited. When heated, antimony sublimation results in a continuous reduction in template size where the motion of the sublimation fronts direct the diffusion of atoms of the second material to a predetermined location. The route has broad applicability, having already produced periodic arrays of gold, silver, copper, platinum, nickel, cobalt, germanium and Au-Ag alloys on substrates as diverse as silicon, sapphire, silicon-carbide, graphene and glass. Requiring only modest levels of instrumentation, the process provides an enabling route for any reasonably equipped researcher to fabricate periodic arrays that would otherwise require advanced fabrication facilities. PMID:23354129

  5. Molecular interaction between DNA molecules and nanoscale modifications of titanium dioxide with the structures of anatase and η-TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsev, M. G.; Kuz'micheva, G. M.; Obolenskaya, L. N.; Savinkina, E. V.

    2012-11-01

    The interaction of linear DNA molecules (hydrolysis products of Lambda phage DNA) with nanoscale modifications of titanium dioxide with anatase and η-TiO2 structures is studied. The photosensitization of adsorption and degradation processes of DNA under the effects of visible light is revealed. It is established that the anatase exhibits increased activity towards DNA in a low salt buffer, while η-TiO2 has a higher adsorption capacity in a buffer with high ionic strength. Recommendations on the practical application of nanoscale modifications of titanium dioxide with the structures of anatase and η-TiO2 are given.

  6. Nanoscale Heterogeneity of the Molecular Structure of Individual hIAPP Amyloid Fibrils Revealed with Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    vandenAkker, Corianne C; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Schleeger, Michael; Velikov, Krassimir P; Deckert, Volker; Bonn, Mischa; Koenderink, Gijsje H

    2015-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by the pathological deposition of fibrillized protein, known as amyloids. It is thought that oligomers and/or amyloid fibrils formed from human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP or amylin) cause cell death by membrane damage. The molecular structure of hIAPP amyloid fibrils is dominated by β-sheet structure, as probed with conventional infrared and Raman vibrational spectroscopy. However, with these techniques it is not possible to distinguish between the core and the surface structure of the fibrils. Since the fibril surface crucially affects amyloid toxicity, it is essential to know its structure. Here the surface molecular structure and amino acid residue composition of hIAPP fibrils are specifically probed with nanoscale resolution using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). The fibril surface mainly contains unordered or α-helical structures, in contrast to the β-sheet-rich core. This experimentally validates recent models of hIAPP amyloids based on NMR measurements. Spatial mapping of the surface structure reveals a highly heterogeneous surface structure. Finally, TERS can probe fibrils formed on a lipid interface, which is more representative of amyloids in vivo. PMID:25952953

  7. Nanoscale probe of magnetism, orbital occupation, and structural distortions in iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantoni, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    Local probes of atomic and electronic structures with sub-nanometer spatial resolution can provide additional insights into the physics of iron-based superconductors (FBS) by resolving the influence of inhomogeneities that are typically averaged over by bulk-sensitive techniques. Here we apply aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy to a wide class of iron-based superconductors and parent compounds to decipher the interplay between crystal distortions, local magnetic moment, orbital occupancy, and charge doping in these complex materials. In addition to revealing universal trends for hole concentration and local magnetic moment across families of FBS, we directly observe the effects of magneto-elastic coupling in 122 arsenides at room temperature, well above the structural and antiferromagnetic transition. The presence of atomic displacements indicates that the C4 tetragonal symmetry is already broken at room temperature in unstrained crystals, lowering the symmetry to orthorhombic (I2mm), and that all of the crystals are twinned with domains the size of a few nanometers. By tracking these local atomic displacements as a function of doping level x, in Ba(Fe1-xCox)2 As2, we find that the domain size correlates with the magnitude of the dynamic Fe moment, and both are enhanced near optimal doping where the ordered moment is suppressed. The non-monotonic behavior of the local Fe magnetic moment is linked to the strong coupling between lattice, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. Research supported by the Materials Sciences and Engineering Division Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. Correlating nanoscale structural changes to macromolecular gel formation in Laponite containing Pluronic F127 photogeling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juggernauth, K. Anne; Love, Brian

    2012-02-01

    Polymer nanocomposites has been a growing scientific field over the last 20 years. Recently, there has been increasing interest on nanocomposite systems with active responses to external stimuli such as heat, magnetic fields and light. The focus of this work is on a reversible thermoresponsive system, Pluronic F127 with added inorganic disk-shaped nanoparticles of Laponite. We further modify this system with the addition of a photoacid generator to enable photogelation. However, the nanoscale particle-particle and polymer-particle interactions within this Laponite/ block copolymer system are not well understood. We report on the photogelation kinetics of this system and further probe the interactions and rearrangement kinetics with heat and light exposure using in-situ synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering.

  9. Evaporation of water droplets on "lock-and-key" structures with nanoscale features.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Xiaohan; Hansen, Ole; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N A; Zi, Jian

    2012-06-26

    Highly ordered poly(dimethylsiloxane) microbowl arrays (MBAs) and microcap arrays (MCAs) with "lock-and-key" properties are successfully fabricated by self-assembly and electrochemical deposition. The wetting properties and evaporation dynamics of water droplets for both cases have been investigated. For the MBAs case, the wetting radius of the droplets remains unchanged until the portion of the droplet completely dries out at the end of the evaporation process. The pinning state extends for more than 99.5% of the total evaporation time, and the pinning-shrinking transition is essentially prevented whereas in the case of the MCAs the contact radius exhibits distinct stages during evaporation and the contact line retreats significantly in the middle of the evaporation process. We explain the phenomenon by a qualitative energy balance argument based on the different shrinkage types of the nanoscale-folded contact line. PMID:22662879

  10. Surfaces with combined microscale and nanoscale structures: a route to mechanically stable superhydrophobic surfaces?

    PubMed

    Groten, Jonas; Rühe, Jürgen

    2013-03-19

    Materials with superhydrophobic properties are usually generated by covering the surfaces with hydrophobic nanoscale rough features. A major problem, however, for any practical application of such strongly water-repellent surfaces is the mechanical fragility of the nanostructures. Even moderate forces caused by touching or rubbing the surfaces are frequently strong enough to destroy the nanostructures and lead to the loss of the superhydrophobic properties. In this article, we study the mechanical stability of superhydrophobic surfaces with three different topographies: nano- and microscale features and surfaces carrying a combination of both. The surfaces are generated by silicon etching and subsequent coating with a monolayer of a fluoropolymer (PFA). We perform controlled wear tests on the different surfaces and discuss the impact of wear on the wetting properties of the different surfaces. PMID:23363078

  11. 14 CFR 33.23 - Engine mounting attachments and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.23 Engine mounting attachments and structure. (a) The maximum allowable limit and ultimate loads for engine mounting... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine mounting attachments and...

  12. Band structure engineering in organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Martin; Tress, Wolfgang; Beyer, Beatrice; Gao, Feng; Scholz, Reinhard; Poelking, Carl; Ortstein, Katrin; Günther, Alrun A; Kasemann, Daniel; Andrienko, Denis; Leo, Karl

    2016-06-17

    A key breakthrough in modern electronics was the introduction of band structure engineering, the design of almost arbitrary electronic potential structures by alloying different semiconductors to continuously tune the band gap and band-edge energies. Implementation of this approach in organic semiconductors has been hindered by strong localization of the electronic states in these materials. We show that the influence of so far largely ignored long-range Coulomb interactions provides a workaround. Photoelectron spectroscopy confirms that the ionization energies of crystalline organic semiconductors can be continuously tuned over a wide range by blending them with their halogenated derivatives. Correspondingly, the photovoltaic gap and open-circuit voltage of organic solar cells can be continuously tuned by the blending ratio of these donors. PMID:27313043

  13. Structural Engineering Managers - Innovation Challenges for their Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkeschová, D.; Tichá, A.

    2015-11-01

    The profession of a structural engineer is highly responsible, because the consequences of a structural engineer's errors result not only in economic damage to the property and often irreversible damage to the environment, they can also lead to direct loss of lives. In the current turbulent, dynamically developing society the managerial methods of structural engineers should not stagnate at the level of the last century applications. This paper deals with the challenges which the ongoing century poses to structural engineers and managers. It compares the results of research regarding the current state of managerial skills of structural engineers in Czech building companies to the defined skills of the 21st century's managers according to the global research programme ITL Research and according to the Vision for the Future of Structural Engineering, drawn up by Structural Engineering Institute - SEI ASCE.

  14. Nanoscale energy-route selector consisting of multiple photo-switchable fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer structures on DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Ryo; Nishimura, Takahiro; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2015-04-01

    We report on a nanoscale energy-route selector consisting of multiple fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) structures switched by external signaling with multiple wavelengths of light. In each FRET structure, a specific activator molecule is incorporated to a FRET pair of a donor and an acceptor to control the activation of the acceptor. Owing to this configuration, the FRET structures are switched independently, and an energy route is selected. Two photo-switchable FRET structures, one consists of Alexa Fluor 568 (donor), Cy5 (acceptor), and Alexa Fluor 405 (activator), and the other consists of Alexa Fluor 568 (donor), Cy5.5 (acceptor), and Cy3 (activator), were constructed using DNA strands modified with fluorescence molecules. Switching rates for the individual FRET structures were measured as 64 and 49 %, respectively. An energy-route selector was then assembled with the FRET structures which share a single donor. Experimental results demonstrate that the energy route can be changed repeatedly by activation control using three wavelengths of light.

  15. Precipitation of nanoscale mercuric sulfides in the presence of natural organic matter: Structural properties, aggregation, and biotransformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Anh Le-Tuan; Morris, Amanda; Zhang, Tong; Ticknor, Jonathan; Levard, Clément; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2014-05-01

    Mercuric sulfide species are likely the predominant forms of mercury (Hg) in anoxic environments where the bioavailability of Hg is a key factor for the production of methylmercury (MeHg) by microorganisms. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is known to affect the formation, aggregation, and dissolution of HgS particles; however the connection of these processes to Hg bioavailability is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to gain insights into the molecular structure and aggregation properties of nanoscale HgS particles that were formed and aged in the presence of DOM and to link this information to bioavailability for methylating bacteria. Characterization of nanoscale HgS was performed with a series of techniques including transmission electron microscopy, photon scattering, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The characterization results indicated that the HgS precipitates formed were metacinnabar-like spherical nanoparticles that were 3-5 nm in diameter. Over the course of the aging process, HgS nanoparticles (nano-HgS) agglomerated to form mass-fractal aggregates, although the size of each primary particle within the aggregates remained unchanged. Furthermore, the crystallinity of nano-HgS increased as the particles aged. The methylation potential of nano-HgS by sulfate-reducing bacteria decreased during the aging process. No clear correlation was observed between the net productions of MeHg and the concentrations of dissolved Hg(II) in the culture media, suggesting that the decrease in the methylation potential of aged nano-HgS was not simply because of the slower supply of dissolved Hg(II) by nano-HgS. While the link between the aging of nano-HgS and decrease of methylation potential is not fully understood, the results of our study indicate that freshly formed HgS particles in DOM-rich water will include a variety of nanoscale structures that have a wide range of methylation potentials. This knowledge provides a basis for

  16. Metallic-nanowire-loaded silicon-on-insulator structures: a route to low-loss plasmon waveguiding on the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Yusheng; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-02-01

    The simultaneous realization of nanoscale field localization and low transmission loss remains one of the major challenges in nanophotonics. Metal nanowire waveguides can fulfill this goal to a certain extent by confining light within subwavelength space, yet their optical performances are still restricted by the tradeoff between confinement and loss, which results in quite limited propagation distances when their mode sizes are reduced down to the nanometer scale. Here we introduce a class of low-loss guiding schemes by integrating silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides with plasmon nanowire structures. The closely spaced silicon and metal configurations allow efficient light squeezing within the nanometer, low-index silica gaps between them, enabling deep-subwavelength light transmission with low modal attenuation. Optimizations of key structural parameters unravel the wide-range existence of the high-performance hybrid nanowire plasmon mode, which demonstrates improved guiding properties compared to the conventional hybrid and nanowire plasmon polaritons. The excitation strategy of the guided mode and the feasibility of the waveguide for compact photonic integration as well as active components are also discussed to lay the foundation for its practical implementation. The remarkable properties of these metallic-nanowire-loaded SOI waveguides potentially lend themselves to the implementation of high performance nanophotonic components, and open up promising opportunities for a variety of intriguing applications on the nanoscale.The simultaneous realization of nanoscale field localization and low transmission loss remains one of the major challenges in nanophotonics. Metal nanowire waveguides can fulfill this goal to a certain extent by confining light within subwavelength space, yet their optical performances are still restricted by the tradeoff between confinement and loss, which results in quite limited propagation distances when their mode sizes are reduced

  17. Nanoscale Tailoring of the Polarization Properties of Dilute-Nitride Semiconductors via H-Assisted Strain Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felici, Marco; Birindelli, Simone; Trotta, Rinaldo; Francardi, Marco; Gerardino, Annamaria; Notargiacomo, Andrea; Rubini, Silvia; Martelli, Faustino; Capizzi, Mario; Polimeni, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    In dilute-nitride semiconductors, the possibility to selectively passivate N atoms by spatially controlled hydrogen irradiation allows for tailoring the effective N concentration of the host—and, therefore, its electronic and structural properties—with a precision of a few nanometers. In the present work, this technique is applied to the realization of ordered arrays of GaAs1 -xNx/GaAs1 -xNx∶H wires oriented at different angles with respect to the crystallographic axes of the material. The creation of a strongly anisotropic strain field in the plane of the sample, due to the lattice expansion of the fully hydrogenated regions surrounding the GaAs1 -xNx wires, is directly responsible for the peculiar polarization properties observed for the wire emission. Temperature-dependent polarization-resolved microphotoluminescence measurements, indeed, reveal a nontrivial dependence of the degree of linear polarization on the wire orientation, with maxima for wires parallel to the [110] and [1 1 ¯ 0 ] directions and a pronounced minimum for wires oriented along the [100] axis. In addition, the polarization direction is found to be precisely perpendicular to the wire when the latter is oriented along high-symmetry crystal directions, whereas significant deviations from a perfect orthogonality are measured for all other wire orientations. These findings, which are well reproduced by a theoretical model based on finite-element calculations of the strain profile of our GaAs1 -xNx/GaAs1 -xNx∶H heterostructures, demonstrate our ability to control the polarization properties of dilute-nitride micro- and nanostructures via H-assisted strain engineering. This additional degree of freedom may prove very useful in the design and optimization of innovative photonic structures relying on the integration of dilute-nitride-based light emitters with photonic crystal microcavities.

  18. Crystal structures of two engineered thiol trypsins.

    PubMed

    McGrath, M E; Wilke, M E; Higaki, J N; Craik, C S; Fletterick, R J

    1989-11-28

    We have determined the three-dimensional structures of engineered rat trypsins which mimic the active sites of two classes of cysteine proteases. The catalytic serine was replaced with cysteine (S195C) to test the ability of sulfur to function as a nucleophile in a serine protease environment. This variant mimics the cysteine trypsin class of thiol proteases. An additional mutation of the active site aspartate to an asparagine (D102N) created the catalytic triad of the papain-type cysteine proteases. Rat trypsins S195C and D102N,S195C were solved to 2.5 and 2.0 A, respectively. The refined structures were analyzed to determine the structural basis for the 10(6)-fold loss of activity of trypsin S195C and the 10(8)-fold loss of activity of trypsin D102N,S195C, relative to rat trypsin. The active site thiols were found in a reduced state in contrast to the oxidized thiols found in previous thiol protease structures. These are the first reported structures of serine proteases with the catalytic centers of sulfhydryl proteases. Structure analysis revealed only subtle global changes in enzyme conformation. The substrate binding pocket is unaltered, and active site amino acid 102 forms hydrogen bonds to H57 and S214 as well as to the backbone amides of A56 and H57. In trypsin S195C, D102 is a hydrogen-bond acceptor for H57 which allows the other imidazole nitrogen to function as a base during catalysis. In trypsin D102N,S195C, the asparagine at position 102 is a hydrogen-bond donor to H57 which places a proton on the imidazole nitrogen proximal to the nucleophile. This tautomer of H57 is unable to act as a base in catalysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2611228

  19. Direct Nanoscale Imaging of Evolving Electric Field Domains in Quantum Structures

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Rudra Sankar; Razavipour, Seyed Ghasem; Dupont, Emmanuel; Xu, Chao; Laframboise, Sylvain; Wasilewski, Zbig; Hu, Qing; Ban, Dayan

    2014-01-01

    The external performance of quantum optoelectronic devices is governed by the spatial profiles of electrons and potentials within the active regions of these devices. For example, in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), the electric field domain (EFD) hypothesis posits that the potential distribution might be simultaneously spatially nonuniform and temporally unstable. Unfortunately, there exists no prior means of probing the inner potential profile directly. Here we report the nanoscale measured electric potential distribution inside operating QCLs by using scanning voltage microscopy at a cryogenic temperature. We prove that, per the EFD hypothesis, the multi-quantum-well active region is indeed divided into multiple sections having distinctly different electric fields. The electric field across these serially-stacked quantum cascade modules does not continuously increase in proportion to gradual increases in the applied device bias, but rather hops between discrete values that are related to tunneling resonances. We also report the evolution of EFDs, finding that an incremental change in device bias leads to a hopping-style shift in the EFD boundary – the higher electric field domain expands at least one module each step at the expense of the lower field domain within the active region. PMID:25431158

  20. Trapping atoms using nanoscale quantum vacuum forces

    PubMed Central

    Chang, D. E.; Sinha, K.; Taylor, J. M.; Kimble, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here we theoretically show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. Our proposed trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground-state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited-state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyse realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement. PMID:25008119

  1. Dynamic templating: a large area processing route for the assembly of periodic arrays of sub-micrometer and nanoscale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzinpour, Pouyan; Sundar, Aarthi; Gilroy, Kyle D.; Eskin, Zachary E.; Hughes, Robert A.; Neretina, Svetlana

    2013-02-01

    A substrate-based templated assembly route has been devised which offers large-area, high-throughput capabilities for the fabrication of periodic arrays of sub-micrometer and nanometer-scale structures. The approach overcomes a significant technological barrier to the widespread use of substrate-based templated assembly by eliminating the need for periodic templates having nanoscale features. Instead, it relies upon the use of a dynamic template with dimensions that evolve in time from easily fabricated micrometer dimensions to those on the nanoscale as the assembly process proceeds. The dynamic template consists of a pedestal of a sacrificial material, typically antimony, upon which an ultrathin layer of a second material is deposited. When heated, antimony sublimation results in a continuous reduction in template size where the motion of the sublimation fronts direct the diffusion of atoms of the second material to a predetermined location. The route has broad applicability, having already produced periodic arrays of gold, silver, copper, platinum, nickel, cobalt, germanium and Au-Ag alloys on substrates as diverse as silicon, sapphire, silicon-carbide, graphene and glass. Requiring only modest levels of instrumentation, the process provides an enabling route for any reasonably equipped researcher to fabricate periodic arrays that would otherwise require advanced fabrication facilities.A substrate-based templated assembly route has been devised which offers large-area, high-throughput capabilities for the fabrication of periodic arrays of sub-micrometer and nanometer-scale structures. The approach overcomes a significant technological barrier to the widespread use of substrate-based templated assembly by eliminating the need for periodic templates having nanoscale features. Instead, it relies upon the use of a dynamic template with dimensions that evolve in time from easily fabricated micrometer dimensions to those on the nanoscale as the assembly process

  2. Shear-stress-induced structural arrangement of water molecules in nanoscale Couette flow with slipping at wall boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jau-Wen

    2014-08-07

    This study investigated the structuring of water molecules in a nanoscale Couette flow with the upper plate subjected to lateral forces with various magnitudes and water slipping against a metal wall. It was found that when the upper plate is subjected to a force, the water body deforms into a parallelepiped. Water molecules in the channel are then gradually arranged into lattice positions, creating a layered structure. The structural arrangement of water molecules is caused by the water molecules accommodating themselves to the increase in energy under the application of a lateral force on the moving plate. The ordering arrangement of water molecules increases the rotational degree of freedom, allowing the molecules to increase their Coulomb potential energy through polar rotation that accounts for the energy input through the upper plate. With a force continuously applied to the upper plate, the water molecules in contact with the upper plate move forward until slip between the water and upper plate occurs. The relation between the structural arrangement of water molecules, slip at the wall, and the shear force is studied. The relation between the slip and the locking/unlocking of water molecules to metal atoms is also studied.

  3. Using Images To Teach the Beginnings of Structural Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenberg, Henrique; Arevalo, Luis Alberto Tello

    Aiming at turning theory of structures into a captivating subject to civil engineering students and at helping them understand the link between the mathematical models and the real structures, a new experience is underway at the Department of Structural and Foundation Engineering of Excola Politecnica da Universidada de Sao Paulo: transparencies…

  4. Soft x-ray ptychography studies of nanoscale magnetic and structural correlations in thin SmCo5 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, P.; Shi, X.; Neu, V.; Elefant, D.; Lee, J. C. T.; Shapiro, D. A.; Farmand, M.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shiu, W.; Marchesini, S.; Roy, S.; Kevan, S. D.

    Soft x-ray ptychographic imaging was applied to probe an amorphous 50 nm thin SmCo5 film prepared by off-axis pulsed laser deposition and exhibiting a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Amplitude and phase contrast images, retrieved at photon energies near the cobalt L3 resonance, were used to identify and characterize magnetic and structural features with a spatial resolution of about10 nm. Aside from the common magnetic labyrinth domain pattern, nanoscale structural inclusions were identified that are primarily located in close proximity to the magnetic domain walls. X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggests that these inclusions are nanocrystalline Sm2Co17 phases with nominally in-plane magnetic anisotropy. Our results indicate that x-ray ptychographic imaging enables fruitful studies of magnetic and structural correlations at length scales relevant to emerging magnetic and spintronic devices. Supported by the Director of the Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DEAC02-05CH11231.

  5. Balancer structure for three-cylinder engines

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.

    1986-02-11

    This patent describes a balancer structure for a three-cylinder in-line engine having aligned three cylinders, a crankshaft having crank arms disposed at angles of 120/sup 0/ with respect to each other and operatively connected to the cylinders, respectively. This structure consists of: 1.) a single countershaft adjacent and parallel to and rotated at the same speed as the crankshaft but in the opposite direction; 2.) a counterweight is securely mounted on the crankshaft only at positions corresponding to the first and third cylinders for balancing a part of inertia force of reciprocating mases and the entire inertia force of rotating masses; 3.) at least one second counterweight securely mounted on the crankshaft substantially opposite to the crank arm corresponding to the second cylinder for balancing another part of the inertia force of the reciprocating masses; 4.) at least two balancers securely mounted on the countershaft at both ends for the balancing of the remainder of the inertia force of the reciprocating masses and a couple of inertia of the crankshaft about an axis perpendicular to the crankshaft.

  6. Stripe-like nanoscale structural phase separation in superconducting BaPb1-xBixO3

    SciTech Connect

    Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Zhang, Y.; Parra, C.; Manoharan, H. C.; Beasley, M. R.; Geballe, T. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Fisher, I. R.

    2015-09-16

    The phase diagram of BaPb1-xBixO3 exhibits a superconducting “dome” in the proximity of a charge density wave phase. For the superconducting compositions, the material coexists as two structural polymorphs. Here we show, via high resolution transmission electron microscopy, that the structural dimorphism is accommodated in the form of partially disordered nanoscale stripes. Identification of the morphology of the nanoscale structural phase separation enables determination of the associated length scales, which we compare to the Ginzburg-Landau coherence length. Thus, we find that the maximum Tc occurs when the superconducting coherence length matches the width of the partially disordered stripes, implying a connection between the structural phase separation and the shape of the superconducting dome.

  7. Stripe-like nanoscale structural phase separation in superconducting BaPb1-xBixO3

    SciTech Connect

    Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Zhang, Y.; Parra, C.; Manoharan, H. C.; Beasley, M. R.; Geballe, T. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Fisher, I. R.

    2015-09-16

    The phase diagram of BaPb1-xBixO3 exhibits a superconducting dome in the proximity of a charge density wave phase. For the superconducting compositions, the material coexists as two structural polymorphs. Here we show, via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, that the structural dimorphism is accommodated in the form of partially disordered nanoscale stripes. Identification of the morphology of the nanoscale structural phase separation enables determination of the associated length scales, which we compare with the Ginzburg–Landau coherence length. We find that the maximum Tc occurs when the superconducting coherence length matches the width of the partially disordered stripes, implying a connection between the structural phase separation and the shape of the superconducting dome.

  8. Hard magnetism in structurally engineered silica nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyon-Min; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2016-09-21

    Creation of structural complexity by simple experimental control will be an attractive approach for the preparation of nanomaterials, as a classical bottom-up method is supplemented by a more efficient and more direct artificial engineering method. In this study, structural manipulation of MCM-41 type mesoporous silica is investigated by generating and imbedding hard magnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles into mesoporous silica. Depending on the heating rate and target temperature, mesoporous silica undergoes a transformation in shape to form hollow silica, framed silica with interior voids, or melted silica with intact mesostructures. Magnetism is governed by the major CoFe2O4 phase, and it is affected by antiferromagnetic hematite (α-Fe2O3) and olivine-type cobalt silicate (Co2SiO4), as seen in its paramagnetic behavior at the annealing temperature of 430 °C. The early formation of Co2SiO4 than what is usually observed implies the effect of the partial substitution of Fe in the sites of Co. Under slow heating (2.5 °C min(-1)) mesostructures are preserved, but with significantly smaller mesopores (d100 = 1.5 nm). In addition, nonstoichiometric CoxFe1-xO with metal vacancies at 600 °C, and spinel Co3O4 at 700 °C accompany major CoFe2O4. The amorphous nature of silica matrix is thought to contribute significantly to these structurally diverse and rich phases, enabled by off-stoichiometry between Si and O, and accelerated by the diffusion of metal cations into SiO4 polyhedra at an elevated temperature. PMID:27537252

  9. Talin determines the nanoscale architecture of focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jaron; Wang, Yilin; Goh, Wah Ing; Goh, Honzhen; Baird, Michelle A.; Ruehland, Svenja; Teo, Shijia; Bate, Neil; Critchley, David R.; Davidson, Michael W.; Kanchanawong, Pakorn

    2015-01-01

    Insight into how molecular machines perform their biological functions depends on knowledge of the spatial organization of the components, their connectivity, geometry, and organizational hierarchy. However, these parameters are difficult to determine in multicomponent assemblies such as integrin-based focal adhesions (FAs). We have previously applied 3D superresolution fluorescence microscopy to probe the spatial organization of major FA components, observing a nanoscale stratification of proteins between integrins and the actin cytoskeleton. Here we combine superresolution imaging techniques with a protein engineering approach to investigate how such nanoscale architecture arises. We demonstrate that talin plays a key structural role in regulating the nanoscale architecture of FAs, akin to a molecular ruler. Talin diagonally spans the FA core, with its N terminus at the membrane and C terminus demarcating the FA/stress fiber interface. In contrast, vinculin is found to be dispensable for specification of FA nanoscale architecture. Recombinant analogs of talin with modified lengths recapitulated its polarized orientation but altered the FA/stress fiber interface in a linear manner, consistent with its modular structure, and implicating the integrin–talin–actin complex as the primary mechanical linkage in FAs. Talin was found to be ∼97 nm in length and oriented at ∼15° relative to the plasma membrane. Our results identify talin as the primary determinant of FA nanoscale organization and suggest how multiple cellular forces may be integrated at adhesion sites. PMID:26283369

  10. Talin determines the nanoscale architecture of focal adhesions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jaron; Wang, Yilin; Goh, Wah Ing; Goh, Honzhen; Baird, Michelle A; Ruehland, Svenja; Teo, Shijia; Bate, Neil; Critchley, David R; Davidson, Michael W; Kanchanawong, Pakorn

    2015-09-01

    Insight into how molecular machines perform their biological functions depends on knowledge of the spatial organization of the components, their connectivity, geometry, and organizational hierarchy. However, these parameters are difficult to determine in multicomponent assemblies such as integrin-based focal adhesions (FAs). We have previously applied 3D superresolution fluorescence microscopy to probe the spatial organization of major FA components, observing a nanoscale stratification of proteins between integrins and the actin cytoskeleton. Here we combine superresolution imaging techniques with a protein engineering approach to investigate how such nanoscale architecture arises. We demonstrate that talin plays a key structural role in regulating the nanoscale architecture of FAs, akin to a molecular ruler. Talin diagonally spans the FA core, with its N terminus at the membrane and C terminus demarcating the FA/stress fiber interface. In contrast, vinculin is found to be dispensable for specification of FA nanoscale architecture. Recombinant analogs of talin with modified lengths recapitulated its polarized orientation but altered the FA/stress fiber interface in a linear manner, consistent with its modular structure, and implicating the integrin-talin-actin complex as the primary mechanical linkage in FAs. Talin was found to be ∼97 nm in length and oriented at ∼15° relative to the plasma membrane. Our results identify talin as the primary determinant of FA nanoscale organization and suggest how multiple cellular forces may be integrated at adhesion sites. PMID:26283369

  11. 46 CFR 11.505 - Engineer officer structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineer officer structure. 11.505 Section 11.505 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.505 Engineer officer...

  12. 46 CFR 11.505 - Engineer officer structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engineer officer structure. 11.505 Section 11.505 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.505 Engineer officer...

  13. 46 CFR 11.505 - Engineer officer structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engineer officer structure. 11.505 Section 11.505 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.505 Engineer officer...

  14. Soft x-ray ptychography studies of nanoscale magnetic and structural correlations in thin SmCo5 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Fischer, P.; Neu, V.; Elefant, D.; Lee, J. C. T.; Shapiro, D. A.; Farmand, M.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shiu, H.-W.; Marchesini, S.; Roy, S.; Kevan, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    High spatial resolution magnetic x-ray spectromicroscopy at x-ray photon energies near the cobalt L3 resonance was applied to probe an amorphous 50 nm thin SmCo5 film prepared by off-axis pulsed laser deposition onto an x-ray transparent 200 nm thin Si3N4 membrane. Alternating gradient magnetometry shows a strong in-plane anisotropy and an only weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, which is confirmed by magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy images showing over a field of view of 10 μm a primarily stripe-like domain pattern but with local labyrinth-like domains. Soft x-ray ptychography in amplitude and phase contrast was used to identify and characterize local magnetic and structural features over a field of view of 1 μm with a spatial resolution of about 10 nm. There, the magnetic labyrinth domain patterns are accompanied by nanoscale structural inclusions that are primarily located in close proximity to the magnetic domain walls. Our analysis suggests that these inclusions are nanocrystalline Sm2Co17 phases with nominally in-plane magnetic anisotropy.

  15. Nanoscale Wicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jijie; Sansom, Elijah; Gharib, Mory; Noca, Flavio

    2003-11-01

    A wick is a bundle of fibers that by capillary attraction draws up to be burned a steady supply of the oil in lamps. In textile research, wicking is the process by which liquids are transported across or along fibers by capillary action (of relevance to perspiration). A similar phenomenon was recently discovered in our lab with mats of nanoscale fibers. A droplet containing a surfactant solution was placed on top of a well-aligned mat of carbon nanotubes: wicking was then observed as a film of liquid propagating within the nanocarpet, such as a stain or drop absorbed into a textile fabric. The nanoscale wicking process in carbon nano-arrays offers a simple and enabling technology for the processing (transport, mixing, filtering) of picoliters of fluids without any need for confinement (nanochannel) or bulky driving pressure apparatus. In this work, nanoscale wicking properties are quantified as a function of surfactant activity and carbon nanoarray geometry. The biomolecular sieving capability of the nanotube arrays is also put to test by the addition of biomolecules, while using the wicking process as the fluid driving force.

  16. Balancer structure for three-cylinder engines

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.

    1987-04-21

    This patent describes a balancer structure for a three-cylinder in-line engine having three cylinders, the latter comprising a first and third cylinder and a second cylinder disposed between the first and third cylinders, a crankshaft having crank arms disposed at angles of 120/sup 0/ with respect to each other and operatively connected to a piston assembly within each of the cylinders, respectively, consisting of: a single crankshaft adjacent and parallel to and rotated at the same speed as the crankshaft but in the opposite direction, means comprising first counterweights securely mounted on the crankshaft only at positions thereof corresponding to the first and third cylinders for balancing of a part of inertia forces of rotating masses and a part of inertia forces of reciprocating masses; means comprising at least one second counterweight securely mounted on the crankshaft substantially opposite to the crank arm corresponding to the second cylinder for balancing of the remainder of the inertia forces of rotating masses; at least two balancers respectively securely mounted on the countershaft at both ends respectively thereof for the balancing of the remainder of the inertia forces of reciprocating masses, and of the couple of inertia of the crankshaft about axes perpendicular to the crankshaft.

  17. 1. Photographic copy of engineering drawing showing structure of Test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of engineering drawing showing structure of Test Stand 'B' (4215/E-16), also known as the 'Short Snorter.' California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'Structural Addition - Bldg. E-12, Edwards Test Station,' drawing no. E12/1-1, 8 August 1957. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand B, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. Intrinsic Nanoscience of δ Pu-Ga Alloys: Local Structure and Speciation, Collective Behavior, Nanoscale Heterogeneity, and Aging Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Conradson, Steven D.; Bock, Nicolas; Castro, Julio M.; Conradson, Dylan R.; Cox, Lawrence E.; Dmowski, Wojtek; Dooley, David E.; Egami, Takeshi; Espinosa-Faller, Francisco J.; Freibert, Franz J.; Garcia-Adeva, Angel J.; Hess, Nancy J.; Holmstrom, Erik; Howell, Rafael C.; Katz, Barbara A.; Lashley, Jason C.; Martinez, Raymond J.; Moore, David P.; Morales, Luis A.; Olivas, J David; Pereyra, Ramiro A.; Ramos, Michael; Terry, Jeff H.; Villella, Phillip M.

    2014-04-24

    Because diffraction measurements are sensitive only to the long range average arrangement of the atoms in the coherent portion of a crystal, complementary local structure measurements are required for a complete understanding of the structure of a complex material. This is particularly an issue in solid solutions where even random distributions of a solute will result in nanometer-scale fluctuations in the local composition. The structure will be further complicated if collective and cooperative phenomena organize the solute distribution via longer range interactions between non-bonded solute sites. If the solute affects the phase stability then the question is raised of whether the atoms in domains with local compositions outside the limits of the bulk phase will rearrange into the structure stable for that composition and temperature or if the resulting stress would prevent such a local phase transition. If the former, then phase separated, heterogeneous structures at or below the diffraction limit will form. This nanometerscale competition between the phase transition and the epitaxial mismatch – exacerbated by the added strain if the transition involves a volume change – raises the potential for the formation of novel structures that do not occur in bulk material, e.g., fcc Fe. This coupling over multiple scales between inhomogeneity ordering, elastic forces, phase competition, and texture in the form of coexisting structures is a hallmark of martensites, a class of complex materials that includes δ-stabilized PuGa and that often exhibit correlated atomic and electronic properties. The enigmatic and extreme nature of Pu is consistent with its exhibiting unusual structural behavior of this type, including nanoscale heterogeneity in δ-stabilized PuGa and its enhanced homogeneity on aging that has been suggested based on earlier X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and x-ray pair distribution function (pdf) measurements. Measurements on a

  19. Nanoscale Structural Engineering of Ferroelectric Polymers. Final Report for July 2001-June 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Adenwalla, S.

    2005-12-01

    This final report describes the interaction between multilavered films of polymer ferroelectrics, in our case the copolymers of PVDF formed with TrFE. Langmuir Blodgett deposition of these films allows the deposition of thin, uniform, highly crystalline films. Two type of multilayer stacks are made and characterized. The first consists of multilayer stacks of the copolymer films with 2 different TrFE contents-50% and 20%. By varying the period of the multilayer stacks we see evidence of interaction at short length scales, evidenced in the thermodynamic transition temperatures of the multilayer films. The second set consists of a P(VDF - TrFE) film sandwiched between two Cobalt electrodes. In these we see evidence of a large magnetoelectric coupling.

  20. Maximum efficiency of ideal heat engines based on a small system: correction to the Carnot efficiency at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Quan, H T

    2014-06-01

    We study the maximum efficiency of a heat engine based on a small system. It is revealed that due to the finiteness of the system, irreversibility may arise when the working substance contacts with a heat reservoir. As a result, there is a working-substance-dependent correction to the Carnot efficiency. We derive a general and simple expression for the maximum efficiency of a Carnot cycle heat engine in terms of the relative entropy. This maximum efficiency approaches the Carnot efficiency asymptotically when the size of the working substance increases to the thermodynamic limit. Our study extends Carnot's result of the maximum efficiency to an arbitrary working substance and elucidates the subtlety of thermodynamic laws in small systems. PMID:25019751

  1. Quantification of Complex Topologies in Macromolecular and Nanoscale Structures using Small-Angle Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Siddharth; Ramachandran, Ramanth; Rai, Durgesh; Beaucage, Gregory

    2012-02-01

    Polymers are characterized by molecular weight distribution, tacticity, block copolymer content and branch content and chain topology. The branch structure and particularly the topology of branched chains has remained a difficult characterization problem. Recently we have developed a scaling model that can be coupled with small-angle scattering to measure the average branch length, number of branches and branch-on-branch structure in macromolecules of complex topology. This method has been extended to understand the structure of two dimensional structures and crumpling in these macromolecular systems. We have explored a wide range of materials in this regard. This poster will give an overview of the current uses for the scaling model for macromolecular topology. References pertaining to this poster can be found at http://www.eng.uc.edu/˜gbeaucag/BranchingPapers.html.

  2. Nanoscale structure and mechanical behavior of growth lines in shell of abalone Haliotis gigantea.

    PubMed

    Sumitomo, Taro; Kakisawa, Hideki; Kagawa, Yutaka

    2011-04-01

    In the natural world, bottom-up hierarchical construction of complex structures results in materials with remarkable properties. A well known example is the nacre of mollusk shells, commonly called "mother of pearl", whose excellent strength and toughness has been the subject of research for many decades. A significant discovery has been the presence of periodic layers called "growth lines". These are thin distinct layers within the bulk of the shell which form periodically, with their structure affected by environmental changes. Studies of their formation and behavior offer valuable insight into the architecture of seashells. In this work, the structure and mechanical behavior of growth lines in shells of abalone Haliotis gigantea were investigated using electron microscopy and nanoindentation. Growth lines form directly out of nacre into layers of blocks and irregular particles. In comparison to nacre, they have basic structures, form rapidly, and are harder, which suggest that they serve a protective role during lifecycle transitions. This exemplifies how natural structures are able to closely control growth architecture in order to form different structures for different functions, all from the same base materials. PMID:21232604

  3. Exposure, Health and Ecological Effects Review of Engineered Nanoscale Cerium and Cerium Oxide Associated with its Use as a Fuel Additive

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances of nanoscale science have produced nanomaterials with unique physical and chemical properties at commercial levels which are now incorporated into over 1000 products. Nanoscale cerium (di) oxide (CeO(2)) has recently gained a wide range of applications which includes coa...

  4. Exposure and Health Effects Review of Engineered Nanoscale Cerium and Cerium Dioxide Associated with its Use as a Fuel Additive - NOW IN PRINT IN THE JOURNAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances of nanoscale science have produced nanomaterials with unique physical and chemical properties at commercial levels that are now incorporated into over 1000 products. Nanoscale cerium (di) oxide (Ce02) has recently gained a wide range of applications which includes coatin...

  5. Effect of surface morphology and temperature on the structural stability of nanoscale wavy films.

    PubMed

    Adnan, A; Sun, C T

    2008-08-01

    The atomic scale structural stability of freestanding wavy gold (Au) nanofilms was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The waviness in the Au film was formed by cleaving sinusoidal surfaces from a [Formula: see text] bulk crystal. The degree of waviness was varied by changing the wavelength of the sinusoidal surface profile. Films were then equilibrated at different temperatures (between 10 and 1080 K) and their structural stability was monitored. The MD simulation results revealed that the stability of films depends on temperature as well as the waviness of the film surface. It was shown that the size-dependent melting point depression of Au plays the dominant role in causing the structural instability of wavy films. PMID:21828794

  6. Nanoscale structure and superhydrophobicity of sp(2)-bonded boron nitride aerogels.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thang; Goldstein, Anna P; Lewicki, James P; Kucheyev, Sergei O; Wang, Cheng; Russell, Thomas P; Worsley, Marcus A; Woo, Leta; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alex

    2015-06-21

    Aerogels have much potential in both research and industrial applications due to their high surface area, low density, and fine pore size distribution. Here we report a thorough structural study of three-dimensional aerogels composed of highly crystalline sp(2)-bonded boron nitride (BN) layers synthesized by a carbothermic reduction process. The structure, crystallinity and bonding of the as-prepared BN aerogels are elucidated by X-ray diffraction, (11)B nuclear magnetic resonance, transmission electron microscopy, and resonant soft X-ray scattering. The macroscopic roughness of the aerogel's surface causes it to be superhydrophobic with a contact angle of ∼155° and exhibit high oil uptake capacity (up to 1500 wt%). The oil can be removed from the BN aerogel by oxidizing in air without damaging the crystalline porous structure of the aerogel or diminishing its oil absorption capacity. PMID:26007693

  7. Nanoscale Imaging of Buried Structures with Elemental Specificity Using Resonant X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Changyong; Bergstrom, Raymond; Ramunno-Johnson, Damien; Jiang, Huaidong; Miao, Jianwei; Paterson, David; Jonge, Martin D. de; McNulty, Ian; Lee, Jooyoung; Wang, Kang L.

    2008-01-18

    We report the first demonstration of resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy for element specific imaging of buried structures with a pixel resolution of {approx}15 nm by exploiting the abrupt change in the scattering cross section near electronic resonances. We performed nondestructive and quantitative imaging of buried Bi structures inside a Si crystal by directly phasing coherent x-ray diffraction patterns acquired below and above the Bi M{sub 5} edge. We anticipate that resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy will be applied to element and chemical state specific imaging of a broad range of systems including magnetic materials, semiconductors, organic materials, biominerals, and biological specimens.

  8. Reconstruction of explicit structural properties at the nanoscale via spectroscopic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkezyan, Lusik; Zhang, Di; Subramanian, Hariharan; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2016-02-01

    The spectrum registered by a reflected-light bright-field spectroscopic microscope (SM) can quantify the microscopically indiscernible, deeply subdiffractional length scales within samples such as biological cells and tissues. Nevertheless, quantification of biological specimens via any optical measures most often reveals ambiguous information about the specific structural properties within the studied samples. Thus, optical quantification remains nonintuitive to users from the diverse fields of technique application. In this work, we demonstrate that the SM signal can be analyzed to reconstruct explicit physical measures of internal structure within label-free, weakly scattering samples: characteristic length scale and the amplitude of spatial refractive-index (RI) fluctuations. We present and validate the reconstruction algorithm via finite-difference time-domain solutions of Maxwell's equations on an example of exponential spatial correlation of RI. We apply the validated algorithm to experimentally measure structural properties within isolated cells from two genetic variants of HT29 colon cancer cell line as well as within a prostate tissue biopsy section. The presented methodology can lead to the development of novel biophotonics techniques that create two-dimensional maps of explicit structural properties within biomaterials: the characteristic size of macromolecular complexes and the variance of local mass density.

  9. Reconstruction of explicit structural properties at the nanoscale via spectroscopic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cherkezyan, Lusik; Zhang, Di; Subramanian, Hariharan; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2016-02-01

    The spectrum registered by a reflected-light bright-field spectroscopic microscope (SM) can quantify the microscopically indiscernible, deeply subdiffractional length scales within samples such as biological cells and tissues. Nevertheless, quantification of biological specimens via any optical measures most often reveals ambiguous information about the specific structural properties within the studied samples. Thus, optical quantification remains nonintuitive to users from the diverse fields of technique application. In this work, we demonstrate that the SM signal can be analyzed to reconstruct explicit physical measures of internal structure within label-free, weakly scattering samples: characteristic length scale and the amplitude of spatial refractive-index (RI) fluctuations. We present and validate the reconstruction algorithm via finite-difference time-domain solutions of Maxwell's equations on an example of exponential spatial correlation of RI. We apply the validated algorithm to experimentally measure structural properties within isolated cells from two genetic variants of HT29 colon cancer cell line as well as within a prostate tissue biopsy section. The presented methodology can lead to the development of novel biophotonics techniques that create two-dimensional maps of explicit structural properties within biomaterials: the characteristic size of macromolecular complexes and the variance of local mass density. PMID:26886803

  10. Effect of incorporation of nanoscale bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite in PCL/chitosan nanofibers for bone and periodontal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shalumon, K T; Sowmya, S; Sathish, D; Chennazhi, K P; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2013-03-01

    A biomimetic scaffold which can very closely mimic the extracellular matrix of the bone was fabricated by incorporating nano-bioceramic particles such as nano bioglass (nBG) and nano hydroxyapatite (nHAp) within electrospun nanofibrous scaffold. A comparative study between nHAp incorporated poly(caprolactone) (PCL)-chitosan (CS) and nBG incorporated PCL-CS nanofibrous scaffolds was carried out and their feasibility in tissue engineering was investigated. All the samples were optimized to obtain fibers of similar diameter from 100-200 nm for the ease of comparison between the samples. Protein adsorption studies showed that PCL-CS incorporated with 3 wt% nHAp and 3 wt% nBG adsorbed more proteins on their surface than other samples. Cell attachment and proliferation studies using human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (hPLFs) and osteoblast like cells (MG-63 cell lines) showed that nBG incorporated samples are slightly superior to nHAp incorporated counterparts. Cell viability test using alamar blue assay and live/dead staining confirms that the scaffolds are cytocompatible. ALP activity confirmed the osteoblastic behavior of hPDLFs. Also the presence of nHAp and nBG enhanced the ALP activity of hPDLF on the PCH3 and PCB3 scaffolds. These studies indicate that nBG incorporated electrospun scaffolds are comparatively better candidates for orthopedic and periodontal tissue engineering applications. PMID:23620999

  11. Nanoscale structure and superhydrophobicity of sp2-bonded boron nitride aerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Thang; Goldstein, Anna P.; Lewicki, James P.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Wang, Cheng; Russell, Thomas P.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Woo, Leta; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alex

    2015-06-01

    Aerogels have much potential in both research and industrial applications due to their high surface area, low density, and fine pore size distribution. Here we report a thorough structural study of three-dimensional aerogels composed of highly crystalline sp2-bonded boron nitride (BN) layers synthesized by a carbothermic reduction process. The structure, crystallinity and bonding of the as-prepared BN aerogels are elucidated by X-ray diffraction, 11B nuclear magnetic resonance, transmission electron microscopy, and resonant soft X-ray scattering. The macroscopic roughness of the aerogel's surface causes it to be superhydrophobic with a contact angle of ~155° and exhibit high oil uptake capacity (up to 1500 wt%). The oil can be removed from the BN aerogel by oxidizing in air without damaging the crystalline porous structure of the aerogel or diminishing its oil absorption capacity.Aerogels have much potential in both research and industrial applications due to their high surface area, low density, and fine pore size distribution. Here we report a thorough structural study of three-dimensional aerogels composed of highly crystalline sp2-bonded boron nitride (BN) layers synthesized by a carbothermic reduction process. The structure, crystallinity and bonding of the as-prepared BN aerogels are elucidated by X-ray diffraction, 11B nuclear magnetic resonance, transmission electron microscopy, and resonant soft X-ray scattering. The macroscopic roughness of the aerogel's surface causes it to be superhydrophobic with a contact angle of ~155° and exhibit high oil uptake capacity (up to 1500 wt%). The oil can be removed from the BN aerogel by oxidizing in air without damaging the crystalline porous structure of the aerogel or diminishing its oil absorption capacity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: High resolution TEM images of different portions of sample, photos of aerogels in oil bath over time, thermal gravimetric analysis data of the aerogels, and

  12. Nanoscale structural heterogeneity in Ni-rich half-Heusler TiNiSn

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, Jason E. Pollock, Tresa M.; Chater, Philip A.; Brown, Craig M.; Seshadri, Ram

    2014-10-28

    The structural implications of excess Ni in the TiNiSn half-Heusler compound are examined through a combination of synchrotron x-ray and neutron scattering studies, in conjunction with first principles density functional theory calculations on supercells. Despite the phase diagram suggesting that TiNiSn is a line compound with no solid solution, for small x in TiNi{sub 1+x}Sn there is indeed an appearance—from careful analysis of the scattering—of some solubility, with the excess Ni occupying the interstitial tetrahedral site in the half-Heusler structure. The analysis performed here would point to the excess Ni not being statistically distributed, but rather occurring as coherent nanoclusters. First principles calculations of energetics, carried out using supercells, support a scenario of Ni interstitials clustering, rather than a statistical distribution.

  13. Nanotribology and Nanoscale Friction

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yi; Qu, Zhihua; Braiman, Yehuda; Zhang, Zhenyu; Barhen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Tribology is the science and technology of contacting solid surfaces in relative motion, including the study of lubricants, lubrication, friction, wear, and bearings. It is estimated that friction and wear cost the U.S. economy 6% of the gross national product (Persson, 2000). For example, 5% of the total energy generated in an automobile engine is lost to frictional resistance. The study of nanoscale friction has a technological impact in reducing energy loss in machines, in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and in the development of durable, low-friction surfaces and ultra-thin lubrication films.

  14. Influence of the spatial confinement at nanoscale on the structural surface charging in magnetic nanocolloids.

    PubMed

    Campos, A F C; Aquino, R; Tourinho, F A; Paula, F L O; Depeyrot, J

    2013-04-01

    In this work we focus on the surface charging properties of core shell ferrite nanoparticles dispersed in water, namely magnetic nanocolloids. This structural charge results from the Brönsted acid-base behavior of the particles surface sites and is achieved through hydrolysis reactions. It can be modeled by considering identical charged sites behaving as weak diprotic acids. Then, electrochemical techniques could be implemented to study the acid-base equilibrium between the particle surface and the colloid bulk solution. Simultaneous potentio-conductimetric titrations are therefore performed to determine the thermodynamical constants of the p H-dependent reactions and to obtain the p H variations of the surface charge density. The results reveal that the saturation value of the structural charge strongly depends on the nanoparticle mean size. For large particles, the surface tends to be fully ionized whereas for smaller particles the saturated structural charge decreases drastically. This surface charge reduction is attributed to the existence in smaller particles of metallic surface sites, which cannot be accessible to the proton charge. The existence of such dead sites would be related to hydroxo-bonded sites with very low acidity combined with a quantum size effect, which would affect the charging/discharging process at the surface of the semiconductor ferrite quantum dot. PMID:23612746

  15. Magnonic crystals—Prospective structures for shaping spin waves in nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychły, J.; Gruszecki, P.; Mruczkiewicz, M.; Kłos, J. W.; Mamica, S.; Krawczyk, M.

    2015-10-01

    We have investigated theoretically band structure of spin waves in magnonic crystals with periodicity in one- (1D), two- (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). We have solved Landau-Lifshitz equation with the use of plane wave method, finite element method in frequency domain and micromagnetic simulations in time domain to find the dynamics of spin waves and spectrum of their eigenmodes. The spin wave spectra were calculated in linear approximation. In this paper we show usefulness of these methods in calculations of various types of spin waves. We demonstrate the surface character of the Damon-Eshbach spin wave in 1D magnonic crystals and change of its surface localization with the band number and wavenumber in the first Brillouin zone. The surface property of the spin wave excitation is further exploited by covering plate of the magnonic crystal with conductor. The band structure in 2D magnonic crystals is complex due to additional spatial inhomogeneity introduced by the demagnetizing field. This modifies spin wave dispersion, makes the band structure of magnonic crystals strongly dependent on shape of the inclusions and type of the lattice. The inhomogeneity of the internal magnetic field becomes unimportant for magnonic crystals with small lattice constant, where exchange interactions dominate. For 3D magnonic crystals, characterized by small lattice constant, wide magnonic band gap is found. We show that the spatial distribution of different materials in magnonic crystals can be explored for tailored effective damping of spin waves.

  16. Topography-Correlated Confocal Raman Microscopy with Cylindrical Vector Beams for Probing Nanoscale Structural Order.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Broch, Katharina; Scholz, Reinhard; Schreiber, Frank; Meixner, Alfred J; Zhang, Dai

    2014-04-01

    Cylindrical vector beams, such as radially or azimuthally polarized doughnut beams, are combined with topography studies of pentacene thin films, allowing us to correlate Raman spectroscopy with intermolecular interactions depending on the particular pentacene polymorph. Polarization-dependent Raman spectra of the C-H bending vibrations are resolved layer by layer within a thin film of ∼20 nm thickness. The variation of the Raman peak positions indicates changes in the molecular orientation and in the local environment at different heights of the pentacene film. With the assistance of a theoretical model based on harmonic oscillator and perturbation theory, our method reveals the local structural order and the polymorph at different locations within the same pentacene thin film, depending mainly on its thickness. In good agreement with the crystallographic structures reported in the literature, our observations demonstrate that the first few monolayers grown in a structure are closer to the thin-film phase, but for larger film thicknesses, the morphology evolves toward the crystal-bulk phase with a larger tilting angle of the pentacene molecules against the substrate normal. PMID:26274447

  17. Mueller based scatterometry measurement of nanoscale structures with anisotropic in-plane optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthinti, Gangadhara R.; Medikonda, Manasa; Fronheiser, Jody; Kamineni, Vimal K.; Peterson, Brennan; Race, Joseph; Diebold, Alain C.

    2013-04-01

    The uses of strained channel became prevalent at the 65 nm node and have continued to be a large part of logic device performance improvements in every technology generation. These material and integration innovations will continue to be important in sub-22nm devices, and are already being applied in finFET devices where total available in-channel strains are potentially higher. The measurement of structures containing these materials is complicated by the intrinsic correlation of the measured optical thickness and variation of optical properties with strain, as well as the dramatic reduction in total volume of the device. Optical scatterometry has enabled characterization of the feature shape and dimensions of complex 3D structures, including non-planar transistors and memory structures. Ellipsometric methods have been successfully applied to the measurement of thin films of SiGe and related strained structures. A direction for research is validating that the thin film stress results can be extended into the much more physically complex 3D shape. There are clear challenges in this: the stress in a SiGe fin is constrained to match the underlying Si along one axis, but the sides and top are free, leading to very large strain gradients both along the fin width and height. Practical utilization of optical techniques as a development tool is often limited by the complexity of the scatterometry model and setup, and this added material complexity presents a new challenge. In this study, generalized spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements of strained grating was undertaken, in parallel with reference cross sectional and top down SEM data. The measurements were modeled for both anisotropy calculations, as well as full scatterometry calculations, fitting the strain and structure. The degree to which strain and CD can be quickly quantified in an optical model is discussed. Sum decomposition method has been implemented to extract the effective anisotropic coefficients and a

  18. Nanoscale Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yufeng; Tolic, Nikola; Masselon, Christophe D.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Camp, David G.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes efforts to develop a liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS) technology for ultra-sensitive proteomics studies, i.e. nanoscale proteomics. The approach combines high-efficiency nano-scale LC with advanced MS, including high sensitivity and high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS, to perform both single-stage MS and tandem MS (MS/MS) proteomic analyses. The technology developed enables large-scale protein identification from nanogram size proteomic samples and characterization of more abundant proteins from sub-picogram size complex samples. Protein identification in such studies using MS is feasible from <75 zeptomole of a protein, and the average proteome measurement throughput is >200 proteins/h and ~3 h/sample. Higher throughput (>1000 proteins/h) and more sensitive detection limits can be obtained using a “accurate mass and time” tag approach developed at our laboratory. These capabilities lay the foundation for studies from single or limited numbers of cells.

  19. High-performance computing in structural mechanics and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Adeli, H.; Kamat, M.P.; Kulkarni, G.; Vanluchene, R.D. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta Montana State Univ., Bozeman )

    1993-07-01

    Recent advances in computer hardware and software have made multiprocessing a viable and attractive technology. This paper reviews high-performance computing methods in structural mechanics and engineering through the use of a new generation of multiprocessor computers. The paper presents an overview of vector pipelining, performance metrics for parallel and vector computers, programming languages, and general programming considerations. Recent developments in the application of concurrent processing techniques to the solution of structural mechanics and engineering problems are reviewed, with special emphasis on linear structural analysis, nonlinear structural analysis, transient structural analysis, dynamics of multibody flexible systems, and structural optimization. 64 refs.

  20. Phase Behavior and Nanoscale Structure of Phospholipid Membranes Incorporated with Acylated C14-Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Tina B.; Kaasgaard, Thomas; Jensen, Morten Ø.; Frokjaer, Sven; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Jørgensen, Kent

    2005-01-01

    The thermotropic phase behavior and lateral structure of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers containing an acylated peptide has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on vesicles and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on mica-supported bilayers. The acylated peptide, which is a synthetic decapeptide N-terminally linked to a C14 acyl chain (C14-peptide), is incorporated into DPPC bilayers in amounts ranging from 0–20 mol %. The calorimetric scans of the two-component system demonstrate a distinct influence of the C14-peptide on the lipid bilayer thermodynamics. This is manifested as a concentration-dependent downshift of both the main phase transition and the pretransition. In addition, the main phase transition peak is significantly broadened, indicating phase coexistence. In the AFM imaging scans we found that the C14-peptide, when added to supported gel phase DPPC bilayers, inserts preferentially into preexisting defect regions and has a noticeable influence on the organization of the surrounding lipids. The presence of the C14-peptide gives rise to a laterally heterogeneous bilayer structure with coexisting lipid domains characterized by a 10 Å height difference. The AFM images also show that the appearance of the ripple phase of the DPPC lipid bilayers is unaffected by the C14-peptide. The experimental results are supported by molecular dynamics simulations, which show that the C14-peptide has a disordering effect on the lipid acyl chains and causes a lateral expansion of the lipid bilayer. These effects are most pronounced for gel-like bilayer structures and support the observed downshift in the phase-transition temperature. Moreover, the molecular dynamics data indicate a tendency of a tryptophan residue in the peptide sequence to position itself in the bilayer headgroup region. PMID:16100273

  1. Geometry-induced spin-ice structures prepared by self-organization on the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Haering, Felix; Wiedwald, Ulf; Häberle, Thomas; Han, Luyang; Plettl, Alfred; Koslowski, Berndt; Ziemann, Paul

    2013-02-01

    We use non-close packed colloidal lithography to prepare hexagonal magnetic antidot arrays with varying diameters at a period of 205 nm. Smaller antidots are attractive for applications as spin waveguides in magnonics. Larger antidots form a magnetically frustrated system, i.e. Kagome spin-ice, as we prove by magnetic force microscopy. The simple but effective approach successfully extends the limits of top-down lithography previously used to study spin-ice configurations and emergent magnetic monopoles towards smaller structures. PMID:23324730

  2. Geometry-induced spin-ice structures prepared by self-organization on the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haering, Felix; Wiedwald, Ulf; Häberle, Thomas; Han, Luyang; Plettl, Alfred; Koslowski, Berndt; Ziemann, Paul

    2013-02-01

    We use non-close packed colloidal lithography to prepare hexagonal magnetic antidot arrays with varying diameters at a period of 205 nm. Smaller antidots are attractive for applications as spin waveguides in magnonics. Larger antidots form a magnetically frustrated system, i.e. Kagome spin-ice, as we prove by magnetic force microscopy. The simple but effective approach successfully extends the limits of top-down lithography previously used to study spin-ice configurations and emergent magnetic monopoles towards smaller structures.

  3. Nanoscale resolved infrared probing of crystal structure and of plasmon-phonon coupling.

    PubMed

    Huber, A; Ocelic, N; Taubner, T; Hillenbrand, R

    2006-04-01

    We show that slight variations of a crystal lattice cause significant spectral modifications of phonon-polariton resonant near-field interaction between polar semiconductor crystals and a scanning metal tip. Exploiting the effect for near-field imaging a SiC polytype boundary, we establish infrared mapping of crystal structure and crystal defects at 20 nm spatial resolution (lambda/500). By spectroscopic probing of doped SiC polytypes, we find that phonon-polariton resonant near-field interaction is also sensitive to electronic properties due to plasmon-phonon coupling in the crystals. PMID:16608282

  4. Viscoelastic properties and nanoscale structures of composite oligopeptide-polysaccharide hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Laura L; Taraban, Marc B; Feng, Yue; Hammouda, Boualem; Yu, Y Bruce

    2012-03-01

    Biocompatible and biodegradable peptide hydrogels are drawing increasing attention as prospective materials for human soft tissue repair and replacement. To improve the rather unfavorable mechanical properties of our pure peptide hydrogels, in this work we examined the possibility of creating a double hydrogel network. This network was created by means of the coassembly of mutually attractive, but self-repulsive oligopeptides within an already-existing fibrous network formed by the charged, biocompatible polysaccharides chitosan, alginate, and chondroitin. Using dynamic oscillatory rheology experiments, it was found that the coassembly of the peptides within the existing polysaccharide network resulted in a less stiff material as compared to the pure peptide networks (the elastic modulus G' decreased from 90 to 10 kPa). However, these composite oligopeptide-polysaccharide hydrogels were characterized by a greater resistance to deformation (the yield strain γ grew from 4 to 100%). Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to study the 2D cross-sectional shapes of the fibers, their dimensional characteristics, and the mesh sizes of the fibrous networks. Differences in material structures found with SANS experiments confirmed rheology data, showing that incorporation of the peptides dramatically changed the morphology of the polysaccharide network. The resulting fibers were structurally very similar to those forming the pure peptide networks, but formed less stiff gels because of their markedly greater mesh sizes. Together, these findings suggest an approach for the development of highly deformation-resistant biomaterials. PMID:21994046

  5. Structural characterization of nanoscale intermetallic precipitates in highly neutron irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sprouster, D. J.; Sinsheimer, J.; Dooryhee, E.; Ghose, S.; Wells, P.; Stan, T.; Almirall, N.; Odette, G. R.; Ecker, L. E.

    2015-10-21

    Here, massive, thick-walled pressure vessels are permanent nuclear reactor structures that are exposed to a damaging flux of neutrons from the adjacent core. The neutrons cause embrittlement of the vessel steel that increases with dose (fluence or service time), as manifested by an increasing temperature transition from ductile-to-brittle fracture. Moreover, extending reactor life requires demonstrating that large safety margins against brittle fracture are maintained at the higher neutron fluence associated with 60 to 80 years of service. Here synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction and small angle x-ray scattering measurements are used to characterize a new class of highly embrittling nm-scale Mn-Ni-Si precipitates that develop in the irradiated steels at high fluence. Furthermore, these precipitates can lead to severe embrittlement that is not accounted for in current regulatory models. Application of the complementarity techniques has, for the very first time, successfully characterized the crystal structures of the nanoprecipitates, while also yielding self-consistent compositions, volume fractions and size distributions.

  6. Structural characterization of nanoscale intermetallic precipitates in highly neutron irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sprouster, D. J.; Sinsheimer, J.; Dooryhee, E.; Ghose, S.; Wells, P.; Stan, T.; Almirall, N.; Odette, G. R.; Ecker, L. E.

    2015-10-21

    Here, massive, thick-walled pressure vessels are permanent nuclear reactor structures that are exposed to a damaging flux of neutrons from the adjacent core. The neutrons cause embrittlement of the vessel steel that increases with dose (fluence or service time), as manifested by an increasing temperature transition from ductile-to-brittle fracture. Moreover, extending reactor life requires demonstrating that large safety margins against brittle fracture are maintained at the higher neutron fluence associated with 60 to 80 years of service. Here synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction and small angle x-ray scattering measurements are used to characterize a new class of highly embrittling nm-scale Mn-Ni-Si precipitatesmore » that develop in the irradiated steels at high fluence. Furthermore, these precipitates can lead to severe embrittlement that is not accounted for in current regulatory models. Application of the complementarity techniques has, for the very first time, successfully characterized the crystal structures of the nanoprecipitates, while also yielding self-consistent compositions, volume fractions and size distributions.« less

  7. Nanoscale structural and electronic characterization of α-RuCl3 layered compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziatdinov, Maxim; Maksov, Artem; Banerjee, Arnab; Zhou, Wu; Berlijn, Tom; Yan, Jiaqiang; Nagler, Stephen; Mandrus, David; Baddorf, Arthur; Kalinin, Sergei

    The exceptional interplay of spin-orbit effects, Coulomb interaction, and electron-lattice coupling is expected to produce an elaborate phase space of α-RuCl3 layered compound, which to date remains largely unexplored. Here we employ a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) for detailed evaluation of the system's microscopic structural and electronic orders with a sub-nanometer precision. The STM and STEM measurements are further supported by neutron scattering, X-Ray diffraction, density functional theory (DFT), and multivariate statistical analysis. Our results show a trigonal distortion of Cl octahedral ligand cage along the C3 symmetry axes in each RuCl3 layer. The lattice distortion is limited mainly to the Cl subsystem leaving the Ru honeycomb lattice nearly intact. The STM topographic and spectroscopic characterization reveals an intra unit cell electronic symmetry breaking in a spin-orbit coupled Mott insulating phase on the Cl-terminated surface of α-RuCl3. The associated long-range charge order (CO) pattern is linked to a surface component of Cl cage distortion. We finally discuss a fine structure of CO and its potential relation to variations of average unit cell geometries found in multivariate analysis of STEM data. The research was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. Achieving Thermodynamic Limit of Subthreshold Slope in Nanoscale Schottky Barrier MOSFET with Pillar Structure Inserted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Yong; Jung, Sungchul; Park, Kibog

    As the device size decreases continuously by scaling in the current Si CMOS technology, subthreshold slope which is related to device operation and leakage current becomes more and more important. Especially, the drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) modulation for improving subthreshold slope in metal/oxide/metal field effect transistor (MOSFET) is difficult to achieve. We propose a new device structure, edge-over Schottky Barrier MOSFET (EO-SB-MOSFET), which shows low DIBL and subthreshold slope approaching the thermodynamic limit of 60 mV/DEC at room temperature. EO-SB-MOSFET has a pillar structure which elongates the transistor channel by forming it over the edge of pillar. Hence, EO-SB-MOSFET has a much longer channel compared with planar MOSFET in the same pitch. We performed 2-dimensional TCAD modeling on an EO-SB-MOSFET with channel lateral size of 6.5 nm and pillar height of 36 nm. The TCAD modeling predicts DIBL of ~5 mV/V, subthreshold slope of ~61.3 mV/DEC, and off-state current of ~0.1 nA/ μm at drain bias 0.5 V. It is also noticed that the subthreshold slope gets further close to the thermodynamic limit as the pillar height increases. Supported by NRF in South Korea (2013R1A1A2007070).

  9. Viscoelastic Properties and Nano-scale Structures of Composite Oligopeptide-Polysaccharide Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, Laura L.; Taraban, Marc B.; Feng, Yue; Hammouda, Boualem; Yu, Y. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Biocompatible and biodegradable peptide hydrogels are drawing increasing attention as prospective materials for human soft tissue repair and replacement. To improve the rather unfavorable mechanical properties of our pure peptide hydrogels, in this work we examined the possibility of creating a double hydrogel network. This network was created by means of the co-assembly of mutually attractive but self-repulsive oligopeptides within an already existing fibrous network formed by the charged, biocompatible polysaccharides chitosan, alginate, and chondroitin. Using dynamic oscillatory rheology experiments, it was found that the co-assembly of the peptides within the existing polysaccharide network resulted in a less stiff material as compared to the pure peptide networks (the elastic modulus G′ decreased from 90 kPa to 10 kPa). However, these composite oligopeptide-polysaccharide hydrogels were characterized by a greater resistance to deformation (the yield strain γ grew from 4 % to 100 %). Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to study the 2D cross-sectional shapes of the fibers, their dimensional characteristics and the mesh sizes of the fibrous networks. Differences in material structures found with SANS experiments confirmed rheology data showing that incorporation of the peptides dramatically changed the morphology of the polysaccharide network. The resulting fibers were structurally very similar to those forming the pure peptide networks, but formedless stiff gels because of their markedly greater mesh sizes. Together, these findings suggest an approach for the development of highly deformation-resistant biomaterials. PMID:21994046

  10. Nanoscale self-assembly of starch: Phase relations, formation, and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creek, John A.

    This project has been undertaken to develop a fundamental understanding of the spherulitic self-assembly of starch polymers from aqueous solution, both as a model for starch granule initiation in vivo and as a biologically-inspired material with applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Botanical starches were observed to form semi-crystalline spherulites from aqueous solution when cooled after a high temperature treatment, and the processes resulting in spherulite formation were investigated. Based on the influence of cooling rate on spherulite formation from a botanical starch, liquid-liquid demixing in competition with crystallization was proposed as the mechanism leading to spherulite formation (summarized in a hypothetical phase diagram). Study of amylose and amylopectin self-assembly demonstrated that the linear polymer plays the primary role in forming spherulites. As a result, the roles of degree of polymerization, concentration, and thermal processing conditions on amylose self-assembly were explored. Thermal properties, final system morphology, and crystalline allomorph were characterized. In all cases the experimental findings supported the proposed phase diagram. Finally, the crystalline nanostructure of the spherulites was probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), revealing a seemingly universal level of structure in crystalline starch materials. This was compared to an existing model of crystallization for synthetic polymers involving a transitional liquid crystalline-like ordering---a comparison that makes sense in light of the known helical structure of starch.

  11. Measurement of electronic structure at nanoscale solid-solid interfaces by surface-sensitive electron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.-Q.; Henrich, Victor E.; Altman, Eric I.

    2008-01-07

    We explore the use of electron spectroscopy that samples the near-surface region of a crystal to study the electronic structure at the buried interfaces between two dissimilar transition-metal oxides. The interface is probed by comparing experimental ultraviolet photoelectron spectra to model spectra and by taking sequential differences between the experimental spectra as one oxide is grown on another. Using (100) Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NiO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CoO interfaces grown by molecular beam epitaxy, we show that there is a much higher density of electronic states at the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CoO interface than at the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NiO interface. The origin of this difference is discussed.

  12. Nanoscale structural and mechanical characterization of bamboo-like polymer/silicon nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Hai; Li, Xiaodong; Gao, Hongsheng; Nguyen, Thien-Phap

    2005-09-01

    In an attempt to mimic the bamboo's architecture, bamboo-like polymer/silicon nanocomposites were synthesized by filling silicon nanopores with two conjugated polymers, namely poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) and its derivative poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEHPPV). The microstructure, elastic modulus, hardness, nanoscratch resistance, and fracture toughness of the bamboo-like polymer/nanoporous silicon (PS) films were investigated using different functions of an atomic force microscope and nanoindentation techniques. The fracture toughness of MEHPPV- and PPV-filled PS films is 2 and 1.6 times higher than that of PS, respectively, although their elastic modulus and hardness decrease compared to PS. Strengthening and deformation mechanisms are discussed in conjunction with nanocomposite structure, hardness, elastic modulus and nanoscratch resistance.

  13. Characterization of multi-scale porous structure of fly ash/phosphate geopolymer hollow sphere structures: from submillimeter to nano-scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruifeng; Wu, Gaohui; Jiang, Longtao; Sun, Dongli

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the porous structure of fly ash/phosphate geopolymer hollow sphere structures (FPGHSS), prepared by pre-bonding and curing technology, has been characterized by multi-resolution methods from sub-millimeter to nano-scale. Micro-CT and confocal microscopy could provide the macroscopic distribution of porous structure on sub-millimeter scale, and hollow fly ashes with sphere shape and several sub-millimeter open cells with irregular shape were identified. SEM is more suitable to illustrate the distribution of micro-sized open and closed cells, and it was found that the open cells of FPGHSS were mainly formed in the interstitial porosity between fly ashes. Mercury porosimeter measurement showed that the micro-sized open cell of FPGHSS demonstrated a normal/bimodal distribution, and the peaks of pore size distribution were mainly around 100 and 10 μm. TEM observation revealed that the phosphate geopolymer was mainly composed of the porous area with nano-pores and dense areas, which were amorphous Al-O-P phase and α-Al2O3 respectively. The pore size of nano-pores demonstrated a quasi-normal distribution from about 10 to 100 nm. Therefore, detailed information of the porous structure of FPGHSS could be revealed using multiple methods. PMID:25282522

  14. Nanoscale Mechanics of Helical and Angular Structures: Exploring and Expanding the Capabilities of Objective Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, Ilia Andreyevich

    Objective molecular dynamics (OMD) is a recently developed generalization of the traditionally employed periodic boundary conditions (PBC) used in atomistic simulations. OMD allows for helical and/or rotational symmetries to be exploited in addition to translational symmetry. These symmetries are especially prevalent in nanostructures, and OMD enables or facilitates many simulations that were previously dicult or impossible to carry out. This includes simulations of pristine structures that inherently possess helical and/or angular symmetries (such as nanotubes), structures that contain defects (such as screw disclocations) or stuctures that are subjected to deformations (such as bending or torsion). OMD is already a powerful method, having been coupled with the quantum-mechanical density functional-based tight-binding (DFTB) method, as well as with classical potentials. In this work, these capabilities are used to investigate electromechanical properties of silicon nanowires, treating the mechanical simulation results in the context of continuum mechanics. The bending of graphene is studied, and the underlying molecular orbital mechanisms are investigated. The implications of the results on other simulation methods used to study bending of graphene are discussed. OMD is used in an experimental-theoretical collaboration studying the kinking of graphene and boron nitride nanoribbons. The simulations elucidate and quantify the underlying mechanism behind the kinking seen in experiments. Although theoretically, as a generalization, OMD can match or exceed the capabilities of PBC in all cases, OMD is a new method. Thus, practical implementation must be tackled to expand the capabilities of OMD to new simulation methods and simulation types. In this work, OMD is expanded to allow coupling with self-consistent charge (SCC) DFTB, by developing and implementing the required summation formulas for electrostatic and dispersion interactions. SCC-DFTB is an improved form of

  15. Templated synthesis of porous particles with tunable pore structures from nanoscale building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiwang

    Porous silica, carbon, titania and carbon/silica composite micro- or nano-materials have been synthesized by the templated self-assembly approaches through an aerosol-assisted process or hydrothermal technique. Porous silica particles with controllable hierarchical pore structure (from hexagonal to lamellar or hierarchical) have been prepared through tuning the hydrophilic and hydrophobic balance among silicate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and hydrophobic poly(propylene oxide) (PPO, H[OCH(CH 3)CH2nOH) additives during a dynamic aerosol-assisted process. Aerosol-assisted self-assembly of hollow silica microspheres with microporous shell (HSMMS) are prepared by utilizing the block copolymer F127's aggregating behavior in basic solution and the self-assembly between silicate and amphiphilic tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH) molecules. Interactions of TPAOH with both F127 and silicate are necessary for avoiding the phase separation between silicate and F127 aggregates because of the lack of hydrogen bonding interactions. Therefore, F127 aggregates with various sizes act as the core template while TPAOH molecules or TPAOH aggregates formed by excessive TPAOH molecules stay in the silica shell. Removal of F127 and TPAOH by solvent extraction results in the HSMMS materials. Mesoporous carbon/silica composite with both meso- and molecular ordering has been synthesized by carbonization of as-synthesized phenylene/silica/surfactant hybrid by co-assembly of BTEB and Pluronic surfactant P123. Removal of silica from carbon/silica composite results in the mesoporous carbon which retains some of the meso-ordering and has many worm-like pores due to silica dissolution. This mesoporous carbon has potential applications in such field as hydrogen storage, catalysis, and other areas. Hollow carbon microspheres with micropores in the shell and carbon nanotubes on the outer surface have been prepared using resols as the carbon precursor and hydrophobic PPO additives as

  16. Nanoscale carbon materials from hydrocarbons pyrolysis: Structure, chemical behavior, utilisation for non-aqueous supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Savilov, Serguei V.; Strokova, Natalia E.; Ivanov, Anton S.; Arkhipova, Ekaterina A.; Desyatov, Andrey V.; Hui, Xia; Aldoshin, Serguei M.; Lunin, Valery V.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • N-doped and regular carbon nanomaterials were obtained by pyrolitic technique. • Dynamic vapor sorption of different solvents reveals smaller S{sub BET} values. • Steric hindrance and specific chemical interactions are the reasons for this. • Nitrogen doping leads to raise of capacitance and coulombic efficiency with non-aqueous N-containing electrolyte. - Abstract: This work systematically studies adsorption properties of carbon nanomaterials that are synthesized through hydrocarbons that is a powerful technique to fabricate different kinds of carbon materials, e.g., nanotubes, nanoshells, onions, including nitrogen substituted. The adsorption properties of the as-synthesized carbons are achieved by low temperature nitrogen adsorption and organic vapors sorption. Heptane, acetonitrile, water, ethanol, benzene and 1-methylimidazole, which are of great importance for development of supercapacitors, are used as substrates. It is discovered that while nitrogen adsorption reveals a high specific surface area, this parameter for most of organic compounds is rather small depending not only on the size of its molecule but also on chemical interactions for a pair adsorbent–adsorbate. The experimental values of heat of adsorption for carbon and N-substituted structures, when Coulomb cross-coupling of nitrogen atoms in adsorbent and adsorbate takes place, confirms this supposition.

  17. Synthesis, structure, and opto-electronic properties of organic-based nanoscale heterojunctions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Enormous research effort has been put into optimizing organic-based opto-electronic systems for efficient generation of free charge carriers. This optimization is mainly due to typically high dissociation energy (0.1-1 eV) and short diffusion length (10 nm) of excitons in organic materials. Inherently, interplay of microscopic structural, chemical, and opto-electronic properties plays crucial role. We show that employing and combining advanced scanning probe techniques can provide us significant insight into the correlation of these properties. By adjusting parameters of contact- and tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), we perform morphologic and mechanical characterizations (nanoshaving) of organic layers, measure their electrical conductivity by current-sensing AFM, and deduce work functions and surface photovoltage (SPV) effects by Kelvin force microscopy using high spatial resolution. These data are further correlated with local material composition detected using micro-Raman spectroscopy and with other electronic transport data. We demonstrate benefits of this multi-dimensional characterizations on (i) bulk heterojunction of fully organic composite films, indicating differences in blend quality and component segregation leading to local shunts of photovoltaic cell, and (ii) thin-film heterojunction of polypyrrole (PPy) electropolymerized on hydrogen-terminated diamond, indicating covalent bonding and transfer of charge carriers from PPy to diamond. PMID:21711759

  18. Synthesis, structure, and opto-electronic properties of organic-based nanoscale heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezek, Bohuslav; Čermák, Jan; Kromka, Alexander; Ledinský, Martin; Hubík, Pavel; Mareš, Jiří J.; Purkrt, Adam; Cimrová, Vĕra; Fejfar, Antonín; Kočka, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Enormous research effort has been put into optimizing organic-based opto-electronic systems for efficient generation of free charge carriers. This optimization is mainly due to typically high dissociation energy (0.1-1 eV) and short diffusion length (10 nm) of excitons in organic materials. Inherently, interplay of microscopic structural, chemical, and opto-electronic properties plays crucial role. We show that employing and combining advanced scanning probe techniques can provide us significant insight into the correlation of these properties. By adjusting parameters of contact- and tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), we perform morphologic and mechanical characterizations (nanoshaving) of organic layers, measure their electrical conductivity by current-sensing AFM, and deduce work functions and surface photovoltage (SPV) effects by Kelvin force microscopy using high spatial resolution. These data are further correlated with local material composition detected using micro-Raman spectroscopy and with other electronic transport data. We demonstrate benefits of this multi-dimensional characterizations on (i) bulk heterojunction of fully organic composite films, indicating differences in blend quality and component segregation leading to local shunts of photovoltaic cell, and (ii) thin-film heterojunction of polypyrrole (PPy) electropolymerized on hydrogen-terminated diamond, indicating covalent bonding and transfer of charge carriers from PPy to diamond.

  19. First Principles Modeling of Phonon Heat Conduction in Nanoscale Crystalline Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandip Mazumder; Ju Li

    2010-06-30

    of optical phonons, and (2) by developing a suite of numerical algorithms for solution of the BTE for phonons. The suite of numerical algorithms includes Monte Carlo techniques and deterministic techniques based on the Discrete Ordinates Method and the Ballistic-Diffusive approximation of the BTE. These methods were applied to calculation of thermal conductivity of silicon thin films, and to simulate heat conduction in multi-dimensional structures. In addition, thermal transport in silicon nanowires was investigated using two different first principles methods. One was to apply the Green-Kubo formulation to an equilibrium system. The other was to use Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD). Results of MD simulations showed that the nanowire cross-sectional shape and size significantly affects the thermal conductivity, as has been found experimentally. In summary, the project clarified the role of various phonon modes - in particular, optical phonon - in non-equilibrium transport in silicon. It laid the foundation for the solution of the BTE in complex three-dimensional structures using deterministic techniques, paving the way for the development of robust numerical tools that could be coupled to existing device simulation tools to enable coupled electro-thermal modeling of practical electronic/optoelectronic devices. Finally, it shed light on why the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires is so sensitive to its cross-sectional shape.

  20. Nano-scale Studies of the Assembly, Structure and Properties of Hybrid Organic-Silicon Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Shoma

    Advancements in the field of electronics might be achieved by future molecular scale devices. Hybrid organic-silicon structures have the potential to overcome many challenges facing the use of molecules as devices while maintaining the ability to interface with traditional silicon technology. The objective of this dissertation was to advance our base knowledge of the interactions, behaviour and properties of simple molecular systems and the Si(100):2 × 1 surface. Experimental studies conducted with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and complemented with theoretical investigations, primarily density functional theory (DFT), were utilized to investigate three principle areas of interest: (1) the transport behaviour of monolayers, patterned regions, or nanostructures, (2) surface diffusion and (3) properties of self-assembled molecular lines. The tunneling current versus applied bias behaviour of the clean, the monohydride and the styrene passivated Si(100):2 × 1 surfaces were studied. An energy band model was formed that incorporates surface dipole characteristics and band bending to describe tunneling current transport. The transport behaviour from patterns of clean, styrene covered, and 4-fluorostyrene covered Si(100):2 × 1 on otherwise monohydride terminated Si(100):2 × 1 were subsequently studied. Comparison with the observations from the full monolayers provided evidence for conduction through surface states. Studies of the transport behaviour of styrene molecular lines were also performed. Surface diffusion is an important aspect of self-assembly. A novel experimental method for studying aspects of diffusion that removes STM tip effects was developed and used to study the diffusion anisotropy of styrene and 4-uorostyrene on HSi( 100):2 × 1. These studies were complemented with DFT energy calculations and Monte Carlo methods to incorporate dynamic effects. Various studies were conducted on self-assembled molecular lines. In addition to studying the

  1. A Mechanistic Study of Nanoscale Structure Development, Phase Transition, Morphology Evolution, and Growth of Ultrathin Barium Titanate Nanostructured Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashiri, Rouholah

    2014-08-01

    In the present work, an improved method is developed for preparing highly pure ultrathin barium titanate nanostructured films with desired structural and morphological characteristics. In contrast to other approaches, our method can be carried out at a relatively lower temperature to obtain barium titanate ultrathin films free from secondary phases, impurities, and cracks. To reach an in-depth understanding of scientific basis of the proposed process, and in order to disclose the mechanism of formation and growth of barium titanate ultrathin film, in-detail analysis is carried out using XRD, SEM, FE-SEM, and AFM techniques aided by theoretical calculations. The effects of calcining temperature on the nanoscale structure development, phase transition, morphology evolution, and growth mechanism of the ultrathin barium titanate nanostructured films are studied. XRD results indicate that the reaction leading to the formation of the barium titanate initiates at about 873 K (600 °C) and completes at about 1073 K (800 °C). Moreover, secondary phases are not detected in the XRD patterns of the ultrathin films which this observation ensures the phase purity of the ultrathin films. The results show that the ultrathin films are nanothickness and nanostructured leading to the enhancement of rate of diffusion by activating short-circuit diffusion mechanisms. The high rate of the diffusion enhances the rate of the formation of barium titanate and also prevents from the formation of the secondary phases in the final products. SEM and AFM results indicate that the deposited ultrathin films are crack-free exhibiting a dense nanogranular structure. The results indicate that the root-mean square (RMS) roughness of the ultrathin films is in the range of 1.66 to 6.71 nm indicating the surface of the ultrathin films is smooth. RMS roughness also increases with an increase in the calcining temperature which this observation seems to be related to the grain growth process. Finally

  2. Information and telecommunication system for monitoring of hydraulic engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlycheva, Nadezhda K.; Akhmetgaleeva, Railia R.; Muslimov, Eduard R.; Murav'eva, Elena V.; Peplov, Artem A.; Sibgatulina, Dina S.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present the information and telecommunications system that allows to carry out real-time monitoring of the quality and quantity of hydraulic engineering structures in order to reduce the risk of emergencies caused by environmental damage.

  3. The role of strain and structure on oxygen ion conduction in nanoscale zirconia and ceria thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), an all solid-state energy conversion device, are promising for their high efficiency and materials stability. The solid oxide electrolytes are a key component that must provide high ionic conductivity, which is especially challenging for intermediate temperature SOFCs operating between 500 °C - 700 °C. Doped zirconia and ceria are the most common solid electrolyte materials. Recent reports have suggested that nanoscale ytrria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films may provide better performance in this regard. However, the mechanism behind the increased conductivity of nanoscale thin films is still unclear and the reported experimental results are controversial. In the thesis presented here, the effects of mechanical strain and microstructure on the ionic conductivity have been investigated in ultrathin zirconia- and ceria-based thin films. Reactive RF co-sputtering with metal targets was used to prepare zirconia and ceria based thin films for high purity, modulated composition and thickness. The films were as thin as 10-20 atomic layers thick. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were the main tools to investigate the composition, crystal orientation and microstructure of these sputtered thin films. Microscale interdigitated Pt electrodes were prepared through a lift-off process using photolithography. The electrochemical properties of these sputtered doped zirconia and ceria thin films were investigated using impedance spectroscopy. YSZ thin films deposited on MgO (111) and, especially, MgO (100) showed highly variable crystal orientations, while MgO (110) offered much more stable growth. Regardless of whether the growth was epitaxial or highly disordered polycrystalline, 50 nm thick YSZ thin films on MgO (100), (110), and (111) substrates exhibited similar conductivity with YSZ single crystal. While decreasing the thickness further to 12 nm, the conductivities of YSZ thin films

  4. Aero/structural tailoring of engine blades (AERO/STAEBL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, K. W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the Aero/Structural Tailoring of Engine Blades (AERO/STAEBL) program, which is a computer code used to perform engine fan and compressor blade aero/structural numerical optimizations. These optimizations seek a blade design of minimum operating cost that satisfies realistic blade design constraints. This report documents the overall program (i.e., input, optimization procedures, approximate analyses) and also provides a detailed description of the validation test cases.

  5. Structural, electronic, optical and vibrational properties of nanoscale carbons and nanowires: a colloquial review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Milton W.; Crespi, Vincent H.; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Dresselhaus, Gene; Fischer, John E.; Gutierrez, Humberto R.; Kojima, K.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Rao, Apparao M.; Sofo, Jorge O.; Tachibana, M.; Wako, K.; Xiong, Qihua

    2010-08-01

    This review addresses the field of nanoscience as viewed through the lens of the scientific career of Peter Eklund, thus with a special focus on nanocarbons and nanowires. Peter brought to his research an intense focus, imagination, tenacity, breadth and ingenuity rarely seen in modern science. His goal was to capture the essential physics of natural phenomena. This attitude also guides our writing: we focus on basic principles, without sacrificing accuracy, while hoping to convey an enthusiasm for the science commensurate with Peter's. The term 'colloquial review' is intended to capture this style of presentation. The diverse phenomena of condensed matter physics involve electrons, phonons and the structures within which excitations reside. The 'nano' regime presents particularly interesting and challenging science. Finite size effects play a key role, exemplified by the discrete electronic and phonon spectra of C60 and other fullerenes. The beauty of such molecules (as well as nanotubes and graphene) is reflected by the theoretical principles that govern their behavior. As to the challenge, 'nano' requires special care in materials preparation and treatment, since the surface-to-volume ratio is so high; they also often present difficulties of acquiring an experimental signal, since the samples can be quite small. All of the atoms participate in the various phenomena, without any genuinely 'bulk' properties. Peter was a master of overcoming such challenges. The primary activity of Eklund's research was to measure and understand the vibrations of atoms in carbon materials. Raman spectroscopy was very dear to Peter. He published several papers on the theory of phonons (Eklund et al 1995a Carbon 33 959-72, Eklund et al 1995b Thin Solid Films 257 211-32, Eklund et al 1992 J. Phys. Chem. Solids 53 1391-413, Dresselhaus and Eklund 2000 Adv. Phys. 49 705-814) and many more papers on measuring phonons (Pimenta et al 1998b Phys. Rev. B 58 16016-9, Rao et al 1997a Nature

  6. Structural, electronic, optical and vibrational properties of nanoscale carbons and nanowires: a colloquial review.

    PubMed

    Cole, Milton W; Crespi, Vincent H; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Dresselhaus, Gene; Fischer, John E; Gutierrez, Humberto R; Kojima, K; Mahan, Gerald D; Rao, Apparao M; Sofo, Jorge O; Tachibana, M; Wako, K; Xiong, Qihua

    2010-08-25

    This review addresses the field of nanoscience as viewed through the lens of the scientific career of Peter Eklund, thus with a special focus on nanocarbons and nanowires. Peter brought to his research an intense focus, imagination, tenacity, breadth and ingenuity rarely seen in modern science. His goal was to capture the essential physics of natural phenomena. This attitude also guides our writing: we focus on basic principles, without sacrificing accuracy, while hoping to convey an enthusiasm for the science commensurate with Peter's. The term 'colloquial review' is intended to capture this style of presentation. The diverse phenomena of condensed matter physics involve electrons, phonons and the structures within which excitations reside. The 'nano' regime presents particularly interesting and challenging science. Finite size effects play a key role, exemplified by the discrete electronic and phonon spectra of C(60) and other fullerenes. The beauty of such molecules (as well as nanotubes and graphene) is reflected by the theoretical principles that govern their behavior. As to the challenge, 'nano' requires special care in materials preparation and treatment, since the surface-to-volume ratio is so high; they also often present difficulties of acquiring an experimental signal, since the samples can be quite small. All of the atoms participate in the various phenomena, without any genuinely 'bulk' properties. Peter was a master of overcoming such challenges. The primary activity of Eklund's research was to measure and understand the vibrations of atoms in carbon materials. Raman spectroscopy was very dear to Peter. He published several papers on the theory of phonons (Eklund et al 1995a Carbon 33 959-72, Eklund et al 1995b Thin Solid Films 257 211-32, Eklund et al 1992 J. Phys. Chem. Solids 53 1391-413, Dresselhaus and Eklund 2000 Adv. Phys. 49 705-814) and many more papers on measuring phonons (Pimenta et al 1998b Phys. Rev. B 58 16016-9, Rao et al 1997a Nature

  7. Parameter identification of civil engineering structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, J. N.; Sun, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper concerns the development of an identification method required in determining structural parameter variations for systems subjected to an extended exposure to the environment. The concept of structural identifiability of a large scale structural system in the absence of damping is presented. Three criteria are established indicating that a large number of system parameters (the coefficient parameters of the differential equations) can be identified by a few actuators and sensors. An eight-bay-fifteen-story frame structure is used as example. A simple model is employed for analyzing the dynamic response of the frame structure.

  8. Reduced thermal conductivity by nanoscale intergrowths in perovskite like layered structure La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Khaliq, Jibran; Chen, Kan; Li, Chunchun; Shi, Baogui; Ye, Haitao; Grande, Antonio M.; Yan, Haixue; Reece, Michael J.

    2015-02-21

    The effect of substitution and oxidation-reduction on the thermal conductivity of perovskite-like layered structure (PLS) ceramics was investigated in relation to mass contrast and non-stoichiometry. Sr (acceptor) was substituted on the A site, while Ta (donor) was substituted on the B site of La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Substitution in PLS materials creates atomic scale disorders to accommodate the non-stoichiometry. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and X ray diffraction revealed that acceptor substitution in La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} produced nanoscale intergrowths of n = 5 layered phase, while donor substitution produced nanoscale intergrowths of n = 3 layered phase. As a result of these nanoscale intergrowths, the thermal conductivity value reduced by as much as ∼20%. Pure La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} has a thermal conductivity value of ∼1.3 W/m K which dropped to a value of ∼1.12 W/m K for Sr doped La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} and ∼0.93 W/m K for Ta doped La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} at 573 K.

  9. Structural dynamic analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, L. P.; Jamison, G. T.; Mccutcheon, W. A.; Price, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    This structural dynamic analysis supports development of the SSME by evaluating components subjected to critical dynamic loads, identifying significant parameters, and evaluating solution methods. Engine operating parameters at both rated and full power levels are considered. Detailed structural dynamic analyses of operationally critical and life limited components support the assessment of engine design modifications and environmental changes. Engine system test results are utilized to verify analytic model simulations. The SSME main chamber injector assembly is an assembly of 600 injector elements which are called LOX posts. The overall LOX post analysis procedure is shown.

  10. Structural Probability Concepts Adapted to Electrical Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Eric P.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1994-01-01

    Through the use of equivalent variable analogies, the authors demonstrate how an electrical subsystem can be modeled by an equivalent structural subsystem. This allows the electrical subsystem to be probabilistically analyzed by using available structural reliability computer codes such as NESSUS. With the ability to analyze the electrical subsystem probabilistically, we can evaluate the reliability of systems that include both structural and electrical subsystems. Common examples of such systems are a structural subsystem integrated with a health-monitoring subsystem, and smart structures. Since these systems have electrical subsystems that directly affect the operation of the overall system, probabilistically analyzing them could lead to improved reliability and reduced costs. The direct effect of the electrical subsystem on the structural subsystem is of secondary order and is not considered in the scope of this work.

  11. DNA in Nanoscale Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinker, Jason

    2012-10-01

    DNA, the quintessential molecule of life, possesses a number of attractive properties for use in nanoscale circuits. Charge transport (CT) through DNA itself is of both fundamental and practical interest. Fundamentally, DNA has a unique configuration of π-stacked bases in a well ordered, double helical structure. Given its unparalleled importance to life processes and its arrangement of conjugated subunits, DNA has been a compelling target of conductivity studies. In addition, further understanding of DNA CT will elucidate the biological implications of this process and advance its use in sensing technologies. We have investigated the fundamentals of DNA CT by measuring the electrochemistry of DNA monolayers under biologically-relevant conditions. We have uncovered both fundamental kinetic parameters to distinguish between competing models of operation as well as the practical implications of DNA CT for sensing. Furthermore, we are leveraging our studies of DNA conductivity for the manufacture of nanoscale circuits. We are investigating the electrical properties and self-assembly of DNA nanowires containing artificial base pair surrogates, which can be prepared through low cost and high throughput automated DNA synthesis. This unique and economically viable approach will establish a new paradigm for the scalable manufacture of nanoscale semiconductor devices.

  12. Computer applications for engineering/structural analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslawsky, M.; Samaddar, S. K.

    1991-10-01

    Analysts and organizations have a tendency to lock themselves into specific codes with the obvious consequence of not addressing the real problem and thus reaching the wrong conclusion. This paper discusses the role of the analyst in selecting computer codes. The participation and support of a computation division in modifying the source program, configuration management, and pre- and post-processing of codes are among the subjects discussed. Specific examples illustrating the computer code selection process are described in the following problem areas: soil structure interaction, structural analysis of nuclear reactors, analysis of waste tanks where fluid structure interaction is important, analysis of equipment, structure-structure interaction, analysis of the operation of the superconductor supercollider which includes friction and transient temperature, and 3D analysis of the 10-meter telescope being built in Hawaii. Validation and verification of computer codes and their impact on the selection process are also discussed.

  13. Computer applications for engineering/structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zaslawsky, M.; Samaddar, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    Analysts and organizations have a tendency to lock themselves into specific codes with the obvious consequences of not addressing the real problem and thus reaching the wrong conclusion. This paper discusses the role of the analyst in selecting computer codes. The participation and support of a computation division in modifying the source program, configuration management, and pre- and post-processing of codes are among the subjects discussed. Specific examples illustrating the computer code selection process are described in the following problem areas: soil structure interaction, structural analysis of nuclear reactors, analysis of waste tanks where fluid structure interaction is important, analysis of equipment, structure-structure interaction, analysis of the operation of the superconductor supercollider which includes friction and transient temperature, and 3D analysis of the 10-meter telescope being built in Hawaii. Validation and verification of computer codes and their impact on the selection process are also discussed.

  14. Nanoscale chemical and structural study of Co-based FEBID structures by STEM-EELS and HRTEM

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nanolithography techniques in a scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam are very attractive tools for a number of synthetic processes, including the fabrication of ferromagnetic nano-objects, with potential applications in magnetic storage or magnetic sensing. One of the most versatile techniques is the focused electron beam induced deposition, an efficient method for the production of magnetic structures highly resolved at the nanometric scale. In this work, this method has been applied to the controlled growth of magnetic nanostructures using Co2(CO)8. The chemical and structural properties of these deposits have been studied by electron energy loss spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy at the nanometric scale. The obtained results allow us to correlate the chemical and structural properties with the functionality of these magnetic nanostructures. PMID:22085532

  15. Simultaneous analysis and design. [in structural engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    Optimization techniques are increasingly being used for performing nonlinear structural analysis. The development of element by element (EBE) preconditioned conjugate gradient (CG) techniques is expected to extend this trend to linear analysis. Under these circumstances the structural design problem can be viewed as a nested optimization problem. There are computational benefits to treating this nested problem as a large single optimization problem. The response variables (such as displacements) and the structural parameters are all treated as design variables in a unified formulation which performs simultaneously the design and analysis. Two examples are used for demonstration. A seventy-two bar truss is optimized subject to linear stress constraints and a wing box structure is optimized subject to nonlinear collapse constraints. Both examples show substantial computational savings with the unified approach as compared to the traditional nested approach.

  16. Quantitatively probing propensity for structural transitions in engineered virus nanoparticles by single-molecule mechanical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Milagros; Carrillo, Pablo J. P.; Mateu, Mauricio G.

    2015-03-01

    Viruses are increasingly being studied from the perspective of fundamental physics at the nanoscale as biologically evolved nanodevices with many technological applications. In viral particles of the minute virus of mice (MVM), folded segments of the single-stranded DNA genome are bound to the capsid inner wall and act as molecular buttresses that increase locally the mechanical stiffness of the particle. We have explored whether a quantitative linkage exists in MVM particles between their DNA-mediated stiffening and impairment of a heat-induced, virus-inactivating structural change. A series of structurally modified virus particles with disrupted capsid-DNA interactions and/or distorted capsid cavities close to the DNA-binding sites were engineered and characterized, both in classic kinetics assays and by single-molecule mechanical analysis using atomic force microscopy. The rate constant of the virus inactivation reaction was found to decrease exponentially with the increase in elastic constant (stiffness) of the regions closer to DNA-binding sites. The application of transition state theory suggests that the height of the free energy barrier of the virus-inactivating structural transition increases linearly with local mechanical stiffness. From a virological perspective, the results indicate that infectious MVM particles may have acquired the biological advantage of increased survival under thermal stress by evolving architectural elements that rigidify the particle and impair non-productive structural changes. From a nanotechnological perspective, this study provides proof of principle that determination of mechanical stiffness and its manipulation by protein engineering may be applied for quantitatively probing and tuning the conformational dynamics of virus-based and other protein-based nanoassemblies.Viruses are increasingly being studied from the perspective of fundamental physics at the nanoscale as biologically evolved nanodevices with many technological

  17. Structural Requirements for the Space Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Pravin K.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2004, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was given a vision for Space Exploration by President Bush, setting our sight on a bold new path to go back to the Moon, then to Mars and beyond. As NASA gets ready to meet the vision set by President Bush, failures are not an option. Reliability of the propulsion engine systems will play an important role in establishing an overall safe and reliable operation of these new space systems. A new standard, NASA-STD-5012, Strength and Life Assessment for Space Propulsion System Engines, has been developed to provide structural requirements for assessment of the propulsion systems engine. This standard is a complement to the current NASA-wide standard NASA-STD-5001, Structural Design and Test Factors of Safety for Spaceflight Hardware, which excluded the requirement for the engine systems (rotatory structures) along with pressure vessels. As developed, this document builds on the heritage of the multiple industrial standards related to strength and life assessment of the structures. For assuring a safe and reliable operation of a product and/or mission, establishing a set of structural assessment requirements is a key ingredient. Hence, a concentrated effort was made to improve the requirements where there are known lessons learned during the design, test, and operation phases of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and other engine development programs. Requirements delineated in this standard are also applicable for the reusable and/or human missions. It shall be noted that "reliability of a system cannot be tested and inspected but can only be achieved if it is first designed into a system." Hence, these strength and life assessment requirements for the space propulsion system engines shall be used along with other good engineering practices, requirements, and policies.

  18. The nanoscale structure and unoccupied valence electronic states in FeSe1-xTex chalcogenides probed by X-ray absorption measurements.

    PubMed

    Hacisalihoglu, M Y; Paris, E; Joseph, B; Yanmaz, E; Saini, N L

    2015-07-21

    We have studied the nanoscale structure and unoccupied electronic states in FeSe1-xTex by a combined analysis of Se K, Te L1 and Fe K-edges X-ray absorption measurements. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results show that iron-chalcogen (Fe-Se and Fe-Te) distances in ternary FeSe1-xTex are similar to those measured for binary FeSe and FeTe. The local Fe-Se/Te distances determined by different absorption edges fit well in the characteristic Z-plot of random alloys, providing unambiguous support to the inhomogeneous nanoscale structure of the ternary FeSe1-xTex system. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra reveal a gradual evolution of the unoccupied valence electronic states as a function of Te-substitution in FeSe1-xTex. The Fe 3d-Se 4p/Te 5p hybridization is found to decrease with Te-substitution, accompanied by an increase in unoccupied Se 4p states and a decrease in unoccupied Te 5p states. The results are discussed in the frame of local inhomogeneity in the FeSe1-xTex system driven by random alloying of Se/Te atoms. PMID:26099493

  19. The Structure-Mapping Engine: Algorithm and Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkenhainer, Brian; And Others

    This description of the Structure-Mapping Engine (SME), a flexible, cognitive simulation program for studying analogical processing which is based on Gentner's Structure-Mapping theory of analogy, points out that the SME provides a "tool kit" for constructing matching algorithms consistent with this theory. This report provides: (1) a review of…

  20. Dynamic response of heavy duty diesel engine structures

    SciTech Connect

    Anderton, D.; Ghazy, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes an investigation to identify the sources of forces which cause the vibration of different parts of the engine structure in a turbocharged heavy duty diesel engine of 2 litres/cylinder capacity. The differences in vibration response at the main bearings and on the engine outer surfaces is shown. Results of overall dynamic stiffness measurements at the main bearings indicate that the oil film has a negligible effect on the behaviour of the major vibration response. A model is put forward for an absolute prediction of the engine outer surface vibration. The model can be seen as an alternative or complement to current F.E. techniques. A comparison between predicted and measured vibration on the crankcase is presented. Predicted vibration response spectra are used to show the relative contribution of liner and bearing forces to the overall crankcase and cylinder block vibration of the engine.

  1. Situated learning methodologies and assessment in civil engineering structures education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertz, Michael Davis

    This thesis describes an overarching study of civil engineering undergraduate structural education through student performance in recalling and applying basic structural engineering knowledge, and the viability of alternative situated learning environments for more effectively supporting the learning of this knowledge. To properly ground this study, a thorough investigation of related work in assessment, cognitive science, educational technology, and design education was completed, with connections and applications to civil engineering education highlighted. The experimental work of the thesis is organized into three parts: an assessment of civil engineering undergraduates' fundamental structural engineering knowledge and abilities; the development and testing of a software support environment for situated learning, the Civil Engineering Learning Library (CELL); and, the implementation and evaluation of the design studio, a pedagogical model for situated learning in the classroom. The results of the assessment study indicate that civil engineering seniors (and also students earlier in the curriculum) have difficulty retaining and applying basic knowledge of structural behavior, especially doing so in a flexible fashion in design situations. The survey also suggests that visualization plays an important role in understanding structural behavior. Tests with the CELL system show that a cognitively-flexible multimedia environment can support structural learning, but were inconclusive about whether the computer-based system helped the students to learn better than conventional classroom lecture. Two trial implementations of the design studio indicate that the studio model can serve as a powerful situated learning environment, and that it can be scaled up to reasonable class sizes. Significant requirements are associated with this model, however, primarily in faculty involvement, but also in physical resources and student time. In addition to these conclusions about the

  2. Resonant Raman scattering in nanoscale pentacene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui; Dujovne, Irene; Chen, Liwei; Miao, Qian; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.; Pinczuk, Aron; Nuckolls, Colin; Kloc, Christian; Ron, Arza

    2004-02-01

    Resonant Raman scattering intensities from nanoscale films of pentacene display large resonant enhancements that enable observation of vibrational modes in monolayer cluster films. The resonant enhancements occur when the outgoing photon energy overlaps the free exciton optical transitions observed in luminescence. The results point to the significant potential of resonant Raman methods in the characterization of nanoscale structures of organic molecular semiconductors.

  3. Structures, performance, benefit, cost study. [gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feder, E.

    1981-01-01

    Aircraft engine structures were studied to identify the advanced structural technologies that would provide the most benefits to future aircraft operations. A series of studies identified engine systems with the greatest potential for improvements. Based on these studies, six advanced generic structural concepts were selected and conceptually designed. The benefits of each concept were quantitatively assessed in terms of thrust specific fuel consumption, weight, cost, maintenance cost, fuel burned and direct operating cost plus interest. The probability of success of each concept was also determined. The concepts were ranked and the three most promising were selected for further study which consisted of identifying and comprehensively outlining the advanced technologies required to develop these concepts for aircraft engine application. Analytic, fabrication, and test technology developments are required. The technology programs outlined emphasize the need to provide basic, fundamental understanding of technology to obtain the benefit goals.

  4. Nanoscale Optoelectronic Photosynthetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Lee, Ida; Guillorn, Michael; Lee, James W.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2001-03-01

    This presentation provides an overview and recent progress in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory research program in molecular electronics and green plant photosynthesis. The photosynthetic reaction center is a nanoscale molecular diode and photovoltaic device. The key thrust of our research program is the construction of molecular electronic devices from these nanoscale structures. Progress in this multidisciplinary research program has been demonstrated by direct electrical contact of emergent electrons with the Photosystem I (PS I) reaction center by nanoparticle precipitation. Demonstration of stable diode properties of isolated reaction centers combined with the ability to orient PS I by self-assembly on a planar surface, makes this structure a good building block for 2-D and potentially 3-D devices. Metallization of isolated PS I does not alter their fundamental photophysical properties and they can be bonded to metal surfaces. We report here the first measurement of photovoltage from single PS I reaction centers. Working at the Cornell University National Nanofabrication Facility, we have constructed sets of dissimilar metal electrodes separated by distances as small as 6 nm. We plan to use these structures to make electrical contact to both ends of oriented PSI reaction centers and thereby realize biomolecular logic circuits. Potential applications of PSI reaction centers for optoelectronic applications as well as molecular logic device construction will be discussed.

  5. Reverse engineering chemical structures from molecular descriptors : how many solutions?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William Michael; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel

    2005-06-01

    Physical, chemical and biological properties are the ultimate information of interest for chemical compounds. Molecular descriptors that map structural information to activities and properties are obvious candidates for information sharing. In this paper, we consider the feasibility of using molecular descriptors to safely exchange chemical information in such a way that the original chemical structures cannot be reverse engineered. To investigate the safety of sharing such descriptors, we compute the degeneracy (the number of structure matching a descriptor value) of several 2D descriptors, and use various methods to search for and reverse engineer structures. We examine degeneracy in the entire chemical space taking descriptors values from the alkane isomer series and the PubChem database. We further use a stochastic search to retrieve structures matching specific topological index values. Finally, we investigate the safety of exchanging of fragmental descriptors using deterministic enumeration.

  6. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in thin films at reflecting substrates as a means to study nanoscale structure and dynamics at soft-matter interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Täuber, Daniela; Radscheit, Kathrin; von Borczyskowski, Christian; Schulz, Michael; Osipov, Vladimir Al.

    2016-07-01

    Structure and dynamics at soft-matter interfaces play an important role in nature and technical applications. Optical single-molecule investigations are noninvasive and capable to reveal heterogeneities at the nanoscale. In this work we develop an autocorrelation function (ACF) approach to retrieve tracer diffusion parameters obtained from fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) experiments in thin liquid films at reflecting substrates. This approach then is used to investigate structure and dynamics in 100-nm-thick 8CB liquid crystal films on silicon wafers with five different oxide thicknesses. We find a different extension of the structural reorientation of 8CB at the solid-liquid interface for thin and for thick oxide. For the thin oxides, the perylenediimide tracer diffusion dynamics in general agrees with the hydrodynamic modeling using no-slip boundary conditions with only a small deviation close to the substrate, while a considerably stronger decrease of the interfacial tracer diffusion is found for the thick oxides.

  7. Scanning Probe Microwave Reflectivity of Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Imaging of Electronic Structure and Quantum Behavior at the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Seabron, Eric; MacLaren, Scott; Xie, Xu; Rotkin, Slava V; Rogers, John A; Wilson, William L

    2016-01-26

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are 1-dimensional nanomaterials with unique electronic properties that make them excellent candidates for next-generation device technologies. While nanotube growth and processing methods have progressed steadily, significant opportunities remain in advanced methods for their characterization, inspection, and metrology. Microwave near-field imaging offers an extremely versatile "nondestructive" tool for nanomaterials characterization. Herein, we report the application of nanoscale microwave reflectivity to study SWNT electronic properties. Using microwave impedance microscopy (MIM) combined with microwave impedance modulation microscopy (MIM(2)), we imaged horizontal SWNT arrays, showing the microwave reflectivity from individual nanotubes is extremely sensitive to their electronic properties and dependent on the nanotube quantum capacitance under proper experimental conditions. It is shown experimentally that MIM can be a direct probe of the nanotube-free carrier density and the details of their electronic band structure. We demonstrate spatial mapping of local SWNT impedance (MIM), the density of states (MIM(2)), and the nanotube structural morphology (AFM) simultaneously and with lateral resolution down to <50 nm. Nanoscale microwave reflectivity could have tremendous impact, enabling optimization of enriched growth processes and postgrowth purification of SWNT arrays while aiding in the analysis of the quantum physics of these important 1D materials. PMID:26688374

  8. Bio-Organic Nanotechnology: Using Proteins and Synthetic Polymers for Nanoscale Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Linda K.; Xu, Ting; Trent, Jonathan D.; Russell, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    While the ability of proteins to self-assemble makes them powerful tools in nanotechnology, in biological systems protein-based structures ultimately depend on the context in which they form. We combine the self-assembling properties of synthetic diblock copolymers and proteins to construct intricately ordered, three-dimensional polymer protein structures with the ultimate goal of forming nano-scale devices. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the capabilities of organic polymer chemistry to build ordered structures and the capabilities of genetic engineering to create proteins that are selective for inorganic or organic substrates. Here, microphase-separated block copolymers coupled with genetically engineered heat shock proteins are used to produce nano-scale patterning that maximizes the potential for both increased structural complexity and integrity.

  9. Atomistic Design and Simulations of Nanoscale Machines and Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, William A., III; Cagin, Tahir; Walch, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Over the three years of this project, we made significant progress on critical theoretical and computational issues in nanoscale science and technology, particularly in:(1) Fullerenes and nanotubes, (2) Characterization of surfaces of diamond and silicon for NEMS applications, (3) Nanoscale machine and assemblies, (4) Organic nanostructures and dendrimers, (5) Nanoscale confinement and nanotribology, (6) Dynamic response of nanoscale structures nanowires (metals, tubes, fullerenes), (7) Thermal transport in nanostructures.

  10. Lorentz contact resonance spectroscopy for nanoscale characterisation of structural and mechanical properties of biological, dental and pharmaceutical materials.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Dipesh; Dillon, Eoghan; Hau, Herman; Fu, Dong; Ramzan, Iqbal; Chrzanowski, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Scanning probe microscopy has been widely used to obtain topographical information and to quantify nanostructural properties of different materials. Qualitative and quantitative imaging is of particular interest to study material-material interactions and map surface properties on a nanoscale (i.e. stiffness and viscoelastic properties). These data are essential for the development of new biomedical materials. Currently, there are limited options to map viscoelastic properties of materials at nanoscale and at high resolutions. Lorentz contact resonance (LCR) is an emerging technique, which allows mapping viscoelasticity of samples with stiffness ranging from a few hundred Pa up to several GPa. Here we demonstrate the applicability of LCR to probe and map the viscoelasticity and stiffness of 'soft' (biological sample: cell treated with nanodiamond), 'medium hard' (pharmaceutical sample: pMDI canister) and 'hard' (human teeth enamel) specimens. The results allowed the identification of nanodiamond on the cells and the qualitative assessment of its distribution based on its nanomechanical properties. It also enabled mapping of the mechanical properties of the cell to demonstrate variability of these characteristics in a single cell. Qualitative imaging of an enamel sample demonstrated variations of stiffness across the specimen and precise identification of enamel prisms (higher stiffness) and enamel interrods (lower stiffness). Similarly, mapping of the pMDI canister wall showed that drug particles were adsorbed to the wall. These particles showed differences in stiffness at nanoscale, which suggested variations in surface composition-multiphasic material. LCR technique emerges as a valuable tool for probing viscoelasticity of samples of varying stiffness's. PMID:26518012

  11. Structural Optimization Methodology for Rotating Disks of Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armand, Sasan C.

    1995-01-01

    In support of the preliminary evaluation of various engine technologies, a methodology has been developed for structurally designing the rotating disks of an aircraft engine. The structural design methodology, along with a previously derived methodology for predicting low-cycle fatigue life, was implemented in a computer program. An interface computer program was also developed that gathers the required data from a flowpath analysis program (WATE) being used at NASA Lewis. The computer program developed for this study requires minimum interaction with the user, thus allowing engineers with varying backgrounds in aeropropulsion to successfully execute it. The stress analysis portion of the methodology and the computer program were verified by employing the finite element analysis method. The 10th- stage, high-pressure-compressor disk of the Energy Efficient Engine Program (E3) engine was used to verify the stress analysis; the differences between the stresses and displacements obtained from the computer program developed for this study and from the finite element analysis were all below 3 percent for the problem solved. The computer program developed for this study was employed to structurally optimize the rotating disks of the E3 high-pressure compressor. The rotating disks designed by the computer program in this study were approximately 26 percent lighter than calculated from the E3 drawings. The methodology is presented herein.

  12. Thermoelectric effects in nanoscale junctions.

    PubMed

    Dubi, Yonatan; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2009-01-01

    Despite its intrinsic nonequilibrium origin, thermoelectricity in nanoscale systems is usually described within a static scattering approach which disregards the dynamical interaction with the thermal baths that maintain energy flow. Using the theory of open quantum systems, we show instead that unexpected properties, such as a resonant structure and large sign sensitivity, emerge if the nonequilibrium nature of this problem is considered. Our approach also allows us to define and study a local temperature, which shows hot spots and oscillations along the system according to the coupling of the latter to the electrodes. This demonstrates that Fourier's lawa paradigm of statistical mechanicsis generally violated in nanoscale junctions. PMID:19072125

  13. STAEBL: Structural tailoring of engine blades, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschbein, M. S.; Brown, K. W.

    1984-01-01

    The Structural Tailoring of Engine Blades (STAEBL) program was initiated at NASA Lewis Research Center in 1980 to introduce optimal structural tailoring into the design process for aircraft gas turbine engine blades. The standard procedure for blade design is highly iterative with the engineer directly providing most of the decisions that control the design process. The goal of the STAEBL program has been to develop an automated approach to generate structurally optimal blade designs. The program has evolved as a three-phase effort with the developmental work being performed contractually by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft. Phase 1 was intended as a proof of concept in which two fan blades were structurally tailored to meet a full set of structural design constraints while minimizing DOC+I (direct operating cost plus interest) for a representative aircraft. This phase was successfully completed and was reported in reference 1 and 2. Phase 2 has recently been completed and is the basis for this discussion. During this phase, three tasks were accomplished: (1) a nonproprietary structural tailoring computer code was developed; (2) a dedicated approximate finite-element analysis was developed; and (3) an approximate large-deflection analysis was developed to assess local foreign object damage. Phase 3 is just beginning and is designed to incorporated aerodynamic analyses directly into the structural tailoring system in order to relax current geometric constraints.

  14. Crystal chemistry and application development of uranyl extended structure and nanoscale materials and actinyl ion-substituted mineral phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Ernest M.

    The worldwide use of nuclear energy presents both significant advantages and challenges for society. Actinide research seeks to address these challenges and drive advancement in the fields of nuclear science and engineering. Here, key aspects of the fuel cycle are examined from both a fundamental and an applications-based perspective. Hydrothermal, ionothermal, room-temperature evaporation, and liquid diffusion synthesis techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffraction were used to study the structures of 18 uranyl compounds and six actinyl-doped mineral phases. These compounds represent a diverse group ranging from unique molecular clusters to novel and known extended structures isolated from aqueous and ionic liquid media. Ultrafiltration techniques were utilized to separate uranyl peroxide nanoclusters from complex aqueous solutions. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used to quantify elemental distributions in the feed and permeate solutions while Raman spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were used to define the characteristics of the cluster species across a range different solution conditions.

  15. Voltage control of nanoscale magnetoelastic elements: theory and experiments (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carman, Gregory P.

    2015-09-01

    Electromagnetic devices rely on electrical currents to generate magnetic fields. While extremely useful this approach has limitations in the small-scale. To overcome the scaling problem, researchers have tried to use electric fields to manipulate a magnetic material's intrinsic magnetization (i.e. multiferroic). The strain mediated class of multiferroics offers up to 70% of energy transduction using available piezoelectric and magnetoelastic materials. While strain mediated multiferroic is promising, few studies exist on modeling/testing of nanoscale magnetic structures. This talk presents motivation, analytical models, and experimental data on electrical control of nanoscale single magnetic domain structures. This research is conducted in a NSF Engineering Research Center entitled Translational Applications for Nanoscale Multiferroics TANMS. The models combine micromagnetics (Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert) with elastodynamics using the electrostatic approximation producing eight fully coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. Qualitative and quantitative verification is achieved with direct comparison to experimental data. The modeling effort guides fabrication and testing on three elements, i.e. nanoscale rings (onion states), ellipses (single domain reorientation), and superparamagnetic elements. Experimental results demonstrate electrical and deterministic control of the magnetic states in the 5-500 nm structures as measured with Photoemission Electron Microscopy PEEM, Magnetic Force Microscopy MFM, or Lorentz Transmission Electron Microscopy TEM. These data strongly suggests efficient control of nanoscale magnetic spin states is possible with voltage.

  16. Effects of Nanoscale Structure on the Magnetism and Transport Properties of Chromium and Chromium-Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekelheide, Zoe Austin

    This thesis studies the unique properties of Cr and Cr-Al alloys; the first half focuses on Cr while the second half focuses on Cr-Al alloys. This thesis particularly focuses on the effects of nanoscale structure such as crystal defects, grain boundaries, and short- to medium-range chemical ordering, on both the magnetism and the electronic transport properties of Cr and Cr-Al. This thesis aimed to understand the spin density waves (SDW) in polycrystalline Cr films such as those commonly used in GMR multilayers, where disorder and stress are the important variables. Infrared reflectivity was used to measure the characteristic SDWpseudogap energies to distinguish the SDW state of Cr thin films grown under different deposition conditions (e-beam and sputtered at different argon pressures). The fundamental distinguishing properties of the films are stress and disorder, both strongly affected by the deposition conditions. Films with low stress and disorder are ISDW, like bulk Cr. Films with high tensile stress are CSDW, like Mn-doped Cr. Finally, films with high disorder, determined from the resistivity, have regions of both ISDW and CSDW. Importantly, all of the Cr films measured showed SDW signatures, showing that the SDW is quite robust even in highly disordered thin films. A low temperature magnetic phase diagram was created for Cr films. It was shown that Cr thin films show unusual and extremely deposition condition-dependent resistivity due to resonant scattering, such as residual resistivity ranging between 3 and 400 muO-cm, and significant resistivity minima at low temperature. Several experiments showed that these features are due to defects in the Cr lattice such as grain boundaries and vacancies. When a highly disordered, 400 muO-cm film with a significant minimum is annealed to 800°C, the resistivity is decreased by 10x and the depth of the minimum is decreased by 50x. On the other end of the spectrum, two low resistivity (< 10 muO-cm) samples grown in the

  17. Complex quantum networks as structured environments: engineering and probing

    PubMed Central

    Nokkala, Johannes; Galve, Fernando; Zambrini, Roberta; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Piilo, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    We consider structured environments modeled by bosonic quantum networks and investigate the probing of their spectral density, structure, and topology. We demonstrate how to engineer a desired spectral density by changing the network structure. Our results show that the spectral density can be very accurately detected via a locally immersed quantum probe for virtually any network configuration. Moreover, we show how the entire network structure can be reconstructed by using a single quantum probe. We illustrate our findings presenting examples of spectral densities and topology probing for networks of genuine complexity. PMID:27230125

  18. Complex quantum networks as structured environments: engineering and probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokkala, Johannes; Galve, Fernando; Zambrini, Roberta; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Piilo, Jyrki

    2016-05-01

    We consider structured environments modeled by bosonic quantum networks and investigate the probing of their spectral density, structure, and topology. We demonstrate how to engineer a desired spectral density by changing the network structure. Our results show that the spectral density can be very accurately detected via a locally immersed quantum probe for virtually any network configuration. Moreover, we show how the entire network structure can be reconstructed by using a single quantum probe. We illustrate our findings presenting examples of spectral densities and topology probing for networks of genuine complexity.

  19. Complex quantum networks as structured environments: engineering and probing.

    PubMed

    Nokkala, Johannes; Galve, Fernando; Zambrini, Roberta; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Piilo, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    We consider structured environments modeled by bosonic quantum networks and investigate the probing of their spectral density, structure, and topology. We demonstrate how to engineer a desired spectral density by changing the network structure. Our results show that the spectral density can be very accurately detected via a locally immersed quantum probe for virtually any network configuration. Moreover, we show how the entire network structure can be reconstructed by using a single quantum probe. We illustrate our findings presenting examples of spectral densities and topology probing for networks of genuine complexity. PMID:27230125

  20. A New Degree Programme in Structural Engineering and Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, J. B.; Popovic, O.; Tyas, A.

    Structural engineers and architects are educated completely independently. Although both play a major part in designing and building a nation's infrastructure, they are not encouraged to fully understand the work of each other which can result in a lack of collaboration and co-operation, often to the detriment of a project. This divide between the…

  1. Abstraction and Concreteness in the Everyday Mathematics of Structural Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainsburg, Julie

    The everyday mathematics processes of structural engineers were studied and analyzed in terms of abstraction. A main purpose of the study was to explore the degree to which the notion of a gap between school and everyday mathematics holds when the scope of practices considered "everyday" is extended. J. Lave (1988) promoted a methodology that…

  2. Engineering extracellular matrix structure in 3D multiphase tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gillette, Brian M.; Rossen, Ninna S.; Das, Nikkan; Leong, Debra; Wang, Meixin; Dugar, Arushi; Sia, Samuel K.

    2011-01-01

    In native tissues, microscale variations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) structure can drive different cellular behaviors. Although control over ECM structure could prove useful in tissue engineering and in studies of cellular behavior, isotropic 3D matrices poorly replicate variations in local microenvironments. In this paper, we demonstrate a method to engineer local variations in the density and size of collagen fibers throughout 3D tissues. The results showed that, in engineered multiphase tissues, the structures of collagen fibers in both the bulk ECM phases (as measured by mesh size and width of fibers) as well as at tissue interfaces (as measured by density of fibers and thickness of tissue interfaces) could be modulated by varying the collagen concentrations and gelling temperatures. As the method makes use of a previously published technique for tissue bonding, we also confirmed that significant adhesion strength at tissue interfaces was achieved under all conditions tested. Hence, this study demonstrates how collagen fiber structures can be engineered within all regions of a tightly integrated multiphase tissue scaffold by exploiting knowledge of collagen assembly. PMID:21840047

  3. Optical Engineering for Children--A Structured Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, John; Moore, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the application of a structured template, maximum impact flow (MIF), in order to encourage young students in the area of optics and optical engineering. MIF introduces a template in terms of individual steps and linked functionality and is shown to fuse separate learning tools together into a cohesive unit.…

  4. CAL Packages for Civil Engineering Hydraulics and Structural Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, W. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes computer assisted learning (CAL) packages written in FORTRAN IV and developed for use in a degree course in civil engineering dealing with hydraulics and structures. All are used in the interactive mode through a terminal with a keyboard and visual display unit. (Author/CMV)

  5. Structural Modification and Self-Assembly of Nanoscale Magnetite Synthesised in the Presence of an Anionic Surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, S.; Hewitt, I. J.; Powell, A. K.

    2014-07-01

    The earliest reported medical use of magnetite powder for internal applications was in the 10th century A.D. by the Persian physician and philosopher Avicenna of Bokhara [1,2]. Today magnetic nanoparticles are used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and are potential colloidal mediators for cancer magnetic hyperthermia [3]. Twenty years ago magnetite (Fe3O4) was found to be present in the human brain [4] and more recently it has been reported that nanoscale biogenic magnetite (origin and formation uncertain) is associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Huntington's and Alzheimer's [5]. Here we show that the synthesis of magnetite in the presence of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) gives rise to a variety of nanoscale morphologies, some of which look remarkably similar to magnetite found in organisms, suggesting that similar processes may be involved. Furthermore, these 1D materials with diameters of quantum confined size are of interest in the areas of biosensors [6] and biomedical imaging [7].

  6. Electronic structure engineering of various structural phases of phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sumandeep; Kumar, Ashok; Srivastava, Sunita; Tankeshwar, K

    2016-07-21

    We report the tailoring of the electronic structures of various structural phases of phosphorene (α-P, β-P, γ-P and δ-P) based homo- and hetero-bilayers through in-plane mechanical strains, vertical pressure and transverse electric field by employing density functional theory. In-plane biaxial strains have considerably modified the electronic bandgap of both homo- and hetero-bilayers while vertical pressure induces metallization in the considered structures. The γ-P homo-bilayer structure showed the highest ultimate tensile strength (UTS ∼ 6.21 GPa) upon in-plane stretching. Upon application of a transverse electric field, the variation in the bandgap of hetero-bilayers was found to be strongly dependent on the polarity of the applied field which is attributed to the counterbalance between the external electric field and the internal field induced by different structural phases and heterogeneity in the arrangements of atoms of each surface of the hetero-bilayer system. Our results demonstrate that the electronic structures of the considered hetero- and homo-bilayers of phosphorene could be modified by biaxial strain, pressure and electric field to achieve the desired properties for future nano-electronic devices. PMID:27334095

  7. Amyloid at the nanoscale: AFM and single-molecule investigations of early steps of aggregation and mature fibril growth, structure, and mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Vinod

    2013-03-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of proteins into nanometer-scale fibrillar assemblies is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. We have investigated the self-assembly of the human intrinsically disordered protein alpha-synuclein, involved in Parkinson's disease, into amyloid fibrils. A particularly relevant question is the role of early oligomeric aggregates in modulating the dynamics of protein nucleation and aggregation. We have used single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize conformational transitions of alpha-synuclein, and to gain insights into the structure and composition of oligomeric aggregates of alpha-synuclein. Quantitative atomic force microscopy and nanomechanical investigations provide information on amyloid fibril polymorphism and on nanoscale mechanical properties of mature fibrillar species, while conventional optical and super-resolution imaging have yielded insights into the growth of fibrils and into the assembly of suprafibrillar structures. We thank the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), and the MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology for support.

  8. Engineering smooth muscle tissue with a predefined structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, B S; Mooney, D J

    1998-08-01

    Nonwoven meshes of polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers are attractive synthetic extracellular matrices (ECMs) for tissue engineering and have been used to engineer many types of tissues. However, these synthetic ECMs lack structural stability and often cannot maintain their original structure during tissue development. This makes it difficult to design an engineered tissue with a predefined configuration and dimensions. In this study, we investigated the ability of PGA fiber-based matrices bonded at their fiber crosspoints with a secondary polymer, poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), to resist cellular contractile forces and maintain their predefined structure during the process of smooth muscle (SM) tissue development in vitro. Physically bonded PGA matrices exhibited a 10- to 35-fold increase in the compressive modulus over unbonded PGA matrices, depending on the mass of PLLA utilized to bond the PGA matrices. In addition, the bonded PGA matrices degraded much more slowly than the unbonded matrices. The PLLA bonding of PGA matrices had no effect on the ability of cells to adhere to the matrices. After 7 weeks in culture, the bonded matrices maintained 101 +/- 4% of their initial volume and an approximate original shape while the unbonded matrices contracted to 5 +/- 1% of their initial volume with an extreme change in their shape. At this time the bonded PGA matrices had a high cellularity, with smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and ECM proteins produced by these cells (e.g., elastin) filling the pores between PGA fibers. This study demonstrated that physically bonded PGA fiber-based matrices allow the maintenance of the configuration and dimensions of the original matrices and the development of a new tissue in a predefined three-dimensional structure. This approach may be useful for engineering a variety of tissues of various structures and shapes, and our study demonstrates the importance of matching both the initial mechanical properties and the degradation rate of a matrix to

  9. Metal Structural Environment in ZnxNi1-xO Macroscale and Nanoscale Solid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, Matthea A.; Langell, Marjorie A.

    2014-08-21

    The metal structural environments in macroscale and nanoscale ZnxNi1–xO solid solutions were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD demonstrates that solid solutions form for both macroscale (bulk) and nanoscale crystallites, and that the lattice parameter increases linearly as the amount of zinc increases, an indication of a homogeneous solid solution. XAS for both the bulk material and the nanoparticles reveals that the zinc atoms are incorporated into the rocksalt lattice and do not form zinc oxide clusters. The X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) of the Zn k-edge region in the solid solution is similar to the Ni k-edge region of NiO, and not the Zn k-edge region of ZnO. XPS confirms that solid solutions are formed; Auger parameters for zinc are consistent with a different geometry than the tetrahedral coordination of wurtzite ZnO. Nanoscaled solid solutions show evidence of a lattice contraction relative to macroscale solutions of the same concentration. While the contraction persists across the entire concentration range, the nanoparticle lattice parameter approaches the bulk ZnxNi1–xO value as the concentration of zinc increases to predict ZnO rocksalt lattice parameters that are in agreement with observed ZnO data.

  10. Structural tailoring of engine blades (STAEBL) theoretical manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, K. W.

    1985-01-01

    This Theoretical Manual includes the theories included in the Structural Tailoring of Engine Blades (STAEBL) computer program which was developed to perform engine fan and compressor blade numerical optimizations. These blade optimizations seek a minimum weight or cost design that satisfies practical blade design constraints, by controlling one to twenty design variables. The STAEBL constraint analyses include blade stresses, vibratory response, flutter, and foreign object damage. Blade design variables include airfoil thickness at several locations, blade chord, and construction variables: hole size for hollow blades, and composite material layup for composite blades.

  11. Structural tailoring of engine blades (STAEBL) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, K. W.

    1985-01-01

    This User's Manual contains instructions and demonstration case to prepare input data, run, and modify the Structural Tailoring of Engine Blades (STAEBL) computer code. STAEBL was developed to perform engine fan and compressor blade numerical optimizations. This blade optimization seeks a minimum weight or cost design that satisfies realistic blade design constraints, by tuning one to twenty design variables. The STAEBL constraint analyses include blade stresses, vibratory response, flutter, and foreign object damage. Blade design variables include airfoil thickness at several locations, blade chord, and construction variables: hole size for hollow blades, and composite material layup for composite blades.

  12. Interdisciplinary and multilevel optimum design. [in aerospace structural engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1987-01-01

    Interactions among engineering disciplines and subsystems in engineering system design are surveyed and specific instances of such interactions are described. Examination of the interactions that a traditional design process in which the numerical values of major design variables are decided consecutively is likely to lead to a suboptimal design. Supporting numerical examples are a glider and a space antenna. Under an alternative approach introduced, the design and its sensitivity data from the subsystems and disciplines are generated concurrently and then made available to the system designer enabling him to modify the system design so as to improve its performance. Examples of a framework structure and an airliner wing illustrate that approach.

  13. Remodeling of tissue-engineered bone structures in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Sandra; Hilbe, Monika; Fajardo, Robert J; Hagenmüller, Henri; Nuss, Katja; Arras, Margarete; Müller, Ralph; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Kaplan, David L; Merkle, Hans P; Meinel, Lorenz

    2013-09-01

    Implant design for bone regeneration is expected to be optimized when implant structures resemble the anatomical situation of the defect site. We tested the validity of this hypothesis by exploring the feasibility of generating different in vitro engineered bone-like structures originating from porous silk fibroin scaffolds decorated with RGD sequences (SF-RGD), seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Scaffolds with small (106-212 μm), medium (212-300 μm), and large pore diameter ranges (300-425 μm) were seeded with hMSC and subsequently differentiated in vitro into bone-like tissue resembling initial scaffold geometries and featuring bone-like structures. Eight weeks after implantation into calvarial defects in mice, the in vitro engineered bone-like tissues had remodeled into bone featuring different proportions of woven/lamellar bone bridging the defects. Regardless of pore diameter, all implants integrated well, vascularization was advanced, and bone marrow ingrowth had started. Ultimately, in this defect model, the geometry of the in vitro generated tissue-engineered bone structure, trabecular- or plate-like, had no significant impact on the healing of the defect, owing to an efficient remodeling of its structure after implantation. PMID:23958323

  14. Remodeling of tissue-engineered bone structures in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Sandra; Hilbe, Monika; Fajardo, Robert J.; Hagenmüller, Henri; Nuss, Katja; Arras, Margarete; Müller, Ralph; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Kaplan, David L.; Merkle, Hans P.; Meinel, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    Implant design for bone regeneration is expected to be optimized when implant structures resemble the anatomical situation of the defect site. We tested the validity of this hypothesis by exploring the feasibility of generating different in vitro engineered bone-like structures originating from porous silk fibroin scaffolds decorated with RGD sequences (SF-RGD), seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Scaffolds with small (106 – 212 μm), medium (212 – 300 μm) and large pore diameter ranges (300 – 425 μm) were seeded with hMSC and subsequently differentiated in vitro into bone-like tissue resembling initial scaffold geometries and featuring bone-like structures. Eight weeks after implantation into calvarial defects in mice, the in vitro engineered bone-like tissues had remodeled into bone featuring different proportions of woven/lamellar bone bridging the defects. Regardless of pore diameter all implants integrated well, vascularization was advanced and, bone marrow ingrowth had started. Ultimately, in this defect model, the geometry of the in vitro generated tissue-engineered bone structure, trabecular- or plate-like, had no significant impact on the healing of the defect, owing to an efficient remodeling of its structure after implantation. PMID:23958323

  15. Characterizing Nanoscale Transient Communication.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifan; Anwar, Putri Santi; Huang, Limin; Asvial, Muhamad

    2016-04-01

    We consider the novel paradigm of nanoscale transient communication (NTC), where certain components of the small-scale communication link are physically transient. As such, the transmitter and the receiver may change their properties over a prescribed lifespan due to their time-varying structures. The NTC systems may find important applications in the biomedical, environmental, and military fields, where system degradability allows for benign integration into life and environment. In this paper, we analyze the NTC systems from the channel-modeling and capacity-analysis perspectives and focus on the stochastically meaningful slow transience scenario, where the coherence time of degeneration Td is much longer than the coding delay Tc. We first develop novel and parsimonious models to characterize the NTC channels, where three types of physical layers are considered: electromagnetism-based terahertz (THz) communication, diffusion-based molecular communication (DMC), and nanobots-assisted touchable communication (TouchCom). We then revisit the classical performance measure of ϵ-outage channel capacity and take a fresh look at its formulations in the NTC context. Next, we present the notion of capacity degeneration profile (CDP), which describes the reduction of channel capacity with respect to the degeneration time. Finally, we provide numerical examples to demonstrate the features of CDP. To the best of our knowledge, the current work represents a first attempt to systematically evaluate the quality of nanoscale communication systems deteriorating with time. PMID:26955048

  16. Engineering the Electronic Band Structure for Multiband Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, N.; Reichertz, L.A.; Yu, K.M.; Campman, K.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2010-07-12

    Using the unique features of the electronic band structure of GaNxAs1-x alloys, we have designed, fabricated and tested a multiband photovoltaic device. The device demonstrates an optical activity of three energy bands that absorb, and convert into electrical current, the crucial part of the solar spectrum. The performance of the device and measurements of electroluminescence, quantum efficiency and photomodulated reflectivity are analyzed in terms of the Band Anticrossing model of the electronic structure of highly mismatched alloys. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using highly mismatched alloys to engineer the semiconductor energy band structure for specific device applications.

  17. Structurally compliant rocket engine combustion chamber: Experimental and analytical validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Arya, Vinod K.; Kazaroff, John M.; Halford, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A new, structurally compliant rocket engine combustion chamber design has been validated through analysis and experiment. Subscale, tubular channel chambers have been cyclically tested and analytically evaluated. Cyclic lives were determined to have a potential for 1000 percent increase over those of rectangular channel designs, the current state of the art. Greater structural compliance in the circumferential direction gave rise to lower thermal strains during hot firing, resulting in lower thermal strain ratcheting and longer predicted fatigue lives. Thermal, structural, and durability analyses of the combustion chamber design, involving cyclic temperatures, strains, and low-cycle fatigue lives, have corroborated the experimental observations.

  18. Metal transformable-volume structures for space engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paton, Boris E.; Lobanov, Leonid M.; Volkov, Valentin S.

    2015-05-01

    The brief review of design solutions for existing transformable-volume structures (TVS) is given and main approaches are formulated for optimizing the metal transformable shell structures, allowing widening the sphere of their application in space engineering. Characterized are the methods, used for theoretical description of process of change in TVS shape, and also geometric parameters and properties of structural materials of thin shells allowing realization of their volume deforming at the maximum approach to the selected theoretical model. Technological aspects are described which are typical of the process of multi-sectional conical TVS design as applied to the conditions of its service under the effect of space environment factors (SEF).

  19. The influence of the ion beam on the structure and optical properties of titanium nitride nano-scale thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odeh, Ibrahim; Elian, Rajaa

    2015-12-01

    Titanium nitride nano-scale thin films have been prepared by ion beam assisted reactive DC magnetron sputtering. The films are characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. The films are found to be amorphous. The effect of the ion beam during deposition was evident from smoothness of film surface (SEM and TEM images) and modifications in optical properties. Investigation of the optical constants shows stable refractive index dominating most of the visible range. The films are not highly absorptive in the visible range. An energy gap of 2.9 ± 0.1 eV is estimated for the IBAD amorphous titanium nitride nano-thin films. The stability of the films at normal room environment in addition to the golden color makes the nano-thin films suitable for hard and decorative coatings.

  20. Cabin-fuselage-wing structural design concept with engine installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ariotti, Scott; Garner, M.; Cepeda, A.; Vieira, J.; Bolton, D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a fuselage structural assembly and wing structural design that will be able to withstand the given operational parameters and loads provided by Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23 (FAR 23) and the Statement of Work (SOW). The goal is to provide a durable lightweight structure that will transfer the applied loads through the most efficient load path. Areas of producibility and maintainability of the structure will also be addressed. All of the structural members will also meet or exceed the desired loading criteria, along with providing adequate stiffness, reliability, and fatigue life as stated in the SOW. Considerations need to be made for control system routing and cabin heating/ventilation. The goal of the wing structure and carry through structure is also to provide a simple, lightweight structure that will transfer the aerodynamic forces produced by the wing, tailboom, and landing gear. These forces will be channeled through various internal structures sized for the pre-determined loading criteria. Other considerations were to include space for flaps, ailerons, fuel tanks, and electrical and control system routing. The difficulties encountered in the fuselage design include expanding the fuselage cabin to accept a third occupant in a staggered configuration and providing ample volume for their safety. By adding a third person the CG of aircraft will move forward so the engine needs to be moved aft to compensate for the difference in the moment. This required the provisions of a ring frame structure for the new position of the engine mount. The difficulties encountered in the wing structural design include resizing the wing for the increased capacity and weight, and compensating for a large torsion produced by the tail boom by placing a great number of stiffeners inside the boom, which will result in the relocation of the fuel tank. Finally, an adequate carry through structure for the wing and fuselage interface will be

  1. Pure carbon nanoscale devices: Nanotube heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Chico, L.; Crespi, V.H.; Benedict, L.X.; Louie, S.G.; Cohen, M.L. |

    1996-02-01

    Introduction of pentagon-heptagon pair defects into the hexagonal network of a single carbon nanotube can change the helicity of the tube and alter its electronic structure. Using a tight-binding method to calculate the electronic structure of such systems we show that they behave as nanoscale metal/semiconductor or semiconductor/semiconductor junctions. These junctions could be the building blocks of nanoscale electronic devices made entirely of carbon. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Influence of 700 °C vacuum annealing on fracture behavior of micro/nanoscale focused ion beam fabricated silicon structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goshima, Yoshiharu; Fujii, Tatsuya; Inoue, Shozo; Namazu, Takahiro

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the influence of 700 °C vacuum annealing on strength and fracture behavior of micro- and nano-scale Si structures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB). Si nanowires (NWs) made from silicon-on-nothing (SON) membrane are fabricated using FIB. Microscale Si specimens are fabricated by conventional micromachining technologies and FIB. These specimens are tensioned to failure using specially developed microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device and thin-film tensile tester, respectively. The mean fracture strengths of the nano- and microscale specimens are 5.6 and 1.6 GPa, respectively, which decrease to 2.9 and 0.9 GPa after vacuum annealing at 700 °C for only 10 s. These strength values do not vary with increasing annealing time. Fracture origin and its behavior are discussed in the light of fracture surface and FIB damage layer observations.

  3. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Revisited: Structure Elucidation and Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases’ many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field. PMID:25360565

  4. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: structure elucidation and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D John; Burkart, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field. PMID:25360565

  5. Biodegradable polymeric microcarriers with controllable porous structure for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xudong; Sun, Lei; Jiang, Jian; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ding, Wenjun; Gan, Zhihua

    2009-12-01

    Porous microspheres fabricated by biodegradable polymers show great potential as microcarriers for cell cultivation in tissue engineering. Herein biodegradable poly(DL-lactide) (PLA) was used to fabricate porous microspheres through a modified double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The influence of fabrication parameters, such as the stirring speed of the primary and secondary emulsion, the polymer concentration of the oil phase, and solvent type, as well as the post-hydrolysis treatment of the porous structure of the PLA microspheres are discussed. Good attachment and an active spread of MG-63 cells on the microspheres is observed, which indicates that the PLA microspheres with controllable porous structure are of great potential as cell delivery carriers for tissue engineering. PMID:19821453

  6. Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the <span class=Nanoscale Silver Final report"> This final report presents a case study of engineered nanoscale silver (nano-Ag), focusing on...

  7. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are investigated. Constructions of special elements which containing traction-free circular boundaries are investigated. New versions of mixed variational principle and version of hybrid stress elements are formulated. A method is established for suppression of kinematic deformation modes. semiLoof plate and shell elements are constructed by assumed stress hybrid method. An elastic-plastic analysis is conducted by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  8. Nanoscale integration is the next frontier for nanotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Picraux, Samuel T

    2009-01-01

    ways, from exploiting field-effect transistor devices and low power complementary logic to enable the electronic watch and hand calculator in the 1970's, to today's microprocessors and memories with billions of devices and a computational power not imagined a few decades ago. The manipulation of charges on a chip, the new concepts in combining devices for logic functions, and the new approaches to computation, information processing, and imaging have all emerged from Kilby and Noyce's simple concept of integrating devices on a single chip. Moving from hard to soft materials, a second more recent example of integration is the DNA microarray. These microarrays, with up to millions of elements in a planar array that can be optically read out, can simultaneously measure the expression of 10's of thousands of genes to study the effects of disease and treatment, or screen for single nucleotide polymorphisms for uses ranging from forensics to predisposition to disease. While still at an early stage, microarrays have revolutionized biosciences by providing the means to interrogate the complex genetic control of biological functions. Just as integrated circuits and microarrays have led to completely new functionalities and performance, the integration of nanoscale materials and structures is anticipated to lead to new performance and enable the design of new functionalities not previously envisioned. The fundamental questions underlying integration go beyond just complex fabrication or the engineering of known solutions; they lead to new discoveries and new science. The scientific challenges around nanoscale integration necessitate the development of new knowledge that is central to the advance of nanotechnology. To move forward one must address key science questions that arise in nanoscience integration and go beyond a single system or materials area. New science and discoveries especially await around three questions. How does one: (1) Control energy transfer and other

  9. Structural dynamic testing of the Engineering Test Satellite-IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, K.; Mitsuma, H.; Matsushita, T.; Izumi, H.

    The Engineering Test Satellite-IV (ETS-IV) was the first large scale spacecraft developed and launched successfully in Japan on a new N-II launch vehicle. This paper presents an approach taken for the structural development of the ETS-IV. Extensive structural tests were performed to demonstrate that the ETS-IV spacecraft meets all design requirements and will survive all critical environments. Details of the static load test, vibration tests, acoustic test, and pyrotechnic shock test were described. The test results were compared with analyses and measured flight data.

  10. Turbine blade structural dynamic analysis. [for space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, E. O.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents structural dynamic analysis and test results for the Space Shuttle Main Engine turbine blades. Athough these blades are designed to avoid coincidence of natural frequencies with harmonic excitation forces, the complexity of the turbine hardware, its nonlinearities and lack of information regarding the forcing function have led to fatigue failures. A comparison of single-blade analysis and test modal frequencies, shapes, and stresses is given; analysis techniques to describe the forcing function, compute dynamic responses, and incorporate the nonlinearities of Coulomb-friction dampers are presented. Recommendations are made for new research to improve forcing function computations and structural damping estimates used in the analysis.

  11. Harnessing natural product assembly lines: structure, promiscuity, and engineering.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Christopher C; Williams, Gavin J

    2016-03-01

    Many therapeutically relevant natural products are biosynthesized by the action of giant mega-enzyme assembly lines. By leveraging the specificity, promiscuity, and modularity of assembly lines, a variety of strategies has been developed that enables the biosynthesis of modified natural products. This review briefly summarizes recent structural advances related to natural product assembly lines, discusses chemical approaches to probing assembly line structures in the absence of traditional biophysical data, and surveys efforts that harness the inherent or engineered promiscuity of assembly lines for the synthesis of non-natural polyketides and non-ribosomal peptide analogues. PMID:26527577

  12. Structural integrity of engineering composite materials: a cracking good yarn

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Peter W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting precisely where a crack will develop in a material under stress and exactly when in time catastrophic fracture of the component will occur is one the oldest unsolved mysteries in the design and building of large-scale engineering structures. Where human life depends upon engineering ingenuity, the burden of testing to prove a ‘fracture safe design’ is immense. Fitness considerations for long-life implementation of large composite structures include understanding phenomena such as impact, fatigue, creep and stress corrosion cracking that affect reliability, life expectancy and durability of structure. Structural integrity analysis treats the design, the materials used, and figures out how best components and parts can be joined, and takes service duty into account. However, there are conflicting aims in the complete design process of designing simultaneously for high efficiency and safety assurance throughout an economically viable lifetime with an acceptable level of risk. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials’. PMID:27242293

  13. Crystal engineering with thioureas: A structure-based inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paisner, Kathryn A.

    2011-12-01

    Structural trends applicable to crystal engineering were studied in three classes of thiourea-based compounds. The aim of the study was to identify, predict, and ultimately design reliable single-molecule structural features, which could then be used to engineer crystals with desirable properties. In one class of compounds, this goal was achieved: N-alkyl and N-aryl derivatives of N,N'-bis(3-thioureidopropyl)piperazine adopted an identical conformation in the solid state, which resulted in near-identical crystal packing. A second class of closely related compounds, N-substituted tris(2-thioureidoethyl)amines, showed no such reliability in the solid state, likely because the parent structure lacked hydrogen-bonding functionalities sufficient to control intramolecular structure. In the third class of compounds that we studied, 1-benzoyl-3-(2-pyridyl)thioureas, substitution patterns were often predictive of molecular conformation; however, these intramolecular trends did not lead to recognizable crystal packing motifs. Nevertheless, certain physical properties observed in this last class of compounds---color, solubility, and often crystallinity---were conformer-specific, interestingly without any apparent relevance to crystal lattice structure. Solution-state and solid-state conformational trends in these 1-benzoyl-3-(2-pyridyl)thioureas have been documented, and speculations as to the source of color in one of the two observed conformations have been noted.

  14. Structural integrity of engineering composite materials: a cracking good yarn.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Peter W R; Soutis, Costas

    2016-07-13

    Predicting precisely where a crack will develop in a material under stress and exactly when in time catastrophic fracture of the component will occur is one the oldest unsolved mysteries in the design and building of large-scale engineering structures. Where human life depends upon engineering ingenuity, the burden of testing to prove a 'fracture safe design' is immense. Fitness considerations for long-life implementation of large composite structures include understanding phenomena such as impact, fatigue, creep and stress corrosion cracking that affect reliability, life expectancy and durability of structure. Structural integrity analysis treats the design, the materials used, and figures out how best components and parts can be joined, and takes service duty into account. However, there are conflicting aims in the complete design process of designing simultaneously for high efficiency and safety assurance throughout an economically viable lifetime with an acceptable level of risk. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. PMID:27242293

  15. Nanoscale thermal probing

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yanan; Wang, Xinwei

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale novel devices have raised the demand for nanoscale thermal characterization that is critical for evaluating the device performance and durability. Achieving nanoscale spatial resolution and high accuracy in temperature measurement is very challenging due to the limitation of measurement pathways. In this review, we discuss four methodologies currently developed in nanoscale surface imaging and temperature measurement. To overcome the restriction of the conventional methods, the scanning thermal microscopy technique is widely used. From the perspective of measuring target, the optical feature size method can be applied by using either Raman or fluorescence thermometry. The near-field optical method that measures nanoscale temperature by focusing the optical field to a nano-sized region provides a non-contact and non-destructive way for nanoscale thermal probing. Although the resistance thermometry based on nano-sized thermal sensors is possible for nanoscale thermal probing, significant effort is still needed to reduce the size of the current sensors by using advanced fabrication techniques. At the same time, the development of nanoscale imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging, provides a great potential solution to resolve the nanoscale thermal probing problem. PMID:22419968

  16. From Geometry to Diagnosis: Experiences of Geomatics in Structural Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.; Armesto, J.; Caamaño, J. C.; Solla, M.

    2012-07-01

    Terrestrial photogrammetry and laser scanning are technologies that have been successfully used for metric surveying and 3D modelling in many different fields (archaeological and architectural documentation, industrial retrofitting, mining, structural monitoring, road surveying, etc.). In the case of structural applications, these techniques have been successfully applied to 3D modelling and sometimes monitoring; but they have not been sufficiently implemented to date, as routine tools in infrastructure management systems, in terms of automation of data processing and integration in the condition assessment procedures. In this context, this paper presents a series of experiences in the usage of terrestrial photogrammetry and laser scanning in the context of dimensional and structural evaluation of structures. These experiences are particularly focused on historical masonry structures, but modern prestressed concrete bridges are also investigated. The development of methodological procedures for data collection, and data integration in some cases, is tackled for each particular structure (with access limitations, geometrical configuration, range of measurement, etc.). The accurate geometrical information provided by both terrestrial techniques motivates the implementation of such results in the complex, and sometimes slightly approximated, geometric scene that is frequently used in structural analysis. In this sense, quantitative evaluating of the influence of real and accurate geometry in structural analysis results must be carried out. As main result in this paper, a series of experiences based on the usage of photogrammetric and laser scanning to structural engineering are presented.

  17. Hard X-ray polarizer to enable simultaneous three-dimensional nanoscale imaging of magnetic structure and lattice strain.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jonathan; Harder, Ross; Li, Luxi; Haskel, Daniel; Chen, Pice; Winarski, Robert; Fuesz, Peter; Schlagel, Deborah; Vine, David; Benson, Christa; McNulty, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Recent progress in the development of dichroic Bragg coherent diffractive imaging, a new technique for simultaneous three-dimensional imaging of strain and magnetization at the nanoscale, is reported. This progress includes the installation of a diamond X-ray phase retarder at beamline 34-ID-C of the Advanced Photon Source. The performance of the phase retarder for tuning X-ray polarization is demonstrated with temperature-dependent X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements on a gadolinium foil in transmission and on a Gd5Si2Ge2 crystal in diffraction geometry with a partially coherent, focused X-ray beam. Feasibility tests for dichroic Bragg coherent diffractive imaging are presented. These tests include (1) using conventional Bragg coherent diffractive imaging to determine whether the phase retarder introduces aberrations using a nonmagnetic gold nanocrystal as a control sample, and (2) collecting coherent diffraction patterns of a magnetic Gd5Si2Ge2 nanocrystal with left- and right-circularly polarized X-rays. Future applications of dichroic Bragg coherent diffractive imaging for the correlation of strain and lattice defects with magnetic ordering and inhomogeneities are considered. PMID:27577777

  18. Hard X-ray polarizer to enable simultaneous three-dimensional nanoscale imaging of magnetic structure and lattice strain

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Jonathan; Harder, Ross; Li, Luxi; Haskel, Daniel; Chen, Pice; Winarski, Robert; Fuesz, Peter; Schlagel, Deborah; Vine, David; Benson, Christa; McNulty, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of dichroic Bragg coherent diffractive imaging, a new technique for simultaneous three-dimensional imaging of strain and magnetization at the nanoscale, is reported. This progress includes the installation of a diamond X-ray phase retarder at beamline 34-ID-C of the Advanced Photon Source. The performance of the phase retarder for tuning X-ray polarization is demonstrated with temperature-dependent X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements on a gadolinium foil in transmission and on a Gd5Si2Ge2 crystal in diffraction geometry with a partially coherent, focused X-ray beam. Feasibility tests for dichroic Bragg coherent diffractive imaging are presented. These tests include (1) using conventional Bragg coherent diffractive imaging to determine whether the phase retarder introduces aberrations using a nonmagnetic gold nanocrystal as a control sample, and (2) collecting coherent diffraction patterns of a magnetic Gd5Si2Ge2 nanocrystal with left- and right-circularly polarized X-rays. Future applications of dichroic Bragg coherent diffractive imaging for the correlation of strain and lattice defects with magnetic ordering and inhomogeneities are considered. PMID:27577777

  19. Magnonic band structure, complete bandgap, and collective spin wave excitation in nanoscale two-dimensional magnonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, D.; Barman, A.; Kłos, J. W.; Krawczyk, M.

    2014-01-28

    We present the observation of a complete bandgap and collective spin wave excitation in two-dimensional magnonic crystals comprised of arrays of nanoscale antidots and nanodots, respectively. Considering that the frequencies dealt with here fall in the microwave band, these findings can be used for the development of suitable magnonic metamaterials and spin wave based signal processing. We also present the application of a numerical procedure, to compute the dispersion relations of spin waves for any high symmetry direction in the first Brillouin zone. The results obtained from this procedure have been reproduced and verified by the well established plane wave method for an antidot lattice, when magnetization dynamics at antidot boundaries are pinned. The micromagnetic simulation based method can also be used to obtain iso–frequency contours of spin waves. Iso–frequency contours are analogous of the Fermi surfaces and hence, they have the potential to radicalize our understanding of spin wave dynamics. The physical origin of bands, partial and full magnonic bandgaps have been explained by plotting the spatial distribution of spin wave energy spectral density. Although, unfettered by rigid assumptions and approximations, which afflict most analytical methods used in the study of spin wave dynamics, micromagnetic simulations tend to be computationally demanding. Thus, the observation of collective spin wave excitation in the case of nanodot arrays, which can obviate the need to perform simulations, may also prove to be valuable.

  20. Microfabrication of hierarchical structures for engineered mechanical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera Canudas, Marc

    Materials found in nature present, in some cases, unique properties from their constituents that are of great interest in engineered materials for applications ranging from structural materials for the construction of bridges, canals and buildings to the fabrication of new lightweight composites for airplane and automotive bodies, to protective thin film coatings, amongst other fields. Research in the growing field of biomimetic materials indicates that the micro-architectures present in natural materials are critical to their macroscopic mechanical properties. A better understanding of the effect that structure and hierarchy across scales have on the material properties will enable engineered materials with enhanced properties. At the moment, very few theoretical models predict mechanical properties of simple materials based on their microstructures. Moreover these models are based on observations from complex biological systems. One way to overcome this challenge is through the use of microfabrication techniques to design and fabricate simple materials, more appropriate for the study of hierarchical organizations and microstructured materials. Arrays of structures with controlled geometry and dimension can be designed and fabricated at different length scales, ranging from a few hundred nanometers to centimeters, in order to mimic similar systems found in nature. In this thesis, materials have been fabricated in order to gain fundamental insight into the complex hierarchical materials found in nature and to engineer novel materials with enhanced mechanical properties. The materials fabricated here were mechanically characterized and compared to simple mechanics models to describe their behavior with the goal of applying the knowledge acquired to the design and synthesis of future engineered materials with novel properties.

  1. Controlling the Structural and Functional Anisotropy of Engineered Cardiac Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bursac, N

    2014-01-01

    The ability to control the degree of structural and functional anisotropy in 3D engineered cardiac tissues would have high utility for both in vitro studies of cardiac muscle physiology and pathology as well as potential tissue engineering therapies for myocardial infarction. Here, we applied a high aspect ratio soft lithography technique to generate network-like tissue patches seeded with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Fabricating longer elliptical pores within the patch networks increased the overall cardiomyocyte and extracellular matrix (ECM) alignment within the patch. Improved uniformity of cell and matrix alignment yielded an increase in anisotropy of action potential propagation and faster longitudinal conduction velocity (LCV). Cardiac tissue patches with a higher degree of cardiomyocyte alignment and electrical anisotropy also demonstrated greater isometric twitch forces. After two weeks of culture, specific measures of electrical and contractile function (LCV = 26.8 ± 0.8 cm/s, specific twitch force = 8.9 ± 1.1 mN/mm2 for the longest pores studied) were comparable to those of neonatal rat myocardium. We have thus described methodology for engineering of highly functional 3D engineered cardiac tissues with controllable degree of anisotropy. PMID:24717534

  2. Structure and Management of an Engineering Senior Design Course.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Martin L; Fischer, Kenneth J

    2016-07-01

    The design of products and processes is an important area in engineering. Students in engineering schools learn fundamental principles in their courses but often lack an opportunity to apply these methods to real-world problems until their senior year. This article describes important elements that should be incorporated into a senior capstone design course. It includes a description of the general principles used in engineering design and a discussion of why students often have difficulty with application and revert to trial and error methods. The structure of a properly designed capstone course is dissected and its individual components are evaluated. Major components include assessing resources, identifying projects, establishing teams, understanding requirements, developing conceptual designs, creating detailed designs, building prototypes, testing performance, and final presentations. In addition to the course design, team management and effective mentoring are critical to success. This article includes suggested guidelines and tips for effective design team leadership, attention to detail, investment of time, and managing project scope. Furthermore, the importance of understanding business culture, displaying professionalism, and considerations of different types of senior projects is discussed. Through a well-designed course and proper mentoring, students will learn to apply their engineering skills and gain basic business knowledge that will prepare them for entry-level positions in industry. PMID:27168053

  3. Systematic Investigation of Nanoscale Adsorbate Effects at Organic Light-Emitting diode Interfaces. Interfacial Structure-Charge Injection-Luminance Relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Huang,Q.; Li, J.; Evmenenko, G.; Dutta, P.; Marks, T.

    2006-01-01

    Molecule-scale structure effects at indium tin oxide (ITO) anode-hole transport layer (HTL) interfaces in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) heterostructures are systematically probed via a self-assembly approach. A series of ITO anode-linked silyltriarylamine precursors differing in aryl group and linker density are synthesized for this purpose and used to probe the relationship between nanoscale interfacial chemical structure and charge-injection/electroluminescence properties. These precursors form conformal and largely pinhole-free self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on the ITO anode surface with angstrom-level thickness control. Deposition of a HTL on top of the SAMs places the probe molecules precisely at the anode-HTL interface. OLEDs containing ITO/SAM/HTL configurations have dramatically varied hole-injection magnitudes and OLED responses. These can be correlated with the probe molecular structures and electrochemically derived heterogeneous electron-transfer rates for such triarylamine fragments. The large observed interfacial molecular structure effects offer an approach to tuning OLED hole-injection flux over 1-2 orders of magnitude, resulting in up to 3-fold variations in OLED brightness at identical bias and up to a 2 V driving voltage reduction at identical brightness. Very bright and efficient ({approx}70 000 cd/m{sup 2}, {approx}2.5% forward external quantum efficiency, {approx}11 lm/W power efficiency) Alq (tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum(III))-based OLEDs can thereby be fabricated.

  4. Structural engineering of three-dimensional phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpero, Tommaso; Schoenwald, Stefan; Zemp, Armin; Bergamini, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Artificially-structured materials are attracting the research interest of a growing community of scientists for the possibility to develop novel materials with advantageous properties that arise from the ability to tailor the propagation of elastic waves, and thus energy, through them. In this work, we propose a three-dimensional phononic crystal whose unit cell has been engineered to obtain a strong wave-attenuation band in the middle of the acoustic frequency range. The combination of its acoustic properties with the dimensions of the unit cell and its static mechanical properties makes it an interesting material for possibly several applications in civil and mechanical engineering, for instance as the core of an acoustically insulating sandwich panel. A sample of this crystal has been manufactured and experimentally tested with respect to its acoustic transmissibility. The performance of the phononic crystal core is remarkable both in terms of amplitude reduction in the transmissibility and width of the attenuation band. A parametric study has been finally conducted on selected geometrical parameters of the unit cell and on their effect on the macroscopic properties of the crystal. This work represents an application-oriented example of how the macroscopic properties of an artificially-structured material can be designed, according to specific needs, by a conventional engineering of its unit cell.

  5. Simulation of Aircraft Engine Blade-Out Structural Dynamics. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly; Gallardo, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    A primary concern of aircraft structure designers is the accurate simulation of the blade-out event and the subsequent windmilling of the engine. Reliable simulations of the blade-out event are required to insure structural integrity during flight as well as to guarantee successful blade-out certification testing. The system simulation includes the lost blade loadings and the interactions between the rotating turbomachinery and the remaining aircraft structural components. General-purpose finite element structural analysis codes such as MSC NASTRAN are typically used and special provisions are made to include transient effects from the blade loss and rotational effects resulting from the engine's turbomachinery. The present study provides the equations of motion for rotordynamic response including the effect of spooldown speed and rotor unbalance and examines the effects of these terms on a cantilevered rotor. The effect of spooldown speed is found to be greater with increasing spooldown rate. The parametric term resulting from the mass unbalance has a more significant effect on the rotordynamic response than does the spooldown term. The parametric term affects both the peak amplitudes as well as the resonant frequencies of the rotor.

  6. Simulation of Aircraft Engine Blade-Out Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly; Gallardo, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    A primary concern of aircraft structure designers is the accurate simulation of the blade-out event and the subsequent windmilling of the engine. Reliable simulations of the blade-out event are required to insure structural integrity during flight as well as to guarantee successful blade-out certification testing. The system simulation includes the lost blade loadings and the interactions between the rotating turbomachinery and the remaining aircraft structural components. General-purpose finite element structural analysis codes such as MSC NASTRAN are typically used and special provisions are made to include transient effects from the blade loss and rotational effects resulting from the engine's turbomachinery. The present study provides the equations of motion for rotordynamic response including the effect of spooldown speed and rotor unbalance and examines the effects of these terms on a cantilevered rotor. The effect of spooldown speed is found to be greater with increasing spooldown rate. The parametric term resulting from the mass unbalance has a more significant effect on the rotordynamic response than does the spooldown term. The parametric term affects both the peak amplitudes as well as the resonant frequencies of the rotor.

  7. Radiative Decay Engineering 7: Tamm State-Coupled Emission Using a Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Badugu, Ramachandram; Descrovi, Emiliano; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a continuing need to increase the brightness and photostability of fluorophores for use in biotechnology, medical diagnostics and cell imaging. One approach developed during the past decade is to use metallic surfaces and nanostructures. It is now known that excited state fluorophores display interactions with surface plasmons, which can increase the radiative decay rates, modify the spatial distribution of emission and result in directional emission. One important example is Surface Plasmon-Coupled Emission (SPCE). In this phenomenon the fluorophores at close distances from a thin metal film, typically silver, display emission over a small range of angles into the substrate. A disadvantage of SPCE is that the emission occur at large angles relative to the surface normal, and at angles which are larger than the critical angle for the glass substrate. The large angles make it difficult to collect all the coupled emission and have prevented use of SPCE with high-throughput and/or array applications. In the present report we describe a simple multi-layer metal-dielectric structure which allows excitation with light that is perpendicular (normal) to the plane and provides emission within a narrow angular distribution that is normal to the plane. This structure consist of a thin silver film on top of a multi-layer dielectric Bragg grating, with no nanoscale features except for the metal or dielectric layer thicknesses. Our structure is designed to support optical Tamm states, which are trapped electromagnetic modes between the metal film and the underlying Bragg grating. We used simulations with the transfer matrix method to understand the optical properties of Tamm states and localization of the modes or electric fields in the structure. Tamm states can exist with zero in-plane wavevector components and can be created without the use of a coupling prism. We show that fluorophores on top of the metal film can interact with the Tamm state under the metal film

  8. Shear piezoelectricity in bone at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Yu, Min-Feng

    2010-10-01

    Recent demonstration of shear piezoelectricity in an isolated collagen fibril, which is the origin of piezoelectricity in bone, necessitates investigation of shear piezoelectric behavior in bone at the nanoscale. Using high resolution lateral piezoresponse force microcopy (PFM), shear piezoelectricity in a cortical bone sample was studied at the nanoscale. Subfibrillar structure of individual collagen fibrils with a periodicity of 60-70 nm were revealed in PFM map, indicating the direct contribution of collagen fibrils to the shear piezoelectricity of bone.

  9. Super resolution imaging and nanoscale magnetic detection in microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kangmook

    Nanoscale sensing and imaging tools are the most emerging techniques in fields of nanoscience research and engineering. To demonstrate nanoscale sensing and imaging tools, it is required to achieve high sensitivity and spatial resolution simultaneously. By fulfilling the requirements, this thesis describes mainly two different scanning applications employing quantum probes and nanoparticle positioning technique using fluid flow control. First, we develop a method that can systematically probe the distortion of an emitter's diffraction spot near a nanoparticle in a microfluidic device. The results provide a better fundamental understanding of near-field coupling between emitters and nanophotonic structures. We demonstrate that by monitoring the distortion of the diffraction spot we can perform highly accurate imaging of the nanoparticle with 8 nm spatial precision. Next, we develop a method to perform localized magnetometry in a microfluidic device with a 48 nm spatial precision. We map out the local field distribution of a magnetic nanoparticle by manipulating it in the vicinity of an immobilized single NV center and optically detecting the induced Zeeman shift with a magnetic field sensitivity of 17.5 muT Hz-1/2. Finally, we introduce a scanning magnetic field technique that employs multiple NV centers in diamond nanocrystals suspended in microfluidic channels. This technique has advantages of short acquisition time over wide-field with nanoscale spatial resolution. The advantages make our technique attractive to a wide range of magnetic imaging applications in fluidic environments and biophysical systems.

  10. Optical/Electronic Heterogeneity of WSe2 at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Khatib, Omar; Kravtsov, Vasily; Ulbricht, Ronald; Clark, Genevieve; Xu, Xiaodong; Raschke, Markus

    Many classes of two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as a potential platform for novel electronic and optical devices. However, the physical properties are strongly influenced by nanoscale heterogeneities in the form of nucleation sites, defects, strains, and edges. Here we demonstrate nano-optical imaging of the associated influence on structure and electronic properties with sub-20 nm spatial resolution from combined tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) and photoluminescence (TEPL) spectroscopy and imaging. In monolayer WSe2 micro-crystals grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD), we observe significant variations in TERS and TEPL near crystal edges and atomic-scale grain boundaries (GBs), consistent with variations in strain and/or exciton diffusion. Specifically, theoretical exciton diffusion lengths (25 nm) at GBs and heterogeneous nanoscale (30-80 nm) PL emission including a spectral blue-shift at edges are experimentally probed. Further, we are able to engineer the local bandgap of WSe2 crystals by dynamic AFM-control in reversible (24 meV) and irreversible (48 meV) fashions, enabling systematic in-situ studies of the coupling of mechanical degrees of freedom to the nanoscale electronic properties in layered 2D materials.

  11. Nanoscale structure, dynamics and power conversion efficiency correlations in small molecule and oligomer-based photovoltaic devices

    PubMed Central

    Szarko, Jodi M.; Guo, Jianchang; Rolczynski, Brian S.; Chen, Lin X.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic functions in organic materials are intimately connected to interfacial morphologies of molecular packing in films on the nanometer scale and molecular levels. This review will focus on current studies on correlations of nanoscale morphologies in organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials with fundamental processes relevant to photovoltaic functions, such as light harvesting, exciton splitting, exciton diffusion, and charge separation (CS) and diffusion. Small molecule photovoltaic materials will be discussed here. The donor and acceptor materials in small molecule OPV devices can be fabricated in vacuum-deposited, multilayer, crystalline thin films, or spin-coated together to form blended bulk heterojunction (BHJ) films. These two methods result in very different morphologies of the solar cell active layers. There is still a formidable debate regarding which morphology is favored for OPV optimization. The morphology of the conducting films has been systematically altered; using variations of the techniques above, the whole spectrum of film qualities can be fabricated. It is possible to form a highly crystalline material, one which is completely amorphous, or an intermediate morphology. In this review, we will summarize the past key findings that have driven organic solar cell research and the current state-of-the-art of small molecule and conducting oligomer materials. We will also discuss the merits and drawbacks of these devices. Finally, we will highlight some works that directly compare the spectra and morphology of systematically elongated oligothiophene derivatives and compare these oligomers to their polymer counterparts. We hope this review will shed some new light on the morphology differences of these two systems. PMID:22110870

  12. Engineering hybrid Co-picene structures with variable spin coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunsheng; Shan, Huan; Li, Bin; Zhao, Aidi; Wang, Bing

    2016-04-01

    We report on the in situ engineering of hybrid Co-picene magnetic structures with variable spin coupling using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. Single picene molecules adsorbed on Au(111) are manipulated to accommodate individual Co atoms one by one, forming stable artificial hybrid structures with magnetism introduced by the Co atoms. By monitoring the evolution of the Kondo effect at each site of Co atom, we found that the picene molecule plays an important role in tuning the spin coupling between individual Co atoms, which is confirmed by theoretical calculations based on the density-functional theory. Our findings indicate that the hybrid metal-molecule structures with variable spin coupling on surfaces can be artificially constructed in a controlled manner.

  13. Structural Evaluation of Exo-Skeletal Engine Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuguoglu, Latife; Abumeri, Galib; Chamis, Christos C.

    2003-01-01

    The available computational simulation capability is used to demonstrate the structural viability of composite fan blades of innovative Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for a subsonic mission. Full structural analysis and progressive damage evaluation of ESE composite fan blade is conducted through the NASA in-house computational simulation software system EST/BEST. The results of structural assessment indicate that longitudinal stresses acting on the blade are in compression. At a design speed of 2000 rpm, pressure and suction surface outer most ply stresses in longitudinal, transverse and shear direction are much lower than the corresponding composite ply strengths. Damage is initiated at 4870 rpm and blade fracture takes place at rotor speed of 7735 rpm. Damage volume is 51 percent. The progressive damage, buckling, stress and strength results indicate that the design at hand is very sound because of the factor of safety, damage tolerance, and buckling load of 6811 rpm.

  14. Label-free colorimetric detection of mercury via Hg2+ ions-accelerated structural transformation of nanoscale metal-oxo clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kun; She, Shan; Zhang, Jiangwei; Bayaguud, Aruuhan; Wei, Yongge

    2015-11-01

    Mercury and its compounds are known to be extremely toxic but widely distributed in environment. Although many works have been reported to efficiently detect mercury, development of simple and convenient sensors is still longed for quick analyzing mercury in water. In this work, a nanoscale metal-oxo cluster, (n-Bu4N)2[Mo5NaO13(OCH3)4(NO)], (MLPOM), organically-derivatized from monolacunary Lindqvist-type polyoxomolybdate, is found to specifically react with Hg2+ in methanol/water via structural transformation. The MLPOM methanol solution displays a color change from purple to brown within seconds after being mixed with an aqueous solution containing Hg2+. By comparing the structure of polyoxomolybdate before and after reaction, the color change is revealed to be the essentially structural transformation of MLPOM accelerated by Hg2+. Based on this discovery, MLPOM could be utilized as a colorimetric sensor to sense the existence of Hg2+, and a simple and label-free method is developed to selectively detect aqueous Hg2+. Furthermore, the colorimetric sensor has been applied to indicating mercury contamination in industrial sewage.

  15. Label-free colorimetric detection of mercury via Hg2+ ions-accelerated structural transformation of nanoscale metal-oxo clusters

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun; She, Shan; Zhang, Jiangwei; Bayaguud, Aruuhan; Wei, Yongge

    2015-01-01

    Mercury and its compounds are known to be extremely toxic but widely distributed in environment. Although many works have been reported to efficiently detect mercury, development of simple and convenient sensors is still longed for quick analyzing mercury in water. In this work, a nanoscale metal-oxo cluster, (n-Bu4N)2[Mo5NaO13(OCH3)4(NO)], (MLPOM), organically-derivatized from monolacunary Lindqvist-type polyoxomolybdate, is found to specifically react with Hg2+ in methanol/water via structural transformation. The MLPOM methanol solution displays a color change from purple to brown within seconds after being mixed with an aqueous solution containing Hg2+. By comparing the structure of polyoxomolybdate before and after reaction, the color change is revealed to be the essentially structural transformation of MLPOM accelerated by Hg2+. Based on this discovery, MLPOM could be utilized as a colorimetric sensor to sense the existence of Hg2+, and a simple and label-free method is developed to selectively detect aqueous Hg2+. Furthermore, the colorimetric sensor has been applied to indicating mercury contamination in industrial sewage. PMID:26559602

  16. Sub-band structure engineering for advanced CMOS channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Shin-ichi; Mizuno, T.; Tezuka, T.; Sugiyama, N.; Nakaharai, S.; Numata, T.; Koga, J.; Uchida, K.

    2005-05-01

    This paper reviews our recent studies of novel CMOS channels based on the concept of sub-band structure engineering. This device design concept can be realized as strained-Si channel MOSFETs, ultra-thin SOI MOSFETs and Ge-on-Insulator (GOI) MOSFETs. An important factor for the electron mobility enhancement is the introduction of larger sub-band energy splitting between the 2- and 4-fold valleys on a (1 0 0) surface, which can be obtained in strained-Si and ultra-thin body channels. The electrical properties of strained-Si MOSFETs are summarized with an emphasis on strained-SOI structures. Also, the importance of the precise control of ultra-thin SOI thickness is pointed out from the experimental results of the SOI thickness dependence of mobility. Furthermore, it is shown that the increase in the sub-band energy splitting can also be effective in obtaining higher current drive of n-channel MOSFETs under ballistic transport regime. This suggests that the current drive enhancement based on MOS channel engineering utilizing strain and ultra-thin body structures can be extended to ultra-short channel MOSFETs dominated by ballistic transport.

  17. Structural and Machine Design Using Piezoceramic Materials: A Guide for Structural Design Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Daniel J.; Cudney, Harley H.

    2000-01-01

    Using piezoceramic materials is one way the design engineer can create structures which have an ability to both sense and respond to their environment. Piezoceramic materials can be used to create structural sensors and structural actuators. Because piezoceramic materials have transduction as a material property, their sensing or actuation functions are a result of what happens to the material. This is different than discrete devices we might attach to the structure. For example, attaching an accelerometer to a structure will yield an electrical signal proportional to the acceleration at the attachment point on the structure. Using a electromagnetic shaker as an actuator will create an applied force at the attachment point. Active material elements in a structural design are not easily modeled as providing transduction at a point, but rather they change the physics of the structure in the areas where they are used. Hence, a designer must not think of adding discrete devices to a structure to obtain an effect, but rather must design a structural system which accounts for the physical principles of all the elements in the structure. The purpose of this manual is to provide practicing engineers the information necessary to incorporate piezoelectric materials in structural design and machine design. First, we will review the solid-state physics of piezoelectric materials. Then we will discuss the physical characteristics of the electrical-active material-structural system. We will present the elements of this system which must be considered as part of the design task for a structural engineer. We will cover simple modeling techniques and review the features and capabilities of commercial design tools that are available. We will then cover practical how-to elements of working with piezoceramic materials. We will review sources of piezoceramic materials and built-up devices, and their characteristics. Finally, we will provide two design examples using piezoceramic

  18. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, Theodore H. H.

    1991-01-01

    The following tasks on the study of advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are described: (1) constructions of special elements which contain traction-free circular boundaries; (2) formulation of new version of mixed variational principles and new version of hybrid stress elements; (3) establishment of methods for suppression of kinematic deformation modes; (4) construction of semiLoof plate and shell elements by assumed stress hybrid method; and (5) elastic-plastic analysis by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  19. Overview of Lightweight Structures for Rotorcraft Engines and Drivetrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    This is an overview presentation of research being performed in the Advanced Materials Task within the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project. This research is focused on technology areas that address both national goals and project goals for advanced rotorcraft. Specific technology areas discussed are: (1) high temperature materials for advanced turbines in turboshaft engines; (2) polymer matrix composites for lightweight drive system components; (3) lightweight structure approaches for noise and vibration control; and (4) an advanced metal alloy for lighter weight bearings and more reliable mechanical components. An overview of the technology in each area is discussed, and recent accomplishments are presented.

  20. Nonlinear constitutive theory for turbine engine structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A number of viscoplastic constitutive theories and a conventional constitutive theory are evaluated and compared in their ability to predict nonlinear stress-strain behavior in gas turbine engine components at elevated temperatures. Specific application of these theories is directed towards the structural analysis of combustor liners undergoing transient, cyclic, thermomechanical load histories. The combustor liner material considered in this study is Hastelloy X. The material constants for each of the theories (as a function of temperature) are obtained from existing, published experimental data. The viscoplastic theories and a conventional theory are incorporated into a general purpose, nonlinear, finite element computer program. Several numerical examples of combustor liner structural analysis using these theories are given to demonstrate their capabilities. Based on the numerical stress-strain results, the theories are evaluated and compared.

  1. Advanced fabrication techniques for hydrogen-cooled engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchmann, O. A.; Arefian, V. V.; Warren, H. A.; Vuigner, A. A.; Pohlman, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Described is a program for development of coolant passage geometries, material systems, and joining processes that will produce long-life hydrogen-cooled structures for scramjet applications. Tests were performed to establish basic material properties, and samples constructed and evaluated to substantiate fabrication processes and inspection techniques. Results of the study show that the basic goal of increasing the life of hydrogen-cooled structures two orders of magnitude relative to that of the Hypersonic Research Engine can be reached with available means. Estimated life is 19000 cycles for the channels and 16000 cycles for pin-fin coolant passage configurations using Nickel 201. Additional research is required to establish the fatigue characteristics of dissimilar-metal coolant passages (Nickel 201/Inconel 718) and to investigate the embrittling effects of the hydrogen coolant.

  2. Engineering structured light with Vogel spiral arrays of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Nate; Trevino, Jacob; Dal Negro, Luca

    2013-03-01

    We present a general analytical model for light scattering by arbitrary Vogel spiral arrays of circular apertures uniformly illuminated at normal incidence. This model suffices to unveil the fundamental mathematical structure of their complex Fraunhofer diffraction patterns and enables the engineering of optical beams carrying multiple values of orbital angular momentum (OAM). By performing analytical Fourier-Hankel decomposition of spiral arrays and far field patterns, we rigorously demonstrate the ability to encode specific numerical sequences onto the OAM values of diffracted optical beams. In particular, we show that these OAM values are determined by the rational approximations of the continued fraction expansions of the irrational angles utilized to generate Vogel spirals. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate structured light carrying multiple values of OAM in the far-field scattering region of Vogel spiral arrays of metallic nanoparticles. Using Fourier-Hankel mode decomposition analysis and interferometric reconstruction of the complex amplitude of scattered waves, we show the ability to encode well-defined numerical sequences, determined by the aperiodic spiral geometry, into azimuthal OAM values, in excellent agreement with analytical scattering theory. The generation of sequences of OAM values by light scattering from engineered aperiodic surfaces is relevant to a number of device applications for secure optical communication, classical and quantum cryptography.

  3. Cabin fuselage structural design with engine installation and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, Tanapaal; Bishop, Mike; Gumus, Ilker; Gussy, Joel; Triggs, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Design requirements for the cabin, cabin system, flight controls, engine installation, and wing-fuselage interface that provide adequate interior volume for occupant seating, cabin ingress and egress, and safety are presented. The fuselage structure must be sufficient to meet the loadings specified in the appropriate sections of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23. The critical structure must provide a safe life of 10(exp 6) load cycles and 10,000 operational mission cycles. The cabin seating and controls must provide adjustment to account for various pilot physiques and to aid in maintenance and operation of the aircraft. Seats and doors shall not bind or lockup under normal operation. Cabin systems such as heating and ventilation, electrical, lighting, intercom, and avionics must be included in the design. The control system will consist of ailerons, elevator, and rudders. The system must provide required deflections with a combination of push rods, bell cranks, pulleys, and linkages. The system will be free from slack and provide smooth operation without binding. Environmental considerations include variations in temperature and atmospheric pressure, protection against sand, dust, rain, humidity, ice, snow, salt/fog atmosphere, wind and gusts, and shock and vibration. The following design goals were set to meet the requirements of the statement of work: safety, performance, manufacturing and cost. To prevent the engine from penetrating the passenger area in the event of a crash was the primary safety concern. Weight and the fuselage aerodynamics were the primary performance concerns. Commonality and ease of manufacturing were major considerations to reduce cost.

  4. Correlating high power conversion efficiency of PTB7:PC71BM inverted organic solar cells with nanoscale structures.

    PubMed

    Das, Sanjib; Keum, Jong K; Browning, James F; Gu, Gong; Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Do, Changwoo; Chen, Wei; Chen, Jihua; Ivanov, Ilia N; Hong, Kunlun; Rondinone, Adam J; Joshi, Pooran C; Geohegan, David B; Duscher, Gerd; Xiao, Kai

    2015-10-14

    Advances in material design and device engineering led to inverted organic solar cells (i-OSCs) with superior power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) compared to their "conventional" counterparts, in addition to the well-known better ambient stability. Here, we report an in-depth morphology study of the i-OSC active and cathode modifying layers, employing a model system with a well-established bulk-heterojunction, PTB7:PC71BM as the active layer and poly-[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN) as the cathode surface modifying layer. We have also identified the role of a processing additive, 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), used in the spin-casting of the active layer to increase PCE. Using various characterization techniques, we demonstrate that the high PCEs of i-OSCs are due to the diffusion of electron-accepting PC71BM into the PFN layer, resulting in improved electron transport. The diffusion occurs when residual solvent molecules in the spun-cast film act as a plasticizer. Addition of DIO to the casting solution results in more PC71BM diffusion and therefore more efficient electron transport. This work provides important insight and guidance to further enhancement of i-OSC performance by materials and interface engineering. PMID:26220775

  5. Structural tailoring of SSME turbopump blades (SSME/STAEBL). [Structural Tailoring of Engine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, R.; Chamis, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Computer structural optimization is applied to the design of Space Shuttle main engine turbopump blades. The optimization is implemented by the program SSME/STAEBL. A general description of this program is given. Design optimization studies for typical blade designs are presented.

  6. Probabilistic structural analysis methods for improving Space Shuttle engine reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, L.

    1989-01-01

    Probabilistic structural analysis methods are particularly useful in the design and analysis of critical structural components and systems that operate in very severe and uncertain environments. These methods have recently found application in space propulsion systems to improve the structural reliability of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) components. A computer program, NESSUS, based on a deterministic finite-element program and a method of probabilistic analysis (fast probability integration) provides probabilistic structural analysis for selected SSME components. While computationally efficient, it considers both correlated and nonnormal random variables as well as an implicit functional relationship between independent and dependent variables. The program is used to determine the response of a nickel-based superalloy SSME turbopump blade. Results include blade tip displacement statistics due to the variability in blade thickness, modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio or density. Modulus of elasticity significantly contributed to blade tip variability while Poisson's ratio did not. Thus, a rational method for choosing parameters to be modeled as random is provided.

  7. Acoustic-Structure Interaction in Rocket Engines: Validation Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. Benjamin; Joji, Scott S.; Parks, Russel A.; Brown, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    While analyzing a rocket engine component, it is often necessary to account for any effects that adjacent fluids (e.g., liquid fuels or oxidizers) might have on the structural dynamics of the component. To better characterize the fully coupled fluid-structure system responses, an analytical approach that models the system as a coupled expansion of rigid wall acoustic modes and in vacuo structural modes has been proposed. The present work seeks to experimentally validate this approach. To experimentally observe well-coupled system modes, the test article and fluid cavities are designed such that the uncoupled structural frequencies are comparable to the uncoupled acoustic frequencies. The test measures the natural frequencies, mode shapes, and forced response of cylindrical test articles in contact with fluid-filled cylindrical and/or annular cavities. The test article is excited with a stinger and the fluid-loaded response is acquired using a laser-doppler vibrometer. The experimentally determined fluid-loaded natural frequencies are compared directly to the results of the analytical model. Due to the geometric configuration of the test article, the analytical model is found to be valid for natural modes with circumferential wave numbers greater than four. In the case of these modes, the natural frequencies predicted by the analytical model demonstrate excellent agreement with the experimentally determined natural frequencies.

  8. Catalytic activity of bimetallic catalysts highly sensitive to the atomic composition and phase structure at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Shiyao; Petkov, Valeri; Prasai, Binay; Wu, Jinfang; Joseph, Pharrah; Skeete, Zakiya; Kim, Eunjoo; Mott, Derrick; Malis, Oana; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2015-11-01

    The ability to determine the atomic arrangement in nanoalloy catalysts and reveal the detailed structural features responsible for the catalytically active sites is essential for understanding the correlation between the atomic structure and catalytic properties, enabling the preparation of efficient nanoalloy catalysts by design. Herein we describe a study of CO oxidation over PdCu nanoalloy catalysts focusing on gaining insights into the correlation between the atomic structures and catalytic activity of nanoalloys. PdCu nanoalloys of different bimetallic compositions are synthesized as a model system and are activated by a controlled thermochemical treatment for assessing their catalytic activity. The results show that the catalytic synergy of Pd and Cu species evolves with both the bimetallic nanoalloy composition and temperature of the thermochemical treatment reaching a maximum at a Pd : Cu ratio close to 50 : 50. The nanoalloys are characterized structurally by ex situ and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, including atomic pair distribution function analysis. The structural data show that, depending on the bimetallic composition and treatment temperature, PdCu nanoalloys adopt two different structure types. One features a chemically ordered, body centered cubic (B2) type alloy consisting of two interpenetrating simple cubic lattices, each occupied with Pd or Cu species alone, and the other structure type features a chemically disordered, face-centered cubic (fcc) type of alloy wherein Pd and Cu species are intermixed at random. The catalytic activity for CO oxidation is strongly influenced by the structural features. In particular, it is revealed that the prevalence of chemical disorder in nanoalloys with a Pd : Cu ratio close to 50 : 50 makes them superior catalysts for CO oxidation in comparison with the same nanoalloys of other bimetallic compositions. However, the catalytic synergy can be diminished if the Pd50Cu50 nanoalloys undergo phase

  9. Effect of antimony nano-scale surface-structures on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Husaini, S.; Shima, D.; Ahirwar, P.; Rotter, T. J.; Hains, C. P.; Dang, T.; Bedford, R. G.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2013-02-11

    Effects of antimony crystallization on the surface of GaSb during low temperature molecular beam epitaxy growth are investigated. The geometry of these structures is studied via transmission electron and atomic force microscopies, which show the surface metal forms triangular-shaped, elongated nano-wires with a structured orientation composed entirely of crystalline antimony. By depositing antimony on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector, the field is localized within the antimony layer. Polarization dependent transmission measurements are carried out on these nano-structures deposited on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector. It is shown that the antimony-based structures at the surface favor transmission of light polarized perpendicular to the wires.

  10. Nanoscale characterization of local structures and defects in photonic crystals using synchrotron-based transmission soft X-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nho, Hyun Woo; Kalegowda, Yogesh; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2016-04-01

    For the structural characterization of the polystyrene (PS)-based photonic crystals (PCs), fast and direct imaging capabilities of full field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) were demonstrated at soft X-ray energy. PS-based PCs were prepared on an O2-plasma treated Si3N4 window and their local structures and defects were investigated using this label-free TXM technique with an image acquisition speed of ~10 sec/frame and marginal radiation damage. Micro-domains of face-centered cubic (FCC (111)) and hexagonal close-packed (HCP (0001)) structures were dominantly found in PS-based PCs, while point and line defects, FCC (100), and 12-fold symmetry structures were also identified as minor components. Additionally, in situ observation capability for hydrated samples and 3D tomographic reconstruction of TXM images were also demonstrated. This soft X-ray full field TXM technique with faster image acquisition speed, in situ observation, and 3D tomography capability can be complementally used with the other X-ray microscopic techniques (i.e., scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, STXM) as well as conventional characterization methods (e.g., electron microscopic and optical/fluorescence microscopic techniques) for clearer structure identification of self-assembled PCs and better understanding of the relationship between their structures and resultant optical properties.

  11. Nanoscale characterization of local structures and defects in photonic crystals using synchrotron-based transmission soft X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nho, Hyun Woo; Kalegowda, Yogesh; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    For the structural characterization of the polystyrene (PS)-based photonic crystals (PCs), fast and direct imaging capabilities of full field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) were demonstrated at soft X-ray energy. PS-based PCs were prepared on an O2-plasma treated Si3N4 window and their local structures and defects were investigated using this label-free TXM technique with an image acquisition speed of ~10 sec/frame and marginal radiation damage. Micro-domains of face-centered cubic (FCC (111)) and hexagonal close-packed (HCP (0001)) structures were dominantly found in PS-based PCs, while point and line defects, FCC (100), and 12-fold symmetry structures were also identified as minor components. Additionally, in situ observation capability for hydrated samples and 3D tomographic reconstruction of TXM images were also demonstrated. This soft X-ray full field TXM technique with faster image acquisition speed, in situ observation, and 3D tomography capability can be complementally used with the other X-ray microscopic techniques (i.e., scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, STXM) as well as conventional characterization methods (e.g., electron microscopic and optical/fluorescence microscopic techniques) for clearer structure identification of self-assembled PCs and better understanding of the relationship between their structures and resultant optical properties. PMID:27087141

  12. Nanoscale characterization of local structures and defects in photonic crystals using synchrotron-based transmission soft X-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nho, Hyun Woo; Kalegowda, Yogesh; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    For the structural characterization of the polystyrene (PS)-based photonic crystals (PCs), fast and direct imaging capabilities of full field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) were demonstrated at soft X-ray energy. PS-based PCs were prepared on an O2-plasma treated Si3N4 window and their local structures and defects were investigated using this label-free TXM technique with an image acquisition speed of ~10 sec/frame and marginal radiation damage. Micro-domains of face-centered cubic (FCC (111)) and hexagonal close-packed (HCP (0001)) structures were dominantly found in PS-based PCs, while point and line defects, FCC (100), and 12-fold symmetry structures were also identified as minor components. Additionally, in situ observation capability for hydrated samples and 3D tomographic reconstruction of TXM images were also demonstrated. This soft X-ray full field TXM technique with faster image acquisition speed, in situ observation, and 3D tomography capability can be complementally used with the other X-ray microscopic techniques (i.e., scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, STXM) as well as conventional characterization methods (e.g., electron microscopic and optical/fluorescence microscopic techniques) for clearer structure identification of self-assembled PCs and better understanding of the relationship between their structures and resultant optical properties. PMID:27087141

  13. Molding the flow of light on the nanoscale: from vortex nanogears to phase-operated plasmonic machinery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Efficient delivery of light into nanoscale volumes by converting free photons into localized charge-density oscillations (surface plasmons) enables technological innovation in various fields from biosensing to photovoltaics and quantum computing. Conventional plasmonic nanostructures are designed as nanoscale analogs of radioantennas and waveguides. Here, we discuss an alternative approach for plasmonic nanocircuit engineering that is based on molding the optical powerflow through ‘vortex nanogears’ around a landscape of local phase singularities ‘pinned’ to plasmonic nanostructures. We show that coupling of several vortex nanogears into transmission-like structures results in dramatic optical effects, which can be explained by invoking a hydrodynamic analogy of the ‘photon fluid’. The new concept of vortex nanogear transmissions (VNTs) provides new design principles for the development of complex multi-functional phase-operated photonics machinery and, therefore, generates unique opportunities for light generation, harvesting and processing on the nanoscale. PMID:22127488

  14. Correlating high power conversion efficiency of PTB7:PC71BM inverted organic solar cells with nanoscale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sanjib; Keum, Jong K.; Browning, James F.; Gu, Gong; Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Do, Changwoo; Chen, Wei; Chen, Jihua; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Hong, Kunlun; Rondinone, Adam J.; Joshi, Pooran C.; Geohegan, David B.; Duscher, Gerd; Xiao, Kai

    2015-09-01

    Advances in material design and device engineering led to inverted organic solar cells (i-OSCs) with superior power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) compared to their ``conventional'' counterparts, in addition to the well-known better ambient stability. Here, we report an in-depth morphology study of the i-OSC active and cathode modifying layers, employing a model system with a well-established bulk-heterojunction, PTB7:PC71BM as the active layer and poly-[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN) as the cathode surface modifying layer. We have also identified the role of a processing additive, 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), used in the spin-casting of the active layer to increase PCE. Using various characterization techniques, we demonstrate that the high PCEs of i-OSCs are due to the diffusion of electron-accepting PC71BM into the PFN layer, resulting in improved electron transport. The diffusion occurs when residual solvent molecules in the spun-cast film act as a plasticizer. Addition of DIO to the casting solution results in more PC71BM diffusion and therefore more efficient electron transport. This work provides important insight and guidance to further enhancement of i-OSC performance by materials and interface engineering.Advances in material design and device engineering led to inverted organic solar cells (i-OSCs) with superior power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) compared to their ``conventional'' counterparts, in addition to the well-known better ambient stability. Here, we report an in-depth morphology study of the i-OSC active and cathode modifying layers, employing a model system with a well-established bulk-heterojunction, PTB7:PC71BM as the active layer and poly-[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN) as the cathode surface modifying layer. We have also identified the role of a processing additive, 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), used in the spin-casting of the active

  15. Thermal Treatment of PtNiCo Electrocatalysts: Effects of Nanoscale Strain and Structure on the Activity and Stability for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Wanjala, Bridgid N.; Loukrakpam, Rameshwori; Luo, Jin; Njoki, Peter; Mott, Derrick; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Shao, Minhua; Protsailo, Lesia; Kawamura, Tetsuo

    2010-10-21

    The ability to control the nanoscale size, composition, phase, and facet of multimetallic catalysts is important for advancing the design and preparation of advanced catalysts. This report describes the results of an investigation of the thermal treatment temperature on nanoengineered platinum-nickel-cobalt catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction, focusing on understanding the effects of lattice strain and surface properties on activity and stability. The thermal treatment temperatures ranged from 400 to 926 C. The catalysts were characterized by microscopic, spectroscopic, and electrochemical techniques for establishing the correlation between the electrocatalytic properties and the catalyst structures. The composition, size, and phase properties of the trimetallic nanoparticles were controllable by our synthesis and processing approach. The increase in the thermal treatment temperature of the carbon-supported catalysts was shown to lead to a gradual shrinkage of the lattice constants of the alloys and an enhanced population of facets on the nanoparticle catalysts. A combination of the lattice shrinkage and the surface enrichment of nanocrystal facets on the nanoparticle catalysts as a result of the increased temperature was shown to play a major role in enhancing the electrocatalytic activity for catalysts. Detailed analyses of the oxidation states, atomic distributions, and interatomic distances revealed a certain degree of changes in Co enrichment and surface Co oxides as a function of the thermal treatment temperature. These findings provided important insights into the correlation between the electrocatalytic activity/stability and the nanostructural parameters (lattice strain, surface oxidation state, and distribution) of the nanoengineered trimetallic catalysts.

  16. Thermal Treatment of PtNiCo Electrocatalysts: Effects of Nanoscale Strain and Structure on the Activity and Stability for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    B Wanjala; R Loukrakpam; J Luo; P Njoki; D Mott; C Zhong; M Shao; L Protsailo; T Kawamura

    2011-12-31

    The ability to control the nanoscale size, composition, phase, and facet of multimetallic catalysts is important for advancing the design and preparation of advanced catalysts. This report describes the results of an investigation of the thermal treatment temperature on nanoengineered platinum-nickel-cobalt catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction, focusing on understanding the effects of lattice strain and surface properties on activity and stability. The thermal treatment temperatures ranged from 400 to 926 C. The catalysts were characterized by microscopic, spectroscopic, and electrochemical techniques for establishing the correlation between the electrocatalytic properties and the catalyst structures. The composition, size, and phase properties of the trimetallic nanoparticles were controllable by our synthesis and processing approach. The increase in the thermal treatment temperature of the carbon-supported catalysts was shown to lead to a gradual shrinkage of the lattice constants of the alloys and an enhanced population of facets on the nanoparticle catalysts. A combination of the lattice shrinkage and the surface enrichment of nanocrystal facets on the nanoparticle catalysts as a result of the increased temperature was shown to play a major role in enhancing the electrocatalytic activity for catalysts. Detailed analyses of the oxidation states, atomic distributions, and interatomic distances revealed a certain degree of changes in Co enrichment and surface Co oxides as a function of the thermal treatment temperature. These findings provided important insights into the correlation between the electrocatalytic activity/stability and the nanostructural parameters (lattice strain, surface oxidation state, and distribution) of the nanoengineered trimetallic catalysts.

  17. Correlating High Power Conversion Efficiency of PTB7:PC71BM Inverted Organic Solar Cells with Nanoscale Structures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Das, Sanjib; Keum, Jong Kahk; Browning, Jim; Gu, Gong; Yang, Bin; Do, Changwoo; Chen, Wei; Chen, Jihua; Ivanov, Ilia N; Hong, Kunlun; et al

    2015-01-01

    Advances in materials design and device engineering led to inverted organic solar cells (i-OSCs) with superior power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) to their conventional counterparts, in addition to the well-known better ambient stability. Despite the significant progress, however, it has so far been unclear how the morphologies of the photoactive layer and its interface with the cathode modifying layer impact device performance. Here, we report an in-depth morphology study of the i-OSC active and cathode modifying layers, employing a model system with the well-established bulk-heterojunction, PTB7:PC71BM as the active layer and poly-[(9,9-bis(3 -(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN) as the cathode surface modifying layer. Wemore » have also identified the role of a processing additive, 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), used in the spin-casting of the active layer to increase PCE. Using a variety of characterization techniques, we demonstrate that the high PCEs of i-OSCs are due to the smearing (diffusion) of electron-accepting PC71BM into the PFN layer, resulting in improved electron transport. The PC71BM diffusion occurs after spin-casting the active layer onto the PFN layer, when residual solvent molecules act as a plasticizer. The DIO additive, with a higher boiling point than the host solvent, has a longer residence time in the spin-cast active layer, resulting in more PC71BM smearing and therefore more efficient electron transport. This work provides important insight and guidance to further enhancement of i-OSC performance by materials and interface engineering.« less

  18. DIET at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujardin, G.; Boer-Duchemin, E.; Le Moal, E.; Mayne, A. J.; Riedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    We review the long evolution of DIET (Dynamics at surfaces Induced by Electronic Transitions) that began in the 1960s when Menzel, Gomer and Redhead proposed their famous stimulated desorption model. DIET entered the "nanoscale" in the 1990s when researchers at Bell Labs and IBM realized that the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) could be used as an atomic size source of electrons to electronically excite individual atoms and molecules on surfaces. Resonant and radiant Inelastic Electron Tunneling (IET) using the STM have considerably enlarged the range of applications of DIET. Nowadays, "DIET at the nanoscale" covers a broad range of phenomena at the atomic-scale. This includes molecular dynamics (dissociation, desorption, isomerization, displacement, chemical reactions), vibrational spectroscopy and dynamics, spin spectroscopy and manipulation, luminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and plasmonics. Future trends of DIET at the nanoscale offer exciting prospects for new methods to control light and matter at the nanoscale.

  19. Structural engineering masters level education framework of knowledge for the needs of initial professional practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, Zsuzsa Enriko

    For at least the last decade, engineering, civil engineering, along with structural engineering as a profession within civil engineering, have and continue to face an emerging need for "Raising the Bar" of preparedness of young engineers seeking to become practicing professional engineers. The present consensus of the civil engineering profession is that the increasing need for broad and in-depth knowledge should require the young structural engineers to have at least a Masters-Level education. This study focuses on the Masters-Level preparedness in the structural engineering area within the civil engineering field. It follows much of the methodology used in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Body of Knowledge determination for civil engineering and extends this type of study to better define the portion of the young engineers preparation beyond the undergraduate program for one specialty area of civil engineering. The objective of this research was to create a Framework of Knowledge for the young engineer which identifies and recognizes the needs of the profession, along with the profession's expectations of how those needs can be achieved in the graduate-level academic setting, in the practice environment, and through lifelong learning opportunities with an emphasis on the initial five years experience past completion of a Masters program in structural engineering. This study applied a modified Delphi method to obtain the critical information from members of the structural engineering profession. The results provide a Framework of Knowledge which will be useful to several groups seeking to better ensure the preparedness of the future young structural engineers at the Masters-Level.

  20. Catalytic activity of bimetallic catalysts highly sensitive to the atomic composition and phase structure at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Shan, Shiyao; Petkov, Valeri; Prasai, Binay; Wu, Jinfang; Joseph, Pharrah; Skeete, Zakiya; Kim, Eunjoo; Mott, Derrick; Malis, Oana; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2015-12-01

    The ability to determine the atomic arrangement in nanoalloy catalysts and reveal the detailed structural features responsible for the catalytically active sites is essential for understanding the correlation between the atomic structure and catalytic properties, enabling the preparation of efficient nanoalloy catalysts by design. Herein we describe a study of CO oxidation over PdCu nanoalloy catalysts focusing on gaining insights into the correlation between the atomic structures and catalytic activity of nanoalloys. PdCu nanoalloys of different bimetallic compositions are synthesized as a model system and are activated by a controlled thermochemical treatment for assessing their catalytic activity. The results show that the catalytic synergy of Pd and Cu species evolves with both the bimetallic nanoalloy composition and temperature of the thermochemical treatment reaching a maximum at a Pd : Cu ratio close to 50 : 50. The nanoalloys are characterized structurally by ex situ and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, including atomic pair distribution function analysis. The structural data show that, depending on the bimetallic composition and treatment temperature, PdCu nanoalloys adopt two different structure types. One features a chemically ordered, body centered cubic (B2) type alloy consisting of two interpenetrating simple cubic lattices, each occupied with Pd or Cu species alone, and the other structure type features a chemically disordered, face-centered cubic (fcc) type of alloy wherein Pd and Cu species are intermixed at random. The catalytic activity for CO oxidation is strongly influenced by the structural features. In particular, it is revealed that the prevalence of chemical disorder in nanoalloys with a Pd : Cu ratio close to 50 : 50 makes them superior catalysts for CO oxidation in comparison with the same nanoalloys of other bimetallic compositions. However, the catalytic synergy can be diminished if the Pd50Cu50 nanoalloys undergo

  1. MoSi2-Base Structural Composite Passed Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, Michael V.; Hebsur, Mohan G.

    1999-01-01

    The intermetallic compound molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) is an attractive high-temperature structural material for advanced engine applications. It has excellent oxidation resistance, a high melting point, relatively low density, and high thermal conductivity; and it is easily machined. Past research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has resulted in the development of a hybrid composite consisting of a MoSi2 matrix reinforced with silicon nitride (Si3N4) particulate and silicon carbide (SiC) fibers. This composite has demonstrated attractive strength, toughness, thermal fatigue, and oxidation resistance, including resistance to "pest" oxidation. These properties attracted the interest of the Office of Naval Research and Pratt & Whitney, and a joint NASA/Navy/Pratt & Whitney effort was developed to continue to mature the MoSi2 composite technology. A turbine blade outer air seal, which was part of the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) program, was chosen as a first component on which to focus.

  2. Investigation of mechanical strength of 2D nanoscale structures using a molecular dynamics based computational intelligence approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, A.; Vijayaraghavan, V.; Wong, C. H.; Tai, K.; Singru, Pravin M.; Mahapatra, S. S.; Sangwan, K. S.

    2015-09-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) based computational intelligence (CI) approach is proposed to investigate the Young modulus of two graphene sheets: Armchair and Zigzag. In this approach, the effect of aspect ratio, the temperature, the number of atomic planes and the vacancy defects on the Young modulus of two graphene sheets are first analyzed using the MD simulation. The data obtained using the MD simulation is then fed into the paradigm of a CI cluster comprising of genetic programming, which was specifically designed to formulate the explicit relationship of Young modulus of two graphene structures. We find that the MD-based-CI model is able to model the Young modulus of two graphene structures very well, which compiles in good agreement with that of experimental results obtained from the literature. Additionally, we also conducted sensitivity and parametric analysis and found that the number of defects has the most dominating influence on the Young modulus of two graphene structures.

  3. Molecular Organization in the Native State of Wood Cell Walls: Studies of Nanoscale Structure and its Development

    SciTech Connect

    Atalla, R. H.

    2001-02-01

    With respect to cell wall biogenesis we have developed a theory concerning the formation of lignin in which the regulation of structure is attributed to the hemicelluloses; they are viewed as templates for the assembly of lignin. The key supporting evidence is derived from the symmetry of annual rings in trees free of reaction wood. This symmetry is interpreted to point to genetic encoding as the dominant factor in the pattern of interunit linkages in lignin. More recently, we have explored further the implications of annual ring symmetries within the contexts of systems and information theory and theories of organization of hierarchic structures. This has led us to proposed a unifying model for cell wall biogenesis that comprehends cell wall polysaccharides as well as lignin. The model is based on examining the implications of symmetries and of hierarchic relationships between different levels of structure, with respect to synchrony and coordination of the stages of formation of the individual constituents.

  4. Mold-Based Application of Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) on Biomaterials for Nanoscale Patterning.

    PubMed

    Hendrikson, Wim; Masman-Bakker, Wendy; van Bochove, Bas; Skolski, Johann; Eichstädt, Justus; Koopman, Bart; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Grijpma, Dirk; Römer, Gert-Willem; Moroni, Lorenzo; Rouwkema, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are highly regular, but at the same time contain a certain level of disorder. The application of LIPSS is a promising method to functionalize biomaterials. However, the absorption of laser energy of most polymer biomaterials is insufficient for the direct application of LIPSS. Here, we report the application of LIPSS to relevant biomaterials using a two-step approach. First, LIPSS are fabricated on a stainless steel surface. Then, the structures are replicated onto biomaterials using the steel as a mold. Results show that LIPSS can be transferred successfully using this approach, and that human mesenchymal stromal cells respond to the transferred structures. With this approach, the range of biomaterials that can be supplied with LIPSS increases dramatically. PMID:26335444

  5. Structure and interfacial analysis of nanoscale TiNi thin film prepared by biased target ion beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Huilong; Hamilton, Reginald F. Horn, Mark W.

    2015-07-15

    Ultrathin, 65 nm thick, TiNi alloy films were fabricated by cosputtering Ti and Ni targets using the recently developed biased target ion beam deposition technique. Preheating the substrate by exposure to a low energy ion source resulted in as-deposited films with a pure B2 atomic crystal structure containing no secondary crystal structures or precipitates. Continuous films were produced with a smooth surface and minimal substrate/film interfacial diffusion. The diffusion layer was a small ratio of film thickness, which is a prerequisite for the B2 phase to undergo the martensitic transformation in ultrathin films.

  6. Engineering the shape and structure of materials by fractal cut.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yigil; Shin, Joong-Ho; Costa, Avelino; Kim, Tae Ann; Kunin, Valentin; Li, Ju; Lee, Su Yeon; Yang, Shu; Han, Heung Nam; Choi, In-Suk; Srolovitz, David J

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we discuss the transformation of a sheet of material into a wide range of desired shapes and patterns by introducing a set of simple cuts in a multilevel hierarchy with different motifs. Each choice of hierarchical cut motif and cut level allows the material to expand into a unique structure with a unique set of properties. We can reverse-engineer the desired expanded geometries to find the requisite cut pattern to produce it without changing the physical properties of the initial material. The concept was experimentally realized and applied to create an electrode that expands to >800% the original area with only very minor stretching of the underlying material. The generality of our approach greatly expands the design space for materials so that they can be tuned for diverse applications. PMID:25422433

  7. Engineering the shape and structure of materials by fractal cut

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yigil; Shin, Joong-Ho; Costa, Avelino; Kim, Tae Ann; Kunin, Valentin; Li, Ju; Lee, Su Yeon; Yang, Shu; Han, Heung Nam; Choi, In-Suk; Srolovitz, David J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the transformation of a sheet of material into a wide range of desired shapes and patterns by introducing a set of simple cuts in a multilevel hierarchy with different motifs. Each choice of hierarchical cut motif and cut level allows the material to expand into a unique structure with a unique set of properties. We can reverse-engineer the desired expanded geometries to find the requisite cut pattern to produce it without changing the physical properties of the initial material. The concept was experimentally realized and applied to create an electrode that expands to >800% the original area with only very minor stretching of the underlying material. The generality of our approach greatly expands the design space for materials so that they can be tuned for diverse applications. PMID:25422433

  8. Crankshaft structure of two-cycle internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, K.

    1986-11-18

    This patent describes a crankshaft structure in a two-cycle internal combustion engine comprising a crank web and a crank journal rotatably supported in a crank case by a bearing means. The crank web includes a supporting part having a central bore for receiving the crank journal press-fit therein. The supporting part has a reduced outer diameter portion disposed adjacent the bearing means supporting the crank journal and at an axial position overlying a press-fit part of the crank journal in the central bore of the crank web supporting part. The reduced outer diameter portion of the supporting part has a sealing member disposed on the outer periphery thereof.

  9. Crankshaft supporting structure for multicylinder internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuo, K.; Ito, T.; Ichida, K.

    1988-03-08

    A crankshaft supporting structure in a multicylinder internal combustion engine is described including a bearing caps secured respectively to journal walls integral with a crankcase of a cylinder block, a crankshaft rotatably supported between the journal walls and the bearing caps, at least one counterweight on the crankshaft, and a bridge interconnecting the bearing caps. The bridge includes integral baffle plates extending between locations of the bearing caps and curved along a path of outer peripheral surfaces of each counterweight on the crankshaft. The bridge includes an oil supply gallery which extends substantially along a length of the bridge and generally parallel to the crankshaft and branch passages are provided in the bridge and the bearing caps extending from the gallery to a bearing hole defined by each journal wall and bearing cap.

  10. Crankshaft supporting structure for multicylinder internal combustion combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuo, K.; Chosa, M.; Kazama, A.; Anno, N.; Kusakabe, Y.

    1988-06-28

    A crankshaft support structure is described for a multicylinder engine, comprising, a cylinder block of a lightweight material having a first coefficient of thermal expansion, the cylinder block extending longitudinally along the crankshaft and having a plurality of lateral extending and longitudinally spaced journal walls. Bearing caps of heavyweight material have a second coefficient of thermal expansion different from the first coefficient, a bearing cap mounted on each journal wall, the bearing caps and journal walls define bearing holes therebetween for supporting the crankshaft, a bridge of a lightweight material having a coefficient of thermal expansion which is substantially equal to the first coefficient, the bridge extending longitudinally over the bearing caps, and means mounting the bridge and bearing caps of the journal walls whereby the cylinder block and bridge undergo a substantially equal amount of thermal expansion and the bearing caps undergo a different amount of thermal expansion which is accommodated by the cylinder block and bridge.

  11. Applications of Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) Structure in Microwave Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhi

    This thesis is focused on some applications of the Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) structure in microwave engineering. It is mainly divided into two parts, covering a dual-band high Q filter and a broadband high gain ring slot antenna, both of which are based on SIW resonators. This work indicates strong potential of SIW structure in communication system and discusses its unique advantages in detail. In the first part of the thesis, a dual-band high Q second order filter is designed to work at around 10 GHz and 14 GHz. SIW cavities are chosen in order to fulfill the low loss requirements. Two kinds of perturbation theories are applied in this structure to make two second order pass bands. Transmission lines of proper length are designed to connect the cavities together and make them work efficiently. In the second part of the thesis, a broadband high gain SIW ring slot antenna working at around 18 GHz is discussed. The bandwidth of the antenna is approximately 12.7% and the gain is around 7 dB. The cavity mode is properly chosen to reach the high antenna gain requirement. The working mechanism of its broadband property is discussed in detail to reach a reasonable argument.

  12. Nanoscale Electrostatics in Mitosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardi, L. John; West, Patrick Michael

    2001-04-01

    Primitive biological cells had to divide with very little biology. This work simulates a physicochemical mechanism, based upon nanoscale electrostatics, which explains the anaphase A poleward motion of chromosomes. In the cytoplasmic medium that exists in biological cells, electrostatic fields are subject to strong attenuation by Debye screening, and therefore decrease rapidly over a distance equal to several Debye lengths. However, the existence of microtubules within cells changes the situation completely. Microtubule dimer subunits are electric dipolar structures, and can act as intermediaries that extend the reach of the electrostatic interaction over cellular distances. Experimental studies have shown that intracellular pH rises to a peak at mitosis, and decreases through cytokinesis. This result, in conjunction with the electric dipole nature of microtubule subunits and the Debye screened electrostatic force is sufficient to explain and unify the basic events during mitosis and cytokinesis: (1) assembly of asters, (2) motion of the asters to poles, (3) poleward motion of chromosomes (anaphase A), (4) cell elongation, and (5) cytokinesis. This paper will focus on a simulation of the dynamics if anaphase A motion based on this comprehensive model. The physicochemical mechanisms utilized by primitive cells could provide important clues regarding our understanding of cell division in modern eukaryotic cells.

  13. Nanoscale Cellular Structures at Phase Boundaries of Ni-Cr-Al-Ti and Ni-Cr-Mo-Al-Ti Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cong; Dunand, David C.

    2015-06-01

    The microstructural evolution of Ni-20 pct Cr wires was studied during pack cementation where Al and Ti, with and without prior cementation with Mo, are deposited to the surface of the Ni-Cr wires and subsequently homogenized in their volumes. Mo deposition promotes the formation of Kirkendall pores and subsequent co-deposition of Al and Ti creates a triple-layered diffusional coating on the wire surface. Subsequent homogenization drives the alloying element to distribute evenly in the wires which upon further heat treatment exhibit the γ + γ' superalloy structure. Unexpectedly, formation of cellular structures is observed at some of the boundaries between primary γ' grains and γ matrix grains. Based on additional features ( i.e., ordered but not perfectly periodic structure, confinement at γ + γ' phase boundaries as a cellular film with ~100 nm width, as well as lack of topologically close-packed phases), and considering that similar, but much larger, microstructures were reported in commercial superalloys, it is concluded that the present cellular structure solidified as a thin film, composed of eutectic γ + γ' and from which the γ' phase was subsequently etched, which was created by incipient melting of a region near the phase boundary with high solute segregation.

  14. Wire-in-tube structure fabricated by single capillary electrospinning via nanoscale Kirkendall effect: the case of nickel-zinc ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jiecai; Zhang, Junli; Peng, Yong; Zhao, Changhui; He, Yongmin; Zhang, Zhenxing; Pan, Xiaojun; Mellors, Nigel J.; Xie, Erqing

    2013-11-01

    Wire-in-tube structures have previously been prepared using an electrospinning method by means of tuning hydrolysis/alcoholysis of a precursor solution. Nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) nanowire-in-nanotubes have been prepared as a demonstration. The detailed nanoscale characterization, formation process and magnetic properties of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes has been studied comprehensively. The average diameters of the outer tubes and inner wires of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes are around 120 nm and 42 nm, respectively. Each fully calcined individual nanowire-in-nanotube, either the outer-tube or the inner-wire, is composed of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 monocrystallites stacked along the longitudinal direction with random orientation. The process of calcining electrospun polymer composite nanofibres can be viewed as a morphologically template nucleation and precursor diffusion process. This allows the nitrates precursor to diffuse toward the surface of the nanofibres while the oxides (decomposed from hydroxides and nitrates) products diffuse to the core region of the nanofibres; the amorphous nanofibres transforming thereby into crystalline nanowire-in-nanotubes. In addition, the magnetic properties of the Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes were also examined. It is believed that this nanowire-in-nanotube (sometimes called core-shell) structure, with its uniform size and well-controlled orientation of the long nanowire-in-nanotubes, is particularly attractive for use in the field of nano-fluidic devices and nano-energy harvesting devices.Wire-in-tube structures have previously been prepared using an electrospinning method by means of tuning hydrolysis/alcoholysis of a precursor solution. Nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) nanowire-in-nanotubes have been prepared as a demonstration. The detailed nanoscale characterization, formation process and magnetic properties of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes has been studied comprehensively. The

  15. Untying a nanoscale knotted polymer structure to linear chains for efficient gene delivery in vitro and to the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newland, B.; Aied, A.; Pinoncely, A. V.; Zheng, Y.; Zhao, T.; Zhang, H.; Niemeier, R.; Dowd, E.; Pandit, A.; Wang, W.

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a platform transfection technology, for applications in the brain, which could transfect astrocytes without requiring cell specific functionalization and without the common cause of toxicity through high charge density. Here we show that a simple and scalable preparation technique can be used to produce a ``knot'' structured cationic polymer, where single growing chains can crosslink together via disulphide intramolecular crosslinks (internal cyclizations). This well-defined knot structure can thus ``untie'' under reducing conditions, showing a more favorable transfection profile for astrocytes compared to 25 kDa-PEI (48-fold), SuperFect® (39-fold) and Lipofectamine®2000 (18-fold) whilst maintaining neural cell viability at over 80% after four days of culture. The high transfection/lack of toxicity of this knot structured polymer in vitro, combined with its ability to mediate luciferase transgene expression in the adult rat brain, demonstrates its use as a platform transfection technology which should be investigated further for neurodegenerative disease therapies.The purpose of this study was to develop a platform transfection technology, for applications in the brain, which could transfect astrocytes without requiring cell specific functionalization and without the common cause of toxicity through high charge density. Here we show that a simple and scalable preparation technique can be used to produce a ``knot'' structured cationic polymer, where single growing chains can crosslink together via disulphide intramolecular crosslinks (internal cyclizations). This well-defined knot structure can thus ``untie'' under reducing conditions, showing a more favorable transfection profile for astrocytes compared to 25 kDa-PEI (48-fold), SuperFect® (39-fold) and Lipofectamine®2000 (18-fold) whilst maintaining neural cell viability at over 80% after four days of culture. The high transfection/lack of toxicity of this knot

  16. Electrolytic Generation of Nano-Scale Carbon Phases with Framework Structures in Molten Salts on Metal Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselova, Inessa A.; Oliinyk, Nikolai F.; Voronina, Anastasiya B.; Volkov, Sergei V.

    2008-08-01

    An electrochemical study of mechanisms of electrodeposition of carbon solid phases from halide melts (Na,K|Cl; Na,K,Cs|Cl), saturated with carbon dioxide under an excessive pressure of up to 1.5 MPa, has been carried out in the temperature range 550 - 850 °C by cyclic voltammetry. It has been found that the cathode process occurs in three steps at sweep rates of less than 0.1 Vs-1, and its electrochemical-chemical-electrochemical (ECE) mechanism is suggested. It has furthermore been found that cathodic deposits contain nano-sized carbon particles of different forms and structure: blocks of amorphous carbon, crystalline graphite, carbon nanotubes (CNT), and nanofibres. The outer diameter of the tubes is 5 - 250 nm, and the internal diameter is 2 - 140 nm. A correlation between the product structure and yield against electrolysis conditions and regimes has been established.

  17. Predicting the Influence of Nano-Scale Material Structure on the In-Plane Buckling of Orthotropic Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Odegard, Gregory M.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-scale analysis of the structural stability of a carbon nanotube-polymer composite material is developed. The influence of intrinsic molecular structure, such as nanotube length, volume fraction, orientation and chemical functionalization, is investigated by assessing the relative change in critical, in-plane buckling loads. The analysis method relies on elastic properties predicted using the hierarchical, constitutive equations developed from the equivalent-continuum modeling technique applied to the buckling analysis of an orthotropic plate. The results indicate that for the specific composite materials considered in this study, a composite with randomly orientated carbon nanotubes consistently provides the highest values of critical buckling load and that for low volume fraction composites, the non-functionalized nanotube material provides an increase in critical buckling stability with respect to the functionalized system.

  18. Analysis of forward and backward Second Harmonic Generation images to probe the nanoscale structure of collagen within bone and cartilage.

    PubMed

    Houle, Marie-Andrée; Couture, Charles-André; Bancelin, Stéphane; Van der Kolk, Jarno; Auger, Etienne; Brown, Cameron; Popov, Konstantin; Ramunno, Lora; Légaré, François

    2015-11-01

    Collagen ultrastructure plays a central role in the function of a wide range of connective tissues. Studying collagen structure at the microscopic scale is therefore of considerable interest to understand the mechanisms of tissue pathologies. Here, we use second harmonic generation microscopy to characterize collagen structure within bone and articular cartilage in human knees. We analyze the intensity dependence on polarization and discuss the differences between Forward and Backward images in both tissues. Focusing on articular cartilage, we observe an increase in Forward/Backward ratio from the cartilage surface to the bone. Coupling these results to numerical simulations reveals the evolution of collagen fibril diameter and spatial organization as a function of depth within cartilage. PMID:26349534

  19. Wire-in-tube structure fabricated by single capillary electrospinning via nanoscale Kirkendall effect: the case of nickel-zinc ferrite.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiecai; Zhang, Junli; Peng, Yong; Zhao, Changhui; He, Yongmin; Zhang, Zhenxing; Pan, Xiaojun; Mellors, Nigel J; Xie, Erqing

    2013-12-21

    Wire-in-tube structures have previously been prepared using an electrospinning method by means of tuning hydrolysis/alcoholysis of a precursor solution. Nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) nanowire-in-nanotubes have been prepared as a demonstration. The detailed nanoscale characterization, formation process and magnetic properties of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes has been studied comprehensively. The average diameters of the outer tubes and inner wires of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes are around 120 nm and 42 nm, respectively. Each fully calcined individual nanowire-in-nanotube, either the outer-tube or the inner-wire, is composed of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 monocrystallites stacked along the longitudinal direction with random orientation. The process of calcining electrospun polymer composite nanofibres can be viewed as a morphologically template nucleation and precursor diffusion process. This allows the nitrates precursor to diffuse toward the surface of the nanofibres while the oxides (decomposed from hydroxides and nitrates) products diffuse to the core region of the nanofibres; the amorphous nanofibres transforming thereby into crystalline nanowire-in-nanotubes. In addition, the magnetic properties of the Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes were also examined. It is believed that this nanowire-in-nanotube (sometimes called core-shell) structure, with its uniform size and well-controlled orientation of the long nanowire-in-nanotubes, is particularly attractive for use in the field of nano-fluidic devices and nano-energy harvesting devices. PMID:24173384

  20. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy for mapping nano-scale distribution of organic carbon forms in soil: Application to black carbon particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Johannes; Liang, Biqing; Solomon, Dawit; Lerotic, Mirna; LuizãO, Flavio; Kinyangi, James; SchäFer, Thorsten; Wirick, Sue; Jacobsen, Chris

    2005-03-01

    Small-scale heterogeneity of organic carbon (C) forms in soils is poorly quantified since appropriate analytical techniques were not available up to now. Specifically, tools for the identification of functional groups on the surface of micrometer-sized black C particles were not available up to now. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) using synchrotron radiation was used in conjunction with Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to investigate nano-scale distribution (50-nm resolution) of C forms in black C particles and compared to synchrotron-based FTIR spectroscopy. A new embedding technique was developed that did not build on a C-based embedding medium and did not pose the risk of heat damage to the sample. Elemental sulfur (S) was melted to 220°C until it polymerized and quenched with liquid N2 to obtain a very viscous plastic S in which the black C could be embedded until it hardened to a noncrystalline state and was ultrasectioned. Principal component and cluster analysis followed by singular value decomposition was able to resolve distinct areas in a black carbon particle. The core of the studied biomass-derived black C particles was highly aromatic even after thousands of years of exposure in soil and resembled the spectral characteristics of fresh charcoal. Surrounding this core and on the surface of the black C particle, however, much larger proportions of carboxylic and phenolic C forms were identified that were spatially and structurally distinct from the core of the particle. Cluster analysis provided evidence for both oxidation of the black C particle itself as well as adsorption of non-black C. NEXAFS spectroscopy has great potential to allow new insight into black C properties with important implications for biogeochemical cycles such as mineralization of black C in soils and sediments, and adsorption of C, nutrients, and pollutants as well as transport in the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.

  1. pH-Manipulated Underwater-Oil Adhesion Wettability Behavior on the Micro/Nanoscale Semicircular Structure and Related Thermodynamic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tie, Lu; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2015-05-20

    Controlling oil of wettability behavior in response to the underwater out stimulation has shown promising applications in understanding and designing novel micro- or nanofluidic devices. In this article, the pH-manipulated underwater-oil adhesion wetting phenomenon and superoleophobicity on the micro- and nanotexture copper mesh films (CMF) were investigated. It should be noted that the surface exhibits underwater superoleophobicity under different pH values of the solution; however, the underwater-oil adhesion behavior on the surface is dramatically influenced by the pH value of the solution. On the basis of the thermodynamic analysis, a plausible mechanism to explain the pH-controllable underwater-oil adhesion and superoleophobic wetting behavior observed on a micro- and nanoscale semicircular structure has been revealed. Furthermore, variation of chemistry (intrinsic oil contact angle (OCA)) of the responsive surface that due to the carboxylic acid groups is protonated or deprotonated by the acidic or basic solution on free energy (FE) with its barrier (FEB) and equilibrium oil contact angle (EOCA) with it hysteresis (OCAH) are discussed. The result shows that a critical intrinsic OCA on the micro- and nano- semicircular texture is necessary for conversion from the oil Cassie impregnating to oil Cassie wetting state. In a water/oil/solid system, the mechanism reveals that the differences between the underwater OCA and oil adhesive force of the responsive copper mesh film under different pH values of solution are ascribed to the different oil wetting state that results from combining the changing intrinsic OCA and micro-/nanosemicircular structures. These results are well in agreement with the experiment. PMID:25919443

  2. Structural design of Stirling engine with free pistons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusov, Jozef; Gavlas, Stanislav; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    Stirling engine is a device that converts thermal energy to mechanical work, which is mostly used to drive a generator of electricity. Advantage of Stirling engine is that it works with closed-cycle, where working medium is regularly cooled and heated, which acts on the working piston. This engine can be made in three modifications - alpha, beta, gamma. This paper discusses the design of the gamma Stirling engine with free pistons.

  3. Development and fabrication of structural components for a scramjet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchmann, O. A.

    1990-01-01

    A program broadly directed toward design and development of long-life (100 hours and 1,000 cycles with a goal of 1,000 hours and 10,000 cycles) hydrogen-cooled structures for application to scramjets is presented. Previous phases of the program resulted in an overall engine design and analytical and experimental characterization of selected candidate materials and concepts. The latter efforts indicated that the basic life goals for the program can be reached with available means. The main objective of this effort was an integrated, experimental evaluation of the results of the previous program phases. The fuel injection strut was selected for this purpose, including fabrication development and fabrication of a full-scale strut. Testing of the completed strut was to be performed in a NASA-Langley wind tunnel. In addition, conceptual designs were formulated for a heat transfer test unit and a flat panel structural test unit. Tooling and fabrication procedures required to fabricate the strut were developed, and fabrication and delivery to NASA of all strut components, including major subassemblies, were completed.

  4. Quantifying Nanoscale Order in Amorphous Materials via Fluctuation Electron Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogle, Stephanie Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) has been used to study the nanoscale order in various amorphous materials. The method is explicitly sensitive to 3- and 4-body atomic correlation functions in amorphous materials; this is sufficient to establish the existence of structural order on the nanoscale, even when the radial distribution function…

  5. Nanoscale Silicon as a Catalyst for Graphene Growth: Mechanistic Insight from in Situ Raman Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Share, Keith; Carter, Rachel E.; Nikolaev, Pavel; Hooper, Daylong; Oakes, Landon; Cohn, Adam P.; Rao, Rahul; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.; Maruyama, Benji; et al

    2016-06-08

    Nanoscale carbons are typically synthesized by thermal decomposition of a hydrocarbon at the surface of a metal catalyst. Whereas the use of silicon as an alternative to metal catalysts could unlock new techniques to seamlessly couple carbon nanostructures and semiconductor materials, stable carbide formation renders bulk silicon incapable of the precipitation and growth of graphitic structures. In this article, we provide evidence supported by comprehensive in situ Raman experiments that indicates nanoscale grains of silicon in porous silicon (PSi) scaffolds act as catalysts for hydrocarbon decomposition and growth of few-layered graphene at temperatures as low as 700 K. Self-limiting growthmore » kinetics of graphene with activation energies measured between 0.32–0.37 eV elucidates the formation of highly reactive surface-bound Si radicals that aid in the decomposition of hydrocarbons. Nucleation and growth of graphitic layers on PSi exhibits striking similarity to catalytic growth on nickel surfaces, involving temperature dependent surface and subsurface diffusion of carbon. Lastly, this work elucidates how the nanoscale properties of silicon can be exploited to yield catalytic properties distinguished from bulk silicon, opening an important avenue to engineer catalytic interfaces combining the two most technologically important materials for modern applications—silicon and nanoscale carbons.« less

  6. Nanoscale Silicon as a Catalyst for Graphene Growth: Mechanistic Insight from in Situ Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Share, Keith; Carter, Rachel; Nikolaev, Pavel; Hooper, Daylong; Oakes, Landon; Cohn, Adam; Rao, Rahul; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David; Maruyama,; Pint, Cary

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale carbons are typically synthesized by thermal decomposition of a hydrocarbon at the surface of a metal catalyst.1,2 Whereas the use of silicon as an alternative to metal catalyst could unlock new techniques to seamlessly couple carbon nanostructures and semiconductor materials, stable carbide formation in bulk silicon prevents the precipitation and growth of graphitic structures.3,4 Here, we provide evidence supported by comprehensive in-situ Raman experiments that indicates nanoscale grains of silicon in porous silicon scaffolds act as catalysts for hydrocarbon decomposition and growth of few-layered graphene materials at temperatures as low as 700 K. Self-limiting growth kinetics of carbon with activation energies measured between 0.32 0.37 eV elucidates the formation of highly reactive surface-bound Si radicals that aid in the decomposition of hydrocarbons. Nucleation and growth of graphitic carbon layers on porous silicon exhibits striking similarity to catalytic growth on nickel surfaces, involving temperature dependent surface and subsurface diffusion of carbon. This work elucidates how the nanoscale properties of silicon can be exploited to yield catalytic properties distinguished from bulk materials, opening an important avenue to engineer catalytic interfaces combining the two most technologically-important materials for modern applications silicon and nanoscale carbons.

  7. Automated output-only dynamic identification of civil engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainieri, C.; Fabbrocino, G.

    2010-04-01

    Modal-based damage detection algorithms are well-known techniques for structural health assessment, but they are not commonly used due to the lack of automated modal identification and tracking procedures. Development of such procedures is not a trivial task since traditional modal identification requires extensive interaction from an expert user. Nevertheless, computational efforts have to be carefully considered. If fast on-line data processing is crucial for quickly varying in time systems (such as a rocket burning fuel), a number of vibration-based condition monitoring applications are performed at very different time scales, resulting in satisfactory time steps for on-line data analysis. Moreover, promising results in the field of automated modal identification have been recently achieved. In the present paper, a literature review on this topic is presented and recent developments concerning fully automated output-only modal identification procedures are described. Some case studies are also reported in order to validate the approach. They are characterized by different levels of complexity, in terms of mode coupling, dynamic interaction effects and level of vibration. Advantages and drawbacks of the proposed approach will be pointed out with reference to available experimental results. The final objective is the implementation of a fully automated system for vibration-based structural health monitoring of civil engineering structures and identification of adequate requirements about sensor number and layout, record duration and hardware characteristics able to ensure a reliable low-cost health assessment of constructions. Results of application of the proposed methodology to modal parameter estimation in operational conditions and during ground motions induced by the recent L'Aquila earthquake will be finally presented and discussed.

  8. Spin manipulation in nanoscale superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, D.

    2016-04-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism in nanoscale structures has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to the exciting new physics created by the competition of these antagonistic ordering phenomena, and the prospect of exploiting this competition for superconducting spintronics devices. While much of the attention is focused on spin-polarized supercurrents created by the triplet proximity effect, the recent discovery of long range quasiparticle spin transport in high-field superconductors has rekindled interest in spin-dependent nonequilibrium properties of superconductors. In this review, the experimental situation on nonequilibrium spin injection into superconductors is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions of the field are outlined.

  9. Spin manipulation in nanoscale superconductors.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, D

    2016-04-27

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism in nanoscale structures has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to the exciting new physics created by the competition of these antagonistic ordering phenomena, and the prospect of exploiting this competition for superconducting spintronics devices. While much of the attention is focused on spin-polarized supercurrents created by the triplet proximity effect, the recent discovery of long range quasiparticle spin transport in high-field superconductors has rekindled interest in spin-dependent nonequilibrium properties of superconductors. In this review, the experimental situation on nonequilibrium spin injection into superconductors is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions of the field are outlined. PMID:27001949

  10. Engine-induced structural-borne noise in a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.; Pomerening, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Structural borne interior noise in a single engine general aviation aircraft was studied to determine the importance of engine induced structural borne noise and to determine the necessary modeling requirements for the prediction of structural borne interior noise. Engine attached/detached ground test data show that engine induced structural borne noise is a primary interior noise source for the single engine test aircraft, cabin noise is highly influenced by responses at the propeller tone, and cabin acoustic resonances can influence overall noise levels. Results from structural and acoustic finite element coupled models of the test aircraft show that wall flexibility has a strong influence on fundamental cabin acoustic resonances, the lightweight fuselage structure has a high modal density, and finite element analysis procedures are appropriate for the prediction of structural borne noise.

  11. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other...

  12. Interfacial band alignment and structural properties of nanoscale TiO2 thin films for integration with epitaxial crystallographic oriented germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, N.; Zhu, Y.; Maurya, D.; Varghese, R.; Priya, S.; Hudait, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the structural and band alignment properties of nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films deposited on epitaxial crystallographic oriented Ge layers grown on (100), (110), and (111)A GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The TiO2 thin films deposited at low temperature by physical vapor deposition were found to be amorphous in nature, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed a sharp heterointerface between the TiO2 thin film and the epitaxially grown Ge with no traceable interfacial layer. A comprehensive assessment on the effect of substrate orientation on the band alignment at the TiO2/Ge heterointerface is presented by utilizing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. A band-gap of 3.33 ± 0.02 eV was determined for the amorphous TiO2 thin film from the Tauc plot. Irrespective of the crystallographic orientation of the epitaxial Ge layer, a sufficient valence band-offset of greater than 2 eV was obtained at the TiO2/Ge heterointerface while the corresponding conduction band-offsets for the aforementioned TiO2/Ge system were found to be smaller than 1 eV. A comparative assessment on the effect of Ge substrate orientation revealed a valence band-offset relation of ΔEV(100) > ΔEV(111) > ΔEV(110) and a conduction band-offset relation of ΔEC(110) > ΔEC(111) > ΔEC(100). These band-offset parameters are of critical importance and will provide key insight for the design and performance analysis of TiO2 for potential high-κ dielectric integration and for future metal-insulator-semiconductor contact applications with next generation of Ge based metal-oxide field-effect transistors.

  13. WHOLE CELL TOMOGRAPHY/MOLECULAR BIOLOGY/STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY: Affordable x-ray microscopy with nanoscale resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, James E.; Blackborow, Paul; Horne, Stephen J.; Gelb, Jeff

    2013-03-01

    Biological research spans 10 orders of magnitude from angstroms to meters. While electron microscopy can reveal structural details at most of these spatial length scales, transmission electron tomography only reliably reconstructs three-dimensional (3-D) volumes of cellular material with a spatial resolution between 1-5 nm from samples less than 500 nm thick1. Most biological cells are 2-30 times thicker than this threshold, which means that a cell must be cut into consecutive slices with each slice reconstructed individually in order to approximate the contextual information of the entire cell. Fortunately, due to a larger penetration depth2, X-ray computed tomography bypasses the need to physically section a cell and enables imaging of intact cells and tissues on the micrometer or larger scale with tens to hundreds of nanometer spatial resolution. While the technique of soft x-ray microscopy has been extensively developed in synchrotron facilities, advancements in laboratory x-ray source designs now increase its accessibility by supporting commercial systems suitable for a standard laboratory. In this paper, we highlight a new commercial compact cryogenic soft x-ray microscope designed for a standard laboratory setting and explore its capabilities for mesoscopic investigations of intact prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

  14. Influence of the chemical surface structure on the nanoscale friction in plasma nitrided and post-oxidized ferrous alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Freislebem, Márcia; Menezes, Caren M.; Cemin, Felipe; Costi, Fernanda B.; Ferreira, Patrícia A.; Aguzzoli, César; Baumvol, Israel J. R.; Alvarez, Fernando; Figueroa, Carlos A.

    2014-09-15

    Friction is a ubiquitous phenomenon in everyday activities spanning from vehicles where efficient brakes are mandatory up to mechanical devices where its minimum effects are pursued for energy efficiency issues. Recently, theoretical models succeed correlating the friction behavior with energy transference via phonons between sliding surfaces. Therefore, considering that the energy losses by friction are prompted through phonons, the chemical surface structure between sliding surfaces is very important to determine the friction phenomenon. In this work, we address the issue of friction between a conical diamond tip sliding on different functionalized flat steel surfaces by focusing the influence of the chemical bonds in the outermost layers on the sliding resistance. This geometry allows probing the coupling of the sharp tip with terminator species on the top and underneath material surface at in-depth friction measurements from 20 to 200 nm. Experimentally, the friction coefficient decreases when nitrogen atoms are substituted for oxygen in the iron network. This effect is interpreted as due to energy losses through phonons whilst lower vibrational frequency excitation modes imply lower friction coefficients and a more accurate adjustment is obtained when a theoretical model with longitudinal adsorbate vibration is used.

  15. Combination of metamorphism and deformation affect the nano-scale pore structures and macromolecule characteristics of high-rank deformed coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Li, H.; Ju, Y.

    2013-12-01

    experiments indicates that adsorption/desorption capacity shows a 'U' type with nano-pores volume and specific surface area, coals with best adsorption capacity contained both vitrinite and inertinite with an approximate ratio of 4:1 or 1:4, the increase of aromatic and aliphatic content individually facilitated the adsorption of CBM. Generally speaking, the adsorption/desorption capacity of ductile deformed coals is higher than that of brittle ones, but metamorphism could dramatically affects the final results. To enhance CBM production and reduce carbon emission, the appropriate coal-bearing strata need to be chosen. Our research shows that metamorphism and deformation affect the nano-scale pore structures and macromolecule characteristics of different coals. Therefore brittle-ductile superposed zone with medium-high rank coals has high gas content and permeability which is promising to exploit and helpful to environmental protection.

  16. Nanoscale cryptography: opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, Massoud; Shi, Weidong; Xu, Lei

    2015-11-01

    While most of the electronics industry is dependent on the ever-decreasing size of lithographic transistors, this scaling cannot continue indefinitely. To improve the performance of the integrated circuits, new emerging and paradigms are needed. In recent years, nanoelectronics has become one of the most important and exciting forefront in science and engineering. It shows a great promise for providing us in the near future with many breakthroughs that change the direction of technological advances in a wide range of applications. In this paper, we discuss the contribution that nanotechnology may offer to the evolution of cryptographic hardware and embedded systems and demonstrate how nanoscale devices can be used for constructing security primitives. Using a custom set of design automation tools, it is demonstrated that relative to a conventional 45-nm CMOS system, performance gains can be obtained up to two orders of magnitude reduction in area and up to 50 % improvement in speed.

  17. Engineering Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Foss, Peter; Wyzgoski, Michael; Trantina, Gerry; Kunc, Vlastimil; Schutte, Carol; Smith, Mark T.

    2009-12-23

    This report summarizes our FY 2009 research activities for the project titled:"Engineering Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures." These activities include (i) the completion of the development of a fiber length attrition model for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs), (ii) development of the a fatigue damage model for LFTs and its implementation in ABAQUS, (iii) development of an impact damage model for LFTs and its implementation in ABAQUS, (iv) development of characterization methods for fatigue testing, (v) characterization of creep and fatigue responses of glass-fiber/polyamide (PA6,6) and glass-fiber/polypropylene (PP), (vi) characterization of fiber length distribution along the flow length of glass/PA6,6 and glass-fiber/PP, and (vii) characterization of impact responses of glass-fiber/PA6,6. The fiber length attrition model accurately captures the fiber length distribution along the flow length of the studied glass-fiber/PP material. The fatigue damage model is able to predict the S-N and stiffness reduction data which are valuable to the fatigue design of LFTs. The impact damage model correctly captures damage accumulation observed in experiments of glass-fiber/PA6,6 plaques.Further work includes validations of these models for representative LFT materials and a complex LFT part.

  18. Crankshaft supporting structure for multicylinder internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuo, K.; Chosa, M.

    1988-01-26

    A crankshaft supporting structure for a cylinder block of an internal combustion engine is described, comprising, journal walls extending laterally across the cylinder block and being longitudinally spaced along the crankshaft, a recess formed in each journal wall with inwardly and downwardly facing first mating surfaces at an upper extremity of the recess. The cylinder block has skirt portions extending downwardly from the recesses on each lateral end of the journal walls, a bearing cap mounted in the recess in each journal wall and having means cooperating with the journal wall for rotatably supporting the crankshaft, each bearing cap having outwardly and upwardly facing first mating surfaces for engaging the journal wall first mating surfaces, mating inwardly facing vertical surfaces on each skirt portion and outwardly facing vertical surfaces on each bearing cap, a longitudinally extending bridge, a pair of vertical bolts extending through the bridge and each bearing cap and threadedly engaging the journal wall, horizontal bolts extending through the skirt portions and threadedly engaging each lateral side of each bearing cap, and the bridge having a main oil gallery defined therein for passage of lubricating oil therethrough and communicating with lubricating oil passages formed through the bridge and the bearing caps for communicating oil to the crankshaft.

  19. Genetically engineered immunoglobulins reveal structural features controlling segmental flexibility.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, W P; Wensel, T G; Stryer, L; Oi, V T

    1988-01-01

    We have carried out nanosecond fluorescence polarization studies of genetically engineered immunoglobulins to determine the structural features controlling their segmental flexibility. The proteins studied were hybrids of a relatively rigid isotype (mouse IgG1) and a relatively flexible one (mouse IgG2a). They have identical light chains and heavy chain variable regions and have the same combining sites for epsilon-dansyl-L-lysine, a fluorescent hapten. The fluorescence of the bound dansyl chromophore was excited at 348 nm with subnanosecond laser pulses, and the emission in the nanosecond time range was measured with a single-photon-counting apparatus. The emission anisotropy kinetics of the hybrid antibodies revealed that segmental flexibility is controlled by the heavy chain constant region 1 (CH1) as well as by the hinge. In contrast, the CH2 and CH3 domains did not influence segmental flexibility. The hinge and CH1 domains must be properly matched to allow facile movement of the Fab units. Studies of hybrids of IgG1 and IgG2a within CH1 showed that the loop formed by residues 131-139 is important in controlling segmental flexibility. X-ray crystallographic studies by others of human IgG1 have shown that this loop makes several van der Waals contacts with the hinge. Images PMID:3128789

  20. Optical coherent sensor for monitoring and measurement of engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łukaszewski, Dariusz; Sałbut, Leszek; Dziuban, Jan A.

    2010-05-01

    Among many coherent optical methods one should distinguished Grating Interferometry (GI) which allows accurate in-plane displacement measurements and Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI) used for in-plane and out-of-plane measurements. Development of sensors based on both methods mentioned above as complementary ones will provide user universal group of sensors from which depending on measurement requirements such as measuring range, object surface profile and measurement conditions the most appropriate can be chosen. In-plane displacement measurements are of interested of different branches of industry - from micro (i.e.: characterization of MEMS or MOEMS) to civil engineering (i.e.: Structural Health Monitoring systems). In the paper the new optical coherent sensor for in-plane displacement and strain measurements is presented. The sensor combines GI and DSPI methods in one device which can be used for testing of objects with different types of surfaces. GI requires the specimen grating attached at the surface but provides very good measurement accuracy however DSPI can be applied for testing of objects with rough surfaces but due to higher noise gives lower accuracy. The sensor can work in three modes: as GI only, DSPI only and both GI and DSPI simultaneously. The third mode can by useful when the specimen grating is attached on the part of object under test only. In the paper the theoretical background of the sensor is presented. For confirmation of GI/DSPI sensor possibilities the specially designed demonstrator is described and the exemplary results obtained during its laboratory tests are shown. Successful application of proposed sensor is possible due to its miniaturization, simplicity of operation by user (compact structure and automation of measurement procedure) and low cost. The last mentioned condition will be possible due to low cost replication techniques with usage of silicon technology.

  1. Structure and properties of nano-hydroxypatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering with a selective laser sintering system.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Cijun; Gao, Chengde; Nie, Yi; Hu, Huanlong; Zhou, Ying; Peng, Shuping

    2011-07-15

    In this study, nano-hydroxypatite (n-HAP) bone scaffolds are prepared by a homemade selective laser sintering (SLS) system based on rapid prototyping (RP) technology. The SLS system consists of a precise three-axis motion platform and a laser with its optical focusing device. The implementation of arbitrary complex movements based on the non-uniform rational B-Spline (NURBS) theory is realized in this system. The effects of the sintering processing parameters on the microstructure of n-HAP are tested with x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particles of n-HAP grow gradually and tend to become spherical-like from the initial needle-like shape, but still maintain a nanoscale structure at scanning speeds between 200 and 300 mm min(-1) when the laser power is 50 W, the light spot diameter 4 mm, and the layer thickness 0.3 mm. In addition, these changes do not result in decomposition of the n-HAP during the sintering process. The results suggest that the newly developed n-HAP scaffolds have the potential to serve as an excellent substrate in bone tissue engineering. PMID:21642759

  2. High electron mobility AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT structure with a nano-scale AlN interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Chun; Chen, Wen-Ray; Hsu, Yu-Ting; Lin, Jia-Ching; Chang, Kuo-Jen; Lin, Wen-Jen

    2012-10-01

    Epitaxies of AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures with different thickness of nano-scale AlN interlayers have been realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technology. After epitaxy, high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), temperature-dependent Hall Effect and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements were used to characterize the properties of these samples. First, it was found that the Al composition of AlGaN layer increases from 21.6 to 34.2% with increasing the thickness of AlN interlayer from 0 to 5 nm under the same AlGaN growth conditions. This result may due to the influences of compressive stress and Al incorporation induced by the AlN interlayer. Then, we also found that the room-temperature (RT) electron mobility stays higher than 1500 cm2/Vs in the samples within AlN interlayer thickness range of 1.5 nm, on the other hand, the low-temperature (80K) electron mobility drops dramatically from 8180 to 5720 cm2/Vs in the samples with AlN interlayer thickness increasing from 1 to 1.5 nm. Furthermore, it was found that the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density increases from 1.15×1013 to 1.58×1013 cm-2 beyond the AlN interlayer thickness of 1 nm. It was also found that the temperature independent 2DEG densities are observed in the samples with AlN interlayer thickness of 0.5 and 1 nm. The degenerated characteristics of the samples with AlN thickness thicker than 1.5 nm show the degraded crystalline quality which matched the observation of surface defects and small cracks formations from their AFM images. Finally, the 2DEG mobilities of the proposed structures can be achieved as high as 1705 and 8180 cm2/Vs at RT and 80K, respectively.

  3. Information storage materials: nanoscale characterisation by three-dimensional atom probe analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.J.; Petford-Long, A.K.; Ma, Y.Q; Cerezo, A

    2004-06-07

    The development of nanoscale magnetic materials for applications in information storage systems relies heavily on the ability to engineer the properties of the layered structures from which such materials are fabricated. These properties are strongly dependent on the nature of the interfaces between the individual nanoscale magnetic layers, so knowledge of the interface chemistry is crucial. In this paper, we discuss the application of three-dimensional atom probe analysis to the characterisation of layered magnetic materials, including details of specimen preparation techniques required for this type of analysis. Recent results are presented on the characterisation of interfaces in Co/Cu or CoFe/Cu multilayers, which form part of the read sensor in magnetic recording heads, and Co/Pd multilayers, which are being considered for use as perpendicular recording media.

  4. Nanoscale fluorescence lifetime imaging of an optical antenna with a single diamond NV center.

    PubMed

    Beams, Ryan; Smith, Dallas; Johnson, Timothy W; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Novotny, Lukas; Vamivakas, A Nick

    2013-08-14

    Solid-state quantum emitters, such as artificially engineered quantum dots or naturally occurring defects in solids, are being investigated for applications ranging from quantum information science and optoelectronics to biomedical imaging. Recently, these same systems have also been studied from the perspective of nanoscale metrology. In this letter, we study the near-field optical properties of a diamond nanocrystal hosting a single nitrogen vacancy center. We find that the nitrogen vacancy center is a sensitive probe of the surrounding electromagnetic mode structure. We exploit this sensitivity to demonstrate nanoscale fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) with a single nitrogen vacancy center by imaging the local density of states of an optical antenna. PMID:23815462

  5. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  6. Nanoscale growth twins in sputtered metal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Anderoglu, O.; Hoagland, R. G.; Misra, A.

    2008-09-01

    This article reviews recent studies on the mechanical properties of sputtered copper and 330 stainless-steel films with {111} nanoscale growth twins preferentially oriented perpendicular to growth direction. The mechanisms of formation of growth twins during sputtering, unusually high strengths, and excellent thermal stability of nanotwinned structures are highlighted.

  7. Weibull-Based Design Methodology for Rotating Aircraft Engine Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Energy Efficient Engine (E(sup 3)-Engine) is used as the basis of a Weibull-based life and reliability analysis. Each component's life and thus the engine's life is defined by high-cycle fatigue (HCF) or low-cycle fatigue (LCF). Knowing the cumulative life distribution of each of the components making up the engine as represented by a Weibull slope is a prerequisite to predicting the life and reliability of the entire engine. As the engine Weibull slope increases, the predicted lives decrease. The predicted engine lives L(sub 5) (95 % probability of survival) of approximately 17,000 and 32,000 hr do correlate with current engine maintenance practices without and with refurbishment. respectively. The individual high pressure turbine (HPT) blade lives necessary to obtain a blade system life L(sub 0.1) (99.9 % probability of survival) of 9000 hr for Weibull slopes of 3, 6 and 9, are 47,391 and 20,652 and 15,658 hr, respectively. For a design life of the HPT disks having probable points of failure equal to or greater than 36,000 hr at a probability of survival of 99.9 %, the predicted disk system life L(sub 0.1) can vary from 9,408 to 24,911 hr.

  8. Fano resonances in nanoscale structures

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Flach, Sergej; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2010-07-15

    Modern nanotechnology allows one to scale down various important devices (sensors, chips, fibers, etc.) and thus opens up new horizons for their applications. The efficiency of most of them is based on fundamental physical phenomena, such as transport of wave excitations and resonances. Short propagation distances make phase-coherent processes of waves important. Often the scattering of waves involves propagation along different paths and, as a consequence, results in interference phenomena, where constructive interference corresponds to resonant enhancement and destructive interference to resonant suppression of the transmission. Recently, a variety of experimental and theoretical work has revealed such patterns in different physical settings. The purpose of this review is to relate resonant scattering to Fano resonances, known from atomic physics. One of the main features of the Fano resonance is its asymmetric line profile. The asymmetry originates from a close coexistence of resonant transmission and resonant reflection and can be reduced to the interaction of a discrete (localized) state with a continuum of propagation modes. The basic concepts of Fano resonances are introduced, their geometrical and/or dynamical origin are explained, and theoretical and experimental studies of light propagation in photonic devices, charge transport through quantum dots, plasmon scattering in Josephson-junction networks, and matter-wave scattering in ultracold atom systems, among others are reviewed.

  9. River valley construction as hazard for engineering structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postolenko, Galina

    2010-05-01

    It is common knowledge that for designing of engineering structure at river valleys it is necessary to investigate base of dam rock with a view to find out the structure disposition and nature of bottom rocks. It is important with relation to structural and economic calculation. One object of that investigation is alluvium. At present due to achievement of large success in geomorphology it is known that river valleys are constructed very complex. They have buried alluvium. Buried alluvium one can find both in plain and mountain valleys. It differs by thickness, composition and age. Since the Quaternary geological body is local, it is very important to know its chronological successive rise and the regularity of its spatial disposal. The investigative base consists in the stratigraphic and genetic research of the mellow deposit. Earlier the chronological determination depended on the hypsometric criteria . Complex of geomorphologic, biostratigraphic, lithologic, and physical data established the history of relief development and the spatial distribution of different age and genetic homogeneous relief fragments and sediment. These data show that relief and correlative sediment are formed as a result of the complex cyclical, non-one-trend geomorphologic processes at the Quaternary period. The several stages of relief and sediment development are established at the Quaternary period. They differed in process intensity, character and duration. This is the cause that the morpholithogenetic results of these stages are different. These are different sizes of valleys deepening and increasing of the relief height amplitude at the instructive stage, the different correlative sediment capacity at the constructive stage of relief development. These indexes are so significant, that river terraces of something stages turned out buried by the alluvium those stages that have the smaller alluvium capacity. Consequences of such valleys development lie in

  10. Partitioning the effects of an ecosystem engineer: kangaroo rats control community structure via multiple pathways.

    PubMed

    Prugh, Laura R; Brashares, Justin S

    2012-05-01

    1. Ecosystem engineers impact communities by altering habitat conditions, but they can also have strong effects through consumptive, competitive and other non-engineering pathways. 2. Engineering effects can lead to fundamentally different community dynamics than non-engineering effects, but the relative strengths of these interactions are seldom quantified. 3. We combined structural equation modelling and exclosure experiments to partition the effects of a keystone engineer, the giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), on plants, invertebrates and vertebrates in a semi-arid California grassland. 4. We separated the effects of burrow creation from kangaroo rat density and found that kangaroo rats increased the diversity and abundance of other species via both engineering and non-engineering pathways. 5. Engineering was the primary factor structuring plant and small mammal communities, whereas non-engineering effects structured invertebrate communities and increased lizard abundance. 6. These results highlight the importance of the non-engineering effects of ecosystem engineers and shed new light on the multiple pathways by which strong-interactors shape communities. PMID:22098534

  11. Interfacial band alignment and structural properties of nanoscale TiO{sub 2} thin films for integration with epitaxial crystallographic oriented germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, N.; Zhu, Y.; Hudait, M. K.; Maurya, D.; Varghese, R.; Priya, S.

    2014-01-14

    We have investigated the structural and band alignment properties of nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films deposited on epitaxial crystallographic oriented Ge layers grown on (100), (110), and (111)A GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited at low temperature by physical vapor deposition were found to be amorphous in nature, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed a sharp heterointerface between the TiO{sub 2} thin film and the epitaxially grown Ge with no traceable interfacial layer. A comprehensive assessment on the effect of substrate orientation on the band alignment at the TiO{sub 2}/Ge heterointerface is presented by utilizing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. A band-gap of 3.33 ± 0.02 eV was determined for the amorphous TiO{sub 2} thin film from the Tauc plot. Irrespective of the crystallographic orientation of the epitaxial Ge layer, a sufficient valence band-offset of greater than 2 eV was obtained at the TiO{sub 2}/Ge heterointerface while the corresponding conduction band-offsets for the aforementioned TiO{sub 2}/Ge system were found to be smaller than 1 eV. A comparative assessment on the effect of Ge substrate orientation revealed a valence band-offset relation of ΔE{sub V}(100) > ΔE{sub V}(111) > ΔE{sub V}(110) and a conduction band-offset relation of ΔE{sub C}(110) > ΔE{sub C}(111) > ΔE{sub C}(100). These band-offset parameters are of critical importance and will provide key insight for the design and performance analysis of TiO{sub 2} for potential high-κ dielectric integration and for future metal-insulator-semiconductor contact applications with next generation of Ge based metal-oxide field-effect transistors.

  12. Controlling interfacial curvature in nanoporous silica films formed by evaporation-induced self-assembly from nonionic surfactants. I. Evolution of nanoscale structures in coating solutions.

    PubMed

    Bollmann, Luis; Urade, Vikrant N; Hillhouse, Hugh W

    2007-04-10

    The double-gyroid phase of nanoporous silica films formed by evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) has been shown to possess facile mass-transport properties and may be used as a robust template for the nanofabrication of metal and semiconductor nanostructures. Recently, we developed a new synthesis of double-gyroid nanoporous silica films where the aging time of the coating solution prior to EISA was the key parameter required to control the interfacial curvature that results upon self-assembly of the film. Here, we use 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to investigate the nanoscale structure of the coating solutions used to obtain double-gyroid nanoporous silica films. NMR and SAXS were carried out on the water, ethanol, silica, and poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-alkyl (EO17-PO12-C14) surfactant coating solutions as well as similar solutions that excluded either the silica or the surfactant. NMR data reveal that the silica monomers in the coating solution condense very rapidly to form rings and connected ring species. After 1 day of aging, all monomers and dimers have disappeared, and the distribution is dominated by Q2 and Q3 species, where the superscript in Qn describes the number of silicon atoms in the second coordination shell of the central silicon. Over the course of the next 9 days, the Q3 population slowly rises at the expense of the Q2 and Q3t populations. Absolute intensity SAXS measurements reveal that the size of the silica clusters increases steadily during this aging period, reaching an average radius of gyration of 9.0 A after 9 days of aging. Longer aging results in the continued growth of clusters with a mass fractal dimension of 1.8. Absolute intensity SAXS data also reveals that micelles are not present in the coating solution. At 9% volume fraction of surfactant, the coating solution is far above the aqueous critical micellar concentration. However, even a small amount of ethanol

  13. The mechanical behavior of nanoscale metallic multilayers: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Q.; Xie, J. Y.; Wang, F.; Huang, P.; Xu, K. W.; Lu, T. J.

    2015-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of nanoscale metallic multilayers (NMMs) has attracted much attention from both scientific and practical views. Compared with their monolithic counterparts, the large number of interfaces existing in the NMMs dictates the unique behavior of this special class of structural composite materials. While there have been a number of reviews on the mechanical mechanism of microlaminates, the rapid development of nanotechnology brought a pressing need for an overview focusing exclusively on a property-based definition of the NMMs, especially their size-dependent microstructure and mechanical performance. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review on the microstructure, mechanical property and plastic deformation physics of NMMs. We hope this review could accomplish two purposes: (1) introducing the basic concepts of scaling and dimensional analysis to scientists and engineers working on NMM systems, and (2) providing a better understanding of interface behavior and the exceptional qualities the interfaces in NMMs display at atomic scale.

  14. Trends in electrocatalysis: from extended to nanoscale surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Stamenkovic, V. R.; Mun, B. S.; Arenz, M.; Lucas, C. A.; Wang, G.; Ross, P. N.; Markovic, N. M.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of California at Berkeley; Technical Univ.; Univ. of Liverpool; Univ. of South Carolina

    2007-01-01

    One of the key objectives in fuel-cell technology is to improve and reduce Pt loading as the oxygen-reduction catalyst. Here, we show a fundamental relationship in electrocatalytic trends on Pt{sub 3}M (M=Ni, Co, Fe, Ti, V) surfaces between the experimentally determined surface electronic structure (the d-band centre) and activity for the oxygen-reduction reaction. This relationship exhibits 'volcano-type' behavior, where the maximum catalytic activity is governed by a balance between adsorption energies of reactive intermediates and surface coverage by spectator (blocking) species. The electrocatalytic trends established for extended surfaces are used to explain the activity pattern of Pt{sub 3}M nanocatalysts as well as to provide a fundamental basis for the catalytic enhancement of cathode catalysts. By combining simulations with experiments in the quest for surfaces with desired activity, an advanced concept in nanoscale catalyst engineering has been developed.

  15. Trends in electrocatalysis : from extended to nanoscale surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Stamenkovic, V. R.; Mun, B. S.; Arenz, M.; Mayrhofer, K. J. J.; Lucas, C. A.; Wang, G.; Ross, P. N.; Markovic, N. M.; Materials Science Division; Lawrence Berkeley Nat. Lab.; Technical Univ. Munich; Univ. of Liverpool; Univ. of South Carolina

    2007-01-01

    One of the key objectives in fuel-cell technology is to improve and reduce Pt loading as the oxygen-reduction catalyst. Here, we show a fundamental relationship in electrocatalytic trends on Pt{sub 3}M (M=Ni, Co, Fe, Ti, V) surfaces between the experimentally determined surface electronic structure (the d-band centre) and activity for the oxygen-reduction reaction. This relationship exhibits 'volcano-type' behavior, where the maximum catalytic activity is governed by a balance between adsorption energies of reactive intermediates and surface coverage by spectator (blocking) species. The electrocatalytic trends established for extended surfaces are used to explain the activity pattern of Pt{sub 3}M nanocatalysts as well as to provide a fundamental basis for the catalytic enhancement of cathode catalysts. By combining simulations with experiments in the quest for surfaces with desired activity, an advanced concept in nanoscale catalyst engineering has been developed.

  16. Structured system engineering methodologies used to develop a nuclear thermal propulsion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, R.; Wagner, R.

    1993-01-01

    To facilitate the development of a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine for manned flights to Mars, requirements must be established early in the technology development cycle. The long lead times for the acquisition of the engine system and nuclear test facilities demands that the engine system size, performance and safety goals be defined at the earliest possible time. These systems are highly complex and require a large multidisciplinary systems engineering team to develop and track requirements, and to ensure that the as-built system reflects the intent of the mission. A methodology has been devised which uses sophisticated computer tools to effectively develop and interpret functional requirements, and furnish these to the specification level for implementation.

  17. Advanced methods for 3-D inelastic structural analysis for hot engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional Inelastic Analysis Methods are described. These methods were incorporated into a series of new computer codes embodying a progression of mathematical models (mechanics of materials, specialty finite element, boundary element) for streamlined analysis of hot engine structures such as: (1) combustor liners, (2) turbine blades, and (3) turbine vanes. These models address the effects of high temperatures and thermal/mechanical loadings on the local (stress/strain) and global (displacements, frequencies, amplitudes, buckling) structural behavior of the three respective components. The methods and the three computer codes, referred to as MOMM (Mechanics Of Materials Model), MHOST (MARC-Hot Section Technology), and BEST3D (Boundary Element Stress Technology), have been developed and are briefly described.

  18. Democratization of Nanoscale Imaging and Sensing Tools Using Photonics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Providing means for researchers and citizen scientists in the developing world to perform advanced measurements with nanoscale precision can help to accelerate the rate of discovery and invention as well as improve higher education and the training of the next generation of scientists and engineers worldwide. Here, we review some of the recent progress toward making optical nanoscale measurement tools more cost-effective, field-portable, and accessible to a significantly larger group of researchers and educators. We divide our review into two main sections: label-based nanoscale imaging and sensing tools, which primarily involve fluorescent approaches, and label-free nanoscale measurement tools, which include light scattering sensors, interferometric methods, photonic crystal sensors, and plasmonic sensors. For each of these areas, we have primarily focused on approaches that have either demonstrated operation outside of a traditional laboratory setting, including for example integration with mobile phones, or exhibited the potential for such operation in the near future. PMID:26068279

  19. Sensing at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Hierold, Christofer

    2013-11-01

    label-free detection of DNA at concentrations as low as 1-10 fM, a sensitivity comparable to the best signal amplification-assisted electrochemical sensors reported [12]. In another study actin-conjugated gold and silver nanorods are used to detect ATP, a common indicator of cell viability [13]. They show how aggregation induced by ATP-induced polymerization of the G-actin gives rise to a measurable change in the plasmon resonance absorbance of the nanorods. A review of the use of fluorescent silica nanoparticles for biomedical applications is provided by researchers at Dublin City University in Ireland [14]. The first scanning tunnelling microscope in the early 1980s and subsequent scanning probe developments brought the world of nanoscale structures into view in a manner that gorged the imaginations of scientists and the public. New ways of probing structures at this scale revealed a wealth of curious properties that triggered a surge of research activity in nanotechnology, now a multibillion dollar industry. One good turn deserves another and in fact nanostructures provide the perfect tools for the type of sensing and imaging applications that brought such widespread research interest to nanotechnology. This special issue highlights just how broad and innovative the range of sensing nanotechnologies has grown. References [1] Zappa D, Comini E and Sberveglieri G 2013 Thermally-oxidized zinc oxide nanowires chemical sensors Nanotechnology 24 444008 [2] Kemmler J A, Pokhrel S, Mädler L, Weimar U and Barsan N 2013 Flame spray pyrolysis for sensing at the nanoscale Nanotechnology 24 442001 [3] Bache M et al 2013 Nanomechanical recognition of prognostic biomarker suPAR with DVD-ROM optical technology Nanotechnology 24 444011 [4] Hu C-F, Wang J-Y, Liu Y-C, Tsai M-H and Fang W 2013 Development of 3D carbon nanotubes interdigitated finger electrodes on polymer substrate for flexible capacitive sensor application Nanotechnology 24 444006 [5] Neumann C, Volk C, Engels S and

  20. Materials and structural aspects of advanced gas-turbine helicopter engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Acurio, J.

    1979-01-01

    The key to improved helicopter gas turbine engine performance lies in the development of advanced materials and advanced structural and design concepts. The modification of the low temperature components of helicopter engines (such as the inlet particle separator), the introduction of composites for use in the engine front frame, the development of advanced materials with increased use-temperature capability for the engine hot section, can result in improved performance and/or decreased engine maintenance cost. A major emphasis in helicopter engine design is the ability to design to meet a required lifetime. This, in turn, requires that the interrelated aspects of higher operating temperatures and pressures, cooling concepts, and environmental protection schemes be integrated into component design. The major material advances, coatings, and design life-prediction techniques pertinent to helicopter engines are reviewed; the current state-of-the-art is identified; and when appropriate, progress, problems, and future directions are assessed.