Science.gov

Sample records for nanoscale zno sensor

  1. Compacted nanoscale sensors by merging ZnO nanorods with interdigitated electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Rihtnesberg, David B.; Bergström, Andreas; Almqvist, Susanne; Zhang, Andy Z. Z.; Kaplan, Wlodek; Andersson, Jan Y.; Sugunan, Abhilash; Yang, Xuran; Toprak, Muhammet S.

    2011-06-01

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) sensors utilizing hybrid or monolithic integration of the NRs on nanoscale or microscale interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) were fabricated and characterized. The IDEs with their finger electrode width ranging from 50 nm to 3 μm were formed on SiO2/Si substrates by nanoimprint lithography or conventional photolithography and metallization techniques, whereas the ZnO NRs were grown by chemical synthesis method. The average diameter of the ZnO NRs is about 100 nm, and their length can be varied from 2 to 5 μm by controlling growth time. When sensing targets, such as molecules or nanoparticles, bind onto the ZnO NRs, the conductance between IDEs will change. As probing test, II-VI quantum dots (QDs) were attached on the ZnO NRs, and clear responses were obtained by measuring and comparing current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of the sensor before and after binding the QDs.

  2. Single ZnO nanocactus gas sensor formed by etching of ZnO nanorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryong Ryu, Sung; Ram, S. D. Gopal; Cho, Hak-Dong; Lee, Dong Jin; Won Kang, Tae; Woo, Yongdeuk

    2015-06-01

    Etching of materials on the nanoscale is a challenging but necessary process in nanomaterials science. Gas sensing using a single ZnO nanocactus (NC), which was prepared by facile isotropic nanoetching of zinc oxide nanorods (NR) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using an organic photoresist (PR) by a thermochemical reaction, is reported in this work. PR consists of carboxylic acid groups (COOH) and cyclopentanone (C5H8O), which can react with zinc and oxygen atoms, respectively, on the surface of a ZnO NR. The thermochemical reaction is controllable by varying the concentration of PR and reaction time. A gas sensor was fabricated using a single NC. Gas sensing was tested using different gases such as CH4, NH3 and carbon monoxide (CO). It was estimated that the surface area of a ZnO NC in the case of 50% PR was found to increase four-fold. When compared with a single ZnO NR gas sensor, the sensitivity of a ZnO NC was found to increase four-fold. This increase in sensitivity is attributed to the increase in surface area of the ZnO NC. The formed single ZnO NC gas sensor has good stability, response and recovery time.Etching of materials on the nanoscale is a challenging but necessary process in nanomaterials science. Gas sensing using a single ZnO nanocactus (NC), which was prepared by facile isotropic nanoetching of zinc oxide nanorods (NR) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using an organic photoresist (PR) by a thermochemical reaction, is reported in this work. PR consists of carboxylic acid groups (COOH) and cyclopentanone (C5H8O), which can react with zinc and oxygen atoms, respectively, on the surface of a ZnO NR. The thermochemical reaction is controllable by varying the concentration of PR and reaction time. A gas sensor was fabricated using a single NC. Gas sensing was tested using different gases such as CH4, NH3 and carbon monoxide (CO). It was estimated that the surface area of a ZnO NC in the case of 50% PR was found to increase four

  3. Acceptors in bulk and nanoscale ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, M. D.

    2012-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a semiconductor that emits bright UV light, with little wasted heat. This intrinsic feature makes it a promising material for energy-efficient white lighting, nano-lasers, and other optical applications. For devices to be competitive, however, it is necessary to develop reliable p-type doping. Although substitutional nitrogen has been considered as a potential p-type dopant for ZnO, theoretical and experimental work indicates that nitrogen is a deep acceptor and will not lead to p-type conductivity. This talk will highlight recent experiments on ZnO:N at low temperatures. A red/near-IR photoluminescence (PL) band is correlated with the presence of deep nitrogen acceptors. PL excitation (PLE) measurements show an absorption threshold of 2.26 eV, in good agreement with theory. Magnetic resonance experiments provide further evidence for this assignment. The results of these studies seem to rule out group-V elements as shallow acceptors in ZnO, contradicting numerous reports in the literature. If these acceptors do not work as advertised, is there a viable alternative? Optical studies on ZnO nanocrystals show some intriguing leads. At liquid-helium temperatures, a series of sharp IR absorption peaks arise from an unknown acceptor impurity. The data are consistent with a hydrogenic acceptor 0.46 eV above the valence band edge. While this binding energy is still too deep for many practical applications, it represents a significant improvement over the ˜ 1.3 eV binding energy for nitrogen acceptors. Nanocrystals present another twist. Due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, surface states are especially important. Specifically, electron-hole recombination at the surface give rises to a red luminescence band. From our PL and IR experiments, we have developed a ``unified'' model that attempts to explain acceptor and surface states in ZnO nanocrystals. This model could provide a useful framework for designing future nanoscale ZnO devices.

  4. Role of Au in the growth and nanoscale optical properties of ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, M.; Zhou, Xiang; Lim, S. K.; Gradecak, S.

    2011-03-17

    Metallic nanoparticles play a crucial role in nanowire growth and have profound consequences on nanowire morphology and their physical properties. Here, we investigate the evolving role of the Au nanoparticle during ZnO nanowire growth and its effects on nanoscale photoemission of the nanowires. We observe the transition from Au-assisted to non-assisted growth mechanisms during a single nanowire growth, with significant changes in growth rates during these two regimes. This transition occurs through the reduction of oxygen partial pressure, which modifies the ZnO facet stability and increases Au diffusion. Nanoscale quenching of ZnO cathodoluminescence occurs near the Au nanoparticle due to excited electron diffusion to the nanoparticle. Thus, the Au nanoparticle is critically linked to the nanowire growth mechanism and corresponding growth rate through the energy of its interface with the ZnO nanowire, and its presence modifies nanowire optical properties on the nanoscale.

  5. Fabrication of a ZnO Pyroelectric Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Huang, Kuo-Yi; Hu, Yuh-Chung

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a two-step radio frequency (RF) sputtering process to form a ZnO film for pyroelectric sensors. It is shown that the two-step sputtering process with a lower power step followed by a higher power step can significantly improve the voltage responsivity of the ZnO pyroelectric sensor. The improvement is attributed mainly to the formation of ZnO film with a strongly preferred orientation towards the c-axis. Furthermore, a nickel film deposited onto the uncovered parts of the ZnO film can effectively improve the voltage responsivity at higher modulating frequencies since the nickel film can enhance the incident energy absorption of the ZnO layer.

  6. Nanoscale calibration of n-type ZnO staircase structures by scanning capacitance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Laurent, J.; Chauveau, J. M.; Sallet, V.; Jomard, F.; Brémond, G.

    2015-11-01

    Cross-sectional scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) was performed on n-type ZnO multi-layer structures homoepitaxially grown by molecular beam epitaxy method. Highly contrasted SCM signals were obtained between the ZnO layers with different Ga densities. Through comparison with dopant depth profiles from secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurement, it is demonstrated that SCM is able to distinguish carrier concentrations at all levels of the samples (from 2 × 1017 cm-3 to 3 × 1020 cm-3). The good agreement of the results from the two techniques indicates that SCM can be a useful tool for two dimensional carrier profiling at nanoscale for ZnO nanostructure development. As an example, residual carrier concentration inside the non-intentionally doped buffer layer was estimated to be around 2 × 1016 cm-3 through calibration analysis.

  7. Nanoscale optical and electrical characterizations of ZnO nanostructures by near-field microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercu, Bogdan; Giraudet, Louis; Molinari, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The interest in the recent years for nanostructure studies has led to the development of a wide palette of characterization techniques such as the electrical modes in scanning probe microscopy (STM, EFM, KPFM...). Optical characterization at nanoscale remains nevertheless a challenge especially for wide gap semiconductors where high energy is required. In this presentation, we will present our work focusing in the development and the improvement of near-field microscopy techniques to investigate nanoscale properties of ZnO nanostructures and related semiconducting objects. For the optical characterization, cathodoluminescence (CL) studies present many advantages over the classical photoluminescence experiments for ZnO analysis. This contribution presents the development of a scanning near-field cathodoluminescence microscope where a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever is simultaneously used for both actuation and oscillation amplitude detection. Operated inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) it offers the possibility of performing simultaneous topography and cathodoluminescence charting of the sample surface additionally to the SEM imaging with a resolution in the order of several tenths of nanometers. Different measurements of ZnO nanostructures and related objects will be presented to show the potentiality of our optical characterization setup. Complementary STEM-CL measurements at higher beam energy were performed on the ZnO nanowires confirming the good quality of the investigated nanostructures. As for the electrical characterization, we will focus on the local surface potential mapping of ZnO nanowires used for photoconduction using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy. While ZnO nanowire photoconduction gains as high as 1010 in the UV region were reported, several issues come into play when it comes to making a precise measurement of a single nanowire. An important issue is the good quality of the injecting contacts on the nanowire and the reproducibility of its

  8. Nanoscale Surface Plasmonics Sensor With Nanofluidic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Jianjun; Singhal, Sameer; Waldeck, David H.; Kofke, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Conventional quantitative protein assays of bodily fluids typically involve multiple steps to obtain desired measurements. Such methods are not well suited for fast and accurate assay measurements in austere environments such as spaceflight and in the aftermath of disasters. Consequently, there is a need for a protein assay technology capable of routinely monitoring proteins in austere environments. For example, there is an immediate need for a urine protein assay to assess astronaut renal health during spaceflight. The disclosed nanoscale surface plasmonics sensor provides a core detection method that can be integrated to a lab-on-chip device that satisfies the unmet need for such a protein assay technology. Assays based upon combinations of nanoholes, nanorings, and nanoslits with transmission surface plasmon resonance (SPR) are used for assays requiring extreme sensitivity, and are capable of detecting specific analytes at concentrations as low as picomole to femtomole level in well-controlled environments. The device operates in a transmission mode configuration in which light is directed at one planar surface of the array, which functions as an optical aperture. The incident light induces surface plasmon light transmission from the opposite surface of the array. The presence of a target analyte is detected by changes in the spectrum of light transmitted by the array when a target analyte induces a change in the refractive index of the fluid within the nanochannels. This occurs, for example, when a target analyte binds to a receptor fixed to the walls of the nanochannels in the array. Independent fluid handling capability for individual nanoarrays on a nanofluidic chip containing a plurality of nanochannel arrays allows each array to be used to sense a different target analyte and/or for paired arrays to analyze control and test samples simultaneously in parallel. The present invention incorporates transmission mode nanoplasmonics and nanofluidics into a single

  9. Design of surface modifications for nanoscale sensor applications.

    PubMed

    Reimhult, Erik; Höök, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale biosensors provide the possibility to miniaturize optic, acoustic and electric sensors to the dimensions of biomolecules. This enables approaching single-molecule detection and new sensing modalities that probe molecular conformation. Nanoscale sensors are predominantly surface-based and label-free to exploit inherent advantages of physical phenomena allowing high sensitivity without distortive labeling. There are three main criteria to be optimized in the design of surface-based and label-free biosensors: (i) the biomolecules of interest must bind with high affinity and selectively to the sensitive area; (ii) the biomolecules must be efficiently transported from the bulk solution to the sensor; and (iii) the transducer concept must be sufficiently sensitive to detect low coverage of captured biomolecules within reasonable time scales. The majority of literature on nanoscale biosensors deals with the third criterion while implicitly assuming that solutions developed for macroscale biosensors to the first two, equally important, criteria are applicable also to nanoscale sensors. We focus on providing an introduction to and perspectives on the advanced concepts for surface functionalization of biosensors with nanosized sensor elements that have been developed over the past decades (criterion (iii)). We review in detail how patterning of molecular films designed to control interactions of biomolecules with nanoscale biosensor surfaces creates new possibilities as well as new challenges. PMID:25594599

  10. Design of Surface Modifications for Nanoscale Sensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Reimhult, Erik; Höök, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale biosensors provide the possibility to miniaturize optic, acoustic and electric sensors to the dimensions of biomolecules. This enables approaching single-molecule detection and new sensing modalities that probe molecular conformation. Nanoscale sensors are predominantly surface-based and label-free to exploit inherent advantages of physical phenomena allowing high sensitivity without distortive labeling. There are three main criteria to be optimized in the design of surface-based and label-free biosensors: (i) the biomolecules of interest must bind with high affinity and selectively to the sensitive area; (ii) the biomolecules must be efficiently transported from the bulk solution to the sensor; and (iii) the transducer concept must be sufficiently sensitive to detect low coverage of captured biomolecules within reasonable time scales. The majority of literature on nanoscale biosensors deals with the third criterion while implicitly assuming that solutions developed for macroscale biosensors to the first two, equally important, criteria are applicable also to nanoscale sensors. We focus on providing an introduction to and perspectives on the advanced concepts for surface functionalization of biosensors with nanosized sensor elements that have been developed over the past decades (criterion (iii)). We review in detail how patterning of molecular films designed to control interactions of biomolecules with nanoscale biosensor surfaces creates new possibilities as well as new challenges. PMID:25594599

  11. Nanoscale heterogeniety and workfunction variations in ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Anirudh; Untch, Maria; Quinton, Jamie S.; Berger, Rüdiger; Andersson, Gunther; Lewis, David A.

    2016-02-01

    Nano-roughened, sol-gel derived polycrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by a thermal ramping procedure were found to exhibit different work function values on a sub-micrometer scale. By Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) two distinct nanoscale regions with work function differing by over 0.1 eV were detected which did not coincide with the nano-roughened surface topography. In contrast, a flat ZnO surface displayed a single, uniform distribution. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) studies showed that the average workfunction across a flat ZnO surface was 3.7 eV while ZnO with a nano-roughened morphology had a lower workfunction of 3.4 eV with indications of electronic heterogeneity across the surface, supporting the KPFM results. Scanning Auger Nanoprobe measurements showed that the chemical composition was uniform across the surface in all samples, suggesting the work function heterogeneity was due to variations in crystallinity or crystal orientation on the surface of these thin films. Such heterogeneity in the electronic properties of materials in thin film devices can significantly influence the interfacial charge transport across materials.

  12. Nanoscale mapping of plasmon and exciton in ZnO tetrapods coupled with Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, Giovanni; Fabbri, Filippo; Villani, Marco; Lazzarini, Laura; Turner, Stuart; van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Calestani, Davide; Gradečak, Silvija; Zappettini, Andrea; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles can be used to enhance optical absorption or emission in semiconductors, thanks to a strong interaction of collective excitations of free charges (plasmons) with electromagnetic fields. Herein we present direct imaging at the nanoscale of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au/ZnO nanostructures by combining scanning transmission electron energy loss and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and mapping. The Au nanoparticles (~30 nm in diameter) are grown in-situ on ZnO nanotetrapods by means of a photochemical process without the need of binding agents or capping molecules, resulting in clean interfaces. Interestingly, the Au plasmon resonance is localized at the Au/vacuum interface, rather than presenting an isotropic distribution around the nanoparticle. On the contrary, a localization of the ZnO signal has been observed inside the Au nanoparticle, as also confirmed by numerical simulations.

  13. Nanoscale mapping of plasmon and exciton in ZnO tetrapods coupled with Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Giovanni; Fabbri, Filippo; Villani, Marco; Lazzarini, Laura; Turner, Stuart; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Calestani, Davide; Gradečak, Silvija; Zappettini, Andrea; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles can be used to enhance optical absorption or emission in semiconductors, thanks to a strong interaction of collective excitations of free charges (plasmons) with electromagnetic fields. Herein we present direct imaging at the nanoscale of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au/ZnO nanostructures by combining scanning transmission electron energy loss and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and mapping. The Au nanoparticles (~30 nm in diameter) are grown in-situ on ZnO nanotetrapods by means of a photochemical process without the need of binding agents or capping molecules, resulting in clean interfaces. Interestingly, the Au plasmon resonance is localized at the Au/vacuum interface, rather than presenting an isotropic distribution around the nanoparticle. On the contrary, a localization of the ZnO signal has been observed inside the Au nanoparticle, as also confirmed by numerical simulations. PMID:26754789

  14. Nanoscale mapping of plasmon and exciton in ZnO tetrapods coupled with Au nanoparticles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bertoni, Giovanni; Fabbri, Filippo; Villani, Marco; Lazzarini, Laura; Turner, Stuart; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Calestani, Davide; Gradečak, Silvija; Zappettini, Andrea; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2016-01-12

    Metallic nanoparticles can be used to enhance optical absorption or emission in semiconductors, thanks to a strong interaction of collective excitations of free charges (plasmons) with electromagnetic fields. Herein we present direct imaging at the nanoscale of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au/ZnO nanostructures by combining scanning transmission electron energy loss and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and mapping. The Au nanoparticles (~30 nm in diameter) are grown in-situ on ZnO nanotetrapods by means of a photochemical process without the need of binding agents or capping molecules, resulting in clean interfaces. Interestingly, the Au plasmon resonance is localized at the Au/vacuum interface, rather than presentingmore » an isotropic distribution around the nanoparticle. Moreover, on the contrary, a localization of the ZnO signal has been observed inside the Au nanoparticle, as also confirmed by numerical simulations.« less

  15. Nanoscale mapping of plasmon and exciton in ZnO tetrapods coupled with Au nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bertoni, Giovanni; Fabbri, Filippo; Villani, Marco; Lazzarini, Laura; Turner, Stuart; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Calestani, Davide; Gradečak, Silvija; Zappettini, Andrea; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles can be used to enhance optical absorption or emission in semiconductors, thanks to a strong interaction of collective excitations of free charges (plasmons) with electromagnetic fields. Herein we present direct imaging at the nanoscale of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au/ZnO nanostructures by combining scanning transmission electron energy loss and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and mapping. The Au nanoparticles (~30 nm in diameter) are grown in-situ on ZnO nanotetrapods by means of a photochemical process without the need of binding agents or capping molecules, resulting in clean interfaces. Interestingly, the Au plasmon resonance is localized at the Au/vacuum interface, rather than presenting an isotropic distribution around the nanoparticle. On the contrary, a localization of the ZnO signal has been observed inside the Au nanoparticle, as also confirmed by numerical simulations. PMID:26754789

  16. ZnO Coated Nanospring-Based Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakharev, Pavel Viktorovich

    The current research demonstrates new techniques for characterization of electrical transport properties of the metal oxide polycrystalline structures, gas and vapor phase kinetics, surface processes such as gas-surface, vapor-surface interactions and redox processes by applying novel gas sensing devices. Real-time sensor electrical response characteristics obtained under highly controlled laboratory conditions have been used to characterize corresponding surface interactions and electrical properties of the gas sensitive structures. Novel redox chemical sensors (chemiresistors) have been fabricated with 3-D and 1-D ZnO coated nanospring (NS) structures. Silica NSs served as insulating scaffolding for a ZnO gas sensitive layer and has been grown via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism by using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. The NSs have been coated with polycrystalline ZnO by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The chemiresistor devices have been thoroughly characterized in terms of their crystal structures (by XRD, FESEM, TEM, and ellipsometry) and their electrical response properties. A 3-D gas sensor has been constructed from a xenon light bulb by coating it with a 3-D zinc oxide coated silica nanospring mat, where the xenon light bulb served as a sensor heater. This inexpensive sensor platform has been used to characterize gas-solid, vapor-solid, and redox processes. The optimal temperature of the gas sensitive ZnO layer, the temperature of the vapor-gas mixture and the crystal structure of the gas sensitive layer have been determined to reach the highest sensitivity of the gas sensors. The activation energy of toluene oxidation (Ed) on the ZnO surface and the activation energy of oxidation (Ea) of the depleted ZnO surface have been determined and analyzed. A 1-D chemiresistor has been fabricated with a single ZnO coated silica nanospring by photolithography. The question of sensor sensitivity of MOS nanomaterials and MOS thin films has been addressed

  17. ZnO nanowire-based CO sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Mon-Shu; Chen, Wei-Hao; Chen, Yu-Lin; Chang, Meng-Fan

    This study applied ZnO nanowires to the fabrication of a CO gas sensor operable at room temperature. Following the deposition of a seed layer by spin coating, an aqueous solution method was used to grow ZnO nanowires. This was followed by the self-assembly of an electrode array via dielectrophoresis prior to the fabrication of the CO sensing device. The material characteristics were analyzed using FE-SEM, EDS, GIXRD, FE-TEM, and the measurement of photoluminescence (PL). Our results identified the ZnO nanowires as a single crystalline wurtzite structure. Extending the growth period from 30 min to 360 min led to an increase in the length and diameter of the nanowires. After two hours, the ZnO presented a preferred crystal orientation of [002]. Sensor chips were assembled using 60 pairs of electrodes with gaps of 2 μm, over which were lain nanowires to complete the sensing devices. The average sensing response was 48.37 s and the average recovery time was 65.61 s, with a sensing response magnitude of approximately 6.8% at room temperature.

  18. ZnO Nanostructure-Based Intracellular Sensor.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad H; Danielsson, Bengt; Willander, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Recently ZnO has attracted much interest because of its usefulness for intracellular measurements of biochemical species by using its semiconducting, electrochemical, catalytic properties and for being biosafe and biocompatible. ZnO thus has a wide range of applications in optoelectronics, intracellular nanosensors, transducers, energy conversion and medical sciences. This review relates specifically to intracellular electrochemical (glucose and free metal ion) biosensors based on functionalized zinc oxide nanowires/nanorods. For intracellular measurements, the ZnO nanowires/nanorods were grown on the tip of a borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 µm in diameter) and functionalized with membranes or enzymes to produce intracellular selective metal ion or glucose sensors. Successful intracellular measurements were carried out using ZnO nanowires/nanorods grown on small tips for glucose and free metal ions using two types of cells, human fat cells and frog oocytes. The sensors in this study were used to detect real-time changes of metal ions and glucose across human fat cells and frog cells using changes in the electrochemical potential at the interface of the intracellular micro-environment. Such devices are helpful in explaining various intracellular processes involving ions and glucose. PMID:26007730

  19. ZnO Nanostructure-Based Intracellular Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Muhammad H.; Danielsson, Bengt; Willander, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Recently ZnO has attracted much interest because of its usefulness for intracellular measurements of biochemical species by using its semiconducting, electrochemical, catalytic properties and for being biosafe and biocompatible. ZnO thus has a wide range of applications in optoelectronics, intracellular nanosensors, transducers, energy conversion and medical sciences. This review relates specifically to intracellular electrochemical (glucose and free metal ion) biosensors based on functionalized zinc oxide nanowires/nanorods. For intracellular measurements, the ZnO nanowires/nanorods were grown on the tip of a borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 µm in diameter) and functionalized with membranes or enzymes to produce intracellular selective metal ion or glucose sensors. Successful intracellular measurements were carried out using ZnO nanowires/nanorods grown on small tips for glucose and free metal ions using two types of cells, human fat cells and frog oocytes. The sensors in this study were used to detect real-time changes of metal ions and glucose across human fat cells and frog cells using changes in the electrochemical potential at the interface of the intracellular micro-environment. Such devices are helpful in explaining various intracellular processes involving ions and glucose. PMID:26007730

  20. Nanoscale calibration of n-type ZnO staircase structures by scanning capacitance microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L. Laurent, J.; Brémond, G.; Chauveau, J. M.; Sallet, V.; Jomard, F.

    2015-11-09

    Cross-sectional scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) was performed on n-type ZnO multi-layer structures homoepitaxially grown by molecular beam epitaxy method. Highly contrasted SCM signals were obtained between the ZnO layers with different Ga densities. Through comparison with dopant depth profiles from secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurement, it is demonstrated that SCM is able to distinguish carrier concentrations at all levels of the samples (from 2 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} to 3 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}). The good agreement of the results from the two techniques indicates that SCM can be a useful tool for two dimensional carrier profiling at nanoscale for ZnO nanostructure development. As an example, residual carrier concentration inside the non-intentionally doped buffer layer was estimated to be around 2 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3} through calibration analysis.

  1. Role of the Exposed Polar Facets in the Performance of Thermally and UV Activated ZnO Nanostructured Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies (nanowires, nanodisks, and nanostars) were synthesized hydrothermally. Gas sensing properties of the as-grown nanostructures were investigated under thermal and UV activation. The performance of the ZnO nanodisk gas sensor was found to be superior to that of other nanostructures (Sg ∼ 3700% to 300 ppm ethanol and response time and recovery time of 8 and 13 s). The enhancement in sensitivity is attributed to the surface polarities of the different structures on the nanoscale. Furthermore, the selectivity of the gas sensors can be achieved by controlling the UV intensity used to activate these sensors. The highest sensitivity value for ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, and toluene are recorded at the optimal UV intensity of 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, and 4 mW/cm2, respectively. Finally, the UV activation mechanism for metal oxide gas sensors is compared with the thermal activation process. The UV activation of analytes based on solution processed ZnO structures pave the way for better quality gas sensors. PMID:24009781

  2. A simple method to make an electrical connection between ZnO microwire and substrate through nanoscale metal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hakseong; Lee, Jinkyung; Yun, Hoyeol; Lee, Sang; Nano Electonics and Nano Mechanics Team

    2013-03-01

    We developed a simple method to make an electrical connection with nanoscale electrodes on microscale wire using suspended Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) strings. Less than 90 nm height of Ti/Au made a complete electrical connection on the ZnO microwires of which diameter is around 2 μm. A cross linked PMMA string was bridged between ZnO microwire and substrate for making good electrical connection. The contact resistance of ZnO microwire fabricated by this method was much lower than that of device fabricated by standard E-beam lithography and evaporation. This fabrication method is readily extendible to prepare nano scale electrodes on various micro sized materials and serves as a pathway for studying their mesoscopic transport phenomena. This work is supported by WCU, BK21 and NRF.

  3. Nanoscale pressure sensors realized from suspended graphene membrane devices

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilera-Servin, Juan; Miao, Tengfei; Bockrath, Marc

    2015-02-23

    We study the transport properties of graphene layers placed over ∼200 nm triangular holes via attached electrodes under applied pressure. We find that the injected current division between counter electrodes depends on pressure and can be used to realize a nanoscale pressure sensor. Estimating various potential contributions to the resistivity change of the deflected graphene membrane including piezoresistivity, changing gate capacitance, and the valley Hall effect due to the pressure-induced synthetic magnetic field, we find that the valley Hall effect yields the largest expected contribution to the longitudinal resistivity modulation for accessible device parameters. Such devices in the ballistic transport regime may enable the realization of tunable valley polarized electron sources.

  4. Defect-free ZnO nanorods for low temperature hydrogen sensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ranwa, Sapana; Kumar, Mahesh; Kulriya, Pawan K.; Sahu, Vikas Kumar; Kukreja, L. M.

    2014-11-24

    Uniformly distributed and defect-free vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) with high aspect ratio are deposited on Si by sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction along with transmission electron microscopy studies confirmed the single crystalline wurtzite structure of ZnO. Absence of wide band emission in photoluminescence spectra showed defect-free growth of ZnO NRs which was further conformed by diamagnetic behavior of the NRs. H{sub 2} sensing mechanism based on the change in physical dimension of channel is proposed to explain the fast response (∼21.6 s) and recovery times (∼27 s) of ZnO NRs/Si/ZnO NRs sensors. Proposed H{sub 2} sensor operates at low temperature (∼70 °C) unlike the existing high temperature (>150 °C) sensors.

  5. ZnO nanomaterials based surface acoustic wave ethanol gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Li, X; Liu, J H; He, Y N; Yu, L M; Liu, W H

    2012-08-01

    ZnO nanomaterials based surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensor has been investigated in ethanol environment at room temperature. The ZnO nanomaterials have been prepared through thermal evaporation of high-purity zinc powder. The as-prepared ZnO nanomaterials have been characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results indicate that the obtained ZnO nanomaterials, including many types of nanostructures such as nanobelts, nanorods, nanowires as well as nanosheets, are wurtzite with hexagonal structure and well-crystallized. The SAW sensor coated with the nanostructured ZnO materials has been tested in ethanol gas of various concentrations at room temperature. A network analyzer is used to monitor the change of the insertion loss of the SAW sensor when exposed to ethanol gas. The insertion loss of the SAW sensor varies significantly with the change of ethanol concentration. The experimental results manifest that the ZnO nanomaterials based SAW ethanol gas sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity and good short-term reproducibility at room temperature. PMID:22962774

  6. Highly Sensitive and Selective Ethanol Sensor Fabricated with In-Doped 3DOM ZnO.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihua; Tian, Ziwei; Han, Dongmei; Gu, Fubo

    2016-03-01

    ZnO is an important n-type semiconductor sensing material. Currently, much attention has been attracted to finding an effective method to prepare ZnO nanomaterials with high sensing sensitivity and excellent selectivity. A three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) ZnO nanostructure with a large surface area is beneficial to gas and electron transfer, which can enhance the gas sensitivity of ZnO. Indium (In) doping is an effective way to improve the sensing properties of ZnO. In this paper, In-doped 3DOM ZnO with enhanced sensitivity and selectivity has been synthesized by using a colloidal crystal templating method. The 3DOM ZnO with 5 at. % of In-doping exhibits the highest sensitivity (∼88) to 100 ppm ethanol at 250 °C, which is approximately 3 times higher than that of pure 3DOM ZnO. The huge improvement to the sensitivity to ethanol was attributed to the increase in the surface area and the electron carrier concentration. The doping by In introduces more electrons into the matrix, which is helpful for increasing the amount of adsorbed oxygen, leading to high sensitivity. The In-doped 3DOM ZnO is a promising material for a new type of ethanol sensor. PMID:26844815

  7. Comparative study of ZnO nanorods and thin films for chemical and biosensing applications and the development of ZnO nanorods based potentiometric strontium ion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khun, K.; Ibupoto, Z. H.; Chey, C. O.; Lu, Jun.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the comparative study of ZnO nanorods and ZnO thin films were performed regarding the chemical and biosensing properties and also ZnO nanorods based strontium ion sensor is proposed. ZnO nanorods were grown on gold coated glass substrates by the hydrothermal growth method and the ZnO thin films were deposited by electro deposition technique. ZnO nanorods and thin films were characterised by field emission electron microscopy [FESEM] and X-ray diffraction [XRD] techniques and this study has shown that the grown nanostructures are highly dense, uniform and exhibited good crystal quality. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy [TEM] was used to investigate the quality of ZnO thin film and we observed that ZnO thin film was comprised of nano clusters. ZnO nanorods and thin films were functionalised with selective strontium ionophore salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone [ST] membrane, galactose oxidase, and lactate oxidase for the detection of strontium ion, galactose and L-lactic acid, respectively. The electrochemical response of both ZnO nanorods and thin films sensor devices was measured by using the potentiometric method. The strontium ion sensor has exhibited good characteristics with a sensitivity of 28.65 ± 0.52 mV/decade, for a wide range of concentrations from 1.00 × 10-6 to 5.00 × 10-2 M, selectivity, reproducibility, stability and fast response time of 10.00 s. The proposed strontium ion sensor was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of strontium ion versus ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid [EDTA]. This comparative study has shown that ZnO nanorods possessed better performance with high sensitivity and low limit of detection due to high surface area to volume ratio as compared to the flat surface of ZnO thin films.

  8. Nanoscale optofluidic sensor arrays for Dengue virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Sudeep; Akhmechet, Roman; Chen, Likun; Nugen, Sam; Baeumner, Antje; Erickson, David

    2007-09-01

    Here we present our work towards the development of Nanoscale Optofluidic Sensor Arrays (NOSA), which is an optofluidic architecture for performing label free, highly parallel, detections of biomolecular interactions. The approach is based on the use of optically resonant devices whose resonant wavelength is shifted due to a local change in refractive index caused by a positive binding event between a surface bound molecule and it solution phase target. A special two stage micro-/nanofluidics architecture is used to first functionalize the devices and then to deliver the targets. Two variants of the NOSA will be presented here. The first approach utilizes a 1D resonant cavity in a 1D silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide with a unique differential size functionalization approach. This approach allows binding events at one or at a combination of the many sensing sites which causes a unique shift in the output resonator spectrum. The latter approach consists of a SOI waveguide evanescently coupled to multiple 1-D photonic crystal resonators of different sizes along the length, each of which is functionalized with a different oligonucleotide probe. These devices have an extremely low limit of detection and are compatible with aqueous environments. The primary advantage of these devices over existing technology is that it combines the sensitivity (limit of detection) of nanosensor technology with the parallelism of the microarray type format. Our initial application is in the detection of viral RNA of Dengue virus.

  9. Design Concepts, Fabrication and Advanced Characterization Methods of Innovative Piezoelectric Sensors Based on ZnO Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Araneo, Rodolfo; Rinaldi, Antonio; Notargiacomo, Andrea; Bini, Fabiano; Pea, Marialilia; Celozzi, Salvatore; Marinozzi, Franco; Lovat, Giampiero

    2014-01-01

    Micro- and nano-scale materials and systems based on zinc oxide are expected to explode in their applications in the electronics and photonics, including nano-arrays of addressable optoelectronic devices and sensors, due to their outstanding properties, including semiconductivity and the presence of a direct bandgap, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and biocompatibility. Most applications are based on the cooperative and average response of a large number of ZnO micro/nanostructures. However, in order to assess the quality of the materials and their performance, it is fundamental to characterize and then accurately model the specific electrical and piezoelectric properties of single ZnO structures. In this paper, we report on focused ion beam machined high aspect ratio nanowires and their mechanical and electrical (by means of conductive atomic force microscopy) characterization. Then, we investigate the suitability of new power-law design concepts to accurately model the relevant electrical and mechanical size-effects, whose existence has been emphasized in recent reviews. PMID:25494351

  10. Design Concepts, Fabrication and Advanced Characterization Methods of Innovative Piezoelectric Sensors Based on ZnO Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Araneo, Rodolfo; Rinaldi, Antonio; Notargiacomo, Andrea; Bini, Fabiano; Pea, Marialilia; Celozzi, Salvatore; Marinozzi, Franco; Lovat, Giampiero

    2014-01-01

    Micro- and nano-scale materials and systems based on zinc oxide are expected to explode in their applications in the electronics and photonics, including nano-arrays of addressable optoelectronic devices and sensors, due to their outstanding properties, including semiconductivity and the presence of a direct bandgap, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and biocompatibility. Most applications are based on the cooperative and average response of a large number of ZnO micro/nanostructures. However, in order to assess the quality of the materials and their performance, it is fundamental to characterize and then accurately model the specific electrical and piezoelectric properties of single ZnO structures. In this paper, we report on focused ion beam machined high aspect ratio nanowires and their mechanical and electrical (by means of conductive atomic force microscopy) characterization. Then, we investigate the suitability of new power-law design concepts to accurately model the relevant electrical and mechanical size-effects, whose existence has been emphasized in recent reviews. PMID:25494351

  11. Nanoscale InGaN/GaN on ZnO substrate for LED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, I.-Hsiang; Lan, You-Ren; Wu, Tsung Han; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Li, Nola; Yu, Hongbo; Ferguson, Ian T.; Lu, Weijie

    2009-08-01

    The challenge of growing GaN and its alloys, In1-xGaxN and Al1-xGaxN, is still formidable because of the lack of close lattice match, stacking order match, and similar thermal expansion coefficient substrates, the same as GaN-based optoelectronic materials. ZnO is the most promising optoelectronic materials in the next generation, with wide band gap of 3.3eV and exciton binding energy of 60meV. In addition, ZnO also has been considered as a substrate for epitaxial growth of III-Nitrides due to its close lattice and stacking order match. Our works cover the growth of n-type InGaN and GaN epitaxial layers on lattice-matched ZnO substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Since MOCVD is the dominant growth technology for GaN-based materials and devices, there is a need to more fully explore this technique for ZnO substrates. However, the thermal stability of the ZnO substrate, out-diffusion of Zn from the ZnO into the GaN, and H2 back etching into the substrate can cause growth of poor quality GaN. We use a GaN buffer layer of about 40nm to avoid Zn/O diffusion. We can investigate the Zn/O diffusion in the InGaN epilayers by means of second ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) depth profiles, and analyze the surface bonding of different elements by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and investigate optical and structural characterization of InGaN epilayers on ZnO substrates by various angles spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). Finally, from the Raman scattering, Photoluminescence (PL) and Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra, we can determine the qualities easily and prove that we have grown the InGaN on ZnO with a GaN buffer layer successfully.

  12. Optical behavior and sensor activity of Pb ions incorporated ZnO nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannadasan, N.; Shanmugam, N.; Sathishkumar, K.; Cholan, S.; Ponnguzhali, R.; Viruthagiri, G.

    2015-05-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline ZnO doped with Pb in different concentrations. The structural and chemical compositions of the products are characterized by XRD, XPS, EDS and FT-IR spectroscopy. The observed results suggest that Pb ions (Pb2+ and Pb4+) are successfully incorporated into the lattice position of Zn2+ ions in ZnO. The optical properties of the products are studied by UV-Vis and room temperature PL measurements. The PL emission spectra of ZnO:Pb, show the intensity quenching for both the UV and visible emissions. The influence of Pb on controlling the size and morphology of ZnO is studied by FESEM and confirmed by HRTEM. Amperometric response shows that ZnO incorporated with 0.075 M of Pb ions has enhanced sensor activity for H2O2 than the undoped product.

  13. Influence of Fabricating Process on Gas Sensing Properties of ZnO Nanofiber-Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yong; Dong, Liang

    2011-04-01

    ZnO nanofibers are synthesized by an electrospinning method and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two types of gas sensors are fabricated by loading these nanofibers as the sensing materials and their performances are investigated in detail. Compared with the sensors based on traditional ceramic tubes with Au electrodes (traditional sensors), the sensors fabricated by spinning ZnO nanofibers on ceramic planes with Ag-Pd electrodes (plane sensors) exhibit much higher sensing properties. The sensitivity for the plane sensors is about 30 to 100 ppm ethanol at 300°C, while the value is only 13 for the traditional sensors. The response and recovery times are about 2 and 3s for the plane sensors and are 3 and 6s for the traditional sensors, respectively. Lower minimum-detection-limit is also found for the plane sensors. These improvements are explained by considering the morphological damage in the fabricating process for traditional sensors. The results suggest that the plane sensors are more suitable to sensing investigation for higher veracity.

  14. Nanoscale Electrical Imaging of Metal-Insulator Transition in Ion-Gel Gated ZnO Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yuan; Yuan, Hongtao; Wu, Xiaoyu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Cui, Yi; Hwang, Harold; Lai, Keji

    2015-03-01

    Electric double-layer transistors (EDLTs) using ionic liquid as the gate dielectric have demonstrated a remarkably wide range of density modulation, a condition crucial for the study of novel electronic phases in complex quantum materials. Yet little is known microscopically when carriers are modulated in the EDLT structure because of the technical challenge to image the buried electrolyte-semiconductor interface with nanoscale resolution. Using a cryogenic microwave impedance microscope, we demonstrate the real-space conductivity mapping in ZnO EDLTs with a spatial resolution of 100nm. A thin layer of ion gel, which solidifies below the glass transition temperature of 200K, was spin-coated on the ZnO surface to induce the metal-insulator transition. The microwave images acquired at different channel conductance clearly showed the spatial evolution of local conductivity through the transition. In addition, by applying a large source-drain bias, electrical inhomogeneity was also observed across the source and drain electrodes.

  15. Single ZnO Nanowire-Based Gas Sensors to Detect Low Concentrations of Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Cardoza-Contreras, Marlene N; Romo-Herrera, José M; Ríos, Luis A; García-Gutiérrez, R; Zepeda, T A; Contreras, Oscar E

    2015-01-01

    Low concentrations of hazardous gases are difficult to detect with common gas sensors. Using semiconductor nanostructures as a sensor element is an alternative. Single ZnO nanowire gas sensor devices were fabricated by manipulation and connection of a single nanowire into a four-electrode aluminum probe in situ in a dual-beam scanning electron microscope-focused ion beam with a manipulator and a gas injection system in/column. The electrical response of the manufactured devices shows response times up to 29 s for a 121 ppm of H₂ pulse, with a variation in the nanowire resistance appreciable at room temperature and at 373.15 K of approximately 8% and 14% respectively, showing that ZnO nanowires are good candidates to detect low concentrations of H₂. PMID:26690158

  16. Single ZnO Nanowire-Based Gas Sensors to Detect Low Concentrations of Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Cardoza-Contreras, Marlene N.; Romo-Herrera, José M.; Ríos, Luis A.; García-Gutiérrez, R.; Zepeda, T. A.; Contreras, Oscar E.

    2015-01-01

    Low concentrations of hazardous gases are difficult to detect with common gas sensors. Using semiconductor nanostructures as a sensor element is an alternative. Single ZnO nanowire gas sensor devices were fabricated by manipulation and connection of a single nanowire into a four-electrode aluminum probe in situ in a dual-beam scanning electron microscope-focused ion beam with a manipulator and a gas injection system in/column. The electrical response of the manufactured devices shows response times up to 29 s for a 121 ppm of H2 pulse, with a variation in the nanowire resistance appreciable at room temperature and at 373.15 K of approximately 8% and 14% respectively, showing that ZnO nanowires are good candidates to detect low concentrations of H2. PMID:26690158

  17. Realization of Interlinked ZnO Tetrapod Networks for UV Sensor and Room-Temperature Gas Sensor.

    PubMed

    Thepnurat, Meechai; Chairuangsri, Torranin; Hongsith, Niyom; Ruankham, Pipat; Choopun, Supab

    2015-11-01

    Here, interlinked ZnO tetrapod networks (ITN-ZnO) have been realized by using microwave-assisted thermal oxidation. With this simple and fast process, a nanostructured ZnO morphology having tetrapodlike features with leg-to-leg linking is obtained. The electrical and ethanol-sensing properties related to the morphology of ITN-ZnO compared with those of other ZnO morphologies have also been investigated. It has been found that ITN-ZnO unexpectedly exhibits superior electrical and gas-sensing properties in terms of providing pathways for electron transport to the electrode. A UV sensor and a room-temperature gas sensor with improved performance are achieved. Therefore, ITN-ZnO is an attractive morphology of ZnO that is applicable for many new applications because of its novel properties. The novel properties of ITN-ZnO are beneficial for electronic, photonic, optoelectronic, and sensing applications. ITN-ZnO may provide a means to improve the devices based on ITN-ZnO. PMID:26457557

  18. NANOSCALE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SENSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Andres, School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University David Janes, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University Clifford Kubiak, Dept. of Chemistry, UCSD Ronald Reifenberger, Dept. of Physics, Purdue University

    2007-01-03

    Under this funding, we proposed to: i) develop a ChemFET sensor platform, ii) develop a ChemDiode sensor platform, iii) synthesize receptor molecules suitable for chemical sensing, iv) study the electrostatic potential changes induced by receptor/target binding on surfaces and v) develop VLSI fabrication approaches for micron-scale chemical sensor devices. The accomplishments under these various thrusts are summarized in this section.

  19. Selective growth of ZnO nanorods on microgap electrodes and their applications in UV sensors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Selective area growth of ZnO nanorods is accomplished on microgap electrodes (spacing of 6 μm) by using a facile wet chemical etching process. The growth of ZnO nanorods on a selected area of microgap electrode is carried out by hydrothermal synthesis forming nanorod bridge between two electrodes. This is an attractive, genuine, direct, and highly reproducible technique to grow nanowire/nanorod onto the electrodes on selected area. The ZnO nanorods were grown at 90°C on the pre-patterned electrode system without destroying the electrode surface structure interface and geometry. The ZnO nanorods were tested for their application in ultraviolet (UV) sensors. The photocurrent-to-dark (Iph/Id) ratio was 3.11. At an applied voltage of 5 V, the response and recovery time was 72 and 110 s, respectively, and the response reached 2 A/W. The deposited ZnO nanorods exhibited a UV photoresponse that is promising for future cost-effective and low-power electronic UV-sensing applications. PMID:24423232

  20. On-chip surface modified nanostructured ZnO as functional pH sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Wenpeng; Sun, Chongling; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Daihua; Duan, Xuexin

    2015-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are promising candidates as electronic components for biological and chemical applications. In this study, ZnO ultra-fine nanowire (NW) and nanoflake (NF) hybrid structures have been prepared by Au-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under ambient pressure. Their surface morphology, lattice structures, and crystal orientation were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two types of ZnO nanostructures were successfully integrated as gate electrodes in extended-gate field-effect transistors (EGFETs). Due to the amphoteric properties of ZnO, such devices function as pH sensors. We found that the ultra-fine NWs, which were more than 50 μm in length and less than 100 nm in diameter, performed better in the pH sensing process than NW-NF hybrid structures because of their higher surface-to-volume ratio, considering the Nernst equation and the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model. Furthermore, the surface coating of (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) protects ZnO nanostructures in both acidic and alkaline environments, thus enhancing the device stability and extending its pH sensing dynamic range. PMID:26266876

  1. On-chip surface modified nanostructured ZnO as functional pH sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Wenpeng; Sun, Chongling; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Daihua; Duan, Xuexin

    2015-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are promising candidates as electronic components for biological and chemical applications. In this study, ZnO ultra-fine nanowire (NW) and nanoflake (NF) hybrid structures have been prepared by Au-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under ambient pressure. Their surface morphology, lattice structures, and crystal orientation were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two types of ZnO nanostructures were successfully integrated as gate electrodes in extended-gate field-effect transistors (EGFETs). Due to the amphoteric properties of ZnO, such devices function as pH sensors. We found that the ultra-fine NWs, which were more than 50 μm in length and less than 100 nm in diameter, performed better in the pH sensing process than NW-NF hybrid structures because of their higher surface-to-volume ratio, considering the Nernst equation and the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model. Furthermore, the surface coating of (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) protects ZnO nanostructures in both acidic and alkaline environments, thus enhancing the device stability and extending its pH sensing dynamic range.

  2. Porous silver nanosheets: a novel sensing material for nanoscale and microscale airflow sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzbanrad, Ehsan; Zhao, Boxin; Zhou, Norman Y.

    2015-11-01

    Fabrication of nanoscale and microscale machines and devices is one of the goals of nanotechnology. For this purpose, different materials, methods, and devices should be developed. Among them, various types of miniaturized sensors are required to build the nanoscale and microscale systems. In this research, we introduce a new nanoscale sensing material, silver nanosheets, for applications such as nanoscale and microscale gas flow sensors. The silver nanosheets were synthesized through the reduction of silver ions by ascorbic acid in the presence of poly(methacrylic acid) as a capping agent, followed by the growth of silver in the shape of hexagonal and triangular nanoplates, and self-assembly and nanojoining of these structural blocks. At the end of this process, the synthesized nanosheets were floated on the solution. Then, their electrical and thermal stability was demonstrated at 120 °C, and their atmospheric corrosion resistance was clarified at the same temperature range by thermogravimetric analysis. We employed the silver nanosheets in fabricating airflow sensors by scooping out the nanosheets by means of a sensor substrate, drying them at room temperature, and then annealing them at 300 °C for one hour. The fabricated sensors were tested for their ability to measure airflow in the range of 1 to 5 ml min-1, which resulted in a linear response to the airflow with a response and recovery time around 2 s. Moreover, continuous dynamic testing demonstrated that the response of the sensors was stable and hence the sensors can be used for a long time without detectable drift in their response.

  3. Porous silver nanosheets: a novel sensing material for nanoscale and microscale airflow sensors.

    PubMed

    Marzbanrad, Ehsan; Zhao, Boxin; Zhou, Norman Y

    2015-11-01

    Fabrication of nanoscale and microscale machines and devices is one of the goals of nanotechnology. For this purpose, different materials, methods, and devices should be developed. Among them, various types of miniaturized sensors are required to build the nanoscale and microscale systems. In this research, we introduce a new nanoscale sensing material, silver nanosheets, for applications such as nanoscale and microscale gas flow sensors. The silver nanosheets were synthesized through the reduction of silver ions by ascorbic acid in the presence of poly(methacrylic acid) as a capping agent, followed by the growth of silver in the shape of hexagonal and triangular nanoplates, and self-assembly and nanojoining of these structural blocks. At the end of this process, the synthesized nanosheets were floated on the solution. Then, their electrical and thermal stability was demonstrated at 120 °C, and their atmospheric corrosion resistance was clarified at the same temperature range by thermogravimetric analysis. We employed the silver nanosheets in fabricating airflow sensors by scooping out the nanosheets by means of a sensor substrate, drying them at room temperature, and then annealing them at 300 °C for one hour. The fabricated sensors were tested for their ability to measure airflow in the range of 1 to 5 ml min(-1), which resulted in a linear response to the airflow with a response and recovery time around 2 s. Moreover, continuous dynamic testing demonstrated that the response of the sensors was stable and hence the sensors can be used for a long time without detectable drift in their response. PMID:26451714

  4. Flexible pH sensors based on polysilicon thin film transistors and ZnO nanowalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiolo, L.; Mirabella, S.; Maita, F.; Alberti, A.; Minotti, A.; Strano, V.; Pecora, A.; Shacham-Diamand, Y.; Fortunato, G.

    2014-09-01

    A fully flexible pH sensor using nanoporous ZnO on extended gate thin film transistor (EGTFT) fabricated on polymeric substrate is demonstrated. The sensor adopts the Low Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon (LTPS) TFT technology for the active device, since it allows excellent electrical characteristics and good stability and opens the way towards the possibility of exploiting CMOS architectures in the future. The nanoporous ZnO sensitive film, consisting of very thin (20 nm) crystalline ZnO walls with a large surface-to-volume ratio, was chemically deposited at 90 °C, allowing simple process integration with conventional TFT micro-fabrication processes compatible with wide range of polymeric substrates. The pH sensor showed a near-ideal Nernstian response (˜59 mV/pH), indicating an ideality factor α ˜ 1 according to the conventional site binding model. The present results can pave the way to advanced flexible sensing systems, where sensors and local signal conditioning circuits will be integrated on the same flexible substrate.

  5. Novel Gas Sensor Based on ZnO Nanorod Circular Arrays for C2H5OH Gas Detection.

    PubMed

    Jianjiao, Zhang; Hongyan, Yue; Erjun, Guo; Shaolin, Zhang; Liping, Wang; Chunyu, Zhang; Xin, Gao; Jing, Chang; Hong, Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Novel side-heating gas sensor based on ZnO nanorod circular arrays was firstly fabricated by hydrothermal treatment assisted with a kind of simple dip-coating technique. The structure and morphologies of ZnO nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), respectively. XRD result indicates that the obtained ZnO nanorods have good crystalline with the hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM result indicates that ZnO nanorod arrays are vertically growth on the surface of ceramic tube of side-heating sensor with controlled diameter and length, narrow size distribution and high orientation. The gas sensing properties of ZnO nanorod circular arrays are also evaluated. Comparative to the sensor based on scattered ZnO nanorods responding to 25 ppm H2, CO, C6H5CH3 and C2H5OH gas, respectively, the sensing values of high orientation gas sensor are generally increased by 5%. This novel sensor has good application promising for the fabrication of cost effective and high performance gas sensors. PMID:26413689

  6. Integrated chemical and biological systems in nanowire structures towards nano-scale sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Rose M.

    Nanowires composed of metal and conducting polymers with integrated proteins and chemical systems have been investigated as building blocks for next-generation nano-scale sensors and assemblies. These nanowires were fabricated by combining chemical and electrochemical methods of synthesis of gold and conducting polymers in nanopores of anodized alumina membranes. Polymer nanowires were synthesized from buffer solutions as a mean to promote a biocompatible environment for the incorporation of proteins. A variety of proteins were incorporated into the polymer matrix by entrapment during polymerization that imparted the polymer material with biological functionality. Another class of composite nanowires containing electro-active conducting polymer junctions was developed for applications in chemical sensor arrays. The methodologies described in this thesis provide an inexpensive and straightforward approach to the synthesis of anisotropic nanoparticles incorporating a variety of biological and inorganic species that can be integrated to current microelectronic technologies for the development of nano-scale sensor arrays.

  7. Bioavailability of nanoscale metal oxides TiO(2), CeO(2), and ZnO to fish.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Blair D; Scown, Tessa M; Moger, Julian; Cumberland, Susan A; Baalousha, Mohamed; Linge, Kathryn; van Aerle, Ronny; Jarvis, Kym; Lead, Jamie R; Tyler, Charles R

    2010-02-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are reported to be a potential environmental health hazard. For organisms living in the aquatic environment, there is uncertainty on exposure because of a lack of understanding and data regarding the fate, behavior, and bioavailability of the nanomaterials in the water column. This paper reports on a series of integrative biological and physicochemical studies on the uptake of unmodified commercial nanoscale metal oxides, zinc oxide (ZnO), cerium dioxide (CeO(2)), and titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), from the water and diet to determine their potential ecotoxicological impacts on fish as a function of concentration. Particle characterizations were performed and tissue concentrations were measured by a wide range of analytical methods. Definitive uptake from the water column and localization of TiO(2) NPs in gills was demonstrated for the first time by use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. Significant uptake of nanomaterials was found only for cerium in the liver of zebrafish exposed via the water and ionic titanium in the gut of trout exposed via the diet. For the aqueous exposures undertaken, formation of large NP aggregates (up to 3 mum) occurred and it is likely that this resulted in limited bioavailability of the unmodified metal oxide NPs in fish. PMID:20050652

  8. Improving the sensitivity of the ZnO gas sensor to dimethyl sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchorska-Woźniak, P.; Nawrot, W.; Rac, O.; Fiedot, M.; Teterycz, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study was focused on how to improve the gas sensing properties of resistive gas sensors based on zinc oxide to dimethyl sulfide (DMS). The aim of this research was to investigate possible ways of improvement detection of dimethyl sulfide, such as volume doping with synthesized gold nanoparticles or applying sepiolite passive filter. The addition of noble metal into the gas sensing layer is a widely known method of increasing gas sensor response. Sepiolite is a clay mineral with highly porous structure consisting of nanotubes few micrometers long and water absorption abilities. In this work thick-film resistive gas sensors based on zinc oxide were made (pure ZnO, modified by gold nanoparticles, with the addition of filter) and tested for low concentration (2 ppm) of dimethyl sulfide. The sensitivities to DMS of developed sensors were compared. Attention was paid to the analysis of the impact of high humidity (90% RH) on the sensor time response.

  9. MOF-Based Membrane Encapsulated ZnO Nanowires for Enhanced Gas Sensor Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Drobek, Martin; Kim, Jae-Hun; Bechelany, Mikhael; Vallicari, Cyril; Julbe, Anne; Kim, Sang Sub

    2016-04-01

    Gas sensors are of a great interest for applications including toxic or explosive gases detection in both in-house and industrial environments, air quality monitoring, medical diagnostics, or control of food/cosmetic properties. In the area of semiconductor metal oxides (SMOs)-based sensors, a lot of effort has been devoted to improve the sensing characteristics. In this work, we report on a general methodology for improving the selectivity of SMOx nanowires sensors, based on the coverage of ZnO nanowires with a thin ZIF-8 molecular sieve membrane. The optimized ZnO@ZIF-8-based nanocomposite sensor shows markedly selective response to H2 in comparison with the pristine ZnO nanowires sensor, while showing the negligible sensing response to C7H8 and C6H6. This original MOF-membrane encapsulation strategy applied to nanowires sensor architecture pave the way for other complex 3D architectures and various types of applications requiring either gas or ion selectivity, such as biosensors, photo(catalysts), and electrodes. PMID:27003470

  10. Nano ZnO embedded in Chitosan matrix for vibration sensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, E.; Murugan, S.; Jayakumar, K.

    2015-06-01

    Biopolymer Chitosan is embedded with various concentration of ZnO nano particle and such a bio-nano composite electret has been fabricated by casting method. The morphological, structural, optical and electrical characterization of the bio-nano composite electret film have been carried out. Isolation and piezoelectric measurements of bio-nano composite have also been carried out indicating the possibility of using it as a mechanical sensor element.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on Schottky-contacted vertically aligned ZnO nanorod-based hydrogen sensor.

    PubMed

    Ranwa, Sapana; Barala, Surendra Singh; Fanetti, Mattia; Kumar, Mahesh

    2016-08-26

    We report the impact of gamma irradiation on the performance of a gold Schottky-contacted ZnO nanorod-based hydrogen sensor. RF-sputtered vertically aligned highly c-axis-oriented ZnO NRs were grown on Si(100) substrate. X-ray diffraction shows no significant change in crystal structure at low gamma doses from 1 to 5 kGy. As gamma irradiation doses increase to 10 kGy, the single crystalline ZnO structure converts to polycrystalline. The photoluminescence spectra also shows suppression of the near-band emission peak and the huge wide-band spectrum indicates the generation of structural defects at high gamma doses. At 1 kGy, the hydrogen sensor response was enhanced from 67% to 77% for 1% hydrogen in pure argon at a 150 °C operating temperature. However, at 10 kGy, the relative response decreases to 33.5%. High gamma irradiation causes displacement damage and defects in ZnO NRs, and as a result, degrades the sensor's performance as a result. Low gamma irradiation doses activate the ZnO NR surface through ionization, which enhances the sensor performance. The relative response of the hydrogen sensor was enhanced by ∼14.9% with respect to pristine ZnO using 1 kGy gamma ray treatment. PMID:27418478

  12. A facile synthesis of mesoporous Pdsbnd ZnO nanocomposites as efficient chemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Adel A.; Harraz, Farid A.; Faisal, M.; El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Al-Hajry, A.; Al-Assiri, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Mesoporous ZnO was synthesized through the sol-gel method in the presence of triblock co-polymer Pluronic (F-127) template as the structure directing agent. Palladium nanoparticles were photochemically reduced and deposited onto mesoporous ZnO to obtain 1 wt.% Pd/ZnO nanocomposite. Structural and morphological analysis revealed high homogeneity and monodispersity of Pd nanoclusters with small particle sizes ∼ 2-5 nm onto mesoporous ZnO. The electrochemical detection of ethanol in aqueous solutions was conducted at the newly developed Pd/ZnO modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by the current-potential (IV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques and compared with bare GCE or pure ZnO. The presence of Pd dopant greatly enhances the sensitivity of ZnO, and the obtained mesoporous Pd/ZnO sensor has an excellent performance for precision detection of ethanol in aqueous solution with low concentration. The sensitivity was found to be 33.08 μAcm-2 mM-1 at lower concentration zone (0.05-0.8 mM) and 2.13 μAcm-2 mM-1 at higher concentration zone (0.8-12 mM), with a limit of detection (LOD) 19.2 μM. The kinetics study of ethanol oxidation revealed a characteristic feature for a mixed surface and diffusion-controlled process. These excellent sensing characteristics make the mesoporous Pd/ZnO nanocomposite a good candidate for the production of high-performance electrochemical sensors at low ethanol concentration in aqueous solution.

  13. Persistent Photoconductivity Studies in Nanostructured ZnO UV Sensors

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of persistent photoconductivity is elusive and has not been addressed to an extent to attract attention both in micro and nanoscale devices due to unavailability of clear material systems and device configurations capable of providing comprehensive information. In this work, we have employed a nanostructured (nanowire diameter 30–65 nm and 5 μm in length) ZnO-based metal–semiconductor–metal photoconductor device in order to study the origin of persistent photoconductivity. The current–voltage measurements were carried with and without UV illumination under different oxygen levels. The photoresponse measurements indicated a persistent conductivity trend for depleted oxygen conditions. The persistent conductivity phenomenon is explained on the theoretical model that proposes the change of a neutral anion vacancy to a charged state. PMID:20652149

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on Schottky-contacted vertically aligned ZnO nanorod-based hydrogen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranwa, Sapana; Singh Barala, Surendra; Fanetti, Mattia; Kumar, Mahesh

    2016-08-01

    We report the impact of gamma irradiation on the performance of a gold Schottky-contacted ZnO nanorod-based hydrogen sensor. RF-sputtered vertically aligned highly c-axis-oriented ZnO NRs were grown on Si(100) substrate. X-ray diffraction shows no significant change in crystal structure at low gamma doses from 1 to 5 kGy. As gamma irradiation doses increase to 10 kGy, the single crystalline ZnO structure converts to polycrystalline. The photoluminescence spectra also shows suppression of the near-band emission peak and the huge wide-band spectrum indicates the generation of structural defects at high gamma doses. At 1 kGy, the hydrogen sensor response was enhanced from 67% to 77% for 1% hydrogen in pure argon at a 150 °C operating temperature. However, at 10 kGy, the relative response decreases to 33.5%. High gamma irradiation causes displacement damage and defects in ZnO NRs, and as a result, degrades the sensor’s performance as a result. Low gamma irradiation doses activate the ZnO NR surface through ionization, which enhances the sensor performance. The relative response of the hydrogen sensor was enhanced by ∼14.9% with respect to pristine ZnO using 1 kGy gamma ray treatment.

  15. Wireless Remote Monitoring of Glucose Using a Functionalized ZnO Nanowire Arrays Based Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed M. Usman; Aijazi, Tasuif; Axelsson, Kent; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype wireless remote glucose monitoring system interfaced with a ZnO nanowire arrays-based glucose sensor, glucose oxidase enzyme immobilized onto ZnO nanowires in conjunction with a Nafion® membrane coating, which can be effectively applied for the monitoring of glucose levels in diabetics. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) services like General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Short Message Service (SMS) have been proven to be logical and cost effective methods for gathering data from remote locations. A communication protocol that facilitates remote data collection using SMS has been utilized for monitoring a patient’s sugar levels. In this study, we demonstrate the remote monitoring of the glucose levels with existing GPRS/GSM network infra-structures using our proposed functionalized ZnO nanowire arrays sensors integrated with standard readily available mobile phones. The data can be used for centralized monitoring and other purposes. Such applications can reduce health care costs and allow caregivers to monitor and support to their patients remotely, especially those located in rural areas. PMID:22164087

  16. Low-Frequency Self-Powered Footstep Sensor Based on ZnO Nanowires on Paper Substrate.

    PubMed

    Nour, E S; Bondarevs, A; Huss, P; Sandberg, M; Gong, S; Willander, M; Nur, O

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we design and fabricate a wireless system with the main operating device based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires. The main operating device is based on piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) achieved using ZnO nanowires grown hydrothermally on paper substrate. The fabricated NG is capable of harvesting ambient mechanical energy from various kinds of human motion, e.g., footsteps. The harvested electric output has been used to serve as a self-powered pressure sensor. Without any storage device, the signal from a single footstep has successfully triggered a wireless sensor node circuit. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using ZnO nanowire piezoelectric NG as a low-frequency self-powered sensor, with potential applications in wireless sensor networks. PMID:27000024

  17. Low-Frequency Self-Powered Footstep Sensor Based on ZnO Nanowires on Paper Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nour, E. S.; Bondarevs, A.; Huss, P.; Sandberg, M.; Gong, S.; Willander, M.; Nur, O.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we design and fabricate a wireless system with the main operating device based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires. The main operating device is based on piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) achieved using ZnO nanowires grown hydrothermally on paper substrate. The fabricated NG is capable of harvesting ambient mechanical energy from various kinds of human motion, e.g., footsteps. The harvested electric output has been used to serve as a self-powered pressure sensor. Without any storage device, the signal from a single footstep has successfully triggered a wireless sensor node circuit. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using ZnO nanowire piezoelectric NG as a low-frequency self-powered sensor, with potential applications in wireless sensor networks.

  18. Highly selective NH3 gas sensor based on Au loaded ZnO nanostructures prepared using microwave-assisted method.

    PubMed

    Shingange, K; Tshabalala, Z P; Ntwaeaborwa, O M; Motaung, D E; Mhlongo, G H

    2016-10-01

    ZnO nanorods synthesized using microwave-assisted approach were functionalized with gold (Au) nanoparticles. The Au coverage on the surface of the functionalized ZnO was controlled by adjusting the concentration of the Au precursor. According to X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results, it was confirmed that Au form nanoparticles loaded on the surface of ZnO. The small Au loading level of 0.5wt% showed the highest response of 1600-100ppm of NH3 gas at room temperature (RT) whereas further increase of Au loading level resulted in poor detection of NH3. All Au loaded ZnO (Au/ZnO) based sensors exhibited very short recovery and response times compared to unloaded ZnO sensing materials. The responses of ZnO and Au/ZnO based sensors (0.5-2.5wt%) to other flammable gases, including H2, CO and CH4, were considerably less, demonstrating that Au/ZnO based sensors were highly selective to NH3 gas at room temperature. Spill over mechanism which is the main reason for the observed enhanced NH3 response with 0.5 Au loading level is explained in detail. PMID:27388126

  19. A MEMS based acetone sensor incorporating ZnO nanowires synthesized by wet oxidation of Zn film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Bhagaban; Chandra, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report a simple and efficient method for synthesis of ZnO nanowires by thermal oxidation of Zn film and their integration with MEMS technologies to fabricate a sensor for acetone vapour detection. ZnO nanowires were prepared by thermal oxidation of sputter deposited Zn film. The nanostructured ZnO was characterized by x-ray diffraction, a scanning electron microscope and room temperature photoluminescence measurements. The ZnO nanowires synthesis process was integrated with MEMS technologies to obtain a sensor for volatile organic compounds, incorporating an on-chip Ni microheater and an interdigited electrode structure. To reduce the heat loss from the on-chip microheater, the sensor was made on a thin silicon diaphragm obtained via a modified reactive ion etching process. This resulted in considerable power saving during sensor operation. For this, a three-mask process was used. The performance of the microheater was simulated on COMSOL and validated experimentally. The sensor has been tested for acetone vapour sensing and the operating parameters were optimized. The sensor has the ability to detect acetone vapour at 5 parts per million (ppm) concentrations when operated at 100 °C. The sensor consumed only 36 mW power and showed a high-sensitivity value of 26.3% for 100 ppm of acetone vapour.

  20. Scanned probe imaging of nanoscale magnetism at cryogenic temperatures with a single-spin quantum sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelliccione, Matthew; Jenkins, Alec; Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti; Reetz, Christopher; Emmanouilidou, Eve; Ni, Ni; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania C.

    2016-08-01

    High-spatial-resolution magnetic imaging has driven important developments in fields ranging from materials science to biology. However, to uncover finer details approaching the nanoscale with greater sensitivity requires the development of a radically new sensor technology. The nitrogen–vacancy (NV) defect in diamond has emerged as a promising candidate for such a sensor on the basis of its atomic size and quantum-limited sensing capabilities. It has remained an outstanding challenge to implement the NV centre as a nanoscale scanning magnetic probe at cryogenic temperatures, however, where many solid-state systems exhibit non-trivial magnetic order. Here, we present NV magnetic imaging down to 6 K with 3 μT Hz–1/2 field sensitivity, and use the technique to image vortices in the iron pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As0.7P0.3)2 with critical temperature Tc = 30 K. The expansion of NV-based magnetic imaging to cryogenic temperatures will enable future studies of previously inaccessible nanoscale magnetism in condensed-matter systems.

  1. Scanned probe imaging of nanoscale magnetism at cryogenic temperatures with a single-spin quantum sensor.

    PubMed

    Pelliccione, Matthew; Jenkins, Alec; Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti; Reetz, Christopher; Emmanouilidou, Eve; Ni, Ni; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania C

    2016-08-01

    High-spatial-resolution magnetic imaging has driven important developments in fields ranging from materials science to biology. However, to uncover finer details approaching the nanoscale with greater sensitivity requires the development of a radically new sensor technology. The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond has emerged as a promising candidate for such a sensor on the basis of its atomic size and quantum-limited sensing capabilities. It has remained an outstanding challenge to implement the NV centre as a nanoscale scanning magnetic probe at cryogenic temperatures, however, where many solid-state systems exhibit non-trivial magnetic order. Here, we present NV magnetic imaging down to 6 K with 3 μT Hz(-1/2) field sensitivity, and use the technique to image vortices in the iron pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As0.7P0.3)2 with critical temperature Tc = 30 K. The expansion of NV-based magnetic imaging to cryogenic temperatures will enable future studies of previously inaccessible nanoscale magnetism in condensed-matter systems. PMID:27136130

  2. ZnO nanoflower-based photoelectrochemical DNAzyme sensor for the detection of Pb2+.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bintian; Lu, Lili; Hu, Qichang; Huang, Feng; Lin, Zhang

    2014-06-15

    Lead contamination is now widespread, and exposure to lead may cause adverse effects on human beings. In this study, a photoelectrochemical sensor based on flower-like ZnO nanostructures was developed for Pb(2+) detection, using a Pb(2+)-dependent DNAzyme as the recognition unit and a double-strand DNA intercalator, Ru(bpy)2(dppz)(2+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, dppz=dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c] phenazine) as the photoelectrochemical signal reporter. The ZnO nanoflower was fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode by the convenient hydrothermal decomposition method. The morphology and photoelectrochemical property of the ZnO nanoflowers were characterized by SEM, XRD and photocurrent measurements. DNAzyme-substrate duplex was assembled on an ITO/ZnO electrode through electrostatic adsorption. In the presence of Pb(2+), RNA-cleavage activity of the DNAzyme was activated and its substrate strand was cleaved, resulting in the release of Ru(bpy)2(dppz)(2+) from the DNA film and the concomitant photocurrent decrease. The detection principle was verified by fluorescence measurements. Under the optimized conditions, a linear relationship between photocurrent and Pb(2+) concentration was obtained over the range of 0.5-20 nM, with a detection limit of 0.1 nM. Interference from other common metal ions was found negligible. Applicability of the sensor was demonstrated by analyzing lead level in human serum and Pb(2+) spiked water samples. This facile and economical sensor system showed high sensitivity and selectivity, thus can be potentially applied for on-site monitoring of lead contaminant. PMID:24508815

  3. Theory of signal and noise in double-gated nanoscale electronic pH sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Go, Jonghyun; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad A.

    2012-08-01

    The maximum sensitivity of classical nanowire (NW)-based pH sensors is defined by the Nernst limit of 59 mV/pH. For typical noise levels in ultra-small single-gated nanowire sensors, the signal-to-noise ratio is often not sufficient to resolve pH changes necessary for a broad range of applications. Recently, a new class of double-gated devices was demonstrated to offer apparent 'super-Nernstian' response (>59 mV/pH) by amplifying the original pH signal through innovative biasing schemes. However, the pH-sensitivity of these nanoscale devices as a function of biasing configurations, number of electrodes, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) remains poorly understood. Even the basic question such as 'Do double-gated sensors actually resolve smaller changes in pH compared to conventional single-gated sensors in the presence of various sources of noise?' remains unanswered. In this article, we provide a comprehensive numerical and analytical theory of signal and noise of double-gated pH sensors to conclude that, while the theoretical lower limit of pH-resolution does not improve for double-gated sensors, this new class of sensors does improve the (instrument-limited) pH resolution.

  4. Applications of ZnO nanoflowers as antimicrobial agents for Escherichia coli and enzyme-free glucose sensor.

    PubMed

    Umar, Ahmad; Chauhan, M S; Chauhan, S; Kumar, R; Sharma, P; Tomar, Kirti Janghu; Wahab, R; Al-Hajry, A; Singh, Dilbag

    2013-10-01

    Well-crystalline ZnO nanoflowers were prepared by a facile solution process and their applications as an antimicrobial agent against Escherichia coli and enzyme-free glucose sensor have been studied. The morphological, structural, compositional, and optical properties of ZnO nanoflowers were characterized by various techniques, which confirmed the well-crystalline wurtzite hexagonal phase. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ZnO nanoflowers for inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli was found to be 25 microg/ml. ZnO nanoflowers were also tested as an efficient electron mediator for the fabrication of highly sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor, which exhibited a high sensitivity of -411 microA M(-1) cm(-2) and detection limit of -1.25 mM with a quick response time of -10.0 s. The presented studies showed that ZnO nanomaterials can be efficiently used as an antimicrobial agent and a highly sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor. PMID:24015509

  5. Simultaneous position and mass determination of a nanoscale-thickness cantilever sensor in viscous fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seongkyeol; Kim, Deokman; Park, Junhong; Jang, Jaesung

    2015-02-01

    We report simultaneous determination of the mass and position of micro-beads attached to a nanoscale-thickness cantilever sensor by analyzing wave propagations along the cantilever while taking into account viscous and inertial loading due to a surrounding fluid. The fluid-structure interaction was identified by measuring the change in the wavenumber under different fluid conditions. The predicted positions and masses agreed with actual measurements. Even at large mass ratios (6%-21%) of the beads to the cantilever, this wave approach enabled accurate determination of the mass and position, demonstrating the potential for highly accurate cantilever sensing of particle-based bio-analytes such as bacteria.

  6. Nanoscale Nuclear Magnetic Resonance with a Nitrogen-Vacancy Spin Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamin, H. J.; Kim, M.; Sherwood, M. H.; Rettner, C. T.; Ohno, K.; Awschalom, D. D.; Rugar, D.

    2013-02-01

    Extension of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to nanoscale samples has been a longstanding challenge because of the insensitivity of conventional detection methods. We demonstrated the use of an individual, near-surface nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond as a sensor to detect proton NMR in an organic sample located external to the diamond. Using a combination of electron spin echoes and proton spin manipulation, we showed that the NV center senses the nanotesla field fluctuations from the protons, enabling both time-domain and spectroscopic NMR measurements on the nanometer scale.

  7. Manufacturability of gas sensor with ZnO nanoparticles suspension deposited by ink jet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conedera, V.; Yoboue, P.; Mesnilgrente, F.; Fabre, N.; Menini, P.

    2010-02-01

    Zinc oxide is used in many applications thanks to its various characteristics as well as photoresistivity, piezoelectricity, wide band gap for power components but also its capability for gas detection. In this article, we first present new process based on ZnO nanoparticles from Sigma Aldrich manufacturer; a stable ink obtained by mixing 10% weight of commercial powder with ethylene glycol, has been deposited by ink-jet printing on a silicon oxide substrate covered by platinum interdigitated electrodes. To obtain homogeneous deposits of nanoparticles, the working area of the sensor was bounded by functionalisation by the n-Octadecyltrichlorosilane. These deposits were optimized at 65°C. Then, the study was focused on the correlation between parameters of deposit and global resistance and gas sensitivity: conductivity for different operating temperatures under methane and isopropyl alcohol vapours. The best results have been obtained for thicknesses in the range of 0.5 and 2.5 μm. The ZnO resistance is stable under gas from 200°C and the relative sensitivity to methane and isopropyl alcohol are maximum and opposite at 225°C and 300°C respectively. This work shows that ink-jet is a promising technique to manufacture a new generation of low cost gas sensors at lower temperature deposition.

  8. Nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond: nanoscale sensors for physics and biology.

    PubMed

    Schirhagl, Romana; Chang, Kevin; Loretz, Michael; Degen, Christian L

    2014-01-01

    Crystal defects in diamond have emerged as unique objects for a variety of applications, both because they are very stable and because they have interesting optical properties. Embedded in nanocrystals, they can serve, for example, as robust single-photon sources or as fluorescent biomarkers of unlimited photostability and low cytotoxicity. The most fascinating aspect, however, is the ability of some crystal defects, most prominently the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center, to locally detect and measure a number of physical quantities, such as magnetic and electric fields. This metrology capacity is based on the quantum mechanical interactions of the defect's spin state. In this review, we introduce the new and rapidly evolving field of nanoscale sensing based on single NV centers in diamond. We give a concise overview of the basic properties of diamond, from synthesis to electronic and magnetic properties of embedded NV centers. We describe in detail how single NV centers can be harnessed for nanoscale sensing, including the physical quantities that may be detected, expected sensitivities, and the most common measurement protocols. We conclude by highlighting a number of the diverse and exciting applications that may be enabled by these novel sensors, ranging from measurements of ion concentrations and membrane potentials to nanoscale thermometry and single-spin nuclear magnetic resonance. PMID:24274702

  9. Developing nanoscale inertial sensor based on graphite-flake with self-retracting motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young Kim, Sun; Cho, Sin-Young; Kim, Ki-Sub; Won Kang, Jeong

    2013-05-01

    We presented simple schematics of a nanoscale inertial measurement unit based on the self-retraction motion of the graphene flakes. When an external force is applied to the nanoscale graphite flake, the inertial force exerted on the movable layer can telescope it, then the self-restoring force also arises as the van der Waals force between the interlayers of the flake, which each suspended flake can automatically and fully retract back onto the top of the graphite platform immediately after the externally applied force is released. Since the van der Waals force linearly increases with the increasing size of the flake, the sensing limitation can be controlled. When the external force does not exceed the retracting force, this addressed nanoscale inertial measurement unit can be semi-permanently used. Therefore, the size and the thickness of the graphene flake should be carefully selected with a tradeoff. These graphite flakes can be utilized as a basic structure in various nanoelectromechanical devices, such as switch and memory, linear and angular accelerometers, and pressure sensors.

  10. Performance Boosting of Flexible ZnO UV Sensors with Rational Designed Absorbing Antireflection Layer and Humectant Encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Hu, Youfan; Wang, Zongpeng; Fang, Zheyu; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-01-13

    Flexible ZnO thin film UV sensors with 3 orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity and 2 orders of magnitude acceleration in speed are realized via light absorption efficiency enhancement and surface encapsulation. Devices are constructed on polyethylene substrate incorporating morphology controlled ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) as absorbing antireflection layers. By adjusting the morphology of ZnO NRAs, the light absorptance exceeds 99% through effectively trapping incident photons. As a result, the sensitivity of the UV sensor reaches 109 000. Moreover, a mechanism of competitive chemisorption between O2 and H2O at oxygen vacancy sites is proposed to explain the phenomenon of the speed acceleration in moist environment. A new approach of humectant encapsulation is used to make H2O participant rapid processes dominant for speed acceleration. Two orders of magnitude speed enhancement in reset time is achieved by polyethylene glycol encapsulation. After a total 3000 cycles bending test, the decay in the responsivity of UV sensor is within 20%, indicating good mechanical stability. All these results not only demonstrate a simple, effective and scalable approach to fabricate high sensitive and fast response flexible ZnO UV sensors, but also provide meaningful references for performance boosting of photoelectronic devices based on other oxide semiconductors. PMID:26652032

  11. Palladium-silver-activated ZnO surface: highly selective methane sensor at reasonably low operating temperature.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sugato; Roychaudhuri, Chirasree; Bhattacharya, Raghunath; Saha, Hiranmay; Mukherjee, Nillohit

    2014-03-26

    Metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) are well known as reducing gas sensors. However, their selectivity and operating temperature have major limitations. Most of them show cross sensitivity and the operating temperatures are also relatively higher than the value reported here. To resolve these problems, here, we report the use of palladium-silver (70-30%) activated ZnO thin films as a highly selective methane sensor at low operating temperature (∼100 °C). Porous ZnO thin films were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates by galvanic technique. X-ray diffraction showed polycrystalline nature of the films, whereas the morphological analyses (field emission scanning electron microscopy) showed flake like growth of the grains mainly on xy plane with high surface roughness (107 nm). Pd-Ag (70-30%) alloy was deposited on such ZnO films by e-beam evaporation technique with three different patterns, namely, random dots, ultrathin (∼1 nm) layer and thin (∼5 nm) layer as the activation layer. ZnO films with Pd-Ag dotted pattern were found show high selectivity towards methane (with respect to H2S and CO) and sensitivity (∼80%) at a comparatively low operating temperature of about 100°C. This type of sensor was found to have higher methane selectivity in comparison to other commercially available reducing gas sensor. PMID:24564703

  12. Ionic pH and glucose sensors fabricated using hydrothermal ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jyh-Liang; Yang, Po-Yu; Hsieh, Tsang-Yen; Juan, Pi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermally synthesized aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructures have been adopted in extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) sensors to demonstrate the sensitive and stable pH and glucose sensing characteristics of AZO-nanostructured EGFET sensors. The AZO-nanostructured EGFET sensors exhibited the following superior pH sensing characteristics: a high current sensitivity of 0.96 µA1/2/pH, a high linearity of 0.9999, less distortion of output waveforms, a small hysteresis width of 4.83 mV, good long-term repeatability, and a wide sensing range from pHs 1 to 13. The glucose sensing characteristics of AZO-nanostructured biosensors exhibited the desired sensitivity of 60.5 µA·cm-2·mM-1 and a linearity of 0.9996 up to 13.9 mM. The attractive characteristics of high sensitivity, high linearity, and repeatability of using ionic AZO-nanostructured EGFET sensors indicate their potential use as electrochemical and disposable biosensors.

  13. Temperature dependent dual hydrogen sensor response of Pd nanoparticle decorated Al doped ZnO surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, D.; Barman, P. B.; Hazra, S. K.; Dutta, D.; Kumar, M.; Som, T.

    2015-10-28

    Sputter deposited Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films exhibit a dual hydrogen sensing response in the temperature range 40 °C–150 °C after surface modifications with palladium nanoparticles. The unmodified AZO films showed no response in hydrogen in the temperature range 40 °C–150 °C. The operational temperature windows on the low and high temperature sides have been estimated by isolating the semiconductor-to-metal transition temperature zone of the sensor device. The gas response pattern was modeled by considering various adsorption isotherms, which revealed the dominance of heterogeneous adsorption characteristics. The Arrhenius adsorption barrier showed dual variation with change in hydrogen gas concentration on either side of the semiconductor-to-metal transition. A detailed analysis of the hydrogen gas response pattern by considering the changes in nano palladium due to hydrogen adsorption, and semiconductor-to-metal transition of nanocrystalline Al doped ZnO layer due to temperature, along with material characterization studies by glancing incidence X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, are presented.

  14. Experimental Artifacts for Morphological Tweaking of Chemical Sensor Materials: Studies on ZnO

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ikram Ul; Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    2012-01-01

    Sensing mechanisms of gases on solid structures are predominantly surface-dominated. Benign surface features in terms of small grain size, high aspect ratio, large surface area and open and connected porosity, are required to realize a successful sensor material. Such morphological artifacts are a function of the fabrication and processing techniques employed. In this paper, we describe the fabrication of monoshaped and monosized zinc oxide (ZnO) particles by a homogeneous precipitation method, using urea and/or hexmethyltetraamine as the reductant. The effect of operating conditions and experimental variables, such as the relative concentration of the precursors, temperature, and the aging time on the morphology of the resulting particles was studied systematically. These experimental parameters were optimized in order to achieve particles of uniform morphology and of narrow size distribution. Some of these particles were employed for the detection of ammonia gas at room temperature. PMID:22969399

  15. Surface defects on ZnO nanowires: implications for design of sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Michelle J. S.; Wong, Kester W. J.; Yarovsky, Irene

    2012-08-01

    Surface defects are commonly believed to be fundamentally important to gas-sensor performance. We examine the effect of gas coverage and ethanol orientation on its adsorption on the stoichiometric and oxygen deficient (1 0\\bar {1}0) nanowire surface. Our density functional theory calculations show that ethanol adsorbs in multiple stable configurations at coverages between 1/4 and 1 ML, highlighting the ability of ZnO to detect ethanol. Ethanol prefers to bind to a surface Zn via the adsorbate oxygen atom and, if a surface oxygen atom is in close proximity, the molecule is further stabilized by formation of a hydrogen bond between the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group and the surface oxygen. Two primary adsorption configurations were identified and have different binding strengths that could be distinguished experimentally by the magnitude of their OH stretching frequency. Our findings show that ethanol adsorbed on the oxygen deficient ZnO(1 0\\bar {1}0) surface has a reduced binding strength. This is due to either the lack of a hydrogen bond (due to a deficiency in surface oxygen) or to surface reconstruction that occurs on the defect surface that weakens the hydrogen bond interaction. This reduced binding on the oxygen deficient surface is in contrast to the defect enhanced gas-sensor interaction for other gases. Despite this difference, ethanol still acts as a reducing gas, donating electrons to the surface and decreasing the band gap. We show that multiple adsorbed ethanol molecules prefer to be orientated parallel to each other to facilitate the hydrogen bonding to the defect-free surface for enhanced interaction.

  16. A Nanoscale Multiresponsive Luminescent Sensor Based on a Terbium(III) Metal-Organic Framework.

    PubMed

    Dang, Song; Wang, Ting; Yi, Feiyan; Liu, Qinghui; Yang, Weiting; Sun, Zhong-Ming

    2015-08-01

    A nanoscale terbium-containing metal-organic framework (nTbL), with a layer-like structure and [H2 NMe2 ](+) cations located in the framework channels, was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The structure of the as-prepared sample was systematically confirmed by powder XRD and elemental analysis; the morphology was characterized by field-emission SEM and TEM. The photoluminescence studies revealed that rod-like nTbL exhibited bright-green emission, corresponding to (5)D4 →(7)FJ (J=6-3) transitions of the Tb(3+) ion under excitation. Further sensing measurements revealed that as-prepared nTbL could be utilized as a multiresponsive luminescent sensor, which showed significant and exclusive detection ability for Fe(3+) ions and phenylmethanol. These results highlight the practical applications of lanthanide-containing metal-organic frameworks as fluorescent probes. PMID:25965107

  17. Conducting properties of nearly depleted ZnO nanowire UV sensors fabricated by dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Núñez, C.; García Marín, A.; Nanterne, P.; Piqueras, J.; Kung, P.; Pau, J. L.

    2013-10-01

    ZnO nanowires (NWs) with different radii (rNW) have been aligned between pre-patterned electrodes using dielectrophoresis (DEP) for the fabrication of high gain UV sensors. The DEP conditions (voltage amplitude and frequency) and electrode material, geometry and size were optimized to enhance the efficiency during the DEP process. To understand the alignment mechanism of the ZnO NWs, the dielectrophoretic force (FDEP) was analyzed as a function of the DEP conditions and NW dimensions. These studies showed that the DEP alignment process tends to trap NWs with a smaller radius. The effects of NW size on device performance were analyzed by means of I-V measurements in darkness and under illumination (200 nm < λ < 600 nm). In darkness, the NW resistance increases as rNW decreases due to the reduction of the conduction volume, until saturation is reached for rNW < 65 nm. On the other hand, the NW spectral photoresponse shows high values around 108 A W-1 (measured at 5 V and λ < 370 nm) and follows a linear trend as a function of the NW cross section. In addition, the cut-off wavelength depends on rNW, presenting a clear blue-shift for NWs with a lower radius (rNW < 50 nm). Transient photoresponse studies show that NWs with lower radii have longer rise times and shorter decay times mainly due to surface trapping effects. Regardless of NW size, passivation of the surface using a dielectric capping layer of SiO2 reduces the dynamic range of the photoresponse due to a strong increase of the dark current.

  18. Enhanced ethanol sensing properties of TiO2/ZnO core-shell nanorod sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sunghoon; An, Soyeon; Ko, Hyunsung; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Lee, Chongmu

    2014-06-01

    TiO2-core/ZnO-shell nanorods were synthesized using a two-step process: the synthesis of TiO2 nanorods using a hydrothermal method followed by atomic layer deposition of ZnO. The mean diameter and length of the nanorods were ˜300 nm and ˜2.3 μm, respectively. The cores and shells of the nanorods were monoclinic-structured single-crystal TiO2 and wurtzite-structured single-crystal ZnO, respectively. The multiple networked TiO2-core/ZnO-shell nanorod sensors showed responses of 132-1054 % at ethanol (C2H5OH) concentrations ranging from 5 to 25 ppm at 150 ∘C. These responses were 1-5 times higher than those of the pristine TiO2 nanorod sensors at the same C2H5OH concentration range. The substantial improvement in the response of the pristine TiO2 nanorods to C2H5OH gas by their encapsulation with ZnO may be attributed to the enhanced absorption and dehydrogenation of ethanol. In addition, the enhanced sensor response of the core-shell nanorods can be attributed partly to changes in resistance due to both the surface depletion layer of each core-shell nanorod and the potential barriers built in the junctions caused by a combination of homointerfaces and heterointerfaces.

  19. Light-controlling, flexible and transparent ethanol gas sensor based on ZnO nanoparticles for wearable devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z. Q.; Yao, J. D.; Wang, B.; Yang, G. W.

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, owing to the significant applications of health monitoring, wearable electronic devices such as smart watches, smart glass and wearable cameras have been growing rapidly. Gas sensor is an important part of wearable electronic devices for detecting pollutant, toxic, and combustible gases. However, in order to apply to wearable electronic devices, the gas sensor needs flexible, transparent, and working at room temperature, which are not available for traditional gas sensors. Here, we for the first time fabricate a light-controlling, flexible, transparentand working at room-temperature ethanol gas sensor by using commercial ZnO nanoparticles. The fabricated sensor not only exhibits fast and excellent photoresponse, but also shows high sensing response to ethanol under UV irradiation. Meanwhile, its transmittance exceeds 62% in the visible spectral range, and the sensing performance keeps the same even bent it at a curvature angle of 90o. Additionally, using commercial ZnO nanoparticles provides a facile and low-cost route to fabricate wearable electronic devices.

  20. Light-controlling, flexible and transparent ethanol gas sensor based on ZnO nanoparticles for wearable devices

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Z. Q.; Yao, J. D.; Wang, B.; Yang, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, owing to the significant applications of health monitoring, wearable electronic devices such as smart watches, smart glass and wearable cameras have been growing rapidly. Gas sensor is an important part of wearable electronic devices for detecting pollutant, toxic, and combustible gases. However, in order to apply to wearable electronic devices, the gas sensor needs flexible, transparent, and working at room temperature, which are not available for traditional gas sensors. Here, we for the first time fabricate a light-controlling, flexible, transparentand working at room-temperature ethanol gas sensor by using commercial ZnO nanoparticles. The fabricated sensor not only exhibits fast and excellent photoresponse, but also shows high sensing response to ethanol under UV irradiation. Meanwhile, its transmittance exceeds 62% in the visible spectral range, and the sensing performance keeps the same even bent it at a curvature angle of 90o. Additionally, using commercial ZnO nanoparticles provides a facile and low-cost route to fabricate wearable electronic devices. PMID:26076705

  1. Light-controlling, flexible and transparent ethanol gas sensor based on ZnO nanoparticles for wearable devices.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Z Q; Yao, J D; Wang, B; Yang, G W

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, owing to the significant applications of health monitoring, wearable electronic devices such as smart watches, smart glass and wearable cameras have been growing rapidly. Gas sensor is an important part of wearable electronic devices for detecting pollutant, toxic, and combustible gases. However, in order to apply to wearable electronic devices, the gas sensor needs flexible, transparent, and working at room temperature, which are not available for traditional gas sensors. Here, we for the first time fabricate a light-controlling, flexible, transparent, and working at room-temperature ethanol gas sensor by using commercial ZnO nanoparticles. The fabricated sensor not only exhibits fast and excellent photoresponse, but also shows high sensing response to ethanol under UV irradiation. Meanwhile, its transmittance exceeds 62% in the visible spectral range, and the sensing performance keeps the same even bent it at a curvature angle of 90(o). Additionally, using commercial ZnO nanoparticles provides a facile and low-cost route to fabricate wearable electronic devices. PMID:26076705

  2. An economic approach to fabricate photo sensor based on nanostructured ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huse, Nanasaheb; Upadhye, Deepak; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructural ZnO Thin Films have been synthesized by simple and economic Chemical Bath Deposition technique onto glass substrate with bath temperature at 60°C for 1 hour. Structural, Optical, Electrical and topographical properties of the prepared Thin Films were investigated by GIXRD, I-V Measurement System, UV-Visible Spectrophotometer and AFM respectively. Calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the standard JCPDS card (36-1451) values, exhibits Hexagonal Wurtzite crystal structure. I-V Measurement curve has shown ohmic nature in dark condition and responds to light illumination which reveals Photo sensor properties. After illumination of 60W light, decrease in resistance was observed from 110.9 KΩ to 104.4 KΩ. The change in current and calculated Photo sensitivity was found to be 3.51 µA and 6.3% respectively. Optical band gap was found to be 3.24 eV. AFM images revealed uniform deposition over entire glass substrate with 32.27 nm average roughness of the film.

  3. High-performance formaldehyde gas-sensors based on three dimensional center-hollow ZnO.

    PubMed

    Shi, Linqi; Cui, Jiabao; Zhao, Fei; Wang, Dejun; Xie, Tengfeng; Lin, Yanhong

    2015-12-14

    Three dimensional (3D) center-hollow ZnO architectures assembled by nanoparticles have been successfully fabricated on a large scale via a template-free method using an oil bath. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area, surface photocurrent and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photoelectric gas-sensing results demonstrated that the 3D porous, center-hollow ZnO structures exhibited excellent sensitivity and good selectivity to formaldehyde under 365 nm light irradiation at room temperature. The gas response to 1 ppm formaldehyde can reach 70%, which is superior to the results reported in the literature, indicating that the 3D center-hollow ZnO architectures are ideal candidate materials for photoelectric gas sensors. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the high sensitivity and selectivity to formaldehyde are discussed, which provide a new pathway for designing novel VOC sensors. Moreover, the facile method presented in this paper has the advantage of low-cost and high-yield, which is suitable for the practical production processes. PMID:26551930

  4. Effect of Channel Thickness, Annealing Temperature and Channel Length on Nanoscale Ga2O3-In2O3-ZnO Thin Film Transistor Performance.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Pak, Yusin; Lim, Namsoo; Lee, Ryeri; Song, Hui; Kim, Tae Heon; Choi, Boran; Jung, Gun Young

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrated the effect of active layer (channel) thickness and annealing temperature on the electrical performances of Ga2O3-In2O3-ZnO (GIZO) thin film transistor (TFT) having nanoscale channel width (W/L: 500 nm/100 μm). We found that the electron carrier concentration of the channel was decreased significantly with increasing the annealing temperature (100 degrees C to 300 degrees C). Accordingly, the threshold voltage (V(T)) was shifted towards positive voltage (-12.2 V to 10.8 V). In case of channel thickness, the V(T) was shifted towards negative voltage with increasing the channel thickness. The device with channel thickness of 90 nm annealed at 200 degrees C revealed the best device performances in terms of mobility (10.86 cm2/Vs) and V(T) (0.8 V). The effect of channel length was also studied, in which the channel width, thickness and annealing temperature were kept constant such as 500 nm, 90 nm and 200 degrees C, respectively. The channel length influenced the on-current level significantly with small variation of V(T), resulting in lower value of on/off current ratio with increasing the channel length. The device with channel length of 0.5 μm showed enhanced on/off current ratio of 10(6) with minimum V(T) of 0.26 V. PMID:27427719

  5. Photoexcited ZnO nanoparticles with controlled defects as a highly sensitive oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Taku; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Yasuda, Hidehiro; Ito, Tsuyohito

    2016-07-01

    Conductance of photoexcited ZnO nanoparticles with various defects has been investigated in oxygen. ZnO nanoparticles, which show strong photoluminescence peaks originating from interstitial zinc atom (Zni) and singly charged oxygen vacancy (VO+), show oxygen-pressure-dependent conductance changes caused by photoexcitation. Herein, a model is proposed to simulate the conductance changes.

  6. Design of Highly Sensitive C2H5OH Sensors Using Self-Assembled ZnO Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kang-Min; Kim, Hae-Ryong; Choi, Kwon-Il; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2011-01-01

    Various ZnO nanostructures such as porous nanorods and two hierarchical structures consisting of porous nanosheets or crystalline nanorods were prepared by the reaction of mixtures of oleic-acid-dissolved ethanol solutions and aqueous dissolved Zn-precursor solutions in the presence of NaOH. All three ZnO nanostructures showed sensitive and selective detection of C2H5OH. In particular, ultra-high responses (Ra/Rg = ∼1,200, Ra: resistance in air, Rg: resistance in gas) to 100 ppm C2H5OH was attained using porous nanorods and hierarchical structures assembled from porous nanosheets, which is one of the highest values reported in the literature. The gas response and linearity of gas sensors were discussed in relation to the size, surface area, and porosity of the nanostructures. PMID:22163720

  7. The Strategy to Control the Morphology of ZnO Nanostructure UV Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humayun, Q.; Hashim, U.; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Loong Foo, Kai

    2015-11-01

    The control morphology of ZnO nanostructures at specific area of electrodes by implemented a cost effective fabrication process, is extremely a challenging task. Rapid sensing, fast response and fast detection capability of the electronics devices is nowadays hot subject of keen interest. Our research is one of the successful attempts to achieve the desired goal at certain levels. Therefore in the current research article the ZnO thin film and ZnO nanorods were selectively deposited by low cost sol-gel and hydrothermal growth process at the selective area of microgap electrodes spacing and further the comparative study of ZnO thin film and ZnO nanorods were conducted electrically, for ultraviolet (UV) sensing application. On exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light the current gains, response/recovery times, repeatability, of the ZnO nanorods compared with ZnO thin film was improved probably due to the role of large surface area covered by the deposited nanostructures, and the most important is the bridging nanorods at the microgap electrodes tips. All the characterization including, surface, electrical and structural of the deposited nanostructures were completed by using SEM, sourcemeter and XRD respectively.

  8. Enhancement of photo sensor properties of nanocrystalline ZnO thin film by swift heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, S. V.; Upadhye, D. S.; Bagul, S. B.; Shaikh, S. U.; Birajadar, R. B.; Siddiqui, F. Y.; Huse, N. P.; Sharma, R. B. E-mail: rps.phy@gmail.com

    2015-06-24

    Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film prepared by Low cost Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. This film was irradiated by 120 MeV Ni{sup 7+} ions with the fluence of 5x10{sup 12}ions/cm{sup 2}. The X-ray diffraction study was shows polycrystalline nature with wurtzite structure. The optical properties as absorbance were determined using UV-Spectrophotometer and band gap was also calculated. The Photo Sensor nature was calculated by I-V characteristics with different sources of light 40W, 60W and 100W.

  9. Atomic Oxygen Sensors Based on Nanograin ZnO Films Prepared by Pulse Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yunfei; Chen Xuekang; Li Zhonghua; Zheng Kuohai; Wang Lanxi; Feng Zhanzu; Yang Shengsheng

    2009-01-05

    High-quality nanograin ZnO thin films were deposited on c-plane sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by pulse laser deposition (PLD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the samples. The structural and morphological properties of ZnO films under different deposition temperature have been investigated before and after atomic oxygen (AO) treatment. XRD has shown that the intensity of the (0 0 2) peak increases and its FWHM value decreases after AO treatment. The AO sensing characteristics of nano ZnO film also has been investigated in a ground-based atomic oxygen simulation facility. The results show that the electrical conductivity of nanograin ZnO films decreases with increasing AO fluence and that the conductivity of the films can be recovered by heating.

  10. A new method to integrate ZnO nano-tetrapods on MEMS micro-hotplates for large scale gas sensor production.

    PubMed

    Marasso, S L; Tommasi, A; Perrone, D; Cocuzza, M; Mosca, R; Villani, M; Zappettini, A; Calestani, D

    2016-09-23

    A new method, which is easily scalable to large scale production, has been developed to obtain gas sensor devices based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures with a 'tetrapod' shape. The method can be easily extended to other kinds of nanostructures and is based on the deposition of ZnO nanostructures through polymeric masks by centrifugation, directly onto properly designed MEMS micro-hotplates. The micromachined devices, after the mask is peeled off, are ready for electrical bonding and sensing test. Sensor response has been successfully measured for some gases and volatile organic compounds with different chemical properties (ethanol, methane, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide). PMID:27532770

  11. Optimized structure stability and electrochemical performance of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 by sputtering nanoscale ZnO film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yan-Qing; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Zhi-An; Gao, Chun-Hui; Wang, Peng; Yu, Zi-Yang

    2016-03-01

    LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) is one of the most promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles, which is successfully adopted in Tesla. However, the dissolution of the cation into the electrolyte is still a one of the major challenges (fading capacity and poor cyclability, etc.) presented in pristine NCA. Herein, a homogeneous nanoscale ZnO film is directly sputtered on the surface of NCA electrode via the magnetron sputtering (MS). This ZnO film is evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results clearly demonstrate that ZnO film is fully and uniformly covered on the NCA electrodes. After 90 cycles at 1.0C, the optimized MS-2min coated NCA electrode delivers much higher discharge capacity with 169 mAh g-1 than that of the pristine NCA electrode with 127 mAh g-1. In addition, the discharge capacity also reaches 166 mAh g-1 at 3.0C, as compared to that of 125 mAh g-1 for the pristine electrode. The improved electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the superiority of the MS ZnO film that reduce charge transfer resistance and protect the NCA electrode from cation dissolution.

  12. Facile construction of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod/PEDOT:PSS hybrid heterojunction-based ultraviolet light sensors: efficient performance and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith, K. S.; Rajendra Kumar, R. T.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a simple, planar manufacturing process-compatible fabrication of highly efficient UV sensors based on a hybrid heterojunction of an array of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) and PEDOT:PSS. The ZnO NR array was grown by the solution growth process and the aspect ratio (length 1 to 4 μm, diameter ˜80 nm) of the rods was controlled by varying the growth time. UV sensors based on (i) naked ZnO NRs and (ii) ZnO NR/PEDOT:PSS heterojunctions were fabricated and tested. The UV sensitivity of bare ZnO NRs was found to increase with increasing aspect ratio of the NRs due to the increase in the photogenerated charge carriers as the fraction of material interacting with the light increases. Under 5 V bias, naked ZnO NR arrays showed a photocurrent of 8.84 × 10-5 A, a responsivity of 0.538 A W-1 and a sensitivity of 4.80 under UV (λ = 256 nm, 130 μW) illumination. ZnO NR/PEDOT:PSS hybrid heterojunctions showed diode-like behavior with a leakage current less than 2.54 × 10-8 A at -5 V and forward turn-on voltage of 1.1 V. ZnO NR/polymer-based hybrid heterojunctions show a photocurrent of 6.74 × 10-4 A, responsivity of 5.046 A W-1 and excellent sensitivity of 37.65 under UV (λ = 256 nm, 130 μW) illumination. Compared with bare ZnO NR arrays, the ZnO NR/polymer heterojunction device shows responsivity enhanced by a factor of 10, sensitivity enhanced by a factor of 8 and faster rise and decay time. The enhanced performance may be due to effective charge separation guided by the built-in potential formed at the interface between ZnO NRs and PEDOT:PSS.

  13. Plasmonic/Nonlinear Optical Material Core/Shell Nanorods as Nanoscale Plasmon Modulators and Optical Voltage Sensors.

    PubMed

    Yin, Anxiang; He, Qiyuan; Lin, Zhaoyang; Luo, Liang; Liu, Yuan; Yang, Sen; Wu, Hao; Ding, Mengning; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-01-11

    Herein, we report the design and synthesis of plasmonic/non-linear optical (NLO) material core/shell nanostructures that can allow dynamic manipulation of light signals using an external electrical field and enable a new generation of nanoscale optical voltage sensors. We show that gold nanorods (Au NRs) can be synthesized with tunable plasmonic properties and function as the nucleation seeds for continued growth of a shell of NLO materials (such as polyaniline, PANI) with variable thickness. The formation of a PANI nanoshell allows dynamic modulation of the dielectric environment of the plasmonic Au NRs, and therefore the plasmonic resonance characteristics, by an external electrical field. The finite element simulation confirms that such modulation is originated from the field-induced modulation of the dielectric constant of the NLO shell. This approach is general, and the coating of the Au NRs with other NLO materials (such as barium titanate, BTO) is found to produce a similar effect. These findings can not only open a new pathway to active modulation of plasmonic resonance at the sub-wavelength scale but also enable the creation of a new generation of nanoscale optical voltage sensors (NOVS). PMID:26783058

  14. Smart chemical sensors using ZnO semiconducting thin films for freshness detection of foods and beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanto, Hidehito; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Dougami, Naganori; Habara, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kusano, Eiji; Kinbara, Akira; Douguchi, Yoshiteru

    1998-07-01

    The sensitivity of the chemical sensor, based on the resistance change of Al2O3-doped and SnO2-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al and ZnO:SnO2) thin film, is studied for exposure to various gases. It is found that the ZnO:Al and ZnO:Sn thin film chemical sensor has a high sensitivity and excellent selectivity for amine (TMA and DMA) gas and ethanol gas, respectively. The ZnO:Al (5.0 wt%) thin film chemical sensor which exhibit a high sensitivity for exposure to odors from rotten sea foods, such as salmon, sea bream, oyster, squid and sardine, responds to the freshness change of these sea foods. The ZnO:SnO2 (78 wt%) thin film chemical sensor which exhibit a high sensitivity for exposure to aroma from alcohols, such as wine, Japanese sake, and whisky, responds to the freshness change of these alcohols.

  15. Hierarchical ZnO Nanosheet-Nanorod Architectures for Fabrication of Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ZnO Hybrid NO2 Sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Li, Xian; Xia, Yi; Komarneni, Sridhar; Chen, Haoyuan; Xu, Jianlong; Xiang, Lan; Xie, Dan

    2016-04-01

    A facile one-step solution method has been developed here to fabricate hierarchical ZnO nanosheet-nanorod architectures for compositing with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) for fabricating a hybrid NO2 sensor. The hierarchical ZnO nanosheet-nanorod architectures were controllably synthesized by aging the solutions containing 0.05 mol·L(-1) Zn(2+) and 0.33 mol·L(-1) OH(-) at 60 °C through a metastable phase-directed mechanism. The concentration of OH(-) played a huge role on the morphology evolution. When the [OH(-)] concentration was decreased from 0.5 to 0.3 mol·L(-1), the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures changed gradually from monodispersed nanorods (NR) to nanorod assemblies (NRA), and then to nanosheet-nanorod architectures (NS-NR) and nanosheet assemblies (NSA), depending on the formation of various metastable, intermediate phases. The formation of NS-NR included the initial formation of ZnO nanosheets/γ-Zn(OH)2 mixed intermediates, followed by the dissolution of Zn(OH)2, which served as soluble zinc source. Soluble Zn(OH)2 facilitated the dislocation-driven secondary growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on the primary defect-rich nanosheet substrates. Hybrid sensors based on composite films composed of P3HT and the as-prepared ZnO nanostructures were fabricated for the detection of NO2 at room temperature. The P3HT/ZnO NS-NR bilayer film exhibited not only the highest sensitivity but also good reproducibility and selectivity to NO2 at room temperature. The enhanced sensing performance was attributed to the formation of the P3HT/ZnO heterojunction in addition to the enhanced adsorption of NO2 by NS-NR ZnO rich in oxygen-vacancy defects. PMID:26975549

  16. Preparation and characterisation of ZnFe 2O 4/ZnO polymer nanocomposite sensors for the detection of alcohol vapours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshak, K.; Moore, E.; Cunniffe, C.; Nicholson, M.; Arshak, A.

    2007-07-01

    During the last 10 years, a large interest has developed in the preparation of nanocomposite structures by embedding inorganic nanoparticles into polymeric materials. These materials combine the properties of the inorganic fillers with the processability and flexibility of polymers. The versatility of polymer nanocomposite systems is of special interest to the gas sensor industry where arrays of polymer/carbon black composites have been used to identify gases and odours. These polymer gas sensors provide selectivity based on their chemical structures and operate at room temperature, which provide advantages over thick-film metal oxide gas sensors. ZnFe 2O 4 and ZnO have excellent stability, high sensitivity, low fabrication complexity and moderate operating temperatures, which are ideal properties for a gas sensing material. In this work, the development of a thick-film ZnFe 2O 4/ZnO sensor, which operates at room temperature and a drop-coated conducting polymer composite sensor containing 30 w/w% ZnFe 2O 4/ZnO nanoparticles is discussed. The sensors were tested in a fully automated test rig and showed promising results for the detection of alcohol vapours.

  17. Particle-on-Film Gap Plasmons on Antireflective ZnO Nanocone Arrays for Molecular-Level Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngoh; Lee, Jiwon; Lee, Tae Kyung; Park, Jonghwa; Ha, Minjung; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2015-12-01

    When semiconducting nanostructures are combined with noble metals, the surface plasmons of the noble metals, in addition to the charge transfer interactions between the semiconductors and noble metals, can be utilized to provide strong surface plasmon effects. Here, we suggest a particle-film plasmonic system in conjunction with tapered ZnO nanowire arrays for ultrasensitive SERS chemical sensors. In this design, the gap plasmons between the metal nanoparticles and the metal films provide significantly improved surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) effects compared to those of interparticle surface plasmons. Furthermore, 3D tapered metal nanostructures with particle-film plasmonic systems enable efficient light trapping and waveguiding effects. To study the effects of various morphologies of ZnO nanostructures on the light trapping and thus the SERS enhancements, we compare the performance of three different ZnO morphologies: ZnO nanocones (NCs), nanonails (NNs), and nanorods (NRs). Finally, we demonstrate that our SERS chemical sensors enable a molecular level of detection capability of benzenethiol (100 zeptomole), rhodamine 6G (10 attomole), and adenine (10 attomole) molecules. This work presents a new design platform based on the 3D antireflective metal/semiconductor heterojunction nanostructures, which will play a critical role in the study of plasmonics and SERS chemical sensors. PMID:26575302

  18. Prototype of a porous ZnO SPV-based sensor for PCB detection at room temperature under visible light illumination.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingtao; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Yin, Zhijun; Wu, Mingzai; Zhang, Zhuo; Kong, Mingguang

    2010-08-17

    To detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a prototype of a porous ZnO sensor based on the surface photovoltage (SPV) mechanism working under visible light illumination at room temperature has been presented. The SPV of the porous ZnO sensor can be remarkably reduced under visible light illumination after PCB adsorption, and the reduction of amplitude is proportional to the population of adsorbed PCB molecules. We propose that the reduction of SPV response is due to trapping of the electrons in the surface states by the adsorbed PCBs. The lower detection limits of this new prototype sensor reach at least 2.2 micromol/L for PCB29 and 1.1 micromol/L for PCB101, respectively. So, it demonstrates great potential for practical application in trace detection of PCBs. PMID:20695623

  19. Low temperature preparation of Ag-doped ZnO nanowire arrays for sensor and light-emitting diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupan, O.; Viana, B.; Cretu, V.; Postica, V.; Adelung, R.; Pauporté, T.

    2016-02-01

    Transition metal doped-oxide semiconductor nanostructures are important to achieve enhanced and new properties for advanced applications. We describe the low temperature preparation of ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod (NW/NR) arrays by electrodeposition at 90 °C. The NWs have been characterized by SEM, EDX, transmittance and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The integration of Ag in the crystal is shown. Single nanowire/nanorod of ZnO:Ag was integrated in a nanosensor structure leading to new and enhanced properties. The ultraviolet (UV) response of the nanosensor was investigated at room temperature. Experimental results indicate that ZnO:Ag (0.75 μM) nanosensor possesses faster response/recovery time and better response to UV light than those reported in literature. The sensor structure has been also shown to give a fast response for the hydrogen detection with improved performances compared to pristine ZnO NWs. ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod arrays electrochemically grown on p-type GaN single crystal layer is also shown to act as light emitter in LED structures. The emission wavelength is red-shifted compared to pristine ZnO NW array. At low Ag concentration a single UV-blue emission is found whereas at higher concentration of dopant the emission is broadened and extends up to the red wavelength range. Our study indicates that high quality ZnO:Ag NW/NR prepared at low temperature by electrodeposition can serve as building nanomaterials for new sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs) structures with low-power consumption.

  20. Electrochemical L-lactic acid sensor based on immobilized ZnO nanorods with lactate oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Shah, Syed Muhammad Usman Ali; Khun, Kimleang; Willander, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    In this work, fabrication of gold coated glass substrate, growth of ZnO nanorods and potentiometric response of lactic acid are explained. The biosensor was developed by immobilizing the lactate oxidase on the ZnO nanorods in combination with glutaraldehyde as a cross linker for lactate oxidase enzyme. The potentiometric technique was applied for the measuring the output (EMF) response of l-lactic acid biosensor. We noticed that the present biosensor has wide linear detection range of concentration from 1 × 10(-4)-1 × 10(0) mM with acceptable sensitivity about 41.33 ± 1.58 mV/decade. In addition, the proposed biosensor showed fast response time less than 10 s, a good selectivity towards l-lactic acid in presence of common interfering substances such as ascorbic acid, urea, glucose, galactose, magnesium ions and calcium ions. The present biosensor based on immobilized ZnO nanorods with lactate oxidase sustained its stability for more than three weeks. PMID:22736960

  1. Synergistic Effects of a Combination of Cr2O3-Functionalization and UV-Irradiation Techniques on the Ethanol Gas Sensing Performance of ZnO Nanorod Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunghoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Jin, Changhyun; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Lee, Sangmin; Lee, Chongmu

    2016-02-01

    There have been very few studies on the effects of combining two or more techniques on the sensing performance of nanostructured sensors. Cr2O3-functionalized ZnO nanorods were synthesized using carbothermal synthesis involving the thermal evaporation of a mixture of ZnO and graphite powders followed by a solvothermal process for Cr2O3-functionalization. The ethanol gas-sensing properties of multinetworked pristine and Cr2O3-functionalized ZnO nanorod sensors under UV illumination were examined to determine the effects of combining Cr2O3-ZnO heterostructure formation and UV irradiation on the gas-sensing properties of ZnO nanorods. The responses of the pristine and Cr2O3-functionalized ZnO nanorod sensors to 200 ppm of ethanol at room temperature by UV illumination at 2.2 mW/cm(2) were increased by 3.8 and 7.7 times, respectively. The Cr2O3-functionalized ZnO nanorod sensor also showed faster response/recovery and better selectivity than those of the pristine ZnO nanorod sensor at the same ethanol concentration. This result suggests that a combination heterostructure formation and UV irradiation had a synergistic effect on the gas-sensing properties of the sensor. The synergistic effect might be attributed to the catalytic activity of Cr2O3 for ethanol oxidation as well as to the increased change in conduction channel width accompanying adsorption and desorption of ethanol under UV illumination due to the presence of Cr2O3 nanoparticles in the Cr2O3-functionalized ZnO nanorod sensor. PMID:26751000

  2. Chloroplasts-mediated biosynthesis of nanoscale Au-Ag alloy for 2-butanone assay based on electrochemical sensor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We reported a one-pot, environmentally friendly method for biosynthesizing nanoscale Au-Ag alloy using chloroplasts as reducers and stabilizers. The prepared nanoscale Au-Ag alloy was characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was further used to identify the possible biomolecules from chloroplasts that are responsible for the formation and stabilization of Au-Ag alloy. The FTIR results showed that chloroplast proteins bound to the nanoscale Au-Ag alloy through free amino groups. The bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles have only one plasmon band, indicating the formation of an alloy structure. HR-TEM images showed that the prepared Au-Ag alloy was spherical and 15 to 20 nm in diameter. The high crystallinity of the Au-Ag alloy was confirmed by SAED and XRD patterns. The prepared Au-Ag alloy was dispersed into multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to form a nanosensing film. The nanosensing film exhibited high electrocatalytic activity for 2-butanone oxidation at room temperature. The anodic peak current (Ip) has a linear relationship with the concentrations of 2-butanone over the range of 0.01% to 0.075% (v/v), when analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. The excellent electronic catalytic characteristics might be attributed to the synergistic electron transfer effects of Au-Ag alloy and MWNTs. It can reasonably be expected that this electrochemical biosensor provided a promising platform for developing a breath sensor to screen and pre-warn of early cancer, especially gastric cancer. PMID:22916797

  3. Chloroplasts-mediated biosynthesis of nanoscale Au-Ag alloy for 2-butanone assay based on electrochemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yixia; Gao, Guo; Qian, Qirong; Cui, Daxiang

    2012-08-01

    We reported a one-pot, environmentally friendly method for biosynthesizing nanoscale Au-Ag alloy using chloroplasts as reducers and stabilizers. The prepared nanoscale Au-Ag alloy was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was further used to identify the possible biomolecules from chloroplasts that are responsible for the formation and stabilization of Au-Ag alloy. The FTIR results showed that chloroplast proteins bound to the nanoscale Au-Ag alloy through free amino groups. The bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles have only one plasmon band, indicating the formation of an alloy structure. HR-TEM images showed that the prepared Au-Ag alloy was spherical and 15 to 20 nm in diameter. The high crystallinity of the Au-Ag alloy was confirmed by SAED and XRD patterns. The prepared Au-Ag alloy was dispersed into multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to form a nanosensing film. The nanosensing film exhibited high electrocatalytic activity for 2-butanone oxidation at room temperature. The anodic peak current (Ip) has a linear relationship with the concentrations of 2-butanone over the range of 0.01% to 0.075% (v/v), when analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. The excellent electronic catalytic characteristics might be attributed to the synergistic electron transfer effects of Au-Ag alloy and MWNTs. It can reasonably be expected that this electrochemical biosensor provided a promising platform for developing a breath sensor to screen and pre-warn of early cancer, especially gastric cancer.

  4. CuO-Decorated ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructures as Efficient and Established Sensing Materials for H2S Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Nguyen Minh; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Huy, Bui The; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2016-01-01

    Highly sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas sensors were developed from CuO-decorated ZnO semiconducting hierarchical nanostructures. The ZnO hierarchical nanostructure was fabricated by an electrospinning method following hydrothermal and heat treatment. CuO decoration of ZnO hierarchical structures was carried out by a wet method. The H2S gas-sensing properties were examined at different working temperatures using various quantities of CuO as the variable. CuO decoration of the ZnO hierarchical structure was observed to promote sensitivity for H2S gas higher than 30 times at low working temperature (200 °C) compared with that in the nondecorated hierarchical structure. The sensing mechanism of the hybrid sensor structure is also discussed. The morphology and characteristics of the samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and electrical measurements. PMID:27231026

  5. CuO-Decorated ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructures as Efficient and Established Sensing Materials for H2S Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Nguyen Minh; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Huy, Bui The; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2016-01-01

    Highly sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas sensors were developed from CuO-decorated ZnO semiconducting hierarchical nanostructures. The ZnO hierarchical nanostructure was fabricated by an electrospinning method following hydrothermal and heat treatment. CuO decoration of ZnO hierarchical structures was carried out by a wet method. The H2S gas-sensing properties were examined at different working temperatures using various quantities of CuO as the variable. CuO decoration of the ZnO hierarchical structure was observed to promote sensitivity for H2S gas higher than 30 times at low working temperature (200 °C) compared with that in the nondecorated hierarchical structure. The sensing mechanism of the hybrid sensor structure is also discussed. The morphology and characteristics of the samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and electrical measurements. PMID:27231026

  6. CuO-Decorated ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructures as Efficient and Established Sensing Materials for H2S Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuong, Nguyen Minh; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Huy, Bui The; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2016-05-01

    Highly sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas sensors were developed from CuO-decorated ZnO semiconducting hierarchical nanostructures. The ZnO hierarchical nanostructure was fabricated by an electrospinning method following hydrothermal and heat treatment. CuO decoration of ZnO hierarchical structures was carried out by a wet method. The H2S gas-sensing properties were examined at different working temperatures using various quantities of CuO as the variable. CuO decoration of the ZnO hierarchical structure was observed to promote sensitivity for H2S gas higher than 30 times at low working temperature (200 °C) compared with that in the nondecorated hierarchical structure. The sensing mechanism of the hybrid sensor structure is also discussed. The morphology and characteristics of the samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and electrical measurements.

  7. Nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance with a 1.9-nm-deep nitrogen-vacancy sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Loretz, M.; Degen, C. L.; Pezzagna, S.; Meijer, J.

    2014-01-20

    We present nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements performed with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers located down to about 2 nm from the diamond surface. NV centers were created by shallow ion implantation followed by a slow, nanometer-by-nanometer removal of diamond material using oxidative etching in air. The close proximity of NV centers to the surface yielded large {sup 1}H NMR signals of up to 3.4 μT-rms, corresponding to ∼330 statistically polarized or ∼10 fully polarized proton spins in a (1.8 nm){sup 3} detection volume.

  8. Alignment nature of ZnO nanowires grown on polished and nanoscale etched lithium niobate surface through self-seeding thermal evaporation method

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanan, Ajay Achath; Parthiban, R.; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanowires were grown directly on LiNbO{sub 3} surface for the first time by thermal evaporation. • Self-alignment of the nanowires due to step bunching of LiNbO{sub 3} surface is observed. • Increased roughness in surface defects promoted well-aligned growth of nanowires. • Well-aligned growth was then replicated in 50 nm deep trenches on the surface. • Study opens novel pathway for patterned growth of ZnO nanowires on LiNbO{sub 3} surface. - Abstract: High aspect ratio catalyst-free ZnO nanowires were directly synthesized on lithium niobate substrate for the first time through thermal evaporation method without the use of a buffer layer or the conventional pre-deposited ZnO seed layer. As-grown ZnO nanowires exhibited a crisscross aligned growth pattern due to step bunching of the polished lithium niobate surface during the nanowire growth process. On the contrary, scratches on the surface and edges of the substrate produced well-aligned ZnO nanowires in these defect regions due to high surface roughness. Thus, the crisscross aligned nature of high aspect ratio nanowire growth on the lithium niobate surface can be changed to well-aligned growth through controlled etching of the surface, which is further verified through reactive-ion etching of lithium niobate. The investigations and discussion in the present work will provide novel pathway for self-seeded patterned growth of well-aligned ZnO nanowires on lithium niobate based micro devices.

  9. Hybrid 3D structures of ZnO nanoflowers and PdO nanoparticles as a highly selective methanol sensor.

    PubMed

    Acharyya, D; Huang, K Y; Chattopadhyay, P P; Ho, M S; Fecht, H-J; Bhattacharyya, P

    2016-05-10

    The present study concerns the enhancement of methanol selectivity of three dimensional (3D) nanoflowers (NFs) of ZnO by dispersing nickel oxide (NiO) and palladium oxide (PdO) nanoparticles on the surface of the nanoflowers to form localized hybrid nano-junctions. The nanoflowers were fabricated through a liquid phase deposition technique and the modification was achieved by addition of NiCl and PdCl2 solutions. In addition to the detailed structural (like X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, XPS) and morphological characterization (by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)), the existence of different defect states (viz. oxygen vacancy) was also confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The sensing properties of the pristine and metal oxide nanoparticle (NiO/PdO)-ZnO NF hybrid sensor structures, towards different alcohol vapors (methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol) were investigated in the concentration range of 0.5-700 ppm at 100-350 °C. Methanol selectivity study against other interfering species, viz. ethanol, 2-propanol, acetone, benzene, xylene and toluene was also investigated. It was found that the PdO-ZnO NF hybrid system offered enhanced selectivity towards methanol at low temperature (150 °C) compared to the NiO-ZnO NF and pristine ZnO NF counterparts. The underlying mechanism for such improvement has been discussed with respective energy band diagram and preferential dissociation of target species on such 3D hybrid structures. The corresponding improvement in transient characteristics has also been co-related with the proposed model. PMID:27048794

  10. Chlorine Gas Sensing Performance of On-Chip Grown ZnO, WO3, and SnO2 Nanowire Sensors.

    PubMed

    Tran, Van Dang; Nguyen, Duc Hoa; Nguyen, Van Duy; Nguyen, Van Hieu

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring toxic chlorine (Cl2) at the parts-per-billion (ppb) level is crucial for safe usage of this gas. Herein, ZnO, WO3, and SnO2 nanowire sensors were fabricated using an on-chip growth technique with chemical vapor deposition. The Cl2 gas-sensing characteristics of the fabricated sensors were systematically investigated. Results demonstrated that SnO2 nanowires exhibited higher sensitivity to Cl2 gas than ZnO and WO3 nanowires. The response (RCl2/Rair) of the SnO2 nanowire sensor to 50 ppb Cl2 at 50 °C was about 57. Hence, SnO2 nanowires can be an excellent sensing material for detecting Cl2 gas at the ppb level under low temperatures. Abnormal sensing characteristics were observed in the WO3 and SnO2 nanowire sensors at certain temperatures; in particular, the response level of these sensors to 5 ppm of Cl2 was lower than that to 2.5 ppm of Cl2. The sensing mechanism of the SnO2 nanowire sensor was also elucidated by determining Cl2 responses under N2 and dry air as carrier gases. We proved that the Cl2 molecule was first directly adsorbed on the metal oxide surface and was then substituted for pre-adsorbed oxygen, followed by lattice oxygen. PMID:26816341

  11. Epitaxial ZnO/LiNbO{sub 3}/ZnO stacked layer waveguide for application to thin-film Pockels sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Akazawa, Housei Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2015-05-15

    We produced slab waveguides consisting of a LiNbO{sub 3} (LN) core layer that was sandwiched with Al-doped ZnO cladding layers. The ZnO/LN/ZnO stacked layers were grown on sapphire C-planes by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering and were subjected to structural, electrical, and optical characterizations. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the ZnO and LN layers were epitaxial without containing misoriented crystallites. The presence of 60°-rotational variants of ZnO and LN crystalline domains were identified from X-ray pole figures. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images revealed a c-axis orientated columnar texture for LN crystals, which ensured operation as electro-optic sensors based on optical anisotropy along longitudinal and transversal directions. The interfacial roughness between the LN core and ZnO bottom layers as well as that between the ZnO top and the LN core layers was less than 20 nm, which agreed with surface images observed with atomic force microscopy. Outgrowth of triangular LN crystalline domains produced large roughness at the LN film surface. The RMS roughness of the LN film surface was twice that of the same structure grown on sapphire A-planes. Vertical optical transmittance of the stacked films was higher than 85% within the visible and infrared wavelength range. Following the approach adopted by Teng and Man [Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734 (1990)], ac Pockels coefficients of r{sub 33} = 24-28 pm/V were derived for c-axis oriented LN films grown on low-resistive Si substrates. Light propagation within a ZnO/LN/ZnO slab waveguide as well as within a ZnO single layer waveguide was confirmed. The birefringence of these waveguides was 0.11 for the former and 0.05 for the latter.

  12. Scanned probe imaging of nanoscale magnetism at cryogenic temperatures with a single-spin quantum sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelliccione, Matthew; Jenkins, Alec; Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti; Reetz, Christopher; Emmanuelidu, Eve; Ni, Ni; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania

    The nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect in diamond has emerged as a promising candidate for high resolution magnetic imaging based on its atomic size and quantum-limited sensing capabilities afforded by long spin coherence times. Although the NV center has been successfully implemented as a nanoscale scanning magnetic probe at room temperature, it has remained an outstanding challenge to extend this capability to cryogenic temperatures, where many solid-state systems exhibit non-trivial magnetic order. In this talk, we present NV magnetic imaging at T = 6 K, first benchmarking the technique with a magnetic hard disk sample, then utilizing the technique to image vortices in the iron pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As0.7P0.3)2 with Tc = 30 K. In addition, we discuss other candidate solid-state systems that can benefit from the high spatial resolution and field sensitivity of the scanning NV magnetometer.

  13. Nanoscale thermal probing

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yanan; Wang, Xinwei

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale novel devices have raised the demand for nanoscale thermal characterization that is critical for evaluating the device performance and durability. Achieving nanoscale spatial resolution and high accuracy in temperature measurement is very challenging due to the limitation of measurement pathways. In this review, we discuss four methodologies currently developed in nanoscale surface imaging and temperature measurement. To overcome the restriction of the conventional methods, the scanning thermal microscopy technique is widely used. From the perspective of measuring target, the optical feature size method can be applied by using either Raman or fluorescence thermometry. The near-field optical method that measures nanoscale temperature by focusing the optical field to a nano-sized region provides a non-contact and non-destructive way for nanoscale thermal probing. Although the resistance thermometry based on nano-sized thermal sensors is possible for nanoscale thermal probing, significant effort is still needed to reduce the size of the current sensors by using advanced fabrication techniques. At the same time, the development of nanoscale imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging, provides a great potential solution to resolve the nanoscale thermal probing problem. PMID:22419968

  14. Integration of flower-like ZnO nanostructures with crystalline-Si interdigitated back contact photovoltaic cell as a self-powered humidity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsueh, Han-Ting; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Lin, Yu-De; Lai, Kuang-Chieh; Chen, Jhih-Wei; Wu, Chung-Lin

    2013-11-01

    In this article, flower-like ZnO nanostructures were integrated with crystalline-Si interdigitated back contact photovoltaic cell by direct growth on its surface. These ZnO nanostructures not only possess the anti-reflective characteristics to increase the converting efficiency of photovoltaic cell but also serve as the humidity sensing material. For measurement of the self-powered humidity sensor, it can be seen that the measured current increased monotonically as we increased the related humidity (RH) from 40% to 95%. The plot of log-resistance as a function of RH also showed good linearity (Y = -0.0089X + 7.0914 and R2 = 0.9874).

  15. Surface free-carrier screening effect on the output of a ZnO nanowire nanogenerator and its potential as a self-powered active gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xinyu; Nie, Yuxin; He, Bin; Xing, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-06-01

    The output of a piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) fabricated using ZnO nanowire arrays is largely influenced by the density of the surface charge carriers at the nanowire surfaces. Adsorption of gas molecules could modify the surface carrier density through a screening effect, thus, the output of the NG is sensitive to the gas concentration. Based on such a mechanism, we first studied the responses of an unpackaged NG to oxygen, H2S and water vapor, and demonstrated its sensitivity to H2S to a level as low as 100 ppm. Therefore, the piezoelectric signal generated by a ZnO NWs NG can act not only as a power source, but also as a response signal to the gas, demonstrating a possible approach as a self-powered active gas sensor. PMID:23633477

  16. Radius vertical graded nanoscale interlaced-coupled photonic crystal sensors array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pan; Tian, Huiping; Yang, Daquan; Liu, Qi; Zhou, Jian; Huang, Lijun; Ji, Yuefeng

    2015-11-01

    A radius vertical graded photonic crystal sensors array based on a monolithic substrate is proposed, which is potentially to be used as label-free detection in aqueous environments. The sensors array device consists of five resonant cavities including three H1 cavities and two L2 cavities which are interlaced-coupled to a radius vertical graded single photonic crystal line defect waveguide (W1). Each resonator has a different resonant wavelength dip which can shift independently with crosstalk lower than -13 dB in response to the refractive index change of air holes around every cavity. With three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) method, simulation results demonstrate that the quality factors of microcavities are over 104. Besides, the refractive index sensitivity is 100 nm/RIU with the detection limit approximately of 5.63×10-4. Meanwhile, the radius vertical graded photonic crystal with more interlaced cavities is more suited to ultracompact optical monolithic integration.

  17. Nanoscale gas sensors and their detection mechanisms: Carbon nanotubes and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Anthony K.

    The research presented in this thesis focuses on the experimental investigation of nanoscale electronic devices for gas sensing applications. The majority of the experiments were conducted on carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) made with variable density carbon nanotube networks. The carbon nanotube networks were grown using chemical vapor deposition on doped silicon wafers capped with silicon dioxide. Contact electrodes were attached to the networks with standard e-beam lithography and thin film deposition techniques. To better understand the sensing mechanism of CNTFETs, numerous samples were fabricated with varying densities of nanotubes and nanotube junctions. These samples were exposed to nitrogen dioxide and the change in conductance was recorded. Selected parts of the device were then passivated with a thick photoresist to determine whether they contribute to the sensing mechanism. Our previous work showed that for devices made with a single CNT, the response to nitrogen dioxide was mainly due to modifications at the contact interfaces rather than molecular adsorption on the nanotube sidewalls. However, here we show that when using CNT networks, both gas sensing mechanisms are involved. We will illustrate this through the comparison of the experimental response of high-density versus low-density CNT networks and show that the effect of adsorption is linked to the number of CNT junctions, or cross-over points, in the network. Adsorption plays a major role for high-density networks. Its effect is much weaker for low-density networks and not measureable in a single nanotube, where the response is mainly due to the electrodes. Experiments were also performed on field-effect transistor devices with molybedenum disulfide (MoS2) being substituted for the nanotubes. These devices were fabricated using the same substrates and metal deposition techniques used for carbon nanotube devices; however the MoS2 was mechanically exfoliated onto the wafers

  18. Imaging the operation of a carbon nanotube charge sensor at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Brunel, David; Mayer, Alexandre; Mélin, Thierry

    2010-10-26

    Carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) are of great interest for nanoelectronics applications such as nonvolatile memory elements (NVMEs) or charge sensors. In this work, we use a scanning-probe approach based on a local charge perturbation of CNTFET-based NVMEs and investigate their fundamental operation from combined transport, electrostatic scanning probe techniques and atomistic simulations. We experimentally demonstrate operating devices with threshold voltages shifts opposite to conventional gating and with almost unchanged hysteresis. The former effect is quantitatively understood as the emission of a delocalized image charge pattern in the nanotube environment, in response to local charge storage, while the latter effect points out the dominant dipolar nature of hysteresis in CNTFETs. We propose a simple model for charge sensing using CNTFETs, based on the redistribution of the nanotube image charges. This model could be extended to gas or biosensing, for example. PMID:20866060

  19. Al-doped ZnO aligned nanorod arrays for opto-electronic and sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.; Mundle, R.; Dondapati, H.; Konda, R. B.; Bahoura, M.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2012-04-01

    We report on the growth of vertically aligned Al:ZnO nanorod arrays synthesized by the hydrothermal technique at considerably low temperature on a sputtered Al:ZnO seed layer. The morphology demonstrates that the nanorod arrays maintain remarkable alignment along the c-axis over a large area. The optoelectronic properties of nanorod arrays on Al:ZnO/p-Si seed layer with SiO2 have been illustrated. The photocurrent is significantly reduced in nanorod arrays on AZO/SiO2/p-Si heterojunction due to multiple scattering phenomena associated with the nanorod arrays. The optical properties of the AZO film with and without the AZO nanorod arrays were investigated. Also the effects of an intermediate layer in the AZO/P-Si heterojunction structure with and without the AZO nanorod array present were explored. All the various intermediate layers displayed photovoltaic effect behavior, especially with the AZO/SiO2/P-Si heterojunction structure, which exhibited ideal diode behavior. The optoelectronic properties of nanorod arrays on AZO/P-Si seed layer with SiO2 have been illustrated. The photocurrent is significantly reduced in nanorod arrays on AZO/SiO2/P-Si heterojunction due to multiple scattering phenomena associated with the nanorod arrays. The results have tremendous impact for sensor fabrication, including glucose sensor.

  20. Facile synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays and hierarchical nanostructures for photocatalysis and gas sensor applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuaishuai; Li, Rong; Lv, Changpeng; Xu, Wei; Gou, Xinglong

    2011-08-30

    A facile one-step hydrothermal route was demonstrated to grow ZnO nanorod arrays and hierarchical nanostructures on arbitrary substrates without any catalysts and seeds coated before the reaction, which are prerequisite in the current two-step protocol. Meanwhile, ZnO nanoflowers composed of nanorods were obtained at the bottom of the autoclaves in the absence of substrates. An in situ spontaneous-seeds-assisted growth mechanism was tentatively proposed on the basis of the experimental data to explain the growth process of ZnO nanostructures. Moreover, the obtained ZnO nanorod arrays exhibited superior photocatalytic activity for decomposing methyl orange, and the nanoflowers showed better gas sensing performance towards some flammable gases and corrosive vapors with high sensitivity, rapid response-recovery characteristics, good selectivity and long-term stability. PMID:21684076

  1. Sensing at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Hierold, Christofer

    2013-11-01

    The merits of nanostructures in sensing may seem obvious, yet playing these attributes to their maximum advantage can be a work of genius. As fast as sensing technology is improving, expectations are growing, with demands for cheaper devices with higher sensitivities and an ever increasing range of functionalities and compatibilities. At the same time tough scientific challenges like low power operation, noise and low selectivity are keeping researchers busy. This special issue on sensing at the nanoscale with guest editor Christofer Hierold from ETH Zurich features some of the latest developments in sensing research pushing at the limits of current capabilities. Cheap and easy fabrication is a top priority. Among the most popular nanomaterials in sensing are ZnO nanowires and in this issue Dario Zappa and colleagues at Brescia University in Italy simplify an already cheap and efficient synthesis method, demonstrating ZnO nanowire fabrication directly onto silicon substrates [1]. Meanwhile Nicolae Barson and colleagues in Germany point out the advantages of flame spray pyrolysis fabrication in a topical review [2] and, maximizing on existing resources, researchers in Denmark and Taiwan report cantilever sensing using a US20 commercial DVD-ROM optical pickup unit as the readout source [3]. The sensor is designed to detect physiological concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a protein associated with inflammation due to HIV, cancer and other infectious diseases. With their extreme properties carbon nanostructures feature prominently in the issue, including the demonstration of a versatile and flexible carbon nanotube strain sensor [4] and a graphene charge sensor with sensitivities of the order of 1.3 × 10-3 e Hz-1/2 [5]. The issue of patterning for sensing devices is also tackled by researchers in the US who demonstrate a novel approach for multicomponent pattering metal/metal oxide nanoparticles on graphene [6]. Changes in electrical

  2. Strongly enhanced ultraviolet emission of an Au@SiO2/ZnO plasmonic hybrid nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Wang, Xiaodong; Mao, Shengcheng; Wu, Hua; Guo, Xia; Ji, Yuan; Han, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    We present the surface plasmon polariton (SPP)-enhanced ultraviolet (UV) emission of an Au@SiO2/ZnO hybrid nanostructure. We achieved approximately 20- and 8-fold enhancements of the UV-emitting intensities from Au-SPP coupled nanometre- and micrometre-scaled ZnO wires through an optimized 5 nm-thick SiO2 spacer compared to that obtained from bare ZnO on a Si substrate without SPP coupling. Cathodoluminescence measurements and simulations demonstrated that the plasmonic hybrid nanostructure enables the strong localization of the SPP field, resulting in significantly enhanced UV emission. This plasmonic structure paves the way to nanoscale UV-optical lasers and sensors.

  3. Strongly enhanced ultraviolet emission of an Au@SiO2/ZnO plasmonic hybrid nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Wang, Xiaodong; Mao, Shengcheng; Wu, Hua; Guo, Xia; Ji, Yuan; Han, Xiaodong

    2016-02-11

    We present the surface plasmon polariton (SPP)-enhanced ultraviolet (UV) emission of an Au@SiO2/ZnO hybrid nanostructure. We achieved approximately 20- and 8-fold enhancements of the UV-emitting intensities from Au-SPP coupled nanometre- and micrometre-scaled ZnO wires through an optimized 5 nm-thick SiO2 spacer compared to that obtained from bare ZnO on a Si substrate without SPP coupling. Cathodoluminescence measurements and simulations demonstrated that the plasmonic hybrid nanostructure enables the strong localization of the SPP field, resulting in significantly enhanced UV emission. This plasmonic structure paves the way to nanoscale UV-optical lasers and sensors. PMID:26818908

  4. Sensing at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Hierold, Christofer

    2013-11-01

    The merits of nanostructures in sensing may seem obvious, yet playing these attributes to their maximum advantage can be a work of genius. As fast as sensing technology is improving, expectations are growing, with demands for cheaper devices with higher sensitivities and an ever increasing range of functionalities and compatibilities. At the same time tough scientific challenges like low power operation, noise and low selectivity are keeping researchers busy. This special issue on sensing at the nanoscale with guest editor Christofer Hierold from ETH Zurich features some of the latest developments in sensing research pushing at the limits of current capabilities. Cheap and easy fabrication is a top priority. Among the most popular nanomaterials in sensing are ZnO nanowires and in this issue Dario Zappa and colleagues at Brescia University in Italy simplify an already cheap and efficient synthesis method, demonstrating ZnO nanowire fabrication directly onto silicon substrates [1]. Meanwhile Nicolae Barson and colleagues in Germany point out the advantages of flame spray pyrolysis fabrication in a topical review [2] and, maximizing on existing resources, researchers in Denmark and Taiwan report cantilever sensing using a US20 commercial DVD-ROM optical pickup unit as the readout source [3]. The sensor is designed to detect physiological concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a protein associated with inflammation due to HIV, cancer and other infectious diseases. With their extreme properties carbon nanostructures feature prominently in the issue, including the demonstration of a versatile and flexible carbon nanotube strain sensor [4] and a graphene charge sensor with sensitivities of the order of 1.3 × 10-3 e Hz-1/2 [5]. The issue of patterning for sensing devices is also tackled by researchers in the US who demonstrate a novel approach for multicomponent pattering metal/metal oxide nanoparticles on graphene [6]. Changes in electrical

  5. Chemo-sensors development based on low-dimensional codoped Mn2O3-ZnO nanoparticles using flat-silver electrodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Semiconductor doped nanostructure materials have attained considerable attention owing to their electronic, opto-electronic, para-magnetic, photo-catalysis, electro-chemical, mechanical behaviors and their potential applications in different research areas. Doped nanomaterials might be a promising owing to their high-specific surface-area, low-resistances, high-catalytic activity, attractive electro-chemical and optical properties. Nanomaterials are also scientifically significant transition metal-doped nanostructure materials owing to their extraordinary mechanical, optical, electrical, electronic, thermal, and magnetic characteristics. Recently, it has gained significant interest in manganese oxide doped-semiconductor materials in order to develop their physico-chemical behaviors and extend their efficient applications. It has not only investigated the basic of magnetism, but also has huge potential in scientific features such as magnetic materials, bio- & chemi-sensors, photo-catalysts, and absorbent nanomaterials. Results The chemical sensor also displays the higher-sensitivity, reproducibility, long-term stability, and enhanced electrochemical responses. The calibration plot is linear (r2 = 0.977) over the 0.1 nM to 50.0 μM 4-nitrophenol concentration ranges. The sensitivity and detection limit is ~4.6667 μA cm-2 μM-1 and ~0.83 ± 0.2 nM (at a Signal-to-Noise-Ratio, SNR of 3) respectively. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report for detection of 4-nitrophenol chemical with doped Mn2O3-ZnO NPs using easy and reliable I-V technique in short response time. Conclusions As for the doped nanostructures, NPs are introduced a route to a new generation of toxic chemo-sensors, but a premeditate effort has to be applied for doped Mn2O3-ZnO NPs to be taken comprehensively for large-scale applications, and to achieve higher-potential density with accessible to individual chemo-sensors. In this report, it is also discussed the prospective

  6. Evaluation of gas-sensing properties of ZnO nanostructures electrochemically doped with Au nanophases

    PubMed Central

    Penza, Michele; Alvisi, Marco; Di Franco, Cinzia; Palmisano, Francesco; Torsi, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Summary A one-step electrochemical method based on sacrificial anode electrolysis (SAE) was used to deposit stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) directly on the surface of nanostructured ZnO powders, previously synthesized through a sol–gel process. The effect of thermal annealing temperatures (300 and 550 °C) on chemical, morphological, and structural properties of pristine and Au-doped ZnO nancomposites (Au@ZnO) was investigated. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), revealed the successful deposition of nanoscale gold on the surface of spherical and rod-like ZnO nanostructures, obtained after annealing at 300 and 550 °C, respectively. The pristine ZnO and Au@ZnO nanocomposites are proposed as active layer in chemiresistive gas sensors for low-cost processing. Gas-sensing measurements towards NO2 were collected at 300 °C, evaluating not only the Au-doping effect, but also the influence of the different ZnO nanostructures on the gas-sensing properties. PMID:26925349

  7. A highly efficient fluorescent sensor of explosive peroxide vapor via ZnO nanorod array catalyzed deboronation of pyrenyl borate.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Zhu, Defeng; He, Qingguo; Shi, Liqi; Fu, Yanyan; Wen, Dan; Cao, Huimin; Cheng, Jiangong

    2012-06-11

    A new strategy capable of detecting explosive peroxide vapor via deboronation reaction induced fluorescence quenching has been developed. Using ordered assembly arrays of ZnO nanorods as catalyzing substrates, the deboronation reaction was 42 times faster than that on quartz substrates, which resulted in a very fast response and high sensitivity. PMID:22552712

  8. ZnO nanorod/porous silicon nanowire hybrid structures as highly-sensitive NO2 gas sensors at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jiecui; Li, Zhengcao; Wang, Guojing; Chen, Chienhua; Lv, Shasha; Li, Mingyang

    2016-02-01

    ZnO nanorod/porous silicon nanowire (ZnO/PSiNW) hybrids with three different structures as highly sensitive NO2 gas sensors were obtained. PSiNWs were first synthesized by metal-assisted chemical etching, and then seeded in three different ways. After that ZnO nanorods were grown on the seeded surface of PSiNWs using a hydrothermal procedure. ZnO/PSiNW hybrids showed excellent gas sensing performance for various NO2 concentrations (5-50 ppm) at room temperature, and the electrical resistance change rate reached as high as 35.1% when responding to 50 ppm NO2. The distinct enhancement was mainly attributed to the faster carrier transportation after combination, the increase in gas sensing areas and the oxygen vacancy (VO) concentration. Moreover, the p-type gas sensing behavior was explained by the gas sensing mechanism and the effect of VO concentration on gas sensing properties was also discussed concerning the photoluminescence (PL) spectra performance. PMID:26804157

  9. Real-time monitoring of the solution growth of ZnO nanorods arrays by quartz microbalances and in-situ temperature sensors

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Andrea; Falconi, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Wet-chemistry methods have crucial advantages for the synthesis of nanostructures, including simple, low-cost, large-area, and low-temperature deposition on almost arbitrary substrates. Nevertheless, the rational design of improved wet-chemistry procedures is extremely difficult because, in practice, only post-synthesis characterization is possible. In fact, the only methods for on-line monitoring the growth of nanostructures in liquids are complex, expensive and introduce intricate artifacts. Here we demonstrate that electro-mechanically resonating substrates and in-situ temperature sensors easily enable an accurate real-time investigation of reaction kinetics and, in combination with conventional SEM imaging, greatly facilitate the rational design of optimized synthesis procedures; in particular, such a simple approach provides useful insight for the development of processes where one or more key parameters are dynamically adjusted. As a proof-of-concept, first, we accurately characterize a process for fabricating arrays of ZnO nanorods; afterwards, we design a dynamic-temperature process that, in comparison with the corresponding constant-temperature procedure, is almost-ideally energy efficient and results in ZnO nanorods with improved characteristics in terms of length, aspect ratio, and total deposited nanorods mass. This is a major step towards the rational design of dynamic procedures for the solution growth of nanostructures. PMID:25190110

  10. Conductivity and touch-sensor application for atomic layer deposition ZnO and Al:ZnO on nylon nonwoven fiber mats

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, William J.; Oldham, Christopher J.; Parsons, Gregory N.

    2015-01-15

    Flexible electronics and wearable technology represent a novel and growing market for next generation devices. In this work, the authors deposit conductive zinc oxide films by atomic layer deposition onto nylon-6 nonwoven fiber mats and spun-cast films, and quantify the impact that deposition temperature, coating thickness, and aluminum doping have on the conductivity of the coated substrates. The authors produce aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) coated fibers with conductivity of 230 S/cm, which is ∼6× more conductive than ZnO coated fibers. Furthermore, the authors demonstrate AZO coated fibers maintain 62% of their conductivity after being bent around a 3 mm radius cylinder. As an example application, the authors fabricate an “all-fiber” pressure sensor using AZO coated nylon-6 electrodes. The sensor signal scales exponentially under small applied force (<50 g/cm{sup 2}), yielding a ∼10{sup 6}× current change under 200 g/cm{sup 2}. This lightweight, flexible, and breathable touch/force sensor could function, for example, as an electronically active nonwoven for personal or engineered system analysis and diagnostics.

  11. Shadow mask assisted direct growth of ZnO nanowires as a sensing medium for surface acoustic wave devices using a thermal evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achath Mohanan, Ajay; Parthiban, R.; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2016-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires were directly synthesized on high temperature stable one-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators made of LiNbO3 substrate and Pt/Ti electrodes using a self-seeding catalyst-free thermal evaporation method. To enhance post-growth device functionality, one half of an SAW resonator was masked along the interdigital transducer aperture length during the nanowire growth process using a stainless steel shadow mask, while the other half was used as the ZnO nanowire growth site. This was achieved by employing a precisely machined stainless steel sleeve to house the chip and mask in the reaction chamber during the nanowire growth process. The ZnO nanowire integrated SAW resonator exhibited ultraviolet radiation sensing abilities which indicated that the ZnO nanowires grown on the SAW device were able to interact with SAW propagation on the substrate even after the device was exposed to extremely harsh conditions during the nanowire growth process. The use of a thermal evaporation method, instead of the conventionally used solution-grown method for direct growth of ZnO nanowires on SAW devices, paves the way for future methods aimed at the fabrication of highly sensitive ZnO nanowire-LiNbO3 based SAW sensors utilizing coupled resonance phenomenon at the nanoscale.

  12. Nanoscale 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenders, Ludger; Ducourtieux, Sebastien

    2014-04-01

    The accurate determination of the properties of micro- and nano-structures is essential in research and development. It is also a prerequisite in process control and quality assurance in industry. In most cases, especially at the nanometer range, knowledge of the dimensional properties of structures is the fundamental base, to which further physical properties are linked. Quantitative measurements presuppose reliable and stable instruments, suitable measurement procedures as well as calibration artifacts and methods. This special issue of Measurement Science and Technology presents selected contributions from the NanoScale 2013 seminar held in Paris, France, on 25 and 26 April. It was the 6th Seminar on NanoScale Calibration Standards and Methods and the 10th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy (the first being held in 1995). The seminar was jointly organized with the Nanometrology Group of the Technical Committee-Length of EURAMET, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt and the Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais. Three satellite meetings related to nanometrology were coupled to the seminar. The first one was an open Symposium on Scanning Probe Microscopy Standardization organized by the ISO/TC 201/SC9 technical committee. The two others were specific meetings focused on two European Metrology Research Projects funded by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET) (see www.euramet.org), the first one focused on the improvement of the traceability for high accuracy devices dealing with sub-nm length measurement and implementing optical interferometers or capacitive sensors (JRP SIB08 subnano), the second one aiming to develop a new metrological traceability for the measurement of the mechanical properties of nano-objects (JRP NEW05 MechProNo). More than 100 experts from industry, calibration laboratories and metrology institutes from around the world joined the NanoScale 2013 Seminar to attend 23 oral and 64 poster

  13. Dancing the tight rope on the nanoscale--Calibrating a heat flux sensor of a scanning thermal microscope.

    PubMed

    Kloppstech, K; Könne, N; Worbes, L; Hellmann, D; Kittel, A

    2015-11-01

    We report on a precise in situ procedure to calibrate the heat flux sensor of a near-field scanning thermal microscope. This sensitive thermal measurement is based on 1ω modulation technique and utilizes a hot wire method to build an accessible and controllable heat reservoir. This reservoir is coupled thermally by near-field interactions to our probe. Thus, the sensor's conversion relation V(th)(Q(GS)*) can be precisely determined. V(th) is the thermopower generated in the sensor's coaxial thermocouple and Q(GS)* is the thermal flux from reservoir through the sensor. We analyze our method with Gaussian error calculus with an error estimate on all involved quantities. The overall relative uncertainty of the calibration procedure is evaluated to be about 8% for the measured conversion constant, i.e., (2.40 ± 0.19) μV/μW. Furthermore, we determine the sensor's thermal resistance to be about 0.21 K/μW and find the thermal resistance of the near-field mediated coupling at a distance between calibration standard and sensor of about 250 pm to be 53 K/μW. PMID:26628160

  14. Semiconducting and piezoelectric nanoarchitectures of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong Lin

    2005-03-01

    ZnO is a semiconducting and piezoelectric material. The structure of ZnO can be described as a number of alternating planes composed of tetrahedrally coordinated O^2- and Zn^2+ ions, stacked alternatively along the c-axis. The oppositely charged ions produce positively charged (0001)-Zn and negatively charged (000-1)-O polar surfaces, resulting in a normal dipole moment and spontaneous polarization along the c-axis. We have synthesized a series of novel nanostructures of ZnO utilizing the effect from the polar surface [1-4]e. The piezoelectric coefficient of a piezoelectric nanobelt has been found to be almost tripled compared to the value of the bulk [5], clearly indicating the exciting applications of piezoelectric ZnO nanobelts for nano-scale electromechanical coupled sensors, transducers, switches and resonators. This presentation will focus on the growth mechanisms and potential applications of piezoelectric nanobelts, nanorings and nanosprings. [1] Z.W. Pan, Z.R. Dai and Z.L. Wang, Science, 209 (2001) 1947. [2] X.Y. Kong and Z.L. Wang, Nano Letters, 2 (2003) 1625 + cover. [3] Z.L. Wang, X.Y. Kong and J.M. Zuo, Phys. Rev. Letts. 91 (2003) 185502. [4] X.Y. Kong, Y. Ding, R.S. Yang, Z.L. Wang, Science, 303 (2004) 1348. [5] M. Zhao, Z.L. Wang^, S. X.Mao, Nano Letters, 4 (2004) 587. [6] For details please visit http://www.nanoscience.gatech.edu/zlwang/

  15. Functionalized vertically aligned ZnO nanorods for application in electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor based pH sensors and label-free immuno-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Narendra; Senapati, Sujata; Kumar, Satyendra; Kumar, Jitendra; Panda, Siddhartha

    2016-04-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on a SiO2/Si surface by optimization of the temperature and atmosphere for annealing of the seed. The seed layer annealed at 500 °C in vacuum provided well separated and uniform seeds which also provided the best condition to get densely packed, uniformly distributed, and vertically aligned nanorods. These nanorods grown on the substrates were used to fabricate electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) devices for pH sensing. Etching of ZnO at acidic pH prevents the direct use of nanorods for pH sensing. Therefore, the nanorods functionalised with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) were utilized for pH sensing and showed the pH sensitivity of 50.1 mV/pH. APTES is also known to be used as a linker to immobilize biomolecules (such as antibodies). The EIS device with APTES functionalized nanorods was used for the label free detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Finally, voltage shifts of 23 mV and 35 mV were observed with PSA concentrations of 1 ng/ml and 100 ng/ml, respectively.

  16. Nanoscale TiO₂-coated LPGs as radiation-tolerant humidity sensors for high-energy physics applications.

    PubMed

    Consales, Marco; Berruti, Gaia; Borriello, Anna; Giordano, Michele; Buontempo, Salvatore; Breglio, Giovanni; Makovec, Alajos; Petagna, Paolo; Cusano, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    This Letter deals with a feasibility analysis for the development of radiation-tolerant fiber-optic humidity sensors based on long-period grating (LPG) technology to be applied in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments currently running at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). In particular, here we propose a high-sensitivity LPG sensor coated with a finely tuned titanium dioxide (TiO₂) thin layer (~100 nm thick) through the solgel deposition method. Relative humidity (RH) monitoring in the range 0%-75% and at four different temperatures (in the range -10°C-25°C) was carried out to assess sensor performance in real operative conditions required in typical experiments running at CERN. Experimental results demonstrate the very high RH sensitivities of the proposed device (up to 1.4 nm/% RH in correspondence to very low humidity levels), which turned out to be from one to three orders of magnitude higher than those exhibited by fiber Bragg grating sensors coated with micrometer-thin polyimide overlays. The radiation tolerance capability of the TiO₂-coated LPG sensor is also investigated by comparing the sensing performance before and after its exposure to a 1 Mrad dose of γ-ionizing radiation. Overall, the results collected demonstrate the strong potential of the proposed technology with regard to its future exploitation in HEP applications as a robust and valid alternative to the commercial (polymer-based) hygrometers currently used. PMID:25121668

  17. EDITORIAL: Nanoscale metrology Nanoscale metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picotto, G. B.; Koenders, L.; Wilkening, G.

    2009-08-01

    characterization. The papers in the first part report on new or improved instrumentation, details of developments of metrology SFM, improvements to SFM, probes and scanning methods in the direction of nanoscale coordinate measuring machines and true 3D measurements as well as of progress of a 2D encoder based on a regular crystalline lattice. To ensure traceability to the SI unit of length many highly sophisticated instruments are equipped with laser interferometers to measure small displacements in the nanometre range very accurately. Improving these techniques is still a challenge and therefore new interferometric techniques are considered in several papers as well as improved sensors for nanodisplacement measurements or the development of a deep UV microscope for micro- and nanostructures. The tactile measurement of small structures also calls for a better control of forces in the nano- and piconewton range. A nanoforce facility, based on a disk-pendulum with electrostatic stiffness reduction and electrostatic force compensation, is presented for the measurement of small forces. In the second part the contributions are related to calibration and correction strategies and standards such as the development of test objects based on 3D silicon structures, and of samples with irregular surface profiles, and their use for calibration. The shape of the tip and its influence on measurements is still a contentious issue and addressed in several papers: use of nanospheres for tip characterization, a geometrical approach for reconstruction errors by tactile probing. Molecular dynamical calculations, classical as well as ab initio (based on density functional theory), are used to discuss effects of tip-sample relaxation on the topography and to have a better base from which to estimate uncertainties in measurements of small particles or features. Some papers report about measurements of air refractivity fluctuations by phase modulation interferometry, angle-scale traceability by laser

  18. Effect of deposition times on structure of Ga-doped ZnO thin films as humidity sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid, Faridzatul Shahira; Awang, Rozidawati

    2014-09-03

    Gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) has good electrical property. It is widely used as transparent electrode in photovoltaic devices, and sensing element in gas and pressure sensors. GZO thin film was prepared using magnetron sputtering. Film deposition times were set at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes to get samples of different thickness. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the structure of GZO thin films. Structure for GZO thin film is hexagonal wurtzite structure. Morphology and thickness of GZO thin films was observed from FESEM micrographs. Grain size and thickness of thin films improved with increasing deposition times. However, increasing the thickness of thin films occur below 25 minutes only. Electrical properties of GZO thin films were studied using a four-point probe technique. The changes in the structure of the thin films lead to the changed of their electrical properties resulting in the reduction of the film resistance. These thin films properties significantly implying the potential application of the sample as a humidity sensor.

  19. Multiscale Modeling of Nano-scale Phenomena: Towards a Multiphysics Simulation Capability for Design and Optimization of Sensor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R; McElfresh, M; Lee, C; Balhorn, R; White, D

    2003-12-01

    In this white paper, a road map is presented to establish a multiphysics simulation capability for the design and optimization of sensor systems that incorporate nanomaterials and technologies. The Engineering Directorate's solid/fluid mechanics and electromagnetic computer codes will play an important role in both multiscale modeling and integration of required physics issues to achieve a baseline simulation capability. Molecular dynamic simulations performed primarily in the BBRP, CMS and PAT directorates, will provide information for the construction of multiscale models. All of the theoretical developments will require closely coupled experimental work to develop material models and validate simulations. The plan is synergistic and complimentary with the Laboratory's emerging core competency of multiscale modeling. The first application of the multiphysics computer code is the simulation of a ''simple'' biological system (protein recognition utilizing synthesized ligands) that has a broad range of applications including detection of biological threats, presymptomatic detection of illnesses, and drug therapy. While the overall goal is to establish a simulation capability, the near-term work is mainly focused on (1) multiscale modeling, i.e., the development of ''continuum'' representations of nanostructures based on information from molecular dynamics simulations and (2) experiments for model development and validation. A list of LDRDER proposals and ongoing projects that could be coordinated to achieve these near-term objectives and demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a multiphysics simulation capability is given.

  20. Effects of Vacuum Annealing on the Conduction Characteristics of ZnO Nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Chris J.; Smith, Nathan A.; Jones, Daniel R.; Maffeis, Thierry G. G.; Cobley, Richard J.

    2015-09-01

    ZnO nanosheets are a relatively new form of nanostructure and have demonstrated potential as gas-sensing devices and dye sensitised solar cells. For integration into other devices, and when used as gas sensors, the nanosheets are often heated. Here we study the effect of vacuum annealing on the electrical transport properties of ZnO nanosheets in order to understand the role of heating in device fabrication. A low cost, mass production method has been used for synthesis and characterisation is achieved using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and nanoscale two-point probe. Before annealing, the measured nanosheet resistance displayed a non-linear increase with probe separation, attributed to surface contamination. Annealing to 300 °C removed this contamination giving a resistance drop, linear probe spacing dependence, increased grain size and a reduction in the number of n-type defects. Further annealing to 500 °C caused the n-type defect concentration to reduce further with a corresponding increase in nanosheet resistance not compensated by any further sintering. At 700 °C, the nanosheets partially disintegrated and the resistance increased and became less linear with probe separation. These effects need to be taken into account when using ZnO nanosheets in devices that require an annealing stage during fabrication or heating during use.

  1. Effects of Vacuum Annealing on the Conduction Characteristics of ZnO Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Chris J; Smith, Nathan A; Jones, Daniel R; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Cobley, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    ZnO nanosheets are a relatively new form of nanostructure and have demonstrated potential as gas-sensing devices and dye sensitised solar cells. For integration into other devices, and when used as gas sensors, the nanosheets are often heated. Here we study the effect of vacuum annealing on the electrical transport properties of ZnO nanosheets in order to understand the role of heating in device fabrication. A low cost, mass production method has been used for synthesis and characterisation is achieved using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and nanoscale two-point probe. Before annealing, the measured nanosheet resistance displayed a non-linear increase with probe separation, attributed to surface contamination. Annealing to 300 °C removed this contamination giving a resistance drop, linear probe spacing dependence, increased grain size and a reduction in the number of n-type defects. Further annealing to 500 °C caused the n-type defect concentration to reduce further with a corresponding increase in nanosheet resistance not compensated by any further sintering. At 700 °C, the nanosheets partially disintegrated and the resistance increased and became less linear with probe separation. These effects need to be taken into account when using ZnO nanosheets in devices that require an annealing stage during fabrication or heating during use. PMID:26383543

  2. Temperature- and frequency-dependent dielectric behaviors of insulator/semiconductor (Al2O3/ZnO) nanolaminates with various ZnO thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin; Bi, Xiaofang

    2016-07-01

    Al2O3/ZnO nanolaminates (NLs) with various ZnO sublayer thicknesses were prepared by atomic layer deposition. The Al2O3 sublayers are characterized as amorphous and the ZnO sublayers have an oriented polycrystalline structure. As the ZnO thickness decreases to a certain value, each NL exhibits a critical temperature at which its dielectric constant starts to rise quickly. Moreover, this temperature increases as the ZnO thickness is decreased further. On the other hand, the permittivity demonstrates a large value of several hundred at a frequency  ⩽1000 Hz, followed by a steplike decrease at a higher frequency. The change in the cut-off frequency with ZnO thickness is characterized by a hook function. It is revealed that the Coulomb confinement effect becomes predominant in the dielectric behaviors of the NLs with very thin ZnO. As the ZnO thickness decreases to about the same as or even smaller than the Bohr radius of ZnO, a great change in the carrier concentration and effective mass of ZnO is induced, which is shown to be responsible for the peculiar dielectric behaviors of Al2O3/ZnO with very thin ZnO. These findings provide insight into the prevailing mechanisms to optimize the dielectric properties of semiconductor/insulator laminates with nanoscale sublayer thickness.

  3. In situ ZnO nanowire growth to promote the PVDF piezo phase and the ZnO-PVDF hybrid self-rectified nanogenerator as a touch sensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Zetang; Zhang, Xu; Li, Guanghe

    2014-03-28

    A PVDF-ZnO nanowires (NWs) hybrid generator (PZHG) was designed. A simple, cost effective method to produce the PVDF β phase by nano force is introduced. With the ZnO NWs growing, the in situ nano extension force promotes the phase change. A theoretical analysis of the ZnO NWs acting as a self-rectifier of the nano generator is established. The ZnO NWs acted as a self-adjustment diode to control the current output of the PZHG by piezo-electric and semi-conductive effects. Based on the self-controllability of the piezoelectric output, three kinds of finger touching are distinguished by the output performances of the PZHG, which is applicable to an LCD touch pad. PMID:24515250

  4. Nanoscale Wicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jijie; Sansom, Elijah; Gharib, Mory; Noca, Flavio

    2003-11-01

    A wick is a bundle of fibers that by capillary attraction draws up to be burned a steady supply of the oil in lamps. In textile research, wicking is the process by which liquids are transported across or along fibers by capillary action (of relevance to perspiration). A similar phenomenon was recently discovered in our lab with mats of nanoscale fibers. A droplet containing a surfactant solution was placed on top of a well-aligned mat of carbon nanotubes: wicking was then observed as a film of liquid propagating within the nanocarpet, such as a stain or drop absorbed into a textile fabric. The nanoscale wicking process in carbon nano-arrays offers a simple and enabling technology for the processing (transport, mixing, filtering) of picoliters of fluids without any need for confinement (nanochannel) or bulky driving pressure apparatus. In this work, nanoscale wicking properties are quantified as a function of surfactant activity and carbon nanoarray geometry. The biomolecular sieving capability of the nanotube arrays is also put to test by the addition of biomolecules, while using the wicking process as the fluid driving force.

  5. Effects of Palladium Loading on the Response of a Thick Film Flame-made ZnO Gas Sensor for Detection of Ethanol Vapor

    PubMed Central

    Liewhiran, Chaikarn; Phanichphant, Sukon

    2007-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles doped with 0-5 mol% Pd were successfully produced in a single step by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) using zinc naphthenate and palladium (II) acetylacetonate dissolved in toluene-acetonitrile (80:20 vol%) as precursors. The effect of Pd loading on the ethanol gas sensing performance of the ZnO nanoparticles and the crystalline sizes were investigated. The particle properties were analyzed by XRD, BET, AFM, SEM (EDS line scan mode), TEM, STEM, EDS, and CO-pulse chemisorption measurements. A trend of an increase in specific surface area of samples and a decrease in the dBET with increasing Pd concentrations was noted. ZnO nanoparticles were observed as particles presenting clear spheroidal, hexagonal and rod-like morphologies. The sizes of ZnO spheroidal and hexagonal particle crystallites were in the 10-20 nm range. ZnO nanorods were in the range of 10-20 nm in width and 20-50 nm in length. The size of Pd nanoparticles increased and Pd-dispersion% decreased with increasing Pd concentrations. The sensing films were produced by mixing the particles into an organic paste composed of terpineol and ethyl cellulose as a vehicle binder. The paste was doctor-bladed onto Al2O3 substrates interdigitated with Au electrodes. The film morphology was analyzed by SEM and EDS analyses. The gas sensing of ethanol (25-250 ppm) was studied in dry air at 400°C. The oxidation of ethanol on the sensing surface of the semiconductor was confirmed by MS. A well-dispersed of 1 mol%Pd/ZnO films showed the highest sensitivity and the fastest response time (within seconds).

  6. Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Evans, Laura; Xu, Jennifer C.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A report describes the fabrication and testing of nanoscale metal oxide semiconductors (MOSs) for gas and chemical sensing. This document examines the relationship between processing approaches and resulting sensor behavior. This is a core question related to a range of applications of nanotechnology and a number of different synthesis methods are discussed: thermal evaporation- condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed, providing a processing overview to developers of nanotechnology- based systems. The results of a significant amount of testing and comparison are also described. A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. The TECsynthesized single-crystal nanowires offer uniform crystal surfaces, resistance to sintering, and their synthesis may be done apart from the substrate. The TECproduced nanowire response is very low, even at the operating temperature of 200 C. In contrast, the electrospun polycrystalline nanofiber response is high, suggesting that junction potentials are superior to a continuous surface depletion layer as a transduction mechanism for chemisorption. Using a catalyst deposited upon the surface in the form of nanoparticles yields dramatic gains in sensitivity for both nanostructured, one-dimensional forms. For the nanowire materials, the response magnitude and response rate uniformly increase with increasing operating temperature. Such changes are interpreted in terms of accelerated surface diffusional processes, yielding greater access to chemisorbed oxygen species and faster dissociative chemisorption, respectively. Regardless of operating temperature, sensitivity of the nanofibers is a factor of 10 to 100 greater than that of nanowires with the same catalyst for the same test condition. In summary, nanostructure appears critical to governing the reactivity, as measured by electrical

  7. Optical, structural and morphological studies of (ZnO) nano-rod thin films for biosensor applications using sol gel technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, H. A.; Salama, A. A.; El-Saeid, A. A.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.; Battisha, I. K.

    Uniformly distributed ZnO nano-rods (NRs) with diameters in nano-scale have been successfully grown in two stages; the first at annealing temperature (250-300 °C) for seed layer preparation on glass substrate by using sol gel technique and the second at low temperature (90-95 °C) by aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. The same prepared thin film samples were grown on the surface of silver wire (0.25 mm in diameters) to produce electrochemical nano-sensors. The structure and the morphology of the prepared samples will be evaluated using XRD, Scanning electron microscope SEM. The absorption coefficient (α) and the band gap (Eg) for ZnO NRs thin films were determined. (α) was decreased by increasing the annealing temperature due to the increase of the surface roughness caused by higher temperature, where the creation of surface roughness gives rise to multi-reflections which, capture the reflected radiation and enhance the absorptivity. We are presenting an iron ion (Fe3+) potentiometric sensor based on functionalized ZnO nano-rods with selective iono-phore (18 crown 6). Zinc oxide nanorods (NRs) thin films with a diameter of about 68 up to 94 nm were grown on silver wire and gold coated glass.

  8. Nanoscale Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yufeng; Tolic, Nikola; Masselon, Christophe D.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Camp, David G.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes efforts to develop a liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS) technology for ultra-sensitive proteomics studies, i.e. nanoscale proteomics. The approach combines high-efficiency nano-scale LC with advanced MS, including high sensitivity and high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS, to perform both single-stage MS and tandem MS (MS/MS) proteomic analyses. The technology developed enables large-scale protein identification from nanogram size proteomic samples and characterization of more abundant proteins from sub-picogram size complex samples. Protein identification in such studies using MS is feasible from <75 zeptomole of a protein, and the average proteome measurement throughput is >200 proteins/h and ~3 h/sample. Higher throughput (>1000 proteins/h) and more sensitive detection limits can be obtained using a “accurate mass and time” tag approach developed at our laboratory. These capabilities lay the foundation for studies from single or limited numbers of cells.

  9. Light-modulated resistive switching memory behavior in ZnO/BaTiO3/ZnO multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lujun; Sun, Bai; Zhao, Wenxi; Li, Hongwei; Jia, Xiangjiang; Wu, Jianhong; Chen, Peng

    2016-05-01

    Nanoscale structure ZnO/BaTiO3/ZnO multilayer was fabricated on silicon (Si) substrate by RF magnetron sputtering system. The light-modulated resistive switching characteristics in ZnO/BaTiO3/ZnO devices were observed. The light-modulated resistive switching shows good repeatability at room temperature.

  10. Improving the ethanol gas-sensing properties of porous ZnO microspheres by Co doping

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Qi Wang, Tao

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Co-doped porous ZnO microspheres were synthesized. • 3 mol% Co-doped ZnO sensor showed the highest response to ethanol. • 3 mol% Co-doped ZnO sensor exhibited fast recovery property. • 3 mol% Co-doped ZnO sensor exhibited good selectivity and long-term stability. - Abstract: Porous Co-doped ZnO microspheres were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method combined with post-annealing. Co species existed as a form of divalent state in the sample and substituted Zn{sup 2+} sites in ZnO crystal lattice, which was affirmed by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The gas-sensing measurements demonstrated that the 3 mol% Co-doped ZnO sample showed the highest response value to 100 ppm ethanol at 350 °C, which were 5 folds higher than that of the pure ZnO sample. In addition, the 3 mol% Co-doped ZnO sensor exhibited fast recovery property, good quantitative determination, good selectivity and long-term stability. The superior sensing properties were contributed to high specific surface area combined with the large amount of oxygen vacancies originating from Co doping.

  11. Synthesis of ZnO nanorods and their application in the construction of a nanostructure-based electrochemical sensor for determination of levodopa in the presence of carbidopa.

    PubMed

    Molaakbari, Elahe; Mostafavi, Ali; Beitollahi, Hadi; Alizadeh, Reza

    2014-09-01

    A novel carbon paste electrode modified with ZnO nanorods and 5-(4'-amino-3'-hydroxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (3,4'-AAZCPE) was fabricated. The electrochemical study of the modified electrode, as well as its efficiency for the electrocatalytic oxidation of levodopa, is described. The electrode was employed to study the electrocatalytic oxidation of levodopa, using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CHA), and square-wave voltammetry (SWV) as diagnostic techniques. It has been found that the oxidation of levodopa at the surface of the modified electrode occurs at a potential of about 370 mV less positive than that of an unmodified carbon paste electrode. The SWV results exhibit a linear dynamic range from 1.0 × 10(-7) M to 7.0 × 10(-5) M and a detection limit of 3.5 × 10(-8) M for levodopa. In addition, this modified electrode was used for the simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa. Finally, the modified electrode was used for the determination of levodopa and carbidopa in some real samples. PMID:25014312

  12. Electronic nose based on multipatterns of ZnO nanorods on a quartz resonator with remote electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wooree; Jung, Namchul; Lee, Moonchan; Yun, Minhyuk; Jeon, Sangmin

    2013-08-27

    An electrodeless monolithic multichannel quartz crystal microbalance (MQCM) sensor was developed via the direct growth of ZnO nanorod patterns of various sizes onto an electrodeless quartz crystal plate. The patterned ZnO nanorods acted as independent resonators with different frequencies upon exposure to an electric field. The added mass of ZnO nanostructures was found to significantly enhance the quality factor (QF) of the resonator in electrodeless QCM configuration. The QF increased with the length of the ZnO nanorods; ZnO nanorods 5 μm in length yielded a 7-fold higher QF compared to the QF of a quartz plate without ZnO nanorods. In addition, the ZnO nanorods offered enhanced sensitivity due to the enlarged sensing area. The developed sensor was used as an electronic nose for detection of vapor mixtures with impurities. PMID:23883314

  13. Democratization of Nanoscale Imaging and Sensing Tools Using Photonics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Providing means for researchers and citizen scientists in the developing world to perform advanced measurements with nanoscale precision can help to accelerate the rate of discovery and invention as well as improve higher education and the training of the next generation of scientists and engineers worldwide. Here, we review some of the recent progress toward making optical nanoscale measurement tools more cost-effective, field-portable, and accessible to a significantly larger group of researchers and educators. We divide our review into two main sections: label-based nanoscale imaging and sensing tools, which primarily involve fluorescent approaches, and label-free nanoscale measurement tools, which include light scattering sensors, interferometric methods, photonic crystal sensors, and plasmonic sensors. For each of these areas, we have primarily focused on approaches that have either demonstrated operation outside of a traditional laboratory setting, including for example integration with mobile phones, or exhibited the potential for such operation in the near future. PMID:26068279

  14. Effect of gas sensing properties by Sn-Rh codoped ZnO nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ziwei; Lin, Zhidong; Xu, Mengying; Hong, Yuyuan; Li, Na; Fu, Ping; Chen, Ze

    2016-05-01

    The hierarchically porous Sn-Rh codoped ZnO, Sn-doped ZnO and pure ZnO nanosheets have been successfully synthesized through a simple hydrothermal reaction process without any surfactant or template at 180°C. The morphology and composition were carefully characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, field emission scanning electronic microscopy and BET. The gas-sensing testing results indicated that the Sn-Rh codoped ZnO nanosheets, with the specific surface area was 26.9 m2/g, exhibited enhanced gas-sensing performance compared with that of pure ZnO and Sn-doped ZnO. The high sensitivity of the sensor based on Sn-Rh codoped ZnO was 149.38 to 100 ppm ethanol and the detection limit was less than 5 ppm (5.8). The response and recovery times were measured to be ˜3 s and ˜10 s when exposed to 100 ppm ethanol at the test temperature of 300°C. The good sensing performance of the Sn-Rh codoped ZnO sensor indicated that hierarchically porous Sn-Rh codoped ZnO could be a promising candidate for highly sensitive gas sensors. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Nanoscale surface photoreactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, Garrett Austin

    Subnanometer-scale properties of molecules and materials have become extremely important to the development of nanoscale and molecular electronics devices, including advanced biological and chemical sensors. The energies (i.e., wavelengths) at which the LSPRs of individual nanoparticles are excited varies depending on their size, thickness, and shape, all of which can be controlled synthetically. Photon-coupled scanning tunneling microscopy uses a total internal reflection scheme to couple light into a tunneling junction, generating this specific LSPR in individual Au and Ag nanoprisms. By controlling and coupling this specific excitation to molecular assemblies, the effective photoreactivities and photoconductances of organic molecules can be measured and manipulated. Nanoparticle synthesis methods were developed to produce nanoprisms with appropriate dimensions and homogeneity. Functionalization of the sample surface using alkanedithiols and p-terphenyl-4,4"-dithiol enabled the adsorption dispersion of nanoprisms onto substrates with high density yet minimal stacking. Insertion into self-assembled monolayers was used to arrange single molecules on Au{111} and Ag{111} nanoprisms for selective surface plasmonic enhancement. Scanning tunneling microscopy measurements were collected for molecules adsorbed on the dispersed nanoprisms. Photon STM will be used to monitor the photoactivities of molecules on these substrates, such as photocurrent, photoconductance, and photoreaction.

  16. Nanophotoactivity of Porphyrin Functionalized Polycrystalline ZnO Films.

    PubMed

    Rogero, Celia; Pickup, David F; Colchero, Jaime; Azaceta, Eneko; Tena-Zaera, Ramón; Palacios-Lidón, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy in darkness and under illumination is reported to provide nanoscale-resolved surface photovoltage maps of hybrid materials. In particular, nanoscale charge injection and charge recombination mechanisms occurring in ZnO polycrystalline surfaces functionalized with Protoporphyrin IX (H2PPIX) are analyzed. Local surface potential and surface photovoltage maps not only reveal that upon molecular adsorption the bare ZnO work function increases, but also they allow study of its local dependence. Nanometer-sized regions not correlated with apparent topographic features were identified, presenting values significantly different from the average work function. Depending on the region, the response to the light excitation is different, distinguishing two relaxation processes, one faster than the other. This behavior can be explained in terms of electrons trapped closed to the molecule-semiconductor interface or electrons pushed into the ZnO bulk, respectively. Moreover, the origin of these differences is correlated with the H2PPIX-ZnO bonding and molecules configuration and aggregation. The chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) coadsorption leads to a more homogeneous surface potential distribution, confirming the antiaggregate effect of this additive, while the surface photovoltage is mostly dominated by the slow relaxation component. This work reveals the complexity of real device architectures with ill-defined surfaces even in a relatively simple system with only one type of dye molecule and hightlights the importance of nanoscale characterization with appropriate tools. PMID:27303943

  17. UV and humidity sensing properties of ZnO nanorods prepared by the arc discharge method.

    PubMed

    Fang, F; Futter, J; Markwitz, A; Kennedy, J

    2009-06-17

    The UV and humidity sensing properties of ZnO nanorods prepared by arc discharge have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy were carried out to analyze the morphology and optical properties of the as-synthesized ZnO nanorods. Proton induced x-ray emission was used to probe the impurities in the ZnO nanorods. A large quantity of high purity ZnO nanorod structures were obtained with lengths of 0.5-1 microm. The diameters of the as-synthesized ZnO nanorods were found to be between 40 and 400 nm. The nanorods interlace with each other, forming 3D networks which make them suitable for sensing application. The addition of a polymeric film-forming agent (BASF LUVISKOL VA 64) improved the conductivity, as it facilitates the construction of conducting networks. Ultrasonication helped to separate the ZnO nanorods and disperse them evenly through the polymeric agent. Improved photoconductivity was measured for a ZnO nanorod sensor annealed in air at 200 degrees C for 30 min. The ZnO nanorod sensors showed a UV-sensitive photoconduction, where the photocurrent increased by nearly four orders of magnitude from 2.7 x 10(-10) to 1.0 x 10(-6) A at 18 V under 340 nm UV illumination. High humidity sensitivity and good stability were also measured. The resistance of the ZnO nanorod sensor decreased almost linearly with increasing relative humidity (RH). The resistance of the ZnO nanorods changed by approximately five orders of magnitude from 4.35 x 10(11) Omega in dry air (7% RH) to about 4.95 x 10(6) Omega in 95% RH air. It is experimentally demonstrated that ZnO nanorods obtained by the arc discharge method show excellent performance and promise for applications in both UV and humidity sensors. PMID:19468159

  18. Design of a nanoscale time-of-flight sensor and an integrated multiscale module for the point-of-care diagnosis of stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrus, Matthew

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States, however, there remains no rapid diagnostic test for differentiating between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke within the three-hour treatment window. Here we describe the design of a multiscale microfluidic module with an embedded time-of-flight nanosensor for the clinical diagnosis of stroke. The nanosensor described utilizes two synthetic pores in series, relying on resistive pulse sensing (RPS) to measure the passage of molecules through the time-of-flight tube. Once the nanosensor design was completed, a multiscale module to process patient samples and house the sensors was designed in a similar iterative process. This design utilized pillar arrays, called "pixels" to immobilize oligonucleotides from patient samples for ligase detection reactions (LDR) to be carried out. COMSOL simulations were performed to understand the operation and behavior of both the nanosensor and the modular chip once the designs were completed.

  19. In situ probing electrical response on bending of ZnO nanowires inside transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. H.; Gao, P.; Xu, Z.; Bai, X. D.; Wang, E. G.

    2008-05-01

    In situ electrical transport measurements on individual bent ZnO nanowires have been performed inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope, where the crystal structures of ZnO nanowires were simultaneously imaged. A series of consecutively recorded current-voltage (I-V) curves along with an increase in nanowire bending show the striking effect of bending on their electrical behavior. The bending-induced changes of resistivity, electron concentration, and carrier mobility of ZnO nanowires have been retrieved based on the experimental I-V data, which suggests the applications of ZnO nanowires as nanoelectromechanical sensors.

  20. Effect of morphology on the non-ohmic conduction in ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, E.; Jayakumar, K.

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructures of ZnO is synthesized with nanoflower like morphology by simple wet chemical method. The structural, morphological and electrical characterization have been carried out. The temperature dependent electrical characterization of ZnO pellets of thickness 1150 µm is made by the application of 925MPa pressure. The morphological dependence of non-ohmic conduction beyond some arbitrary tunneling potential and grain boundary barrier thickness is compared with the commercially available bulk ZnO. Our results show the suitability of nano-flower like ZnO for the devices like sensors, rectifiers etc.

  1. AlGaN/GaN HEMT And ZnO nanorod-based sensors for chemical and bio-applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, B. H.; Kang, B. S.; Wang, H. T.; Chang, C. Y.; Lele, T.,; Tseng, Y.; Goh, A.; Sciullo, A.; Wu, W. S.; Lin, J. N.; Gila, B. P.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.; Ren, F.

    2009-02-01

    Chemical sensors can be used to analyze a wide variety of environmental and biological gases and liquids and may need to be able to selectively detect a target analyte. Different methods, including gas chromatography (GC), chemiluminescence, selected ion flow tube (SIFT), and mass spectroscopy (MS) have been used to measure biomarkers. These methods show variable results in terms of sensitivity for some applications and may not meet the requirements for a handheld biosensor. A promising sensing technology utilizes AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). HEMT structures have been developed for use in microwave power amplifiers due to their high two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility and saturation velocity. The conducting 2DEG channel of GaN/AlGaN HEMTs is very close to the surface and extremely sensitive to adsorption of analytes. HEMT sensors can be used for detecting gases, ions, pH values, proteins, and DNA. In this paper we review recent progress on functionalizing the surface of HEMTs for specific detection of glucose, kidney marker injury molecules, prostate cancer and other common substances of interest in the biomedical field.

  2. Towards high-performance, low-cost quartz sensors with high-density, well-separated, vertically aligned ZnO nanowires by low-temperature, seed-less, single-step, double-sided growth.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Andrea; Medaglia, Pier Gianni; Scarpellini, David; Pizzoferrato, Roberto; Falconi, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Resonant sensors with nanostructured surfaces have long been considered as an emergent platform for high-sensitivity transduction because of the potentially very large sensing areas. Nevertheless, until now only complex, time-consuming, expensive and sub-optimal fabrication procedures have been described; in fact, especially with reference to in-liquid applications, very few devices have been reported. Here, we first demonstrate that, by immersing standard, ultra-low-cost quartz resonators with un-polished silver electrodes in a conventional zinc nitrate/HMTA equimolar nutrient solution, the gentle contamination from the metallic package allows direct growth on the electrodes of arrays of high-density (up to 10 μm⁻²) and well-separated (no fusion at the roots) ZnO nanowires without any seed layer or thermal annealing. The combination of high-density and good separation is ideal for increasing the sensing area; moreover, this uniquely simple, single-step process is suitable for conventional, ultra-low-cost and high-frequency quartzes, and results in devices that are already packaged and ready to use. As an additional advantage, the process parameters can be effectively optimized by measuring the quartz admittance before and after growth. As a preliminary test, we show that the sensitivity to the liquid properties of high-frequency (i.e. high sensitivity) quartzes can be further increased by nearly one order of magnitude and thus show the highest ever reported frequency shifts of an admittance resonance in response to immersion in both ethanol and water. PMID:23924776

  3. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonally patterned quasi-1D ZnO nanowire arrays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) ZnO nanowire arrays with hexagonal pattern have been successfully synthesized via the vapor transport process without any metal catalyst. By utilizing polystyrene microsphere self-assembled monolayer, sol–gel-derived ZnO thin films were used as the periodic nucleation sites for the growth of ZnO nanowires. High-quality quasi-1D ZnO nanowires were grown from nucleation sites, and the original hexagonal periodicity is well-preserved. According to the experimental results, the vapor transport solid condensation mechanism was proposed, in which the sol–gel-derived ZnO film acting as a seed layer for nucleation. This simple method provides a favorable way to form quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures applicable to diverse fields such as two-dimensional photonic crystal, nanolaser, sensor arrays, and other optoelectronic devices. PMID:24521308

  4. Fabrication and gas-sensing properties of hierarchical ZnO replica using down as template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zikui; Li, Songzhan; Xu, Jie; Zhou, Yingshan; Gu, Shaojin; Tao, Yongzhen; Liu, Li; Fang, Dong; Xu, Weilin

    2016-06-01

    Hierarchical ZnO replica using down as template fabricated by a combination of low-temperature plasma treatment and sonochemical method was used in gas sensor for the detection of ethanol and formaldehyde. The morphologies and crystal structures of the hierarchical ZnO replica were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Results showed that the hierarchical ZnO replica retained the initial down morphology and consisted of hexagonal wurtzite structure ZnO nanocrystals. The results of resistance-temperature characteristics and responses to ethanol and formaldehyde indicated that the hierarchical ZnO film had low activation energy (0.1118 eV) and a low optimum operating temperature and that the response time was longer than recovery time. These behaviors were well explained in relation to three-dimensional network structures and the high specific surface area of the hierarchical ZnO replica.

  5. Traceable nanoscale measurement at NML-SIRIM

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlan, Ahmad M.; Abdul Hapip, A. I.

    2012-06-29

    The role of national metrology institute (NMI) has always been very crucial in national technology development. One of the key activities of the NMI is to provide traceable measurement in all parameters under the International System of Units (SI). Dimensional measurement where size and shape are two important features investigated, is one of the important area covered by NMIs. To support the national technology development, particularly in manufacturing sectors and emerging technology such nanotechnology, the National Metrology Laboratory, SIRIM Berhad (NML-SIRIM), has embarked on a project to equip Malaysia with state-of-the-art nanoscale measurement facility with the aims of providing traceability of measurement at nanoscale. This paper will look into some of the results from current activities at NML-SIRIM related to measurement at nanoscale particularly on application of atomic force microscope (AFM) and laser based sensor in dimensional measurement. Step height standards of different sizes were measured using AFM and laser-based sensors. These probes are integrated into a long-range nanoscale measuring machine traceable to the international definition of the meter thus ensuring their traceability. Consistency of results obtained by these two methods will be discussed and presented. Factors affecting their measurements as well as their related uncertainty of measurements will also be presented.

  6. Nanoscale Materials? What They Could Do for Sensing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sliman, Ginny M.

    2006-02-01

    The unique characteristics of nanoscale materials make them a perfect fit for the sensor world. Integrating these materials into existing sensors can increase the sensitivity, selectivity and speed of the sensor—all of which could translate into enormous leaps in sensor performance. In addition, their high surface area and low volume provide a perfect setup for sensor miniaturization. Researchers at the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are integrating functionalized nanoporous silica and carbon nanotubes—both nanoscale materials—into a variety of sensor applications to meet urgent needs in fields ranging from biomedicine and environmental remediation to national security. The scientists’ goal is to set the stage for developing a miniaturized sensor that uses the smallest sample possible to detect the smallest concentration possible of molecules of interest.

  7. Reducing ZnO nanoparticle cytotoxicity by surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Mingdeng; Shen, Cenchao; Feltis, Bryce N.; Martin, Lisandra L.; Hughes, Anthony E.; Wright, Paul F. A.; Turney, Terence W.

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticulate zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the most widely used engineered nanomaterials and its toxicology has gained considerable recent attention. A key aspect for controlling biological interactions at the nanoscale is understanding the relevant nanoparticle surface chemistry. In this study, we have determined the disposition of ZnO nanoparticles within human immune cells by measurement of total Zn, as well as the proportions of extra- and intracellular dissolved Zn as a function of dose and surface coating. From this mass balance, the intracellular soluble Zn levels showed little difference in regard to dose above a certain minimal level or to different surface coatings. PEGylation of ZnO NPs reduced their cytotoxicity as a result of decreased cellular uptake arising from a minimal protein corona. We conclude that the key role of the surface properties of ZnO NPs in controlling cytotoxicity is to regulate cellular nanoparticle uptake rather than altering either intracellular or extracellular Zn dissolution.Nanoparticulate zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the most widely used engineered nanomaterials and its toxicology has gained considerable recent attention. A key aspect for controlling biological interactions at the nanoscale is understanding the relevant nanoparticle surface chemistry. In this study, we have determined the disposition of ZnO nanoparticles within human immune cells by measurement of total Zn, as well as the proportions of extra- and intracellular dissolved Zn as a function of dose and surface coating. From this mass balance, the intracellular soluble Zn levels showed little difference in regard to dose above a certain minimal level or to different surface coatings. PEGylation of ZnO NPs reduced their cytotoxicity as a result of decreased cellular uptake arising from a minimal protein corona. We conclude that the key role of the surface properties of ZnO NPs in controlling cytotoxicity is to regulate cellular nanoparticle uptake rather than

  8. ZnO Thin Film Electronics for More than Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Jose Israel

    discharging time constants. Finally, to circumvent fabrication challenges on predetermined complex shapes, like curved mirror optics, a technique to transfer electronics from a rigid substrate to a flexible substrate is used. This technique allows various thin films, regardless of their deposition temperature, to be transferred to flexible substrates. Finally, ultra-low power operation of ZnO TFT gas sensors was demonstrated. The ZnO ozone sensors were optimized to operate with excellent electrical stability in ambient conditions, without using elevated temperatures, while still providing good gas sensitivity. This was achieved by using a post-deposition anneal and by partially passivating the contact regions while leaving the semiconductor sensing area open to the ambient. A novel technique to reset the gas sensor using periodic pulsing of a UV light over the sensor results in less than 25 milliseconds recovery time. A pathway to achieve gas selectivity by using organic thin-film layers as filters deposited over the gas sensors tis demonstrated. The ZnO ozone sensor TFTs and the UV light operate at room temperature with an average power below 1 muW.

  9. Surface-assisted unidirectional orientation of ZnO nanorods hybridized with nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Shoichi; Taguchi, Rei; Hadano, Shingo; Narita, Mamiko; Watanabe, Osamu; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2014-01-22

    Inorganic semiconductor nanorods are regarded as the primary components of optical and electrical nanoscale devices. In this paper, we demonstrate the unidirectional alignment of monolayered and dispersed ZnO nanorods on a rubbed polyimide alignment layer, which was achieved by a conventional liquid crystal alignment technique. The outermost surfaces of the ZnO nanorods (average diameter 7 nm; length 50 nm) were modified by polymerization initiator moieties, and nematic liquid crystalline (LC) methacrylate polymers were grown by atom transfer radical polymerization. By regulating the densities of the polymerization initiator moieties, we successfully hybridized LC-polymer-grafted ZnO nanorods and small nematic LC molecules. The LC-polymer-modified ZnO nanorods were hierarchically aligned on the substrate via cooperative molecular interactions among the liquid crystal mesogens, which induced molecular orientation on the rubbed polyimide alignment layer. PMID:24299205

  10. Electrochemical route to the synthesis of ZnO microstructures: its nestlike structure and holding of Ag particles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A simple and facile electrochemical route was developed for the shape-selective synthesis of large-scaled series of ZnO microstructures, including petal, flower, sphere, nest and clew aggregates of ZnO laminas at room temperature. This route is based on sodium citrate-directed crystallization. In the system, sodium citrate can greatly promote ZnO to nucleate and directly grow by selectively capping the specific ZnO facets because of its excellent adsorption ability. The morphology of ZnO is tuned by readily adjusting the concentration of sodium citrate and the electrodeposition time. Among the series structures, the remarkable ZnO nestlike structure can be used as a container to hold not only the interlaced ZnO laminas but also Ag nanoparticles in the center. The special heterostructures of nestlike ZnO holding Ag nanoparticles were found to display the superior properties on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering. This work has signified an important methodology to produce a wide assortment of desired microstructures of ZnO. PACS 81 Materials science 81.07.-b nanoscale materials and structures Fabrication Characterization 81.15.-z Methods of deposition of films Coatings Film growth and epitaxy. PMID:23414592

  11. DIET at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujardin, G.; Boer-Duchemin, E.; Le Moal, E.; Mayne, A. J.; Riedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    We review the long evolution of DIET (Dynamics at surfaces Induced by Electronic Transitions) that began in the 1960s when Menzel, Gomer and Redhead proposed their famous stimulated desorption model. DIET entered the "nanoscale" in the 1990s when researchers at Bell Labs and IBM realized that the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) could be used as an atomic size source of electrons to electronically excite individual atoms and molecules on surfaces. Resonant and radiant Inelastic Electron Tunneling (IET) using the STM have considerably enlarged the range of applications of DIET. Nowadays, "DIET at the nanoscale" covers a broad range of phenomena at the atomic-scale. This includes molecular dynamics (dissociation, desorption, isomerization, displacement, chemical reactions), vibrational spectroscopy and dynamics, spin spectroscopy and manipulation, luminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and plasmonics. Future trends of DIET at the nanoscale offer exciting prospects for new methods to control light and matter at the nanoscale.

  12. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Various Hierarchical ZnO Nanostructures and Their Methane Sensing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qu; Chen, Weigen; Xu, Lingna; Peng, Shudi

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanorods, net-like ZnO nanofibers and ZnO nanobulks have been successfully synthesized via a surfactant assisted hydrothemal method. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. A possible growth mechanism of the various hierarchical ZnO nanostructures is discussed in detail. Gas sensors based on the as-prepared ZnO nanostructures were fabricated by screen-printing on a flat ceramic substrate. Furthermore, their gas sensing characteristics towards methane were systematically investigated. Methane is an important characteristic hydrocarbon contaminant found dissolved in power transformer oil as a result of faults. We find that the hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanorods and net-like ZnO nanofibers samples show higher gas response and lower operating temperature with rapid response-recovery time compared to those of sensors based on ZnO nanobulks. These results present a feasible way of exploring high performance sensing materials for on-site detection of characteristic fault gases dissolved in transformer oil. PMID:23666136

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis of various hierarchical ZnO nanostructures and their methane sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qu; Chen, Weigen; Xu, Lingna; Peng, Shudi

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanorods, net-like ZnO nanofibers and ZnO nanobulks have been successfully synthesized via a surfactant assisted hydrothemal method. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. A possible growth mechanism of the various hierarchical ZnO nanostructures is discussed in detail. Gas sensors based on the as-prepared ZnO nanostructures were fabricated by screen-printing on a flat ceramic substrate. Furthermore, their gas sensing characteristics towards methane were systematically investigated. Methane is an important characteristic hydrocarbon contaminant found dissolved in power transformer oil as a result of faults. We find that the hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanorods and net-like ZnO nanofibers samples show higher gas response and lower operating temperature with rapid response-recovery time compared to those of sensors based on ZnO nanobulks. These results present a feasible way of exploring high performance sensing materials for on-site detection of characteristic fault gases dissolved in transformer oil. PMID:23666136

  14. Photoluminescence of Sequential Infiltration Synthesized ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocola, Leonidas; Gosztola, David; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Connolly, Aine

    We have investigated a variation of atomic layer deposition (ALD), called sequential infiltration synthesis (SiS), as an alternate method to incorporate ZnO and other oxides inside polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and other polymers. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results show that we synthesize ZnO up to 300 nm inside a PMMA film. Photoluminescence data on a PMMA film shows that we achieve a factor of 400X increase in photoluminescence (PL) intensity when comparing a blank Si sample and a 270 nm thick PMMA film, where both were treated with the same 12 alternating cycles of H2O and diethyl zinc (DEZ). PMMA is a well-known ebeam resist. We can expose and develop patterns useful for photonics or sensing applications first, and then convert them afterwards into a hybrid polymer-oxide material. We show that patterning does indeed affect the photoluminescence signature of native ZnO. We demonstrate we can track the growth of the ZnO inside the PMMA polymer using both photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy and determine the point in the process where ZnO is first photoluminescent and also at which point ZnO first exhibits long range order in the polymer. This work was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  15. ZnO Functionalization of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes for Methane Sensing at Single Parts Per Million Concentration Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a novel atomic layer deposition (ALD) based ZnO functionalization of surface pre-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for highly sensitive methane chemoresistive sensors. The temperature optimization of the ALD process leads to enhanced ZnO nanopart...

  16. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2015-04-01

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.

  17. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin; Masudi, Sam’an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2015-04-24

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.

  18. Hydrothermal Synthesis of ZnO Structures Formed by High-Aspect-Ratio Nanowires for Acetone Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhen; Wang, Yong; Li, Zhanguo; Yu, Naisen

    2016-07-01

    Snowflake-like ZnO structures originating from self-assembled nanowires were prepared by a low-temperature aqueous solution method. The as-grown hierarchical ZnO structures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results showed that the snowflake-like ZnO structures were composed of high-aspect-ratio nanowires. Furthermore, gas-sensing properties to various testing gases of 10 and 50 ppm were measured, which confirms that the ZnO structures were of good selectivity and response to acetone and could serve for acetone sensor to detect low-concentration acetone.

  19. Multi-Frequency Band Pyroelectric Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Liu, Sheng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for designing a multi-frequency band pyroelectric sensor which can detect subjects with various frequencies or velocities. A structure with dual pyroelectric layers, consisting of a thinner sputtered ZnO layer and a thicker aerosol ZnO layer, proved helpful in the development of the proposed sensor. The thinner sputtered ZnO layer with a small thermal capacity and a rapid response accomplishes a high-frequency sensing task, while the thicker aerosol ZnO layer with a large thermal capacity and a tardy response is responsible for low-frequency sensing tasks. A multi-frequency band pyroelectric sensor is successfully designed, analyzed and fabricated in the present study. The range of the multi-frequency sensing can be estimated by means of the proposed design and analysis to match the thicknesses of the sputtered and the aerosol ZnO layers. The fabricated multi-frequency band pyroelectric sensor with a 1 μm thick sputtered ZnO layer and a 20 μm thick aerosol ZnO layer can sense a frequency band from 4000 to 40,000 Hz without tardy response and low voltage responsivity. PMID:25429406

  20. Directing energy flow through quantum dots: towards nanoscale sensing.

    PubMed

    Willard, Dale M; Mutschler, Tina; Yu, Ming; Jung, Jaemyeong; Van Orden, Alan

    2006-02-01

    Nanoscale sensors can be created when an expected energetic pathway is created and then that pathway is either initiated or disrupted by a specific binding event. Constructing the sensor on the nanoscale could lead to greater sensitivity and lower limits of detection. To this end, quantum dots (QDs) can be considered prime candidates for the active components. Relative to organic chromophores, QDs have tunable spectral properties, show less susceptibility to photobleaching, have similar brightness, and have been shown to display electro-optical properties. In this review, we discuss recent articles that incorporate QDs into directed energy flow systems, some with the goal of building new and more powerful sensors and others that could lead to more powerful sensors. PMID:16440194

  1. Excellent acetone sensing properties of porous ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang-Bai; Liu, Xing-Yi; Wang, Sheng-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Porous ZnO was obtained by hydrothermal method. The results of scanning electron microscope revealed the porous structure in the as-prepared materials. The acetone sensing test results of porous ZnO show that porous ZnO possesses excellent acetone gas sensing properties. The response is 35.5 at the optimum operating temperature of 320 °C to 100 ppm acetone. The response and recovery times to 50 ppm acetone are 2 s and 8 s, respectively. The lowest detecting limit to acetone is 0.25 ppm, and the response value is 3.8. Moreover, the sensors also exhibit excellent selectivity and long-time stability to acetone. Projected supported by the Project of Challenge Cup for College Students, China (Grant No. 450060497053).

  2. ZnO Nanoparticles Affect Bacillus subtilis Cell Growth and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Ke, Wan-Ju; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Lin, Kuen-Song; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Chiang, Chao-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are an important antimicrobial additive in many industrial applications. However, mass-produced ZnO NPs are ultimately disposed of in the environment, which can threaten soil-dwelling microorganisms that play important roles in biodegradation, nutrient recycling, plant protection, and ecological balance. This study sought to understand how ZnO NPs affect Bacillus subtilis, a plant-beneficial bacterium ubiquitously found in soil. The impact of ZnO NPs on B. subtilis growth, FtsZ ring formation, cytosolic protein activity, and biofilm formation were assessed, and our results show that B. subtilis growth is inhibited by high concentrations of ZnO NPs (≥ 50 ppm), with cells exhibiting a prolonged lag phase and delayed medial FtsZ ring formation. RedoxSensor and Phag-GFP fluorescence data further show that at ZnO-NP concentrations above 50 ppm, B. subtilis reductase activity, membrane stability, and protein expression all decrease. SDS-PAGE Stains-All staining results and FT-IR data further demonstrate that ZnO NPs negatively affect exopolysaccharide production. Moreover, it was found that B. subtilis biofilm surface structures became smooth under ZnO-NP concentrations of only 5–10 ppm, with concentrations ≤ 25 ppm significantly reducing biofilm formation activity. XANES and EXAFS spectra analysis further confirmed the presence of ZnO in co-cultured B. subtilis cells, which suggests penetration of cell membranes by either ZnO NPs or toxic Zn+ ions from ionized ZnO NPs, the latter of which may be deionized to ZnO within bacterial cells. Together, these results demonstrate that ZnO NPs can affect B. subtilis viability through the inhibition of cell growth, cytosolic protein expression, and biofilm formation, and suggest that future ZnO-NP waste management strategies would do well to mitigate the potential environmental impact engendered by the disposal of these nanoparticles. PMID:26039692

  3. Optical and morphological properties of graphene sheets decorated with ZnO nanowires via polyol enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Vinay Rajaura, Rajveer Singh; Sharma, Preetam K.; Srivastava, Subodh; Vijay, Y. K.; Sharma, S. S.

    2014-04-24

    Graphene-ZnO nanocomposites have proven to be very useful materials for photovoltaic and sensor applications. Here, we report a facile, one-step in situ polymerization method for synthesis of graphene sheets randomly decorated with zinc oxide nanowires using ethylene glycol as solvent. We have used hydrothermal treatment for growth of ZnO nanowires. UV-visible spectra peak shifting around 288nm and 307 nm shows the presence of ZnO on graphene structure. Photoluminiscence spectra (PL) in 400nm-500nm region exhibits the luminescence quenching effect. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image confirms the growth of ZnO nanowires on graphene sheets.

  4. Fabrication of nanostructured Al-doped ZnO thin film for methane sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafura, A. K.; Sin, N. D. Md.; Azhar, N. E. I.; Saurdi, I.; Uzer, M.; Mamat, M. H.; Shuhaimi, A.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    CH4 gas sensor was fabricated using spin-coating method of the nanostructured ZnO thin film. Effect of annealing temperature on the electrical and structural properties of the film was investigated. Dense nanostructured ZnO film are obtained at higher annealing temperature. The optimal condition of annealing temperature is 500°C which has conductivity and sensitivity value of 3.3 × 10-3 S/cm and 11.5%, respectively.

  5. Synthesis of ZnO nanowires and their applications as an ultraviolet photodetector.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Wang-Hua; Li, Yuan-Yao

    2009-05-01

    High purity ZnO nanowire arrays were synthesized uniformly on a 1.5 cm x 2 cm tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) glass substrate. The ZnO nanowire arrays were formed with a uniform diameter distribution of 30-50 nm and a length of about 5 microm, synthesized via thermal decomposition of zinc acetate at 300 degrees C in air. Analysis by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the ZnO nanowires are of single crystal structure with a preferred growth orientation of [001]. A study of the growth mechanism showed that it is a vapor-solid (VS) growth process. The synthesis of these nanowires begins with the processes of dehydration, vaporization, decomposition, and oxidation of the zinc acetate. Next, the ZnO clusters are deposited to form seeds that give rise to selective epitaxial growth of the ZnO nanowires. Optical analysis of ZnO nanowires was performed by UV-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometry, investigating both the photocurrent characteristics and UV photoresponse of the ZnO nanowire photodetectors. A study of optical properties showed that the as-produced ZnO nanowires have great potential as UV photodetectors/sensors. PMID:19452935

  6. Cytotoxic effects of ZnO hierarchical architectures on RSC96 Schwann cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yixia; Lin, Qiang; Sun, Haiming; Chen, Dan; Wu, Qingzhi; Chen, Xiaohui; Li, Shipu

    2012-08-01

    The alteration in intracellular Zn2+ homeostasis is attributed to the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which subsequently results in oxidative damage of organelles and cell apoptosis. In this work, the neurotoxic effects of ZnO hierarchical architectures (nanoparticles and microspheres, the prism-like and flower-like structures) were evaluated through the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay using RSC96 Schwann cells as the model. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were detected using flow cytometry. The concentration of Zn2+ in the culture media was monitored using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results show that ZnO nanoparticles and microspheres displayed significant cytotoxic effects on RSC96 Schwann cells in dose- and time-dependent manners, whereas no or low cytotoxic effect was observed when the cells were treated with the prism-like and flower-like ZnO. A remarkable cell apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest were observed when RSC96 Schwann cells were exposed to ZnO nanoparticles and microspheres at a dose of 80 μg/mL for 12 h. The time-dependent increase of Zn2+ concentration in the culture media suggests that the cytotoxic effects were associated with the decomposition of ZnO hierarchical architecture and the subsequent release of Zn2+. These results provide new insights into the cytotoxic effects of complex ZnO architectures, which could be prominently dominated by nanoscale building blocks.

  7. Structural and morphological characterizations of ZnO nanopowder synthesized by hydrothermal route using inorganic reactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouadi, D.; Meddouri, M.; Chelouche, A.; Hammiche, L.; Aksas, A.

    2014-12-01

    Zinc oxide nanoscale powder has been synthesized by a hydrothermal route using zinc sulfate and sodium hydroxide. The as-prepared powder was annealed at 600 °C for 2 h and then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and infra-red Fourier transformed spectroscopy. XRD measurements have shown a ZnO hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structure with good crystallinity and the formation of a new sodium pyrosulfate phase in the as-prepared powder. The annealing improves the crystalline quality of the powder and transforms the sodium pyrosulfate phase to a sodium sulfate one. The thermal treatment does not affect the lattice parameters and the Zn-O bond length but improves the random orientation of the ZnO crystallites growth. ZnO crystallites have an interconnected-nano-needles morphology forming irregular shaped aggregates. The size of the crystallites is about 20 nm. EDX analysis has shown the presence of C and S in addition to Zn and O. FTIR spectra confirm the formation of ZnO and sodium sulfate. The synthesized ZnO powder has a very high crystalline quality and the used method is a very advantageous one for the fabrication of nanosized metal oxides from inorganic reactants for photo-catalysis applications.

  8. Gas sensing performance of nanocrystalline ZnO prepared by a simple route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murade, P. A.; Sangawar, V. S.; Chaudhari, G. N.; Kapse, V. D.; Bajpeyee, A. U.

    2013-08-01

    The nanocrystalline powders of pure and Al3+-doped ZnO with hexagonal structure were prepared by a simple hydrothermal decomposition route. The structure and crystal phase of the powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the microstructure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the compositions exhibited a single phase, suggesting a formation of solid solution between Al2O3 and ZnO. DC electrical properties of the prepared nanoparticles were studied by DC conductivity measurements. The indirect heating structure sensors based on pure and doped ZnO as sensitive materials were fabricated on an alumna tube with Au electrodes. Gas-sensing properties of the sensor elements were measured as a function of concentration of dopant, operating temperature and concentrations of the test gases. The pure ZnO exhibited high response to NH3 gas at an operating temperature of 200 °C. Doping of ZnO with Al3+ increased its response towards NH3 and the Al3+-doped ZnO (3.0 wt% Al2O3) showed the maximum response at 175 °C. The selectivity of the sensor elements for NH3 against different reducing gases like LPG, H2S and H2 was studied. The results on response and recovery time were also discussed.

  9. Nanoscale Semiconductor Devices as New Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, John; Parameswaran, Ramya; Tian, Bozhi

    2016-01-01

    Research on nanoscale semiconductor devices will elicit a novel understanding of biological systems. First, we discuss why it is necessary to build interfaces between cells and semiconductor nanoelectronics. Second, we describe some recent molecular biophysics studies with nanowire field effect transistor sensors. Third, we present the use of nanowire transistors as electrical recording devices that can be integrated into synthetic tissues and targeted intra- or extracellularly to study single cells. Lastly, we discuss future directions and challenges in further developing this area of research, which will advance biology and medicine. PMID:27213041

  10. "High Quantum Efficiency of Band-Edge Emission from ZnO Nanowires"

    SciTech Connect

    GARGAS, DANIEL; GAO, HANWEI; WANG, HUNGTA; PEIDONG, YANG

    2010-12-01

    External quantum efficiency (EQE) of photoluminescence as high as 20 percent from isolated ZnO nanowires were measured at room temperature. The EQE was found to be highly dependent on photoexcitation density, which underscores the importance of uniform optical excitation during the EQE measurement. An integrating sphere coupled to a microscopic imaging system was used in this work, which enabled the EQE measurement on isolated ZnO nanowires. The EQE values obtained here are significantly higher than those reported for ZnO materials in forms of bulk, thin films or powders. Additional insight on the radiative extraction factor of one-dimensional nanostructures was gained by measuring the internal quantum efficiency of individual nanowires. Such quantitative EQE measurements provide a sensitive, noninvasive method to characterize the optical properties of low-dimensional nanostructures and allow tuning of synthesis parameters for optimization of nanoscale materials.

  11. High quantum efficiency of band-edge emission from ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gargas, Daniel J; Gao, Hanwei; Wang, Hungta; Yang, Peidong

    2011-09-14

    External quantum efficiency (EQE) of photoluminescence as high as 20% from isolated ZnO nanowires were measured at room temperature. The EQE was found to be highly dependent on photoexcitation density, which underscores the importance of uniform optical excitation during the EQE measurement. An integrating sphere coupled to a microscopic imaging system was used in this work, which enabled the EQE measurement on isolated ZnO nanowires. The EQE values obtained here are significantly higher than those reported for ZnO materials in forms of bulk, thin films or powders. Additional insight on the radiative extraction factor of one-dimensional nanostructures was gained by measuring the internal quantum efficiency of individual nanowires. Such quantitative EQE measurements provide a sensitive, noninvasive method to characterize the optical properties of low-dimensional nanostructures and allow tuning of synthesis parameters for optimization of nanoscale materials. PMID:21859081

  12. Homojunction p-n photodiodes based on As-doped single ZnO nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H. D.; Zakirov, A. S.; Yuldashev, Sh. U.; Kang, T. W.; Ahn, C. W.; Yeo, Y. K.

    2013-12-04

    Photovoltaic device was successfully grown solely based on the single ZnO p-n homojunction nanowire. The ZnO nanowire p-n diode consists of an as-grown n-type segment and an in-situ arsenic doped p-type segment. This p-n homojunction acts as a good photovoltaic cell, producing a photocurrent almost 45 times larger than the dark current under reverse-biased condition. Our results demonstrate that present ZnO p-n homojunction nanowire can be used as a self-powered ultraviolet photodetector as well as a photovoltaic cell, which can also be used as an ultralow electrical power source for nano-scale electronic, optoelectronic, and medical devices.

  13. DNA in Nanoscale Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinker, Jason

    2012-10-01

    DNA, the quintessential molecule of life, possesses a number of attractive properties for use in nanoscale circuits. Charge transport (CT) through DNA itself is of both fundamental and practical interest. Fundamentally, DNA has a unique configuration of π-stacked bases in a well ordered, double helical structure. Given its unparalleled importance to life processes and its arrangement of conjugated subunits, DNA has been a compelling target of conductivity studies. In addition, further understanding of DNA CT will elucidate the biological implications of this process and advance its use in sensing technologies. We have investigated the fundamentals of DNA CT by measuring the electrochemistry of DNA monolayers under biologically-relevant conditions. We have uncovered both fundamental kinetic parameters to distinguish between competing models of operation as well as the practical implications of DNA CT for sensing. Furthermore, we are leveraging our studies of DNA conductivity for the manufacture of nanoscale circuits. We are investigating the electrical properties and self-assembly of DNA nanowires containing artificial base pair surrogates, which can be prepared through low cost and high throughput automated DNA synthesis. This unique and economically viable approach will establish a new paradigm for the scalable manufacture of nanoscale semiconductor devices.

  14. Piezotronic Effect Enhanced Label-Free Detection of DNA Using a Schottky-Contacted ZnO Nanowire Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaotao; Cao, Xia; Guo, Huijuan; Li, Tao; Jie, Yang; Wang, Ning; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-23

    A sensitive and in situ selective label-free DNA sensor based on a Schottky-contacted ZnO nanowire (NW) device has been developed and utilized to detect the human immunodeficiency virus 1 gene in this work. Piezotronic effect on the performance of the DNA sensor is studied by measuring its output current under different compressive strains and target complementary DNA concentrations. By applying a -0.59% compressive strain to a ZnO NW-based DNA sensor, the relative current response is greatly enhanced by 454%. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the observed behaviors of the DNA sensor. This study provides a piezotronically modified method to effectively improve the overall performance of the Schottky-contacted ZnO NW-based DNA sensor. PMID:27478905

  15. Gas sensing properties of Al-doped ZnO for UV-activated CO detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhahri, R.; Hjiri, M.; El Mir, L.; Bonavita, A.; Iannazzo, D.; Latino, M.; Donato, N.; Leonardi, S. G.; Neri, G.

    2016-04-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) samples were prepared using a modified sol-gel route and charaterized by means of trasmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence analysis. Resistive planar devices based on thick films of AZO deposited on interdigitated alumina substrates were fabricated and investigated as UV light activated CO sensors. CO sensing tests were performed in both dark and illumination condition by exposing the samples to UV radiation (λ  =  400 nm).Under UV light, Al-doped ZnO gas sensors operated at lower temperature than in dark. Furthermore, by photoactivation we also promoted CO sensitivity and made signal recovery of AZO sensors faster. Results demonstrate that Al-doped ZnO might be a promising sensing material for the detection of CO under UV illumination.

  16. ZnO Nanorod-Based Non-Enzymatic Optical Glucose Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Sachindra Nath; Nozaki, Shinji; Sahu, Surendra Nath

    2015-06-01

    The highly sensitive, interference-free and non-enzymatic optical sensing of glucose has been made possible for the first time using the hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanorods. The UV irradiation of glucose-treated ZnO nanorods decomposes glucose into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and gluconic acid by UV oxidation. The ZnO nanorods play the role of a catalyst similar to the oxidase used in the enzymatic glucose sensors. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the near-band edge emission of the ZnO nanorods linearly decreased with the increased concentration of H2O2. Therefore, the glucose concentration is monitored over the wide range of 0.5-30 mM, corresponding to 9-540 mg/dL. The concentration range of the linear region in the calibration curve is suitable for its clinical use as a glucose sensor, because the glucose concentration of human serum is typically in the range of 80-120 mg/dL. In addition, the optical glucose sensor made of the ZnO nanorods is free from interference by bovin serum albumin, ascorbic acid or uric acid, which are also present in human blood. The non-enzymatic ZnO-nanorod sensor has been demonstrated with human serum samples from both normal persons and diabetic patients. There is a good agreement between the glucose concentrations measured by the PL quenching and standard clinical methods. PMID:26353588

  17. Real time observation of ZnO nanostructure formation via the solid-vapor and solid-solid-vapor mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. J.; Kim, M. W.; Jang, J. S.; Stach, E. A.

    2014-05-01

    We report in situ transmission electron microscopy studies of the formation of ZnO nanostructures - nanoscale depressions, nanoholes, nanoribbons, and nanosheets - and the phase stability and kinetics of Au catalysts on ZnO. During annealing, the ZnO layer produces hexagonally shaped, vertical nanoscale depressions, which increase in size along the <0001> growth direction through preferential dissociation from the {101&cmb.macr;0} facet and which subsequently form hexagonal islands at their six-fold junctions. Real time observations of the annealing of Au deposited on ZnO show that the catalysts remain solid up to 900 °C, an observation that has implications regarding ZnO nanowire growth via the vapor-solid-solid mechanism (VSS). The Au also creates hexagonal nanoscale holes only at the location of solid Au catalysts, via the solid-solid-vapor (SSV) mechanism. Importantly, coarsening of the Au particles is negligible due to limited Au diffusion on the side facets of the nanoscale depressions, suggesting an approach to the growth of uniform hybrid nanowires with control over both diameter and location. Furthermore, we directly monitor the evolution of the transformation of a nanoribbon into a nanosheet with {101&cmb.macr;0} facets. This process takes place through a periodic, kinetic roughening transition of the surface, which is controlled by the kinetic competition between surface growth and the transfer of evaporated gases. In total, these observations give new insights into multiple growth processes occurring in this important materials system.We report in situ transmission electron microscopy studies of the formation of ZnO nanostructures - nanoscale depressions, nanoholes, nanoribbons, and nanosheets - and the phase stability and kinetics of Au catalysts on ZnO. During annealing, the ZnO layer produces hexagonally shaped, vertical nanoscale depressions, which increase in size along the <0001> growth direction through preferential dissociation from the {101

  18. Strategies for Controlled Placement of Nanoscale Building Blocks

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The capability of placing individual nanoscale building blocks on exact substrate locations in a controlled manner is one of the key requirements to realize future electronic, optical, and magnetic devices and sensors that are composed of such blocks. This article reviews some important advances in the strategies for controlled placement of nanoscale building blocks. In particular, we will overview template assisted placement that utilizes physical, molecular, or electrostatic templates, DNA-programmed assembly, placement using dielectrophoresis, approaches for non-close-packed assembly of spherical particles, and recent development of focused placement schemes including electrostatic funneling, focused placement via molecular gradient patterns, electrodynamic focusing of charged aerosols, and others. PMID:21794185

  19. Atomic-layer-deposited silver and dielectric nanostructures for plasmonic enhancement of Raman scattering from nanoscale ultrathin films.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chung-Ting; Yang, Po-Shuan; Han, Yin-Yi; Wang, Wei-Cheng; Huang, Jhih-Jie; Lee, Yen-Hui; Tsai, Yi-Jen; Shieh, Jay; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-07-01

    Plasmonic silver nanostructures and a precise ZnO cover layer prepared by capacitively coupled plasma atomic layer deposition (ALD) were exploited to enhance the Raman scattering from nanoscale ultrathin films on a Si substrate. The plasmonic activity was supported by a nanostructured Ag (nano-Ag) layer, and a ZnO cover layer was introduced upon the nano-Ag layer to spectrally tailor the localized surface plasmon resonance to coincide with the laser excitation wavelength. Because of the optimized dielectric environment provided by the precise growth of ZnO cover layer using ALD, the intensity of Raman scattering from nanoscale ultrathin films was significantly enhanced by an additional order of magnitude, leading to the observation of the monoclinic and tetragonal phases in the nanoscale ZrO2 high-K gate dielectric as thin as ∼6 nm on Si substrate. The excellent agreement between the finite-difference time-domain simulation and experimental measurement further confirms the so-called [absolute value]E(->)[absolute value](4) dependence of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering. This technique of plasmonic enhancement of Raman spectroscopy, assisted by the nano-Ag layer and optimized dielectric environment prepared by ALD, can be applied to characterize the structures of ultrathin films in a variety of nanoscale materials and devices, even on a Si substrate with overwhelming Raman background. PMID:26057412

  20. Synthesis, Characterization, and Gas Sensing Properties of Pure and Mn-doped ZnO Nanocrystalline Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saydi, J.; Karimi, M.; Mazhdi, M.; Seidi, J.; Mazhdi, F.

    2014-10-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnO and Mn (1 wt.%)-doped ZnO particles have been synthesized via reverse micelle method. The structural, particulate, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been studied by XRD, TEM, UV-Vis, and PL spectroscopy. The obtained data indicate the synthesis of the pure nanoparticles structure with wurtzite structure, average particle size of 18-21 nm, and high optical quality. Gas sensing properties of the nanocrystalline ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO particles toward gasoline and ethanol vapors have been investigated at different temperatures and concentrations. The results show that the optimum working temperature of the gas sensors based on ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO particles are about 633 and 620 K toward ethanol vapor and about 560 and 608 K toward gasoline vapor, respectively. Based on the results, although Mn impurities reduce the sensitivity of the ZnO gas sensor, they cause sensor to saturate at much higher gas concentration.

  1. A high power ZnO thin film piezoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Weiwei; Li, Tao; Li, Yutong; Qiu, Junwen; Ma, Xianjun; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A highly efficient and large area piezoelectric ZnO thin film nanogenerator (NG) was fabricated. The ZnO thin film was deposited onto a Si substrate by pulsed laser ablation at a substrate temperature of 500 °C. The deposited ZnO film exhibited a preferred c-axis orientation and a high piezoelectric value of 49.7 pm/V characterized using Piezoelectric Force Microscopy (PFM). Thin films of ZnO were patterned into rectangular power sources with dimensions of 0.5 × 0.5 cm2 with metallic top and bottom electrodes constructed via conventional semiconductor lithographic patterning processes. The NG units were subjected to periodic bending/unbending motions produced by mechanical impingement at a fixed frequency of 100 Hz at a pressure of 0.4 kg/cm2. The output electrical voltage, current density, and power density generated by one ZnO NG were recorded. Values of ∼95 mV, 35 μA cm-2 and 5.1 mW cm-2 were recorded. The level of power density is typical to that produced by a PZT NG on a flexible substrate. Higher energy NG sources can be easily created by adding more power units either in parallel or in series. The thin film ZnO NG technique is highly adaptable with current semiconductor processes, and as such, is easily integrated with signal collecting circuits that are compatible with mass production. A typical application would be using the power harvested from irregular human foot motions to either to operate blue LEDs directly or to drive a sensor network node in mille-power level without any external electric source and circuits.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Nanoscale Sorbents for Mercury Capture from Warm Fuel Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Raja A. Jadhav; Howard Meyer; Slawomir Winecki

    2006-03-01

    Several nanocrystalline sorbents were synthesized by GTI's subcontractor NanoScale Materials, Inc. (NanoScale) and submitted to GTI for evaluation. A total of seventeen sorbent formulations were synthesized and characterized by NanoScale, including four existing sorbent formulations (NanoActive{trademark} TiO{sub 2}, NanoActive CeO{sub 2}, NanoActive ZnO, and NanoActive CuO), three developmental nanocrystalline metal oxides (MnO{sub 2}, MoO{sub 3}, and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and ten supported forms of metal oxides. These sorbents were characterized for physical and chemical properties using a variety of analytical equipments, which confirmed their nanocrystalline structure.

  3. Selective growth of hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays on the graphene nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Li, Lan; Li, Jinliang; Mo, Zhaojun

    2016-01-01

    We report directly selective-area grown (SAG) high-quality hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays on the graphene nanosheets without invoking damage or introducing a catalyst. The SAG behavior in the non-catalytic growth mechanism is attributed to dangling bonds on the boundary edges of graphene nanosheets, which serve as the preferential adsorption and nucleation sites of ZnO nanorod. High densities of hierarchical ZnO nanorods show single-crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure and are vertically well-aligned on the graphene nanosheets, with the diameter and the density strongly dependent on the growth temperature. Furthermore, no carbon impurity can be seen in the tips of the ZnO nanorods and also no carbon-related defect peak in the 10 K PL spectrum of ZnO nanorods. Our approach using a graphene-nanosheet substrate provides an efficient route for the growth of high-quality ZnO with a one-dimensional (1D) hierarchical nanostructure, which is highly desirable for fabricating 1D ZnO hybrid optoelectronic devices, particularly for a fast-response UV photodetector and highly-sensitive gas sensor.

  4. Nanotribology and Nanoscale Friction

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yi; Qu, Zhihua; Braiman, Yehuda; Zhang, Zhenyu; Barhen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Tribology is the science and technology of contacting solid surfaces in relative motion, including the study of lubricants, lubrication, friction, wear, and bearings. It is estimated that friction and wear cost the U.S. economy 6% of the gross national product (Persson, 2000). For example, 5% of the total energy generated in an automobile engine is lost to frictional resistance. The study of nanoscale friction has a technological impact in reducing energy loss in machines, in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and in the development of durable, low-friction surfaces and ultra-thin lubrication films.

  5. Multianalyte biosensor based on pH-sensitive ZnO electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haur Kao, Chyuan; Chen, Hsiang; Ling Lee, Ming; Chun Liu, Che; Ueng, Herng-Yih; Cheng Chu, Yu; Jie Chen, Yu; Ming Chang, Kow

    2014-05-01

    Multianalyte electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) sensors with a ZnO sensing membrane annealed on silicon substrate for use in pH sensing were fabricated. Material analyses were conducted using X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy to identify optimal treatment conditions. Sensing performance for various ions of Na+, K+, urea, and glucose was also tested. Results indicate that an EIS sensor with a ZnO membrane annealed at 600 °C exhibited good performance with high sensitivity and a low drift rate compared with all other reported ZnO-based pH sensors. Furthermore, based on well-established pH sensing properties, pH-ion-sensitive field-effect transistor sensors have also been developed for use in detecting urea and glucose ions. ZnO-based EIS sensors show promise for future industrial biosensing applications.

  6. Multianalyte biosensor based on pH-sensitive ZnO electrolyte–insulator–semiconductor structures

    SciTech Connect

    Haur Kao, Chyuan; Chun Liu, Che; Ueng, Herng-Yih; Chen, Hsiang Cheng Chu, Yu; Jie Chen, Yu; Ling Lee, Ming; Ming Chang, Kow

    2014-05-14

    Multianalyte electrolyte–insulator–semiconductor (EIS) sensors with a ZnO sensing membrane annealed on silicon substrate for use in pH sensing were fabricated. Material analyses were conducted using X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy to identify optimal treatment conditions. Sensing performance for various ions of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, urea, and glucose was also tested. Results indicate that an EIS sensor with a ZnO membrane annealed at 600 °C exhibited good performance with high sensitivity and a low drift rate compared with all other reported ZnO-based pH sensors. Furthermore, based on well-established pH sensing properties, pH-ion-sensitive field-effect transistor sensors have also been developed for use in detecting urea and glucose ions. ZnO-based EIS sensors show promise for future industrial biosensing applications.

  7. Effects of growth pressure on morphology of ZnO nanostructures by chemical vapor transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Eadi Sunil; Kim, Sungjin; Song, Jung-Hoon; Hong, Soon-Ku

    2016-08-01

    The effect of growth pressure on the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures in chemical vapor transport by using Zn powder and oxygen as source materials has been investigated. Highly uniform aligned ZnO nanorods or multifaceted tripod structures were grown depending on the growth pressure. The mechanism governing the morphology change was explained by the relative concentration of Zn vapor and supersaturation based on experimental observations. It was concluded that heterogeneous nucleation on the substrate is enhanced at low growth pressure, while homogeneous nucleation from vapor phase is enhanced at high growth pressure. The difference resulted in different morphology of ZnO nanostructures. ZnO nanorods grown at optimized condition were used for the fabrication of gas sensor for the detection of H2 gas.

  8. Synthesis of porous ZnO nanostructures using bamboo fibers as templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Xiaoxue; Li, Yan; An, Dongmin; Zou, Yunling; Wang, Qiong; Zhang, Nan

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we fabricated ZnO nanostructures using bamboo fibers as templates. The starting material used was zinc acetate, and the nanostructures were synthesized by soaking and calcining the bamboo fibers. The fabricated nanostructures were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The results showed that the size of the ZnO nanoparticles was approximately 20-100 nm. When the ZnO nanoparticles were used as the catalyst in the photodegradation of methyl orange, the dye degraded by 95.98 % in 80 min. The response and recovery times of a gas sensor based on the ZnO nanoparticles were 25 and 24 s, respectively, during the detection of C2H5OH in a concentration of 10 ppm at 270 °C.

  9. Synthesis of Fe Doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays that Detect Formaldehyde Gas.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yoo Sang; Seo, Hyo Won; Kim, Su Hyo; Kim, Young Keun

    2016-05-01

    Owing to their chemical and thermal stability and doping effects on providing electrons to the conduction band, doped ZnO nanowires have generated interest for use in electronic devices. Here we report hydrothermally grown Fe-doped ZnO nanowires and their gas-sensing properties. The synthesized nanowires have a high crystallinity and are 60 nm in diameter and 1.7 μm in length. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are employed to understand the doping effects on the microstructures and gas sensing properties. When the Fe-doped ZnO nanowire arrays were evaluated for gas sensing, responses were recorded through changes in temperature and gas concentration. Gas sensors consisting of ZnO nanowires doped with 3-5 at.% Fe showed optimum formaldehyde (HCHO) sensing performance at each working temperature. PMID:27483827

  10. Photoluminescence and field emission of 1D ZnO nanorods fabricated by thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Jin, X.; Ouyang, Z. B.; Xu, P.

    2012-07-01

    Four kinds of new one-dimensional nanostructures, celery-shaped nanorods, needle-shaped nanorods, twist fold-shaped nanorods, and awl-shaped nanorods of ZnO, have been grown on single silicon substrates by an Au catalyst assisted thermal evaporation of ZnO and active carbon powders. The morphology and structure of the prepared nanorods are determined on the basis of field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The photoluminescence spectra (PL) analysis noted that UV emission band is the band-to-band emission peak and the emission bands in the visible range are attributed to the oxygen vacancies, Zn interstitials, or impurities. The field-emission properties of four kinds of ZnO nanorods have been invested and the awl-shaped nanorods of ZnO have preferable characteristics due to the smallest emitter radius on the nanoscale in the tip in comparison with other nanorods. The growth mechanism of the ZnO nanorods can be explained on the basis of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) processes.

  11. Enhanced wettability performance of ultrathin ZnO nanotubes by coupling morphology and size effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Peihua; Wang, Kun; Liang, Zhiwen; Mai, Wenjie; Wang, Cheng-Xin; Xie, Weiguang; Liu, Pengyi; Zhang, Long; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Song, Jinhui

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we report on the detailed characterization and mechanism analysis of the improved wettability performance of a new type of ZnO nanostructure, the ultrathin ZnO nanotube, whose growth is induced by screw-dislocation. The newly discovered enhanced wettability properties are suggested to be caused by coupling the morphology and size effects of the nanostructured surface. These ultrathin nanotubes with low density and small dimension form a wet-hair-like hierarchical morphology, which shows a further improved superhydrophobic property with an 8.6 +/- 1.6° larger contact angle than that of ZnO nanorods due to the morphology effect. In addition, owing to the large surface to volume ratio and increased effective UV-irradiated area of the ultrathin tubular structure, the ZnO nanotubes exhibit ~5 times faster superhydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity conversion speed than nanorods under 254 nm UV illumination. Furthermore, UV light with a wavelength of 254 nm exhibits ~40 times faster wettability conversion speed for nanotubes than that of 365 nm, which is suggested to be a result of the band gap shift at the nanoscale. The combined advantages of enhanced superhydrophobicity, improved sensitivity, and faster conversion speed by coupling morphology and size effects of these ZnO nanotubes should give them broad applications in self-cleaning surfaces and wettability switches.

  12. Nanoscale Optoelectronic Photosynthetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Lee, Ida; Guillorn, Michael; Lee, James W.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2001-03-01

    This presentation provides an overview and recent progress in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory research program in molecular electronics and green plant photosynthesis. The photosynthetic reaction center is a nanoscale molecular diode and photovoltaic device. The key thrust of our research program is the construction of molecular electronic devices from these nanoscale structures. Progress in this multidisciplinary research program has been demonstrated by direct electrical contact of emergent electrons with the Photosystem I (PS I) reaction center by nanoparticle precipitation. Demonstration of stable diode properties of isolated reaction centers combined with the ability to orient PS I by self-assembly on a planar surface, makes this structure a good building block for 2-D and potentially 3-D devices. Metallization of isolated PS I does not alter their fundamental photophysical properties and they can be bonded to metal surfaces. We report here the first measurement of photovoltage from single PS I reaction centers. Working at the Cornell University National Nanofabrication Facility, we have constructed sets of dissimilar metal electrodes separated by distances as small as 6 nm. We plan to use these structures to make electrical contact to both ends of oriented PSI reaction centers and thereby realize biomolecular logic circuits. Potential applications of PSI reaction centers for optoelectronic applications as well as molecular logic device construction will be discussed.

  13. Characterizing Nanoscale Transient Communication.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifan; Anwar, Putri Santi; Huang, Limin; Asvial, Muhamad

    2016-04-01

    We consider the novel paradigm of nanoscale transient communication (NTC), where certain components of the small-scale communication link are physically transient. As such, the transmitter and the receiver may change their properties over a prescribed lifespan due to their time-varying structures. The NTC systems may find important applications in the biomedical, environmental, and military fields, where system degradability allows for benign integration into life and environment. In this paper, we analyze the NTC systems from the channel-modeling and capacity-analysis perspectives and focus on the stochastically meaningful slow transience scenario, where the coherence time of degeneration Td is much longer than the coding delay Tc. We first develop novel and parsimonious models to characterize the NTC channels, where three types of physical layers are considered: electromagnetism-based terahertz (THz) communication, diffusion-based molecular communication (DMC), and nanobots-assisted touchable communication (TouchCom). We then revisit the classical performance measure of ϵ-outage channel capacity and take a fresh look at its formulations in the NTC context. Next, we present the notion of capacity degeneration profile (CDP), which describes the reduction of channel capacity with respect to the degeneration time. Finally, we provide numerical examples to demonstrate the features of CDP. To the best of our knowledge, the current work represents a first attempt to systematically evaluate the quality of nanoscale communication systems deteriorating with time. PMID:26955048

  14. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Luo, Li-Siang

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD) was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (ΔR/R) of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost. PMID:25010696

  15. Nanoscale control designs for systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Yue

    2014-02-01

    Nanoscale control is the science of the control of objects at dimensions with 100 nm or less and the manipulation of them at this level of precision. The desired attributes of systems under nanoscale control design are extreme high resolution, accuracy, stability, and fast response. An important perspective of investigation in nanoscale control design includes system modeling and precision control devices and materials at a nanoscale dimension, i.e., design of nanopositioners. Nanopositioners are mechatronic systems with an ultraprecise resolution down to a fraction of an atomic diameter and developed to move objects over a small range in nanoscale dimension. After reviewing a lot of existing literatures for nanoscale control designs, the way to successful nanoscale control is accurate position sensing and feedback control of the motion. An overview of nanoscale identification, linear, and nonlinear control technologies, and devices that are playing a key role in improving precision, accuracy, and response of operation of these systems are introduced in this research. PMID:24749455

  16. Improved UV photoresponse properties of high-quality ZnO thin films through the use of a ZnO buffer layer on flexible polyimide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mincheol; Leem, Jae-Young; Son, Jeong-Sik

    2016-03-01

    An oxidized ZnO buffer layer was prepared by using thermal oxidation of a Zn buffer layer on a polyimide (PI) substrate; then, ZnO thin films with (sample 1) and without (sample 2) an oxidized ZnO buffer layer were grown by using the sol-gel spin-coating method. The intensities of the ZnO (002) diffraction peaks observed in sample 1 were stronger than those observed in sample 2, implying that the crystal quality was enhanced by the oxidized ZnO buffer layer. Moreover, the residual stress of sample 1 was reduced compared to that of sample 2 due to the decreased number of defects. Sample 2 exhibited defect-related deep-level orange-yellow emissions, which almost disappeared with the introduction of the ZnO buffer layer (sample 1). The values of the responsivity were 0.733 (sample 1) and 0.066 (sample 2) mA/W; therefore, the proposed method could provide a pathway to the easy fabrication of fast-response UV sensors.

  17. Microwave-assisted synthesis of II-VI semiconductor micro-and nanoparticles towards sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majithia, Ravish Yogesh

    Engineering particles at the nanoscale demands a high degree of control over process parameters during synthesis. For nanocrystal synthesis, solution-based techniques typically include application of external convective heat. This process often leads to slow heating and allows decomposition of reagents or products over time. Microwave-assisted heating provides faster, localized heating at the molecular level with near instantaneous control over reaction parameters. In this work, microwave-assisted heating has been applied for the synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals namely, ZnO nanopods and CdX (X = Se, Te) quantum dots (QDs). Based on factors such as size, surface functionality and charge, optical properties of such nanomaterials can be tuned for application as sensors. ZnO is a direct bandgap semiconductor (3.37 eV) with a large exciton binding energy (60 meV) leading to photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. A microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach allows the use of sub-5 nm ZnO zero-dimensional nanoparticles as seeds for generation of multi-legged quasi one-dimensional nanopods via heterogeneous nucleation. ZnO nanopods, having individual leg diameters of 13-15 nm and growing along the [0001] direction, can be synthesized in as little as 20 minutes. ZnO nanopods exhibit a broad defect-related PL spanning the visible range with a peak at ~615 nm. Optical sensing based on changes in intensity of the defect PL in response to external environment (e.g., humidity) is demonstrated in this work. Microwave-assisted synthesis was also used for organometallic synthesis of CdX(ZnS) (X = Se, Te) core(shell) QDs. Optical emission of these QDs can be altered based on their size and can be tailored to specific wavelengths. Further, QDs were incorporated in Enhanced Green-Fluorescent Protein -- Ultrabithorax (EGFP-Ubx) fusion protein for the generation of macroscale composite protein fibers via hierarchal self-assembly. Variations in EGFP- Ubx˙QD composite

  18. Rocket Science at the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxing; Rozen, Isaac; Wang, Joseph

    2016-06-28

    Autonomous propulsion at the nanoscale represents one of the most challenging and demanding goals in nanotechnology. Over the past decade, numerous important advances in nanotechnology and material science have contributed to the creation of powerful self-propelled micro/nanomotors. In particular, micro- and nanoscale rockets (MNRs) offer impressive capabilities, including remarkable speeds, large cargo-towing forces, precise motion controls, and dynamic self-assembly, which have paved the way for designing multifunctional and intelligent nanoscale machines. These multipurpose nanoscale shuttles can propel and function in complex real-life media, actively transporting and releasing therapeutic payloads and remediation agents for diverse biomedical and environmental applications. This review discusses the challenges of designing efficient MNRs and presents an overview of their propulsion behavior, fabrication methods, potential rocket fuels, navigation strategies, practical applications, and the future prospects of rocket science and technology at the nanoscale. PMID:27219742

  19. Controllable synthesis of branched hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays for highly sensitive hydrazine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jie; Zhao, Zhenting; Sun, Yongjiao; Wang, Ying; Li, Pengwei; Zhang, Wendong; Lian, Kun

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, three different kinds of ZnO nanostructures were successfully synthesized on Au/Glass (Au/G) substrate by electrochemical deposition method. The morphology and crystalline structures of the obtained samples were characterized using SEM, XRD and HRTEM. Electrochemical responses of the as-prepared ZnO based sensors to hydrazine in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.4) were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry and single-potential amperometry. The results confirmed that the electrochemical performances of ZnO sensors are strongly dependent on the specific surface area. Especially, the branched hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays shows the highest sensitivity of 5.35 μA μM-1 cm-2, a short response time of 3 s, a low detection limit of 0.08 μM with a linear hydrazine concentration response range from 0.8 μM to 101 μM, and it also exhibits excellent anti-interference, stability and reproducibility abilities, which provide great potential method of ZnO branched hierarchical structures in the development of high-performance electrochemical sensor.

  20. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (Rair/Rgas = 12.8) compared to that (Rair/Rgas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors. PMID:26743814

  1. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (Rair/Rgas = 12.8) compared to that (Rair/Rgas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors.

  2. New fabrication of zinc oxide nanostructure thin film gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, A. A.; Alorainy, R. H.

    2014-02-01

    The copper doped zinc oxide thin films have been prepared by sol-gel spin coating method. The structural and morphology properties of the Cu doped films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscope. XRD studies confirm the chemical structure of the ZnO films. The optical spectra method were used to determined optical constants and dispersion energy parameters of Cu doped Zno thin films. The optical band gap of undoped ZnO was found to be 3.16 eV. The Eg values of the films were changed with Cu doping. The refractive index dispersion of Cu doped ZnO films obeys the single oscillator model. The dispersion energy and oscillator energy values of the ZnO films were changed with Cu doping. The Cu doped ZnO nanofiber-based NH3 gas sensors were fabricated. The sensor response of the sensors was from 464.98 to 484.61 when the concentration of NH3 is changed 6600-13,300 ppm. The obtained results indicate that the response of the ZnO film based ammonia gas sensors can be controlled by copper content.

  3. Determining the morphology of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) micellar reactors for ZnO nanoparticle synthesis.

    PubMed

    El-Atwani, Osman; El-Atwani, Osman C; Aytun, Taner; Mutaf, Omer Faruk; Srot, Vesna; van Aken, Peter A; Ow-Yang, Cleva W

    2010-05-18

    We report the use of reverse PS-b-P2VP diblock copolymer micelles as true nanoscale-sized reactor vessels to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles. The reverse micelles were formed in toluene and then sequentially loaded with zinc acetate dihydrate and tetramethylammonium hydroxide reactants. Moreover, high spatial resolution Z-contrast imaging and EDX spectroscopy techniques were used to confirm the segregation of the Zn cation to the core of the loaded micelles. Determining the chemical distribution with high nanoscale spatial resolution is shown to complement the less direct characterization by AFM, DLS and FTIR, thus demonstrating broader implications for the characterization of hybrid nanocomposite systems. PMID:20085372

  4. Nanoscale Thermal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baloch, Kamal; Brintlinger, Todd; Qi, Yi; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Cumings, John

    2007-03-01

    We present real time, in-situ, high resolution thermal imaging of metallic nanowires. The nanowires are grown on the front-side of silicon nitride membranes. Resistive heating along the wires produces thermal gradients which melt/freeze 20-200nm diameter indium islands deposited by thermal evaporation on the back-side of the membrane. These transitions can be imaged using a transmission electron microscope operating in dark-field mode such that contrast corresponds to the phase of an individual island. Global changes in temperature can be used to calibrate the melting point of individual islands and to account for the presence of the ˜100nm thick silicon nitride membrane. Thermal modeling confirms the imaged thermal behavior. This technique could be generally employed for thermal imaging of nanowires and nanotubes, wherein the nanoscale systems are imaged in-situ and under electrical bias. Results of local resistive heating in a carbon nanotube device will also be shown

  5. Anatomy of Nanoscale Propulsion.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vinita; Duan, Wentao; Butler, Peter J; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-01-01

    Nature supports multifaceted forms of life. Despite the variety and complexity of these forms, motility remains the epicenter of life. The applicable laws of physics change upon going from macroscales to microscales and nanoscales, which are characterized by low Reynolds number (Re). We discuss motion at low Re in natural and synthetic systems, along with various propulsion mechanisms, including electrophoresis, electrolyte diffusiophoresis, and nonelectrolyte diffusiophoresis. We also describe the newly uncovered phenomena of motility in non-ATP-driven self-powered enzymes and the directional movement of these enzymes in response to substrate gradients. These enzymes can also be immobilized to function as fluid pumps in response to the presence of their substrates. Finally, we review emergent collective behavior arising from interacting motile species, and we discuss the possible biomedical applications of the synthetic nanobots and microbots. PMID:26098511

  6. Nanoscale memristive radiofrequency switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Shuang; Ghadiri-Sadrabadi, Mohammad; Bardin, Joseph C.; Xia, Qiangfei

    2015-06-01

    Radiofrequency switches are critical components in wireless communication systems and consumer electronics. Emerging devices include switches based on microelectromechanical systems and phase-change materials. However, these devices suffer from disadvantages such as large physical dimensions and high actuation voltages. Here we propose and demonstrate a nanoscale radiofrequency switch based on a memristive device. The device can be programmed with a voltage as low as 0.4 V and has an ON/OFF conductance ratio up to 1012 with long state retention. We measure the radiofrequency performance of the switch up to 110 GHz and demonstrate low insertion loss (0.3 dB at 40 GHz), high isolation (30 dB at 40 GHz), an average cutoff frequency of 35 THz and competitive linearity and power-handling capability. Our results suggest that, in addition to their application in memory and computing, memristive devices are also a leading contender for radiofrequency switch applications.

  7. Dissipation in Nanoscale Superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Maestro, Adrian; Rosenow, Bernd

    Pressure driven flow of a superfluid inside a narrow channel can be maintained by the nucleation of vortices and their resulting motion across the flow lines. The maximum velocity of the superfluid is set by a nucleation rate which crucially depends on the microscopic details of the vortices and flow profile. Within the kinetic vortex theory, we have determined the critical superfluid velocity inside a nanoscale constriction and obtain agreement with experimental results for superfluid helium-4 in nanopores. In the small pore limit, when the ratio of pore radius to correlation length is of order unity, we find a drastic suppression of the superfluid velocity that can be understood within the Langer-Ambegaokar-McCumber-Halperin theory of resistive fluctuations in thin superconducting wires.

  8. Controllable synthesis of hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanostructures assembled by nanosheets and its optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qun; Wang, Yongqian; Kong, Junhan; Jia, Hanxiang; Wang, Zhengshu

    2015-08-01

    The uniform and regular hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanostructures assembled by nanosheets have been controllably synthesized by a facile and efficient solution route on a large scale without using any templates, substrate or seed layers. The results of the experiment indicated that reaction temperature, time and the molar ratio of Zn2+/OH- had a strong influence on the formation of the hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanostructures. ZnO with flower-like nanostructures can be controllable synthesized with appropriate temperature, time and the molar ratio of Zn2+/OH-. The optical properties of the as-synthesized ZnO were investigated by UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence. Consequently, the value of the band gap for this kind of ZnO crystals was calculated to be 3.26 eV and the ZnO nanostructures possess a relatively strong UV emission, violet emission and a blue emission. Moreover, The ZnO may be tempting for further application such as photocatalyst, gas sensors and UV lasers. The facile and efficient solution route has high potentials to synthesize ZnO crystals on a large scale for industry application.

  9. Colloidal ZnO and Zn(1-x)Co(x)O tetrapod nanocrystals with tunable arm lengths.

    PubMed

    Hodges, James M; Fenton, Julie L; Gray, Jennifer L; Schaak, Raymond E

    2015-10-28

    Tetrapod-shaped ZnO nanocrystals exhibit exceptional optoelectronic properties, including intense ultraviolet photoluminescence emission, that make them attractive for applications that include lasers, sensors, and photocatalysts. However, synthetic methods that produce ZnO tetrapods typically include high-temperature vapor-deposition approaches that do not readily achieve characteristic dimensions of less than 100 nm or colloidal methods that require added metal dopants, which modify the inherent properties of ZnO. Here, we report a robust, modified solution-phase synthetic protocol for generating colloidal ZnO tetrapods that does not require the use of metal dopants. The ZnO tetrapod arm lengths can be tuned from 10 to 25 nm by adjusting the amount of Zn reagent used in the reaction. Subsequent seeded-growth produced even larger colloidal ZnO tetrapods with 62 nm arms. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements confirm that the tetrapods are of high crystalline quality, and the ultraviolet PL emission wavelengths that are observed fall between those of previously reported metal-doped colloidal ZnO tetrapods, which exhibit dopant-induced red- or blue-shifts. Furthermore, the reaction strategy can be modified to produce cobalt-substituted ZnO, offering a chemical pathway to tetrapod-shaped Zn1-xCoxO nanocrystals. PMID:26334611

  10. Quantitative nanoscale vortex imaging using a cryogenic quantum magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Thiel, L; Rohner, D; Ganzhorn, M; Appel, P; Neu, E; Müller, B; Kleiner, R; Koelle, D; Maletinsky, P

    2016-08-01

    Microscopic studies of superconductors and their vortices play a pivotal role in understanding the mechanisms underlying superconductivity. Local measurements of penetration depths or magnetic stray fields enable access to fundamental aspects such as nanoscale variations in superfluid densities or the order parameter symmetry of superconductors. However, experimental tools that offer quantitative, nanoscale magnetometry and operate over large ranges of temperature and magnetic fields are still lacking. Here, we demonstrate the first operation of a cryogenic scanning quantum sensor in the form of a single nitrogen-vacancy electronic spin in diamond, which is capable of overcoming these existing limitations. To demonstrate the power of our approach, we perform quantitative, nanoscale magnetic imaging of Pearl vortices in the cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ. With a sensor-to-sample distance of ∼10 nm, we observe striking deviations from the prevalent monopole approximation in our vortex stray-field images, and find excellent quantitative agreement with Pearl's analytic model. Our experiments provide a non-invasive and unambiguous determination of the system's local penetration depth and are readily extended to higher temperatures and magnetic fields. These results demonstrate the potential of quantitative quantum sensors in benchmarking microscopic models of complex electronic systems and open the door for further exploration of strongly correlated electron physics using scanning nitrogen-vacancy magnetometry. PMID:27136133

  11. Quantitative nanoscale vortex imaging using a cryogenic quantum magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, L.; Rohner, D.; Ganzhorn, M.; Appel, P.; Neu, E.; Müller, B.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D.; Maletinsky, P.

    2016-08-01

    Microscopic studies of superconductors and their vortices play a pivotal role in understanding the mechanisms underlying superconductivity. Local measurements of penetration depths or magnetic stray fields enable access to fundamental aspects such as nanoscale variations in superfluid densities or the order parameter symmetry of superconductors. However, experimental tools that offer quantitative, nanoscale magnetometry and operate over large ranges of temperature and magnetic fields are still lacking. Here, we demonstrate the first operation of a cryogenic scanning quantum sensor in the form of a single nitrogen–vacancy electronic spin in diamond, which is capable of overcoming these existing limitations. To demonstrate the power of our approach, we perform quantitative, nanoscale magnetic imaging of Pearl vortices in the cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3O7–δ. With a sensor-to-sample distance of ∼10 nm, we observe striking deviations from the prevalent monopole approximation in our vortex stray-field images, and find excellent quantitative agreement with Pearl's analytic model. Our experiments provide a non-invasive and unambiguous determination of the system's local penetration depth and are readily extended to higher temperatures and magnetic fields. These results demonstrate the potential of quantitative quantum sensors in benchmarking microscopic models of complex electronic systems and open the door for further exploration of strongly correlated electron physics using scanning nitrogen–vacancy magnetometry.

  12. Charge transport in nanoscale junctions.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    the molecular level. Nanoscale charge transport experiments in ionic liquids extend the field to high temperatures and to systems with intriguing interfacial potential distributions. Other directions may include dye-sensitized solar cells, new sensor applications and diagnostic tools for the study of surface-bound single molecules. Another motivation for this special issue is thus to highlight activities across different research communities with nanoscale charge transport as a common denominator. This special issue gathers 27 articles by scientists from the United States, Germany, the UK, Denmark, Russia, France, Israel, Canada, Australia, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Singapore; it gives us a flavour of the current state-of-the-art of this diverse research area. While based on contributions from many renowned groups and institutions, it obviously cannot claim to represent all groups active in this very broad area. Moreover, a number of world-leading groups were unable to take part in this project within the allocated time limit. Nevertheless, we regard the current selection of papers to be representative enough for the reader to draw their own conclusions about the current status of the field. Each paper is original and has its own merit, as all papers in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter special issues are subjected to the same scrutiny as regular contributions. The Guest Editors have deliberately not defined the specific subjects covered in this issue. These came out logically from the development of this area, for example: 'Traditional' solid state nanojunctions based on adsorbed layers, oxide films or nanowires sandwiched between two electrodes: effects of molecular structure (aromaticity, anchoring groups), symmetry, orientation, dynamics (noise patterns) and current-induced heating. Various 'physical effects': inelastic tunnelling and Coulomb blockade, polaron effects, switching modes, and negative differential resistance; the role of

  13. Enhanced electromechanical behaviors of cellulose ZnO hybrid nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Seongchoel; Min, Seung-Ki; Kim, Hyun Chan; Im, Jongbeom; Geddis, Demetris L.; Kim, Jaehwan

    2015-04-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid composite has attracted as its combined synergistic properties. Cellulose based inorganicorganic hybrid composite was fabricated with semiconductive nanomaterials which has functionality of nanomaterial and biocompatibility piezoelectricity, high transparency and flexibility of cellulose electro active paper namely EAPap. ZnO is providing semiconductive functionality to EAPap for hybrid nanocomposite by simple chemical reaction. Cellulose- ZnO hybrid nanocomposite (CEZOHN) demonstrates novel electrical, photoelectrical and electromechanical behaviors. This paper deals with methods to improve electromechanical property of CEZOHN. The fabrication process is introduced briefly, charging mechanism and evaluation is studied with measured piezoelectric constant. And its candidate application will be discussed such as artificial muscle, energy harvester, strain sensor, flexible electrical device.

  14. Chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Janata, J.; Josowicz, M.; DeVaney, D.M. )

    1994-06-15

    This review of chemical sensors contains the following topics of interest: books and reviews; reviews of sensors by their type; fabrication and selectivity; data processing; thermal sensors; mass sensors (fabrication, gas sensors, and liquid sensors); electrochemical sensors (potentiometric sensors, amperometric sensors, and conductometric sensors); and optical sensors (fabrication, liquid sensors, biosensors, and gas sensors). 795 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Detecting nanoscale vibrations as signature of life

    PubMed Central

    Kasas, Sandor; Ruggeri, Francesco Simone; Benadiba, Carine; Maillard, Caroline; Stupar, Petar; Tournu, Hélène; Dietler, Giovanni; Longo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The existence of life in extreme conditions, in particular in extraterrestrial environments, is certainly one of the most intriguing scientific questions of our time. In this report, we demonstrate the use of an innovative nanoscale motion sensor in life-searching experiments in Earth-bound and interplanetary missions. This technique exploits the sensitivity of nanomechanical oscillators to transduce the small fluctuations that characterize living systems. The intensity of such movements is an indication of the viability of living specimens and conveys information related to their metabolic activity. Here, we show that the nanomotion detector can assess the viability of a vast range of biological specimens and that it could be the perfect complement to conventional chemical life-detection assays. Indeed, by combining chemical and dynamical measurements, we could achieve an unprecedented depth in the characterization of life in extreme and extraterrestrial environments. PMID:25548177

  16. ZnO nanoflowers with single crystal structure towards enhanced gas sensing and photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Chen, Hsueh-Shih; Matras-Postolek, Katarzyna; Yang, Ping

    2015-11-11

    In this paper, ZnO nanoflowers (NFs) were fabricated by thermal decomposition in an organic solvent and their application in gas sensors and photocatalysis was investigated. These single crystal ZnO NFs, which were observed for the first time, with an average size of ∼60 nm and were grown along the {100} facet. It was suggested that oleylamine used in the synthesis inhibited the growth and agglomeration of ZnO through the coordination of the oleylamine N atoms. The NFs exhibited excellent selectivity to acetone with a concentration of 25 ppm at 300 °C because they had a high specific surface area that provided more active sites and the surface adsorbed oxygen species for interaction with acetone. In addition, the ZnO NFs showed enhanced gas sensing response which was also ascribed to abundant oxygen vacancies at the junctions between petals of the NFs. Furthermore, ZnO-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were fabricated by loading the ZnO NFs on the surface of the stratiform RGO sheet. In the photodegradation of rhodamine B tests, the composite revealed an enhanced photocatalytic performance compared with ZnO NFs under UV light irradiation. PMID:26507913

  17. Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of ZnO Nanorods Coupled by Two-Dimensional α-MoO3 Nanoflakes under UV and Visible Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hang, Da-Ren; Sharma, Krishna Hari; Chen, Chun-Hu; Islam, Sk Emdadul

    2016-08-26

    We exploit the utilization of two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum oxide nanoflakes as a co-catalyst for ZnO nanorods (NRs) to enhance their photocatalytic performance. The 2D nanoflakes of orthorhombic α-MoO3 were synthesized through a sonication-aided exfoliation technique. The 2D MoO3 nanoflakes can be further converted to substoichiometric quasi-metallic MoO3-x by using UV irradiation. Subsequently, 1D-2D MoO3 /ZnO NR and MoO3-x /ZnO NR composite photocatalysts have been successfully synthesized. The photocatalytic performances of the novel nanosystems in the decomposition of methylene blue are studied by using UV- and visible-illumination setup. The incorporated 2D nanoflakes show a positive influence on the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO. The obtained rate constant values follow the order of pristine ZnO NRZnO NRZnO NR composites. The enhancement of the photocatalytic efficiency can be ascribed to a fast charge carrier separation and transport within the heterojunctions of the MoO3 /ZnO NRs. In particular, the best photocatalytic performance of the MoO3-x /ZnO NR composite can be additionally attributed to a quasi-metallic conductivity and substoichiometry-induced mid-gap states, which extend the light absorption range. A tentative photocatalytic degradation mechanism was proposed. The strategy presented in this work not only demonstrates that coupling with nanoscale molybdenum oxide nanoflakes is a promising approach to significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of ZnO but also hints at new type of composite catalyst with extended applications in energy conversion and environmental purification. PMID:27483050

  18. Defects in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, M. D.; Jokela, S. J.

    2009-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor with potential applications in optoelectronics, transparent electronics, and spintronics. The high efficiency of UV emission in this material could be harnessed in solid-state white lighting devices. The problem of defects, in particular, acceptor dopants, remains a key challenge. In this review, defects in ZnO are discussed, with an emphasis on the physical properties of point defects in bulk crystals. As grown, ZnO is usually n-type, a property that was historically ascribed to native defects. However, experiments and theory have shown that O vacancies are deep donors, while Zn interstitials are too mobile to be stable at room temperature. Group-III (B, Al, Ga, and In) and H impurities account for most of the n-type conductivity in ZnO samples. Interstitial H donors have been observed with IR spectroscopy, while substitutional H donors have been predicted from first-principles calculations but not observed directly. Despite numerous reports, reliable p-type conductivity has not been achieved. Ferromagnetism is complicated by the presence of secondary phases, grain boundaries, and native defects. The famous green luminescence has several possible origins, including Cu impurities and Zn vacancies. The properties of group-I (Cu, Li, and Na) and group-V (N, P, As, and Sb) acceptors, and their complexes with H, are discussed. In the future, doping of ZnO nanocrystals will rely on an understanding of these fundamental properties.

  19. Nanoscale Electrostatics in Mitosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardi, L. John; West, Patrick Michael

    2001-04-01

    Primitive biological cells had to divide with very little biology. This work simulates a physicochemical mechanism, based upon nanoscale electrostatics, which explains the anaphase A poleward motion of chromosomes. In the cytoplasmic medium that exists in biological cells, electrostatic fields are subject to strong attenuation by Debye screening, and therefore decrease rapidly over a distance equal to several Debye lengths. However, the existence of microtubules within cells changes the situation completely. Microtubule dimer subunits are electric dipolar structures, and can act as intermediaries that extend the reach of the electrostatic interaction over cellular distances. Experimental studies have shown that intracellular pH rises to a peak at mitosis, and decreases through cytokinesis. This result, in conjunction with the electric dipole nature of microtubule subunits and the Debye screened electrostatic force is sufficient to explain and unify the basic events during mitosis and cytokinesis: (1) assembly of asters, (2) motion of the asters to poles, (3) poleward motion of chromosomes (anaphase A), (4) cell elongation, and (5) cytokinesis. This paper will focus on a simulation of the dynamics if anaphase A motion based on this comprehensive model. The physicochemical mechanisms utilized by primitive cells could provide important clues regarding our understanding of cell division in modern eukaryotic cells.

  20. Nanoscale memristive radiofrequency switches.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shuang; Ghadiri-Sadrabadi, Mohammad; Bardin, Joseph C; Xia, Qiangfei

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency switches are critical components in wireless communication systems and consumer electronics. Emerging devices include switches based on microelectromechanical systems and phase-change materials. However, these devices suffer from disadvantages such as large physical dimensions and high actuation voltages. Here we propose and demonstrate a nanoscale radiofrequency switch based on a memristive device. The device can be programmed with a voltage as low as 0.4 V and has an ON/OFF conductance ratio up to 10(12) with long state retention. We measure the radiofrequency performance of the switch up to 110 GHz and demonstrate low insertion loss (0.3 dB at 40 GHz), high isolation (30 dB at 40 GHz), an average cutoff frequency of 35 THz and competitive linearity and power-handling capability. Our results suggest that, in addition to their application in memory and computing, memristive devices are also a leading contender for radiofrequency switch applications. PMID:26108890

  1. The effect of electrolytes on the aggregation kinetics of three different ZnO nanoparticles in water.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Huei; Tso, Chih-ping; Tsai, Yi-chun; Zhuang, Cheng-ming; Shih, Yang-hsin

    2015-10-15

    Nanoscale ZnO particles are receiving increasing attention because they are widely used in commercial products, but they do have potentially hazardous effects. The aggregation behavior of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment contributes to the real risk assessment of nano-toxicity, and the real size of the nano-aggregates should be investigated. In this study, the influences of electrolytes on the stabilities of three ZnO NPs were compared: the commercial powder (NP1), the lab synthesized suspension (NP2) and the commercial suspension (NP3). The initial particle size of NP2 and NP3 in water was at a nanoscale whilst NP1 tended to form microscale aggregates. The capping reagents helped to retain their suspension. The stability of ZnO NPs depends on their zeta potential under specific pH value, ionic types and ionic strength. In general, neutralization plays a major role in aggregation. The effect of divalent counter-ions on ZnO NP aggregation was more than that of monovalent ones. The stabilities of NP2 and NP3 were confirmed by the large critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values of these particles. The experimental results also fit the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The aggregation of different ZnO NPs is relevant to their basic properties and is influenced by electrolytes, which decreases the possibility of the penetration of NPs into cells to cause toxicity in the environment. An understanding of the basic properties of NPs is crucial for assessing their fate in the environment as well as for setting up usage regulation and treatment strategy. PMID:26042532

  2. Control of Li configuration and electrical properties of Li-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Knutsen, K. E.; Merz, T.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu; Svensson, B. G.; Brillson, L. J.

    2012-09-01

    Li-doped ZnO after different thermal treatments was characterized by depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS), secondary ion mass spectrometry, surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS), coupled with other surface science techniques. It is found that the Li configuration and electrical properties of Li-doped ZnO could be controlled by different thermal processes. Within a 500-600 °C annealing temperature range, subsequent quenching of ZnO leaves Li as interstitial donors, resulting in n-type low room temperature resistivity. In contrast, slower cooling in air enables these interstitials to fill Zn vacancies, forming Li acceptors 3.0 eV below the conduction band edge. Emergence of this acceptor and the resultant resistivity increase agree with the calculated diffusion lengths based on published diffusion coefficients. In general, these acceptors are compensated by residual intrinsic and extrinsic donors, resulting in a semi-insulating material. DRCL spectra exhibit a 3.0 eV optical signature of the LiZn acceptor and its depth distribution in slow-cooled ZnO. A 3.0 eV SPS absorption feature corresponding to a conduction band-to-acceptor level transition confirms this acceptor assignment. Nanoscale SPS spectra reveal p-type band bending localized near ZnO surface nano-mounds, where VZn and LiZn acceptor densities increase. The slow-cooled and quenched Li-doped ZnO spectra display an inverse relationship between the optical emission densities of lithium on zinc versus zinc vacancy sites, demonstrating the time dependence of Li interstitial diffusion to reach zinc vacancies and form substitutional Li acceptors.

  3. Al-doped ZnO nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Pratibha; Agashe, Chitra; Mahamuni, Shailaja

    2008-11-01

    Al3+-doped ZnO nanocrystals were differently obtained by wet chemical and an electrochemical route. An increase in forbidden gap due to change in crystal size and also due to Al3+ doping in ZnO is critically analyzed. The Moss-Burstein type shift in Al3+-doped ZnO nanocrystals provides an evidence of successful Al3+ doping in ZnO nanocrystals. The possibility of varying the carrier concentration in ZnO nanocrystals is the indirect implication of the present investigations.

  4. Self-assembled and highly selective sensors based on air-bridge-structured nanowire junction arrays.

    PubMed

    Park, Won Jeong; Choi, Kyung Jin; Kim, Myung Hwa; Koo, Bon Hyeong; Lee, Jong-Lam; Baik, Jeong Min

    2013-08-14

    We describe a strategy for creating an air-bridge-structured nanowire junction array platform that capable of reliably discriminating between three gases (hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide) in air. Alternatively driven dual nanowire species of ZnO and CuO with the average diameter of ∼30 nm on a single substrate are used and decorated with metallic nanoparticles to form two-dimensional microarray, which do not need to consider the post fabrications. Each individual nanowires in the array form n-n, p-p, and p-n junctions at the micro/nanoscale on single substrate and the junctions act as electrical conducting path for carriers. The adsorption of gas molecules to the surface changes the potential barrier height formed at the junctions and the carrier transport inside the straight semiconductors, which provide the ability of a given sensor array to differentiate among the junctions. The sensors were tested for their ability to distinguish three gases (H2, CO, and NO2), which they were able to do unequivocally when the data was classified using linear discriminant analysis. PMID:23841667

  5. Power generation from base excitation of a Kevlar composite beam with ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Sodano, Henry A.

    2015-04-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, and nanotubes with piezoelectric properties have gained interest in the fabrication of small scale power harvesting systems. However, the practical applications of the nanoscale materials in structures with true mechanical strengths have not yet been demonstrated. In this paper, piezoelectric ZnO nanowires are integrated into the fiber reinforced polymer composites serving as an active phase to convert the induced strain energy from ambient vibration into electrical energy. Arrays of ZnO nanowires are grown vertically aligned on aramid fibers through a low-cost hydrothermal process. The modified fabrics with ZnO nanowires whiskers are then placed between two carbon fabrics as the top and the bottom electrodes. Finally, vacuum resin transfer molding technique is utilized to fabricate these multiscale composites. The fabricated composites are subjected to a base excitation using a shaker to generate charge due to the direct piezoelectric effect of ZnO nanowires. Measuring the generated potential difference between the two electrodes showed the energy harvesting application of these multiscale composites in addition to their superior mechanical properties. These results propose a new generation of power harvesting systems with enhanced mechanical properties.

  6. Quantifying the barrier lowering of ZnO Schottky nanodevices under UV light

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Yen; Lu, Ming-Pei; You, Shuen-Jium; Chen, Chieh-Wei; Wang, Ying-Jhe

    2015-01-01

    In this study we measured the degrees to which the Schottky barrier heights (SBHs) are lowered in ZnO nanowire (NW) devices under illumination with UV light. We measured the I–V characteristics of ZnO nanowire devices to confirm that ZnO is an n-type semiconductor and that the on/off ratio is approximately 104. From temperature-dependent I–V measurements we obtained a SBH of 0.661 eV for a ZnO NW Schottky device in the dark. The photosensitivity of Schottky devices under UV illumination at a power density of 3 μW/cm2 was 9186%. Variations in the SBH account for the superior characteristics of n-type Schottky devices under illumination with UV light. The SBH variations were due to the coupled mechanism of adsorption and desorption of O2 and the increase in the carrier density. Furthermore, through temperature-dependent I–V measurements, we determined the SBHs in the dark and under illumination with UV light at power densities of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 μW/cm2 to be 0.661, 0.216, 0.178, 0.125, and 0.068 eV, respectively. These findings should be applicable in the design of highly sensitive nanoscale optoelectronic devices. PMID:26456370

  7. Growth of hybrid carbon nanostructures on iron-decorated ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Mbuyisa, Puleng N; Rigoni, Federica; Sangaletti, Luigi; Ponzoni, Stefano; Pagliara, Stefania; Goldoni, Andrea; Ndwandwe, Muzi; Cepek, Cinzia

    2016-04-01

    A novel carbon-based nanostructured material, which includes carbon nanotubes (CNTs), porous carbon, nanostructured ZnO and Fe nanoparticles, has been synthetized using catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of acetylene on vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs). The deposition of Fe before the CVD process induces the presence of dense CNTs in addition to the variety of nanostructures already observed on the process done on the bare NRs, which range from amorphous graphitic carbon up to nanostructured dendritic carbon films, where the NRs are partially or completely etched. The combination of scanning electron microscopy and in situ photoemission spectroscopy indicate that Fe enhances the ZnO etching, and that the CNT synthesis is favoured by the reduced Fe mobility due to the strong interaction between Fe and the NRs, and to the presence of many defects, formed during the CVD process. Our results demonstrate that the resulting new hybrid shows a higher sensitivity to ammonia gas at ambient conditions (∼60 ppb) than the carbon nanostructures obtained without the aid of Fe, the bare ZnO NRs, or other one-dimensional carbon nanostructures, making this system of potential interest for environmental ammonia monitoring. Finally, in view of the possible application in nanoscale optoelectronics, the photoexcited carrier behaviour in these hybrid systems has been characterized by time-resolved reflectivity measurements. PMID:26916977

  8. Nanoscale NMR spectroscopy and imaging of multiple nuclear species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devience, Stephen J.; Pham, Linh M.; Lovchinsky, Igor; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Bar-Gill, Nir; Belthangady, Chinmay; Casola, Francesco; Corbett, Madeleine; Zhang, Huiliang; Lukin, Mikhail; Park, Hongkun; Yacoby, Amir; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2015-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide non-invasive information about multiple nuclear species in bulk matter, with wide-ranging applications from basic physics and chemistry to biomedical imaging. However, the spatial resolution of conventional NMR and MRI is limited to several micrometres even at large magnetic fields (>1 T), which is inadequate for many frontier scientific applications such as single-molecule NMR spectroscopy and in vivo MRI of individual biological cells. A promising approach for nanoscale NMR and MRI exploits optical measurements of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) colour centres in diamond, which provide a combination of magnetic field sensitivity and nanoscale spatial resolution unmatched by any existing technology, while operating under ambient conditions in a robust, solid-state system. Recently, single, shallow NV centres were used to demonstrate NMR of nanoscale ensembles of proton spins, consisting of a statistical polarization equivalent to ˜100-1,000 spins in uniform samples covering the surface of a bulk diamond chip. Here, we realize nanoscale NMR spectroscopy and MRI of multiple nuclear species (1H, 19F, 31P) in non-uniform (spatially structured) samples under ambient conditions and at moderate magnetic fields (˜20 mT) using two complementary sensor modalities.

  9. Investigation of sol-gel yttrium doped ZnO thin films: structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, T.; Harizanova, A.; Koutzarova, T.; Vertruyen, B.

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructured metal oxide films are extensively studied due to their numerous applications such as optoelectronic devices, sensors. In this work, we report the Y-Zn-O nanostructured films prepared by sol-gel technology from sols with different concentration of yttrium precursor, followed by post-annealing treatment. The Y doped ZnO thin films have been deposited on Si and quartz substrates by spin coating method, then treated at temperatures ranging from 300-800oC. XRD analysis reveals modification of the film structure and phases in the doped ZnO films.

  10. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide intercalated ZnO quantum dots nanoballs for selective biosensing detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Zhao, Minggang; Li, Yingchun; Fan, Sisi; Ding, Longjiang; Liang, Jingjing; Chen, Shougang

    2016-07-01

    ZnO quantum dots (QDs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are always used in sensors due to their excellent electrochemical characteristics. In this work, ZnO QDs were intercalated by rGO sheets with cross-linked MWCNTs to construct intercalation nanoballs. A MWCNTs/rGO/ZnO QDs 3D hierarchical architecture was fabricated on supporting Ni foam, which exhibited excellent mechanical, kinetic and electrochemical properties. The intercalation construction can introduce strong interfacial effects to improve the surface electronic state. The selectively determinate of uric acid, dopamine, and ascorbic acid by an electrode material using distinct applied potentials was realized.

  11. Remote plasma-assisted deposition of metals onto the surface of nanocrystalline ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, Sergio A.; Nemashkalo, Anastasiia; Chapagain, Puskar; Pant, Shreedhar; Alarcon, Phillip; Strzhemechny, Yuri M.

    2011-10-01

    Controllable surface modification of nanoscale ZnO is crucial for many existing and future applications. We investigated the effectiveness of metal deposition using remote O2/He plasma passing through a metal mesh electrode onto the surface of ZnO nanopowders with an average grain size of 25 nm. Surface stoichiometry was monitored in situ with Auger electron spectroscopy, whereas surface optoelectronic properties were probed; also in situ, using surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy. We observed a strong dependence of surface modification on the distance from the metal electrode. At short distances the metal coverage was reaching tens of percent of one monolayer. Simultaneously we observed a significant improvement of the SPV response pointing to metal-enhanced surface charge dynamics.

  12. A Comparison of ZnO and ZnO(-)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations are performed to support and to help interpret the experimental work reported in the proceeding manuscript. The CCSD(T) approach, in conjunction with a large basis set, is used to compute spectroscopic constants for the X(exp 1)Epsilon(+) and (3)II states of ZnO and the X(exp 2)Epsilon(+) state of ZnO(-). The spectroscopic constants, including the electron affinity, are in good agreement with experiment. The ZnO EA is significantly larger than that of O, thus relative to the atomic ground state asymptotes, ZnO(-) has a larger D(sub o) than the (1)Epsilon(+) state, despite the fact that the extra electron goes into an antibonding orbital. The changes in spectroscopic constants can be understood in terms of the X(exp 1)Epsilon(+) formally dissociating to Zn (1)S + O (1)D while the (3)II and (2)Epsilon(+) states dissociate to Zn (1)S + O (3)P and Zn (1) and O(-) (2)P, respectively.

  13. Catalyst-Free Synthesis of ZnO Nanowires on Oxidized Silicon Substrate for Gas Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Behera, B; Chandra, S

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, we report the synthesis of nanostructured ZnO by oxidation of zinc film without using a seed or catalyst layer. The zinc films were deposited on oxidized Si substrates by RF magnetron sputtering process. These were oxidized in dry and wet air/oxygen ambient. The optimized process yielded long nanowires of ZnO having diameter of around 60-70 nm and spread uniformly over the surface. The effect of oxidation temperature, time, Zn film thickness and the ambient has strong influence on the morphology of resulting nanostruxctured ZnO film. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy for morphological studies and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to study the phase of the nanostructured ZnO. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the nanowires show UV and green emission. A sensor was designed and fabricated using nanostructured ZnO film, incorporating inter-digital-electrode (IDE) for the measurement of resistance of the sensing layer. The gas sensing properties were investigated from the measurement of change in resistance when exposed to vapours of different volatile organic compound (VOC) such as acetone, ethanol, methanol and 2-propanol. The results suggest that ZnO nanowires fabricated by this method have potential application in gas sensors. PMID:26369077

  14. Fabrication and characterization of nano-gas sensor arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, H. S. Kashyout, A. B.; Morsi, I. Nasser, A. A. A. Raafat, A.

    2015-03-30

    A novel structures of Nanomaterials gas sensors array constructed using ZnO, and ZnO doped with Al via sol-gel technique. Two structure arrays are developed; the first one is a double sensor array based on doping with percentages of 1% and 5%. The second is a quadrature sensor array based on several doping ratios concentrations (0%, 1%, 5% and 10%). The morphological structures of prepared ZnO were revealed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal a highly crystallized wurtzite structure and used for identifying phase structure and chemical state of both ZnO and ZnO doped with Al under different preparation conditions and different doping ratios. Chemical composition of Al-doped ZnO nanopowders was performed using energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) analysis. The electrical characteristics of the sensor are determined by measuring the two terminal sensor’s output resistance for O{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} gases as a function of temperature.

  15. Hydrothermal Synthesis of ZnO Structures Formed by High-Aspect-Ratio Nanowires for Acetone Detection.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhen; Wang, Yong; Li, Zhanguo; Yu, Naisen

    2016-12-01

    Snowflake-like ZnO structures originating from self-assembled nanowires were prepared by a low-temperature aqueous solution method. The as-grown hierarchical ZnO structures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results showed that the snowflake-like ZnO structures were composed of high-aspect-ratio nanowires. Furthermore, gas-sensing properties to various testing gases of 10 and 50 ppm were measured, which confirms that the ZnO structures were of good selectivity and response to acetone and could serve for acetone sensor to detect low-concentration acetone. PMID:27460595

  16. Large-scale growth of density-tunable aligned ZnO nanorods arrays on GaN QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhiqiang; Li, Senlin; Sun, Shichuang; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Wei; Fang, Yanyan; Tian, Yu; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing

    2015-10-01

    An effective approach for growing large-scale, uniformly aligned ZnO nanorods arrays is demonstrated. The synthesis uses a GaN quantum dot (QD) template produced by a self-assembled Stranski-Krastanow mode in metal organic chemical vapor deposition, which serves as a nucleation site for ZnO owing to the QD’s high surface free energy. The resultant ZnO nanorods with uniform shape and length align vertically on the template, while their density is easily tunable by adjusting the density of GaN QDs, which can be adjusted by simply varying growth interruption. By controlling the density of ZnO nanorod arrays, their optical performance can also be improved. This approach opens the possibility of combining one-dimensional (1D) with 0D nanostructures for applications in sensor arrays, piezoelectric antenna arrays, optoelectronic devices, and interconnects.

  17. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  18. Acceptors in ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    McCluskey, Matthew D. Corolewski, Caleb D.; Lv, Jinpeng; Tarun, Marianne C.; Teklemichael, Samuel T.; Walter, Eric D.; Norton, M. Grant; Harrison, Kale W.; Ha, Su

    2015-03-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has potential for a range of applications in the area of optoelectronics. The quest for p-type ZnO has focused much attention on acceptors. In this paper, Cu, N, and Li acceptor impurities are discussed. Experimental evidence indicates these point defects have acceptor levels 3.2, 1.4, and 0.8 eV above the valence-band maximum, respectively. The levels are deep because the ZnO valence band is quite low compared to conventional, non-oxide semiconductors. Using MoO{sub 2} contacts, the electrical resistivity of ZnO:Li was measured and showed behavior consistent with bulk hole conduction for temperatures above 400 K. A photoluminescence peak in ZnO nanocrystals is attributed to an acceptor, which may involve a Zn vacancy. High field (W-band) electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on the nanocrystals revealed an axial center with g{sub ⊥} = 2.0015 and g{sub //} = 2.0056, along with an isotropic center at g = 2.0035.

  19. Acceptors in ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Mccluskey, Matthew D.; Corolewski, Caleb; Lv, Jinpeng; Tarun, Marianne C.; Teklemichael, Samuel T.; Walter, Eric D.; Norton, M. G.; Harrison, Kale W.; Ha, Su Y.

    2015-03-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has potential for a range of applications in the area of optoelectronics. The quest for p-type ZnO has focused much attention on acceptors. In this paper, Cu, N, and Li acceptor impurities are discussed. Experimental evidence shows that these point defects have acceptor levels 3.2, 1.5, and 0.8 eV above the valence-band maximum, respectively. The levels are deep because the ZnO valence band is quite low compared to conventional, non-oxide semiconductors. Using MoO2 contacts, the electrical resistivity of ZnO:Li was measured and showed behavior consistent with bulk hole conduction for temperatures above 400 K. A photoluminescence peak in ZnO nanocrystals has been attributed to an acceptor, which may involve a zinc vacancy. High field (W-band) electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on the nanocrystals revealed an axial center with g = 2.0033 and g = 2.0075, along with an isotropic center at g = 2.0053.

  20. Novel Nanostructured Zinc Oxide Ammonia Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Surbhi; Sahare, P. D.; Gupta, Meenakshi; Kapoor, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, we report a novel and easy technique to synthesize a ZnO nanostructured porous network using activated carbon (AC) that is used as a sensor material for an interacting gas at room temperature. The formation of the material was confirmed by XRD and HRTEM image. The porous nature of the synthesized ZnO could be used to incorporate a laser dyes into it which makes it more fluorescent material. Broad absorption/excitation band(s) in laser dye (Stilbene) helps to get it excited over a range and broad fluorescent emission that enhances the sensitivity on integration. The changes in the intensities of the absorption/emission spectra of sensitized ZnO on interaction with gas molecules could be used to fabricate a gas sensor working at room temperature.

  1. Current nanoscience and nanoengineering at the Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, A. M.; Singh, R. S.; Singh, V. P.

    2006-07-01

    The Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CeNSE) at the University of Kentucky is a multidisciplinary group of faculty, students, and staff, with a shared vision and cutting-edge research facilities to study and develop materials and devices at the nanoscale. Current research projects at CeNSE span a number of diverse nanoscience thrusts in bio- engineering and medicine (nanosensors and nanoelectrodes, nanoparticle-based drug delivery), electronics (nanolithography, molecular electronics, nanotube FETs), nanotemplates for electronics and gas sensors (functionalization of carbon nanotubes, aligned carbon nanotube structures for gate-keeping, e-beam lithography with nanoscale precision), and nano--optoelectronics (nanoscale photonics for laser communications, quantum confinement in photovoltaic devices, and nanostructured displays). This paper provides glimpses of this research and future directions.

  2. Thermoelectric effects in nanoscale junctions.

    PubMed

    Dubi, Yonatan; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2009-01-01

    Despite its intrinsic nonequilibrium origin, thermoelectricity in nanoscale systems is usually described within a static scattering approach which disregards the dynamical interaction with the thermal baths that maintain energy flow. Using the theory of open quantum systems, we show instead that unexpected properties, such as a resonant structure and large sign sensitivity, emerge if the nonequilibrium nature of this problem is considered. Our approach also allows us to define and study a local temperature, which shows hot spots and oscillations along the system according to the coupling of the latter to the electrodes. This demonstrates that Fourier's lawa paradigm of statistical mechanicsis generally violated in nanoscale junctions. PMID:19072125

  3. The use of novel biodegradable, optically active and nanostructured poly(amide-ester-imide) as a polymer matrix for preparation of modified ZnO based bionanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Abdolmaleki, Amir; Mallakpour, Shadpour; Borandeh, Sedigheh

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel biodegradable and nanostructured PAEI based on two amino acids, was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO nanoparticles were modified via two different silane coupling agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PAEI/modified ZnO BNCs were synthesized through ultrasound irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO particles were dispersed homogeneously in PAEI matrix on nanoscale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of ZnO nanoparticles on the properties of synthesized polymer was examined. -- Abstract: A novel biodegradable and nanostructured poly(amide-ester-imide) (PAEI) based on two different amino acids, was synthesized via direct polycondensation of biodegradable N,N Prime -bis[2-(methyl-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate)]isophthaldiamide and N,N Prime -(pyromellitoyl)-bis-L-phenylalanine diacid. The resulting polymer was characterized by FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR, specific rotation, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis. The synthesized polymer showed good thermal stability with nano and sphere structure. Then PAEI/ZnO bionanocomposites (BNCs) were fabricated via interaction of pure PAEI and ZnO nanoparticles. The surface of ZnO was modified with two different silane coupling agents. PAEI/ZnO BNCs were studied and characterized by FT-IR, XRD, UV/vis, FE-SEM and TEM. The TEM and FE-SEM results indicated that the nanoparticles were dispersed homogeneously in PAEI matrix on nanoscale. Furthermore the effect of ZnO nanoparticle on the thermal stability of the polymer was investigated with TGA and DSC technique.

  4. NANOSCALE BIOSENSORS IN ECOSYSTEM EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This powerpoint presentation presented information on nanoscale biosensors in ecosystem exposure research. The outline of the presentation is as follows: nanomaterials environmental exposure research; US agencies involved in nanosensor research; nanoscale LEDs in biosensors; nano...

  5. Homoepitaxial ZnO Film Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, C-H; Lehoczky, S. L.; Harris, M. T.; Callahan, M. J.; McCarty, P.; George, M. A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    ZnO films have high potential for many applications, such as surface acoustic wave filters, UV detectors, and light emitting devices due to its structural, electrical, and optical properties. High quality epitaxial films are required for these applications. The Al2O3 substrate is commonly used for ZnO heteroepitaxial growth. Recently, high quality ZnO single crystals are available for grow homoepitaxial films. Epitaxial ZnO films were grown on the two polar surfaces (O-face and Zn-face) of (0001) ZnO single crystal substrates using off-axis magnetron sputtering deposition. As a comparison, films were also deposited on (0001) Al2O3 substrates. It was found that the two polar ZnO surfaces have different photoluminescence (PL) spectrum, surface structure and morphology, which strongly influence the epitaxial film growth. The morphology and structure of homoepitaxial films grown on the ZnO substrates were different from heteroepitaxial films grown on the Al2O3. An interesting result shows that high temperature annealing of ZnO single crystals will improve the surface structure on the O-face surface rather than the opposite surface. The measurements of PL, low-angle incident x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy of ZnO films indicate that the O-terminated surface is better for ZnO epitaxial film growth.

  6. Stability of Grafted Polymer Nanoscale Films toward Gamma Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Borodinov, Nikolay; Giammarco, James; Patel, Neil; Agarwal, Anuradha; O'Donnell, Katie R; Kucera, Courtney J; Jacobsohn, Luiz G; Luzinov, Igor

    2015-09-01

    The present article focuses on the influence of gamma irradiation on nanoscale polymer grafted films and explores avenues for improvements in their stability toward the ionizing radiation. In terms of applications, we concentrate on enrichment polymer layers (EPLs), which are polymer thin films employed in sensor devices for the detection of chemical and biological substances. Specifically, we have studied the influence of gamma irradiation on nanoscale poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) grafted EPL films. First, it was determined that a significant level of cross-linking was caused by irradiation in pure PGMA films. The cross-linking is accompanied by the formation of conjugated ester, carbon double bonds, hydroxyl groups, ketone carbonyls, and the elimination of epoxy groups as determined by FTIR. Polystyrene, 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl, dimethylphenylsilanol, BaF2, and gold nanoparticles were incorporated into the films and were found to mitigate different aspects of the radiation damage. PMID:26259102

  7. Synthesis and enhanced NO2 gas sensing properties of ZnO nanorods/TiO2 nanoparticles heterojunction composites.

    PubMed

    Zou, C W; Wang, J; Xie, W

    2016-09-15

    ZnO nanorods/TiO2 nanoparticles composites were synthesized and the effects of TiO2 concentrations on the NO2 sensing properties were studied in detail. The as-prepared composites were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, PL, I-V and gas sensing measurements. The gas sensing results demonstrated that all the sensors based on ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited much higher response than that of sensors based on pure ZnO nanorods. At the optimum operating temperature of 180°C, the response values of the sensors based on ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposites decorated with TiO2 concentrations of 0, 3, 5, 8 and 10wt% were 50, 140, 310, 350 and 258, respectively. The PL and I-V results indicated that the increased charge transfer between the ZnO nanorods mediated by TiO2 nanoparticles enhanced the conductivity of the ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposites. The gas sensing mechanism was also carefully analyzed. The attachment of TiO2 nanoparticles onto ZnO nanorods induced more active sites for the adsorption of oxygen molecules (O(2)) and O(2) which can be more easily adsorbed on the surface of ZnO nanorods. Furthermore, the conduction channel of ZnO/TiO2 was much narrower as a result of the formation of heterojunction which may further contribute to the enhanced NO2 sensing properties. PMID:27280536

  8. Synthesis and photocatalytic properties of multi-morphological AuCu3-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Deqian; Chen, Yuanzhi; Peng, Jian; Xie, Qingshui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2015-10-01

    Noble metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals represent an important class of materials for many potential applications, especially for photocatalysis. The utilization of transition metals to form alloys with noble metals can not only reduce the preparation costs, but may also offer tunable optical and catalytic properties for a broader range of applications. In this study, we report on the solution synthesis of AuCu3-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with three interesting morphologies, including urchin-like, flower-like and multipod-like nanocrystals. In the synthetic strategy, Au-Cu bimetallic alloy seeds formed in situ are used to induce the heteroepitaxial growth of ZnO nanocrystals on the surface of bimetallic alloy cores; thus different types of morphologies can be achieved by controlling the reaction conditions. Through high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations, well-defined interfaces between ZnO and AuCu3 are observed, which indicate that ZnO has a (0001) orientation and prefers to grow on AuCu3 {111} facets. The as-prepared hybrid nanocrystals demonstrate morphology- and composition-dependent surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption bands. In addition, much higher photocatalytic efficiency than pure ZnO nanocrystals is observed for the hybrid nanocrystals in the degradation of methylene blue. In particular, the multipod-like AuCu3-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals show the highest catalytic performance, as well as more than three times higher photocurrent density than the pure ZnO sample. The reported synthetic strategy provides a facile route to the effective combination of a plasmonic alloy with semiconductor components at the nanoscale in a controlled manner.

  9. Optoelectronic Properties of Thermally Evaporated ZnO Films with Nanowalls on Glass Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tse-Pu; Hung, Fei-Yi; Chang, Sheng-Po; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Hu, Zhan-Shuo; Chen, Kuan-Jen

    2013-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films with two-dimensional (2D) vertically aligned nanowalls, denoted by nanowalls-films, are successfully prepared on glass substrates at a low growth temperature of 450 °C without using metal catalysts. The morphology and optical properties of the nanowalls-film are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and photoluminescence measurement. The ZnO nanowalls-film show a strong UV emission and a preferred c-axis orientation with a hexagonal structure. The UV sensor measurement of the ZnO nanowalls-film shows a high sensitivity to UV light, rapid rise and decay times, and a good UV-to-visible rejection ratio.

  10. Phase transition induced strain in ZnO under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiaozhi; Dong, Haini; Li, Yanchun; Lin, Chuanlong; Park, Changyong; He, Duanwei; Yang, Wenge

    2016-05-01

    Under high pressure, the phase transition mechanism and mechanical property of material are supposed to be largely associated with the transformation induced elastic strain. However, the experimental evidences for such strain are scanty. The elastic and plastic properties of ZnO, a leading material for applications in chemical sensor, catalyst, and optical thin coatings, were determined using in situ high pressure synchrotron axial and radial x-ray diffraction. The abnormal elastic behaviors of selected lattice planes of ZnO during phase transition revealed the existence of internal elastic strain, which arise from the lattice misfit between wurtzite and rocksalt phase. Furthermore, the strength decrease of ZnO during phase transition under non-hydrostatic pressure was observed and could be attributed to such internal elastic strain, unveiling the relationship between pressure induced internal strain and mechanical property of material. These findings are of fundamental importance to understanding the mechanism of phase transition and the properties of materials under pressure.

  11. Spectroscopic and fiber optic ethanol sensing properties Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, J. L.; Udayabhaskar, R.; Renganathan, B.; Muthu Mariappan, S.; Sastikumar, D.; Karthikeyan, B.

    2014-11-01

    We report the structural, optical and gas sensing properties of prepared pure and Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles through solgel method at moderate temperature. Structural studies are carried out by X-ray diffraction method confirms hexagonal wurtzite structure and doping induced changes in lattice parameters is observed. Optical absorption spectral studies shows red shift in the absorption peak corresponds to band-gap from 3.42 eV to 3.05 eV and broad absorption in the visible range after Gd doping is observed. Scanning electron microscopic studies shows increase in particle size where the particle diameters increase from few nm to micrometers after Gd doping. The clad modified ethanol fiber-optic sensor studies for ethanol sensing exhibits best sensitivity for the 3% Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles and the sensitivity get lowered incase of higher percentage of Gd doped ZnO sample.

  12. Spectroscopic and fiber optic ethanol sensing properties Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Noel, J L; Udayabhaskar, R; Renganathan, B; Muthu Mariappan, S; Sastikumar, D; Karthikeyan, B

    2014-11-11

    We report the structural, optical and gas sensing properties of prepared pure and Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles through solgel method at moderate temperature. Structural studies are carried out by X-ray diffraction method confirms hexagonal wurtzite structure and doping induced changes in lattice parameters is observed. Optical absorption spectral studies shows red shift in the absorption peak corresponds to band-gap from 3.42 eV to 3.05 eV and broad absorption in the visible range after Gd doping is observed. Scanning electron microscopic studies shows increase in particle size where the particle diameters increase from few nm to micrometers after Gd doping. The clad modified ethanol fiber-optic sensor studies for ethanol sensing exhibits best sensitivity for the 3% Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles and the sensitivity get lowered incase of higher percentage of Gd doped ZnO sample. PMID:24892544

  13. Effect of Mn doping on the microstructures and sensing properties of ZnO nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yuzhen; Ma, Shuyi; Li, Xiangbing; Wang, Caiyun; Li, Faming; Yang, Xiaohong; Zhu, Jing; Ma, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofibers doped with manganese (Mn) are synthesized by electrospinning followed by calcinations at 580 °C for 150 min. The structure, morphology and element-composition are investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that the diameters of Mn-doped ZnO nanofibers are from 60 nm to 90 nm corresponding to the amount of Mn from 0 wt% to 2.0 wt%, respectively. XPS spectrum indicates that Mn2+ ions exist in divalent state. The gas sensing properties are significantly affected by the Mn-doped ZnO nanofibers and the operation temperature. The sensors exhibit excellent sensitivity, practical selectivity and stability to acetone with a fast response and recovery time at 340 °C.

  14. Preparation of new morphological ZnO and Ce-doped ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Chelouche, A.; Djouadi, D.; Aksas, A.

    2013-12-16

    ZnO micro-tori and cerium doped hexangulars ZnO have been prepared by the sol-gel method under methanol hypercritical conditions of temperature and pressure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement has revealed the high crystalline quality and the nanometric size of the samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has shown that the ZnO powder has a torus-like shape while that of ZnO:Ce has a hexangular-like shape, either standing free or inserted into the cores of ZnO tori. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has revealed that the ZnO particles have sizes between 25 and 30 nm while Ce-doped ZnO grains have diameters ranging from 75 nm to 100 nm. Photoluminescence spectra at room temperature of the samples have revealed that the introduction of cerium in ZnO reduces the emission intensity lines, particularly the ZnO red and green ones.

  15. High Temperature Langasite SAW Oxygen Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Peng; Chin, Tao-Lun; Greve, David; Oppenheim, Irving; Malone, Vanessa; Cao, Limin

    2011-08-01

    High-temperature langasite SAW oxygen sensors using sputtered ZnO as a resistive gas-sensing layer were fabricated and tested. Sensitivity to oxygen gas was observed between 500°C to 700°C, with a sensitivity peak at about 625°C, consistent with the theoretical predictions of the acoustoelectric effect.

  16. Nanoscale wicking methods and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Jijie (Inventor); Bronikowski, Michael (Inventor); Noca, Flavio (Inventor); Sansom, Elijah B. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A fluid transport method and fluid transport device are disclosed. Nanoscale fibers disposed in a patterned configuration allow transport of a fluid in absence of an external power source. The device may include two or more fluid transport components having different fluid transport efficiencies. The components may be separated by additional fluid transport components, to control fluid flow.

  17. Laser ablated ZnO thin film for amperometric detection of urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Neha; Tomar, Monika; Jain, Prateek; Gupta, Vinay

    2013-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated corning glass substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique at two different oxygen pressures (50 mT and 100 mT) have been used as efficient matrix for realization of efficient urea biosensors after immobilization of urease (Urs) enzyme onto ZnO film surface. The bioelectrode Urs/ZnO/ITO/glass having ZnO matrix grown at 100 mT is found to be exhibiting an enhanced sensitivity of 36 μΑ mΜ-1 cm-2 for urea over a wide detection range of 5-200 mg/dl. The relatively low value of Michaelis-Menten constant (Km = 0.82 mM) indicates high affinity of the immobilized urease towards the analyte (urea). The prepared sensor exhibits high selectivity towards detection of urea and retains 90% of its activity for more than 12 weeks. The observed enhanced response characteristics of bioelectrode is attributed to the growth of highly c-axis oriented ZnO thin film by PLD at 100 mT oxygen pressure with desired rough and porous surface morphology besides high electron communication feature. The results confirm the promising application of PLD grown ZnO thin film as an efficient matrix for urea detection.

  18. Enhancement of gas response of ZnO micro-nano structured films through plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yanagisawa, Kazumasa; Nishino, Toshiki; Yamada, Ichiro

    2007-02-01

    Films of ZnO micro-nano structures were deposited on quartz substrates and subsequently plasma treated in O II, N II and CF 4. It was found that exposure to oxygen plasma enhanced gas response to ethanol vapor of the ZnO films by a factor 2. The effect of surface plasma treatments on the gas response of the ZnO films was discussed in reference to surface morphology observed by high-magnification SEM and surface chemical state determined by XPS. SEM observation revealed that O II plasma treatment induced less surface roughening than N II and CF 4 plasmas, in agreement with the view that O II plasma should reduce preferential sputtering. Deconvolution of the O 1s X-ray photoelectron peak indicated an increase in the Zn-O bond surface density relatively to O-H bond density for the O II plasma treated surface, whereas the O-H bond surface density was increased relatively to the Zn-O bond density for the N II and CF 4 plasma treated films. The O II plasma was found to partially clean the surface from hydroxyl groups and to expose more Zn cations, which might have caused the enhancement of sensor response by increasing the density of active sites for oxidation/reduction reactions.

  19. Bioinspired, functional nanoscale materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, In-Kook

    Functional nanomaterials in nature exhibit many unique functions and optical and mechanical properties. Examples of this include the dry adhesion of a gecko's foot, the reduced drag on a shark's skin, the high strength and toughness of nacre, and the superhydrophobic self-cleaning of a lotus leaf. This dissertation is devoted to creating unique and enhanced properties by mimicking such functional materials. We have developed a novel self-pumping membrane, which does not require an applied voltage. The self-pumping membrane harvests chemical energy from a surrounding fluid and uses it for accelerated mass transport across the membrane. A device such as this has promising applications in implantable or remotely operating autonomous devices and membrane-based purification systems. Reproducible and highly active surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were developed using a bottom-up self-assembly technology. With their high sensitivity and good reproducibility, the developed nanostructures (gold nanoparticle and nanohole arrays) as SERS substrates are very promising for applications such as ultra-sensitive detectors for chemicals and reproducible sensors for chemical and biological molecules. Binary colloidal crystals were created using a simple, fast, and scalable spin-coating technology. Although further investigation of the procedure is needed to improve the ordering of particles in the individual layers, the developed assembly technology has a promising outlook in applications such as optical integrated circuits and high-speed optical computing. Inorganic-organic nanocomposites were realized by assembling synthesized gibbsite nanoplatelets using the electrophoretic deposition and infiltration of a monomer followed by polymerization. Via surface modifications of gibbsite nanoplatelets, nanocomposites were further reinforced with covalent linkages between the inorganic platelets and organic matrix.

  20. Improvement of Flame-made ZnO Nanoparticulate Thick Film Morphology for Ethanol Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Liewhiran, Chaikarn; Phanichphantandast, Sukon

    2007-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were produced by flame spray pyrolysis using zinc naphthenate as a precursor dissolved in toluene/acetonitrile (80/20 vol%). The particles properties were analyzed by XRD, BET. The ZnO particle size and morphology was observed by SEM and HR-TEM revealing spheroidal, hexagonal, and rod-like morphologies. The crystallite sizes of ZnO spheroidal and hexagonal particles ranged from 10-20 nm. ZnO nanorods were ranged from 10-20 nm in width and 20-50 nm in length. Sensing films were produced by mixing the nanoparticles into an organic paste composed of terpineol and ethyl cellulose as a vehicle binder. The paste was doctor-bladed onto Al2O3 substrates interdigitated with Au electrodes. The morphology of the sensing films was analyzed by optical microscopy and SEM analysis. Cracking of the sensing films during annealing process was improved by varying the heating conditions. The gas sensing of ethanol (25-250 ppm) was studied at 400 °C in dry air containing SiC as the fluidized particles. The oxidation of ethanol on the surface of the semiconductor was confirmed by mass spectroscopy (MS). The effect of micro-cracks was quantitatively accounted for as a provider of extra exposed edges. The sensitivity decreased notably with increasing crack of sensing films. It can be observed that crack widths were reduced with decreasing heating rates. Crack-free of thick (5 μm) ZnO films evidently showed higher sensor signal and faster response times (within seconds) than cracked sensor. The sensor signal increased and the response time decreased with increasing ethanol concentration.

  1. Highly enhanced acetone sensing performances of porous and single crystalline ZnO nanosheets: high percentage of exposed (100) facets working together with surface modification with Pd nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuanhua; Lu, Lingzhen; Zhang, Aiqin; Zhang, Yonghui; Sun, Li; Huo, Lei; Li, Feng

    2012-08-01

    Porous and single crystalline ZnO nanosheets, which were synthesized by annealing hydrozincite Zn(5)(CO(3))(2)(OH)(6) nanoplates produced with a water/ethylene glycol solvothermal method, are used as building blocks to construct functional Pd-ZnO nanoarchitectures together with Pd nanoparticles based on a self-assembly approach. Chemical sensing performances of the ZnO nanosheets were investigated carefully before and after their surface modification with Pd nanoparticles. It was found that the chemical sensors made with porous ZnO nanosheets exhibit high selectivity and quick response for detecting acetone, because of the 2D ZnO nanocrystals exposed in (100) facets at high percentage. The performances of the acetone sensors can be further improved dramatically, after the surfaces of ZnO nanosheets are modified with Pd nanoparticles. Novel acetone sensors with enhanced response, selectivity and stability have been fabricated successfully by using nanoarchitectures consisting of ZnO nanosheets and Pd nanoparticles. PMID:22853192

  2. An enzyme free Vitamin C augmented sensing with different ZnO morphologies on SnO2/F transparent glass electrode: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Chaitali; Malhotra, Nitesh; Pundir, C S; Deepshikha; Narang, Jagriti

    2016-12-01

    Three types of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures viz. ZnO nanocrystals (ZnONCs), ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and ZnO nanobelts (ZnONBs) were synthesized and characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR and SEM. A comparison of signal amplification by these ZnO nanostructures as judged by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) revealed that ZnONCs are better sensing interface for electrochemical detection. When these ZnO nanostructure were compared electrochemically for sensing Vitamin C, ZnONC's sensor outperformed the ZnONP and ZnONB sensor and previously reported sensors. The ZnONCs/MB/FTO electrode showed a wide linear sensing range (0.001μM to 4000μM), low detection limit (0.0001μM), a small response time (5s) and a storage stability of 6months. To the best of our knowledge, this elevated sensitivity and remarkable stability for electrochemical Vitamin C detection using ZnONC's have not been reported so far. PMID:27612771

  3. ZnO nano-array-based EGFET biosensor for glucose detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Junjie; Zhang, Huihui; Ji, Zhaoxia; Xu, Minxuan; Zhang, Yue

    2015-06-01

    Electrochemical biosensors are normally based on enzymatic catalysis of a reaction that produces or consumes electrons and the sensing membranes dominate the performance. In this work, ZnO nano-array-based EGFETs were fabricated for pH and glucose detection. The ZnO nano-arrays prepared via low-temperature hydrothermal method were well-aligned, with an average length of 2 μm and diameter of 100-150 nm, and have a typical hexagonal wurtzite structure. The sensor performed with a sensitivity of 45 mV/pH and response time of about 6-7 s from pH = 4-12. UV irradiation can improve the Vref response as a result of the formation of a depletion region at the surface of ZnO nanomaterials. Due to its high specific surface area, the ZnO nano-array EGFET sensor showed a sensitivity of -0.395 mV/μM to the glucose detection in a concentration range between 20 and 100 μM. These EGFET glucose biosensors demonstrate a low detectable concentration (20 μM) with good linearity, therefore may be used to detect glucose in saliva and tears at much lower concentrations than that in blood.

  4. Impact of biogenic nanoscale metals Fe, Cu, Zn and Se on reproductive LV chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiem Nguyen, Quy; Dieu Nguyen, Duy; Kien Nguyen, Van; Thinh Nguyen, Khac; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Tin Tran, Xuan; Nguyen, Huu Cuong; Tien Phung, Duc

    2015-09-01

    Using biogenic nanoscale metals (Fe, Cu, ZnO, Se) to supplement into diet premix of reproductive LV (a Vietnamese Luong Phuong chicken breed) chickens resulted in certain improvement of poultry farming. The experimental data obtained showed that the farming indices depend mainly on the quantity of nanocrystalline metals which replaced the inorganic mineral component in the feed premix. All four experimental groups with different quantities of the replacement nano component grew and developed normally with livability reaching 91 to 94%, hen’s bodyweight at 38 weeks of age and egg weight ranged from 2.53-2.60 kg/hen and 50.86-51.55 g/egg, respectively. All these farming indices together with laying rate, egg productivity and chick hatchability peaked at group 5 with 25% of nanoscale metals compared to the standard inorganic mineral supplement, while feed consumption was lowest. The results also confirmed that nanocrystalline metals Fe, Cu, ZnO and Se supplemented to chicken feed were able to decrease inorganic minerals in the diet premixes at least four times, allowing animals to more effectively absorb feed minerals, consequently decreasing environmental pollution risks.

  5. Characterization of NiSi nanowires as field emitters and limitations of Fowler-Nordheim model at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkadi, Amina B.; Gale, E.; Isakovic, A. F.

    2015-03-01

    Nanoscale field emitters are of technological interest because of the anticipated faster turn-on time, better sustainability and compactness. This report focuses on NiSi nanowires as field emitters for two reasons: (a) possible enhancement of field emission in nanoscale field emitters over bulk, and (b) achieving the same field emission properties as in bulk, but at a lower energy cost. To this end, we have grown, fabricated and characterized NiSi nanowires as field emitters. Depending on the geometry of the NiSi nanowires (aspect ratio, shape etc.), the relevant major field emission parameters, such as (1) the turn-on field, (2) the work function, and (3) the field enhancement factor, can be comparable or even superior to other recently explored nanoscale field emitters, such as CdS and ZnO. We also report on a comparative performance of various nanoscale field emitters and on the difficulties in the performance comparison in the light of relatively poor applicability of the standard Folwer-Nordheim model for field emission analysis for the case of the nanoscale field emitters. Proposed modifications are discussed. This work is supported through SRC-ATIC Grant 2011-KJ-2190. We also acknoweldge BNL-CFN and Cornell CNF facilities and staff.

  6. Metal Structural Environment in ZnxNi1-xO Macroscale and Nanoscale Solid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, Matthea A.; Langell, Marjorie A.

    2014-08-21

    The metal structural environments in macroscale and nanoscale ZnxNi1–xO solid solutions were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD demonstrates that solid solutions form for both macroscale (bulk) and nanoscale crystallites, and that the lattice parameter increases linearly as the amount of zinc increases, an indication of a homogeneous solid solution. XAS for both the bulk material and the nanoparticles reveals that the zinc atoms are incorporated into the rocksalt lattice and do not form zinc oxide clusters. The X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) of the Zn k-edge region in the solid solution is similar to the Ni k-edge region of NiO, and not the Zn k-edge region of ZnO. XPS confirms that solid solutions are formed; Auger parameters for zinc are consistent with a different geometry than the tetrahedral coordination of wurtzite ZnO. Nanoscaled solid solutions show evidence of a lattice contraction relative to macroscale solutions of the same concentration. While the contraction persists across the entire concentration range, the nanoparticle lattice parameter approaches the bulk ZnxNi1–xO value as the concentration of zinc increases to predict ZnO rocksalt lattice parameters that are in agreement with observed ZnO data.

  7. Structure and magnetic properties of three-dimensional (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3} nanofilms on ZnO nanorod arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Haiyong; Gao Puxian; Shimpi, Paresh; Guo Yanbing; Cai Wenjie; Lin Huijan; Staruch, M.; Jain, Menka

    2011-03-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) cubic perovskite (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) nanofilms have been deposited on ZnO nanorod arrays with controlled dimensionality and crystallinity by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering and post thermal annealing. Compared to the two-dimensional (2D) LSMO nanofilm on flat Si, the structure and magnetic properties of 3D LSMO nanofilms on ZnO nanorod arrays have a strong anisotropic morphology and thickness dependence. Ferromagnetic property has been observed in both 2D and 3D LSMO nanofilms while a ferromagnetic-superparamagnetic transition was revaled in 3D LSMO nanofilms on ZnO nanorod array with decreasing nanofilm thickness, due to a large surface dispersion effect. The LSMO/ZnO nanofilm/nanorod structures could open up new avenues for intriguing magnetic properties studies and applications of nanoscale perovskites.

  8. Preface: Charge transport in nanoscale junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    the molecular level. Nanoscale charge transport experiments in ionic liquids extend the field to high temperatures and to systems with intriguing interfacial potential distributions. Other directions may include dye-sensitized solar cells, new sensor applications and diagnostic tools for the study of surface-bound single molecules. Another motivation for this special issue is thus to highlight activities across different research communities with nanoscale charge transport as a common denominator. This special issue gathers 27 articles by scientists from the United States, Germany, the UK, Denmark, Russia, France, Israel, Canada, Australia, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Singapore; it gives us a flavour of the current state-of-the-art of this diverse research area. While based on contributions from many renowned groups and institutions, it obviously cannot claim to represent all groups active in this very broad area. Moreover, a number of world-leading groups were unable to take part in this project within the allocated time limit. Nevertheless, we regard the current selection of papers to be representative enough for the reader to draw their own conclusions about the current status of the field. Each paper is original and has its own merit, as all papers in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter special issues are subjected to the same scrutiny as regular contributions. The Guest Editors have deliberately not defined the specific subjects covered in this issue. These came out logically from the development of this area, for example: 'Traditional' solid state nanojunctions based on adsorbed layers, oxide films or nanowires sandwiched between two electrodes: effects of molecular structure (aromaticity, anchoring groups), symmetry, orientation, dynamics (noise patterns) and current-induced heating. Various 'physical effects': inelastic tunnelling and Coulomb blockade, polaron effects, switching modes, and negative differential resistance; the role of

  9. Biosafe Nanoscale Pharmaceutical Adjuvant Materials

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shubin; Li, Shengliang; Wang, Chongxi; Liu, Juan; Yang, Xiaolong; Wang, Paul C.; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to developments in the field of nanotechnology over the past decades, more and more biosafe nanoscale materials have become available for use as pharmaceutical adjuvants in medical research. Nanomaterials possess unique properties which could be employed to develop drug carriers with longer circulation time, higher loading capacity, better stability in physiological conditions, controlled drug release, and targeted drug delivery. In this review article, we will review recent progress in the application of representative organic, inorganic and hybrid biosafe nanoscale materials in pharmaceutical research, especially focusing on nanomaterial-based novel drug delivery systems. In addition, we briefly discuss the advantages and notable functions that make these nanomaterials suitable for the design of new medicines; the biosafety of each material discussed in this article is also highlighted to provide a comprehensive understanding of their adjuvant attributes. PMID:25429253

  10. Colloidal ZnO and Zn1-xCoxO tetrapod nanocrystals with tunable arm lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, James M.; Fenton, Julie L.; Gray, Jennifer L.; Schaak, Raymond E.

    2015-10-01

    Tetrapod-shaped ZnO nanocrystals exhibit exceptional optoelectronic properties, including intense ultraviolet photoluminescence emission, that make them attractive for applications that include lasers, sensors, and photocatalysts. However, synthetic methods that produce ZnO tetrapods typically include high-temperature vapor-deposition approaches that do not readily achieve characteristic dimensions of less than 100 nm or colloidal methods that require added metal dopants, which modify the inherent properties of ZnO. Here, we report a robust, modified solution-phase synthetic protocol for generating colloidal ZnO tetrapods that does not require the use of metal dopants. The ZnO tetrapod arm lengths can be tuned from 10 to 25 nm by adjusting the amount of Zn reagent used in the reaction. Subsequent seeded-growth produced even larger colloidal ZnO tetrapods with 62 nm arms. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements confirm that the tetrapods are of high crystalline quality, and the ultraviolet PL emission wavelengths that are observed fall between those of previously reported metal-doped colloidal ZnO tetrapods, which exhibit dopant-induced red- or blue-shifts. Furthermore, the reaction strategy can be modified to produce cobalt-substituted ZnO, offering a chemical pathway to tetrapod-shaped Zn1-xCoxO nanocrystals.Tetrapod-shaped ZnO nanocrystals exhibit exceptional optoelectronic properties, including intense ultraviolet photoluminescence emission, that make them attractive for applications that include lasers, sensors, and photocatalysts. However, synthetic methods that produce ZnO tetrapods typically include high-temperature vapor-deposition approaches that do not readily achieve characteristic dimensions of less than 100 nm or colloidal methods that require added metal dopants, which modify the inherent properties of ZnO. Here, we report a robust, modified solution-phase synthetic protocol for generating colloidal ZnO tetrapods that does not require the use of metal

  11. Nanoscale plasticity in silica glass

    SciTech Connect

    Glosli, J.N.; Boercker, D.B.; Tesar, A.; Belak, J.

    1993-10-01

    Mechanisms of nano-scale plasticity and damage initiation in silica glass is examined using molecular dynamics simulation. Computer experiments are carried out by indenting a sharp diamond-like tool, containing 4496 atoms, into a silica slab consisting of 12288 atoms. Both elastic and plastic deformation of silica is observed during nanoindentation simulation; this transition occurs at an indentation of 1.25 nm, and the calculated hardness (15GPa for 1.5 nm indentation) agrees with experiment.

  12. Cavitation dynamics on the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Kotaidis, Vassilios; Plech, Anton

    2005-11-21

    The ultrafast excitation of gold nanoparticle sols causes a strong nonequilibrium heating of the particle lattice and subsequently of the water shell close to the particle surface. Above a threshold in laser fluence, which is defined by the onset of homogeneous nucleation, nanoscale vapor bubbles develop around the particles, expand and collapse again within the first nanosecond after excitation. We show the existence of cavitation on the nanometer and subnanosecond time scale, described within the framework of continuum thermodynamics.

  13. Synthesis of ZnO Nanostructures for Low Temperature CO and UV Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Muhammad; Manzoor, Umair; Islam, Mohammad; Bhatti, Arshad Saleem; Shah, Nazar Abbas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, synthesis and results of the low temperature sensing of carbon monoxide (CO) gas and room temperature UV sensors using one dimensional (1-D) ZnO nanostructures are presented. Comb-like structures, belts and rods, and needle-shaped nanobelts were synthesized by varying synthesis temperature using a vapor transport method. Needle-like ZnO nanobelts are unique as, according to our knowledge, there is no evidence of such morphology in previous literature. The structural, morphological and optical characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and diffused reflectance spectroscopy techniques. It was observed that the sensing response of comb-like structures for UV light was greater as compared to the other grown structures. Comb-like structure based gas sensors successfully detect CO at 75 °C while other structures did not show any response. PMID:23202024

  14. An Electrochemical Glucose Sensor Based on Zinc Oxide Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Marie, Mohammed; Mandal, Sanghamitra; Manasreh, Omar

    2015-01-01

    A glucose electrochemical sensor based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods was investigated. The hydrothermal sol-gel growth method was utilized to grow ZnO nanorods on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The total active area of the working electrode was 0.3 × 0.3 cm2 where titanium metal was deposited to enhance the contact. Well aligned hexagonal structured ZnO nanorods with a diameter from 68 to 116 nm were obtained. The excitonic peak obtained from the absorbance spectroscopy was observed at ~370 nm. The dominant peak of Raman spectroscopy measurement was at 440 cm(-1), matching with the lattice vibration of ZnO. The uniform distribution of the GOx and Nafion membrane that has been done using spin coating technique at 4000 rotations per minute helps in enhancing the ion exchange and increasing the sensitivity of the fabricated electrochemical sensor. The amperometric response of the fabricated electrochemical sensor was 3 s. The obtained sensitivity of the fabricated ZnO electrochemical sensor was 10.911 mA/mM·cm2 and the lower limit of detection was 0.22 µM. PMID:26263988

  15. Fabrication of ZnO nanorods and assessment of changes in optical and gas sensing properties by increasing their lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabian, Masood; Mirabbaszadeh, Kavoos; Afarideh, Hossein

    2013-12-01

    We report a low-temperature process to synthesize highly oriented arrays of ZnO nanorods, based on the epitaxial growth of the ZnO seed layer at a low temperature of 70 °C. The ZnO seed layer was deposited by sol-gel process under mild conditions on the glass substrates. The morphologies and crystal structures of the film and nanorods were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. ZnO nanorods were grown on ZnO seed layers by hydrothermal method. The effect of growth period on the morphology and optical characteristics (e.g. optical transmission and band-gap energy), hydrophilicity and gas sensing properties of the grown ZnO seed layer (film) and nanorods were investigated. The long nanorods on the seed layer were observed. The increase in the length of the nanorods resulted in a significant reduction in the optical band-gap energy of the nanorods, which was attributed to the formation of further defects in the nanorods during their fast growth. The surface of the ZnO nanorods grown for 6 h was relatively hydrophilic (with a water contact angle of 18°). The fabricated sensors were used to gauge different concentrations of ethanol vapor in the air at different temperatures and evaluated the surface resistance of the sensors as a function of operating temperature and ethanol concentrations. The results showed that the sensitivity of the nanorods changed from 1.3 to 6 (at 300 °C) by increasing the growth period.

  16. High sensitivity ancilla assisted nanoscale DC magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yixiang; Ajoy, Ashok; Marseglia, Luca; Saha, Kasturi; Cappellaro, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Sensing slowly varying magnetic fields are particularly relevant to many real world scenarios, where the signals of interest are DC or close to static. Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are a versatile platform for such DC magnetometry on nanometer length scales. Using NV centers, the standard technique for measuring DC magnetic fields is via the Ramsey protocol, where sensitivities can approach better than 1 μ T/vHz, but are limited by the sensor fast dephasing time T2*. In this work we instead present a method of sensing DC magnetic fields that is intrinsically limited by the much longer T2 coherence time. The method exploits a strongly-coupled ancillary nuclear spin to achieve high DC field sensitivities potentially exceeding that of the Ramsey method. In addition, through this method we sense the perpendicular component of the DC magnetic field, which in conjunction with the parallel component sensed by the Ramsey method provides a valuable tool for vector DC magnetometry at the nanoscale.

  17. Fabrication of high performance field-effect transistors and practical Schottky contacts using hydrothermal ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opoku, Charles; Singh Dahiya, Abhishek; Oshman, Christopher; Daumont, Christophe; Cayrel, Frederic; Poulin-Vittrant, Guylaine; Alquier, Daniel; Camara, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    The production of large quantities of single crystalline semiconducting ZnO nanowires (NWs) at low cost can offer practical solutions to realizing several novel electronic/optoelectronic and sensor applications on an industrial scale. The present work demonstrates high-density single crystalline NWs synthesized by a multiple cycle hydrothermal process at ˜100 °C. The high carrier concentration in such ZnO NWs is greatly suppressed by a simple low cost thermal annealing step in ambient air at ˜450 °C. Single ZnO NW FETs incorporating these modified NWs are characterized, revealing strong metal work function-dependent charge transport, unobtainable with as-grown hydrothermal ZnO NWs. Single ZnO NW FETs with Al as source and drain (s/d) contacts show excellent performance metrics, including low off-state currents (fA range), high on/off ratio (105-107), steep subthreshold slope (<600 mV/dec) and excellent field-effect carrier mobility (5-11 cm2/V-s). Modified ZnO NWs with platinum s/d contacts demonstrate excellent Schottky transport characteristics, markedly different from a reference ZnO NW device with Al contacts. This included abrupt reverse bias current-voltage saturation characteristics and positive temperature coefficient (˜0.18 eV to 0.13 eV). This work is envisaged to benefit many areas of hydrothermal ZnO NW research, such as NW FETs, piezoelectric energy recovery, piezotronics and Schottky diodes.

  18. The effect of Mn on flame spray pyrolysis-made ZnO nanoparticles for flammable gases detection.

    PubMed

    Tamaekong, N; Samerjai, T; Liewhiran, C; Wisitsoraat, A; Phanichphant, S

    2014-10-01

    The application of Mn-loaded ZnO nanoparticles to the design of flammable gas sensors is nowadays one of the most active research fields, due to their high activity, good adsorption characteristics and high selectivity with high response to toxic and combustible gases. It is sensitive to many gases at moderate temperature, such as C2H4, CH4 and C2H2 gases. FSP presents a new technique for 0.25-1.00 mol% Mn-loaded ZnO nanoparticles synthesis which involves only a single step. The crystallite sizes of ZnO spherical and hexagonal particles were found to be ranging from 5 to 15 nm while ZnO nanorods were seen to be 5-15 nm in width and 20-40 nm in length. In addition, very fine Mn nanoparticles were uniformly deposited on the surface of ZnO particles. The highest response for CH4 gas was -240 towards 0.50 mol% Mn-loaded ZnO at 1.0 vol.% concentration of CH4 in dry air at 300 degrees C. The response of 0.50 mol% Mn-loaded ZnO of C2H4 gas was as high as 72 for 1.0 vol.% while the response for C2H2 gas was -13 towards 0.50 mol% Mn-loaded ZnO at 1.0 vol.% concentration of C2H2 in dry air at 300 degrees C. PMID:25942881

  19. Time-dependent mechanical-electrical coupled behavior in single crystal ZnO nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Jae; Yun, Tae Gwang; Choi, In-Chul; Kim, Sungwoong; Park, Won Il; Han, Seung Min; Jang, Jae-il

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale time-dependent mechanical-electrical coupled behavior of single crystal ZnO nanorods was systematically explored, which is essential for accessing the long-term reliability of the ZnO nanorod-based flexible devices. A series of compression creep tests combined with in-situ electrical measurement was performed on vertically-grown single crystal ZnO nanorods. Continuous measurement of the current (I)-voltage (V) curves before, during, after the creep tests revealed that I is non-negligibly increased as a result of the time-dependent deformation. Analysis of the I-V curves based on the thermionic emission-diffusion theory allowed extraction of nanorod resistance, which was shown to decrease as time-dependent deformation. Finally, based on the observations in this study, a simple analytical model for predicting the reduction in nanorod resistance as a function of creep strain that is induced from diffusional mechanisms is proposed, and this model was demonstrated to be in an excellent agreement with the experimental results. PMID:25982962

  20. High surface-to-volume ratio ZnO microberets: low temperature synthesis, characterization, and photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongbing; Liao, Lei; Li, Jinchai; Wang, Duofa; He, Hui; Fu, Qiang; Xu, Lei; Tian, Yu

    2006-11-23

    Novel hollow ZnO microstructures and ZnO microberets (ZMBs) with nanowires grown vertically on both the inner and outer surfaces of beret shells were synthesized on Si(100) substrates by simple thermal evaporation of pure zinc powder without any catalyst or template material at a relative low temperature of 490 degrees C. XRD, SAED, and HRTEM patterns show that the nanowires and shells of ZMBs are single-crystalline wurtzite structures. The growth mechanism of ZMBs is discussed in detail. The formation of these hollow microstructures depends on the optimum starting time of air introduction. It is a good way to grow well-aligned nanowires by using a nanoscale rough ZnO surface to realize a "self-catalyzed" vapor-liquid-solid process. The photoluminescence spectrum reveals a strong green emission related to the high surface-to-volume ratio of ZMBs. These types of special hollow high surface area structural ZMBs may find potential applications in functional architectural composite materials, solar cell photoanodes, and nanooptoelectronic devices. PMID:17107167

  1. Time-dependent mechanical-electrical coupled behavior in single crystal ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Jae; Yun, Tae Gwang; Choi, In-Chul; Kim, Sungwoong; Park, Won Il; Han, Seung Min; Jang, Jae-il

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale time-dependent mechanical-electrical coupled behavior of single crystal ZnO nanorods was systematically explored, which is essential for accessing the long-term reliability of the ZnO nanorod-based flexible devices. A series of compression creep tests combined with in-situ electrical measurement was performed on vertically-grown single crystal ZnO nanorods. Continuous measurement of the current (I)-voltage (V) curves before, during, after the creep tests revealed that I is non-negligibly increased as a result of the time-dependent deformation. Analysis of the I-V curves based on the thermionic emission-diffusion theory allowed extraction of nanorod resistance, which was shown to decrease as time-dependent deformation. Finally, based on the observations in this study, a simple analytical model for predicting the reduction in nanorod resistance as a function of creep strain that is induced from diffusional mechanisms is proposed, and this model was demonstrated to be in an excellent agreement with the experimental results. PMID:25982962

  2. Nanoelectronics Meets Biology: From Novel Nanoscale Devices for Live Cell Recording to 3D Innervated Tissues†

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaojie; Lieber, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    High spatio-temporal resolution interfacing between electrical sensors and biological systems, from single live cells to tissues, is crucial for many areas, including fundamental biophysical studies as well as medical monitoring and intervention. This focused review summarizes recent progresses in the development and application of novel nanoscale devices for intracellular electrical recordings of action potentials, and the effort of merging electronic and biological systems seamlessly in three dimension using macroporous nanoelectronic scaffolds. The uniqueness of these nanoscale devices for minimally invasive, large scale, high spatial resolution, and three dimensional neural activity mapping will be highlighted. PMID:23946279

  3. Gold coated ZnO nanorod biosensor for glucose detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Anuradha; Jain, Chhavi; Rao, V. Padmanapan; Banerjee, S.

    2012-06-01

    Gold coated ZnO nanorod based biosensor has been fabricated for its glucose detecting abilities and compared with that of ZnO nanorod based biosensor. SEM images of electrochemically grown ZnO nanorods show hexagonally grown ZnO nanorods on an ITO substrate. Electrochemical analysis show that gold coated ZnO based biosensors have higher sensitivity, lower limit of detection and a wider linear range for glucose detection. The results demonstrate that gold coated ZnO nanorod based biosensors are a promising material for biosensor applications over single component ZnO nanorod based biosensor.

  4. Nanoscale directional motion towards regions of stiffness.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tienchong; Zhang, Hongwei; Guo, Zhengrong; Guo, Xingming; Gao, Huajian

    2015-01-01

    How to induce nanoscale directional motion via some intrinsic mechanisms pertaining to a nanosystem remains a challenge in nanotechnology. Here we show via molecular dynamics simulations that there exists a fundamental driving force for a nanoscale object to move from a region of lower stiffness toward one of higher stiffness on a substrate. Such nanoscale directional motion is induced by the difference in effective van der Waals potential energy due to the variation in stiffness of the substrate; i.e., all other conditions being equal, a nanoscale object on a stiffer substrate has lower van der Waals potential energy. This fundamental law of nanoscale directional motion could lead to promising routes for nanoscale actuation and energy conversion. PMID:25615480

  5. Nanoscale Directional Motion towards Regions of Stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tienchong; Zhang, Hongwei; Guo, Zhengrong; Guo, Xingming; Gao, Huajian

    2015-01-01

    How to induce nanoscale directional motion via some intrinsic mechanisms pertaining to a nanosystem remains a challenge in nanotechnology. Here we show via molecular dynamics simulations that there exists a fundamental driving force for a nanoscale object to move from a region of lower stiffness toward one of higher stiffness on a substrate. Such nanoscale directional motion is induced by the difference in effective van der Waals potential energy due to the variation in stiffness of the substrate; i.e., all other conditions being equal, a nanoscale object on a stiffer substrate has lower van der Waals potential energy. This fundamental law of nanoscale directional motion could lead to promising routes for nanoscale actuation and energy conversion.

  6. Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (Program website, free access)   Currently there is no database matching your keyword search, but the NIST Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology website may be of interest. The Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology enables science and industry by providing essential measurement methods, instrumentation, and standards to support all phases of nanotechnology development, from discovery to production.

  7. An evaluation method for nanoscale wrinkle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. P.; Wang, C. G.; Zhang, L. M.; Tan, H. F.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a spectrum-based wrinkling analysis method via two-dimensional Fourier transformation is proposed aiming to solve the difficulty of nanoscale wrinkle evaluation. It evaluates the wrinkle characteristics including wrinkling wavelength and direction simply using a single wrinkling image. Based on this method, the evaluation results of nanoscale wrinkle characteristics show agreement with the open experimental results within an error of 6%. It is also verified to be appropriate for the macro wrinkle evaluation without scale limitations. The spectrum-based wrinkling analysis is an effective method for nanoscale evaluation, which contributes to reveal the mechanism of nanoscale wrinkling.

  8. Nanoscale precision in ion milling for optical and terahertz antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seniutinas, G.; Gervinskas, G.; Balčytis, A.; Clark, F.; Nishijima, Y.; Krotkus, A.; Molis, G.; Valušis, G.; Juodkazis, S.

    2015-03-01

    Plasmonics and nanoscale antennas have been intensively investigated for sensors, metasurfaces and optical trapping where light control at the nanoscale enables new functionalities. To confine and manipulate the light in tiny spaces sub-wavelength antennas should be used with dimensions from micro- to nano-meters and are still challenging to make. Direct fabrication/modification of nanostructures using focused ion beam (FIB) milling is demonstrated for several types of antennas. Arrays of identical nanoparticles were fabricated in a single step by (i) milling gold films or (ii) by modifying structures which were already defined by electron beam or mask projection lithography. Direct FIB writing enables to exclude resist processing steps, thus making fabrication faster and simpler. Sensor areas of 25x25 μm2 of densely packed nanoparticles separated by tens-of-nanometers were fabricated in half an hour (103 μm2/h throughput at 90 nm resolution). Patterns of chiral nanoparticles by groove inscription is demonstrated. The processing speed and capability to mill complex 3D surfaces due to depth of focus not compromised over micrometers length, makes it possible to reach sub-50 nm resolution of direct write. FIB technology is practical for emerging applications in nano-fabrication/photonic/fluidic/magnetic applications.

  9. Investigation of graphene-based nanoscale radiation sensitive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Joshua A.; Wetherington, Maxwell; Hughes, Zachary; LaBella, Michael, III; Bresnehan, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Current state-of-the-art nanotechnology offers multiple benefits for radiation sensing applications. These include the ability to incorporate nano-sized radiation indicators into widely used materials such as paint, corrosion-resistant coatings, and ceramics to create nano-composite materials that can be widely used in everyday life. Additionally, nanotechnology may lead to the development of ultra-low power, flexible detection systems that can be embedded in clothing or other systems. Graphene, a single layer of graphite, exhibits exceptional electronic and structural properties, and is being investigated for high-frequency devices and sensors. Previous work indicates that graphene-oxide (GO) - a derivative of graphene - exhibits luminescent properties that can be tailored based on chemistry; however, exploration of graphene-oxide's ability to provide a sufficient change in luminescent properties when exposed to gamma or neutron radiation has not been carried out. We investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced chemical modifications and radiation damage induced shifts in luminescence in graphene-oxide materials to provide a fundamental foundation for further development of radiation sensitive detection architectures. Additionally, we investigate the integration of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) with graphene-based devices to evaluate radiation induced conductivity in nanoscale devices. Importantly, we demonstrate the sensitivity of graphene transport properties to the presence of alpha particles, and discuss the successful integration of hBN with large area graphene electrodes as a means to provide the foundation for large-area nanoscale radiation sensors.

  10. Enhanced Dibutyl Phthalate Sensing Performance of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Coated with Au-Decorated ZnO Porous Microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaihuan; Fan, Guokang; Hu, Ruifen; Li, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Noble metals addition on nanostructured metal oxides is an attractive way to enhance gas sensing properties. Herein, hierarchical zinc oxide (ZnO) porous microspheres decorated with cubic gold particles (Au particles) were synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared Au-decorated ZnO was then utilized as the sensing film of a gas sensor based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). This fabricated sensor was applied to detect dibutyl phthalate (DBP), which is a widely used plasticizer, and its coating load was optimized. When tested at room temperature, the sensor exhibited a high sensitivity of 38.10 Hz/ppb to DBP in a low concentration range from 2 ppb to 30 ppb and the calculated theoretical detection limit is below 1 ppb. It maintains good repeatability as well as long-term stability. Compared with the undecorated ZnO based QCM, the Au-decorated one achieved a 1.62-time enhancement in sensitivity to DBP, and the selectivity was also improved. According to the experimental results, Au-functionalized ZnO porous microspheres displayed superior sensing performance towards DBP, indicating its potential use in monitoring plasticizers in the gaseous state. Moreover, Au decoration of porous metal oxide nanostructures is proved to be an effective approach for enhancing the gas sensing properties and the corresponding mechanism was investigated. PMID:26343661

  11. Enhanced Dibutyl Phthalate Sensing Performance of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Coated with Au-Decorated ZnO Porous Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kaihuan; Fan, Guokang; Hu, Ruifen; Li, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Noble metals addition on nanostructured metal oxides is an attractive way to enhance gas sensing properties. Herein, hierarchical zinc oxide (ZnO) porous microspheres decorated with cubic gold particles (Au particles) were synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared Au-decorated ZnO was then utilized as the sensing film of a gas sensor based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). This fabricated sensor was applied to detect dibutyl phthalate (DBP), which is a widely used plasticizer, and its coating load was optimized. When tested at room temperature, the sensor exhibited a high sensitivity of 38.10 Hz/ppb to DBP in a low concentration range from 2 ppb to 30 ppb and the calculated theoretical detection limit is below 1 ppb. It maintains good repeatability as well as long-term stability. Compared with the undecorated ZnO based QCM, the Au-decorated one achieved a 1.62-time enhancement in sensitivity to DBP, and the selectivity was also improved. According to the experimental results, Au-functionalized ZnO porous microspheres displayed superior sensing performance towards DBP, indicating its potential use in monitoring plasticizers in the gaseous state. Moreover, Au decoration of porous metal oxide nanostructures is proved to be an effective approach for enhancing the gas sensing properties and the corresponding mechanism was investigated. PMID:26343661

  12. Gas sensing performance of nano zinc oxide sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shiva; Chauhan, Pratima

    2016-04-01

    We report nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO) synthesized by sol-gel method possessing the crystallite size which varies from 25.17 nm to 47.27 nm. The Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image confirms the uniform distribution of nanograins with high porosity. The Energy dispersion X-ray (EDAX) spectrum gives the atomic composition of Zn and O in ZnO powders and confirms the formation of nano ZnO particles. These factors reveals that Nano ZnO based gas sensors are highly sensitive to Ammonia gas (NH3) at room temperature, indicating the maximum response 86.8% at 800 ppm with fast response time and recovery time of 36 sec and 23 sec respectively.

  13. Young's Equation at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seveno, David; Blake, Terence D.; De Coninck, Joël

    2013-08-01

    In 1805, Thomas Young was the first to propose an equation to predict the value of the equilibrium contact angle of a liquid on a solid. Today, the force exerted by a liquid on a solid, such as a flat plate or fiber, is routinely used to assess this angle. Moreover, it has recently become possible to study wetting at the nanoscale using an atomic force microscope. Here, we report the use of molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate the force distribution along a 15 nm fiber dipped into a liquid meniscus. We find very good agreement between the measured force and that predicted by Young’s equation.

  14. Spin manipulation in nanoscale superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, D.

    2016-04-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism in nanoscale structures has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to the exciting new physics created by the competition of these antagonistic ordering phenomena, and the prospect of exploiting this competition for superconducting spintronics devices. While much of the attention is focused on spin-polarized supercurrents created by the triplet proximity effect, the recent discovery of long range quasiparticle spin transport in high-field superconductors has rekindled interest in spin-dependent nonequilibrium properties of superconductors. In this review, the experimental situation on nonequilibrium spin injection into superconductors is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions of the field are outlined.

  15. Spin manipulation in nanoscale superconductors.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, D

    2016-04-27

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism in nanoscale structures has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to the exciting new physics created by the competition of these antagonistic ordering phenomena, and the prospect of exploiting this competition for superconducting spintronics devices. While much of the attention is focused on spin-polarized supercurrents created by the triplet proximity effect, the recent discovery of long range quasiparticle spin transport in high-field superconductors has rekindled interest in spin-dependent nonequilibrium properties of superconductors. In this review, the experimental situation on nonequilibrium spin injection into superconductors is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions of the field are outlined. PMID:27001949

  16. Decontamination of chemical warfare sulfur mustard agent simulant by ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Meysam; Yekta, Sina; Ghaedi, Hamed

    2016-07-01

    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been surveyed to decontaminate the chloroethyl phenyl sulfide as a sulfur mustard agent simulant. Prior to the reaction, ZnO NPs were successfully prepared through sol-gel method in the absence and presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA was utilized as a capping agent to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The formation, morphology, elemental component, and crystalline size of nanoscale ZnO were certified and characterized by SEM/EDX, XRD, and FT-IR techniques. The decontamination (adsorption and destruction) was tracked by the GC-FID analysis, in which the effects of polarity of the media, such as isopropanol, acetone and n-hexane, reaction time intervals from 1 up to 18 h, and different temperatures, including 25, 35, 45, and 55 °C, on the catalytic/decontaminative capability of the surface of ZnO NPs/PVA were investigated and discussed, respectively. Results demonstrated that maximum decontamination (100 %) occurred in n-hexane solvent at 55 °C after 1 h. On the other hand, the obtained results for the acetone and isopropanol solvents were lower than expected. GC-MS chromatograms confirmed the formation of hydroxyl ethyl phenyl sulfide and phenyl vinyl sulfide as the destruction reaction products. Furthermore, these chromatograms proved the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the catalyst considering its surface Bronsted and Lewis acid sites. A non-polar solvent aids material transfer to the reactive surface acid sites without blocking these sites.

  17. Nano-structural Characteristics of N-doped ZnO Thin Films and Fabrication of Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E. J.; Zhang, R. R.; Yoon, G. W.; Park, J. D.

    2011-12-23

    N-doped ZnO thin films (ZnO:N) with c-axis preferred orientation were prepared on p-Si(100) wafers, using an RF magnetron sputter deposition. For ZnO deposition, N{sub 2}O gas was employed as a dopant source and various deposition conditions such as N{sub 2}O gas fraction and RF power were applied. In addition, the film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) devices with three kinds of top electrodes patterns were fabricated by using the N-doped ZnO thin films as the piezoelectric layers. The depth profiles of the nitrogen [N] atoms incorporated into the ZnO thin films were investigated by an Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and the nano-scale structural characteristics of the N-doped ZnO (ZnO:N) thin films were also investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique. The fabricated resonators were evaluated by measuring the return loss (S{sub 11}) characteristics using a probe station and E8361A PNA Network Analyzer.

  18. Laser nanostructuring of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedyalkov, N.; Koleva, M.; Nikov, R.; Atanasov, P.; Nakajima, Y.; Takami, A.; Shibata, A.; Terakawa, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, results on laser processing of thin zinc oxide films deposited on metal substrate are presented. ZnO films are obtained by classical nanosecond pulsed laser deposition method in oxygen atmosphere on tantalum substrate. The produced films are then processed by nanosecond laser pulses at wavelength of 355 nm. The laser processing parameters and the film thickness are varied and their influence on the fabricated structures is estimated. The film morphology after the laser treatment is found to depend strongly on the laser fluence as two regimes are defined. It is shown that at certain conditions (high fluence regime) the laser treatment of the film leads to formation of a discrete nanostructure, composed of spherical like nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. The dynamics of the melt film on the substrate and fast cooling are found to be the main mechanisms for fabrication of the observed structures. The demonstrated method is an alternative way for direct fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on metal which can be easy implemented in applications as resistive sensor devices, electroluminescent elements, solar cell technology.

  19. Fluorescent Dye Encapsulated ZnO Particles with Cell-specific Toxicity for Potential use in Biomedical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hua; Wingett, Denise; Engelhard, Mark H.; Feris, Kevin; Reddy, K. M.; Turner, Paul; Layne, Janet; Hanley, Cory; Bell, Jason; Tenne, Dmitri; Wang, Chong M.; Punnoose, Alex

    2008-07-24

    Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-encapsulated core-shell particles with a nanoscale ZnO finishing layer have been synthesized for the first time as multifunctional “smart” nanostructures for particle tracking and cell imaging using the visible fluorescence emission of the dye or UV fluorescence emission of ZnO, and anti-cancer/antibacterial treatments using the selective toxicity of the nanoscale ZnO outer surface. The chemical phase composition, morphology, size, and the layered core-shell architecture of the particles were characterized using detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometry. Systematic XPS studies after removing nanometer thick layers confirmed the expected layered structure in the order ZnO-SiO2-APTMS-FITC proceeding from the surface to the core of the ~200 nm sized particles. Detailed investigation of the fluorescence properties of these hydrophilic particles in bio-compatible media using fluorescence spectroscopy, flow cytometry and fluorescence confocal microscopy demonstrated that the silica/ZnO outer layer offers considerable protection to the encapsulated dye molecules from photobleaching and quenching due to reactive species such as oxygen in the solvent. These particles showed promise toward cell imaging, for example when the bacterium Escherichia coli was used as a test system, the green fluorescence of the particles allowed confocal microscopy to image the cells. The FITC encapsulated ZnO (FITC-ZnO) particles demonstrated excellent selectivity in preferentially killing Jurkat cancer cells (18% cell viability) without any significant toxicity to normal primary immune cells (75% cell viability) at 60 μg/mL concentrations and inhibited the growth of both gram-positive and gram negative bacteria at concentrations ≥ 250-500 μg/mL (for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively). These results indicate that the

  20. Oxygen vacancy mediated enhanced photo-absorption from ZnO(0001) nanostructures fabricated by atom beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Vanaraj; Joshi, Shalik R.; Mishra, Indrani; Kabiraj, D.; Mishra, N. C.; Avasthi, D. K.; Varma, Shikha

    2016-08-01

    The nanoscale patterns created on the ZnO(0001) surfaces during atom beam irradiation have been investigated here for their photo absorption response. Preferential sputtering, during irradiation, promotes Zn-rich zones that serve as the nucleation centers for the spontaneous creation of nanostructures. Nanostructured surfaces with bigger (78 nm) nanodots, displaying hexagonal ordering and long ranged periodic behavior, show higher photo absorption and a ˜0.09 eV reduced bandgap. These nanostructures also demonstrate higher concentration of oxygen vacancies which are crucial for these results. The enhanced photo-response, as observed here, has been achieved in the absence of any dopant elements.

  1. Performance enhancement of metal nanowire-based transparent electrodes by electrically driven nanoscale nucleation of metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Yu-Jeng; Chiang, Kai-Ming; Lin, Hao-Wu

    2015-07-01

    Solution-processed silver nanowire (AgNW) electrodes have been considered to be promising materials for next-generation flexible transparent conductive electrodes. Despite the fact that a single AgNW has extremely high conductivities, the high junction resistance between nanowires limits the performance of the AgNW matrix. Therefore, post-treatments are usually required to approach better NW-NW contact. Herein, we report a novel linking method that uses joule heating to accumulate sol-gel ZnO near nanowire junctions. The nanoscale ZnO nucleation successfully restrained the thermal instability of the AgNW under current injection and acted as an efficient tightening medium to realize good NW-NW contacts. A low process temperature (<50 °C), and thus low energy consumption, are required for ZnO nucleation. This made the use of substrates with very low operating temperatures, such as PET and PEN, feasible. The optimized AgNW transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) fabricated using this promising linking method exhibited a low sheet resistance (13 Ω sq-1), a high transmission (92% at 550 nm), a high figure of merit (FOM; up to σDC/σOp = 340) and can be applied to wide range of next-generation flexible optoelectronic devices.Solution-processed silver nanowire (AgNW) electrodes have been considered to be promising materials for next-generation flexible transparent conductive electrodes. Despite the fact that a single AgNW has extremely high conductivities, the high junction resistance between nanowires limits the performance of the AgNW matrix. Therefore, post-treatments are usually required to approach better NW-NW contact. Herein, we report a novel linking method that uses joule heating to accumulate sol-gel ZnO near nanowire junctions. The nanoscale ZnO nucleation successfully restrained the thermal instability of the AgNW under current injection and acted as an efficient tightening medium to realize good NW-NW contacts. A low process temperature (<50 °C), and thus

  2. Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods for efficient ultraviolet photodetection.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Shrabani; Basak, Durga

    2011-05-01

    Core-shell TiO(2)@ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been fabricated by a simple two step method: growth of ZnO NRs' array by an aqueous chemical technique and then coating of the NRs with a solution of titanium isopropoxide [Ti(OC(3)H(7))(4)] followed by a heating step to form the shell. The core-shell nanocomposites are composed of single-crystalline ZnO NRs, coated with a thin TiO(2) shell layer obtained by varying the number of coatings (one, three and five times). The ultraviolet (UV) emission intensity of the nanocomposite is largely quenched due to an efficient electron-hole separation reducing the band-to-band recombinations. The UV photoconductivity of the core-shell structure with three times TiO(2) coating has been largely enhanced due to photoelectron transfer between the core and the shell. The UV photosensitivity of the nanocomposite becomes four times larger while the photocurrent decay during steady UV illumination has been decreased almost by 7 times compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs indicating high efficiency of these core-shell structures as UV sensors. PMID:21483939

  3. Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods for efficient ultraviolet photodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Shrabani; Basak, Durga

    2011-05-01

    Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been fabricated by a simple two step method: growth of ZnO NRs' array by an aqueous chemical technique and then coating of the NRs with a solution of titanium isopropoxide [Ti(OC3H7)4] followed by a heating step to form the shell. The core-shell nanocomposites are composed of single-crystalline ZnO NRs, coated with a thin TiO2 shell layer obtained by varying the number of coatings (one, three and five times). The ultraviolet (UV) emission intensity of the nanocomposite is largely quenched due to an efficient electron-hole separation reducing the band-to-band recombinations. The UV photoconductivity of the core-shell structure with three times TiO2 coating has been largely enhanced due to photoelectron transfer between the core and the shell. The UV photosensitivity of the nanocomposite becomes four times larger while the photocurrent decay during steady UV illumination has been decreased almost by 7 times compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs indicating high efficiency of these core-shell structures as UV sensors.

  4. Effect of Co Doping on the Structural, Optical and Magnetic Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, Jason; Reddy, K. M.; Graces, N. Y.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Luo, M.; Xu, Changqing; Giles, N. C.; Wang, Chong M.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Punnoose, Alex

    2007-07-04

    We report the results of a detailed investigation of sol-gel synthesized nanoscale Zn1-xCoxO powders processed at 350 °C with 0 @ x @ 0.12 to understand how the structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of ZnO are modified by Co doping, in addition to searching for the theoretically predicated ferromagnetism. With x increasing to 0.03, both lattice parameters a and c of the hexagonal ZnO decreased suggesting substitutional doping of Co at the tetrahedral Zn2+ sites. For x > 0.03, these trends reversed and the lattice showed a gradual expansion as x approached 0.12, probably due to additional interstitial incorporation of Co. Raman spectroscopy measurements showed a rapid change in the ZnO peak positions for x > 0.03 suggesting significant disorder and changes in the ZnO structure, in support of additional interstitial Co doping possibility. Combined x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy showed clear evidence for tetrahedrally coordinated high spin Co2+ ions occupying the lattice sites of ZnO host system, which became saturated for x > 0.03. Magnetic measurements showed a paramagnetic behavior in Zn1-xCoxO with increasing antiferromagnetic interactions as x increased to 0.10. Surprisingly, a weak ferromagnetic behavior was observed for the sample with x = 0.12 with a characteristic hysteresis loop showing a coercivity Hc ~ 350 Oe, 25% remanence Mr, a low saturation magnetization Ms ~ 0.04 emu/g and with a Curie temperature Tc ~ 540 K. The XPS data collected from Zn1-xCoxO samples showed a gradual increase in the oxygen concentration, changing the oxygen deficient undoped ZnO to an excess oxygen state for x = 0.12. This indicates that such high Co concentrations and appropriate oxygen stoichiometry may be needed to achieve adequate ferromagnetic exchange coupling between the incorporated Co2+ ions.

  5. A nanoscale shape memory oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinxing; Ke, Xiaoxing; Gou, Gaoyang; Seidel, Jan; Xiang, Bin; Yu, Pu; Liang, Wen-I; Minor, Andrew M; Chu, Ying-Hao; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Ren, Xiaobing; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2013-01-01

    Stimulus-responsive shape-memory materials have attracted tremendous research interests recently, with much effort focused on improving their mechanical actuation. Driven by the needs of nanoelectromechanical devices, materials with large mechanical strain, particularly at nanoscale level, are therefore desired. Here we report on the discovery of a large shape-memory effect in bismuth ferrite at the nanoscale. A maximum strain of up to ~14% and a large volumetric work density of ~600±90 J cm(-3) can be achieved in association with a martensitic-like phase transformation. With a single step, control of the phase transformation by thermal activation or electric field has been reversibly achieved without the assistance of external recovery stress. Although aspects such as hysteresis, microcracking and so on have to be taken into consideration for real devices, the large shape-memory effect in this oxide surpasses most alloys and, therefore, demonstrates itself as an extraordinary material for potential use in state-of-art nanosystems. PMID:24253399

  6. A nanoscale shape memory oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinxing; Ke, Xiaoxing; Gou, Gaoyang; Seidel, Jan; Xiang, Bin; Yu, Pu; Liang, Wen-I.; Minor, Andrew M.; Chu, Ying-Hao; van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Ren, Xiaobing; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2013-11-01

    Stimulus-responsive shape-memory materials have attracted tremendous research interests recently, with much effort focused on improving their mechanical actuation. Driven by the needs of nanoelectromechanical devices, materials with large mechanical strain, particularly at nanoscale level, are therefore desired. Here we report on the discovery of a large shape-memory effect in bismuth ferrite at the nanoscale. A maximum strain of up to ~14% and a large volumetric work density of ~600±90 J cm-3 can be achieved in association with a martensitic-like phase transformation. With a single step, control of the phase transformation by thermal activation or electric field has been reversibly achieved without the assistance of external recovery stress. Although aspects such as hysteresis, microcracking and so on have to be taken into consideration for real devices, the large shape-memory effect in this oxide surpasses most alloys and, therefore, demonstrates itself as an extraordinary material for potential use in state-of-art nanosystems.

  7. Superstatistics in nanoscale electrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    García-Morales, Vladimir; Krischer, Katharina

    2011-12-01

    Stochastic electrochemical reaction steps on nanosized electrodes are non-Markovian when externally driven by an applied voltage. We show that, compared to the Markovian case (when external driving is absent), nanoscale electrochemical systems obey a superstatistics characterized by a superposition of Tsallis' q indices. The distribution of Tsallis' q indices along stochastic trajectories can be calculated from the electrochemical master equation and normal distributions from Boltzmann-Gibbs thermostatistics are recovered in the thermodynamic limit (the infinite electrode size limit). Although on the nanoscale the external control makes intricate correlations between the microstates, in the superstatistical frame one can still address the microstates as if they were uncorrelated. The resulting superstatistical entropic form is additive in this frame and Tsallis' indices have on the time-average values ≤ 1, which is, indeed, an example of a superstatistical system where no ad hoc distribution has to be assumed for the fluctuations; rather, the distribution is directly calculated from a mesoscopic master equation without freely adjustable parameters. PMID:22106266

  8. Properties of nanoscale metal hydrides.

    PubMed

    Fichtner, Maximilian

    2009-05-20

    Nanoscale hydride particles may exhibit chemical stabilities which differ from those of a macroscopic system. The stabilities are mainly influenced by a surface energy term which contains size-dependent values of the surface tension, the molar volume and an additional term which takes into account a potential reduction of the excess surface energy. Thus, the equilibrium of a nanoparticular hydride system may be shifted to the hydrogenated or to the dehydrogenated side, depending on the size and on the prefix of the surface energy term of the hydrogenated and dehydrogenated material. Additional complexity appears when solid-state reactions of complex hydrides are considered and phase segregation has to be taken into account. In such a case the reversibility of complex hydrides may be reduced if the nanoparticles are free standing on a surface. However, it may be enhanced if the system is enclosed by a nanoscale void which prevents the reaction partners on the dehydrogenated side from diffusing away from each other. Moreover, the generally enhanced diffusivity in nanocrystalline systems may lower the kinetic barriers for the material's transformation and, thus, facilitate hydrogen absorption and desorption. PMID:19420657

  9. Resonant Raman scattering in nanoscale pentacene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui; Dujovne, Irene; Chen, Liwei; Miao, Qian; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.; Pinczuk, Aron; Nuckolls, Colin; Kloc, Christian; Ron, Arza

    2004-02-01

    Resonant Raman scattering intensities from nanoscale films of pentacene display large resonant enhancements that enable observation of vibrational modes in monolayer cluster films. The resonant enhancements occur when the outgoing photon energy overlaps the free exciton optical transitions observed in luminescence. The results point to the significant potential of resonant Raman methods in the characterization of nanoscale structures of organic molecular semiconductors.

  10. High-efficiency second harmonic generation from a single hybrid ZnO nanowire/Au plasmonic nano-oligomer.

    PubMed

    Grinblat, Gustavo; Rahmani, Mohsen; Cortés, Emiliano; Caldarola, Martín; Comedi, David; Maier, Stefan A; Bragas, Andrea V

    2014-11-12

    We introduce a plasmonic-semiconductor hybrid nanosystem, consisting of a ZnO nanowire coupled to a gold pentamer oligomer by crossing the hot-spot. It is demonstrated that the hybrid system exhibits a second harmonic (SH) conversion efficiency of ∼3 × 10(-5)%, which is among the highest values for a nanoscale object at optical frequencies reported so far. The SH intensity was found to be ∼1700 times larger than that from the same nanowire excited outside the hot-spot. Placing high nonlinear susceptibility materials precisely in plasmonic confined-field regions to enhance SH generation opens new perspectives for highly efficient light frequency up-conversion on the nanoscale. PMID:25347036

  11. Nanoscale Electric Field Sensor-Development and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brame, Jon; Woods, Nathan

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this project is to test a carbon nanotube based electric field sensing device. The device consists of a miniature gold needle suspended on a mat of carbon nanotubes over a trench on a Si/Si02 substrate. Field tests were made by recording the electric field inside dust devils in a Nevada desert, and those electric fields were simulated in a lab environment. Further tests to determine the device sensitivity were performed by manually manipulating the gold needle with an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) tip. We report on fabrication techniques, field and lab test results and AFM testing results.

  12. Developing a nanoscale pressure sensor utilizing the Plasmon Ruler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Alex; Carroll, David

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a novel method for detecting pressure by utilizing the Plasmon Ruler; the effect by which the frequency of light scattered by a nanoparticle (NP) is red shifted when brought into close proximity with another NP. This distance dependent phenomenon is leveraged by a film/NP architecture, wherein silver NPs are suspended above a silver film by a polymer spacing layer. As the fluid pressure above the rigid substrate is increased, the polymer layer is compressed and the NP height is decreased, leading to a measurable redshift in the plasmon resonance frequency. Thus, by factoring in the strength of the polymer film's restoring force we can determine the pressure being applied. These devices were constructed onto fiber optic wires, which allow us to probe the device using the evanescent field from light inside the glass core. This naturally leads to in vivo medical applications, such as inter-compartment or inter-cranial pressure sensing via the inserted fiber optic probe.

  13. High sensitive formaldehyde graphene gas sensor modified by atomic layer deposition zinc oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, Haichuan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen; Zhao, Xiaojing; Liu, Feng

    2014-07-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with various thicknesses were fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition on Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene films and their response to formaldehyde has been investigated. It was found that 0.5 nm ZnO films modified graphene sensors showed high response to formaldehyde with the resistance change up to 52% at the concentration of 9 parts-per-million (ppm) at room temperature. Meanwhile, the detection limit could reach 180 parts-per-billion (ppb) and fast response of 36 s was also obtained. The high sensitivity could be attributed to the combining effect from the highly reactive, top mounted ZnO thin films, and high conductive graphene base network. The dependence of ZnO films surface morphology and its sensitivity on the ZnO films thickness was also investigated.

  14. 1D versus 3D quantum confinement in 1-5 nm ZnO nanoparticle agglomerations for application in charge-trapping memory devices.

    PubMed

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar

    2016-07-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted considerable interest from industry and researchers due to their excellent properties with applications in optoelectronic devices, sunscreens, photocatalysts, sensors, biomedical sciences, etc. However, the agglomeration of NPs is considered to be a limiting factor since it can affect the desirable physical and electronic properties of the NPs. In this work, 1-5 nm ZnO NPs deposited by spin- and dip-coating techniques are studied. The electronic and physical properties of the resulting agglomerations of NPs are studied using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their application in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) memory devices is analyzed. The results show that both dip- and spin-coating techniques lead to agglomerations of the NPs mostly in the horizontal direction. However, the width of the ZnO clusters is larger with dip-coating which leads to 1D quantum confinement, while the smaller ZnO clusters obtained by spin-coating enable 3D quantum confinement in ZnO. The ZnO NPs are used as the charge-trapping layer of a MOS-memory structure and the analysis of the high-frequency C-V measurements allow further understanding of the electronic properties of the ZnO agglomerations. A large memory window is achieved in both devices which confirms that ZnO NPs provide large charge-trapping density. In addition, ZnO confined in 3D allows for a larger memory window at lower operating voltages due to the Poole-Frenkel charge-emission mechanism. PMID:27232717

  15. Evaluation of transverse piezoelectric coefficient of ZnO thin films deposited on different flexible substrates: a comparative study on the vibration sensing performance.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sudeep; Nayak, Manjunatha M; Rajanna, K

    2014-05-28

    We report on the systematic comparative study of highly c-axis oriented and crystalline piezoelectric ZnO thin films deposited on four different flexible substrates for vibration sensing application. The flexible substrates employed for present experimental study were namely a metal alloy (Phynox), metal (aluminum), polyimide (Kapton), and polyester (Mylar). ZnO thin films were deposited by an RF reactive magnetron sputtering technique. ZnO thin films of similar thicknesses of 700 ± 30 nm were deposited on four different flexible substrates to have proper comparative studies. The crystallinity, surface morphology, chemical composition, and roughness of ZnO thin films were evaluated by respective material characterization techniques. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient (d31) value for assessing the piezoelectric property of ZnO thin films on different flexible substrates was measured by a four-point bending method. ZnO thin films deposited on Phynox alloy substrate showed relatively better material characterization results and a higher piezoelectric d31 coefficient value as compared to ZnO films on metal and polymer substrates. In order to experimentally verify the above observations, vibration sensing studies were performed. As expected, the ZnO thin film deposited on Phynox alloy substrate showed better vibration sensing performance. It has generated the highest peak to peak output voltage amplitude of 256 mV as compared to that of aluminum (224 mV), Kapton (144 mV), and Mylar (46 mV). Therefore, metal alloy flexible substrate proves to be a more suitable, advantageous, and versatile choice for integrating ZnO thin films as compared to metal and polymer flexible substrates for vibration sensing applications. The present experimental study is extremely important and helpful for the selection of a suitable flexible substrate for various applications in the field of sensor and actuator technology. PMID:24773266

  16. 1D versus 3D quantum confinement in 1–5 nm ZnO nanoparticle agglomerations for application in charge-trapping memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar

    2016-07-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted considerable interest from industry and researchers due to their excellent properties with applications in optoelectronic devices, sunscreens, photocatalysts, sensors, biomedical sciences, etc. However, the agglomeration of NPs is considered to be a limiting factor since it can affect the desirable physical and electronic properties of the NPs. In this work, 1–5 nm ZnO NPs deposited by spin- and dip-coating techniques are studied. The electronic and physical properties of the resulting agglomerations of NPs are studied using UV–vis–NIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their application in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) memory devices is analyzed. The results show that both dip- and spin-coating techniques lead to agglomerations of the NPs mostly in the horizontal direction. However, the width of the ZnO clusters is larger with dip-coating which leads to 1D quantum confinement, while the smaller ZnO clusters obtained by spin-coating enable 3D quantum confinement in ZnO. The ZnO NPs are used as the charge-trapping layer of a MOS-memory structure and the analysis of the high-frequency C–V measurements allow further understanding of the electronic properties of the ZnO agglomerations. A large memory window is achieved in both devices which confirms that ZnO NPs provide large charge-trapping density. In addition, ZnO confined in 3D allows for a larger memory window at lower operating voltages due to the Poole–Frenkel charge-emission mechanism.

  17. Enhancing the Detection Limit of Nanoscale Biosensors via Topographically Selective Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Lifson, Mark A.; Roy, Dhrubajyoti Basu; Miller, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale biosensors have remarkable theoretical sensitivities, but often suffer from sub-optimal limits of detection in practice. This is in part because the sensing area of nanoscale sensors is orders of magnitude smaller than the total device substrate. Current strategies to immobilize probes (capture molecules) functionalize both sensing and non-sensing regions, leading to target depletion and diminished limits of detection. The difference in topography between these regions on nanoscale biosensors offers a way to selectively address only the sensing area. We developed a bottom-up, topographically selective approach employing self-assembled poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) hydrogel nanoparticles as a mask to preferentially bind target to only the active sensing region of a photonic crystal (PhC) biosensor. This led to over one order of magnitude improvement in the limit of detection for the device, in agreement with finite element simulations. Since the sensing elements in many nanoscale sensors are topographically distinct, this approach should be widely applicable. PMID:24372197

  18. Nanoscale interface engineering in ZnO twin nanorods for proposed phonon tunnel devices.

    PubMed

    Singh, Avanendra; Senapati, Kartik; Satpati, Biswarup; Kumar, Mohit; Sahoo, Pratap K

    2015-02-14

    Zinc oxide twin nanorods, with two identical crystalline sections connected by an amorphous layer, were reproducibly grown using a simple one-step hydrothermal technique. The thickness of the amorphous layer between the crystalline segments was tunable with growth parameters, as confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The photoluminescence spectra of these twin nanorods exhibit strong near band edge emission in the UV range, with convoluted phonon sidebands. De-convolution analyses of these spectra showed that the amorphous interlayers act as effective phonon barriers beyond a certain thickness. Such oriented grown individual crystalline-amorphous-crystalline structures may be a suitable test system for fundamental studies of phonon tunneling in the nanostructure. While physical vapor deposition techniques are seriously constrained in realizing crystalline-amorphous-crystalline structures, our results show the viability of engineering embedded interfaces via chemical routes. PMID:25572135

  19. The nitridation of ZnO nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanowires (NWs) with diameters of 50 to 250 nm and lengths of several micrometres have been grown by reactive vapour transport via the reaction of Zn with oxygen on 1 nm Au/Si(001) at 550°C under an inert flow of Ar. These exhibited clear peaks in the X-ray diffraction corresponding to the hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO and a photoluminescence spectrum with a peak at 3.3 eV corresponding to band edge emission close to 3.2 eV determined from the abrupt onset in the absorption-transmission through ZnO NWs grown on 0.5 nm Au/quartz. We find that the post growth nitridation of ZnO NWs under a steady flow of NH3 at temperatures ≤600°C promotes the formation of a ZnO/Zn3N2 core-shell structure as suggested by the suppression of the peaks related to ZnO and the emergence of new ones corresponding to the cubic crystal structure of Zn3N2 while maintaining their integrity. Higher temperatures lead to the complete elimination of the ZnO NWs. We discuss the effect of nitridation time, flow of NH3, ramp rate and hydrogen on the conversion and propose a mechanism for the nitridation. PMID:22397754

  20. Application of electrochemically deposited nanostructured ZnO layers on quartz crystal microbalance for NO2 detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, B.; Petrov, M.; Lovchinov, K.; Ganchev, M.; Georgieva, V.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.

    2014-11-01

    The research was fixed on sensing behavior of ZnO nanostructured (NS) films to NO2 concentrations in the environment. The ZnO NS layers are deposited by electrochemical method on quartz resonators with Au electrodes. The sorption properties of ZnO layers were defined by measuring the resonant frequency shift (Δf) of the QCM-ZnO structure for different NO2 concentrations. The measurements were based on the correlation between the frequency shift of the QCM and additional mass loading (Δm) on the resonator calculated using Sauerbrey equation for the AT-cut quartz plate. Frequency - Time Characteristics (FTCs) of the samples were measured as a function of different NO2 concentrations in order to define the sorption abilities of ZnO layers. The experiments were carried out on a special set up in a dynamical regime. From FTCs the response and the recovery times of the QCM-ZnO structure were measured with varying NO2. Frequency shift changed from 23 Hz to 58Hz when NO2 was varied in the range of 250ppm - 5000ppm. The process of sorption was estimated as reversible and the sorption as physical. The obtained results demonstrated that QCM covered with the electrochemically deposited nanostructured ZnO films can be used as application in NO2 sensors.

  1. Piezoelectric ZnO-nanorod-structured pressure sensors using GaN-based field-effect-transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Chiu, Ying-Shuo

    2015-02-01

    To utilize the piezoelectric property of ZnO nanorods, the ZnO nanorod array was grown on the AlGaN/GaN field-effect-transistor as the pressure sensors. The drain-source current of the ZnO nanorod-structured-AlGaN/GaN FET pressure sensors can be effectively modulated by the induced gate voltage caused from the piezoelectric phenomenon of ZnO nanorods under different pressures. The pressure sensors revealed the linearly response current under the pressure from 19.6 mN/mm2 to 490 mN/mm2. The ratio of the response current achieved 2.67% under the pressure of 490 mN/mm2. The induced piezoelectric potential under different pressure was also calculated and obtained in this work.

  2. Nanoscale materials for hyperthermal theranostics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Bennett E.; Roder, Paden B.; Zhou, Xuezhe; Pauzauskie, Peter J.

    2015-03-18

    Recently, the use of nanoscale materials has attracted considerable attention with the aim of designing personalized therapeutic approaches that can enhance both spatial and temporal control over drug release, permeability, and uptake. Potential benefits to patients include the reduction of overall drug dosages, enabling the parallel delivery of different pharmaceuticals, and the possibility of enabling additional functionalities such as hyperthermia or deep-tissue imaging (LIF, PET, etc.) that complement and extend the efficacy of traditional chemotherapy and surgery. Our mini review is focused on an emerging class of nanometer-scale materials that can be used both to heat malignant tissue to reduce angiogenesis and DNA-repair while simultaneously offering complementary imaging capabilities based on radioemission, optical fluorescence, magnetic resonance, and photoacoustic methods.

  3. Nanoscale materials for hyperthermal theranostics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, Bennett E.; Roder, Paden B.; Zhou, Xuezhe; Pauzauskie, Peter J.

    2015-03-18

    Recently, the use of nanoscale materials has attracted considerable attention with the aim of designing personalized therapeutic approaches that can enhance both spatial and temporal control over drug release, permeability, and uptake. Potential benefits to patients include the reduction of overall drug dosages, enabling the parallel delivery of different pharmaceuticals, and the possibility of enabling additional functionalities such as hyperthermia or deep-tissue imaging (LIF, PET, etc.) that complement and extend the efficacy of traditional chemotherapy and surgery. Our mini review is focused on an emerging class of nanometer-scale materials that can be used both to heat malignant tissue to reducemore » angiogenesis and DNA-repair while simultaneously offering complementary imaging capabilities based on radioemission, optical fluorescence, magnetic resonance, and photoacoustic methods.« less

  4. Nanoscale materials for hyperthermal theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bennett E.; Roder, Paden B.; Zhou, Xuezhe; Pauzauskie, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the use of nanoscale materials has attracted considerable attention with the aim of designing personalized therapeutic approaches that can enhance both spatial and temporal control over drug release, permeability, and uptake. Potential benefits to patients include the reduction of overall drug dosages, enabling the parallel delivery of different pharmaceuticals, and the possibility of enabling additional functionalities such as hyperthermia or deep-tissue imaging (LIF, PET, etc.) that complement and extend the efficacy of traditional chemotherapy and surgery. This mini-review is focused on an emerging class of nanometer-scale materials that can be used both to heat malignant tissue to reduce angiogenesis and DNA-repair while simultaneously offering complementary imaging capabilities based on radioemission, optical fluorescence, magnetic resonance, and photoacoustic methods. PMID:25816102

  5. Nanoscale cryptography: opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, Massoud; Shi, Weidong; Xu, Lei

    2015-11-01

    While most of the electronics industry is dependent on the ever-decreasing size of lithographic transistors, this scaling cannot continue indefinitely. To improve the performance of the integrated circuits, new emerging and paradigms are needed. In recent years, nanoelectronics has become one of the most important and exciting forefront in science and engineering. It shows a great promise for providing us in the near future with many breakthroughs that change the direction of technological advances in a wide range of applications. In this paper, we discuss the contribution that nanotechnology may offer to the evolution of cryptographic hardware and embedded systems and demonstrate how nanoscale devices can be used for constructing security primitives. Using a custom set of design automation tools, it is demonstrated that relative to a conventional 45-nm CMOS system, performance gains can be obtained up to two orders of magnitude reduction in area and up to 50 % improvement in speed.

  6. Nanoscale Engineering of Designer Cellulosomes.

    PubMed

    Gunnoo, Melissabye; Cazade, Pierre-André; Galera-Prat, Albert; Nash, Michael A; Czjzek, Mirjam; Cieplak, Marek; Alvarez, Beatriz; Aguilar, Marina; Karpol, Alon; Gaub, Hermann; Carrión-Vázquez, Mariano; Bayer, Edward A; Thompson, Damien

    2016-07-01

    Biocatalysts showcase the upper limit obtainable for high-speed molecular processing and transformation. Efforts to engineer functionality in synthetic nanostructured materials are guided by the increasing knowledge of evolving architectures, which enable controlled molecular motion and precise molecular recognition. The cellulosome is a biological nanomachine, which, as a fundamental component of the plant-digestion machinery from bacterial cells, has a key potential role in the successful development of environmentally-friendly processes to produce biofuels and fine chemicals from the breakdown of biomass waste. Here, the progress toward so-called "designer cellulosomes", which provide an elegant alternative to enzyme cocktails for lignocellulose breakdown, is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to rational design via computational modeling coupled with nanoscale characterization and engineering tools. Remaining challenges and potential routes to industrial application are put forward. PMID:26748482

  7. Mapping Elasticity at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Gheorghe; Price, William

    2006-03-01

    In the last few years Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy has been developed to investigate the elastic response of materials at the nanoscale ^[1],[2]. We have extended this technique to the real-time mapping of nanomechanical properties of material surfaces. This mapping allows us to investigate the local variation of elastic properties with nanometer resolution and to reduce the uncertainties that arise from single measurements. Quantitative measurements are acquired by first performing an accurate calibration of the elastic properties of the Atomic Force Microscope’s probes with respect to single crystal reference materials. A wide variety of surfaces with different mechanical properties have been investigated to illustrate the applicability of this technique. ^[1] U. Rabe et al., Surf. Interface Anal. 33 , 65 (2002)^[2] D.C. Hurley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2347 (2003)

  8. Nanoscale materials for hyperthermal theranostics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bennett E; Roder, Paden B; Zhou, Xuezhe; Pauzauskie, Peter J

    2015-04-28

    Recently, the use of nanoscale materials has attracted considerable attention with the aim of designing personalized therapeutic approaches that can enhance both spatial and temporal control over drug release, permeability, and uptake. Potential benefits to patients include the reduction of overall drug dosages, enabling the parallel delivery of different pharmaceuticals, and the possibility of enabling additional functionalities such as hyperthermia or deep-tissue imaging (LIF, PET, etc.) that complement and extend the efficacy of traditional chemotherapy and surgery. This mini-review is focused on an emerging class of nanometer-scale materials that can be used both to heat malignant tissue to reduce angiogenesis and DNA-repair while simultaneously offering complementary imaging capabilities based on radioemission, optical fluorescence, magnetic resonance, and photoacoustic methods. PMID:25816102

  9. Nanoscale materials for hyperthermal theranostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bennett E.; Roder, Paden B.; Zhou, Xuezhe; Pauzauskie, Peter J.

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the use of nanoscale materials has attracted considerable attention with the aim of designing personalized therapeutic approaches that can enhance both spatial and temporal control over drug release, permeability, and uptake. Potential benefits to patients include the reduction of overall drug dosages, enabling the parallel delivery of different pharmaceuticals, and the possibility of enabling additional functionalities such as hyperthermia or deep-tissue imaging (LIF, PET, etc.) that complement and extend the efficacy of traditional chemotherapy and surgery. This mini-review is focused on an emerging class of nanometer-scale materials that can be used both to heat malignant tissue to reduce angiogenesis and DNA-repair while simultaneously offering complementary imaging capabilities based on radioemission, optical fluorescence, magnetic resonance, and photoacoustic methods.

  10. Optical Spectroscopy at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xiaoping

    Recent advances in material science and fabrication techniques enabled development of nanoscale applications and devices with superior performances and high degree of integration. Exotic physics also emerges at nanoscale where confinement of electrons and phonons leads to drastically different behavior from those in the bulk materials. It is therefore rewarding and interesting to investigate and understand material properties at the nanoscale. Optical spectroscopy, one of the most versatile techniques for studying material properties and light-matter interactions, can provide new insights into the nanomaterials. In this thesis, I explore advanced laser spectroscopic techniques to probe a variety of different nanoscale phenomena. A powerful tool in nanoscience and engineering is scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Its capability in atomic resolution imaging and spectroscopy unveiled the mystical quantum world of atoms and molecules. However identification of molecular species under investigation is one of the limiting functionalities of the STM. To address this need, we take advantage of the molecular `fingerprints' - vibrational spectroscopy, by combining an infrared light sources with scanning tunneling microscopy. In order to map out sharp molecular resonances, an infrared continuous wave broadly tunable optical parametric oscillator was developed with mode-hop free fine tuning capabilities. We then combine this laser with STM by shooting the beam onto the STM substrate with sub-monolayer diamondoids deposition. Thermal expansion of the substrate is detected by the ultrasensitive tunneling current when infrared frequency is tuned across the molecular vibrational range. Molecular vibrational spectroscopy could be obtained by recording the thermal expansion as a function of the excitation wavelength. Another interesting field of the nanoscience is carbon nanotube, an ideal model of one dimensional physics and applications. Due to the small light absorption with

  11. Fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles by laser ablation of sintered ZnO in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Keisuke; Nanai, Yasushi; Kimura, Seiji; Okuno, Tsuyoshi

    2012-04-01

    Fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles by laser ablation in liquid medium is reported. The possibility of using a sintered ZnO target for the ablation as well as a Zn plate is demonstrated. The appropriate aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate is found to be 1 mM for ZnO growing. The shape of ZnO nanoparticles is sphere and its diameter is 30˜60 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectra, Raman scattering spectra, and photoluminescence spectra reveal the optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles. Nanoparticles obtained by using ZnO targets show a smaller defect density compared with those by using Zn targets.

  12. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using textured ZnO films

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A hydrothermal method to grow vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is presented. The growth of ZnO nanorods is studied as function of the crystallographic orientation of the ZnO films deposited on silicon (100) substrates. Different thicknesses of ZnO films around 40 to 180 nm were obtained and characterized before carrying out the growth process by hydrothermal methods. A textured ZnO layer with preferential direction in the normal c-axes is formed on substrates by the decomposition of diethylzinc to provide nucleation sites for vertical nanorod growth. Crystallographic orientation of the ZnO nanorods and ZnO-ALD films was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Composition, morphologies, length, size, and diameter of the nanorods were studied using a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy analyses. In this work, it is demonstrated that crystallinity of the ZnO-ALD films plays an important role in the vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod growth. The nanorod arrays synthesized in solution had a diameter, length, density, and orientation desirable for a potential application as photosensitive materials in the manufacture of semiconductor-polymer solar cells. PACS 61.46.Hk, Nanocrystals; 61.46.Km, Structure of nanowires and nanorods; 81.07.Gf, Nanowires; 81.15.Gh, Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.) PMID:21899743

  13. Simulations of Metallic Nanoscale Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Karsten W.

    2003-03-01

    Density-functional-theory calculations can be used to understand and predict materials properties based on their nanoscale composition and structure. In combination with efficient search algorithms DFT can furthermore be applied in the nanoscale design of optimized materials. The first part of the talk will focus on two different types of nanostructures with an interesting interplay between chemical activity and conducting states. MoS2 nanoclusters are known for their catalyzing effect in the hydrodesulfurization process which removes sulfur-containing molecules from oil products. MoS2 is a layered material which is insulating. However, DFT calculations indicates the exsistence of metallic states at some of the edges of MoS2 nanoclusters, and the calculations show that the conducting states are not passivated by for example the presence of hydrogen gas. The edge states may play an important role for the chemical activity of MoS_2. Metallic nanocontacts can be formed during the breaking of a piece of metal, and atomically thin structures with conductance of only a single quantum unit may be formed. Such open metallic structures are chemically very active and susceptible to restructuring through interactions with molecular gases. DFT calculations show for example that atomically thin gold wires may incorporate oxygen atoms forming a new type of metallic nanowire. Adsorbates like hydrogen may also affect the conductance. In the last part of the talk I shall discuss the possibilities for designing alloys with optimal mechanical properties based on a combination of DFT calculations with genetic search algorithms. Simulaneous optimization of several parameters (stability, price, compressibility) is addressed through the determination of Pareto optimal alloy compositions within a large database of more than 64000 alloys.

  14. A fiber optics system for monitoring utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds during desulfurization for logistic fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujan, Achintya; Yang, Hongyun; Dimick, Paul; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    An in-situ fiber optic based technique for direct measurement of capacity utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds by monitoring bed color changes during desulfurization for fuel cell systems is presented. Adsorbents composed of bulk metal oxides (ZnO) and supported metal oxides (ZnO/SiO2 and Cusbnd ZnO/SiO2) for H2S removal at 22 °C are examined. Adsorbent bed utilization at breakthrough is determined by the optical sensor as the maximum derivative of area under UV-vis spectrum from 250 to 800 nm observed as a function of service time. Since the response time of the sensor due to bed color change is close to bed breakthrough time, a series of probes along the bed predicts utilization of the portion of bed prior to H2S breakthrough. The efficacy of the optical sensor is evaluated as a function of inlet H2S concentration, H2S flow rate and desulfurization in presence of CO, CO2 and moisture in feed. A 6 mm optical probe is employed to measure utilization of a 3/16 inch ZnO extrudate bed for H2S removal. It is envisioned that with the application of the optical sensor, desulfurization can be carried out at high adsorbent utilization and low operational costs during on-board miniaturized fuel processing for logistic fuel cell power systems.

  15. A fiber optics system for monitoring utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds during desulfurization for logistic fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujan, Achintya; Yang, Hongyun; Dimick, Paul; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    An in-situ fiber optic based technique for direct measurement of capacity utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds by monitoring bed color changes during desulfurization for fuel cell systems is presented. Adsorbents composed of bulk metal oxides (ZnO) and supported metal oxides (ZnO/SiO2 and Cusbnd ZnO/SiO2) for H2S removal at 22 °C are examined. Adsorbent bed utilization at breakthrough is determined by the optical sensor as the maximum derivative of area under UV-vis spectrum from 250 to 800 nm observed as a function of service time. Since the response time of the sensor due to bed color change is close to bed breakthrough time, a series of probes along the bed predicts utilization of the portion of bed prior to H2S breakthrough. The efficacy of the optical sensor is evaluated as a function of inlet H2S concentration, H2S flow rate and desulfurization in presence of CO, CO2 and moisture in feed. A 6 mm optical probe is employed to measure utilization of a 3/16 inch ZnO extrudate bed for H2S removal. It is envisioned that with the application of the optical sensor, desulfurization can be carried out at high adsorbent utilization and low operational costs during on-board miniaturized fuel processing for logistic fuel cell power systems.

  16. ZnO Nanoparticles/Reduced Graphene Oxide Bilayer Thin Films for Improved NH3-Sensing Performances at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Huiling; Yuan, Zhen; Zheng, Weijian; Ye, Zongbiao; Liu, Chunhua; Du, Xiaosong

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO) thin film were deposited on gold interdigital electrodes (IDEs) in sequence via simple spraying process, which was further restored to ZnO/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) bilayer thin film by the thermal reduction treatment and employed for ammonia (NH3) detection at room temperature. rGO was identified by UV-vis absorption spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analyses, and the adhesion between ZnO nanoparticles and rGO nanosheets might also be formed. The NH3-sensing performances of pure rGO film and ZnO/rGO bilayer films with different sprayed GO amounts were compared. The results showed that ZnO/rGO film sensors exhibited enhanced response properties, and the optimal GO amount of 1.5 ml was achieved. Furthermore, the optimal ZnO/rGO film sensor showed an excellent reversibility and fast response/recovery rate within the detection range of 10-50 ppm. Meanwhile, the sensor also displayed good repeatability and selectivity to NH3. However, the interference of water molecules on the prepared sensor is non-ignorable; some techniques should be researched to eliminate the effect of moisture in the further work. The remarkably enhanced NH3-sensing characteristics were speculated to be attributed to both the supporting role of ZnO nanoparticles film and accumulation heterojunction at the interface between ZnO and rGO. Thus, the proposed ZnO/rGO bilayer thin film sensor might give a promise for high-performance NH3-sensing applications.

  17. ZnO Nanoparticles/Reduced Graphene Oxide Bilayer Thin Films for Improved NH3-Sensing Performances at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Tai, Huiling; Yuan, Zhen; Zheng, Weijian; Ye, Zongbiao; Liu, Chunhua; Du, Xiaosong

    2016-12-01

    ZnO nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO) thin film were deposited on gold interdigital electrodes (IDEs) in sequence via simple spraying process, which was further restored to ZnO/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) bilayer thin film by the thermal reduction treatment and employed for ammonia (NH3) detection at room temperature. rGO was identified by UV-vis absorption spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analyses, and the adhesion between ZnO nanoparticles and rGO nanosheets might also be formed. The NH3-sensing performances of pure rGO film and ZnO/rGO bilayer films with different sprayed GO amounts were compared. The results showed that ZnO/rGO film sensors exhibited enhanced response properties, and the optimal GO amount of 1.5 ml was achieved. Furthermore, the optimal ZnO/rGO film sensor showed an excellent reversibility and fast response/recovery rate within the detection range of 10-50 ppm. Meanwhile, the sensor also displayed good repeatability and selectivity to NH3. However, the interference of water molecules on the prepared sensor is non-ignorable; some techniques should be researched to eliminate the effect of moisture in the further work. The remarkably enhanced NH3-sensing characteristics were speculated to be attributed to both the supporting role of ZnO nanoparticles film and accumulation heterojunction at the interface between ZnO and rGO. Thus, the proposed ZnO/rGO bilayer thin film sensor might give a promise for high-performance NH3-sensing applications. PMID:26956599

  18. Deposition of cocoon-like ZnO on graphene sheets for improving gas-sensing properties to ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shiming; Zhu, Junwu; Ding, Jing; Bi, Huiping; Yao, Pengcheng; Han, Qiaofeng; Wang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Developing an efficient gas sensor device with high sensitivity and selectivity still remains a challenge for its practical application. Herein, we demonstrated a facile one-step hydrothermal method to deposit cocoon-like ZnO nanoparticles onto surfaces of graphene sheets, leading to the formation of ZnO/graphene composite. The structural characterization confirmed the successful deposition of ZnO nanocrystals with hexagonal wurtzite on graphene sheets, which further facilitated the exfoliation of graphene sheets. The gas sensing performances of as-prepared ZnO/graphene composites were investigated towards a series of typical organic vapors. The results showed that the ZnO/graphene composite exhibited significantly higher performance than that of pure ZnO nanoparticles. Especially, the ZnO/graphene could offer a high gas response value of 513 towards 1000 ppm of ethanol, which is nearly 5.0 times higher than that of pure ZnO, indicating the potential application as a sensor material towards enhanced gas detection.

  19. New directions for nanoscale thermoelectric materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dresselhaus, M. S.; Chen, G.; Tang, M. Y.; Yang, R. G.; Lee, H.; Wang, D. Z.; Ren, F.; Fleurial, J. P.; Gogna, P.

    2005-01-01

    Many of the recent advances in enhancing the thermoelectric figure of merit are linked to nanoscale phenomena with both bulk samples containing nanoscale constituents and nanoscale materials exhibiting enhanced thermoelectric performance in their own right. Prior theoretical and experimental proof of principle studies on isolated quantum well and quantum wire samples have now evolved into studies on bulk samples containing nanostructured constituents. In this review, nanostructural composites are shown to exhibit nanostructures and properties that show promise for thermoelectric applications. A review of some of the results obtained to date are presented.

  20. Atom Probe Tomography of Nanoscale Electronic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, David J.; Prosa, Ty J.; Perea, Daniel E.; Inoue, Hidekazu; Mangelinck, D.

    2016-01-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) is a mass spectrometry based on time-of-flight measurements which also concurrently produces 3D spatial information. The reader is referred to any of the other papers in this volume or to the following references for further information 4–8. The current capabilities of APT, such as detecting a low number of dopant atoms in nanoscale devices or segregation at a nanoparticle interface, make this technique an important component in the nanoscale metrology toolbox. In this manuscript, we review some of the applications of APT to nanoscale electronic materials, including transistors and finFETs, silicide contact microstructures, nanowires, and nanoparticles.

  1. Tube Formation in Nanoscale Materials

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The formation of tubular nanostructures normally requires layered, anisotropic, or pseudo-layered crystal structures, while inorganic compounds typically do not possess such structures, inorganic nanotubes thus have been a hot topic in the past decade. In this article, we review recent research activities on nanotubes fabrication and focus on three novel synthetic strategies for generating nanotubes from inorganic materials that do not have a layered structure. Specifically, thermal oxidation method based on gas–solid reaction to porous CuO nanotubes has been successfully established, semiconductor ZnS and Nb2O5nanotubes have been prepared by employing sacrificial template strategy based on liquid–solid reaction, and an in situ template method has been developed for the preparation of ZnO taper tubes through a chemical etching reaction. We have described the nanotube formation processes and illustrated the detailed key factors during their growth. The proposed mechanisms are presented for nanotube fabrication and the important pioneering studies are discussed on the rational design and fabrication of functional materials with tubular structures. It is the intention of this contribution to provide a brief account of these research activities. PMID:20592945

  2. Ultraviolet photodetector arrays assembled by dielectrophoresis of ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenjing; Mechau, Norman; Hahn, Horst; Krupke, Ralph

    2010-03-19

    Sensitive and fast ultraviolet sensor arrays have been produced by dielectrophoretic assembling of ZnO nanoparticles. The sub-micron device dimensions induce low operating voltage and low power consumption. The devices are long-term stable and operate in air, oxygen and nitrogen. We have determined the absorption and desorption dynamics from the time-resolved photoresponse and conclude that oxygen or carbon dioxide are the photodesorbed species. We could derive the charge carrier concentration and mobility of the device from measurements of the low-bias and high-bias photocurrent. The presence of defects is discussed by comparing electroluminescence spectra from biased devices with photoluminescence spectral maps of ZnO dispersions. PMID:20173238

  3. Fabrication of ZnO Nanowire Based Piezoelectric Generators and Related Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opoku, Charles; Dahiya, Abhishek Singh; Oshman, Christopher; Cayrel, Frederic; Poulin-Vittrant, Guylaine; Alquier, Daniel; Camara, Nicolas

    Using vertically grown hydrothermal ZnO nanowires, we demonstrate the assembly of fully functional piezoelectric energy harvesters on plastics substrates. A seedless hydrothermal process is employed for the growth of single crystalline vertically orientated ZnO NWs at around 100oC. Flexible NG are assembled using ∼7 μm thick PDMS polymer matrix on a 3x3cm substrate. A representative device with an active area of 4cm2 is characterised revealing average output voltage generation of ∼22mV (±1.2) and -32mV (±0.16) in the positive and negative cycles after 3-4mm periodic deflection at 20Hz. A power density of ∼288nW/cm3 is estimated for the device. It is envisaged that such energy scavengers may find potential applications targeting self-powered systems, sensors and on-body charging of electronics.

  4. Hyperfine fields in ZnO studied under uni- and biaxial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przewodnik, R.; Kessler, P.; Vianden, R.

    2013-05-01

    The II-VI semiconductor ZnO has many potential applications in optoelectronic and sensor devices. When used as a transparent conducting contact it is often grown epitaxially onto a different substrate with the consequence that the layers are biaxially strained due to lattice mismatch. Similarly, impurity-implanted layers can lead to the development of local strain fields. Strain usually changes the electronic properties of layers and/ or implanted crystal regions. Detailed knowledge about local strain and its influence on the crystal fields is therefore helpful in predicting changes in crystal properties. The perturbed angular correlation technique was applied to study the electric field gradient (EFG) at the site of implanted In dopants in ZnO under uniaxial and biaxial strain. The observed linear change of the EFG with pressure and a change in symmetry due to compression perpendicular to the c-axis could be well reproduced by theoretical calculations using the point charge model.

  5. The effects of surface stripping ZnO nanorods with argon bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Chris J.; Kryvchenkova, Olga; Smith, Nathan A.; Kelleher, Liam; Maffeis, Thierry G. G.; Cobley, Richard J.

    2015-10-01

    ZnO nanorods are used in devices including field effects transistors, piezoelectric transducers, optoelectronics and gas sensors. However, for efficient and reproducible device operation and contact behaviour, surface contaminants must be removed or controlled. Here we use low doses of argon bombardment to remove surface contamination and make reproducible lower resistance contacts. Higher doses strip the surface of the nanorods allowing intrinsic surface measurements through a cross section of the material. Photoluminescence finds that the defect distribution is higher at the near-surface, falling away in to the bulk. Contacts to the n-type defect-rich surface are near-Ohmic, whereas stripping away the surface layers allows more rectifying Schottky contacts to be formed. The ability to select the contact type to ZnO nanorods offers a new way to customize device behaviour.

  6. The effects of surface stripping ZnO nanorods with argon bombardment.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Chris J; Kryvchenkova, Olga; Smith, Nathan A; Kelleher, Liam; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Cobley, Richard J

    2015-10-16

    ZnO nanorods are used in devices including field effects transistors, piezoelectric transducers, optoelectronics and gas sensors. However, for efficient and reproducible device operation and contact behaviour, surface contaminants must be removed or controlled. Here we use low doses of argon bombardment to remove surface contamination and make reproducible lower resistance contacts. Higher doses strip the surface of the nanorods allowing intrinsic surface measurements through a cross section of the material. Photoluminescence finds that the defect distribution is higher at the near-surface, falling away in to the bulk. Contacts to the n-type defect-rich surface are near-Ohmic, whereas stripping away the surface layers allows more rectifying Schottky contacts to be formed. The ability to select the contact type to ZnO nanorods offers a new way to customize device behaviour. PMID:26390967

  7. ZnO buffer layer for metal films on silicon substrates

    DOEpatents

    Ihlefeld, Jon

    2014-09-16

    Dramatic improvements in metallization integrity and electroceramic thin film performance can be achieved by the use of the ZnO buffer layer to minimize interfacial energy between metallization and adhesion layers. In particular, the invention provides a substrate metallization method utilizing a ZnO adhesion layer that has a high work of adhesion, which in turn enables processing under thermal budgets typically reserved for more exotic ceramic, single-crystal, or metal foil substrates. Embodiments of the present invention can be used in a broad range of applications beyond ferroelectric capacitors, including microelectromechanical systems, micro-printed heaters and sensors, and electrochemical energy storage, where integrity of metallized silicon to high temperatures is necessary.

  8. Preface: Charge transport in nanoscale junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    the molecular level. Nanoscale charge transport experiments in ionic liquids extend the field to high temperatures and to systems with intriguing interfacial potential distributions. Other directions may include dye-sensitized solar cells, new sensor applications and diagnostic tools for the study of surface-bound single molecules. Another motivation for this special issue is thus to highlight activities across different research communities with nanoscale charge transport as a common denominator. This special issue gathers 27 articles by scientists from the United States, Germany, the UK, Denmark, Russia, France, Israel, Canada, Australia, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Singapore; it gives us a flavour of the current state-of-the-art of this diverse research area. While based on contributions from many renowned groups and institutions, it obviously cannot claim to represent all groups active in this very broad area. Moreover, a number of world-leading groups were unable to take part in this project within the allocated time limit. Nevertheless, we regard the current selection of papers to be representative enough for the reader to draw their own conclusions about the current status of the field. Each paper is original and has its own merit, as all papers in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter special issues are subjected to the same scrutiny as regular contributions. The Guest Editors have deliberately not defined the specific subjects covered in this issue. These came out logically from the development of this area, for example: 'Traditional' solid state nanojunctions based on adsorbed layers, oxide films or nanowires sandwiched between two electrodes: effects of molecular structure (aromaticity, anchoring groups), symmetry, orientation, dynamics (noise patterns) and current-induced heating. Various 'physical effects': inelastic tunnelling and Coulomb blockade, polaron effects, switching modes, and negative differential resistance; the role of

  9. PREFACE: Nanoscale science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2008-11-01

    realization of the vertical and horizontal integration recognized as a condition for nanotehnology application to industry and society, including the definition and development of integrated methodologies and environments to study, design, develop and test nanotechnology based metamaterials, devices, sensors and systems. F Canganella presented research activities concerning the biofilm properties of some reference bacteria on materials commonly used for the aerospace industry. His group evaluated the effect on these materials on a mixture of biosurfactants produced by the Pseudomonas strain AD1 recently isolated by the research group. The following materials were investigated: Kevlar, Nomex, Betacloth, aluminized Kapton, conventional Kapton, Combitherm, Mylar, copper foil, Teflon, aluminum, carbon fiber composite, aluminum thermo-dissipating textile and aluminum tape. Results showed a diverse affinity of materials for the bacterial biofilm development and in some cases sessile colonization was rejected. Pre-conditioning with biosurfactants led, in some cases, to a diminish of biofilm development compared to untreated materials, taking into account both concentrations and experimental conditions. Obtained data may be useful to screen and select appropriate material to be used for life support hardware to avoid or decrease the risk of surface biocontamination. M Chiaretti reported on the biological effects of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, CNT for short) on laboratory animals in vivo, on the immunological effects and the effects on three different cell types. Large numbers of researchers are directly involved in the handling of nanomaterials such as CNT, nanoparticles. It is important to assess the potential health risks related to their daily exposure to nanoparticles. The administration of sterilized nanosamples has been performed on laboratory animals in acute and chronic administration and the pathological effects on the parenchymal tissues have been studied. The

  10. Plasmofluidics: Merging Light and Fluids at the Micro-/Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingsong; Zhao, Chenglong; Miao, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yanhui; Rufo, Joseph; Liu, Yan Jun; Huang, Tony Jun; Zheng, Yuebing

    2015-09-16

    Plasmofluidics is the synergistic integration of plasmonics and micro/nanofluidics in devices and applications in order to enhance performance. There has been significant progress in the emerging field of plasmofluidics in recent years. By utilizing the capability of plasmonics to manipulate light at the nanoscale, combined with the unique optical properties of fluids and precise manipulation via micro/nanofluidics, plasmofluidic technologies enable innovations in lab-on-a-chip systems, reconfigurable photonic devices, optical sensing, imaging, and spectroscopy. In this review article, the most recent advances in plasmofluidics are examined and categorized into plasmon-enhanced functionalities in microfluidics and microfluidics-enhanced plasmonic devices. The former focuses on plasmonic manipulations of fluids, bubbles, particles, biological cells, and molecules at the micro/nanoscale. The latter includes technological advances that apply microfluidic principles to enable reconfigurable plasmonic devices and performance-enhanced plasmonic sensors. The article is concluded with perspectives on the upcoming challenges, opportunities, and possible future directions of the emerging field of plasmofluidics. PMID:26140612

  11. Band offsets, wells, and barriers at nanoscale semiconductor heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niquet, Yann-Michel; Delerue, Christophe

    2011-08-01

    Epitaxially grown semiconductor heterostructures make it possible to tailor the potential landscape for the carriers in a very controlled way. In planar lattice-matched heterostructures, the potential has indeed a very simple and easily predictable behavior: it is constant everywhere except at the interfaces, where there is a step (discontinuity) that only depends on the composition of the semiconductors in contact. In this paper, we show that this universally accepted picture can be invalid in nanoscale heterostructures (e.g., quantum dots, rods, nanowires), which can presently be fabricated in a large variety of forms. Self-consistent tight-binding calculations applied to systems containing up to 75 000 atoms indeed demonstrate that the potential may have a more complex behavior in axial heteronanostructures: The band edges can show significant variations far from the interfaces if the nanostructures are not capped with a homogeneous shell. These results suggest new strategies to engineer the electronic properties of nanoscale objects, e.g., for sensors and photovoltaics.

  12. Nanoscale drug delivery for targeted chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yong; Huang, Qian; Tang, Jian-Qin; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Long Zhen; Jiang, Guan

    2016-08-28

    Despite significant improvements in diagnostic methods and innovations in therapies for specific cancers, effective treatments for neoplastic diseases still represent major challenges. Nanotechnology as an emerging technology has been widely used in many fields and also provides a new opportunity for the targeted delivery of cancer drugs. Nanoscale delivery of chemotherapy drugs to the tumor site is highly desirable. Recent studies have shown that nanoscale drug delivery systems not only have the ability to destroy cancer cells but may also be carriers for chemotherapy drugs. Some studies have demonstrated that delivery of chemotherapy via nanoscale carriers has greater therapeutic benefit than either treatment modality alone. In this review, novel approaches to nanoscale delivery of chemotherapy are described and recent progress in this field is discussed. PMID:27235607

  13. Catalyst-Free Direct Vapor-Phase Growth of Hexagonal ZnO Nanowires on α-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hullavarad, S. S.; Hullavarad, N. V.; Vispute, R. D.; Venkatesan, T.; Kilpatrick, S. J.; Ervin, M. H.; Nichols, B.; Wickenden, A. E.

    2010-08-01

    The evolution of ZnO nanowires has been studied under supersaturation of Zn metal species with and without a ZnO thin-film buffer layer on α-Al2O3 deposited by the pulsed laser ablation technique. The nanowires had diameters in the range of 30 nm to 50 nm and lengths in the range of 5 μm to 10 μm with clear hexagonal shape and [000bar{1}] , [10bar{1}1] , and [10bar{1}0] facets. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated crystalline properties for the ZnO nanostructures grown on pulsed laser deposition (PLD) ZnO nucleation layers. The optical properties were analyzed by photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. The ZnO nanowires were found to emit strong ultraviolet (UV) light at 386 nm and weak green emission as observed by PL measurements. The stoichiometry of Zn and O was found to be close to 1 by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The process-dependent growth properties of ZnO nanostructures can be harnessed for future development of nanoelectronic components including optically pumped lasers, optical modulators, detectors, electron emitters, and gas sensors.

  14. Synthesis and antibacterial properties of ZnO brush pens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Zhang, Rong; Li, Yilin; Weng, Yuan; Liang, Weiquan; Zhang, Wenfeng; Zheng, Weitao; Hu, Haimei

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, ZnO with a novel hierarchical nanostructure has been synthesized by a new solution method. The novel hierarchical structure is named a ‘brush pen’. The biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of ZnO brush pens have been evaluated. The results demonstrate that ZnO brush pens show good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. Performance enhancement of metal nanowire-based transparent electrodes by electrically driven nanoscale nucleation of metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Yu-Jeng; Chiang, Kai-Ming; Lin, Hao-Wu

    2015-08-01

    Solution-processed silver nanowire (AgNW) electrodes have been considered to be promising materials for next-generation flexible transparent conductive electrodes. Despite the fact that a single AgNW has extremely high conductivities, the high junction resistance between nanowires limits the performance of the AgNW matrix. Therefore, post-treatments are usually required to approach better NW-NW contact. Herein, we report a novel linking method that uses joule heating to accumulate sol-gel ZnO near nanowire junctions. The nanoscale ZnO nucleation successfully restrained the thermal instability of the AgNW under current injection and acted as an efficient tightening medium to realize good NW-NW contacts. A low process temperature (<50 °C), and thus low energy consumption, are required for ZnO nucleation. This made the use of substrates with very low operating temperatures, such as PET and PEN, feasible. The optimized AgNW transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) fabricated using this promising linking method exhibited a low sheet resistance (13 Ω sq(-1)), a high transmission (92% at 550 nm), a high figure of merit (FOM; up to σDC/σOp = 340) and can be applied to wide range of next-generation flexible optoelectronic devices. PMID:26152810

  16. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowire Growth with Tunable Orientations on Versatile Substrates Using Atomic Layer Deposition Seeding

    SciTech Connect

    Bielinski, Ashley R.; Kazyak, Eric; Schleputz, Christian M.; Jung, Hee Joon; Wood, Kevin N.; Dasgupta, Neil P.

    2015-07-14

    The ability to synthesize semiconductor nanowires with deterministic and tunable control of orientation and morphology on a wide range of substrates, while high precision and repeatability are maintained, is a challenge currently faced for the development of many nanoscale material systems. Here we show that atomic layer deposition (ALD) presents a reliable method of surface and interfacial modification to guide nanowire orientation on a variety of substrate materials and geometries, including high-aspect-ratio, three-dimensional templates. We demonstrate control of the orientation and geometric properties of hydrothermally grown single crystalline ZnO nanowires via the deposition of a ZnO seed layer by ALD. The crystallographic texture and roughness of the seed layer result in tunable preferred nanowire orientations and densities for identical hydrothermal growth conditions. The structural and chemical relationship between the ALD layers and nanowires was investigated with synchrotron X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of orientation and morphology control. The resulting control parameters were utilized to produce hierarchical nanostructures with tunable properties on a wide range of substrates, including vertical micropillars, paper fibers, porous polymer membranes, and biological substrates. This illustrates the power of ALD for interfacial engineering of heterogeneous material systems at the nanoscale, to provide a highly controlled and scalable seeding method for bottom-up synthesis of integrated nanosystems.

  17. Nanoscale Architectures for Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Stanislaus

    2009-03-01

    In my group, we have developed a number of different potential architecture systems for gaining insights into energy storage and photovoltaics. In one manifestation of our efforts, generating a heterojunction comprising nanotubes and nanocrystals, externally bound and connected, has been significant. The unique, innovative, and important aspect of this particular nanoscale architecture is that it takes advantage of the tunability, in terms of size, shape, and chemistry, of nanotubes and nanocrystals, to create a sharp junction interface, whose properties are inherently manipulable, tailorable, and hence, predictable. For example, the electrical resistance of nanotube-nanoparticle networks is dependent on the nanoscale junctions that exist between these constituent nanomaterials as well as on microscale and macroscale connectivity. Thus, rational design of these nanomaterials is critical to a fundamental understanding of charge transport in single molecules and the determination of their conductance. Results on these systems can therefore be used to increase understanding of intrinsic factors affecting carrier mobility, such as electronic structure, carrier trapping, and delocalization. In a second manifestation, three-dimensional, dendritic micron- scale spheres of alkali metal hydrogen titanate 1D nanostructures (i.e.: nanowires and nanotubes) have been generated using a modified hydrothermal technique in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and an alkali metal hydroxide solution. Sea-urchin-like assemblies of these 1D nanostructures have been transformed into their hydrogen titanate analogues by neutralization as well as into their corresponding semiconducting, anatase titania nanostructured counterparts through a moderate high-temperature annealing dehydration process without destroying the 3D hierarchical structural motif. The as-prepared hollow spheres of titanate and titania 1D nanostructures have overall diameters, ranging from 0.8 μm to 1.2 μm, while the

  18. Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Kendal W; Qin, Shengyong; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Li, An-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The sodium chloride surface is one of the most common platforms for the study of catalysts, thin film growth, and atmospheric aerosols. Here we report a nanoscale periodic modulation pattern on the surface of a cleaved NaCl single crystal, revealed by non-contact atomic force microscopy with a tuning fork sensor. The surface pattern shows two orthogonal domains, extending over the entire cleavage surface. The spatial modulations exhibit a characteristic period of 5.4 nm, along 110 crystallographic directions of the NaCl. The modulations are robust in vacuum, not affected by the tip-induced electric field or gentle annealing (<300 C); however, they are eliminated after exposure to water and an atomically flat surface can be recovered by subsequent thermal annealing after water exposure. A strong electrostatic charging is revealed on the cleavage surface which may facilitate the formation of the observed metastable surface reconstruction.

  19. Nanoscale broadband transmission lines for spin qubit control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehollain, J. P.; Pla, J. J.; Siew, E.; Tan, K. Y.; Dzurak, A. S.; Morello, A.

    2013-01-01

    The intense interest in spin-based quantum information processing has caused an increasing overlap between the two traditionally distinct disciplines of magnetic resonance and nanotechnology. In this work we discuss rigorous design guidelines to integrate microwave circuits with charge-sensitive nanostructures, and describe how to simulate such structures accurately and efficiently. We present a new design for an on-chip, broadband, nanoscale microwave line that optimizes the magnetic field used to drive a spin-based quantum bit (or qubit) while minimizing the disturbance to a nearby charge sensor. This new structure was successfully employed in a single-spin qubit experiment, and shows that the simulations accurately predict the magnetic field values even at frequencies as high as 30 GHz.

  20. Zinc Oxide-Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites for Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensor Application.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Najlaa D; Ansari, M Shahnawaze; Salah, Numan; Khayyat, Suzan A; Khan, Zishan H

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)/multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites based sensors with different ZnO concentrations were fabricated to improve carbon monoxide (CO) gas sensing properties in comparison to the sensors based on bare MWCNTs. To study the structure, morphology and elemental composition of the resultant products, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were carried out. It has been observed that as the concentration of ZnO is increased more and more ZnO nanoparticles in the form of nodes get attached to MWCNTs resulting the reduction in average diameter of MWCNTs. The typical response of ZnO/MWCNTs composites based gas sensors for different CO concentrations (40, 100, 140 and 200 ppm) was studied by using very advanced sensing setup attached to I-V measurement system. Different sensing parameters such as: resistive response, sensitivity and response time were estimated at room temperature for all the fabricated sensors. The results indicated that the sensor based on nanocomposite which has 30 mg ZnO dispersed on 20 mg MWCNTs showing highest sensitivity and fastest response. All the sensors showed response times ranging from 8 to 23 seconds. The sensing mechanism behind the sensors based on ZnO/MWCNTs nanocomposites for CO gas at room temperature is also discussed in the present report. PMID:27398472

  1. Shear piezoelectricity in bone at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Yu, Min-Feng

    2010-10-01

    Recent demonstration of shear piezoelectricity in an isolated collagen fibril, which is the origin of piezoelectricity in bone, necessitates investigation of shear piezoelectric behavior in bone at the nanoscale. Using high resolution lateral piezoresponse force microcopy (PFM), shear piezoelectricity in a cortical bone sample was studied at the nanoscale. Subfibrillar structure of individual collagen fibrils with a periodicity of 60-70 nm were revealed in PFM map, indicating the direct contribution of collagen fibrils to the shear piezoelectricity of bone.

  2. Pure carbon nanoscale devices: Nanotube heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Chico, L.; Crespi, V.H.; Benedict, L.X.; Louie, S.G.; Cohen, M.L. |

    1996-02-01

    Introduction of pentagon-heptagon pair defects into the hexagonal network of a single carbon nanotube can change the helicity of the tube and alter its electronic structure. Using a tight-binding method to calculate the electronic structure of such systems we show that they behave as nanoscale metal/semiconductor or semiconductor/semiconductor junctions. These junctions could be the building blocks of nanoscale electronic devices made entirely of carbon. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. Nonlinear excitation of polariton cavity modes in ZnO single nanocombs.

    PubMed

    Capeluto, M G; Grinblat, G; Tirado, M; Comedi, D; Bragas, A V

    2014-03-10

    Tunable second harmonic (SH) polaritons have been efficiently generated in ZnO nanocombs, when the material is excited close to half of the band-gap. The nonlinear signal couples to the nanocavity modes, and, as a result, Fabry-Pérot resonances with high Q factors of about 500 are detected. Due to the low effective volume of the confined modes, matter-light interaction is very much enhanced. This effect lowers the velocity of the SH polariton in the material by 50 times, and increases the SH confinement inside the nanocavity due to this higher refractive index. We also show that the SH phase-matching condition is achieved through LO-phonon mediation. Finally, birrefringence of the crystal produces a strong SH intensity dependence on the input polarization, with a high polarization contrast, which could be used as a mechanism for light switching in the nanoscale. PMID:24663874

  4. Scanning Nanospin Ensemble Microscope for Nanoscale Magnetic and Thermal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Tetienne, Jean-Philippe; Lombard, Alain; Simpson, David A; Ritchie, Cameron; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2016-01-13

    Quantum sensors based on solid-state spins provide tremendous opportunities in a wide range of fields from basic physics and chemistry to biomedical imaging. However, integrating them into a scanning probe microscope to enable practical, nanoscale quantum imaging is a highly challenging task. Recently, the use of single spins in diamond in conjunction with atomic force microscopy techniques has allowed significant progress toward this goal, but generalization of this approach has so far been impeded by long acquisition times or by the absence of simultaneous topographic information. Here, we report on a scanning quantum probe microscope which solves both issues by employing a nanospin ensemble hosted in a nanodiamond. This approach provides up to an order of magnitude gain in acquisition time while preserving sub-100 nm spatial resolution both for the quantum sensor and topographic images. We demonstrate two applications of this microscope. We first image nanoscale clusters of maghemite particles through both spin resonance spectroscopy and spin relaxometry, under ambient conditions. Our images reveal fast magnetic field fluctuations in addition to a static component, indicating the presence of both superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic particles. We next demonstrate a new imaging modality where the nanospin ensemble is used as a thermometer. We use this technique to map the photoinduced heating generated by laser irradiation of a single gold nanoparticle in a fluid environment. This work paves the way toward new applications of quantum probe microscopy such as thermal/magnetic imaging of operating microelectronic devices and magnetic detection of ion channels in cell membranes. PMID:26709529

  5. Molecular Photovoltaics in Nanoscale Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Burtman, Vladimir; Zelichonok, Alexander; Pakoulev, Andrei V.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the intrinsic charge transport in organic photovoltaic (PVC) devices and field-effect transistors (SAM-OFETs) fabricated by vapor phase molecular self-assembly (VP-SAM) method. The dynamics of charge transport are determined and used to clarify a transport mechanism. The 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic diphenylimide (NTCDI) SAM devices provide a useful tool to study the fundamentals of polaronic transport at organic surfaces and to discuss the performance of organic photovoltaic devices in nanoscale. Time-resolved photovoltaic studies allow us to separate the charge annihilation kinetics in the conductive NTCDI channel from the overall charge kinetic in a SAM-OFET device. It has been demonstrated that tuning of the type of conductivity in NTCDI SAM-OFET devices is possible by changing Si substrate doping. Our study of the polaron charge transfer in organic materials proposes that a cation-radical exchange (redox) mechanism is the major transport mechanism in the studied SAM-PVC devices. The role and contribution of the transport through delocalized states of redox active surface molecular aggregates of NTCDI are exposed and investigated. This example of technological development is used to highlight the significance of future technological development of nanotechnologies and to appreciate a structure-property paradigm in organic nanostructures. PMID:21339983

  6. Nanoscale pillar arrays for separations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kirchner, Teresa; Strickhouser, Rachel; Hatab, Nahla; Charlton, Jennifer; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2015-04-01

    The work presented herein evaluates silicon nano-pillar arrays for use in planar chromatography. Electron beam lithography and metal thermal dewetting protocols were used to create nano-thin layer chromatography platforms. With these fabrication methods we are able to reduce the size of the characteristic features in a separation medium below that used in ultra-thin layer chromatography; i.e. pillar heights are 1-2μm and pillar diameters are typically in the 200- 400nm range. In addition to the intrinsic nanoscale aspects of the systems, it is shown they can be further functionalized with nanoporous layers and traditional stationary phases for chromatography; hence exhibit broad-rangingmore » lab-on-a-chip and point-of-care potential. Because of an inherent high permeability and very small effective mass transfer distance between pillars, chromatographic efficiency can be very high but is enhanced herein by stacking during development and focusing while drying, yielding plate heights in the nm range separated band volumes. Practical separations of fluorescent dyes, fluorescently derivatized amines, and anti-tumor drugs are illustrated.« less

  7. Nanoscale pillar arrays for separations

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, Teresa; Strickhouser, Rachel; Hatab, Nahla; Charlton, Jennifer; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2015-04-01

    The work presented herein evaluates silicon nano-pillar arrays for use in planar chromatography. Electron beam lithography and metal thermal dewetting protocols were used to create nano-thin layer chromatography platforms. With these fabrication methods we are able to reduce the size of the characteristic features in a separation medium below that used in ultra-thin layer chromatography; i.e. pillar heights are 1-2μm and pillar diameters are typically in the 200- 400nm range. In addition to the intrinsic nanoscale aspects of the systems, it is shown they can be further functionalized with nanoporous layers and traditional stationary phases for chromatography; hence exhibit broad-ranging lab-on-a-chip and point-of-care potential. Because of an inherent high permeability and very small effective mass transfer distance between pillars, chromatographic efficiency can be very high but is enhanced herein by stacking during development and focusing while drying, yielding plate heights in the nm range separated band volumes. Practical separations of fluorescent dyes, fluorescently derivatized amines, and anti-tumor drugs are illustrated.

  8. Nanoscale Mixing of Soft Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S.

    2013-03-07

    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ({sup 1}H and {sup 2}H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  9. Nanosecond laser switching of surface wettability and epitaxial integration of c-axis ZnO thin films with Si(111) substrates.

    PubMed

    Molaei, R; Bayati, M R; Alipour, H M; Estrich, N A; Narayan, J

    2014-01-01

    We have achieved integration of polar ZnO[0001] epitaxial thin films with Si(111) substrates where cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (c-YSZ) was used as a template on a Si(111) substrate. Using XRD (θ-2θ and φ scans) and HRTEM techniques, the epitaxial relationship between the ZnO and the c-YSZ layers was shown to be [0001]ZnO || [111]YSZ and [21¯1¯0]ZnO || [1¯01](c-YSZ), where the [21¯1¯0] direction lies in the (0001) plane, and the [1¯01] direction lies in the (111) plane. Similar studies on the c-YSZ/Si interface revealed epitaxy as (111)YSZ || (111)Si and in-plane (110)YSZ || (110)Si. HRTEM micrographs revealed atomically sharp and crystallographically continuous interfaces. The ZnO epilayers were subsequently laser annealed by a single pulse of a nanosecond excimer KrF laser. It was shown that the hydrophobic behavior of the pristine sample became hydrophilic after laser treatment. XPS was employed to study the effect of laser treatment on surface stoichiometry of the ZnO epilayers. The results revealed the formation of oxygen vacancies, which are envisaged to control the observed hydrophilic behavior. Our AFM studies showed surface smoothing due to the coupling of the high energy laser beam with the surface. The importance of integration of c-axis ZnO with Si(111) substrates is emphasized using the paradigm of domain matching epitaxy on the c-YSZ[111] buffer platform along with their out-of-plane orientation, which leads to improvement of the performance of the solid-state devices. The observed ultrafast response and switching in photochemical characteristics provide new opportunities for application of ZnO in smart catalysts, sensors, membranes, DNA self-assembly and multifunctional devices. PMID:24275059

  10. ZnO nanolasers on graphene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hyeonjun; Park, Jun Beom; Park, Jong-woo; Hyun, Jerome K.; Yoon, Hosang; Oh, Hongseok; Yoon, Jiyoung

    2016-06-01

    We grew and characterized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanolasers on graphene films. By using graphene as a growth medium, we were able to prepare position-controlled and vertically aligned ZnO nanotube lasers. The ZnO nanolasers grown on graphene films showed good optical characteristics, evidenced by a low lasing threshold. Furthermore, the nanolaser/graphene system was easily lifted off the original substrate and transferred onto foreign substrates. The lasing performance was observed to be significantly enhanced by depositing a layer of silver on the back of the graphene film during this transfer process, which was quantitatively investigated using finite-difference time-domain simulations. Due to the wide selection of substrates enabled by the use of graphene films, our results suggest promising strategies for preparing practical nanolasers with improved performance.

  11. Nanoscale order in ZnSe:(Mg, O)

    SciTech Connect

    Elyukhin, Vyacheslav A.

    2014-02-21

    Self-assembling of 1O4Mg identical tetrahedral clusters resulting in the nanoscale order in ZnSe:(Mg, O) is presented. Co-doping transforms ZnSe into Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O{sub y}Se{sub 1−y} alloy of MgO, MgSe, ZnO and ZnSe. The decrease of a sum of the enthalpies of the constituent compounds and diminution of the strain energy are the causes of this phenomenon. The self-assembling conditions are obtained from the free energy minimum when magnesium and oxygen are in the dilute and ultra dilute limits, correspondingly. The occurrence of 1O4Mg clusters and completion of self-assembling when all oxygen atoms are in clusters are results of the continuous phase transitions. The self-assembling occurrence temperature does not depend on the oxygen content and it is a function of magnesium concentration. Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O{sub y}Se{sub 1−y} with all oxygen atoms in clusters can be obtained in temperature ranges from T = 206 °C (x = 0.001, y = 1×10{sup −4}) to T = 456 °C (x = 0.01, y = 1×10{sup −4}) and from T = 237 °C (x = 0.001, y = 1×10{sup −6}) to T = 462 °C (x = 0.01, y = 1×10{sup −6})

  12. Dye-Sensitization Of Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajimsha, R. S.; Tyagi, M.; Das, A. K.; Misra, P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    Nannocrystalline and nanoporus thin films of ZnO were synthesized on glass substrates by using wet chemical drop casting method. X-ray diffraction measurements on these samples confirmed the formation of ZnO nanocrystallites in hexagonal wurtzite phase with mean size of ˜20 nm. Photo sensitization of these nanostructured ZnO thin films was carried out using three types of dyes Rhodamine 6 G, Chlorophyll and cocktail of Rhodamine 6 G and Chlorophyll in 1:1 ratio. Dye sensitized ZnO thin films showed enhanced optical absorption in visible spectral region compared to the pristine ZnO thin films.

  13. Dye-Sensitization Of Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ajimsha, R. S.; Tyagi, M.; Das, A. K.; Misra, P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    Nannocrystalline and nanoporus thin films of ZnO were synthesized on glass substrates by using wet chemical drop casting method. X-ray diffraction measurements on these samples confirmed the formation of ZnO nanocrystallites in hexagonal wurtzite phase with mean size of {approx}20 nm. Photo sensitization of these nanostructured ZnO thin films was carried out using three types of dyes Rhodamine 6 G, Chlorophyll and cocktail of Rhodamine 6 G and Chlorophyll in 1:1 ratio. Dye sensitized ZnO thin films showed enhanced optical absorption in visible spectral region compared to the pristine ZnO thin films.

  14. In-plane trapping and manipulation of ZnO nanowires by a hybrid plasmonic field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lichao; Dou, Xiujie; Min, Changjun; Zhang, Yuquan; Du, Luping; Xie, Zhenwei; Shen, Junfeng; Zeng, Yujia; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2016-05-14

    In general, when a semiconductor nanowire is trapped by conventional laser beam tweezers, it tends to be aligned with the trapping beam axis rather than confined in the horizontal plane, and this limits the application of these nanowires in many in-plane nanoscale optoelectronic devices. In this work, we achieve the in-plane trapping and manipulation of a single ZnO nanowire by a hybrid plasmonic tweezer system on a flat metal surface. The gap between the nanowire and the metallic substrate leads to an enhanced gradient force caused by deep subwavelength optical energy confinement. As a result, the nanowire can be securely trapped in-plane at the center of the excited surface plasmon polariton field, and can also be dynamically moved and rotated by varying the position and polarization direction of the incident laser beam, which cannot be performed using conventional optical tweezers. The theoretical results show that the focused plasmonic field induces a strong in-plane trapping force and a high rotational torque on the nanowire, while the focused optical field produces a vertical trapping force to produce the upright alignment of the nanowire; this is in good agreement with the experimental results. Finally, some typical ZnO nanowire structures are built based on this technique, which thus further confirms the potential of this method for precise manipulation of components during the production of nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices. PMID:27117313

  15. Comparative study on CO2 and CO sensing performance of LaOCl-coated ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Van Hieu, Nguyen; Khoang, Nguyen Duc; Trung, Do Dang; Toan, Le Duc; Van Duy, Nguyen; Hoa, Nguyen Duc

    2013-01-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from industries and combustion fuels such as coal, oil, hydrocarbon, and natural gases are increasing, thus causing environmental pollution and climate change. The selective detection of CO(2) and CO gases is important for environmental monitoring and industrial safety applications. In this work, LaOCl-coated ZnO nanowires (NWs) sensors are fabricated and characterized for the detection of CO(2) (250-4000 ppm) and CO (10-200 ppm) gases at different operating temperatures. The effects of the LaCl(3) coating concentration and calcination temperature of the sensors are studied. They are found to have a strong influence on the sensing performance to CO(2) gas, but a relatively slight influence on that to CO. The LaOCl coating enhances the response and shortens the response and recovery times to CO(2) compared with those to CO. The enhanced response of the LaOCl-coated ZnO NW sensors is attributed to the extension of the electron depletion layer due to the formation of p-LaOCl/n-ZnO junctions on the surfaces of the ZnO NWs. PMID:23246957

  16. Effects of nanoscale morphology and defects in oxide: optoelectronic functions of zinc oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Tadaaki; Duy Dao, Thang; Sugavaneshwar, R. P.; Chen, Kai; Nanda, K. K.

    2016-02-01

    Oxide nanomaterials have been attracting growing interest for both fundamental research and industrial applications ranging from gas sensors, light-emitting devices, to photocatalysts, and solar cells. The optical and electronic properties of oxide nanomaterials are strongly dependent on their surface morphologies as well as defects, such as surface areas, aspect ratios, foreign atom impurities, and oxygen vacancies. In this review, we describe some examples of our recent contributions to the nanomaterials and devices that exhibit remarkable functionalities based on one-dimensional nanostructures of ZnO and their hetero junctions as well as their variants with appropriately incorporated dopants.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and hydrogen gas sensing properties of AuNs-catalyzed ZnO sputtered thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drmosh, Q. A.; Yamani, Z. H.

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen present in concentration up to 4 vol.% forms an explosive mixture with air. Its propensity to escape in the event of leak, could lead to quick build-up and formation of an explosive mixture with air in confined spaces, such as an automobile. This necessitates its detection at very low concentration. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a well-known wide band gap (∼3.37 eV) semiconducting oxide that has been widely used for gas sensing applications. This work reports on the fabrication, characterization and gas sensing performance of nanogold decorated ZnO thin films made by DC reactive sputtering. The sensor films were fabricated by depositing a very thin layer of gold on the sputtered ZnO thin film. The as deposited Au@ZnO films were converted into highly crystalline ZnO film covered with gold nanostructures (AuNs@ZnO) by mild heat treatment. The structural and morphological as well as the compositional homogeneity of the as-deposited and heat-treated ZnO, Au@ZnO and AuNs@ZnO thin films were ascertained. The gas sensing behavior of the AuNs@ZnO thin films towards hydrogen as a function of temperature at different H2 concentrations was investigated and compared with that of pure and heat-treated ZnO films. The effect of the presence of gold nanoparticles on imparting improvement (in terms of higher response signal, high reproducibility and complete reversibility) was established; the optimal operating temperature was about 400 °C. A plausible mechanism for the observed enhancement in the sensing behavior of AuNs@ZnO films towards H2 is proposed.

  18. Multiscale modeling of nanostructured ZnO based devices for optoelectronic applications: Dynamically-coupled structural fields, charge, and thermal transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Abdulmuin; Alqahtani, Saad; Nishat, Md Rezaul Karim; Ahmed, Shaikh; SIU Nanoelectronics Research Group Team

    Recently, hybrid ZnO nanostructures (such as ZnO deposited on ZnO-alloys, Si, GaN, polymer, conducting oxides, and organic compounds) have attracted much attention for their possible applications in optoelectronic devices (such as solar cells, light emitting and laser diodes), as well as in spintronics (such as spin-based memory, and logic). However, efficiency and performance of these hybrid ZnO devices strongly depend on an intricate interplay of complex, nonlinear, highly stochastic and dynamically-coupled structural fields, charge, and thermal transport processes at different length and time scales, which have not yet been fully assessed experimentally. In this work, we study the effects of these coupled processes on the electronic and optical emission properties in nanostructured ZnO devices. The multiscale computational framework employs the atomistic valence force-field molecular mechanics, models for linear and non-linear polarization, the 8-band sp3s* tight-binding models, and coupling to a TCAD toolkit to determine the terminal properties of the device. A series of numerical experiments are performed (by varying different nanoscale parameters such as size, geometry, crystal cut, composition, and electrostatics) that mainly aim to improve the efficiency of these devices. Supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation Grant No. 1102192.

  19. Functionalized zinc oxide nanorod with ionophore-membrane coating as an intracellular Ca2+ selective sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif, M. H.; Fulati, A.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.; Brännmark, Cecilia; Strâlfors, Peter; Börjesson, Sara I.; Elinder, Fredrik

    2009-07-01

    The tip of a borosilicate glass capillary with functionalized hexagonal ZnO nanorods was used to make a sensitive electrochemical intracellular Ca2+ sensor. To adjust the sensor for Ca2+ measurements with sufficient selectivity and stability, polyvinylchloride membrane containing Ca2+ ionophores were coated on the surface. The membrane covered ZnO nanorods exhibited a Ca2+-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The potential difference was linear over a large concentration range (100 nM-10 mM). The measurements of Ca2+ concentrations using our ZnO nanorods sensor in human fat cells or in frog egg cells were consistent with values of Ca2+ concentrations reported in the literature. This nanoelectrode device paves the way to measurements of intracellular biochemical species in specific locations within single living cells.

  20. Characterization of reaction between ZnO and COS

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaoka, Eiji; Taniguchi, Kazuo; Uddin, M.A.; Hirano, Shigeru; Kasaoka, Shigeaki; Sakata, Yusaku

    1996-07-01

    In order to understand the behavior of COS in a ZnO desulfurization reactor, the reaction between ZnO and COS was studied in the presence of gases which compose a coal-derived gas. The behavior of COS in the reaction zone of a ZnO packed bed can be predicted as follows: H{sub 2}S in coal-derived gas reacts more easily with ZnO than COS; most of COS is converted to H{sub 2}S by catalytic hydrolysis and then reacts with ZnO, although a part of COS may react directly with ZnO; H{sub 2} accelerates the conversion of COS to H{sub 2}S; the water-gas shift reaction accelerates the reaction between ZnO and COS; and CO{sub 2} does not affect the reaction.

  1. Controlled doping of graphene using ZnO substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Misuk; Choi, Won Jin; Jeong, Yoon Jang; Lee, Young Kuk; Kim, Ju-Jin; Lee, Jeong-O.

    2016-06-01

    We show that graphene device could be controllably doped by the bottom substrate by inserting atomic layer deposition grown ZnO between graphene and SiO2 substrate. To clarify the effect of bottom ZnO, length of the graphene transistor channel was varied from 20 to 200 μm, while that of ZnO was fixed to 10 μm. Graphene devices supported on ZnO film show marked difference from those supported on SiO2 substrates; bottom ZnO layer behave as an electron donor. UV illumination experiment on hybrid graphene-ZnO device reveals that the effect of doping from ZnO becomes negligible when the graphene channel length made about four times larger than that of ZnO stripe.

  2. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-doped nanoporous solgel fiber as a humidity sensor with enhanced sensitivity and large linear dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Aneesh, R; Khijwania, Sunil K

    2013-08-01

    An all-optical humidity sensor based on direct and exhaustive guided-mode attenuation in an in-house developed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle-immobilized bare solgel fiber is reported. The main objective of the present work is to enhance the sensitivity considerably while realizing a throughout linear response over a wide dynamic range. The developed sensor is characterized and performance characteristics of the sensor are compared with an optical fiber humidity sensor employing an evanescent wave absorption scheme in a straight and uniform probe, with ZnO nanoparticles-immobilized solgel film as humidity sensing cladding. Sensor response is observed to be linear over a wide dynamic range of 5%-95% relative humidity (RH). The observed linear sensitivity is 0.0103/% RH, which is ~9 times higher than the sensor employing the evanescent wave absorption scheme. In addition, sensor response is observed to be very fast, highly reversible, and repeatable. PMID:23913070

  3. A Flexible Proximity Sensor Fully Fabricated by Inkjet Printing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chin-Tsan; Huang, Kuo-Yi; Lin, David T. W.; Liao, Wei-Chia; Lin, Hua-Wei; Hu, Yuh-Chung

    2010-01-01

    A flexible proximity sensor fully fabricated by inkjet printing is proposed in this paper. The flexible proximity sensor is composed of a ZnO layer sandwiched in between a flexible aluminum sheet and a web-shaped top electrode layer. The flexible aluminum sheet serves as the bottom electrode. The material of the top electrode layer is nano silver. Both the ZnO and top electrode layers are deposited by inkjet printing. The fully inkjet printing process possesses the advantages of direct patterning and low-cost. It does not require photolithography and etching processes since the pattern is directly printed on the flexible aluminum sheet. The prototype demonstrates that the presented flexible sensor is sensitive to the human body. It may be applied to proximity sensing or thermal eradiation sensing. PMID:22399923

  4. Oxygen vacancies induced DX center and persistent photoconductivity properties of high quality ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yong; Madel, Manfred; Feneberg, Martin; Neuschl, Benjamin; Jie, Wanqi; Hao, Yue; Ma, Xiaohua; Thonke, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Ultraviolet sensors based on homoepitaxially grown ZnO nanorods were fabricated using clean room technology. We study the spectral dependence and frequency dependence of the photoresponse of these rods at different temperatures and ambient conditions. Whereas the response for above-bandgap light is fast, we find a slow response to light below band gap and clear signatures of persistent photoconductivity. These findings are explained by switching oxygen vacancies by light from nonconductive to conductive state, whereas the oxygen vacancies undergo a large lattice relaxation. The threshold photon energy for this process is found to be 2.6 eV at room temperature.

  5. On-chip Fabrication of High Performance Nanostructured ZnO UV Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Alenezi, Mohammad R.; Henley, Simon J.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Developing rationally controlled bottom-up device fabrication processes is essential for the achievement of high performance optimal devices. We report a controlled, seedless and site-selective hydrothermal technique to fabricate high-performance nanostructured ZnO UV-detectors directly on-chip. We demonstrate that by controlling the nanowire growth process, via tuning the experimental parameters such as the concentration of reactants and the growth time, and by introducing a refresh of the growth solution, the device structure efficiency can be enhanced to significantly improve its performance. The on-chip fabricated bridging nanosyringe ultraviolet detector demonstrates improved sensitivity (~105), nanowatts detectability, and ultrafast response-time (90 ms) and recovery-time (210 ms). The improvement in response-time and recovery-time is attributed to the unique nanowire-nanowire junction barrier dominated resistance and the direct contact between ZnO and Au electrodes. Furthermore, the enhanced sensitivity and nanowatts detectability of the bridging nanosyringe device are due to the reduction in dimensionality and ultrahigh surface-to-volume ratio. This work paves the way toward low cost, large scale, low temperature, seedless and site-selective fabrication of high performance ZnO nanowire sensors on flexible and transparent substrates. PMID:25687120

  6. Phase transition induced strain in ZnO under high pressure

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaozhi; Dong, Haini; Li, Yanchun; Lin, Chuanlong; Park, Changyong; He, Duanwei; Yang, Wenge

    2016-01-01

    Under high pressure, the phase transition mechanism and mechanical property of material are supposed to be largely associated with the transformation induced elastic strain. However, the experimental evidences for such strain are scanty. The elastic and plastic properties of ZnO, a leading material for applications in chemical sensor, catalyst, and optical thin coatings, were determined using in situ high pressure synchrotron axial and radial x-ray diffraction. The abnormal elastic behaviors of selected lattice planes of ZnO during phase transition revealed the existence of internal elastic strain, which arise from the lattice misfit between wurtzite and rocksalt phase. Furthermore, the strength decrease of ZnO during phase transition under non-hydrostatic pressure was observed and could be attributed to such internal elastic strain, unveiling the relationship between pressure induced internal strain and mechanical property of material. These findings are of fundamental importance to understanding the mechanism of phase transition and the properties of materials under pressure. PMID:27173609

  7. On-chip Fabrication of High Performance Nanostructured ZnO UV Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alenezi, Mohammad R.; Henley, Simon J.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2015-02-01

    Developing rationally controlled bottom-up device fabrication processes is essential for the achievement of high performance optimal devices. We report a controlled, seedless and site-selective hydrothermal technique to fabricate high-performance nanostructured ZnO UV-detectors directly on-chip. We demonstrate that by controlling the nanowire growth process, via tuning the experimental parameters such as the concentration of reactants and the growth time, and by introducing a refresh of the growth solution, the device structure efficiency can be enhanced to significantly improve its performance. The on-chip fabricated bridging nanosyringe ultraviolet detector demonstrates improved sensitivity (~105), nanowatts detectability, and ultrafast response-time (90 ms) and recovery-time (210 ms). The improvement in response-time and recovery-time is attributed to the unique nanowire-nanowire junction barrier dominated resistance and the direct contact between ZnO and Au electrodes. Furthermore, the enhanced sensitivity and nanowatts detectability of the bridging nanosyringe device are due to the reduction in dimensionality and ultrahigh surface-to-volume ratio. This work paves the way toward low cost, large scale, low temperature, seedless and site-selective fabrication of high performance ZnO nanowire sensors on flexible and transparent substrates.

  8. Photoluminescence based H2 and O2 gas sensing by ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Kavita; Gahlaut, Shashank K.; Mehta, B. R.; Singh, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Gas sensing properties of ZnO nanowires prepared via thermal chemical vapor deposition method were investigated by analyzing change in their photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The as-synthesized nanowires show two different PL peaks positioned at 380 nm and 520 nm. The 380 nm emission is ascribed to near band edge emission, and the green peak (520 nm) appears due to the oxygen vacancy defects. The intensity of the green PL signal enhances upon hydrogen gas exposure, whereas it gets quenched upon oxygen gas loading. The ZnO nanowires' sensing response values were observed as about 54% for H2 gas and 9% for O2 gas at room temperature for 50 sccm H2/O2 gas flow rate. The sensor response was also analyzed as a function of sample temperature ranging from 300 K to 400 K. A conclusion was derived from the observations that the H2/O2 gases affect the adsorbed oxygen species on the surface of ZnO nanowires. The adsorbed species result in the band bending and hence changes the depletion region which causes variation in PL signal. A photoluminescence based gas sensing technique has advantage over a conductometric technique due to its higher sensitivity and faster response time.

  9. Phase transition induced strain in ZnO under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaozhi; Dong, Haini; Li, Yanchun; Lin, Chuanlong; Park, Changyong; He, Duanwei; Yang, Wenge

    2016-01-01

    Under high pressure, the phase transition mechanism and mechanical property of material are supposed to be largely associated with the transformation induced elastic strain. However, the experimental evidences for such strain are scanty. The elastic and plastic properties of ZnO, a leading material for applications in chemical sensor, catalyst, and optical thin coatings, were determined using in situ high pressure synchrotron axial and radial x-ray diffraction. The abnormal elastic behaviors of selected lattice planes of ZnO during phase transition revealed the existence of internal elastic strain, which arise from the lattice misfit between wurtzite and rocksalt phase. Furthermore, the strength decrease of ZnO during phase transition under non-hydrostatic pressure was observed and could be attributed to such internal elastic strain, unveiling the relationship between pressure induced internal strain and mechanical property of material. These findings are of fundamental importance to understanding the mechanism of phase transition and the properties of materials under pressure. PMID:27173609

  10. Phase transition induced strain in ZnO under high pressure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yan, Xiaozhi; Dong, Haini; Li, Yanchun; Lin, Chuanlong; Park, Changyong; He, Duanwei; Yang, Wenge

    2016-05-13

    Under high pressure, the phase transition mechanism and mechanical property of material are supposed to be largely associated with the transformation induced elastic strain. However, the experimental evidences for such strain are scanty. The elastic and plastic properties of ZnO, a leading material for applications in chemical sensor, catalyst, and optical thin coatings, were determined using in situ high pressure synchrotron axial and radial x-ray diffraction. The abnormal elastic behaviors of selected lattice planes of ZnO during phase transition revealed the existence of internal elastic strain, which arise from the lattice misfit between wurtzite and rocksalt phase. Furthermore, the strengthmore » decrease of ZnO during phase transition under non-hydrostatic pressure was observed and could be attributed to such internal elastic strain, unveiling the relationship between pressure induced internal strain and mechanical property of material. Ultimately, these findings are of fundamental importance to understanding the mechanism of phase transition and the properties of materials under pressure.« less

  11. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod core-polypyrrole conducting polymer sheath and nanotube arrays for electrochemical supercapacitor energy storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite electrodes having three-dimensional (3-D) nanoscale architecture comprising of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod array core-polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer sheath and the vertical PPy nanotube arrays have been investigated for supercapacitor energy storage. The electrodes in the ZnO nanorod core-PPy sheath structure are formed by preferential nucleation and deposition of PPy layer over hydrothermally synthesized vertical ZnO nanorod array by controlled pulsed current electropolymerization of pyrrole monomer under surfactant action. The vertical PPy nanotube arrays of different tube diameter are created by selective etching of the ZnO nanorod core in ammonia solution for different periods. Cyclic voltammetry studies show high areal-specific capacitance approximately 240 mF.cm-2 for open pore and approximately 180 mF.cm-2 for narrow 30-to-36-nm diameter PPy nanotube arrays attributed to intensive faradic processes arising from enhanced access of electrolyte ions through nanotube interior and exterior. Impedance spectroscopy studies show that capacitive response extends over larger frequency domain in electrodes with PPy nanotube structure. Simulation of Nyquist plots by electrical equivalent circuit modeling establishes that 3-D nanostructure is better represented by constant phase element which accounts for the inhomogeneous electrochemical redox processes. Charge-discharge studies at different current densities establish that kinetics of the redox process in PPy nanotube electrode is due to the limitation on electron transport rather than the diffusive process of electrolyte ions. The PPy nanotube electrodes show deep discharge capability with high coulomb efficiency and long-term charge-discharge cyclic studies show nondegrading performance of the specific areal capacitance tested for 5,000 cycles. PMID:25246867

  12. Nanoscale layer-selective readout of magnetization direction from a magnetic multilayer using a spin-torque oscillator.

    PubMed

    Suto, Hirofumi; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Kudo, Kiwamu; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2014-06-20

    Technology for detecting the magnetization direction of nanoscale magnetic material is crucial for realizing high-density magnetic recording devices. Conventionally, a magnetoresistive device is used that changes its resistivity in accordance with the direction of the stray field from an objective magnet. However, when several magnets are near such a device, the superposition of stray fields from all the magnets acts on the sensor, preventing selective recognition of their individual magnetization directions. Here we introduce a novel readout method for detecting the magnetization direction of a nanoscale magnet by use of a spin-torque oscillator (STO). The principles behind this method are dynamic dipolar coupling between an STO and a nanoscale magnet, and detection of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) of this coupled system from the STO signal. Because the STO couples with a specific magnet by tuning the STO oscillation frequency to match its FMR frequency, this readout method can selectively determine the magnetization direction of the magnet. PMID:24872254

  13. Resonant Effects in Nanoscale Bowtie Apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Li; Qin, Jin; Guo, Songpo; Liu, Tao; Kinzel, Edward; Wang, Liang

    2016-06-01

    Nanoscale bowtie aperture antennas can be used to focus light well below the diffraction limit with extremely high transmission efficiencies. This paper studies the spectral dependence of the transmission through nanoscale bowtie apertures defined in a silver film. A realistic bowtie aperture is numerically modeled using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Results show that the transmission spectrum is dominated by Fabry-Pérot (F-P) waveguide modes and plasmonic modes. The F-P resonance is sensitive to the thickness of the film and the plasmonic resonant mode is closely related to the gap distance of the bowtie aperture. Both characteristics significantly affect the transmission spectrum. To verify these numerical results, bowtie apertures are FIB milled in a silver film. Experimental transmission measurements agree with simulation data. Based on this result, nanoscale bowtie apertures can be optimized to realize deep sub-wavelength confinement with high transmission efficiency with applications to nanolithography, data storage, and bio-chemical sensing.

  14. Nanoscale assemblies and their biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Tais A. P. F.; Raman, Senthilkumar; Dey, Raja; Burkhard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale assemblies are a unique class of materials, which can be synthesized from inorganic, polymeric or biological building blocks. The multitude of applications of this class of materials ranges from solar and electrical to uses in food, cosmetics and medicine. In this review, we initially highlight characteristic features of polymeric nanoscale assemblies as well as those built from biological units (lipids, nucleic acids and proteins). We give special consideration to protein nanoassemblies found in nature such as ferritin protein cages, bacterial microcompartments and vaults found in eukaryotic cells and designed protein nanoassemblies, such as peptide nanofibres and peptide nanotubes. Next, we focus on biomedical applications of these nanoscale assemblies, such as cell targeting, drug delivery, bioimaging and vaccine development. In the vaccine development section, we report in more detail the use of virus-like particles and self-assembling polypeptide nanoparticles as new vaccine delivery platforms. PMID:23303217

  15. Bench-scale synthesis of nanoscale materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. F.; Darab, J. G.; Matson, D. W.; Linehan, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    A novel flow-through hydrothermal method used to synthesize nanoscale powders is introduced by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The process, Rapid Thermal Decomposition of precursors in Solution (RTDS), uniquely combines high-pressure and high-temperature conditions to rapidly form nanoscale particles. The RTDS process was initially demonstrated on a laboratory scale and was subsequently scaled up to accommodate production rates attractive to industry. The process is able to produce a wide variety of metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. The powders are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopic methods, surface-area measurements, and x-ray diffraction. Typical crystallite sizes are less than 20 nanometers, with BET surface areas ranging from 100 to 400 sq m/g. A description of the RTDS process is presented along with powder characterization results. In addition, data on the sintering of nanoscale ZrO2 produced by RTDS are included.

  16. Bench-scale synthesis of nanoscale materials

    SciTech Connect

    Buehler, M.F.; Darab, J.G.; Matson, D.W.; Linehan, J.C.

    1993-12-01

    A novel flow-through hydrothermal method used to synthesize nanoscale powders is introduced by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The process, Rapid Thermal Decomposition of precursors in Solution (RTDS), combines high-pressure and high-temperature conditions to rapidly form nanoscale particles. The RTDS process was demonstrated on a laboratory scale and scaled up to accommodate production rates attractive to industry. The process is able to produce a wide variety of metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. The powders are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopic methods, surface-area measurements, and x-ray diffraction. Typical crystallite sizes are less than 20 nanometers, with BET surface areas ranging from 100 to 400 m{sup 2}/g. A description of the RTDS process is presented along with powder characterization results. In addition, data on the sintering of nanoscale ZrO{sub 2} produced by RTDS are included.

  17. Current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  18. Visualizing Optoelectronic Processes at the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Puneet; Komeda, Tadahiro

    2015-11-24

    In this issue of ACS Nano, Nienhaus et al. report the optoelectronic properties of carbon nanotube chiral junctions with nanometer resolution in the presence of strong electric fields (∼1 V/nm). Here, we provide an overview of recent studies that combine scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and laser or microwave illumination. These techniques reveal nanoscale laser- or microwave-induced phenomena utilizing the intrinsic atomic resolution of the tunneling current, and do not require substantial modification of the STM itself. The merits of atomic-scale spatial resolution and chemical sensitivity of the laser or microwave spectroscopes make these techniques useful for nanoscale characterization. PMID:26524228

  19. Handheld Universal Diagnostic Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The rHEALTH technology is designed to shrink an entire hospital testing laboratory onto a handheld device. A physician or healthcare provider performs the test by collecting a fingerstick of blood from a patient. The tiny volume of blood is inserted into the rHEALTH device. Inside the device is a microfluidic chip that contains small channels about the width of a human hair. These channels help move the blood and analyze the blood sample. The rHEALTH sensor uses proprietary reagents called nanostrips, which are nanoscale test strips that enable the clinical assays. The readout is performed by laser-induced fluorescence. Overall, the time from blood collection through analysis is less than a minute.

  20. Information storage materials: nanoscale characterisation by three-dimensional atom probe analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.J.; Petford-Long, A.K.; Ma, Y.Q; Cerezo, A

    2004-06-07

    The development of nanoscale magnetic materials for applications in information storage systems relies heavily on the ability to engineer the properties of the layered structures from which such materials are fabricated. These properties are strongly dependent on the nature of the interfaces between the individual nanoscale magnetic layers, so knowledge of the interface chemistry is crucial. In this paper, we discuss the application of three-dimensional atom probe analysis to the characterisation of layered magnetic materials, including details of specimen preparation techniques required for this type of analysis. Recent results are presented on the characterisation of interfaces in Co/Cu or CoFe/Cu multilayers, which form part of the read sensor in magnetic recording heads, and Co/Pd multilayers, which are being considered for use as perpendicular recording media.

  1. Atomistic Design and Simulations of Nanoscale Machines and Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, William A., III; Cagin, Tahir; Walch, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Over the three years of this project, we made significant progress on critical theoretical and computational issues in nanoscale science and technology, particularly in:(1) Fullerenes and nanotubes, (2) Characterization of surfaces of diamond and silicon for NEMS applications, (3) Nanoscale machine and assemblies, (4) Organic nanostructures and dendrimers, (5) Nanoscale confinement and nanotribology, (6) Dynamic response of nanoscale structures nanowires (metals, tubes, fullerenes), (7) Thermal transport in nanostructures.

  2. Model Mismatch Paradigm for Probe based Nanoscale Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Pranav

    Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPMs) are widely used for investigation of material properties and manipulation of matter at the nanoscale. These instruments are considered critical enablers of nanotechnology by providing the only technique for direct observation of dynamics at the nanoscale and affecting it with sub Angstrom resolution. Current SPMs are limited by low throughput and lack of quantitative measurements of material properties. Various applications like the high density data storage, sub-20 nm lithography, fault detection and functional probing of semiconductor circuits, direct observation of dynamical processes involved in biological samples viz. motor proteins and transport phenomena in various materials demand high throughput operation. Researchers involved in material characterization at nanoscale are interested in getting quantitative measurements of stiffness and dissipative properties of various materials in a least invasive manner. In this thesis, system theoretic concepts are used to address these limitations. The central tenet of the thesis is to model, the known information about the system and then focus on perturbations of these known dynamics or model, to sense the effects due to changes in the environment such as changes in material properties or surface topography. Thus a model mismatch paradigm for probe based nanoscale imaging is developed. The topic is developed by presenting physics based modeling of a particular mode of operation of SPMs called the dynamic mode operation. This mode is modeled as a forced Lure system where a linear time invariant system is in feedback with an unknown static memoryless nonlinearity. Tools from averaging theory are used to tame this complex nonlinear system by approximating it as a linear system with time varying parameters. Material properties are thus transformed from being parameters of unknown nonlinear functions to being unknown coefficients of a linear plant. The first contribution of this thesis

  3. Growth of a Novel Nanostructured ZnO Urchin: Control of Cytotoxicity and Dissolution of the ZnO Urchin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imani, Roghayeh; Drašler, Barbara; Kononenko, Veno; Romih, Tea; Eleršič, Kristina; Jelenc, Janez; Junkar, Ita; Remškar, Maja; Drobne, Damjana; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš

    2015-11-01

    The applications of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) in implantable wireless devices, such as diagnostic nanobiosensors and nanobiogenerators, have recently attracted enormous attention due to their unique properties. However, for these implantable nanodevices, the biocompatibility and the ability to control the behaviour of cells in contact with ZnO NWs are demanded for the success of these implantable devices, but to date, only a few contrasting results from their biocompatibility can be found. There is a need for more research about the biocompatibility of ZnO nanostructures and the adhesion and viability of cells on the surface of ZnO nanostructures. Here, we introduce synthesis of a new nature-inspired nanostructured ZnO urchin, with the dimensions of the ZnO urchin's acicula being controllable. To examine the biocompatibility and behaviour of cells in contact with the ZnO urchin, the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell line was chosen as an in vitro experimental model. The results of the viability assay indicated that, compared to control, the number of viable cells attached to the surface of the ZnO urchin and its surrounding area were reduced. The measurements of the Zn contents of cell media confirmed ZnO dissolution, which suggests that the ZnO dissolution in cell culture medium could lead to cytotoxicity. A purposeful reduction of ZnO cytotoxicity was achieved by surface coating of the ZnO urchin with poly(vinylidene fluorid-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), which changed the material matrix to slow the Zn ion release and consequently reduce the cytotoxicity of the ZnO urchin without reducing its functionality.

  4. Growth of a Novel Nanostructured ZnO Urchin: Control of Cytotoxicity and Dissolution of the ZnO Urchin.

    PubMed

    Imani, Roghayeh; Drašler, Barbara; Kononenko, Veno; Romih, Tea; Eleršič, Kristina; Jelenc, Janez; Junkar, Ita; Remškar, Maja; Drobne, Damjana; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš

    2015-12-01

    The applications of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) in implantable wireless devices, such as diagnostic nanobiosensors and nanobiogenerators, have recently attracted enormous attention due to their unique properties. However, for these implantable nanodevices, the biocompatibility and the ability to control the behaviour of cells in contact with ZnO NWs are demanded for the success of these implantable devices, but to date, only a few contrasting results from their biocompatibility can be found. There is a need for more research about the biocompatibility of ZnO nanostructures and the adhesion and viability of cells on the surface of ZnO nanostructures. Here, we introduce synthesis of a new nature-inspired nanostructured ZnO urchin, with the dimensions of the ZnO urchin's acicula being controllable. To examine the biocompatibility and behaviour of cells in contact with the ZnO urchin, the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell line was chosen as an in vitro experimental model. The results of the viability assay indicated that, compared to control, the number of viable cells attached to the surface of the ZnO urchin and its surrounding area were reduced. The measurements of the Zn contents of cell media confirmed ZnO dissolution, which suggests that the ZnO dissolution in cell culture medium could lead to cytotoxicity. A purposeful reduction of ZnO cytotoxicity was achieved by surface coating of the ZnO urchin with poly(vinylidene fluorid-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), which changed the material matrix to slow the Zn ion release and consequently reduce the cytotoxicity of the ZnO urchin without reducing its functionality. PMID:26573932

  5. ZnO quantum dots-decorated ZnO nanowires for the enhancement of antibacterial and photocatalytic performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jyh Ming; Tsay, Li-Yi

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate highly antibacterial activities for killing off Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using ZnO nanowires decorated with ZnO quantum dots (so-called ZnO QDs/NWs) under visible-light irradiation and dark conditions. The average size of the ZnO QDs is in the range of 3-5 nm; these were uniformly dispersed on the ZnO nanowires’ surface to form the ZnO QDs/NWs. A significant blue-shift effect was observed using photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The size of the ZnO QDs is strongly dependent on the material’s synthesis time. The ZnO QDs/NWs exhibited an excellent photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. The ZnO QDs’ active sites (i.e. the O-H bond and Zn2+) accelerate the photogenerated-carrier migration from the QDs to the NWs. As a consequence, the electrons reacted with the dissolved oxygen to form oxygen ions and produced hydroperoxyl radicals to enhance photocatalytic activity. The antibacterial activities (as indicated by R-factor-inhibiting activity) of the ZnO QDs/NWs for killing off Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli is around 4.9 and 5.5 under visible-light irradiation and dark conditions, respectively. The hydroxyl radicals served as an efficient oxidized agent for decomposing the organic dye and microorganism species. The antibacterial activities of the ZnO QDs/NWs in the dark may be attributed to the Zn2+ ions that were released from the ZnO QDs and infused into the microbial solution against the growth of bacteria thus disrupting the microorganism. The highly antibacterial and photocatalytic activity of the ZnO QDs/NWs can be well implanted on a screen window, thus offering a promising solution to inhibit the spread of germs under visible-light and dark conditions.

  6. Growth of vertically aligned one-dimensional ZnO nanowire arrays on sol-gel derived ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Nobuaki; Aono, Masami; Watanabe, Yoshihisa

    2014-11-01

    Vertically aligned one-dimensional ZnO nanowire arrays have been synthesized by a hydrothermal method on sol-gel derived ZnO films. Sol-gel derived ZnO films and corresponding ZnO nanowire arrays have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The effect of sol-gel derived ZnO film surface on the morphology of ZnO nanowire arrays has been investigated. The authors suggest from our investigation that sol-gel derived ZnO films affect the growth of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures. Not only crystalline ZnO films but also amorphous ones can act as a scaffold for ZnO nucleus. Tilted ZnO micro-rods are grown on ZnO gel films, whereas vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays are grown on nanometer-sized ZnO grains. The average diameter of ZnO nanowire arrays are correlated strongly with the grain size of sol-gel derived ZnO films.

  7. Preface: Friction at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusc, Claudio; Smith, Roger; Urbakh, Michael; Vanossi, Andrea

    2008-09-01

    Interfacial friction is one of the oldest problems in physics and chemistry, and certainly one of the most important from a practical point of view. Everyday operations on a broad range of scales, from nanometer and up, depend upon the smooth and satisfactory functioning of countless tribological systems. Friction imposes serious constraints and limitations on the performance and lifetime of micro-machines and, undoubtedly, will impose even more severe constraints on the emerging technology of nano-machines. Standard lubrication techniques used for large objects are expected to be less effective in the nano-world. Novel methods for control and manipulation are therefore needed. What has been missing is a molecular level understanding of processes occurring between and close to interacting surfaces to help understand, and later manipulate friction. Friction is intimately related to both adhesion and wear, and all three require an understanding of highly non-equilibrium processes occurring at the molecular level to determine what happens at the macroscopic level. Due to its practical importance and the relevance to basic scientific questions there has been major increase in activity in the study of interfacial friction on the microscopic level during the last decade. Intriguing structural and dynamical features have been observed experimentally. These observations have motivated theoretical efforts, both numerical and analytical. This special issue focusses primarily on discussion of microscopic mechanisms of friction and adhesion at the nanoscale level. The contributions cover many important aspects of frictional behaviour, including the origin of stick-slip motion, the dependence of measured forces on the material properties, effects of thermal fluctuations, surface roughness and instabilities in boundary lubricants on both static and kinetic friction. An important problem that has been raised in this issue, and which has still to be resolved, concerns the

  8. High performance ethanol sensing films fabricated from ZnO and In2O3 nanofibers with a double-layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Qiao, Guan-Jun

    2012-06-01

    ZnO and In2O3 nanofibers are synthesized via electrospinning methods, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanofibers are deposited on ceramic substrates to form sensing films with various structures (ZnO nanofiber films, ZnO-In2O3 nanofiber films, and ZnO-In2O3-ZnO nanofiber films), and their sensing properties are investigated at different temperatures. Compared with ZnO nanofiber films and ZnO-In2O3-ZnO nanofiber films, the obtained ZnO-In2O3 nanofiber films exhibit improved and excellent sensing properties to ethanol. The highest sensitivity (the ratio of sensor resistance in air to that in target ambience) of 25 is obtained when the ZnO-In2O3 films are exposed to 100 ppm ethanol at 210 °C, while the corresponding values are only 8 for ZnO nanofiber films at 300 °C and 17 for ZnO-In2O3-ZnO nanofiber films at 210 °C. Rapid sensing reactions are also obtained as the response and recovery times of ZnO-In2O3 nanofiber films to 100 ppm ethanol are only about 2 and 1 s, respectively. These high sensing performances are explained by referring the heterocontacts formed by the double-layer structure.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anilkumar T., S.; Girija M., L.; Venkatesh, J.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) Thin films were deposited on glass substrate using Spin coating method. Zinc acetate dehydrate, Carbinol and Mono-ethanolamine were used as the precursor, solvent and stabilizer respectively to prepare ZnO Thin-films. The molar ratio of Monoethanolamine to Zinc acetate was maintained as approximately 1. The thickness of the films was determined by Interference technique. The optical properties of the films were studied by UV Vis-Spectrophotometer. From transmittance and absorbance curve, the energy band gap of ZnO is found out. Electrical Conductivity measurements of ZnO are carried out by two probe method and Activation energy for the electrical conductivity of ZnO are found out. The crystal structure and orientation of the films were analyzed by XRD. The XRD patterns show that the ZnO films are polycrystalline with wurtzite hexagonal structure.

  10. Physical vapor transport crystal growth of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Jianping, Ma; Fuli, Liu; Yuan, Zang; Yantao, Liu

    2014-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has a wide band gap, high stability and a high thermal operating range that makes it a suitable material as a semiconductor for fabricating light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes, photodiodes, power diodes and other semiconductor devices. Recently, a new crystal growth for producing ZnO crystal boules was developed, which was physical vapor transport (PVT), at temperatures exceeding 1500 °C under a certain system pressure. ZnO crystal wafers in sizes up to 50 mm in diameter were produced. The conditions of ZnO crystal growth, growth rate and the quality of ZnO crystal were analyzed. Results from crystal growth and material characterization are presented and discussed. Our research results suggest that the novel crystal growth technique is a viable production technique for producing ZnO crystals and substrates for semiconductor device applications.

  11. Homoepitaxial regrowth habits of ZnO nanowire arrays

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic regrowth of ZnO nanowires [NWs] under a similar chemical vapor transport and condensation [CVTC] process can produce abundant ZnO nanostructures which are not possible by a single CVTC step. In this work, we report three different regrowth modes of ZnO NWs: axial growth, radial growth, and both directions. The different growth modes seem to be determined by the properties of initial ZnO NW templates. By varying the growth parameters in the first-step CVTC process, ZnO nanostructures (e.g., nanoantenna) with drastically different morphologies can be obtained with distinct photoluminescence properties. The results have implications in guiding the rational synthesis of various ZnO NW heterostructures. PMID:22151820

  12. Adsorption Kinetics in Nanoscale Porous Coordination Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Nune, Satish K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, Benard Peter; Annapureddy, Harsha V. R.; Dang, Liem X.; Mei, Donghai; Karri, Naveen; Alvine, Kyle J.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Arey, Bruce W.; Dohnalkova, Alice

    2015-10-07

    Nanoscale porous coordination polymers were synthesized using simple wet chemical method. The effect of various polymer surfactants on colloidal stability and shape selectivity was investigated. Our results suggest that the nanoparticles exhibited significantly improved adsorption kinetics compared to bulk crystals due to decreased diffusion path lengths and preferred crystal plane interaction.

  13. Dynamic structural disorder in supported nanoscale catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Rehr, J. J.; Vila, F. D.

    2014-04-07

    We investigate the origin and physical effects of “dynamic structural disorder” (DSD) in supported nano-scale catalysts. DSD refers to the intrinsic fluctuating, inhomogeneous structure of such nano-scale systems. In contrast to bulk materials, nano-scale systems exhibit substantial fluctuations in structure, charge, temperature, and other quantities, as well as large surface effects. The DSD is driven largely by the stochastic librational motion of the center of mass and fluxional bonding at the nanoparticle surface due to thermal coupling with the substrate. Our approach for calculating and understanding DSD is based on a combination of real-time density functional theory/molecular dynamics simulations, transient coupled-oscillator models, and statistical mechanics. This approach treats thermal and dynamic effects over multiple time-scales, and includes bond-stretching and -bending vibrations, and transient tethering to the substrate at longer ps time-scales. Potential effects on the catalytic properties of these clusters are briefly explored. Model calculations of molecule-cluster interactions and molecular dissociation reaction paths are presented in which the reactant molecules are adsorbed on the surface of dynamically sampled clusters. This model suggests that DSD can affect both the prefactors and distribution of energy barriers in reaction rates, and thus can significantly affect catalytic activity at the nano-scale.

  14. Benchtop Nanoscale Patterning Using Soft Lithography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meenakshi, Viswanathan; Babayan, Yelizaveta; Odom, Teri W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines several benchtop nanoscale patterning experiments that can be incorporated into undergraduate laboratories or advanced high school chemistry curricula. The experiments, supplemented by an online video lab manual, are based on soft lithographic techniques such as replica molding, micro-molding in capillaries, and micro-contact…

  15. Fats, Oils, & Colors of a Nanoscale Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisensky, George C.; Horoszewski, Dana; Gentry, Kenneth L.; Zenner, Greta M.; Crone, Wendy C .

    2006-01-01

    Phase changes and intermolecular forces are important physical science concepts but are not always easy to present in an active learning format. This article presents several interactive activities in which students plot the melting points of some fatty acids and explore the effect that the nanoscale size and shape of molecules have on the…

  16. Nanoscale growth twins in sputtered metal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Anderoglu, O.; Hoagland, R. G.; Misra, A.

    2008-09-01

    This article reviews recent studies on the mechanical properties of sputtered copper and 330 stainless-steel films with {111} nanoscale growth twins preferentially oriented perpendicular to growth direction. The mechanisms of formation of growth twins during sputtering, unusually high strengths, and excellent thermal stability of nanotwinned structures are highlighted.

  17. Dynamic structural disorder in supported nanoscale catalysts.

    PubMed

    Rehr, J J; Vila, F D

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the origin and physical effects of "dynamic structural disorder" (DSD) in supported nano-scale catalysts. DSD refers to the intrinsic fluctuating, inhomogeneous structure of such nano-scale systems. In contrast to bulk materials, nano-scale systems exhibit substantial fluctuations in structure, charge, temperature, and other quantities, as well as large surface effects. The DSD is driven largely by the stochastic librational motion of the center of mass and fluxional bonding at the nanoparticle surface due to thermal coupling with the substrate. Our approach for calculating and understanding DSD is based on a combination of real-time density functional theory/molecular dynamics simulations, transient coupled-oscillator models, and statistical mechanics. This approach treats thermal and dynamic effects over multiple time-scales, and includes bond-stretching and -bending vibrations, and transient tethering to the substrate at longer ps time-scales. Potential effects on the catalytic properties of these clusters are briefly explored. Model calculations of molecule-cluster interactions and molecular dissociation reaction paths are presented in which the reactant molecules are adsorbed on the surface of dynamically sampled clusters. This model suggests that DSD can affect both the prefactors and distribution of energy barriers in reaction rates, and thus can significantly affect catalytic activity at the nano-scale. PMID:24712802

  18. Porous and single-crystalline ZnO nanobelts: fabrication with annealing precursor nanobelts, and gas-sensing and optoelectronic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiao-Bo; Li, Yi-Xiang; Su, Yao; Guo, Zheng; Gu, Cui-Ping; Huang, Jia-Rui; Meng, Fan-Li; Huang, Xing-Jiu; Li, Min-Qiang; Liu, Jin-Huai

    2016-09-01

    Porous and single-crystalline ZnO nanobelts have been prepared through annealing precursors of ZnSe · 0.5N2H4 well-defined and smooth nanobelts, which have been synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method. The composition and morphology evolutions with the calcination temperatures have been investigated in detail for as-prepared precursor nanobelts, suggesting that they can be easily transformed into ZnO nanobelts by preserving their initial morphology via calcination in air. In contrast, the obtained ZnO nanobelts are densely porous, owing to the thermal decomposition and oxidization of the precursor nanobelts. More importantly, the achieved porous ZnO nanobelts are single-crystalline, different from previously reported ones. Motivated by the intrinsic properties of the porous structure and good electronic transporting ability of single crystals, their gas-sensing performance has been further explored. It is demonstrated that porous ZnO single-crystalline nanobelts exhibit high response and repeatability toward volatile organic compounds, such as ethanol and acetone, with a short response/recovery time. Furthermore, their optoelectronic behaviors indicate that they can be promisingly employed to fabricate photoelectrochemical sensors.

  19. Effect of annealing atmosphere on photoluminescence and gas sensing of solution-combustion-synthesized Al, Pd co-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Min; Lv, Tan; Wang, Qiong; Zou, Yun-ling; Lian, Xiao-xue; Liu, Hong-peng

    2015-11-01

    Al, Pd co-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized using a solution combustion method and subsequent annealing process under various atmospheres, including air, nitrogen, and hydrogen, were characterized using x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The gas-sensing properties of the sensors based on the NPs were also examined. The results indicated that the Al, Pd co-doped ZnO NPs, with an average crystallite size of 10 nm, exhibited enhanced gas-sensing performance compared with that of pure ZnO and Al-doped ZnO. The response of the Al, Pd co-doped ZnO NPs annealed in N2 to ethanol (49.22) was nearly 5.7 times higher than that to acetone (8.61) and approximately 20 - 27 times higher than that to benzene (2.38), carbon monoxide (2.23), and methane (1.78), which demonstrates their excellent selectivity to ethanol versus other gases. This high ethanol response can be attributed to the combined effects of the small size, Schottky barrier, lattice defects, and catalysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Porous and single-crystalline ZnO nanobelts: fabrication with annealing precursor nanobelts, and gas-sensing and optoelectronic performance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao-Bo; Li, Yi-Xiang; Su, Yao; Guo, Zheng; Gu, Cui-Ping; Huang, Jia-Rui; Meng, Fan-Li; Huang, Xing-Jiu; Li, Min-Qiang; Liu, Jin-Huai

    2016-09-01

    Porous and single-crystalline ZnO nanobelts have been prepared through annealing precursors of ZnSe · 0.5N2H4 well-defined and smooth nanobelts, which have been synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method. The composition and morphology evolutions with the calcination temperatures have been investigated in detail for as-prepared precursor nanobelts, suggesting that they can be easily transformed into ZnO nanobelts by preserving their initial morphology via calcination in air. In contrast, the obtained ZnO nanobelts are densely porous, owing to the thermal decomposition and oxidization of the precursor nanobelts. More importantly, the achieved porous ZnO nanobelts are single-crystalline, different from previously reported ones. Motivated by the intrinsic properties of the porous structure and good electronic transporting ability of single crystals, their gas-sensing performance has been further explored. It is demonstrated that porous ZnO single-crystalline nanobelts exhibit high response and repeatability toward volatile organic compounds, such as ethanol and acetone, with a short response/recovery time. Furthermore, their optoelectronic behaviors indicate that they can be promisingly employed to fabricate photoelectrochemical sensors. PMID:27454792

  1. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by aerosol spray pyrolysis: Candidates for room temperature methane and hydrogen gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motaung, D. E.; Mhlongo, G. H.; Kortidis, I.; Nkosi, S. S.; Malgas, G. F.; Mwakikunga, B. W.; Ray, S. Sinha; Kiriakidis, G.

    2013-08-01

    We report on the synthesis of ZnO films by aerosol spray pyrolysis method at different deposition times. The surface morphology, crystal structure and the cross-sectional analysis of the prepared ZnO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). XRD analysis revealed that the ZnO films are polycrystalline in nature. Structural analysis exploiting cross-sectional TEM profile showed that the films composed of nano-particles and columnar structures growing perpendicular to the substrate. AFM revealed that the columnar structures have a higher surface roughness as compared to the nanoparticles. The effect of ZnO crystallite size and crystallinity on the gas sensing performance of hydrogen and methane gases was also evaluated. Sensing film based on ZnO nanoparticles has numerous advantages in terms of its reliability and high sensitivity. These sensing materials revealed an improved response to methane and hydrogen gases at room temperature due to their high surface area, indicating their possible application as a gas sensor.

  2. Synthesis of Highly Stable Silver-Loaded Vertical ZnO Nanowires Array and its Acetylene Sensing Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Abu Sadat Mohammad Iftekhar; Chung, Gwiy-Sang

    2016-09-01

    A silver-loaded one-dimensional (1D) vertical ZnO nanowires (NWs) array synthesized by a facile seed mediated hydrothermal-RF magnetron sputtering method has been investigated for the fabrication of a highly stable and reproducible acetylene (C2H2) gas sensor. Successful immobilization of silver nanoparticles (NPs) as a sensitizer on the ZnO NWs array significantly enhanced the C2H2 sensing properties and showed a stable sensing performance. The grown structure exhibited high response magnitude (30.8 at 1000ppm), short response time (43s) and excellent selectivity at 220∘C. The enhanced performance can probably be accounted for the effect of combining the highly orientated ZnO NWs and catalytically active silver-based network. The superior sensing features toward C2H2 along with broad detection range (1-1000ppm), outstanding stability and excellent reproducibility indicate that the sensor is a promising candidate for practical applications.

  3. Fano resonances in nanoscale structures

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Flach, Sergej; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2010-07-15

    Modern nanotechnology allows one to scale down various important devices (sensors, chips, fibers, etc.) and thus opens up new horizons for their applications. The efficiency of most of them is based on fundamental physical phenomena, such as transport of wave excitations and resonances. Short propagation distances make phase-coherent processes of waves important. Often the scattering of waves involves propagation along different paths and, as a consequence, results in interference phenomena, where constructive interference corresponds to resonant enhancement and destructive interference to resonant suppression of the transmission. Recently, a variety of experimental and theoretical work has revealed such patterns in different physical settings. The purpose of this review is to relate resonant scattering to Fano resonances, known from atomic physics. One of the main features of the Fano resonance is its asymmetric line profile. The asymmetry originates from a close coexistence of resonant transmission and resonant reflection and can be reduced to the interaction of a discrete (localized) state with a continuum of propagation modes. The basic concepts of Fano resonances are introduced, their geometrical and/or dynamical origin are explained, and theoretical and experimental studies of light propagation in photonic devices, charge transport through quantum dots, plasmon scattering in Josephson-junction networks, and matter-wave scattering in ultracold atom systems, among others are reviewed.

  4. Nanoscale precipitation in hot rolled sheet steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun

    Some newer hot rolled high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels with a single phase ferrite matrix have obtained substantial strengthening from nanoscale precipitation. These HSLA are reported to have a good combination of strength, ductility and hole-expansion ability. In the current work, Gleeble ® 3500 torsion testing was employed to simulate the hot rolling process with varying run-out table cooling rates and coiling temperatures on five microalloyed steels with additions of Ti, Nb, Mo, Cr and V, to investigate the effects of microalloy additions and processing conditions on microstructures as well as mechanical properties. Subsized tensile specimens obtained from as-twisted torsion samples were used to evaluate mechanical properties. The precipitation states of the five steels with different processing conditions were characterized using extraction replica TEM. Comparison of microstructures and mechanical properties was discussed. Characterization of the microstructure via light optical microscopy showed the matrix microstructure was mainly influenced by coiling temperature, which indicates that the transformation from austenite to ferrite occurred during the coiling period. A higher Ti content was shown to reduce the second constituent fractions. Investigation of carbon extraction replica specimens via TEM revealed the presence of nanoscale precipitation. Extensive nanoscale precipitation was observed in most of the specimens having a polygonal ferrite matrix, while in the granular bainite/ferrite microstructure at lower temperatures, fewer microalloy carbides were present. The specimens with polygonal ferrite had similar or higher yield strength than the specimens with granular bainite microstructure, which suggests the effectiveness of precipitation strengthening from extensive nanoscale precipitates. In the Nb-Mo steel, more significant strengthening due to grain refinement was evident. Yield strength values were less than reported for JFE's "NANOHITEN

  5. Vibration optimization of ZnO thin film bulk acoustic resonator with ring electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zinan; Qian, Zhenghua; Wang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    A rectangular ZnO thin film bulk acoustic resonator with ring electrodes is presented in this paper to demonstrate the existence of a nearly uniform displacement distribution at the central part of this typical resonator. The variational formulation based on two-dimensional scalar differential equations provides a theoretical foundation for the Ritz method adopted in our analysis. The resonant frequencies and vibration distributions for the thickness-extensional modes of this ring electrode resonator are obtained. The structural parameters are optimized to achieve a more uniform displacement distribution and therefore a uniform mass sensitivity, which guarantee the high accuracy and repeatable measurement for sensor detection in an air or a liquid environment. These results provide a fundamental reference for the design and optimization of the high quality sensor.

  6. Substrate Preparations in Epitaxial ZnO Film Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, C.-H.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Harris, M. T.; Callahan, M. J.; George, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    Epitaxial ZnO films were grown on the two polar surfaces (O-face and Zn-face) of (0001) ZnO single crystal substrates using off-axis magnetron sputtering deposition. Annealing-temperature dependence of ZnO substrates was studied. ZnO films grown on sapphire substrates have also been investigated for comparison purposes and the annealing temperature of A1203 substrates is 1000 C. Substrates and films were characterized using photoluminescence (PL) spectrum, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, energy dispersive spectrum, and electric transport measurements. It has been found that the ZnO film properties were different when films were grown on the two polarity surfaces of ZnO substrates and the A1203 substrates. An interesting result shows that high temperature annealing of ZnO single crystals will improve the surface structure on the O-face surface rather than the opposite surface. The measurements of homoepitaxial ZnO films indicate that the O-terminated surface is better for ZnO epitaxial film growth.

  7. Photophysics and photochemistry of quantized ZnO colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Kamat, P.V.; Patrick, B.

    1992-08-06

    The photophysical and photochemical behavior of quantized ZnO colloids in ethanol has been investigated by time-resolved transient absorption and emission measurements. Trapping of electrons at the ZnO surface resulted in broad absorption in the red region. The green emission of ZnO colloids was readily quenched by hole scavengers such as SCN{sup -} and I{sup -}. The photoinduced charge transfer to these hole scavengers was studied by laser flash photolysis. The yield of oxidized product increased considerably when ZnO colloids were coupled with ZnSe. 36 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Buffer layer effect on ZnO nanorods growth alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongxu; Andreazza, Caroline; Andreazza, Pascal; Ma, Jiangang; Liu, Yichun; Shen, Dezhen

    2005-06-01

    Vertical aligned ZnO nanorods array was fabricated on Si with introducing a ZnO thin film as a buffer layer. Two different nucleation mechanisms were found in growth process. With using Au catalyst, Zn vapor could diffuse into Au nanoclusters with forming a solid solution. Then the ZnO nucleation site is mainly on the catalyst by oxidation of Au/Zn alloy. Without catalyst, nucleation could occur directly on the surface of buffer layer by homoepitaxy. The density and the size of ZnO nanorods could be governed by morphological character of catalyst and buffer layer. The nanorods growth is followed by vapor-solid mechanism.

  9. Transition metal doped ZnO nanoclusters for carbon monoxide detection: DFT studies.

    PubMed

    Aslanzadeh, Saeed

    2016-07-01

    Metal doped ZnO nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention as a chemical sensor for toxic gases. Here, the electronic sensitivity of pristine and Sc-, Ti-, V-, Cr-, Mn-, and Fe-doped Zn12O12 nanoclusters toward CO gas is investigated using density functional theory calculations. It is found that replacing a Zn atom by a Sc or Ti atom does not change the sensitivity of cluster but doping V and Cr atoms significantly increase the sensitivity. Also, Mn, or Fe doping slightly improves the sensitivity. It is predicted that among all, the Cr-doped ZnO cluster may be the most favorable sensor for CO detection because its electrical conductivity considerably changes after the CO adsorption, thereby, generating an electrical signal. The calculated Gibbs free energy change for the adsorption of CO molecule on the Cr-doped cluster is about -51.2 kcal mol(-1) at 298.15 K and 1 atm, and the HOMO-LUMO gap of the adsorbent is changed by about 117.8 %. PMID:27316701

  10. ZnO Nanorods Based Enzymatic Biosensor for Selective Determination of Penicillin

    PubMed Central

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Ali, Syed Muhammad Usman; Khun, Kimleang; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have successfully demonstrated the fabrication of a biosensor based on well aligned single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods which were grown on gold coated glass substrate using a low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. The ZnO nanorods were immobilized with penicillinase enzyme using the physical adsorption approach in combination with N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxysuccinimide (ANB-NOS) as cross linking molecules. The potentiometric response of the sensor configuration revealed good linearity over a large logarithmic concentration range from 100 µM to 100 mM. During the investigations, the proposed sensor showed a good stability with high sensitivity of ~121 mV/decade for sensing of penicillin. A quick electrochemical response of less than 5 s with a good selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility and a negligible response to common interferents such as Na1+, K1+, d-glucose, l-glucose, ascorbic acid, uric acid, urea, sucrose, lactose, glycine, penicilloic acid and cephalosporins, was observed. PMID:25585565

  11. Selective calcium ion detection with functionalized ZnO nanorods-extended gate MOSFET.

    PubMed

    Asif, M H; Nur, O; Willander, M; Danielsson, B

    2009-07-15

    Zinc oxide nanorod-extended gate field effect transistor (MOSFET) is demonstrated for the detection of calcium (Ca(2+)) ions. ZnO nanorods were grown on the surface of a silver wire to produce an electrochemical nanosensor for selectively detecting Ca(2+). The electrochemical response from the interaction between the ZnO nanorods and Ca(2+) in an aqueous solution is coupled directly to the gate of a field effect transistor (MOSFET). The induced voltage change on the gate results in a measureable current response. In order to adapt the sensors for Ca(2+) ions measurements in biological fluids with sufficient selectivity and stability, a plastic membrane coating containing ionophores was applied on the nanorods. The sensor exhibited a linear response within the range of interest from 1 microM to 1 mM. This work demonstrates a simple technique for sensitive detection of Ca(2+) ions by efficient transfer of the chemical response directly to a standard electronic component producing a low impedance signal. PMID:19442511

  12. Nano-scale displacement sensing based on van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lin; Zhao, Jin; Yang, Jinlong

    2015-05-01

    We propose that a nano-scale displacement sensor with high resolution in weak-force systems can be realized based on vertically stacked two-dimensional (2D) atomic corrugated layer materials bound through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Using first-principles calculations, we found that the electronic structures of bi-layer blue phosphorus (BLBP) vary appreciably with lateral and vertical interlayer displacements. The variation of the electronic structure is attributed to the change of the interlayer distance dz for both the lateral and vertical displacement. For lateral displacement, the change of dz is induced by atomic layer corrugation. Despite the different stacking configurations of BLBP, we find that the change of the indirect band gap is proportional to dz-2. Furthermore, this dz-2 dependence is found to be applicable to other graphene-like corrugated bi-layer materials such as MoS2. BLBP represents a large family of bi-layer 2D atomic corrugated materials for which the electronic structure is sensitive to the interlayer vertical and lateral displacement, and thus could be used for a nano-scale displacement sensor. This can be done by monitoring the tunable electronic structure using absorption spectroscopy. Because this type of sensor is established on atomic layers coupled through vdW interactions, it provides unique applications in the measurements of nano-scale displacement induced by tiny external forces.We propose that a nano-scale displacement sensor with high resolution in weak-force systems can be realized based on vertically stacked two-dimensional (2D) atomic corrugated layer materials bound through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Using first-principles calculations, we found that the electronic structures of bi-layer blue phosphorus (BLBP) vary appreciably with lateral and vertical interlayer displacements. The variation of the electronic structure is attributed to the change of the interlayer distance dz for both the lateral and vertical

  13. Sodium doping in ZnO crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Parmar, N. S. Lynn, K. G.

    2015-01-12

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with sodium by thermal diffusion. Positron annihilations spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies, to >6 μm deep in the bulk. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurement shows the diffusion of sodium up to 8 μm with concentration (1–3.5) × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3}. Broad photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.1 eV, with onset appearance at 3.15 eV in Na:ZnO, is attributed to an electronic transition from a Na{sub Zn} level at ∼(220–270) meV to the conduction band. Resistivity in Na doped ZnO crystals increases up to (4–5) orders of magnitude at room temperature.

  14. EDITORIAL: Sensors and sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewhurst, Richard; Tian, Gui Yun

    2008-02-01

    Sensors are very important for measurement science and technology. They serve as a vital component in new measurement techniques and instrumentation systems. Key qualities of a good sensor system are high resolution, high reliability, low cost, appropriate output for a given input (good sensitivity), rapid response time, small random error in results, and small systematic error. Linearity is also useful, but with the advent of lookup tables and software, it is not as important as it used to be. In the last several years, considerable effort around the world has been devoted to a wide range of sensors from nanoscale sensors to sensor networks. Collectively, these vast and multidisciplinary efforts are developing important technological roadmaps to futuristic sensors with new modalities, significantly enhanced effectiveness and integrated functionality (data processing, computation, decision making and communications). When properly organized, they will have important relevance to life science and security applications, e.g. the sensing and monitoring of chemical, biological, radiological and explosive threats. A special feature in this issue takes a snapshot of some recent developments that were first presented at an international conference, the 2007 IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control (ICNSC). The conference discussed recent developments, from which a few papers have since been brought together in this special feature. Gas sensing for environmental monitoring remains a topical subject, and two papers deal with this issue. One is concerned with the exploitation of nanostructured Au-doped cobalt oxyhydroxide-based carbon monoxide sensors for fire detection at its earlier stages (Zhuiykov and Dowling), whilst another examines the role of oxygen in high temperature hydrogen sulfide detection using MISiC sensors (Weng et al). Again for environmental monitoring, another paper deals with accurate sound source localization in a reverberant

  15. Size matters: problems and advantages associated with highly miniaturized sensors.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Andreas B

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the recent advances in nanotechnology have made it possible to realize a great variety of new sensors with signal transduction mechanisms utilizing physical phenomena at the nanoscale. Some examples are conductivity measurements in nanowires, deflection of cantilevers and spectroscopy of plasmonic nanoparticles. The fact that these techniques are based on the special properties of nanostructural entities provides for extreme sensor miniaturization since a single structural unit often can be used as transducer. This review discusses the advantages and problems with such small sensors, with focus on biosensing applications and label-free real-time analysis of liquid samples. Many aspects of sensor design are considered, such as thermodynamic and diffusion aspects on binding kinetics as well as multiplexing and noise issues. Still, all issues discussed are generic in the sense that the conclusions apply to practically all types of surface sensitive techniques. As a counterweight to the current research trend, it is argued that in many real world applications, better performance is achieved if the active sensor is larger than that in typical nanosensors. Although there are certain specific sensing applications where nanoscale transducers are necessary, it is argued herein that this represents a relatively rare situation. Instead, it is suggested that sensing on the microscale often offers a good compromise between utilizing some possible advantages of miniaturization while avoiding the complications. This means that ensemble measurements on multiple nanoscale sensors are preferable instead of utilizing a single transducer entity. PMID:22736990

  16. Preparation, structural and optical characterization of ZnO, ZnO: Al nanopowder

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R. Raj; Rajendran, K.; Sambath, K.

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, ZnO and ZnO:Al nanopowders have been synthesized by low cost hydrothermal method. Zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and aluminium nitrate are used as precursors for ZnO and AZO with different molar ratios. The structural and optical characterization of doped and un-doped ZnO powders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) absorption studies. The SEM results show that the hydrothermal synthesis can be used to obtain nanoparticles with different morphology. It is observed that the grain size of the AZO nanoparticles increased with increasing of Al concentration. The PL measurement of AZO shows that broad range of green emission around 550nm with high intensity. The green emission resulted mainly because of intrinsic defects.

  17. Spin noise spectroscopy of ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, H.; Berski, F.; Hübner, J.; Oestreich, M.; Balocchi, A.; Marie, X.; Mansur-Al-Suleiman, M.; Bakin, A.; Waag, A.

    2013-12-04

    We investigate the thermal equilibrium dynamics of electron spins bound to donors in nanoporous ZnO by optical spin noise spectroscopy. The spin noise spectra reveal two noise contributions: A weak spin noise signal from undisturbed localized donor electrons with a dephasing time of 24 ns due to hyperfine interaction and a strong spin noise signal with a spin dephasing time of 5 ns which we attribute to localized donor electrons which interact with lattice defects.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of PVP stabilized ZnO and modified ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandekar, Gauri; Rajurkar, N. S.; Mulla, I. S.; Mulik, U. P.; Amalnerkar, D. P.; Adhyapak, P. V.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, ZnO nanostructures have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal, sonochemical and precipitation methods using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the capping agent. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The XRD results revealed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the ZnO nanostructures for all the samples. Furthermore, the morphology of the ZnO particles was obtained from FESEM micrographs. Particles prepared by hydrothermal method were found to be rice grain shaped and that prepared by precipitation and sonochemical methods were spherical shaped. Sunlight driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) was studied for ZnO nanostructures synthesized by various methods. The ZnO nanostructures were further decorated with Ag nanoparticles to enhance its dye degradation efficiency. The Ag decorated ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a higher degradation rate as compared to pure ZnO nanoparticles which was independent of pH. Since this process of dye degradation relies on the degradation of dye due to oxidation by highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, there are many factors which affect the efficiency of this process. Hence a study was conducted on the effect of various parameters on ZnO viz amount of catalyst, reaction pH and concentration of MB dye.

  19. Photoelastic sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kulakov, G.I.

    1985-07-01

    This paper presents the result of a study of photoelastic sensors which makes it possible to explain many mechanical and physical features of the operation of annular photoelastic borehole sensors and to plan ways of utilizing these features for interpreting the sensor readings.

  20. Detecting Nano-Scale Vibrations in Rotating Devices by Using Advanced Computational Methods

    PubMed Central

    del Toro, Raúl M.; Haber, Rodolfo E.; Schmittdiel, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a computational method for detecting vibrations related to eccentricity in ultra precision rotation devices used for nano-scale manufacturing. The vibration is indirectly measured via a frequency domain analysis of the signal from a piezoelectric sensor attached to the stationary component of the rotating device. The algorithm searches for particular harmonic sequences associated with the eccentricity of the device rotation axis. The detected sequence is quantified and serves as input to a regression model that estimates the eccentricity. A case study presents the application of the computational algorithm during precision manufacturing processes. PMID:22399918

  1. Detecting nano-scale vibrations in rotating devices by using advanced computational methods.

    PubMed

    del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E; Schmittdiel, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a computational method for detecting vibrations related to eccentricity in ultra precision rotation devices used for nano-scale manufacturing. The vibration is indirectly measured via a frequency domain analysis of the signal from a piezoelectric sensor attached to the stationary component of the rotating device. The algorithm searches for particular harmonic sequences associated with the eccentricity of the device rotation axis. The detected sequence is quantified and serves as input to a regression model that estimates the eccentricity. A case study presents the application of the computational algorithm during precision manufacturing processes. PMID:22399918

  2. Nanoscale fluid transportation through individual carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jin; Cao, Di; Pang, Pei; Luo, Tao; Lindsay, Stuart; Kristic, Predrag; Nuckolls, Colin

    2011-03-01

    There are great interest in both simulation and experiment of fluid flow on the nanoscale. Carbon nanotubes, with their extremely small inner diameter (usually below 2 nm) and atomic smooth inner surface, are ideal materials for studying nanoconfinement and ion and molecule nanoscale translocation. The excellent electrical properties of CNTs can also be integrated to achieve nanoelectrofluidic device. This presentation describes our recent progress in studying fluid transport through individual carbon nanotubes, including simultaneously ionic and electronic measurements during water, ion and molecule translocation. This work was supported by the DNA Sequencing Technology Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute (1RC2HG005625-01, 1R21HG004770-01).

  3. Quantum Tunneling Current in Nanoscale Plasmonic Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2014-10-01

    Recently, electron tunneling between plasmonic resonators is found to support quantum plasmon resonances, which may introduce new regimes in nano-optoelectronics and nonlinear optics. This revelation is of substantial interest to the fundamental problem of electron transport in nano-scale, for example, in a metal-insulator-metal junction (MIM), which has been continuously studied for decades. Here, we present a self-consistent model of electron transport in a nano-scale MIM, by solving the coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations. The effects of space charge, exchange-correlation, anode emission, and material properties of the electrodes and insulator are examined in detail. The self-consistent calculations are compared with the widely used Simmons formula. Transition from the direct tunneling regime to the space-charge-limited regime is demonstrated. This work was supported by AFOSR.

  4. Trapping atoms using nanoscale quantum vacuum forces

    PubMed Central

    Chang, D. E.; Sinha, K.; Taylor, J. M.; Kimble, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here we theoretically show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. Our proposed trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground-state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited-state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyse realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement. PMID:25008119

  5. Programmed assembly of nanoscale structures using peptoids.

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jianhua; Russell, Scott; Morishetti, Kiran; Robinson, David B.; Zuckermann, Ronald N.; Buffleben, George M.; Hjelm, Rex P.; Kent, Michael Stuart

    2011-02-01

    Sequence-specific polymers are the basis of the most promising approaches to bottom-up programmed assembly of nanoscale materials. Examples include artificial peptides and nucleic acids. Another class is oligo(N-functional glycine)s, also known as peptoids, which permit greater sidegroup diversity and conformational control, and can be easier to synthesize and purify. We have developed a set of peptoids that can be used to make inorganic nanoparticles more compatible with biological sequence-specific polymers so that they can be incorporated into nucleic acid or other biologically based nanostructures. Peptoids offer degrees of modularity, versatility, and predictability that equal or exceed other sequence-specific polymers, allowing for rational design of oligomers for a specific purpose. This degree of control will be essential to the development of arbitrarily designed nanoscale structures.

  6. Structure sensitivity and nanoscale effects in electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, Marc T. M.

    2011-05-01

    This review discusses the role of the detailed nanoscale structure of catalytic surfaces on the activity of various electrocatalytic reactions of importance for fuel cells, hydrogen production, and other environmentally important catalytic reactions, such as carbon monoxide oxidation, methanol and ethanol oxidation, ammonia oxidation, nitric oxide reduction, hydrogen evolution, and oxygen reduction. Specifically, results and insights obtained from surface-science single-crystal-based model experiments are linked to experiments on well-defined shape-controlled nanoparticles. A classification of structure sensitive effects in electrocatalysis is suggested, based both on empirical grounds and on quantum-chemical viz. thermochemical considerations. The mutual relation between the two classification schemes is also discussed. The review underscores the relevance of single-crystal modeling of nanoscale effects in catalysis, and points to the special role of two kinds of active sites for electrocatalysis on nanoparticulate surfaces: (i) steps and defects in (111) terraces or facets, and (ii) long-range (100) terraces or facets.

  7. Light-driven nanoscale plasmonic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Zentgraf, Thomas; Liu, Yongmin; Bartal, Guy; Zhang, Xiang

    2010-08-01

    When Sir William Crookes developed a four-vaned radiometer, also known as the light-mill, in 1873, it was believed that this device confirmed the existence of linear momentum carried by photons, as predicted by Maxwell's equations. Although Reynolds later proved that the torque on the radiometer was caused by thermal transpiration, researchers continued to search for ways to take advantage of the momentum of photons and to use it for generating rotational forces. The ability to provide rotational force at the nanoscale could open up a range of applications in physics, biology and chemistry, including DNA unfolding and sequencing and nanoelectromechanical systems. Here, we demonstrate a nanoscale plasmonic structure that can, when illuminated with linearly polarized light, generate a rotational force that is capable of rotating a silica microdisk that is 4,000 times larger in volume. Furthermore, we can control the rotation velocity and direction by varying the wavelength of the incident light to excite different plasmonic modes.

  8. Nanoscale plasmonic stamp lithography on silicon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenglin; Luber, Erik J; Huck, Lawrence A; Olsen, Brian C; Buriak, Jillian M

    2015-02-24

    Nanoscale lithography on silicon is of interest for applications ranging from computer chip design to tissue interfacing. Block copolymer-based self-assembly, also called directed self-assembly (DSA) within the semiconductor industry, can produce a variety of complex nanopatterns on silicon, but these polymeric films typically require transformation into functional materials. Here we demonstrate how gold nanopatterns, produced via block copolymer self-assembly, can be incorporated into an optically transparent flexible PDMS stamp, termed a plasmonic stamp, and used to directly functionalize silicon surfaces on a sub-100 nm scale. We propose that the high intensity electric fields that result from the localized surface plasmons of the gold nanoparticles in the plasmonic stamps upon illumination with low intensity green light, lead to generation of electron-hole pairs in the silicon that drive spatially localized hydrosilylation. This approach demonstrates how localized surface plasmons can be used to enable functionalization of technologically relevant surfaces with nanoscale control. PMID:25654172

  9. Role of ZnO thin film in the vertically aligned growth of ZnO nanorods by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Nguyen Thanh; Noh, Jin-Seo; Park, Sungho

    2016-08-01

    The effect of ZnO thin film on the growth of ZnO nanorods was investigated. ZnO thin films were sputter-deposited on Si substrate with varying the thickness. ZnO nanorods were grown on the thin film using a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at 90 °C. The ZnO thin films showed granular structure and vertical roughness on the surface, which facilitated the vertical growth of ZnO nanorods. The average grain size and the surface roughness of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness, and this led to the increase in both the average diameter and the average length of vertically grown ZnO nanorods. In particular, it was found that the average diameter of ZnO nanorods was very close to the average grain size of ZnO thin film, confirming the role of ZnO film as a seed layer for the vertical growth of ZnO nanorods. The CBD growth on ZnO seed layers may provide a facile route to engineering vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays.

  10. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003–2012

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, David G. Braun, Paul V.; Chen, Gang; Clarke, David R.; Fan, Shanhui; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Keblinski, Pawel; King, William P.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Majumdar, Arun; Maris, Humphrey J.; Phillpot, Simon R.; Pop, Eric; Shi, Li

    2014-03-15

    A diverse spectrum of technology drivers such as improved thermal barriers, higher efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion, phase-change memory, heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal management of nanoscale electronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies are motivating studies of the applied physics of thermal transport at the nanoscale. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces become increasingly important on small length scales. Research during the past decade has extended studies of interfaces between simple metals and inorganic crystals to interfaces with molecular materials and liquids with systematic control of interface chemistry and physics. At separations on the order of ∼1 nm, the science of radiative transport through nanoscale gaps overlaps with thermal conduction by the coupling of electronic and vibrational excitations across weakly bonded or rough interfaces between materials. Major advances in the physics of phonons include first principles calculation of the phonon lifetimes of simple crystals and application of the predicted scattering rates in parameter-free calculations of the thermal conductivity. Progress in the control of thermal transport at the nanoscale is critical to continued advances in the density of information that can be stored in phase change memory devices and new generations of magnetic storage that will use highly localized heat sources to reduce the coercivity of magnetic media. Ultralow thermal conductivity—thermal conductivity below the conventionally predicted minimum thermal conductivity—has been observed in nanolaminates and disordered crystals with strong anisotropy. Advances in metrology by time-domain thermoreflectance have made measurements of the thermal conductivity of a thin layer with micron-scale spatial resolution relatively routine. Scanning thermal microscopy and

  11. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, David G.; Braun, Paul V.; Chen, Gang; Clarke, David R.; Fan, Shanhui; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Keblinski, Pawel; King, William P.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Majumdar, Arun; Maris, Humphrey J.; Phillpot, Simon R.; Pop, Eric; Shi, Li

    2014-03-01

    A diverse spectrum of technology drivers such as improved thermal barriers, higher efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion, phase-change memory, heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal management of nanoscale electronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies are motivating studies of the applied physics of thermal transport at the nanoscale. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces become increasingly important on small length scales. Research during the past decade has extended studies of interfaces between simple metals and inorganic crystals to interfaces with molecular materials and liquids with systematic control of interface chemistry and physics. At separations on the order of ˜ 1 nm , the science of radiative transport through nanoscale gaps overlaps with thermal conduction by the coupling of electronic and vibrational excitations across weakly bonded or rough interfaces between materials. Major advances in the physics of phonons include first principles calculation of the phonon lifetimes of simple crystals and application of the predicted scattering rates in parameter-free calculations of the thermal conductivity. Progress in the control of thermal transport at the nanoscale is critical to continued advances in the density of information that can be stored in phase change memory devices and new generations of magnetic storage that will use highly localized heat sources to reduce the coercivity of magnetic media. Ultralow thermal conductivity—thermal conductivity below the conventionally predicted minimum thermal conductivity—has been observed in nanolaminates and disordered crystals with strong anisotropy. Advances in metrology by time-domain thermoreflectance have made measurements of the thermal conductivity of a thin layer with micron-scale spatial resolution relatively routine. Scanning thermal microscopy and thermal

  12. Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Lowndes, D. H.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Alper, M.; Averback, R. S.; Jacob Barhen, J.; Eastman, J. A.; Imre, D.; Lowndes, D. H.; McNulty, I.; Michalske, T. A.; Ho, K-M; Nozik, A. J.; Russell, T. P.; Valentin, R. A.; Welch, D. O.; Barhen, J.; Agnew, S. R.; Bellon, P.; Blair, J.; Boatner, L. A.; Braiman, Y.; Budai, J. D.; Crabtree, G. W.; Feldman, L. C.; Flynn, C. P.; Geohegan, D. B.; George, E. P.; Greenbaum, E.; Grigoropoulos, C.; Haynes, T. E.; Heberlein, J.; Hichman, J.; Holland, O. W.; Honda, S.; Horton, J. A.; Hu, M. Z.-C.; Jesson, D. E.; Joy, D. C.; Krauss, A.; Kwok, W.-K.; Larson, B. C.; Larson, D. J.; Likharev, K.; Liu, C. T.; Majumdar, A.; Maziasz, P. J.; Meldrum, A.; Miller, J. C.; Modine, F. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pharr, G. M.; Phillpot, S.; Price, D. L.; Protopopescu, V.; Poker, D. B.; Pui, D.; Ramsey, J. M.; Rao, N.; Reichl, L.; Roberto, J.; Saboungi, M-L; Simpson, M.; Strieffer, S.; Thundat, T.; Wambsganss, M.; Wendleken, J.; White, C. W.; Wilemski, G.; Withrow, S. P.; Wolf, D.; Zhu, J. H.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zunger, A.; Lowe, S.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes important future research directions in nanoscale science, engineering and technology. It was prepared in connection with an anticipated national research initiative on nanotechnology for the twenty-first century. The research directions described are not expected to be inclusive but illustrate the wide range of research opportunities and challenges that could be undertaken through the national laboratories and their major national scientific user facilities with the support of universities and industry.

  13. Nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymers and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Bradley R.; Talley, Chad E.

    2008-06-10

    Nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) having polymer features wherein the size, shape and position are predetermined can be fabricated using an xy piezo stage mounted on an inverted microscope and a laser. Using an AMF controller, a solution containing polymer precursors and a photo initiator are positioned on the xy piezo and hit with a laser beam. The thickness of the polymeric features can be varied from a few nanometers to over a micron.

  14. Fast synthesize ZnO quantum dots via ultrasonic method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Ding, Nan; Ding, Wenhao; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-05-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic sol-gel method. The ZnO quantum dots were synthesized in various ultrasonic temperature and time. Photoluminescence properties of these ZnO quantum dots were measured. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra were also taken to discover the change of defects amount during the reaction. Both ultrasonic temperature and time could affect the type and amount of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Total defects of ZnO quantum dots decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time. The dangling bonds defects disappeared faster than the optical defects. Types of optical defects first changed from oxygen interstitial defects to oxygen vacancy and zinc interstitial defects. Then transformed back to oxygen interstitial defects again. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by both ultrasonic temperature and time as well. That is, with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased. Moreover, concentrated raw materials solution brought larger sizes and more optical defects of ZnO quantum dots. PMID:26611814

  15. In-plane trapping and manipulation of ZnO nanowires by a hybrid plasmonic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lichao; Dou, Xiujie; Min, Changjun; Zhang, Yuquan; Du, Luping; Xie, Zhenwei; Shen, Junfeng; Zeng, Yujia; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2016-05-01

    In general, when a semiconductor nanowire is trapped by conventional laser beam tweezers, it tends to be aligned with the trapping beam axis rather than confined in the horizontal plane, and this limits the application of these nanowires in many in-plane nanoscale optoelectronic devices. In this work, we achieve the in-plane trapping and manipulation of a single ZnO nanowire by a hybrid plasmonic tweezer system on a flat metal surface. The gap between the nanowire and the metallic substrate leads to an enhanced gradient force caused by deep subwavelength optical energy confinement. As a result, the nanowire can be securely trapped in-plane at the center of the excited surface plasmon polariton field, and can also be dynamically moved and rotated by varying the position and polarization direction of the incident laser beam, which cannot be performed using conventional optical tweezers. The theoretical results show that the focused plasmonic field induces a strong in-plane trapping force and a high rotational torque on the nanowire, while the focused optical field produces a vertical trapping force to produce the upright alignment of the nanowire; this is in good agreement with the experimental results. Finally, some typical ZnO nanowire structures are built based on this technique, which thus further confirms the potential of this method for precise manipulation of components during the production of nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices.In general, when a semiconductor nanowire is trapped by conventional laser beam tweezers, it tends to be aligned with the trapping beam axis rather than confined in the horizontal plane, and this limits the application of these nanowires in many in-plane nanoscale optoelectronic devices. In this work, we achieve the in-plane trapping and manipulation of a single ZnO nanowire by a hybrid plasmonic tweezer system on a flat metal surface. The gap between the nanowire and the metallic substrate leads to an enhanced gradient force

  16. A Meliorated Multi-Frequency Band Pyroelectric Sensor.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Liu, Sheng-Yi; Siao, An-Shen

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a meliorated multi-frequency band pyroelectric sensor for detecting subjects with various velocities, namely extending the sensing frequency under good performance from electrical signals. A tactic, gradually increasing thickness of the ZnO layers, is used for redeeming drawbacks of a thicker pyroelectric layer with a tardy response at a high-frequency band and a thinner pyroelectric layer with low voltage responsivity at a low-frequency band. The proposed sensor is built on a silicon substrate with a thermal isolation layer of a silicon nitride film, consisting of four pyroelectric layers with various thicknesses deposited by a sputtering or aerosol deposition (AD) method and top and bottom electrodes. The thinnest ZnO layer is deposited by sputtering, with a low thermal capacity and a rapid response shoulders a high-frequency sensing task, while the thicker ZnO layers are deposited by AD with a large thermal capacity and a tardy response shoulders a low-frequency sensing task. The fabricated device is effective in the range of 1 KHz~10 KHz with a rapid response and high voltage responsivity, while the ZnO layers with thicknesses of about 0.8 μm, 6 μm, 10 μm and 16 μm are used for fabricating the meliorated multi-frequency band pyroelectric sensor. The proposed sensor is successfully designed, analyzed, and fabricated in the present study, and can indeed extend the sensing range of the multi-frequency band. PMID:26153772

  17. A Meliorated Multi-Frequency Band Pyroelectric Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Liu, Sheng-Yi; Siao, An-Shen

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a meliorated multi-frequency band pyroelectric sensor for detecting subjects with various velocities, namely extending the sensing frequency under good performance from electrical signals. A tactic, gradually increasing thickness of the ZnO layers, is used for redeeming drawbacks of a thicker pyroelectric layer with a tardy response at a high-frequency band and a thinner pyroelectric layer with low voltage responsivity at a low-frequency band. The proposed sensor is built on a silicon substrate with a thermal isolation layer of a silicon nitride film, consisting of four pyroelectric layers with various thicknesses deposited by a sputtering or aerosol deposition (AD) method and top and bottom electrodes. The thinnest ZnO layer is deposited by sputtering, with a low thermal capacity and a rapid response shoulders a high-frequency sensing task, while the thicker ZnO layers are deposited by AD with a large thermal capacity and a tardy response shoulders a low-frequency sensing task. The fabricated device is effective in the range of 1 KHz~10 KHz with a rapid response and high voltage responsivity, while the ZnO layers with thicknesses of about 0.8 μm, 6 μm, 10 μm and 16 μm are used for fabricating the meliorated multi-frequency band pyroelectric sensor. The proposed sensor is successfully designed, analyzed, and fabricated in the present study, and can indeed extend the sensing range of the multi-frequency band. PMID:26153772

  18. Resonant Effects in Nanoscale Bowtie Apertures

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li; Qin, Jin; Guo, Songpo; Liu, Tao; Kinzel, Edward; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale bowtie aperture antennas can be used to focus light well below the diffraction limit with extremely high transmission efficiencies. This paper studies the spectral dependence of the transmission through nanoscale bowtie apertures defined in a silver film. A realistic bowtie aperture is numerically modeled using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Results show that the transmission spectrum is dominated by Fabry-Pérot (F-P) waveguide modes and plasmonic modes. The F-P resonance is sensitive to the thickness of the film and the plasmonic resonant mode is closely related to the gap distance of the bowtie aperture. Both characteristics significantly affect the transmission spectrum. To verify these numerical results, bowtie apertures are FIB milled in a silver film. Experimental transmission measurements agree with simulation data. Based on this result, nanoscale bowtie apertures can be optimized to realize deep sub-wavelength confinement with high transmission efficiency with applications to nanolithography, data storage, and bio-chemical sensing. PMID:27250995

  19. Mapping photovoltaic performance with nanoscale resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kutes, Yasemin; Aguirre, Brandon A.; Bosse, James L.; Cruz-Campa, Jose L.; Zubia, David; Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-10-16

    Photo-conductive AFM spectroscopy (‘pcAFMs’) is proposed as a high-resolution approach for investigating nanostructured photovoltaics, uniquely providing nanoscale maps of photovoltaic (PV) performance parameters such as the short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power, or fill factor. The method is demonstrated with a stack of 21 images acquired during in situ illumination of micropatterned polycrystalline CdTe/CdS, providing more than 42,000 I/V curves spatially separated by ~5 nm. For these CdTe/CdS microcells, the calculated photoconduction ranges from 0 to 700 picoSiemens (pS) upon illumination with ~1.6 suns, depending on location and biasing conditions. Mean short circuit currents of 2 pA, maximum powers of 0.5 pW, and fill factors of 30% are determined. The mean voltage at which the detected photocurrent is zero is determined to be 0.7 V. Significantly, enhancements and reductions in these more commonly macroscopic PV performance metrics are observed to correlate with certain grains and grain boundaries, and are confirmed to be independent of topography. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the benefits of nanoscale resolved PV functional measurements, reiterate the importance of microstructural control down to the nanoscale for 'PV devices, and provide a widely applicable new approach for directly investigating PV materials.

  20. Mapping photovoltaic performance with nanoscale resolution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kutes, Yasemin; Aguirre, Brandon A.; Bosse, James L.; Cruz-Campa, Jose L.; Zubia, David; Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-10-16

    Photo-conductive AFM spectroscopy (‘pcAFMs’) is proposed as a high-resolution approach for investigating nanostructured photovoltaics, uniquely providing nanoscale maps of photovoltaic (PV) performance parameters such as the short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power, or fill factor. The method is demonstrated with a stack of 21 images acquired during in situ illumination of micropatterned polycrystalline CdTe/CdS, providing more than 42,000 I/V curves spatially separated by ~5 nm. For these CdTe/CdS microcells, the calculated photoconduction ranges from 0 to 700 picoSiemens (pS) upon illumination with ~1.6 suns, depending on location and biasing conditions. Mean short circuit currents of 2 pA, maximummore » powers of 0.5 pW, and fill factors of 30% are determined. The mean voltage at which the detected photocurrent is zero is determined to be 0.7 V. Significantly, enhancements and reductions in these more commonly macroscopic PV performance metrics are observed to correlate with certain grains and grain boundaries, and are confirmed to be independent of topography. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the benefits of nanoscale resolved PV functional measurements, reiterate the importance of microstructural control down to the nanoscale for 'PV devices, and provide a widely applicable new approach for directly investigating PV materials.« less

  1. Resonant Effects in Nanoscale Bowtie Apertures.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li; Qin, Jin; Guo, Songpo; Liu, Tao; Kinzel, Edward; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale bowtie aperture antennas can be used to focus light well below the diffraction limit with extremely high transmission efficiencies. This paper studies the spectral dependence of the transmission through nanoscale bowtie apertures defined in a silver film. A realistic bowtie aperture is numerically modeled using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Results show that the transmission spectrum is dominated by Fabry-Pérot (F-P) waveguide modes and plasmonic modes. The F-P resonance is sensitive to the thickness of the film and the plasmonic resonant mode is closely related to the gap distance of the bowtie aperture. Both characteristics significantly affect the transmission spectrum. To verify these numerical results, bowtie apertures are FIB milled in a silver film. Experimental transmission measurements agree with simulation data. Based on this result, nanoscale bowtie apertures can be optimized to realize deep sub-wavelength confinement with high transmission efficiency with applications to nanolithography, data storage, and bio-chemical sensing. PMID:27250995

  2. Nanoscale Spatial Heterogeneity in Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Supreet; Gupta, Aditya; Kashyap, Hemant K

    2016-07-14

    In this article, we report a molecular dynamics simulation study on the X-ray and neutron scattering structures of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) and show that the DESs studied possess unique spatial heterogeneity on molecular length scales. The simulated X-ray and neutron scattering structure functions (S(q)s) of the DESs made of alkylamide + Li(+)/ClO4(-) display two peaks in the intermolecular region of the S(q)s. As a signature of nanoscale structural organization/heterogeneity, a prepeak is observed at 0.1 < q/Å(-1) < 0.4. The principal peak observed at around 1.2 < q/Å(-1) < 2 is rendered by short-distance inter- and intraspecies correlations. For the DESs studied, we demonstrate that nanoscale spatial heterogeneity is exhibited profoundly by the segregated domains of the constituent electrolyte, and the principal peak in S(q) is because of all sorts of close-contact correlations. The extent of nanoscale morphology as well as the strength of ion pairing is enhanced for the longer-tail alkylamide DES. PMID:27314310

  3. Nanoscale structures and mechanics of barnacle cement.

    PubMed

    Sullan, Ruby May A; Gunari, Nikhil; Tanur, Adrienne E; Chan, Yuri; Dickinson, Gary H; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Dan; Walker, Gilbert C

    2009-01-01

    Polymerized barnacle glue was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemical staining. Nanoscale structures exhibiting rod-shaped, globular and irregularly-shaped morphologies were observed in the bulk cement of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite (=Balanus amphitrite) by AFM. SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) provided chemical composition information, making evident the organic nature of the rod-shaped nanoscale structures. FTIR spectroscopy gave signatures of beta-sheet and random coil conformations. The mechanical properties of these nanoscale structures were also probed using force spectroscopy and indentation with AFM. Indentation data yielded higher elastic moduli for the rod-shaped structures when compared with the other structures in the bulk cement. Single molecule AFM force-extension curves on the matrix of the bulk cement often exhibited a periodic sawtooth-like profile, observed in both the extend and retract portions of the force curve. Rod-shaped structures stained with amyloid protein-selective dyes (Congo red and thioflavin-T) revealed that about 5% of the bulk cement were amyloids. A dominant 100 kDa cement protein was found to be mechanically agile, using repeating hydrophobic structures that apparently associate within the same protein or with neighbors, creating toughness on the 1-100 nm length scale. PMID:19180351

  4. Ultrasonic synthesis of fern-like ZnO nanoleaves and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qing Lan; Xiong, Rui; Zhai, Bao-gai; Huang, Yuan Ming

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were synthesized by ultrasonicating zinc microcrystals in water. The morphology, crystal structure, optical property and photocatalytic activity of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, respectively. It is found that one fern-like ZnO nanoleaf is composed of one ZnO nanorod as the central trunk and a number of ZnO nanoplates as the side branches in opposite pairs along the central ZnO nanorod. The central ZnO nanorod in the fern-like nanoleaves is about 1 μm long while the side-branching ZnO nanoplates are about 100 nm long and 20 nm wide. Further analysis has revealed that ZnO nanocrystals are the building blocks of the central ZnO nanorod and the side-branching ZnO nanoplates. Under identical conditions, fern-like ZnO nanoleaves exhibit higher photocatalytic activity in photodegrading methyl orange in aqueous solution than spherical ZnO nanocrystals. The first-order photocatalytic rate constant of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves is about four times as large as that of the ZnO nanoparticles. The branched architecture of the hierarchical nanoleaves is suggested be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves.

  5. A Novel Way for Synthesizing Phosphorus-Doped Zno Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We developed a novel approach to synthesize phosphorus (P)-doped ZnO nanowires by directly decomposing zinc phosphate powder. The samples were demonstrated to be P-doped ZnO nanowires by using scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrum, Raman spectra and photoluminescence measurements. The chemical state of P was investigated by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analyses in individual ZnO nanowires. P was found to substitute at oxygen sites (PO), with the presence of anti-site P on Zn sites (PZn). P-doped ZnO nanowires were high resistance and the related P-doping mechanism was discussed by combining EELS results with electrical measurements, structure characterization and photoluminescence measurements. Our method provides an efficient way of synthesizing P-doped ZnO nanowires and the results help to understand the P-doping mechanism.

  6. Piezoelectric and semiconducting coupled power generating process of a single ZnO belt/wire. A technology for harvesting electricity from the environment.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinhui; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents the experimental observation of piezoelectric generation from a single ZnO wire/belt for illustrating a fundamental process of converting mechanical energy into electricity at nanoscale. By deflecting a wire/belt using a conductive atomic force microscope tip in contact mode, the energy is first created by the deflection force and stored by piezoelectric potential, and later converts into piezoelectric energy. The mechanism of the generator is a result of coupled semiconducting and piezoelectric properties of ZnO. A piezoelectric effect is required to create electric potential of ionic charges from elastic deformation; semiconducting property is necessary to separate and maintain the charges and then release the potential via the rectifying behavior of the Schottky barrier at the metal-ZnO interface, which serves as a switch in the entire process. The good conductivity of ZnO is rather unique because it makes the current flow possible. This paper demonstrates a principle for harvesting energy from the environment. The technology has the potential of converting mechanical movement energy (such as body movement, muscle stretching, blood pressure), vibration energy (such as acoustic/ultrasonic wave), and hydraulic energy (such as flow of body fluid, blood flow, contraction of blood vessels) into electric energy that may be sufficient for self-powering nanodevices and nanosystems in applications such as in situ, real-time, and implantable biosensing, biomedical monitoring, and biodetection. PMID:16895352

  7. Self-assembly from milli- to nanoscales: methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangeli, M; Abbasi, S; Varel, C; Van Hoof, C; Celis, J-P; Böhringer, K F

    2009-01-01

    The design and fabrication techniques for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanodevices are progressing rapidly. However, due to material and process flow incompatibilities in the fabrication of sensors, actuators and electronic circuitry, a final packaging step is often necessary to integrate all components of a heterogeneous microsystem on a common substrate. Robotic pick-and-place, although accurate and reliable at larger scales, is a serial process that downscales unfavorably due to stiction problems, fragility and sheer number of components. Self-assembly, on the other hand, is parallel and can be used for device sizes ranging from millimeters to nanometers. In this review, the state-of-the-art in methods and applications for self-assembly is reviewed. Methods for assembling three-dimensional (3D) MEMS structures out of two-dimensional (2D) ones are described. The use of capillary forces for folding 2D plates into 3D structures, as well as assembling parts onto a common substrate or aggregating parts to each other into 2D or 3D structures, is discussed. Shape matching and guided assembly by magnetic forces and electric fields are also reviewed. Finally, colloidal self-assembly and DNA-based self-assembly, mainly used at the nanoscale, are surveyed, and aspects of theoretical modeling of stochastic assembly processes are discussed. PMID:20209016

  8. Single virus particle mass detection using microresonators with nanoscale thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A.; Akin, D.; Bashir, R.

    2004-03-01

    In this letter, we present the microfabrication and application of arrays of silicon cantilever beams as microresonator sensors with nanoscale thickness to detect the mass of individual virus particles. The dimensions of the fabricated cantilever beams were in the range of 4-5 μm in length, 1-2 μm in width and 20-30 nm in thickness. The virus particles we used in the study were vaccinia virus, which is a member of the Poxviridae family and forms the basis of the smallpox vaccine. The frequency spectra of the cantilever beams, due to thermal and ambient noise, were measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer under ambient conditions. The change in resonant frequency as a function of the virus particle mass binding on the cantilever beam surface forms the basis of the detection scheme. We have demonstrated the detection of a single vaccinia virus particle with an average mass of 9.5 fg. These devices can be very useful as components of biosensors for the detection of airborne virus particles.

  9. Accurate measurement of liquid transport through nanoscale conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Xie, Quan; Li, Yinxiao; Duan, Chuanhua

    2016-04-01

    Nanoscale liquid transport governs the behaviour of a wide range of nanofluidic systems, yet remains poorly characterized and understood due to the enormous hydraulic resistance associated with the nanoconfinement and the resulting minuscule flow rates in such systems. To overcome this problem, here we present a new measurement technique based on capillary flow and a novel hybrid nanochannel design and use it to measure water transport through single 2-D hydrophilic silica nanochannels with heights down to 7 nm. Our results show that silica nanochannels exhibit increased mass flow resistance compared to the classical hydrodynamics prediction. This difference increases with decreasing channel height and reaches 45% in the case of 7 nm nanochannels. This resistance increase is attributed to the formation of a 7-angstrom-thick stagnant hydration layer on the hydrophilic surfaces. By avoiding use of any pressure and flow sensors or any theoretical estimations the hybrid nanochannel scheme enables facile and precise flow measurement through single nanochannels, nanotubes, or nanoporous media and opens the prospect for accurate characterization of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanofluidic systems.

  10. Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry.

    PubMed

    Appel, Patrick; Neu, Elke; Ganzhorn, Marc; Barfuss, Arne; Batzer, Marietta; Gratz, Micha; Tschöpe, Andreas; Maletinsky, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    The electronic spin of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond forms an atomically sized, highly sensitive sensor for magnetic fields. To harness the full potential of individual NV centers for sensing with high sensitivity and nanoscale spatial resolution, NV centers have to be incorporated into scanning probe structures enabling controlled scanning in close proximity to the sample surface. Here, we present an optimized procedure to fabricate single-crystal, all-diamond scanning probes starting from commercially available diamond and show a highly efficient and robust approach for integrating these devices in a generic atomic force microscope. Our scanning probes consisting of a scanning nanopillar (200 nm diameter, 1-2 μm length) on a thin (<1 μm) cantilever structure enable efficient light extraction from diamond in combination with a high magnetic field sensitivity (ηAC≈50±20nT/Hz). As a first application of our scanning probes, we image the magnetic stray field of a single Ni nanorod. We show that this stray field can be approximated by a single dipole and estimate the NV-to-sample distance to a few tens of nanometer, which sets the achievable resolution of our scanning probes. PMID:27370455

  11. Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Patrick; Neu, Elke; Ganzhorn, Marc; Barfuss, Arne; Batzer, Marietta; Gratz, Micha; Tschöpe, Andreas; Maletinsky, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    The electronic spin of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond forms an atomically sized, highly sensitive sensor for magnetic fields. To harness the full potential of individual NV centers for sensing with high sensitivity and nanoscale spatial resolution, NV centers have to be incorporated into scanning probe structures enabling controlled scanning in close proximity to the sample surface. Here, we present an optimized procedure to fabricate single-crystal, all-diamond scanning probes starting from commercially available diamond and show a highly efficient and robust approach for integrating these devices in a generic atomic force microscope. Our scanning probes consisting of a scanning nanopillar (200 nm diameter, 1-2 μm length) on a thin (<1 μm) cantilever structure enable efficient light extraction from diamond in combination with a high magnetic field sensitivity ( η AC ≈ 50 ± 20 nT / √{ Hz } ). As a first application of our scanning probes, we image the magnetic stray field of a single Ni nanorod. We show that this stray field can be approximated by a single dipole and estimate the NV-to-sample distance to a few tens of nanometer, which sets the achievable resolution of our scanning probes.

  12. Accurate measurement of liquid transport through nanoscale conduits.

    PubMed

    Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Xie, Quan; Li, Yinxiao; Duan, Chuanhua

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale liquid transport governs the behaviour of a wide range of nanofluidic systems, yet remains poorly characterized and understood due to the enormous hydraulic resistance associated with the nanoconfinement and the resulting minuscule flow rates in such systems. To overcome this problem, here we present a new measurement technique based on capillary flow and a novel hybrid nanochannel design and use it to measure water transport through single 2-D hydrophilic silica nanochannels with heights down to 7 nm. Our results show that silica nanochannels exhibit increased mass flow resistance compared to the classical hydrodynamics prediction. This difference increases with decreasing channel height and reaches 45% in the case of 7 nm nanochannels. This resistance increase is attributed to the formation of a 7-angstrom-thick stagnant hydration layer on the hydrophilic surfaces. By avoiding use of any pressure and flow sensors or any theoretical estimations the hybrid nanochannel scheme enables facile and precise flow measurement through single nanochannels, nanotubes, or nanoporous media and opens the prospect for accurate characterization of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanofluidic systems. PMID:27112404

  13. Nanoscale thermal imaging using a scanning spin probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraoui, Abdelghani; Aycock-Rizzo, Halley; Gao, Yang; Riedo, Elisa; Meriles, Carlos

    We use a 30-nm diamond-nanocrystal-hosted nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center attached to the apex of a silicon tip as a local temperature sensor. First, we apply an electrical current to heat up the tip to a predefined operating temperature and rely on the NV to monitor the small thermal changes the tip experiences as it is brought into contact with surfaces of varying thermal conductivity. With the aid of a combined AFM/confocal setup, we image engineered microstructures with nanoscale resolution, and attain excellent agreement between the thermal conductivity and topographic maps. Given the small mass of the NV-hosting diamond nanoparticle, our technique shows a fast time response of order hundred microseconds, limited by the heat dissipation time of the tip. In a second approach, we heat nanostructured gold deposited on glass substrate by injecting a direct current. By monitoring the frequency shift of NV spin transitions upon scanning the AFM tip we reconstruct nanometer-resolved temperature maps. Our technique promises multiple applications ranging from the investigation of phonon dynamics in nanostructures to the characterization of heterogeneous phase transitions in various solid-state systems.

  14. Towards Single Biomolecule Imaging via Optical Nanoscale Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Boretti, Alberto; Rosa, Lorenzo; Castelletto, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a physical marvel in which electromagnetic radiation is charged and discharged by nuclei in a magnetic field. In conventional NMR, the specific nuclei resonance frequency depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms. NMR is routinely utilized in clinical tests by converting nuclear spectroscopy in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and providing 3D, noninvasive biological imaging. While this technique has revolutionized biomedical science, measuring the magnetic resonance spectrum of single biomolecules is still an intangible aspiration, due to MRI resolution being limited to tens of micrometers. MRI and NMR have, however, recently greatly advanced, with many breakthroughs in nano-NMR and nano-MRI spurred by using spin sensors based on an atomic impurities in diamond. These techniques rely on magnetic dipole-dipole interactions rather than inductive detection. Here, novel nano-MRI methods based on nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond are highlighted, that provide a solution to the imaging of single biomolecules with nanoscale resolution in-vivo and in ambient conditions. PMID:26113221

  15. Accurate measurement of liquid transport through nanoscale conduits

    PubMed Central

    Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Xie, Quan; Li, Yinxiao; Duan, Chuanhua

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale liquid transport governs the behaviour of a wide range of nanofluidic systems, yet remains poorly characterized and understood due to the enormous hydraulic resistance associated with the nanoconfinement and the resulting minuscule flow rates in such systems. To overcome this problem, here we present a new measurement technique based on capillary flow and a novel hybrid nanochannel design and use it to measure water transport through single 2-D hydrophilic silica nanochannels with heights down to 7 nm. Our results show that silica nanochannels exhibit increased mass flow resistance compared to the classical hydrodynamics prediction. This difference increases with decreasing channel height and reaches 45% in the case of 7 nm nanochannels. This resistance increase is attributed to the formation of a 7-angstrom-thick stagnant hydration layer on the hydrophilic surfaces. By avoiding use of any pressure and flow sensors or any theoretical estimations the hybrid nanochannel scheme enables facile and precise flow measurement through single nanochannels, nanotubes, or nanoporous media and opens the prospect for accurate characterization of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanofluidic systems. PMID:27112404

  16. Nanoscale deformation measurements for reliability assessment of material interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Jürgen; Gollhardt, Astrid; Vogel, Dietmar; Michel, Bernd

    2006-03-01

    With the development and application of micro/nano electronic mechanical systems (MEMS, NEMS) for a variety of market segments new reliability issues will arise. The understanding of material interfaces is the key for a successful design for reliability of MEMS/NEMS and sensor systems. Furthermore in the field of BIOMEMS newly developed advanced materials and well known engineering materials are combined despite of fully developed reliability concepts for such devices and components. In addition the increasing interface-to volume ratio in highly integrated systems and nanoparticle filled materials are challenges for experimental reliability evaluation. New strategies for reliability assessment on the submicron scale are essential to fulfil the needs of future devices. In this paper a nanoscale resolution experimental method for the measurement of thermo-mechanical deformation at material interfaces is introduced. The determination of displacement fields is based on scanning probe microscopy (SPM) data. In-situ SPM scans of the analyzed object (i.e. material interface) are carried out at different thermo-mechanical load states. The obtained images are compared by grayscale cross correlation algorithms. This allows the tracking of local image patterns of the analyzed surface structure. The measurement results are full-field displacement fields with nanometer resolution. With the obtained data the mixed mode type of loading at material interfaces can be analyzed with highest resolution for future needs in micro system and nanotechnology.

  17. Review of zincblende ZnO: Stability of metastable ZnO phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi, A.; Jagadish, C.

    2007-10-01

    Common II-VI compound semiconducting materials are stable thermodynamically with zincblende phase, while the II-O materials such as zinc oxide (ZnO) and beryllium oxide (BeO) are stable with wurtzite phase, and cadmium oxide (CdO) and magnesium oxide (MgO) are stable in rocksalt phase. This phase disharmony in the same material family laid a challenge for the basic physics and in practical applications in optoelectronic devices, where ternary and quaternary compounds are employed. Thermodynamically the zincblende ZnO is a metastable phase which is free from the giant internal electric fields in the [001] directions and has an easy cleavage facet in the ⟨110⟩ directions for laser cavity fabrication that combined with evidence for the higher optical gain. The zincblende materials also have lower ionicity that leads to the lower carrier scattering and higher doping efficiencies. Even with these outstanding features in the zincblende materials, the growth of zincblende ZnO and its fundamental properties are still limited. In this paper, recent progress in growth and fundamental properties of zincblende ZnO material has been reviewed.

  18. Silica Bottle Resonator Sensor for Refractive Index and Temperature Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Nemova, Galina; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-01-01

    We propose and theoretically demonstrate a bottle resonator sensor with a nanoscale altitude and with alength several of hundreds of microns made on the top of the fiber with a radius of tens microns for refractive index and temperature sensor applications. The whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in the resonators can be excited with a taper fiber placed on the top of the resonator. These sensors can be considered as an alternative to fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors.The sensitivity of TM-polarized modes is higher than the sensitivity of the TE-polarized modes, but these values are comparable and both polarizations are suitable for sensor applications. The sensitivity ~150 (nm/RIU) can be reached with abottle resonator on the fiber with the radius 10 μm. It can be improved with theuse of a fiber with a smaller radius. The temperature sensitivity is found to be ~10 pm/K. The temperature sensitivity can decrease ~10% for a fiber with a radius rco = 10 μm instead of a fiber with a radius rco = 100 μm. These sensors have sensitivities comparable to FBG sensors. A bottle resonator sensor with a nanoscale altitude made on the top of the fiber can be easily integrated in any fiber scheme. PMID:26761011

  19. Silica Bottle Resonator Sensor for Refractive Index and Temperature Measurements.

    PubMed

    Nemova, Galina; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-01-01

    We propose and theoretically demonstrate a bottle resonator sensor with a nanoscale altitude and with alength several of hundreds of microns made on the top of the fiber with a radius of tens microns for refractive index and temperature sensor applications. The whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in the resonators can be excited with a taper fiber placed on the top of the resonator. These sensors can be considered as an alternative to fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors.The sensitivity of TM-polarized modes is higher than the sensitivity of the TE-polarized modes, but these values are comparable and both polarizations are suitable for sensor applications. The sensitivity ~150 (nm/RIU) can be reached with abottle resonator on the fiber with the radius 10 μm. It can be improved with theuse of a fiber with a smaller radius. The temperature sensitivity is found to be ~10 pm/K. The temperature sensitivity can decrease ~10% for a fiber with a radius r(co) = 10 μm instead of a fiber with a radius r(co) = 100 μm. These sensors have sensitivities comparable to FBG sensors. A bottle resonator sensor with a nanoscale altitude made on the top of the fiber can be easily integrated in any fiber scheme. PMID:26761011

  20. High-Performance Humidity Sensors Based on Double-Layer ZnO-TiO2 Nanofibers via Electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xue-Jun; Hong, Tian-Sheng; Xu, Xing; Li, Zhen

    2011-09-01

    ZnO and TiO2 nanofibers are synthesized via electrospinning methods and characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Humidity sensors with double-layer sensing films are fabricated by spinning the ZnO and TiO2 nanofibers on ceramic substrates sequentially. Compared with sensors loading only one type of nanofiber, the double-layer sensors exhibit much better sensing properties. The corresponding impedance changes more than four orders of magnitude within the whole humidity range from 11% to 95% relative humidity, and the response and recovery times are about 11 and 7s, respectively. Maximum hysteresis is around 1.5% RH, and excellent stability is also observed after 180 days. The humidity sensing mechanism is discussed in terms of the sensor structure. The experimental results provide a possible route for the design and fabrication of high performance humidity sensors based on one-dimensional nanomaterials.