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Sample records for nanosecond pulse discharges

  1. Energy coupling to the plasma in repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Adamovich, Igor V.; Nishihara, Munetake; Choi, Inchul; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Lempert, Walter R.

    2009-11-15

    A new analytic quasi-one-dimensional model of energy coupling to nanosecond pulse discharge plasmas in plane-to-plane geometry has been developed. The use of a one-dimensional approach is based on images of repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharge plasmas in dry air demonstrating that the plasma remains diffuse and uniform on a nanosecond time scale over a wide range of pressures. The model provides analytic expressions for the time-dependent electric field and electron density in the plasma, electric field in the sheath, sheath boundary location, and coupled pulse energy. The analytic model predictions are in very good agreement with numerical calculations. The model demonstrates that (i) the energy coupled to the plasma during an individual nanosecond discharge pulse is controlled primarily by the capacitance of the dielectric layers and by the breakdown voltage and (ii) the pulse energy coupled to the plasma during a burst of nanosecond pulses decreases as a function of the pulse number in the burst. This occurs primarily because of plasma temperature rise and resultant reduction in breakdown voltage, such that the coupled pulse energy varies approximately proportionally to the number density. Analytic expression for coupled pulse energy scaling has been incorporated into the air plasma chemistry model, validated previously by comparing with atomic oxygen number density measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges. The results of kinetic modeling using the modified air plasma chemistry model are compared with time-resolved temperature measurements in a repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharge in air, by emission spectroscopy, and purely rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy showing good agreement.

  2. Energy coupling to the plasma in repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovich, Igor V.; Nishihara, Munetake; Choi, Inchul; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Lempert, Walter R.

    2009-11-01

    A new analytic quasi-one-dimensional model of energy coupling to nanosecond pulse discharge plasmas in plane-to-plane geometry has been developed. The use of a one-dimensional approach is based on images of repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharge plasmas in dry air demonstrating that the plasma remains diffuse and uniform on a nanosecond time scale over a wide range of pressures. The model provides analytic expressions for the time-dependent electric field and electron density in the plasma, electric field in the sheath, sheath boundary location, and coupled pulse energy. The analytic model predictions are in very good agreement with numerical calculations. The model demonstrates that (i) the energy coupled to the plasma during an individual nanosecond discharge pulse is controlled primarily by the capacitance of the dielectric layers and by the breakdown voltage and (ii) the pulse energy coupled to the plasma during a burst of nanosecond pulses decreases as a function of the pulse number in the burst. This occurs primarily because of plasma temperature rise and resultant reduction in breakdown voltage, such that the coupled pulse energy varies approximately proportionally to the number density. Analytic expression for coupled pulse energy scaling has been incorporated into the air plasma chemistry model, validated previously by comparing with atomic oxygen number density measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges. The results of kinetic modeling using the modified air plasma chemistry model are compared with time-resolved temperature measurements in a repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharge in air, by emission spectroscopy, and purely rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy showing good agreement.

  3. Characteristics of 2-heptanone decomposition using nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakase, Yuki; Fukuchi, Yuichi; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Kumamoto University Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) evaporate at room temperature. VOCs typically consist of toluene, benzene and ethyl acetate, which are used in cosmetics, dry cleaning products and paints. Exposure to elevated levels of VOCs may cause headaches, dizziness and irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat; they may also cause environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and photochemical smog. As such, they require prompt removal. Nanosecond pulsed discharge is a kind of non-thermal plasma consisting of a streamer discharge. Several advantages of nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma have been demonstrated by studies of our research group, including low heat loss, highly energetic electron generation, and the production of highly active radicals. These advantages have shown ns pulsed discharge plasma capable of higher energy efficiency for processes, such as air purification, wastewater treatment and ozone generation. In this research, nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma was employed to treat 2-heptanone, which is a volatile organic compound type and presents several harmful effects. Characteristics of treatment dependent on applied voltage, gas flow rate and input energy density were investigated. Furthermore, byproducts generated by treatment were also investigated.

  4. Computational Simulation of Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge for Plasma Assisted Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takana, H.; Adamovich, I. V.; Nishiyama, H.

    2014-11-01

    Detailed two dimensional numerical simulations of a nanosecond pulsed pin-to-pin discharge in a lean methane/air mixture were conducted under 10 atm and 600 K for plasma assisted combustion in internal combustion engines. It was clarified from this study that the produced radicals were locally higher in the vicinity of electrodes, and high density radicals are more widely distributed on the anode side rather than the cathode side which the streamer is propagating toward. The electron energy partition has been clarified during a single pulse. Total electron energy increases with fuel equivalent ratio under the same applied voltage. Pronounced enhancement of ignition delay has been shown by nanosecond pulsed discharge.

  5. Rotational CARS Temperature Measurements in Nanosecond Pulse Discharge Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuzeek, Yvette; Takashima, Keisuke; Adamovich, Igor; Lempert, Walter

    2009-10-01

    Time-resolved and spatially resolved temperatures in repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharges in air and ethylene-air mixtures have been measured by purely rotational Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Specroscopy (CARS). The experiments have been done in a capacitively coupled plane-to-plane discharge and in an atmospheric pressure near-surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD), both powered by repetitive nanosecond duration voltage pulses. Gated ICCD camera images demonstrated that the capacitively coupled discharge plasma remains diffuse and stable, with no sign of arc filaments. Comparison of the experimental results with plasma chemical kinetic modeling calculations shows good agreement. The results demonstrate that the rate of heating in the fuel-air plasma is significantly more rapid compared to the one in the air plasma. Kinetic model analysis shows that this occurs due to exothermic reactions of fuel with radical species generated in the plasma, such as O atoms. The present results provide additional insight into kinetics of hydrocarbon fuel oxidation in low-temperature plasmas and into the mechanism of localized heating of air flows by nanosecond DBD discharges.

  6. Numerical simulation of nanosecond-pulse electrical discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggie, J.; Adamovich, I.; Bisek, N.; Nishihara, M.

    2013-02-01

    Recent experiments with a nanosecond-pulse, dielectric barrier discharge at the stagnation point of a Mach 5 cylinder flow have demonstrated the formation of weak shock waves near the electrode edge, which propagate upstream and perturb the bow shock. This is a promising means of flow control, and understanding the detailed physics of the conversion of electrical energy into gas motion will aid in the design of efficient actuators based on the concept. In this work, a simplified configuration with planar symmetry was chosen as a vehicle to develop a physics-based model of nanosecond-pulse discharges, including realistic air kinetics, electron energy transport, and compressible bulk gas flow. A reduced plasma kinetic model (23 species and 50 processes) was developed to capture the dominant species and reactions for energy storage and thermalization in the discharge. The kinetic model included electronically and vibrationally excited species, and several species of ions and ground state neutrals. The governing equations included the Poisson equation for the electric potential, diffusion equations for each neutral species, conservation equations for each charged species, and mass-averaged conservation equations for the bulk gas flow. The results of calculations with this model highlighted the path of energy transfer in the discharge. At breakdown, the input electrical energy was transformed over a time scale on the order of 1 ns into chemical energy of ions, dissociation products, and vibrationally and electronically excited particles. About 30% of this energy was subsequently thermalized over a time scale of 10 µs. Since the thermalization time scale was faster than the acoustic time scale, the heat release led to the formation of weak shock waves originating near the sheath edge, consistent with experimental observations. The computed translational temperature rise (40 K) and nitrogen vibrational temperature rise (370 K) were of the same order of magnitude as

  7. Energy balance in nanosecond pulse discharges in nitrogen and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2016-02-01

    Kinetic modeling is used to analyze energy partition and energy transfer in nanosecond pulse discharges sustained between two spherical electrodes in nitrogen and air. The modeling predictions are compared with previous time-resolved temperature and {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft(X {}1Σ\\text{g}+,v=0-9\\right) vibrational population measurements by picosecond broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and phase-locked Schlieren imaging. The model shows good agreement with experimental data, reproducing experimental discharge current pulse waveforms, as well as dominant processes of energy transfer in the discharge and the afterglow. Specifically, the results demonstrate that the temperature rise in the plasma occurs in two stages, (i) ‘rapid’ heating on sub-acoustic time scale, dominated by {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft(A {}3Σ\\text{u}+\\right) energy pooling processes, N2(B 3Πg) and N(2P,2D) quenching (in nitrogen), and by quenching of excited electronic states of N2 molecules by O2 (in air), and (ii) ‘slow’ heating due to N2 vibrational relaxation by O atoms (in air), nearly completely missing in nitrogen. Comparison of the model predictions with N2 vibrational level populations confirms that the N2 vibrational temperature rises after the discharge pulse is caused by the ‘downward’ vibrational-vibrational exchange depopulating higher vibrational levels and populating vibrational level v  =  1. The model reproduces temporal dynamics of vibrational level populations and temperature in the discharge and the afterglow, indicating that energy partition among different modes (vibrational, electronic, dissociation, and ionization) is predicted accurately. At the present conditions, energy fraction coupled to the positive column of the discharge filament in air is approximately 50%, with the rest coupled to the cathode layer. Nearly 10% of the total pulse energy is spent on O atom generation, and about 10% is thermalized on a sub-acoustic time scale

  8. Electric field in an AC dielectric barrier discharge overlapped with a nanosecond pulse discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M.; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor V.; Lempert, Walter R.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of ns discharge pulses on the AC barrier discharge in hydrogen in plane-to-plane geometry is studied using time-resolved measurements of the electric field in the plasma. The AC discharge was operated at a pressure of 300 Torr at frequencies of 500 and 1750 Hz, with ns pulses generated when the AC voltage was near zero. The electric field vector is measured by ps four-wave mixing technique, which generates coherent IR signal proportional to the square of electric field. Absolute calibration was done using an electrostatic (sub-breakdown) field applied to the discharge electrodes, when no plasma was generated. The results are compared with one-dimensional kinetic modeling of the AC discharge and the nanosecond pulse discharge, predicting behavior of both individual micro-discharges and their cumulative effect on the electric field distribution in the electrode gap, using stochastic averaging based on the experimental micro-discharge temporal probability distribution during the AC period. Time evolution of the electric field in the AC discharge without ns pulses, controlled by a superposition of random micro-discharges, exhibits a nearly ‘flat top’ distribution with the maximum near breakdown threshold, reproduced quite well by kinetic modeling. Adding ns pulse discharges on top of the AC voltage waveform changes the AC discharge behavior in a dramatic way, inducing transition from random micro-discharges to a more regular, near-1D discharge. In this case, reproducible volumetric AC breakdown is produced at a well-defined moment after each ns pulse discharge. During the reproducible AC breakdown, the electric field in the plasma exhibits a sudden drop, which coincides in time with a well-defined current pulse. This trend is also predicted by the kinetic model. Analysis of kinetic modeling predictions shows that this effect is caused by large-volume ionization and neutralization of surface charges on the dielectrics by ns discharge pulses. The present

  9. Discharge Characteristics of SF6 in a Non-Uniform Electric Field Under Repetitive Nanosecond Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Huijuan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jue; Wang, Tao; Yan, Ping

    2014-05-01

    The characteristics of high pressure sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) discharges in a highly non-uniform electric field under repetitive nanosecond pulses are investigated in this paper. The influencing factors on discharge process, such as gas pressure, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and number of applied pulses, are analyzed. Experimental results show that the corona intensity weakens with the increase of gas pressure and strengthens with the increase of PRF or number of applied pulses. Spark discharge images suggest that a shorter and thicker discharge plasma channel will lead to a larger discharge current. The number of applied pulses to breakdown descends with the increase of PRF and ascends with the rise of gas pressure. The reduced electric field (E/p) decreases with the increase of PRF in all circumstances. The experimental results provide significant supplements to the dielectric characteristics of strongly electronegative gases under repetitive nanosecond pulses.

  10. Mach 5 bow shock control by a nanosecond pulse surface dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Nishihara, M.; Takashima, K.; Rich, J. W.; Adamovich, I. V.

    2011-06-15

    Bow shock perturbations in a Mach 5 air flow, produced by low-temperature, nanosecond pulse, and surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), are detected by phase-locked schlieren imaging. A diffuse nanosecond pulse discharge is generated in a DBD plasma actuator on a surface of a cylinder model placed in air flow in a small scale blow-down supersonic wind tunnel. Discharge energy coupled to the actuator is 7.3-7.8 mJ/pulse. Plasma temperature inferred from nitrogen emission spectra is a few tens of degrees higher than flow stagnation temperature, T = 340 {+-} 30 K. Phase-locked Schlieren images are used to detect compression waves generated by individual nanosecond discharge pulses near the actuator surface. The compression wave propagates upstream toward the baseline bow shock standing in front of the cylinder model. Interaction of the compression wave and the bow shock causes its displacement in the upstream direction, increasing shock stand-off distance by up to 25%. The compression wave speed behind the bow shock and the perturbed bow shock velocity are inferred from the Schlieren images. The effect of compression waves generated by nanosecond discharge pulses on shock stand-off distance is demonstrated in a single-pulse regime (at pulse repetition rates of a few hundred Hz) and in a quasi-continuous mode (using a two-pulse sequence at a pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz). The results demonstrate feasibility of hypersonic flow control by low-temperature, repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges.

  11. Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

    2014-10-28

    This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

  12. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Haicheng; Gao, Wei; Fan, Zhihui; Liu, Yidi; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length. The discharge images, optical emission spectra (OES), the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained. When airflow rate is increased, the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity, breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated. The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse, discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag, and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small velocity is introduced into the discharge gap. These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51437002)

  13. Modeling of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators driven by repetitive nanosecond pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Likhanskii, Alexandre V.; Shneider, Mikhail N.; Macheret, Sergey O.; Miles, Richard B.

    2007-07-15

    A detailed physical model for an asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in air driven by repetitive nanosecond voltage pulses is developed. In particular, modeling of DBD with high voltage repetitive negative and positive nanosecond pulses combined with positive dc bias is carried out. Operation at high voltage is compared with operation at low voltage, highlighting the advantage of high voltages, however the effect of backward-directed breakdown in the case of negative pulses results in a decrease of the integral momentum transferred to the gas. The use of positive repetitive pulses with dc bias is demonstrated to be promising for DBD performance improvement. The effects of the voltage waveform not only on force magnitude, but also on the spatial profile of the force, are shown. The crucial role of background photoionization in numerical modeling of ionization waves (streamers) in DBD plasmas is demonstrated.

  14. Verification of antitumor effect in vivo using nanosecond pulsed streamer discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonetamari, Kenta; Shirakawa, Yuki; Akiyama, Taketoshi; Mizuno, Kazue; Ono, Ryo

    2015-09-01

    Cancer treatment using plasma has intensively studied these days. In this work, antitumor effect by nanosecond pulsed streamer discharge was investigated. Nanosecond pulsed streamer plasma was used as a plasma source, which can generate stable streamer discharge by using a nanosecond pulsed power supply. The rod electrode of 3 mm diameter is made of copper. Its end is formed into a semispherical shape of 1.5 mm curvature. The electrode is inserted into a quartz tube (inner diameter: 4 mm, thickness: 1 mm) concentrically, so any gas can be introduced. B16F10 cells were selected to perform in vivo antitumor study. These cells were injected under the skin of leg of mice to make cancer tumor. One week later from injections, plasma was applied to the cancer tumor. Mice were randomly assigned into three groups which were one control group and two plasma treatment groups. In the control group, mice were not treated. In the plasma treatment groups, plasma with dry N2 and wet O2 as a working gas were irradiated for 5 consecutive days. Processing time was 10 min and the gap distance between the electrode and tumor was 4 mm. After 5 days plasma treatment, antitumor effect was observed. The result indicates that the streamer discharge has a potential for cancer treatment.

  15. Numerical Simulation of a Nanosecond-Pulse Discharge for High-Speed Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggie, Jonathan; Adamovich, Igor

    2012-10-01

    Numerical calculations were carried out to examine the physics of the operation of a nanosecond-pulse, single dielectric barrier discharge in a configuration with planar symmetry. This simplified configuration was chosen as a vehicle to develop a physics based nanosecond discharge model, including realistic air plasma chemistry and compressible bulk gas flow. First, a reduced plasma kinetic model was developed by carrying out a sensitivity analysis of zero-dimensional plasma computations with an extended chemical kinetic model. Transient, one- dimensional discharge computations were then carried out using the reduced kinetic model, incorporating a drift-diffusion formulation for each species, a self-consistent computation of the electric potential using the Poisson equation, and a mass-averaged gas dynamic formulation for the bulk gas motion. Discharge parameters (temperature, pressure, and input waveform) were selected to be representative of recent experiments on bow shock control with a nanosecond discharge in a Mach 5 cylinder flow. The computational results qualitatively reproduce many of the features observed in the experiments, including the rapid thermalization of the input electrical energy and the consequent formation of a weak shock wave. At breakdown, input electrical energy is rapidly transformed (over roughly 1 ns) into ionization products, dissociation products, and electronically excited particles, with subsequent thermalization over a relatively longer time-scale (roughly 10 μs).

  16. A compact repetitive high-voltage nanosecond pulse generator for the application of gas discharge.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lei; Zhang, Qiaogen; Ren, Baozhong; He, Kun

    2011-04-01

    Uniform and stable discharge plasma requires very short duration pulses with fast rise times. A repetitive high-voltage nanosecond pulse generator for the application of gas discharge is presented in this paper. It is constructed with all solid-state components. Two-stage magnetic compression is used to generate a short duration pulse. Unlike in some reported studies, common commercial fast recovery diodes instead of a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) are used in our experiment that plays the role of SOS. The SOS-like effects of four different kinds of diodes are studied experimentally to optimize the output performance. It is found that the output pulse voltage is higher with a shorter reverse recovery time, and the rise time of pulse becomes faster when the falling time of reverse recovery current is shorter. The SOS-like effect of the diodes can be adjusted by changing the external circuit parameters. Through optimization the pulse generator can provide a pulsed voltage of 40 kV with a 40 ns duration, 10 ns rise time, and pulse repetition frequency of up to 5 kHz. Diffuse plasma can be formed in air at standard atmospheric pressure using the developed pulse generator. With a light weight and small packaging the pulse generator is suitable for gas discharge application. PMID:21529005

  17. A compact repetitive high-voltage nanosecond pulse generator for the application of gas discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Lei; Zhang, Qiaogen; Ren, Baozhong; He, Kun

    2011-04-01

    Uniform and stable discharge plasma requires very short duration pulses with fast rise times. A repetitive high-voltage nanosecond pulse generator for the application of gas discharge is presented in this paper. It is constructed with all solid-state components. Two-stage magnetic compression is used to generate a short duration pulse. Unlike in some reported studies, common commercial fast recovery diodes instead of a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) are used in our experiment that plays the role of SOS. The SOS-like effects of four different kinds of diodes are studied experimentally to optimize the output performance. It is found that the output pulse voltage is higher with a shorter reverse recovery time, and the rise time of pulse becomes faster when the falling time of reverse recovery current is shorter. The SOS-like effect of the diodes can be adjusted by changing the external circuit parameters. Through optimization the pulse generator can provide a pulsed voltage of 40 kV with a 40 ns duration, 10 ns rise time, and pulse repetition frequency of up to 5 kHz. Diffuse plasma can be formed in air at standard atmospheric pressure using the developed pulse generator. With a light weight and small packaging the pulse generator is suitable for gas discharge application.

  18. Studies of nanosecond pulse surface ionization wave discharges over solid and liquid dielectric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrishchev, Vitaly; Leonov, Sergey; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2014-12-01

    Surface ionization wave discharges generated by high-voltage nanosecond pulses, propagating over a planar quartz surface and over liquid surfaces (distilled water and 1-butanol) have been studied in a rectangular cross section test cell. The discharge was initiated using a custom-made, alternating polarity, high-voltage nanosecond pulse plasma generator, operated at a pulse repetition rate of 100-500 Hz, with a pulse peak voltage and current of 10-15 kV and 7-20 A, respectively, a pulse FWHM of ˜100 ns, and a coupled pulse energy of 2-9 mJ/pulse. Wave speed was measured using a capacitive probe. ICCD camera images demonstrated that the ionization wave propagated predominantly over the quartz wall or over the liquid surface adjacent to the grounded waveguide placed along the bottom wall of the test cell. Under all experimental conditions tested, the surface plasma ‘sheet’ was diffuse and fairly uniform, both for positive and negative polarities. The parameters of ionization wave discharge propagating over distilled water and 1-butanol surfaces were close to those of the discharge over a quartz wall. No perturbation of the liquid surface by the discharge was detected. In most cases, the positive polarity surface ionization wave propagated at a higher speed and over a longer distance compared to the negative polarity wave. For all three sets of experiments (surface ionization wave discharge over quartz, water and 1-butanol), wave speed and travel distance decreased with pressure. Diffuse, highly reproducible surface ionization wave discharge was also observed over the liquid butanol-saturated butanol vapor interface, as well as over the distilled water-saturated water vapor interface, without buffer gas flow. No significant difference was detected between surface ionization discharges sustained using single-polarity (positive or negative), or alternating polarity high-voltage pulses. Plasma emission images yielded preliminary evidence of charge removal from the

  19. The influencing factors of nanosecond pulse homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge in air.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Jia, Li; Wang, Wen-chun; Yang, De-zheng; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-jie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a bipolar nanosecond high pulse voltage with 20 ns rising time was employed to generate homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges using the plate-plate electrode configuration in air at atmospheric pressure. The effects of pulse peak voltage, gas discharge gap, and dielectric plates made by different materials or thicknesses on the discharge homogeneity, voltage-current waveform, and optical emission spectra were investigated. Results show that aforementioned parameters have a strongly impact on the discharge homogeneity and the optical emission spectra, but it is hard to identify definitely their influences on the discharge voltage-current waveform. Homogeneous discharges were easily observed when using low permittivity dielectric plate and the emission intensity of N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg, 0-0, 337.1 nm) increases with the rising of pulse peak voltage and the permittivity of dielectric material but decreases with the increasing of gas discharge gap and the dielectric plate thickness. The rotational and vibrational temperatures (Trot and Tvib) were determined at Trot=350±5 K and Tvib=3045 K via fitting the simulative spectra of N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg, 0-2) with the measured one. PMID:24036046

  20. The influencing factors of nanosecond pulse homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jia, Li; Wang, Wen-chun; Yang, De-zheng; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-jie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a bipolar nanosecond high pulse voltage with 20 ns rising time was employed to generate homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges using the plate-plate electrode configuration in air at atmospheric pressure. The effects of pulse peak voltage, gas discharge gap, and dielectric plates made by different materials or thicknesses on the discharge homogeneity, voltage-current waveform, and optical emission spectra were investigated. Results show that aforementioned parameters have a strongly impact on the discharge homogeneity and the optical emission spectra, but it is hard to identify definitely their influences on the discharge voltage-current waveform. Homogeneous discharges were easily observed when using low permittivity dielectric plate and the emission intensity of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg, 0-0, 337.1 nm) increases with the rising of pulse peak voltage and the permittivity of dielectric material but decreases with the increasing of gas discharge gap and the dielectric plate thickness. The rotational and vibrational temperatures (Trot and Tvib) were determined at Trot = 350 ± 5 K and Tvib = 3045 K via fitting the simulative spectra of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg, 0-2) with the measured one.

  1. Spatial and temporal evolutions of ozone in a nanosecond pulse corona discharge at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duten, X.; Redolfi, M.; Aggadi, N.; Vega, A.; Hassouni, K.

    2011-10-01

    This paper deals with the experimental determination of the spatial and temporal evolutions of the ozone concentration in an atmospheric pressure pulsed plasma, working in the nanosecond regime. We observed that ozone was produced in the localized region of the streamer. The ozone transport requires a characteristic time well above the millisecond. The numerical modelling of the streamer expansion confirms that the hydrodynamic expansion of the filamentary discharge region during the streamer propagation does not lead to a significant transport of atomic oxygen and ozone. It appears therefore that only diffusional transport can take place, which requires a characteristic time of the order of 50 ms.

  2. Oh Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements in Nanosecond Pulse Discharge Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Inchul; Adamovich, Igor V.; Lempert, Walter R.

    2010-06-01

    We present recent results of laser-induced fluorescence measurements of hydroxyl radical density in repetitively pulsed nanosecond plasmas, created using 10-20 nsec duration, high (up to 20 kV) voltage pulsers, capable of operation at repetition rates as high as 40-50 kHz. OH mole fraction as a function of time with respect to discharge creation is determined, with absolute calibration performed using a Hencken flat flame burner. This paper will focus on a series of low temperature, non-equilibrium kinetics measurements in hydrogen and hydrocarbon-air mixtures, with results compared to predictions of a recently developed plasma chemical oxidation model.

  3. Nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure—the spark regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, David Z.; Lacoste, Deanna A.; Laux, Christophe O.

    2010-12-01

    Nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) spark discharges have been studied in atmospheric pressure air preheated to 1000 K. Measurements of spark initiation and stability, plasma dynamics, gas temperature and current-voltage characteristics of the spark regime are presented. Using 10 ns pulses applied repetitively at 30 kHz, we find that 2-400 pulses are required to initiate the spark, depending on the applied voltage. Furthermore, about 30-50 pulses are required for the spark discharge to reach steady state, following initiation. Based on space- and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy, the spark discharge in steady state is found to ignite homogeneously in the discharge gap, without evidence of an initial streamer. Using measured emission from the N2 (C-B) 0-0 band, it is found that the gas temperature rises by several thousand Kelvin in the span of about 30 ns following the application of the high-voltage pulse. Current-voltage measurements show that up to 20-40 A of conduction current is generated, which corresponds to an electron number density of up to 1015 cm-3 towards the end of the high-voltage pulse. The discharge dynamics, gas temperature and electron number density are consistent with a streamer-less spark that develops homogeneously through avalanche ionization in volume. This occurs because the pre-ionization electron number density of about 1011 cm-3 produced by the high frequency train of pulses is above the critical density for streamer-less discharge development, which is shown to be about 108 cm-3.

  4. Electron emission mechanism during the nanosecond high-voltage pulsed discharge in pressurized air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levko, D.; Yatom, S.; Vekselman, V.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2012-02-01

    A comparison between the results of x-ray absorption spectroscopy of runaway electrons (RAEs) generated during nanosecond timescale high-voltage (HV) gas discharge and the simulated attenuation of the x-ray flux produced by the runaway electron spectrum calculated using particle-in-cell numerical modeling of such a type of discharge is presented. The particle-in-cell simulation considered the field and explosive emissions (EEs) of the electrons from the cathode. It is shown that the field emission is the dominant emission mechanism for the short-duration (<2.5 ns) high-voltage pulses, while for the long-duration (>5 ns) high-voltage pulses, the explosive emission is likely to play a significant role.

  5. Temporally resolved optical emission spectroscopic investigations on a nanosecond self-pulsing micro-thin-cathode discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Beilei; Sadeghi, Nader; Tsankov, Tsanko V.; Luggenhölscher, Dirk; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2012-08-01

    At atmospheric pressure in Ar, a micro-thin-cathode discharge operates in a self-pulsing mode due to periodic ignition of a nanosecond spark discharge with a long living afterglow (several hundred nanoseconds). In this mode, optical emission spectra of the nanosecond spark and the afterglow are investigated. The electron density and temperature in the pure Ar discharge are measured by the Stark broadening and shift of the Ar 3p6 → 1s5 transition (415.859 nm). The nanosecond spark has an electron density of the order of 1017 cm-3 and an electron temperature of 5 eV. The gas temperature is obtained by analyzing the emission spectra of the N2 second positive system with an admixture of 0.5% N2. The measured gas temperature agrees very well with the result of a zero-dimensional kinetic simulation. The temporal development of the spatial distribution of separate emission lines shows that not only the nanosecond spark but the afterglow is also strongly localized. The temporal development of the emission spectrum provides powerful proof that the nanosecond spark discharge, due to thermionic emission, occurs in the self-pulsing mode with nanosecond current peaks.

  6. The formation of diffuse discharge by short-front nanosecond voltage pulses and the modification of dielectrics in this discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlovskii, V. M.; Panarin, V. A.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    The dynamics of diffuse discharge formation under the action of nanosecond voltage pulses with short fronts (below 1 ns) in the absence of a source of additional preionization and the influence of a dielectric film on this process have been studied. It is established that the diffuse discharge is induced by the avalanche multiplication of charge initiated by high-energy electrons and then maintained due to secondary breakdowns propagating via ionized gas channels. If a dielectric film (polyethylene, Lavsan, etc.) is placed on the anode, then multiply repeated discharge will lead to surface and bulk modification of the film material. Discharge-treated polyethylene film exhibits a change in the optical absorption spectrum in the near-IR range.

  7. Generating diffuse discharge via repetitive nanosecond pulses and line-line electrodes in atmospheric air.

    PubMed

    Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Ge, Ya-Feng; Bin, Yu; Huang, Jia-Jia; Lin, Fo-Chan

    2013-10-01

    Diffuse discharge in atmospheric air can generate extremely high power density and large-scale non-thermal plasma. An achievable method of generating diffuse discharge is reported in this paper. Based on the resonance theory, a compact high-voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator (HRNPG) has been developed as discharge excitation source. The HRNPG mainly consists of repetitive charging circuit, Tesla transformer and sharpening switch. With the voltage lower than 1.0 kV, the primary repetitive charging circuit comprises two fast thyristors as low-voltage switches. A spiral Tesla transformer is designed to provide a peak transformation ratio of more than 100. The HRNPG prototype is capable of generating a pulse with over 100 kV peak voltage and ~30 ns rise-time at the repetition frequency of 500 Hz. Using the copper line electrodes with a diameter of 0.4 mm, the gaps with highly non-uniform electric field are structured. With the suitable gap spacing and applied pulse, the glow-like diffuse discharge has been generated in line-type and ring-type electrode pairs. Some typical images are presented. PMID:24182161

  8. Generating diffuse discharge via repetitive nanosecond pulses and line-line electrodes in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Ge, Ya-Feng; Bin, Yu; Huang, Jia-Jia; Lin, Fo-Chan

    2013-10-01

    Diffuse discharge in atmospheric air can generate extremely high power density and large-scale non-thermal plasma. An achievable method of generating diffuse discharge is reported in this paper. Based on the resonance theory, a compact high-voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator (HRNPG) has been developed as discharge excitation source. The HRNPG mainly consists of repetitive charging circuit, Tesla transformer and sharpening switch. With the voltage lower than 1.0 kV, the primary repetitive charging circuit comprises two fast thyristors as low-voltage switches. A spiral Tesla transformer is designed to provide a peak transformation ratio of more than 100. The HRNPG prototype is capable of generating a pulse with over 100 kV peak voltage and ˜30 ns rise-time at the repetition frequency of 500 Hz. Using the copper line electrodes with a diameter of 0.4 mm, the gaps with highly non-uniform electric field are structured. With the suitable gap spacing and applied pulse, the glow-like diffuse discharge has been generated in line-type and ring-type electrode pairs. Some typical images are presented.

  9. Study of microdischarge arrays excited by DC or nanosecond pulsed discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Virginie; Bauville, Gerard; Puech, Vincent

    2011-10-01

    The spatio-temporal behavior of the optical emission of microdischarge arrays was studied through fast imaging technique. The device basically consisted of a metal/dielectric/metal sandwich drilled with many microholes, and was powered either by direct current or by nanosecond high voltage pulses. Microdischarges operating in DC mode were widely used for producing VUV emission from rare-gas excimers. However for biological applications, pulsed UV sources emitting in the range 200-280 nm, corresponding to the DNA absorption band, are required. Thus the electrical and optical characteristics of discharges operating either in pure rare-gas (argon) or in rare gas/halide mixtures (Kr/Cl2) , in which intense UV-C emissions could been achieved, were studied. It will be shown that the DC excitation induces a progressive ignition of the different micro-cavities, but the maximum number of ignited microplasmas is limited. On the other hand, nanosecond high-voltage pulses, applied at high repetition frequency, allow the simultaneous ignition of all the microcavities even in absence of ballasting resistors.

  10. Impacts of air pressure on the evolution of nanosecond pulse discharge products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jin-Lu; He, Li-Ming; Ding, Wei; Wang, Yu-Qian; Du, Chun

    2013-05-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium plasma dynamics of air discharge, a dynamic model of zero-dimensional plasma is established by combining the component density equation, the Boltzmann equation, and the energy transfer equation. The evolution properties of nanosecond pulse discharge (NPD) plasma under different air pressures are calculated. The results show that the air pressure has significant impacts on the NPD products and the peak values of particle number density for particles such as O atoms, O3 molecules, N2(A3) molecules in excited states, and NO molecules. It increases at first and then decreases with the increase of air pressure. On the other hand, the peak values of particle number density for N2(B3) and N2(C3) molecules in excited states are only slightly affected by the air pressure.

  11. Investigation of flow separation control by nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grech, N.; Leyland, P.; Peschke, Ph.; Ott, P.

    2015-06-01

    The ability of nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuators to control flow separation was investigated on a NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) 0015 profile for velocities up to 24 m/s (Re = 230,000). The optimal location for the actuator was determined from oil flow experiments. Moderate voltage levels were applied (3 and 6 kV) and the actuator was operated at frequencies ranging from 0.058 to 10 kHz in pulse and burst modes. The peak effectiveness of the actuator occurred at reduced frequency values of around 1. Plasma influence was observed at all tested angles of attack (up to 26°) and the stall angle was delayed by 8°.

  12. Conversion of CH4 /CO2 by a nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapinello, M.; Martini, L. M.; Dilecce, G.; Tosi, P.

    2016-02-01

    A possible way to store both renewable energy and CO2 in chemical energy is to produce value-added chemicals and fuels starting from CO2 and green electricity. This can be done by exploiting the non-equilibrium properties of gaseous electrical discharges. Discharges, in addition, can be switched on and off quickly, thus being suitable to be coupled with an intermittent energy source. In this study, we have used a nanosecond pulsed discharge to dissociate CO2 and CH4 in a 1:1 mixture at atmospheric pressure, and compared our results with literature data obtained by other discharges. The main products are CO, H2, C2H2, water and solid carbon. We estimate an energy efficiency of 40% for syngas (CO and H2) production, higher if other products are also considered. Such values are among the highest compared to other discharges, and, although not very high on an absolute scale, are likely improvable via possible routes discussed in the paper and by coupling to the discharge a heterogeneous catalysis stage.

  13. Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed Discharges in Air at Atmospheric Pressure -- Experiment and Theory of Regime Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, David; Lacoste, Deanna; Laux, Christophe

    2009-10-01

    In atmospheric pressure air preheated from 300 to 1000 K, the Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed (NRP) method has been used to generate corona, glow, and spark discharges. Experiments have been performed to determine the parameter space (applied voltage, pulse repetition frequency, ambient gas temperature, and inter-electrode gap distance) of each discharge regime. Notably, there is a minimum gap distance for the existence of the glow regime that increases with decreasing gas temperature. A theory is developed to describe the Corona-to-Glow (C-G) and Glow-to-Spark (G-S) transitions for NRP discharges. The C-G transition is shown to depend on the Avalanche-to-Streamer Transition (AST) as well as the electric field strength in the positive column. The G-S transition is due to the thermal ionization instability. The minimum gap distance for the existence of the glow regime can be understood by considering that the applied voltage of the AST must be lower than that of the thermal ionization instability. This is a previously unknown criterion for generating glow discharges, as it does not correspond to the Paschen minimum or to the Meek-Raether criterion.

  14. Improvement of Spatial Uniformity of Nanosecond-Pulse Diffuse Discharges in a Multi-Needle-to-Plane Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jianwei; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Ruixue; Yan, Ping; Shao, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale non-thermal plasmas generated by nanosecond-pulse discharges have been used in various applications, including surface treatment, biomedical treatment, flow control etc. In this paper, atmospheric-pressure diffuse discharge was produced by a homemade nanosecond-pulse generator with a full width at half maximum of 100 ns and a rise time of 70 ns. In order to increase the discharge area, multi-needle electrodes with a 3×3 array were designed. The electrical characteristics of the diffuse discharge array and optical images were investigated by the voltage-current waveforms and discharge images. The experimental results showed that the intensity of diffuse discharges in the center was significantly weaker than those at the margins, resulting in an inhomogeneous spatial uniformity in the diffuse discharge array. Simulation of the electric field showed that the inhomogeneous spatial uniformity was caused by the non-uniform distribution of the electric field in the diffuse discharge array. Moreover, the spatial uniformity of the diffuse discharge array could be improved by increasing the length of the needle in the centre of the array. Finally, the experimental results confirmed the simulation results, and the spatial uniformity of the nanosecond-pulse diffuse discharge array was significantly improved. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51222701, 51477164) and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB239505-3)

  15. A volume pulsed corona formed during nanosecond pulsed periodic discharge of negative polarity in narrow gaps with airflow at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepekhin, N. M.; Priseko, Yu. S.; Puresev, N. I.; Filippov, V. G.

    2014-06-01

    A volume mode of spatially homogeneous nanosecond pulsed-periodic corona discharge of negative polarity has been obtained using an edge-to-edge electrode geometry in narrow gaps with airflow at atmospheric pressure and natural humidity. The parameters of discharge are estimated, and a factor limiting the power deposited in discharge is determined.

  16. Species and temperature measurements of methane oxidation in a nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharge

    PubMed Central

    Lefkowitz, Joseph K; Guo, Peng; Rousso, Aric; Ju, Yiguang

    2015-01-01

    Speciation and temperature measurements of methane oxidation during a nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharge in a low-temperature flow reactor have been performed. Measurements of temperature and formaldehyde during a burst of pulses were made on a time-dependent basis using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, and measurements of all other major stable species were made downstream of a continuously pulsed discharge using gas chromatography. The major species for a stoichiometric methane/oxygen/helium mixture with 75% dilution are H2O, CO, CO2, H2, CH2O, CH3OH, C2H6, C2H4 and C2H2. A modelling tool to simulate homogeneous plasma combustion kinetics is assembled by combining the ZDPlasKin and CHEMKIN codes. In addition, a kinetic model for plasma-assisted combustion (HP-Mech/plasma) of methane, oxygen and helium mixtures has been assembled to simulate the measurements. Predictions can accurately capture reactant consumption as well as production of the major product species. However, significant disagreement is found for minor species, particularly CH2O and CH3OH. Further analysis revealed that the plasma-activated low-temperature oxidation pathways, particularly those involving CH3O2 radical reactions and methane reactions with O(1D), are responsible for this disagreement. PMID:26170433

  17. Nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharges in Kr/Cl2 for production of ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregório, J.; Aubert, X.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Puech, V.; Pitchford, L. C.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a study of nanosecond-pulsed, coaxial dielectric barrier discharges for generation of UV radiation in Kr/Cl2 mixtures with total pressures of 25 and 50 mbar. This study is based on an ensemble of experimental and modeling results and aims to identify the dominant physical mechanisms leading to the production of KrCl* (B state). The emission band of KrCl* is peaked at 222 nm, which is in the wavelength range of interest for applications in microbial decontamination. We find that for the same energy per pulse deposited in the discharge, more UV radiation is emitted at higher pressures where relatively more of the energy deposited in the gas goes into heating the electrons, with less going to heating the ions in the sheath. The Cl2 partial pressure significantly affects the KrCl* time-averaged, spatial profiles, leading to different optimal conditions for average and for peak UV power densities. Model results show that the highest KrCl* number density occurs near the walls and is associated with the development of cathode sheaths during the voltage pulse.

  18. Time-resolved temperature and O atom measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges in combustible mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanier, Suzanne; Bowman, Sherrie; Burnette, David; Adamovich, Igor V.; Lempert, Walter R.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents results of time-resolved rotational temperature measurements, by pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and absolute O atom number density measurements, by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence. The experiments were conducted in nanosecond pulse discharges in H2-O2-Ar and C2H4-O2-Ar mixtures, initially at room temperature, operated at a high pulse repetition rate of 40 kHz, in a plane-to-plane double dielectric barrier geometry at a pressure of 40 Torr. Intensified charge-coupled device images show that O2-Ar and H2-O2-Ar plasmas remain diffuse and volume-filling during the entire burst. Images taken in C2H4-O2-Ar plasma demonstrate significant discharge filamentation and constriction along the center plane and in the corners of the test section. The experimental results demonstrate high accuracy of pure rotational psec CARS for thermometry measurements at low partial pressures of oxygen in nonequilibrium plasmas. The results are compared with kinetic modeling calculations, using two different H2-O2 chemistry and C2H4-O2 chemistry mechanisms. In H2-O2-Ar mixtures, the kinetic modeling predictions are in fairly good agreement with the data, predicting temperature rise and O atom accumulation in long discharge bursts, up to 450 pulses. The results show that adding hydrogen to the mixture results in an additional temperature rise, due to its partial oxidation by radicals generated in the plasma, essentially without chain branching. In C2H4-O2-Ar mixtures, the model consistently underpredicts both temperature and O atom number density. The most likely reason for the difference between the experimental data and model predictions is discharge filamentation developing when ethylene is added to the O2-Ar mixture, at fairly low temperatures.

  19. Optical and application study of gas-liquid discharge excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sen; Wang, Wen-chun; Yang, De-zheng; Liu, Zhi-jie; Zhang, Shuai

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a bipolar nanosecond pulse with 20 ns rising time is employed to generate air gas-liquid diffuse discharge plasma with room gas temperature in quartz tube at atmospheric pressure. The image of the discharge and optical emission spectra of active species in the plasma are recorded. The plasma gas temperature is determined to be approximately 390 K by compared the experimental spectra with the simulated spectra, which is slightly higher than the room temperature. The result indicated that the gas temperature rises gradually with pulse peak voltage increasing, while decreases slightly with the electrode gap distance increasing. As an important application, bipolar nanosecond pulse discharge is used to sterilize the common microorganisms (Actinomycetes, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli) existing in drinking water, which performs high sterilization efficiency.

  20. Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges in Liquid Phase: Optical diagnostics of positive versus negative modes of initiation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seepersad, Yohan; Fridman, Alexander; Dobrynin, Danil; Applied Physics Group Team

    2013-09-01

    Recent work on nanosecond pulsed discharges in liquids has shown the possibility of producing plasma directly in the liquid phase without bubble formation or heating of the liquid. Paramount to understanding the physical processes leading to this phenomenon is a thorough understanding of the way these discharges behave under various conditions. This work explores the development of nanosecond pulsed discharges in water, for both positively and negatively applied pulses in a pin-to-plane configuration. Time resolved nanosecond ICCD imaging is used to trace the development of the discharge for applied voltages up to 24 kV. From the results we are able to identify breakdown thresholds at which discharge is initiated for both modes. At voltages below the critical breakdown value, Schlieren and shadowgraphy techniques are used to investigate perturbations in the liquid layers near the electrode tip as a consequence of these fat rising pulses. This work was supported by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (grant #DARPA-BAA-11-31).

  1. Simulation study on nitrogen vibrational kinetics in a single nanosecond pulse high voltage air discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Zhou, Qianhong; Dong, Zhiwei

    2016-05-01

    We report a simulation study on nitrogen vibrational kinetics N 2 ( X 1 Σg + , v = 0 - 12 ) in a single nanosecond pulse high voltage discharge in dry-air at a pressure of 100 Torr. Apart from the usual processes such as vibrational-vibrational exchange and vibrational-translational relaxation, the state-specific vibrational kinetics take into account the electronic-vibrational (E-V) process and chemical-vibrational process. The vibrational kinetics, coupled with electron Boltzmann equation solver, plasma chemical kinetics, and gas thermal balance are used to model the 100 ns discharge and its subsequent 10 ms afterglow. The self-consistent model shows good agreement with recent experimental results, with regard to time-resolved vibrational and translational temperature. According to the modeling results, The E-V mechanism has a small but non-negligible effect (about 2%) in rising of vibrational quanta in the early afterglow from 100 ns to 1μs. Another possible reason is the convective transport associated with the gas dynamic expansion in time delays around 1μs to 10 μs.

  2. Optical emission characteristics of surface nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yun; Li Yinghong; Jia Min; Song Huimin; Liang Hua

    2013-01-21

    This paper reports an experimental study of the optical emission characteristics of the surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by nanosecond pulsed voltage. N{sub 2}(C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u}) rotational and vibrational temperatures are almost the same with upper electrode powered with positive polarity and lower electrode grounded or upper electrode grounded and lower electrode powered with positive polarity. While the electron temperature is 12% higher with upper electrode powered with positive polarity and lower electrode grounded. When the frequency is below 2000 Hz, there is almost no influence of applied voltage amplitude and frequency on N{sub 2}(C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u}) rotational, vibrational temperature and electron temperature. As the pressure decreases from 760 Torr to 5 Torr, N{sub 2}(C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u}) rotational temperature remains almost unchanged, while its vibrational temperature decreases initially and then increases. The discharge mode changes from a filamentary type to a glow type around 80 Torr. In the filamentary mode, the electron temperature remains almost unchanged. In the glow mode, the electron temperature increases while the pressure decreases.

  3. Nitric Oxide Studies in Low Temperature Plasmas Generated with a Nanosecond Pulse Sphere Gap Electrical Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnette, David Dean

    This dissertation presents studies of NO kinetics in a plasma afterglow using various nanosecond pulse discharges across a sphere gap. The discharge platform is developed to produce a diffuse plasma volume large enough to allow for laser diagnostics in a plasma that is rich in vibrationally-excited molecules. This plasma is characterized by current and voltage traces as well as ICCD and NO PLIF images that are used to monitor the plasma dimensions and uniformity. Temperature and vibrational loading measurements are performed via coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). Absolute NO concentrations are obtained by laser-induce fluorescence (LIF) measurements, and N and O densities are found using two photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF). For all dry air conditions studied, the NO behavior is characterized by a rapid rate of formation consistent with an enhanced Zeldovich process involving electronically-excited nitrogen species that are generated within the plasma. After several microseconds, the NO evolution is entirely controlled by the reverse Zeldovich process. These results show that under the chosen range of conditions and even in extreme instances of vibrational loading, there is no formation channel beyond ~2 musec. Both the NO formation and consumption mechanisms are strongly affected by the addition of fuel species, producing much greater NO concentrations in the afterglow.

  4. Study on electrical characteristics of barrier-free atmospheric air diffuse discharge generated by nanosecond pulses and long wire electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lee Liu, Yun-Long; Teng, Yun; Liu, Lun; Pan, Yuan

    2014-07-15

    In room-temperature atmospheric air, the large-scale diffuse plasmas can be generated via high-voltage nanosecond pulses with short rise-time and wire electrodes. Diffuse discharge with the wire electrode length up to 110.0 cm and the discharge spacing of several centimeters has been investigated in this paper. Electrical characteristics of diffuse discharge have been analyzed by their optical photographs and measuring of the voltage and current waveforms. Experimental results show the electrode spacing, and the length of wire electrodes can influence the intensity and mode transition of diffuse discharge. The characteristic of current waveforms is that there are several current oscillation peaks at the time of applied pulsed voltage peak, and at the tail of applied pulse, the conduction current component will compensate the displacement one so that the measured current is unidirectional in diffuse discharge mode. The transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge is always with the increasing of conduction current density. As for nanosecond pulses with long tail, the long wire electrodes are help for generating non-equilibrium diffuse plasmas.

  5. An atmospheric air gas-liquid diffuse discharge excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse in quartz container used for water sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sen; Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Tang, Kai; Song, Ying

    2013-12-01

    In this Letter, we report that the air gas-liquid diffuse discharge plasma excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse in quartz container with different bottom structures at atmospheric pressure. Optical diagnostic measurements show that bountiful chemically and biologically active species, which are beneficial for effective sterilization in some areas, are produced. Such diffuse plasmas are then used to treat drinking water containing the common microorganisms (Candida albicans and Escherichia coli). It is found that these plasmas can sterilize the microorganisms efficiently.

  6. Temporal evolution of temperature and OH density produced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in water vapour at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainct, F. P.; Lacoste, D. A.; Kirkpatrick, M. J.; Odic, E.; Laux, C. O.

    2014-02-01

    We report on an experimental study of the temporal evolution of OH density and gas temperature in spark discharges created by nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in pure water vapour at 475 K and atmospheric pressure. The plasma was generated by 20 kV, 20 ns pulses, at a repetition frequency of 10 kHz. The temperature was measured during the discharge by optical emission spectroscopy of the second positive system of N2, and between two discharges by two-colour OH-planar laser induced fluorescence (OH-PLIF) using two pairs of rotational transitions. Between two successive discharges, the relative density of OH was measured by OH-PLIF and was found to decay very slowly, with a 1/e decay time of about 50 µs. With the use of a chemical kinetics model, the OH density was placed on an absolute scale.

  7. Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge in Water without Bubbles: A Fundamental Study of Initiation, Propagation and Plasma Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seepersad, Yohan

    The state of plasma is widely known as a gas-phase phenomenon, but plasma in liquids have also received significant attention over the last century. Generating plasma in liquids however is theoretically challenging, and this problem is often overcome via liquid-gas phase transition preceding the actual plasma formation. In this sense, plasma forms in gas bubbles in the liquid. Recent work at the Drexel Plasma Institute has shown that nanosecond pulsed electric fields can initiate plasma in liquids without any initial cavitation phase, at voltages below theoretical direct-ionization thresholds. This unique regime is poorly understood and does not fit into any current descriptive mechanisms. As with all new phenomena, a complete fundamental description is paramount to understanding its usefulness to practical applications. The primary goals of this research were to qualitatively and quantitatively understand the phenomenon of nanosecond pulsed discharge in liquids as a means to characterizing properties that may open up niche application possibilities. Analysis of the plasma was based on experimental results from non-invasive, sub-nanosecond time-resolved optical diagnostics, including direct imaging, transmission imaging (Schlieren and shadow), and optical emission spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of the plasma were studied as a function of variations in the electric field amplitude and polarity, liquid permittivity, and pulse duration. It was found that the plasma size and emission intensity was dependent on the permittivity of the liquid, as well as the voltage polarity, and the structure and dynamics were explained by a 'cold-lightning' mechanism. The under-breakdown dynamics at the liquid-electrode interface were investigated by transmission imaging to provide evidence for a novel mechanism for initiation based on the electrostriction. This mechanism was proposed by collaborators on the project and developed alongside the experimental work in this

  8. Two-stage energy thermalization mechanism in nanosecond pulse discharges in air and hydrogen-air mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanier, Suzanne; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor V.; Lempert, Walter R.

    2015-04-01

    Time-resolved and spatially resolved temperature measurements, by pure rotational picosecond broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), and kinetic modeling calculations are used to study kinetics of energy thermalization in nanosecond pulse discharges in air and hydrogen-air mixtures. The diffuse filament, nanosecond pulse discharge (pulse duration ˜100 ns) is sustained between two spherical electrodes and is operated at a low pulse repetition rate to enable temperature measurements over a wide range of time scales after the discharge pulse. The experimental results demonstrate high accuracy of pure rotational ps CARS for thermometry measurements in highly transient non-equilibrium plasmas. Rotational-translational temperatures are measured for time delays after the pulse ranging from tens of ns to tens of ms, spanning several orders of magnitude of time scales for energy thermalization in non-equilibrium plasmas. In addition, radial temperature distributions across the plasma filament are measured for several time delays after the discharge pulse. Kinetic modeling calculations using a state-specific master equation kinetic model of reacting hydrogen-air plasmas show good agreement with experimental data. The results demonstrate that energy thermalization and temperature rise in these plasmas occur in two clearly defined stages, (i) ‘rapid’ heating, caused by collisional quenching of excited electronic states of N2 molecules by O2, and (ii) ‘slow’ heating, caused primarily by N2 vibrational relaxation by O atoms (in air) and by chemical energy release during partial oxidation of hydrogen (in H2-air). The results have major implications for plasma assisted combustion and plasma flow control.

  9. Investigation of nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge using plate-to-plate electrode with asymmetric dielectric arrangement in airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Haicheng; Fan, Zhihui; Liu, Yidi; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma is produced in airflow by applying nanosecond high voltage pulses with peak voltage about 35 kV and rising time about 40 ns on a plate-to-plate electrode arrangement. The effects of airflow rate (0-50 m/s) on the discharge characteristics are investigated under different barrier conditions (the bare anode case and the bare cathode case). For both cases, the breakdown voltage and the time lag increase distinctly and the discharge intensity decreases sharply when the airflow rate increases from 0 to 30 m/s, and then keep almost constant until the airflow rate is further increased to 50 m/s. For the bare anode case (the cathode is covered by dielectric plate), the discharge mode transforms gradually from filamentary to diffuse discharge with the increasing airflow rate. While for the bare cathode case, some micro-discharge channels are still excited, though the discharge becomes more diffuse when the airflow rate is higher than 30 m/s. By acquiring the time-resolved images of the discharge, it is proved that it is the primary discharge which becomes diffuse when airflow is introduced and the following two discharges of the same voltage pulse occur principally at the positions where the primary discharge is more intense. And in both cases, the plasma temperatures are reduced, but the degree is different. All the phenomena can be explained mainly by the variation of the space charge distribution when the airflow is introduced into the discharge gap. And it is indicated that the bare anode case has an advantage in obtaining diffuse discharge.

  10. Transitions between corona, glow, and spark regimes of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, David Z.; Lacoste, Deanna A.; Laux, Christophe O.

    2010-05-01

    In atmospheric pressure air preheated from 300 to 1000 K, the nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) method has been used to generate corona, glow, and spark discharges. Experiments have been performed to determine the parameter space (applied voltage, pulse repetition frequency, ambient gas temperature, and interelectrode gap distance) of each discharge regime. In particular, the experimental conditions necessary for the glow regime of NRP discharges have been determined, with the notable result that there exists a minimum and maximum gap distance for its existence at a given ambient gas temperature. The minimum gap distance increases with decreasing gas temperature, whereas the maximum does not vary appreciably. To explain the experimental results, an analytical model is developed to explain the corona-to-glow (C-G) and glow-to-spark (G-S) transitions. The C-G transition is analyzed in terms of the avalanche-to-streamer transition and the breakdown field during the conduction phase following the establishment of a conducting channel across the discharge gap. The G-S transition is determined by the thermal ionization instability, and we show analytically that this transition occurs at a certain reduced electric field for the NRP discharges studied here. This model shows that the electrode geometry plays an important role in the existence of the NRP glow regime at a given gas temperature. We derive a criterion for the existence of the NRP glow regime as a function of the ambient gas temperature, pulse repetition frequency, electrode radius of curvature, and interelectrode gap distance.

  11. Plasma density enhancement in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges by high-voltage nanosecond pulse in the pulse-on period: a PIC simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Chaofeng; Sun, Jizhong; Wang, Dezhen

    2010-02-01

    A particle-in-cell (PIC) plus Monte Carlo collision simulation is employed to investigate how a sustainable atmospheric pressure single dielectric-barrier discharge responds to a high-voltage nanosecond pulse (HVNP) further applied to the metal electrode. The results show that the HVNP can significantly increase the plasma density in the pulse-on period. The ion-induced secondary electrons can give rise to avalanche ionization in the positive sheath, which widens the discharge region and enhances the plasma density drastically. However, the plasma density stops increasing as the applied pulse lasts over certain time; therefore, lengthening the pulse duration alone cannot improve the discharge efficiency further. Physical reasons for these phenomena are then discussed.

  12. Numerical studies of nitric oxide formation in nanosecond-pulsed discharge-stabilized flames of premixed methane/air.

    PubMed

    Bak, Moon Soo; Cappelli, Mark A

    2015-08-13

    A simulation is developed to investigate the kinetics of nitric oxide (NO) formation in premixed methane/air combustion stabilized by nanosecond-pulsed discharges. The simulation consists of two connected parts. The first part calculates the kinetics within the discharge while considering both plasma/combustion reactions and species diffusion, advection and thermal conduction to the surrounding flow. The second part calculates the kinetics of the overall flow after mixing the discharge flow with the surrounding flow to account for the effect that the discharge has on the overall kinetics. The simulation reveals that the discharge produces a significant amount of atomic oxygen (O) as a result of the high discharge temperature and dissociative quenching of excited state nitrogen by molecular oxygen. This atomic oxygen subsequently produces hydroxyl (OH) radicals. The fractions of these O and OH then undergo Zel'dovich reactions and are found to contribute to as much as 73% of the total NO that is produced. The post-discharge simulation shows that the NO survives within the flow once produced. PMID:26170428

  13. Investigation of nanosecond pulse dielectric barrier discharges in still air and in transonic flow by optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peschke, P.; Goekce, S.; Leyland, P.; Ott, P.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study the interaction of nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (ns-DBD) actuators with aerodynamic flow up to transonic velocities was investigated. The primary focus was on the influence of the flow on the discharge and the effects of the discharge itself. In addition, the influence of the ns-DBD on a shock-wave was studied. The aim was to improve the understanding of the plasma-flow interaction, a topic that is not yet fully understood, in particular for ns-DBD. The actuator was integrated in two different models, a NACA 3506 compressor blade profile and a bump geometry at the bottom of the wind tunnel. The effect of the rapid energy deposition close to the discharge was examined with the phase-locked schlieren visualisation technique. Images of the plasma acquired with short exposure times revealed information on the discharge evolution. The results show a significant effect of the flow on the discharge characteristics, in particular due to the drop of static pressure. On the other hand, no significant effect of the ns-DBD on the flow was observed due to unfavourable flow conditions, which underlines the importance of the actuator’s placement.

  14. Pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy: fast gas heating and active particle production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, N. A.

    2016-08-01

    The results of a numerical study on kinetic processes initiated by a pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy, when the dissociation degree of oxygen molecules is high, are presented. The calculations of the temporal dynamics of the electron concentration, density of atomic oxygen, vibrational distribution function of nitrogen molecules, and gas temperature agree with the experimental data. It is shown that quenching of electronically excited states of nitrogen N2(B3Πg), N2(С3Πu), N2(a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) by oxygen molecules leads to the dissociation of O2. This conclusion is based on the comparison of calculated dynamics of atomic oxygen in air, excited by a pulsed nanosecond discharge, with experimental data. In air plasma at a high dissociation degree of oxygen molecules ([O]/[O2]  >  10%), relaxation of the electronic energy of atoms and molecules in reactions with O atoms becomes extremely important. Active production of NO molecules and fast gas heating in the discharge plasma due to the quenching of electronically excited N2(B3Πg, C3Πu, a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) molecules by oxygen atoms is notable. Owing to the high O atom density, electrons are effectively detached from negative ions in the discharge afterglow. As a result, the decay of plasma in the afterglow is determined by electron–ion recombination, and the electron density remains relatively high between the pulses. An increase in the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules at the periphery of the plasma channel at time delay t  =  1–30 μs after the discharge is obtained. This is due to intense gas heating and, as a result, gas-dynamic expansion of a hot gas channel. Vibrationally excited N2(v) molecules produced near the discharge axis move from the axial region to the periphery. Consequently, at the periphery the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules is increased.

  15. Kinetics of excited states and radicals in a nanosecond pulse discharge and afterglow in nitrogen and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkurenkov, Ivan; Burnette, David; Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2014-12-01

    The present kinetic modelling calculation results provide key new insights into the kinetics of vibrational excitation of nitrogen and plasma chemical reactions in nanosecond pulse, ‘diffuse filament’ discharges in nitrogen and dry air at a moderate energy loading per molecule, ˜0.1 eV per molecule. It is shown that it is very important to take into account Coulomb collisions between electrons because they change the electron energy distribution function and, as a result, strongly affect populations of excited states and radical concentrations in the discharge. The results demonstrate that the apparent transient rise of N2 ‘first level’ vibrational temperature after the discharge pulse, as detected in the experiments, is due to the net downward V-V energy transfer in N2-N2 collisions, which increases the N2(X 1Σ, v = 1) population. Finally, a comparison of the model's predictions with the experimental data shows that NO formation in the afterglow occurs via reactive quenching of multiple excited electronic levels of nitrogen molecule, N2\\ast , by O atoms. ) published in this volume, which focuses on the kinetic modelling of the experiments. This paper presents the results of the experiments.

  16. Temporal evolution of the electron density produced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in water vapor at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainct, Florent; Lacoste, Deanna; Kirkpatrick, Michael; Odic, Emmanuel; Laux, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    A study of plasma discharges produced by nanosecond repetitive pulses (NRP) in water vapor at 450 K and 1 atm is presented. The plasma was generated between two point electrodes with 20-ns duration, high-voltage (0--20 kV) pulses, at a repetition frequency of 10 kHz, in the spark regime (2 mJ/pulse). Atomic lines measured by optical emission spectroscopy were used to determine the electron number density in this non-equilibrium water-vapor plasma. The broadenings and shifts of the Hα and Hβ lines of the hydrogen Balmer series and of the atomic oxygen triplet at 777 nm were analyzed. For a maximum reduced electric field of about 200 Td, a maximum electron density of 2 × 1018 cm-3 was measured, corresponding to an ionization level of about 10 %. This ionization level is two orders of magnitude higher than the one obtained for similar NRP discharges in air at atmospheric pressure.

  17. Uniform and non-uniform modes of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric air: fast imaging and spectroscopic measurements of electric field

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chong; Dobrynin, Danil; Fridman, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report experimental results on fast ICCD imaging of development of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric air and spectroscopic measurements of electric field in the discharge. Uniformity of the discharge images obtained with nanosecond exposure times were analyzed using chi-square test. The results indicate that DBD uniformity strongly depends on applied (global) electric field in the discharge gap, and is a threshold phenomenon. We show that in the case of strong overvoltage on the discharge gap (provided by fast rise times), there is transition from filamentary to uniform DBD mode which correlates to the corresponding decrease of maximum local electric field in the discharge. PMID:25071294

  18. Influence of air flow parameters on nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in a pin-annular electrode configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitz, Sylvain A.; Moeck, Jonas P.; Schuller, Thierry; Veynante, Denis; Lacoste, Deanna A.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of various air flow parameters on the plasma regimes of nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) discharges is investigated at atmospheric pressure. The two electrodes are in a pin-annular configuration, transverse to the mean flow. The voltage pulses have amplitudes up to 15 kV, a duration of 10 ns and a repetition frequency ranging from 15 to 30 kHz. The NRP corona to NRP spark (C-S) regime transition and the NRP spark to NRP corona (S-C) regime transition are investigated for different steady and harmonically oscillating flows. First, the strong effect of a transverse flow on the C-S and S-C transitions, as reported in previous studies, is verified. Second, it is shown that the azimuthal flow imparted by a swirler does not affect the regime transition voltages. Finally, the influence of low frequency harmonic oscillations of the air flow, generated by a loudspeaker, is studied. A strong effect of frequency and amplitude of the incoming flow modulation on the NRP plasma regime is observed. Results are interpreted based on the cumulative effect of the NRP discharges and an analysis of the residence times of fluid particles in the inter-electrode region.

  19. Dependence of MnOx Catalyst Position on Toluene Decomposition using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Junkai; Ogasawara, Akihiko; Wang, Jinlong; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Akiyama, Hidenori; Zhang, Pengyi; Kumamoto University Collaboration; Tsinghua University Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Plasma catalysis, which combines advantages of high selectivity due to the catalysis and with fast ignition and response due to plasma technique, appears to be a promising technology to simultaneously resolve both efficiency and workability issues. In practice, a catalyst can be combined with NTP in two ways: by introducing the catalyst in the discharge zone (in-plasma catalytic reactor) or by placing the catalyst after the discharge zone (post-plasma catalytic reactor). This work aims to clarify combined effects by coupling MnOx catalyst with ns pulsed discharge system for decomposition of 100 ppm toluene utilizing three methods: plasma alone, in-plasma catalytic and post-plasma catalytic methods, in atmospheric pressure at room temperature. As the results, toluene removal ratio reached 100% at approximately 50 J/L under the in-plasma catalytic and post-plasma catalytic methods, while it was 70% under the plasma alone method. The concentrations of O3, HCOOH, and CO under the plasma alone method were higher compared with the in-plasma catalytic or post-plasma catalytic methods. CO2 selectivity under the post-plasma catalytic method was the highest of these three methods when toluene removal ratio exceeded 80%.

  20. Surface charge dynamics and OH and H number density distributions in near-surface nanosecond pulse discharges at a liquid / vapor interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Caroline; Petrishchev, Vitaly; Yin, Zhiyao; Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2015-10-01

    The present work provides insight into surface charge dynamics and kinetics of radical species reactions in nanosecond pulse discharges sustained at a liquid-vapor interface, above a distilled water surface. The near-surface plasma is sustained using two different discharge configurations, a surface ionization wave discharge between two exposed metal electrodes and a double dielectric barrier discharge. At low discharge pulse repetition rates (~100 Hz), residual surface charge deposition after the discharge pulse is a minor effect. At high pulse repetition rates (~10 kHz), significant negative surface charge accumulation over multiple discharge pulses is detected, both during alternating polarity and negative polarity pulse trains. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and two-photon absorption LIF (TALIF) line imaging are used for in situ measurements of spatial distributions of absolute OH and H atom number densities in near-surface, repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge plasmas. Both in a surface ionization wave discharge and in a double dielectric barrier discharge, peak measured H atom number density, [H] is much higher compared to peak OH number density, due to more rapid OH decay in the afterglow between the discharge pulses. Higher OH number density was measured near the regions with higher plasma emission intensity. Both OH and especially H atoms diffuse out of the surface ionization wave plasma volume, up to several mm from the liquid surface. Kinetic modeling calculations using a quasi-zero-dimensional H2O vapor / Ar plasma model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. The results demonstrate the experimental capability of in situ radical species number density distribution measurements in liquid-vapor interface plasmas, in a simple canonical geometry that lends itself to the validation of kinetic models.

  1. Study on the mode-transition of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge between uniform and filamentary by controlling pressures and pulse repetition frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Pei, X.; Hasnain, Q.; Nie, L.; Lu, X.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the temporally resolved evolution of the nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in a moderate 6 mm discharge gap under various pressures and pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) by intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) images, using dry air and its components oxygen and nitrogen. It is found that the pressures are very different when the mode transits between uniform and filamentary in air, oxygen, and nitrogen. The PRFs can also obviously affect the mode-transition. The transition mechanism in the pulsed DBD is not Townsend-to-Streamer, which is dominant in the traditional alternating-voltage DBD. The pulsed DBD in a uniform mode develops in the form of plane ionization wave due to overlap of primary avalanches, while the increase in pressure disturbs the overlap and discharge develops in streamer, corresponding to the filamentary mode. Increasing the initial electron density by pre-ionization may contribute to discharge uniformity at higher pressures. We also found that the dependence of homogeneity upon PRF is a non-monotonic one.

  2. A diffuse plasma generated by bipolar nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Li; Yang, De-Zheng; Shi, Heng-Chao; Wang, Wen-Chun; Wang, Sen

    2014-05-01

    In this study, a bipolar high-voltage pulse with 20 ns rising time is employed to generate diffuse dielectric barrier discharge plasma using wire-plate electrode configuration in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. The gas temperature of the plasma is determined by comparing the experimental and the best fitted optical emission spectra of the second positive bands of N2(C3Πu → B3 Πg, 0-2) and the first negative bands of N2+ (B2 Σu+ → X2 Σg+, 0-0). The effects of the concentration of argon and oxygen on the emission intensities of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg, 0-0, 337.1 nm), OH (A 2Σ → X2Π, 0-0) and N2+ (B2 Σu+ → X2 Σg+, 0-0, 391.4 nm) are investigated. It is shown that the plasma gas temperature keeps almost constant with the pulse repetition rate and pulse peak voltage increasing. The emission intensities of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg, 0-0, 337.1 nm), OH(A2Σ → X2Π, 0-0) and N2+ (B2 Σu+ → X2 Σg+, 0-0, 391.4 nm) rise with increasing the concentration of argon, but decrease with increasing the concentration of oxygen, and the influences of oxygen concentration on the emission intensities of N2(C3Πu → B3Πg, 0-0, 337.1 nm) and OH (A2Σ → X2Π, 0-0) are more greater than that on the emission intensity of N2+ (B2 Σu+ → X2 Σg+, 0-0, 391.4 nm).

  3. A comparative study for the inactivation of multidrug resistance bacteria using dielectric barrier discharge and nano-second pulsed plasma

    PubMed Central

    Hoon Park, Ji; Kumar, Naresh; Hoon Park, Dae; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Neyts, Erik C.; Verlackt, Christof C. W.; Bogaerts, Annemie; Ho Kang, Min; Sup Uhm, Han; Ha Choi, Eun; Attri, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria can be inactivated through various physical and chemical means, and these have always been the focus of extensive research. To further improve the methodology for these ends, two types of plasma systems were investigated: nano-second pulsed plasma (NPP) as liquid discharge plasma and an Argon gas-feeding dielectric barrier discharge (Ar-DBD) as a form of surface plasma. To understand the sterilizing action of these two different plasma sources, we performed experiments with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria (wild type) and multidrug resistant bacteria (Penicillum-resistant, Methicillin-resistant and Gentamicin-resistant). We observed that both plasma sources can inactivate both the wild type and multidrug-resistant bacteria to a good extent. Moreover, we observed a change in the surface morphology, gene expression and β-lactamase activity. Furthermore, we used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to investigate the variation in functional groups (C-H/C-C, C-OH and C=O) of the peptidoglycan (PG) resulting from exposure to plasma species. To obtain atomic scale insight in the plasma-cell interactions and support our experimental observations, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations to study the effects of plasma species, such as OH, H2O2, O, O3, as well as O2 and H2O, on the dissociation/formation of above mentioned functional groups in PG. PMID:26351132

  4. Influence of pulsed nanosecond volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air on the electrical characteristics of MCT epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, Denis V.; Voitsekhovskii, Alexandr V.; Lozovoy, Kirill A.; Nesmelov, Sergey N.; Dzyadukh, Stanislav M.; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shulepov, Michail A.; Dvoretskii, Sergei A.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was investigating the effect of volume nanosecond discharge in air at atmospheric pressure on the electro-physical properties of the HgCdTe (MCT) epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Hall measurements of electro-physical parameters of MCT samples after irradiation have shown that there is a layer of epitaxial films exhibiting n-type conductivity that is formed in the near-surface area. After more than 600 pulses of influence parameters and thickness of the resulting n-layer is such that the measured field dependence of Hall coefficient corresponds to the material of n-type conductivity. Also it is shown that the impact of the discharge leads to significant changes in electro-physical characteristics of MIS structures. This fact is demonstrated by increase in density of positive fixed charge, change in the hysteresis type of the capacitance-voltage characteristic, an increase in density of surface states. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies of the controlled change in the properties of MCT.

  5. Atmospheric air diffuse array-needles dielectric barrier discharge excited by positive, negative, and bipolar nanosecond pulses in large electrode gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Yang, De-zheng; Wang, Wen-chun; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen; Jiang, Peng-chao; Zhang, Shuai

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, positive, negative, and bipolar nanosecond pulses are employed to generate stable and diffuse discharge plasma using array needles-plate electrode configuration at atmospheric pressure. A comparison study of discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma vibrational temperature and rotational temperatures in three pulsed polarity discharges is carried on under different discharge conditions. It is found that bipolar pulse is beneficial to the excitation of diffuse dielectric barrier discharge, which can generate a room temperature plasma with more homogeneous and higher discharge intensity compared with unipolar discharges. Under the condition of 6 mm electrode gap distance, 26 kV pulse peak voltage, and 150 Hz pulse repetition rate, the emission intensity of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg) of the bipolar pulsed discharge is 4 times higher than the unipolar discharge (both positive and negative), while the plasma gas temperature is kept at 300 K, which is about 10-20 K lower than the unipolar discharge plasma.

  6. A simple method for experimental determination of electron temperature and electron density in a nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge used for excitation of high-power atomic and ionic metal and metal halide vapour lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temelkov, K. A.; Vuchkov, N. K.

    2016-05-01

    A simple method based on the time-resolved measurement of electrical discharge parameters, such as tube voltage and discharge current, is developed and applied for determination of electron temperature and electron density in the discharge period of a nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge, exciting high-power DUV Cu+ Ne-CuBr, He-Hg+ and He-Sr+ lasers.

  7. Decomposition of three volatile organic compounds by nanosecond pulsed corona discharge: Study of by-product formation and influence of high voltage pulse parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrige, Julien; Vervisch, Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Increasing concerns over atmospheric pollution has motivated research into technologies able to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from gas streams. The aim of this paper is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms implied in the decomposition of VOC's in a filamentary nonthermal plasma discharge. Experiments have been carried out on three pollutants (propane, propene, and isopropyl alcohol) in dry air at atmospheric pressure using a wire to cylinder corona discharge generated by a homemade nanosecond rise time high voltage pulse generator. The resulting plasma efficiently destructs propane, propene, or isopropyl alcohol at a concentration of 500 ppm with low specific input energies (less than 500 J/L), but the poor oxidation rate leads to the formation of numerous by-products (acetone, formaldehyde, formic acid, and methyl nitrate) whose concentration can reach some hundreds of ppm. We also investigated the effect of pulse parameters on VOC removal efficiency. Neither pulse peak value nor rise time (in the range of 4-12 ns) appears to have a significant influence on the VOC decomposition rates. Therefore, we believe that the way the energy is deposited in the plasma does not modify the density of active species (radicals, ions) in the streamers. The production of energetic electrons is not enhanced by the external applied field, and the only effective parameter may be the local field in the streamer head, which is almost the same (around 500 Td) whatever the voltage (above the inception value)

  8. A Simulation of the Effects of Varying Repetition Rate and Pulse Width of Nanosecond Discharges on Premixed Lean Methane-Air Combustion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bak, Moon Soo; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional kinetic simulation has been carried out to investigate the effects of repetition rate and pulse width of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges on stabilizing premixed lean methane-air combustion. The repetition rate and pulse width are varied from 10 kHz to 50 kHz and from 9 ns to 2 ns while the total power is kept constant. The lower repetition rates provide larger amounts of radicals such as O, H, and OH. However, the effect on stabilization is found to be the same for all of the tested repetition rates. The shorter pulse width is found to favor the production of species in higher electronicmore » states, but the varying effects on stabilization are also found to be small. Our results indicate that the total deposited power is the critical element that determines the extent of stabilization over this range of discharge properties studied.« less

  9. Evolution of metastable state molecules N2(A3 Σu+) in a nanosecond pulsed discharge: A particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Sun, Jizhong; Feng, Chunlei; Bai, Jing; Ding, Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo collisions method has been employed to investigate the nitrogen discharge driven by a nanosecond pulse power source. To assess whether the production of the metastable state N2(A3 Σu+) can be efficiently enhanced in a nanosecond pulsed discharge, the evolutions of metastable state N2(A3 Σu+) density and electron energy distribution function have been examined in detail. The simulation results indicate that the ultra short pulse can modulate the electron energy effectively: during the early pulse-on time, high energy electrons give rise to quick electron avalanche and rapid growth of the metastable state N2(A3 Σu+) density. It is estimated that for a single pulse with amplitude of -9 kV and pulse width 30 ns, the metastable state N2(A3 Σu+) density can achieve a value in the order of 109 cm-3. The N2(A3 Σu+) density at such a value could be easily detected by laser-based experimental methods.

  10. 2D numerical modelling of gas temperature in a nanosecond pulsed longitudinal He-SrBr2 discharge excited in a high temperature gas-discharge tube for the high-power strontium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernogorova, T. P.; Temelkov, K. A.; Koleva, N. K.; Vuchkov, N. K.

    2016-05-01

    An active volume scaling in bore and length of a Sr atom laser excited in a nanosecond pulse longitudinal He-SrBr2 discharge is carried out. Considering axial symmetry and uniform power input, a 2D model (r, z) is developed by numerical methods for determination of gas temperature in a new large-volume high-temperature discharge tube with additional incompact ZrO2 insulation in the discharge free zone, in order to find out the optimal thermal mode for achievement of maximal output laser parameters. A 2D model (r, z) of gas temperature is developed by numerical methods for axial symmetry and uniform power input. The model determines gas temperature of nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge in helium with small additives of strontium and bromine.

  11. 2D numerical modelling of the gas temperature in a high-temperature high-power strontium atom laser excited by nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge in a He-SrBr2 mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernogorova, T. P.; Temelkov, K. A.; Koleva, N. K.; Vuchkov, N. K.

    2014-05-01

    Assuming axial symmetry and a uniform power input, a 2D model (r, z) is developed numerically for determination of the gas temperature in the case of a nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge in He-SrBr2 formed in a newly-designed large-volume high-temperature discharge tube with additional incompact ZrO2 insulation in the discharge-free zone, in order to find the optimal thermal mode for achievement of maximal output laser parameters. The model determines the gas temperature of a nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge in helium with small additives of strontium and bromine.

  12. Simulations of atmospheric pressure discharge in a high-voltage nanosecond pulse using the particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision model in noble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Feng; Wang, Dezhen; Ren, Chunsheng

    2008-06-01

    Atmospheric pressure discharge nonequilibrium plasmas have been applied to plasma processing with modern technology. Simulations of discharge in pure Ar and pure He gases at one atmospheric pressure by a high voltage trapezoidal nanosecond pulse have been performed using a one-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision (PIC-MCC) model coupled with a renormalization and weighting procedure (mapping algorithm). Numerical results show that the characteristics of discharge in both inert gases are very similar. There exist the effects of local reverse field and double-peak distributions of charged particles' density. The electron and ion energy distribution functions are also observed, and the discharge is concluded in the view of ionization avalanche in number. Furthermore, the independence of total current density is a function of time, but not of position.

  13. Topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft, controlled by a nanosecond pulse discharge plasma actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hai; Shi, Zhiwei; Cheng, Keming; Wei, Dechen; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Danjie; He, Haibo; Yao, Junkai; He, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    Vortex control is a thriving research area, particularly in relation to flying wing or delta wing aircraft. This paper presents the topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft controlled by a nanosecond plasma dielectric barrier discharge actuator. Experiments, including oil flow visualization and two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV), were conducted in a wind tunnel with a Reynolds number of 0.5 × 106. Both oil and PIV results show that the vortex can be controlled. Oil topological structures on the aircraft surface coincide with spatial PIV flow structures. Both indicate vortex convergence and enhancement when the plasma discharge is switched on, leading to a reduced region of separated flow.

  14. Experimental investigation of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators driven by repetitive high-voltage nanosecond pulses with dc or low frequency sinusoidal bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opaits, Dmitry F.; Likhanskii, Alexandre V.; Neretti, Gabriele; Zaidi, Sohail; Shneider, Mikhail N.; Miles, Richard B.; Macheret, Sergey O.

    2008-08-01

    Experimental studies were conducted of a flow induced in an initially quiescent room air by a single asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge driven by voltage waveforms consisting of repetitive nanosecond high-voltage pulses superimposed on dc or alternating sinusoidal or square-wave bias voltage. To characterize the pulses and to optimize their matching to the plasma, a numerical code for short pulse calculations with an arbitrary impedance load was developed. A new approach for nonintrusive diagnostics of plasma actuator induced flows in quiescent gas was proposed, consisting of three elements coupled together: the schlieren technique, burst mode of plasma actuator operation, and two-dimensional numerical fluid modeling. The force and heating rate calculated by a plasma model was used as an input to two-dimensional viscous flow solver to predict the time-dependent dielectric barrier discharge induced flow field. This approach allowed us to restore the entire two-dimensional unsteady plasma induced flow pattern as well as characteristics of the plasma induced force. Both the experiments and computations showed the same vortex flow structures induced by the actuator. Parametric studies of the vortices at different bias voltages, pulse polarities, peak pulse voltages, and pulse repetition rates were conducted experimentally. The significance of charge buildup on the dielectric surface was demonstrated. The charge buildup decreases the effective electric field in the plasma and reduces the plasma actuator performance. The accumulated surface charge can be removed by switching the bias polarity, which leads to a newly proposed voltage waveform consisting of high-voltage nanosecond repetitive pulses superimposed on a high-voltage low frequency sinusoidal voltage. Advantages of the new voltage waveform were demonstrated experimentally.

  15. A ‘frozen electric-field’ approach to simulate repetitively pulsed nanosecond plasma discharges and ignition of hydrogen-air mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, Sharath; Yang, Vigor

    2014-09-01

    High-fidelity modelling of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges (NRPDs) is burdened by the multiple time and length scales and large chemistry mechanisms involved, which prohibit detailed analyses and parametric studies. In the present work, we propose a ‘frozen electric-field’ modelling approach to expedite the NRPD simulations without adverse effects on the solution accuracy. First, a burst of nanosecond voltage pulses is simulated self-consistently until the discharge reaches a stationary state. The calculated spatial distributions and temporal evolution of the electric field, electron density and electron energy during the last pulse are then stored in a library and the electrical characteristics of subsequent pulses are frozen at these values. This strategy allows the timestep for numerical integration to be increased by four orders of magnitude (from 10-13 to 10-9 s), thereby significantly improving the computational efficiency of the process. Reduced calculations of a burst of 50 discharge pulses show good agreement with the predictions from a complete plasma model (electrical characteristics calculated during each pulse). The error in species densities is less than 20% at the centre of the discharge volume and about 30% near the boundaries. The deviations in temperature, however, are much lower, at 5% in the entire domain. The model predictions are in excellent agreement with measured ignition delay times and temperatures in H2-air mixtures subject to dielectric barrier NRPD over a pressure range of 54-144 Torr with equivalence ratios of 0.7-1.2. The OH density increases with pressure and triggers low-temperature fuel oxidation, which leads to rapid temperature rise and ignition. The ignition delay decreases by a factor of 2, with an increase in pressure from 54 to 144 Torr. In contrast, an increase in the H2-air equivalence ratio from 0.7 to 1.2 marginally decreases the ignition delay by about 20%. This behaviour is attributed to the insensitivity

  16. Effect of Airflows on Repetitive Nanosecond Volume Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu; Huo, Yuxin; Song, Jian; Yu, Daren; Zhang, Chaohai

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure discharges excited by repetitive nanosecond pulses have attracted significant attention for various applications. In this paper, a plate-plate discharge with airflows is excited by a repetitive nanosecond pulse generator. Under different experiment conditions, the applied voltages, discharge currents, and discharge images are recorded. The plasma images presented here indicate that the volume discharge modes vary with airflow speeds, and a diffuse and homogeneous volume discharge occurs at the speed of more than 35 m/s. The role of airflows provides different effects on the 2-stage pulse discharges. The 1st pulse currents nearly maintain consistency for different airflow speeds. However, the 2nd pulse current has a change trend of first decreasing and then rapidly increasing, and the value difference for 2nd pulse currents is about 20 A under different airflows. In addition, the experimental results are discussed according to the electrical parameters and discharge images. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51006027, 51437002, and 51477035)

  17. Time-resolved investigation of nanosecond discharge in dense gas sustained by short and long high-voltage pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatom, S.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Levko, D.; Vekselman, V.; Gurovich, V.; Hupf, E.; Hadas, Y.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2011-12-01

    The results of experimental and numerical studies of the generation of runaway electrons (RAE) in a pressurized air-filled diode under the application of 20 ns, 5 ns and 1 ns duration high-voltage pulses with an amplitude up to 160 kV are presented. It is shown that with a 1 ns pulse, RAE with energy >=20 keV reach the anode prior to the formation of the plasma channel between the cathode and anode. Conversely, with 20 ns or 5 ns pulses, RAE with energy >=20 keV were obtained at the anode only after the formation of the plasma channel. In addition, the high- and low-impedance stages of the development of the discharge were found. Finally, a comparison between experimental and numerical simulation results is presented.

  18. Time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy of nanosecond pulsed discharges in atmospheric-pressure N2 and N2/H2O mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Horst, R. M.; Verreycken, T.; van Veldhuizen, E. M.; Bruggeman, P. J.

    2012-08-01

    In this contribution, nanosecond pulsed discharges in N2 and N2/0.9% H2O at atmospheric pressure (at 300 K) are studied with time-resolved imaging, optical emission spectroscopy and Rayleigh scattering. A 170 ns high-voltage pulse is applied across two pin-shaped electrodes at a frequency of 1 kHz. The discharge consists of three phases: an ignition phase, a spark phase and a recombination phase. During the ignition phase the emission is mainly caused by molecular nitrogen (N2(C-B)). In the spark and recombination phase mainly atomic nitrogen emission is observed. The emission when H2O is added is very similar, except the small contribution of Hα and the intensity of the molecular N2(C-B) emission is less. The gas temperature during the ignition phase is about 350 K, during the discharge the gas temperature increases and is 1 µs after ignition equal to 750 K. The electron density is obtained by the broadening of the N emission line at 746 nm and, if water is added, the Hα line. The electron density reaches densities up to 4 × 1024 m-3. Addition of water has no significant influence on the gas temperature and electron density. The diagnostics used in this study are described in detail and the validity of different techniques is compared with previously reported results of other groups.

  19. Effect of dielectric material on bipolar nanosecond pulse diffuse dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kai; Wang, Wenchun; Yang, Dezheng; Zhang, Shuai; Yang, Yang; Liu, Zhijie

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, dielectric plates made by ceramic, quartz and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) respectively are employed to generate low gas temperature, diffuse dielectric barrier discharge plasma by using a needle-plate electrode configuration in air at atmospheric pressure. Both discharge images and the optical emission spectra are obtained while ceramic, quartz and PTFE are used as dielectric material. Plasma gas temperature is also calculated by comparing the experimental emission spectra with the best fitted spectra of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg 1-3) and N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg 0-2). The effects of different pulse peak voltages and gas gap distances on the emission intensity of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg, 0-0, 337.1 nm) and the plasma area on dielectric surface are investigated while ceramic, quartz and PTFE are used as dielectric material. It is found that the permittivity of dielectric material plays an important role in the discharge homogeneity, plasma gas temperature, emission spectra intensity of the discharge, etc. Dielectric with higher permittivity i.e., ceramic means brighter discharge luminosity and stronger emission spectra intensity of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg, 0-0, 337.1 nm) among the three dielectric materials. However, more homogeneous, larger plasma area on dielectric surface and lower plasma gas temperature can be obtained under dielectric with lower permittivity i.e., PTFE. The emission spectra intensity and plasma gas temperature of the discharge while the dielectric plate is made by quartz are smaller than that while ceramic is used as dielectric material and bigger than that when PTFE is used as dielectric material.

  20. Effect of dielectric material on bipolar nanosecond pulse diffuse dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kai; Wang, Wenchun; Yang, Dezheng; Zhang, Shuai; Yang, Yang; Liu, Zhijie

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, dielectric plates made by ceramic, quartz and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) respectively are employed to generate low gas temperature, diffuse dielectric barrier discharge plasma by using a needle-plate electrode configuration in air at atmospheric pressure. Both discharge images and the optical emission spectra are obtained while ceramic, quartz and PTFE are used as dielectric material. Plasma gas temperature is also calculated by comparing the experimental emission spectra with the best fitted spectra of N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg 1-3) and N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg 0-2). The effects of different pulse peak voltages and gas gap distances on the emission intensity of N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg, 0-0, 337.1 nm) and the plasma area on dielectric surface are investigated while ceramic, quartz and PTFE are used as dielectric material. It is found that the permittivity of dielectric material plays an important role in the discharge homogeneity, plasma gas temperature, emission spectra intensity of the discharge, etc. Dielectric with higher permittivity i.e., ceramic means brighter discharge luminosity and stronger emission spectra intensity of N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg, 0-0, 337.1 nm) among the three dielectric materials. However, more homogeneous, larger plasma area on dielectric surface and lower plasma gas temperature can be obtained under dielectric with lower permittivity i.e., PTFE. The emission spectra intensity and plasma gas temperature of the discharge while the dielectric plate is made by quartz are smaller than that while ceramic is used as dielectric material and bigger than that when PTFE is used as dielectric material. PMID:23673240

  1. Nitric oxide density measurements in air and air/fuel nanosecond pulse discharges by laser induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddi, M.; Jiang, N.; Adamovich, I. V.; Lempert, W. R.

    2009-04-01

    Laser induced fluorescence is used to measure absolute nitric oxide concentrations in air, methane-air and ethylene-air non-equilibrium plasmas, as a function of time after initiation of a single pulse, 20 kV peak voltage, 25 ns pulse duration discharge. A mixture of NO and nitrogen with known composition (4.18 ppm NO) is used for calibration. Peak NO density in air at 60 Torr, after a single pulse, is ~8 × 1012 cm-3 (~4.14 ppm) occurring at ~250 µs after the pulse, with decay time of ~16.5 ms. Peak NO atom mole fraction in a methane-air mixture with equivalence ratio of phiv = 0.5 is found to be approximately equal to that in air, with approximately the same rise and decay rate. In an ethylene-air mixture (also with equivalence ratio of phiv = 0.5), the rise and decay times are comparable to air and methane-air, but the peak NO concentration is reduced by a factor of approximately 2.5. Spontaneous emission measurements show that excited electronic states N2(C 3Π) and NO(A 2Σ) in air at P = 60 Torr decay within ~20 ns and ~1 µs, respectively. Kinetic modelling calculations incorporating air plasma kinetics complemented with the GRI Mech 3.0 hydrocarbon oxidation mechanism are compared with the experimental data using three different NO production mechanisms. It is found that NO concentration rise after the discharge pulse is much faster than predicted by Zel'dovich mechanism reactions, by two orders of magnitude, but much slower compared with reactions of electronically excited nitrogen atoms and molecules, also by two orders of magnitude. It is concluded that processes involving long lifetime (~100 µs) metastable states, such as N2(X 1Σ,v) and O2(b 1Σ), formed by quenching of the metastable N2(A 3Σ) state by ground electronic state O2, may play a dominant role in NO formation. NO decay, in all cases, is found to be dominated by the reverse Zel'dovich reaction, NO + O → N + O2, as well as by conversion into NO2 in a reaction of NO with ozone.

  2. Measurement of OH, O, and NO densities and their correlations with mouse melanoma cell death rate treated by a nanosecond pulsed streamer discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Ippei; Shirakawa, Yuki; Hirakata, Kenta; Akiyama, Taketoshi; Yonemori, Seiya; Mizuno, Kazue; Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji

    2015-10-01

    Mouse melanoma cells in a culture medium are treated using a nanosecond pulsed streamer discharge plasma and the correlations between the rate of cell death and the densities of reactive species (OH, O, and NO) in the plasma are measured. The plasma is irradiated onto the culture medium surface with a vertical gas flow of an O2/N2 mixture from a glass tube at various gas flow rates and O2 concentrations. The densities of the reactive species are measured very close to the culture medium surface, where the reactive species interact with the culture medium, using laser-induced fluorescence. In the case of the N2 discharge (O2 = 0%), an increase in gas flow rate decreases OH density because it lowers the water vapor concentration by diluting the vapor, which is required for OH production. The increase in gas flow rate also leads to a decreased cell death rate. In the case of the O2/N2 discharge, on the other hand, an increase in O2 concentration at a fixed flow rate does not affect the rate of cell death, although it considerably changes the O and NO densities. These findings indicate that some reactive species derived from water vapor such as OH are responsible for the melanoma cell death, whereas those from O2, such as O and NO, are less likely responsible. They also indicate the importance of water evaporation from the culture medium surface in cell treatment.

  3. Thyratron-choke switch for high-current nanosecond pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Vizir, V.A.; Chervyakov, V.V.; Laier, A.V.; Shubkin, N.G.

    1986-06-01

    Electric-discharge excimer lasers and high-current nanosecond accelerators, i.e., linear induction accelerators, require highcurrent nanosecond pulse (HCNP) generators with high repetition frequencies. This paper describes a design and some formulas for a thyratron-choke assembly for switching high-current nanosecond pulses, which consists of a thyratron and a single turn nonlinear choke connected in series with it; these are enclosed in a coaxial shield. The operation of a thyratronchoke assembly with a TGI1-1000/25 thyratron in switching pulses of up to 10kA with a duration of 250 nsec is studied. The current rise rate is 200 kA/usec, the pulse repetition frequency is 200 Hz, and the average switched power is 5kW.

  4. Kinetics of NO formation and decay in nanosecond pulse discharges in Air, H2-Air, and C2H4-Air mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnette, David; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor V.; Lempert, Walter R.

    2016-04-01

    Time-resolved, absolute NO and N atom number densities are measured by NO Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and N Two-Photon Absorption LIF in a diffuse plasma filament, nanosecond pulse discharge in dry air, hydrogen-air, and ethylene-air mixtures at 40 Torr, over a wide range of equivalence ratios. The results are compared with kinetic modeling calculations incorporating pulsed discharge dynamics, kinetics of vibrationally and electronically excited states of nitrogen, plasma chemical reactions, and radial transport. The results show that in air afterglow, NO decay occurs primarily by the reaction with N atoms, NO  +  N  →  N2  +  O. In the presence of hydrogen, this reaction is mitigated by reaction of N atoms with OH, N  +  OH  →  NO  +  H, resulting in significant reduction of N atom number density in the afterglow, additional NO production, and considerably higher NO number densities. In fuel-lean ethylene-air mixtures, a similar trend (i.e. N atom concentration reduction and NO number density increase) is observed, although [NO] increase on ms time scale is not as pronounced as in H2-air mixtures. In near-stoichiometric and fuel-lean ethylene-air mixtures, when N atom number density was below detection limit, NO concentration was measured to be lower than in air plasma. These results suggest that NO kinetics in hydrocarbon-air plasmas is more complex compared to air and hydrogen-air plasmas, additional NO reaction pathways may well be possible, and their analysis requires further kinetic modeling calculations.

  5. A nanosecond surface dielectric barrier discharge in air at high pressures and different polarities of applied pulses: transition to filamentary mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanyan, S. A.; Starikovskiy, A. Yu; Popov, N. A.; Starikovskaia, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    The development of a nanosecond surface dielectric barrier discharge in air at pressures 1-6 bar is studied. At atmospheric pressure, the discharge develops as a set of streamers starting synchronously from the high-voltage electrode and propagating along the dielectric layer. Streamers cover the dielectric surface creating a ‘quasi-uniform’ plasma layer. At high pressures and high voltage amplitudes on the cathode, filamentation of the discharge is observed a few nanoseconds after the discharge starts. Parameters of the observed ‘streamers-to-filaments’ transition are measured; physics of transition is discussed on the basis of theoretical estimates and numerical modeling. Ionization-heating instability on the boundary of the cathode layer is suggested as a mechanism of filamentation.

  6. Nanosecond component in a femtosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, M. N.; Semak, V. V.; Zhang Zhili

    2012-11-15

    Experimental and computational results show that the coherent microwave scattering from a laser-induced plasma can be used for measuring the quality of a fs laser pulse. The temporal dynamics of the microwave scattered signal from the fs-laser induced plasma can be related to the effect of nanosecond tail of the fs laser pulse.

  7. NO density and gas temperature measurements in atmospheric pressure nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) discharges by Mid-IR QCLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Stancu, Gabi-Daniel; Laux, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    Nitric oxide is a key species for many processes: in combustion, in human skin physiology... Recently, NO-ground state absolute density measurements produced by atmospheric pressure NRP discharges were carried out in air as a function of the discharge parameters, using Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectroscopy. These measurements were space averaged and performed in the post-discharge region in a large gas volume. Here we present radial profiles of NO density and temperature measured directly in the discharge for different configurations. Small plasma volume and species densities, high temperature and EM noise environment make the absorption diagnostic challenging. For this purpose the QCLAS sensitivity was improved using a two-detector system. We conducted lateral absorbance measurements with a spatial resolution of 300 μm for two absorption features at 1900.076 and 1900.517 cm-1. The radial temperature and NO density distributions were obtained from the Abel inverted lateral measurements. Time averaged NO densities of about 1.E16 cm-3 and gas temperature of about 1000K were obtained in the center of the discharge. PLASMAFLAME Project (Grant No ANR-11-BS09-0025).

  8. Enhanced window breakdown dynamics in a nanosecond microwave tail pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chao; Zhu, Meng; Li, Shuang; Xie, Jialing; Yan, Kai; Luo, Tongding; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Verboncoeur, John

    2014-06-23

    The mechanisms of nanosecond microwave-driven discharges near a dielectric/vacuum interface were studied by measuring the time- and space-dependent optical emissions and pulse waveforms. The experimental observations indicate multipactor and plasma developing in a thin layer of several millimeters above interface. The emission brightness increases significantly after main pulse, but emission region widens little. The mechanisms are studied by analysis and simulation, revealing intense ionization concentrated in a desorbed high-pressure layer, leading to a bright light layer above surface; the lower-voltage tail after main pulse contributes to heat electron energy tails closer to excitation cross section peaks, resulting in brighter emission.

  9. Effect of Pulse Nanosecond Volume Discharge in Air at Atmospheric Pressure on Electrical Properties of Mis Structures Based on p-HgCdTe Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.; Grigor'ev, D. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of the pulse nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure on the admittance of MIS structures based on MBE graded-gap p-Hg0.78Cd0.22Te is studied in a wide range of frequencies and temperatures. It is shown that the impact of the discharge leads to significant changes in electrical characteristics of MIS structures (the density of positive fixed charge increases), to the changes in the nature of the hysteresis of capacitance-voltage characteristics, and to an increase in the density of surface states. A possible reason for the changes in the characteristics of MIS structures after exposure to the discharge is substantial restructuring of the defect-impurity system of the semiconductor near the interface.

  10. Nanosecond discharge in sulfur hexafluoride and the generation of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Erofeev, M. V.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.; Sorokin, D. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2008-06-01

    A discharge in the presence of a nonuniform electric field and the generation of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam (UAEB) are studied in the insulating gas SF6 at the pressures 0.01 2.50 atm. High-voltage nanosecond pulses (about 150 and 250 kV) and the voltage pulses with an amplitude of 25 kV and a duration of tens of nanoseconds are applied across the gap. An electron beam is obtained behind the AlBe foil with a thickness of 45 μm at a sulfur hexafluoride pressure in a gas-filled diode of up to 2 atm. It is demonstrated that, at relatively high pressures (greater than 1 atm) and in the presence of high-voltage nanosecond pulses across the gap, the UAEB pulse FWHM increases. The spectra of the diffuse and contracted discharges in sulfur hexafluoride are measured.

  11. Dynamics of plasma evolution in a nanosecond underwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Ilya; Starikovskaia, Svetlana; Rousseau, Antoine

    2014-06-01

    A positive discharge in water is generated by applying a 30 ns high-voltage (HV) pulse on a micrometre scale electrode. The applied voltage ranges from 6 to 15 kV and a fast plasma propagating mode is launched with a velocity of up to 60 km s-1. Time-resolved shadowgraphy and spectroscopy are performed to monitor the time evolution of the discharge structure and of the plasma emission spectra. By analysing the dynamics of the shock front velocity and the lateral expansion of the plasma channel, it is possible to estimate the pressure at the ignition of the plasma by two independent methods: very good agreement is found at 6 kV giving initial pressures of 0.4 GPa and 0.3 GPa, respectively. At 15 kV, only the shock front velocity method is applicable under our experimental conditions, giving an estimate of the initial pressure of 5.8 GPa. Such high initial pressures show that, under a nanosecond HV pulse, the plasma is ignited directly in the dense phase. Emission spectra show a strong continuum emission as well as a broad Balmer α line with a strong red shift, with an estimate of the initial plasma density of 1.3 × 1026 m-3. The relaxation of discharge pressure and plasma density is studied under a series of six successive pulses.

  12. Nanosecond pulsed laser blackening of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Guang; Hourd, Andrew C.; Abdolvand, Amin

    2012-12-01

    Nanosecond (12 ns) pulsed laser processing of copper at 532 nm resulted in the formation of homogenously distributed, highly organized microstructures. This led to the fabrication of large area black copper substrates with absorbance of over 97% in the spectral range from 250 nm to 750 nm, and a broadband absorbance of over 80% between 750 nm and 2500 nm. Optical and chemical analyses of the fabricated black metal are presented and discussed. The employed laser is an industrially adaptable source and the presented technique for fabrication of black copper could find applications in broadband thermal radiation sources, solar energy absorbers, irradiative heat transfer devices, and thermophotovoltaics.

  13. The streamer-to-spark transition in a transient spark: a dc-driven nanosecond-pulsed discharge in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janda, Mário; Machala, Zdenko; Niklová, Adriana; Martišovitš, Viktor

    2012-08-01

    We present a study of the streamer-to-spark transition in a self-pulsing dc-driven discharge called a transient spark (TS). The TS is a streamer-to-spark transition discharge with short spark duration (˜10-100 ns), based on charging and discharging of the internal capacity of the electric circuit with repetition frequency 1-10 kHz. The TS can be maintained under relatively low energy conditions (0.1-1 mJ pulse-1). It generates a very reactive non-equilibrium air plasma applicable for flue gas cleaning or bio-decontamination. Thanks to the short spark current pulse duration, the steady-state gas temperature, measured at the beginning of the streamers initiating the TS, increases from an initial value of ˜300 K only up to ˜550 K at 10 kHz. The streamer-to-spark transition is governed by the subsequent increase in the gas temperature in the plasma channel up to ˜1000 K. This breakdown temperature does not change with increasing repetition frequency f. The heating after the streamer accelerates with increasing f, leading to a decrease in the average streamer-to-spark transition time from a few µs to less than 100 ns.

  14. Ignition modes of nanosecond discharge with bubbles in distilled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min Suk

    2015-10-01

    Here, we present the microscopic physical characteristics of nanosecond discharges with an array of bubbles in distilled water. In particular, applying a single high-voltage pulse, four delayed intensified charge-coupled device cameras successfully visualized four successive images during a single discharge event. We identified three distinctive modes of ignition inside a bubble, depending on the relative location of the bubble with respect to pin-to-hollow needle electrodes when a single bubble was located in an inter-electrode gap of 1 mm: anode-driven ignition, cathode-driven ignition, and co-ignition near both electrodes. Anode- and cathode-driven ignitions evolved into either a complete propagation of the streamer or an incomplete propagation, which were limited in location by proximity to an ignition location, while co-ignitions consistently showed complete propagation. When we increased the gap to 2 mm to accommodate multiple bubbles in the gap, an ignited bubble near the cathode was able to cause the ignition of an upper adjacent bubble. Bubble-bubble interface zones can also be spots of ignition, such that we observed simultaneous co-ignitions in the zones of bubble-bubble interfaces and near electrodes with triple bubbles. We compared the experimental results of discharge propagation with different ignition modes between Ar, He, and N2 bubbles. In addition, numerical simulations for static electric fields reasonably supported observed ignition behavior such that field intensity was locally enhanced.

  15. Modulated corona nanosecond discharge in air under ambient pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepekhin, N. M.; Priseko, Yu. S.; Filippov, V. G.; Bulatov, M. U.; Sukharevskii, D. I.; Syssoev, V. S.

    2015-04-01

    A unique type of corona discharge-modulated corona nanosecond discharge-has been obtained, the parameters of which have been determined in a geometric system of electrodes with a sharply heterogeneous electric field in air under ambient pressure and natural humidity.

  16. Rapid breakdown mechanisms of open air nanosecond dielectric barrier discharges.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tsuyohito; Kanazawa, Tatsuya; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2011-08-01

    The discharge initiation mechanism of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharges in open air has been clarified with time-dependent measurement of the discharge electric field by electric-field-induced coherent Raman scattering and optical emission. Our experimental observations have revealed that, in the prebreakdown phase of a nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge, the externally applied fast-rising electric field is strongly enhanced near the cathode due to large accumulation of space charge, which then strongly enhances ionization near the cathode. Once a sufficiently large number of ionizations take place, the location of peak ionization forms a front and propagates toward the cathode with strong optical emission, which establishes the discharge. This process is essentially different from the well-known Townsend mechanism for slower discharges. PMID:21902331

  17. Rapid Breakdown Mechanisms of Open Air Nanosecond Dielectric Barrier Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Tsuyohito; Kanazawa, Tatsuya; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2011-08-01

    The discharge initiation mechanism of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharges in open air has been clarified with time-dependent measurement of the discharge electric field by electric-field-induced coherent Raman scattering and optical emission. Our experimental observations have revealed that, in the prebreakdown phase of a nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge, the externally applied fast-rising electric field is strongly enhanced near the cathode due to large accumulation of space charge, which then strongly enhances ionization near the cathode. Once a sufficiently large number of ionizations take place, the location of peak ionization forms a front and propagates toward the cathode with strong optical emission, which establishes the discharge. This process is essentially different from the well-known Townsend mechanism for slower discharges.

  18. Hybrid micromachining using a nanosecond pulsed laser and micro EDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sanha; Kim, Bo Hyun; Chung, Do Kwan; Shin, Hong Shik; Chu, Chong Nam

    2010-01-01

    Micro electrical discharge machining (micro EDM) is a well-known precise machining process that achieves micro structures of excellent quality for any conductive material. However, the slow machining speed and high tool wear are main drawbacks of this process. Though the use of deionized water instead of kerosene as a dielectric fluid can reduce the tool wear and increase the machine speed, the material removal rate (MRR) is still low. In contrast, laser ablation using a nanosecond pulsed laser is a fast and non-wear machining process but achieves micro figures of rather low quality. Therefore, the integration of these two processes can overcome the respective disadvantages. This paper reports a hybrid process of a nanosecond pulsed laser and micro EDM for micromachining. A novel hybrid micromachining system that combines the two discrete machining processes is introduced. Then, the feasibility and characteristics of the hybrid machining process are investigated compared to conventional EDM and laser ablation. It is verified experimentally that the machining time can be effectively reduced in both EDM drilling and milling by rapid laser pre-machining prior to micro EDM. Finally, some examples of complicated 3D micro structures fabricated by the hybrid process are shown.

  19. Time-resolved measurement of pressure evolution in underwater nanosecond discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Ilya; Guaitella, Olivier; Starikovskaia, Svetlana; Rousseau, Antoine

    2012-10-01

    Electrical discharges in water and other dielectric liquids have been extensively studied since almost fifty years, however reliable data on plasma parameters within the propagation phase is still missing. We report on shadowgraphic imaging and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) both with nanosecond time resolution of pulsed nanosecond discharge generated with point to wire electrode configuration. High voltage pulses of 10 kV and 30 ns duration (FWHM) are delivered by commercial pulse generator FPG 10 (FIG GmbH). Sub-millimeter discharge with filamentary structure develops at 50 km/s in axial direction of pin electrode. Using Hugoniot equations maximal discharge pressure at ignition can be obtained from shock wave front velocity. Analytical model of supersonic cavity expansion based on Kirkwood-Bethe approximation gives discharge pressure evolution from experimentally measured discharge channel expansion velocity profile. Thus, the pressure of 5 GPa is measured at the discharge ignition and drops drastically by the end of voltage pulse. Time-resolved OES spectrum shows a strong broadening of atomic Hydrogen (Balmer series) and oxygen (OI 777 nm) lines with almost continuum emission in the region 300-700 nm. Complex Hα and OI 777 profiles are due to combined contribution of Van Der Waals and Stark broadening. Electronic density can be deduced from lorentzian fit of Stark broadening and gives for electronic density 10^24 - 10^25 m-3.

  20. Needle-array to Plate DBD Plasma Using Sine AC and Nanosecond Pulse Excitations for Purpose of Improving Indoor Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Dezheng; Wang, Wenchun; Wang, Sen; Yuan, Hao; Zhao, Zilu; Sang, Chaofeng; Jia, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, needle-array to plate electrode configuration was employed to generate an atmospheric air diffuse discharge using both nanosecond pulse and sine AC voltage as excitation voltage for the purpose of improving indoor air quality. Different types of voltage sources and electrode configurations are employed to optimize electrical field distribution and improve discharge stability. Discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma gas temperatures in both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were compared and the discharge stability during long operating time were discussed. Compared with the discharge excited by sine AC voltage, the nanosecond pulsed discharge is more homogenous and stable, besides, the plasma gas temperature of nanosecond pulse discharge is much lower. Using packed-bed structure, where γ- Al2O3 pellets are filled in the electrode gap, has obvious efficacy in the production of homogenous discharge. Furthermore, both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were used for removing formaldehyde from flowing air. It shows that nanosecond pulse discharge has a significant advantage in energy cost. And the main physiochemical processes for the generation of active species and the degradation of formaldehyde were discussed. PMID:27125663

  1. Needle-array to Plate DBD Plasma Using Sine AC and Nanosecond Pulse Excitations for Purpose of Improving Indoor Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Dezheng; Wang, Wenchun; Wang, Sen; Yuan, Hao; Zhao, Zilu; Sang, Chaofeng; Jia, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, needle-array to plate electrode configuration was employed to generate an atmospheric air diffuse discharge using both nanosecond pulse and sine AC voltage as excitation voltage for the purpose of improving indoor air quality. Different types of voltage sources and electrode configurations are employed to optimize electrical field distribution and improve discharge stability. Discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma gas temperatures in both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were compared and the discharge stability during long operating time were discussed. Compared with the discharge excited by sine AC voltage, the nanosecond pulsed discharge is more homogenous and stable, besides, the plasma gas temperature of nanosecond pulse discharge is much lower. Using packed-bed structure, where γ- Al2O3 pellets are filled in the electrode gap, has obvious efficacy in the production of homogenous discharge. Furthermore, both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were used for removing formaldehyde from flowing air. It shows that nanosecond pulse discharge has a significant advantage in energy cost. And the main physiochemical processes for the generation of active species and the degradation of formaldehyde were discussed. PMID:27125663

  2. Needle-array to Plate DBD Plasma Using Sine AC and Nanosecond Pulse Excitations for Purpose of Improving Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Dezheng; Wang, Wenchun; Wang, Sen; Yuan, Hao; Zhao, Zilu; Sang, Chaofeng; Jia, Li

    2016-04-01

    In this study, needle-array to plate electrode configuration was employed to generate an atmospheric air diffuse discharge using both nanosecond pulse and sine AC voltage as excitation voltage for the purpose of improving indoor air quality. Different types of voltage sources and electrode configurations are employed to optimize electrical field distribution and improve discharge stability. Discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma gas temperatures in both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were compared and the discharge stability during long operating time were discussed. Compared with the discharge excited by sine AC voltage, the nanosecond pulsed discharge is more homogenous and stable, besides, the plasma gas temperature of nanosecond pulse discharge is much lower. Using packed-bed structure, where γ- Al2O3 pellets are filled in the electrode gap, has obvious efficacy in the production of homogenous discharge. Furthermore, both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were used for removing formaldehyde from flowing air. It shows that nanosecond pulse discharge has a significant advantage in energy cost. And the main physiochemical processes for the generation of active species and the degradation of formaldehyde were discussed.

  3. Nanosecond square pulse generation in fiber lasers with normal dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L. M.; Tang, D. Y.; Cheng, T. H.; Lu, C.

    2007-04-01

    We report on the generation of nanosecond square pulses in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser made of purely normal dispersive fibers. Different to the noise-like pulse operation of the laser, the generated square pulses are stable and have no internal structures. We show that the formation of the square pulse is due to the combined action of the pulse peak clamping effect caused by the cavity and the almost linear pulse propagation in the normal dispersive fibers.

  4. Conductivity of nanosecond discharges in nitrogen and sulfur hexafluoride studied by particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Levko, D.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2012-06-15

    The conductivity of the discharge gap during the nanosecond high-voltage pulsed discharge in nitrogen and sulfur hexafluoride is studied using particle-in-cell numerical simulations. It is shown that the conductivity in different locations of the cathode-anode gap is not uniform and that the conductivity is determined by both the runaway and the plasma electrons. In addition, it is shown that runaway electrons generated prior to the virtual cathode formation pre-ionize the discharge gap, which makes it conductive.

  5. Fast Rise Time and High Voltage Nanosecond Pulses at High Pulse Repetition Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kenneth E.; Ziemba, Timothy; Prager, James; Picard, Julian; Hashim, Akel

    2015-09-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT), Inc. is conducting research to decrease the rise time and increase the output voltage of the EHT Nanosecond Pulser product line, which allows for independently, user-adjustable output voltage (0 - 20 kV), pulse width (20 - 500 ns), and pulse repetition frequency (0 - 100 kHz). The goals are to develop higher voltage pulses (50 - 60 kV), decrease the rise time from 20 to below 10 ns, and maintain the high pulse repetition capabilities. These new capabilities have applications to pseudospark generation, corona production, liquid discharges, and nonlinear transmission line driving for microwave production. This work is supported in part by the US Navy SBIR program.

  6. Discharge pulse phenomenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A model was developed which places radiation induced discharge pulse results into a unified conceptual framework. Only two phenomena are required to interpret all space and laboratory results: (1) radiation produces large electrostatic fields inside insulators via the trapping of a net space charge density; and (2) the electrostatic fields initiate discharge streamer plasmas similar to those investigated in high voltage electrical insulation materials; these streamer plasmas generate the pulsing phenomena. The apparent variability and diversity of results seen is an inherent feature of the plasma streamer mechanism acting in the electric fields which is created by irradiation of the dielectrics. The implications of the model are extensive and lead to constraints over what can be done about spacecraft pulsing.

  7. Ignition in Ethanol-Containing Mixtures after Nanosecond Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosarev, Ilya; Pakhomov, Aleksandr; Kindysheva, Svetlana; Aleksandrov, Nikolay; Starikovskiy, Andrey; MIPT Team; PU Team

    2013-09-01

    We study experimentally and numerically kinetics of ethanol ignition after a high-voltage nanosecond discharge. Active particles are produced in a high-voltage nanosecond discharge to favor the ignition of C2H5OH-containing mixtures at elevated gas temperatures. We consider stoichiometric (φ = 1) and lean (φ = 0.5) C2H5OH:O2 mixtures (10%) diluted with Ar (90%). The gas temperature behind a reflected shock wave ranges from 1100 to 2000 K and the corresponding pressure ranges from 0.2 to 1 atm; these parameters are obtained from measured shock wave velocity. The ignition delay time is measured behind a reflected shock wave with and without the discharge using detection of CH radiation. Generation of the discharge plasma is shown to lead to an order of magnitude decrease in ignition delay time. It is shown that the observed effect of nonequilibrium discharge plasma on ethanol ignition is induced by chain reaction acceleration due to active species generation in the discharge rather than due to fast gas heating. The calculated ignition delay times are compared with the experimental data.

  8. Capacitor discharge pulse analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Michael Sean; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Tanner, Danelle Mary

    2013-08-01

    Capacitors used in firing sets and other high discharge current applications are discharge tested to verify performance of the capacitor against the application requirements. Parameters such as capacitance, inductance, rise time, pulse width, peak current and current reversal must be verified to ensure that the capacitor will meet the application needs. This report summarizes an analysis performed on the discharge current data to extract these parameters by fitting a second-order system model to the discharge data and using this fit to determine the resulting performance metrics. Details of the theory and implementation are presented. Using the best-fit second-order system model to extract these metrics results in less sensitivity to noise in the measured data and allows for direct extraction of the total series resistance, inductance, and capacitance.

  9. Energy distribution of runaway electrons generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Petin, V. K.; Rybka, D. V.; Shlyakhtun, S. V.

    2008-12-01

    The spectra of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air were investigated. The temporal characteristics of the beam current pulses, gap voltage, and discharge current in a gas diode were measured with a time resolution of ˜0.1 ns. A simple technique was developed for recovering electron spectra from the curves of beam attenuation by aluminum foils. The effect of the cathode design, electrode gap length, and generator parameters on the electron spectra were studied using seven setups. It is shown that generation of electrons with anomalously high energies requires the use of cathodes with increased curvature radius.

  10. Generation of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma by Repetitive Nanosecond Pulses in Air Using Water Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Tao; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Cheng; Jiang, Hui; Yan, Ping; Zhou, Yuanxiang

    2011-12-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) excitated by pulsed power is a promising method for producing nonthermal plasma at atmospheric pressure. Discharge characteristic in a DBD with salt water as electrodes by a home-made unipolar nanosecond-pulse power source is presented in this paper. The generator is capable of providing repetitive pulses with the voltage up to 30 kV and duration of 70 ns at a 300 Ω resistive load. Applied voltage and discharge current are measured under various experimental conditions. The DBD created between two liquid electrodes shows that the discharge is homogeneous and diffuse in the whole discharge regime. Spectra diagnosis is conducted by an optical emission spectroscopy. The air plasma has strong emission from nitrogen species below 400 nm, notably the nitrogen second positive system.

  11. A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained by nanosecond- and microsecond-pulse generators in helium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Cheng; Shao, Tao Wang, Ruixue; Yan, Ping; Zhou, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Yixiao

    2014-10-15

    Power source is an important parameter that can affect the characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs), because it can play a key role on the discharge characteristics and ionization process of APPJs. In this paper, the characteristics of helium APPJs sustained by both nanosecond-pulse and microsecond-pulse generators are compared from the aspects of plume length, discharge current, consumption power, energy, and optical emission spectrum. Experimental results showed that the pulsed APPJ was initiated near the high-voltage electrode with a small curvature radius, and then the stable helium APPJ could be observed when the applied voltage increased. Moreover, the discharge current of the nanosecond-pulse APPJ was larger than that of the microsecond-pulse APPJ. Furthermore, although the nanosecond-pulse generator consumed less energy than the microsecond-pulse generator, longer plume length, larger instantaneous power per pulse and stronger spectral line intensity could be obtained in the nanosecond-pulse excitation case. In addition, some discussion indicated that the rise time of the applied voltage could play a prominent role on the generation of APPJs.

  12. Enabling pulsed power technologies for the generation of intense, nanosecond electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Jason M.

    This dissertation focuses on the design and implementation of pulsed power systems with an emphasis on systems that generate high peak powers on nanosecond and subnanosecond timescales. These systems are an enabling technology for many areas of scientific research focused on the effects of intense, nanosecond pulsed electric fields or pulsed discharges on physical processes. Researchers at USC use these systems in a variety of diverse application areas, including research into ignition and combustion using nanosecond discharges, research into the effects of pulsed electric fields on biological systems, and research into the efficacy of cold plasma discharges for disinfection. Each of these applications has its own set of pulsed power parameters, and in most cases these parameters necessitate that the systems be custom developed. The bulk of what follows will address the design methodologies, materials, and implementation techniques required for systems capable of generating high current (20 -- 500 Amperes), high voltage (1 kV -- 100 kV), nanosecond pulses. These principles culminate in the presentation of a new, compact, solid state architecture, which has been implemented into a system called the Rapid Pulser. This architecture uses diode opening switches at the output to switch inductively stored energy into a resistive load. To switch properly, these diodes must be pumped in the forward and reverse directions by a current, and this new architecture introduces a pumping circuit that significantly improves pulse shape as well as reduces amplitude jitter, time jitter, complexity, cost, and size. At 1.6 kg, this is the lightest pulsed power system developed at USC's Pulsed Power Lab, which is significant because minimizing size and weight is necessary for applications focused on the ignition and combustion of fuels. A summary of research focused on magnetic and dielectric materials for nonlinear energy compression will also be presented. Nonlinearities inherent to

  13. Characterization of a DBD-Based Plasma Jet Using a Variable Pulse Width Nanosecond Pulser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemba, Timothy; Picard, Julian; Prager, James; Miller, Kenneth; Carscadden, John

    2015-11-01

    Most high voltage pulsers used to drive dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs), produce a single pulse shape (width and voltage), thus making it challenging to assess the effect of pulse shape on the production of different chemical species during a discharge. Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) has developed a high voltage nanosecond pulser that enables independent control of the output voltage, pulse width, and pulse repetition frequency. This pulser has been specifically designed to drive dielectric barrier discharges (DBD). EHT has used this pulser to conduct a parametric investigation of a DBD-based jet utilizing spectroscopic diagnostics. A better understanding of this parameter dependency can allow for more targeted and effective application of plasma in medical, environmental, industrial, and other applications. Results comparing DBD voltage and current waveforms with plasma spectrographic measurements will be presented.

  14. Atmospheric air homogenous DBD plasma excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse used for improving the hydrophilic property of polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dezheng; Wang, Wenchun; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Zhijie; Jia, Li; Dai, Leyang

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, an air homogenous dielectric barrier discharge excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse voltage is obtained and used for the surface modification of polypropylene non-woven fabric at atmospheric pressure. Compared with the DBD plasma excited by sine alternating current (AC) voltage, nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge exhibits obvious advantages, e.g., better discharge homogeneity, lower energy cost, and lower plasma gas temperature etc. Hence it presents the potential application in improving the hydrophilic property of polypropylene non-woven fabric with high energy efficiency and without surface damage. To reduce the water contact angle of the polypropylene surface from 145° to 110°, the average energy cost of the nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge is only about 0.1 J/cm2, which is about 1/20 of AC dielectric barrier discharge. On the other hand, the surface damage of non-woven fabric induced by nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma cannot be distinguished by SEM photographs.

  15. Fast magneto-optic switch based on nanosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Zi-Hua; Ruan, Jian-Jian; Lin, Shao-Han; Chen, Zhi-Min

    2011-09-01

    The paper studies an all fiber high-speed magneto-optic switch which includes an optical route, a nanosecond pulse generator, and a magnetic field module in order to reduce the switching time of the optical switch in the all optical network. A compact nanosecond pulse generator can be designed based on the special character of the avalanche transistor. The output current pulse of the nanosecond pulse generator is less than 5 ns, while the pulse amplitude is more than 100 V and the pulse width is about 10 to 20 ns, which is able to drive a high-speed magnetic field. A solenoid is used as the magnetic field module, and a bismuth-substituted rare-earth iron garnet single crystal is chosen as the Faraday rotator. By changing the direction of current in the solenoid quickly, the magnetization of the magneto-optic material is reversed, and the optical beam can be rapidly switched. The experimental results indicate that the switching time of the device is about 100 to 400 ns, which can partially meet the demand of the rapid development of the all optical network.

  16. Supershort avalanche electron beams and x-ray in high-pressure nanosecond discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. H.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.

    2008-10-01

    The properties of a supershort avalanche electron beam (S AEB) and X-ray radiation produced using a nanosecond volume discharge are examined. An electron beam of the runaway electrons with amplitude of ~ 50 A has been obtained in air atmospheric pressure. It is reported that S AEB is formed in the angle above 2π sr. Three groups of the runaway electrons are formed in a gas diode under atmospheric air pressure, when nanosecond voltage pulses with amplitude of hundreds of kilovolts are applied. The electron beam has been generated behind a 45 μm thick AlBe foil in SF6 and Xe under the pressure of 2 arm, and in He under the pressure of about 12 atm. The paper gives the analysis of a generation mechanism of SAEB.

  17. Double nanosecond pulses generation in ytterbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, V. P.; Lednev, V. N.; Pershin, S. M.; Samokhvalov, A. A.; Yakovlev, E. B.; Zhitenev, I. Yu.; Kliushin, A. N.

    2016-06-01

    Double pulse generation mode for nanosecond ytterbium fiber laser was developed. Two sequential 60-200 ns laser pulses with variable delay between them were generated by acousto-optic modulator opening with continuous diode pumping. A custom radio frequency generator was developed to produce two sequential "opening" radio pulses with a delay of 0.2-1 μs. It was demonstrated that double pulse generation did not decrease the average laser power while providing the control over the laser pulse power profile. Surprisingly, a greater peak power in the double pulse mode was observed for the second laser pulse. Laser crater studies and plasma emission measurements revealed an improved efficiency of laser ablation in the double pulse mode.

  18. Double nanosecond pulses generation in ytterbium fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Veiko, V P; Lednev, V N; Pershin, S M; Samokhvalov, A A; Yakovlev, E B; Zhitenev, I Yu; Kliushin, A N

    2016-06-01

    Double pulse generation mode for nanosecond ytterbium fiber laser was developed. Two sequential 60-200 ns laser pulses with variable delay between them were generated by acousto-optic modulator opening with continuous diode pumping. A custom radio frequency generator was developed to produce two sequential "opening" radio pulses with a delay of 0.2-1 μs. It was demonstrated that double pulse generation did not decrease the average laser power while providing the control over the laser pulse power profile. Surprisingly, a greater peak power in the double pulse mode was observed for the second laser pulse. Laser crater studies and plasma emission measurements revealed an improved efficiency of laser ablation in the double pulse mode. PMID:27370433

  19. Self-similar spatial structure of a streamer-free nanosecond discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelin, V. I.; Tren'kin, A. A.

    2008-03-01

    The microstructure of a current channel is experimentally found under the conditions when homogeneous air gaps are subjected to nanosecond voltage pulses in an electric field insufficient for streamer generation. As a possible mechanism of microstructure formation, instability of the ionization process at the avalanche stage leading to the formation of a self-similar spatial structure is considered. The fractal dimension of this structure is determined. In inhomogeneous gaps, the avalanche is shown to be unstable as well. The energy benefit of structuring is considered. It is demonstrated that the microstructure of streamer discharges in homogeneous gaps can also be treated in terms of the model suggested.

  20. Sub-nanosecond dynamics of atmospheric air discharge under highly inhomogeneous and transient electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardiveau, Pierre; Magne, Lionel; Pasquiers, Stephane; Jeanney, Pascal; Bournonville, Blandine

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the application of extreme overvoltages (>500%) in air gaps over less than a few nanoseconds bring us to reconsider the classical physics of streamer used to describe air discharges at atmospheric pressure. Non equilibrium discharges created by extremely transient and intense electric fields in standard conditions of pressure and temperature exhibit unusual diffuse and large structure. In point-to-plane electrode configurations, a plasma cloud is observed which properties depend on voltage pulses features (amplitude, rise time, length, and frequency) and electrodes properties (material, shape, and gap length). Our parametric experimental study is based on fast electrical characterization and sub-nanosecond imaging and shows the different stages of propagation of the cloud. This work details the conditions to maximize the cloud size without moving towards a multi-channel streamer regime. Based on the analysis and the Abel transform processing of the emission of excited states of nitrogen from the discharge, a focus is made on the structuration of the plasma cloud while it is propagating. It shows how much, according to the experimental conditions, the external electric field can be screened by the plasma and, inversely, how deep and how long a high electric field can be sustained in the gap, that is challenging for pulsed atmospheric plasmas applications. This work benefits from the financial support of the National Agency of Research within the framework of the project ANR-13-BS09-0014.

  1. Skyrmion Creation and Manipulation by Nano-Second Current Pulses.

    PubMed

    Yuan, H Y; Wang, X R

    2016-01-01

    Easy creation and manipulation of skyrmions is important in skyrmion based devices for data storage and information processing. We show that a nano-second current pulse alone is capable of creating/deleting and manipulating skyrmions in a spin valve with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer and broken chiral symmetry. Interestingly, for an in-plane magnetized fixed layer, the free layer changes from a single domain at zero current to a Neel wall at an intermediate current density. Reverse the current polarity, the Neel wall changes to its image inversion. A properly designed nano-second current pulse, that tends to convert one type of Neel walls to its image inversion, ends up to create a stable skyrmion without assistance of external fields. For a perpendicularly magnetized fixed layer, the skyrmion size can be effectively tuned by a current density. PMID:26934954

  2. Skyrmion Creation and Manipulation by Nano-Second Current Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, H. Y.; Wang, X. R.

    2016-01-01

    Easy creation and manipulation of skyrmions is important in skyrmion based devices for data storage and information processing. We show that a nano-second current pulse alone is capable of creating/deleting and manipulating skyrmions in a spin valve with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer and broken chiral symmetry. Interestingly, for an in-plane magnetized fixed layer, the free layer changes from a single domain at zero current to a Neel wall at an intermediate current density. Reverse the current polarity, the Neel wall changes to its image inversion. A properly designed nano-second current pulse, that tends to convert one type of Neel walls to its image inversion, ends up to create a stable skyrmion without assistance of external fields. For a perpendicularly magnetized fixed layer, the skyrmion size can be effectively tuned by a current density. PMID:26934954

  3. Nanosecond electric pulses trigger actin responses in plant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Berghoefer, Thomas; Eing, Christian; Flickinger, Bianca; Hohenberger, Petra; Wegner, Lars H.; Frey, Wolfgang; Nick, Peter

    2009-09-25

    We have analyzed the cellular effects of nanosecond pulsed electrical fields on plant cells using fluorescently tagged marker lines in the tobacco cell line BY-2 and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We observe a disintegration of the cytoskeleton in the cell cortex, followed by contraction of actin filaments towards the nucleus, and disintegration of the nuclear envelope. These responses are accompanied by irreversible permeabilization of the plasma membrane manifest as uptake of Trypan Blue. By pretreatment with the actin-stabilizing drug phalloidin, the detachment of transvacuolar actin from the cell periphery can be suppressed, and this treatment can also suppress the irreversible perforation of the plasma membrane. We discuss these findings in terms of a model, where nanosecond pulsed electric fields trigger actin responses that are key events in the plant-specific form of programmed cell death.

  4. Skyrmion Creation and Manipulation by Nano-Second Current Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, H. Y.; Wang, X. R.

    2016-03-01

    Easy creation and manipulation of skyrmions is important in skyrmion based devices for data storage and information processing. We show that a nano-second current pulse alone is capable of creating/deleting and manipulating skyrmions in a spin valve with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer and broken chiral symmetry. Interestingly, for an in-plane magnetized fixed layer, the free layer changes from a single domain at zero current to a Neel wall at an intermediate current density. Reverse the current polarity, the Neel wall changes to its image inversion. A properly designed nano-second current pulse, that tends to convert one type of Neel walls to its image inversion, ends up to create a stable skyrmion without assistance of external fields. For a perpendicularly magnetized fixed layer, the skyrmion size can be effectively tuned by a current density.

  5. Portable nanosecond pulsed air plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J. L.; Kong, M. G.

    2011-08-22

    Low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas are of great importance in many emerging biomedical and materials processing applications. The redundancy of a vacuum system opens the gateway for highly portable plasma systems, for which air ideally becomes the plasma-forming gas and remote plasma processing is preferred to ensure electrical safety. Typically, the gas temperature observed in air plasma greatly exceeds that suitable for the processing of thermally liable materials; a large plasma-sample distance offers a potential solution but suffers from a diluted downstream plasma chemistry. This Letter reports a highly portable air plasma jet system which delivers enhanced downstream chemistry without compromising the low temperature nature of the discharge, thus forming the basis of a powerful tool for emerging mobile plasma applications.

  6. Study on nanosecond pulsed electron beam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, D.; Kholodnaya, G.; Remnev, G.; Kaikanov, M.; Sazonov, R.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the findings of an investigation on volt-ampere characteristics of the diode with explosive emission cathodes of different constructions (blade metal-dielectric (MD-cathode) and solid graphite cathodes) under the change of the anode-cathode gap in wide ranges. The investigations were carried out using the TEA-500 pulsed electron accelerator. The total current of the electron beam was measured using the Faraday cup (FC). A 0.5-mm foiled glass fiber laminate was used as an emitting edge of the cathode in the experimental study with the explosive emission blade MD-cathode. Based on the obtained results, the conclusion was made that the graphite cathode has the most effective efficiency factor.

  7. Discharge current and current of supershort avalanche E-beam at volume nanosecond discharge in non-uniform electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Rybka, Dmitrii V.; Baksht, Evgenii H.; Kostyrya, Igor'D.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.

    2008-01-01

    The gas diode current-voltage characteristics at the voltage pulses applied from the RADAN and SM-3NS pulsers, and generation of an supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) have been studied experimentally in an inhomogeneous electric field upon a nanosecond breakdown in an air gap at atmospheric pressure. Displacement currents with amplitude over 1 kA have been observed and monitored. It is shown that the displacement current amplitude gets increased due to movement of the dense plasma front and charging of a "capacitor" formed between plasma and anode. The SAEB generation time relatively to the discharge current pulses and the gap voltage were determined in the experiments. It is shown that the SAEB current maximum at the pulser voltages of hundreds kV is registered on the discharge current pulse front, before the discharge current peak of the gas diode capacitance, and the delay time of these peaks is determined by the value of an interelectrode spacing. The delay time in case of a gap of 16 mm and air breakdown at atmospheric pressure was ~100 ps, and in case of 10 mm it was less than 50 ps.

  8. Controlled electron emission and vacuum breakdown with nanosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seznec, B.; Dessante, Ph; Caillault, L.; Babigeon, J.-L.; Teste, Ph; Minea, T.

    2016-06-01

    Vacuum electron sources exploiting field emission are generally operated in direct current (DC) mode. The development of nanosecond and sub-nanosecond pulsed power supplies facilitates the emission of compact bunches of electrons of high density. The breakdown level is taken as the highest value of the voltage avoiding the thermo-emission instability. The effect of such ultra-fast pulses on the breakdown voltage and the emitted electron current is discussed as a result of the thermo-emission modelling applied to a significant protrusion. It is found that pulsing very rapidly the vacuum breakdown occurs at higher voltage values than for the DC case, because it rises faster than the heat diffusion. In addition, the electron emission current increases significantly regardless of the theoretical approach is used. A comparative study of this theoretical work is discussed for several different forms of the protrusion (elliptic and hyperbolic) and different metals (hence varying the melting point), particularly refractory (tungsten) versus conductor (titanium). Pulsed mode operation can provide an increase on breakdown voltage (up to 18%) and a significant increase (up to 330%) of the electron extracted current due to its high non-linear dependency with the voltage, for the case for the case with a hyperbolic protrusion.

  9. TALIF measurements of oxygen atom density in the afterglow of a capillary nanosecond discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, A. V.; Lemainque, J.; Booth, J. P.; Starikovskaia, S. M.

    2015-04-01

    The atomic oxygen density has been measured in the afterglow of a capillary nanosecond discharge in 24-30 mbar synthetic air (N2 : O2 = 4 : 1) by the two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) technique, combined with absolute calibration by comparison with xenon TALIF. The discharge was initiated by a train of 30 ns FWHM pulses of alternating positive-negative-positive polarity, separated by 250 ns, with a train repetition frequency of 10 Hz. The amplitude of the first pulse was 10 kV in the cable. A flow of synthetic air through the tube provided complete gas renewal between pulse trains. The O-atom density measurements were made over the time interval 200 ns-2 µs after the initial pulse. The gas temperature was determined by analysis of the molecular nitrogen second positive system optical emission spectrum. The influence of the gas temperature on the atom density measurements, and the reactions producing O atoms, are discussed.

  10. Nanosecond pulsed fast neutron analysis - a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, T.

    1994-12-31

    The status of the nanosecond Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) at the time of the conference will be given. PFNA is a new technique researched and developed over the last several years to detect non-intrusively, a large variety of materials in containers as small as luggage or as large as trucks. The first full sized truck/container inspection system is being assembled at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Santa Clara facility for test and evaluation. Following this, the system will be operationally field tested at a designated government test bed in the Port of Tacoma, Washington.

  11. Efficient Formation of Ultracold Molecules with Chirped Nanosecond Pulses.

    PubMed

    Carini, J L; Kallush, S; Kosloff, R; Gould, P L

    2016-05-19

    We describe experiments and associated quantum simulations involving the production of ultracold (87)Rb2 molecules with nanosecond pulses of frequency-chirped light. With appropriate chirp parameters, the formation is dominated by coherent processes. For a positive chirp, excited molecules are produced by photoassociation early in the chirp, and then transferred into high vibrational levels of the lowest triplet state by stimulated emission later in the chirp. Generally good agreement is seen between the data and the simulations. Shaping of the chirp can lead to a significant enhancement of the formation rate. Further improvements using higher intensities and different intermediate states are predicted. PMID:26652642

  12. Detection of x-ray emission in a nanosecond discharge in air at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Shao, Tao; Yu, Yang; Niu, Zheng; Yan, Ping; Zhou, Yuanxiang

    2010-12-01

    Measurement of x-ray emission is an important parameter to investigate runaway behavior of fast electrons produced in nanosecond-pulse gas discharge. An online detection system of x rays is described in this paper, and the system consists of an x-ray detector with NaI (Tl) scintillator and photomultiplier tube, and an integrated multichannel analyzer. The system is responsible for detecting x-ray emission signal, processing the detected signals, and scaling the energy distribution. The calibration results show that every channel of the detection system represents a given x-ray energy and various x rays can be divided into different energy ranges between 10 and 130 keV. For a repetitive nanosecond-pulse breakdown between highly nonuniform gaps in open air, an energy distribution is obtained using the online detection system. It shows that the x-ray emission is a continuous spectrum and the x rays of above 60 keV dominate in the detected energy distribution. PMID:21198017

  13. Interaction of nanosecond ultraviolet laser pulses with reactive dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wetering, F. M. J. H.; Oosterbeek, W.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Gibert, T.; Mikikian, M.; Rabat, H.; Kovačević, E.; Berndt, J.

    2016-05-01

    Even though UV laser pulses that irradiate a gas discharge are small compared to the plasma volume (≲3%) and plasma-on time (≲6 × 10-6%), they are found to dramatically change the discharge characteristics on a global scale. The reactive argon-acetylene plasma allows the growth of nanoparticles with diameters up to 1 μm, which are formed inside the discharge volume due to spontaneous polymerization reactions. It is found that the laser pulses predominantly accelerate and enhance the coagulation phase and are able to suppress the formation of a dust void.

  14. Pulsed discharge production Ar* metastables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jiande; Heaven, Michael C.; Emmons, Daniel; Perram, Glen P.; Weeks, David E.; Bailey, William F.

    2016-03-01

    The production of relatively high densities of Ar* metastables (>1012 cm-3) in Ar/He mixtures, at total pressures close to 1 atm, is essential for the efficient operation of an optically pumped Ar* laser. We have used emission spectroscopy and diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurements to observe the production and decay of Ar* in a parallel plate pulsed discharge. With discharge pulses of 1 μs duration we find that metastable production is dominated by processes occurring within the first 100 ns of the gas break-down. Application of multiple, closely spaced discharge pulses yields insights concerning conditions that favor metastable production. This information has been combined with time-resolved measurements of voltage and current. The experimental results and preliminary modeling of the discharge kinetics are presented.

  15. Impact of nanosecond pulsed electric fields on primary hippocampal neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Caleb C.; Payne, Jason A.; Kuipers, Marjorie A.; Thompson, Gary L.; Wilmink, Gerald J.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2012-02-01

    Cellular exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) are believed to cause immediate creation of nanopores in the plasma membrane. These nanopores enable passage of small ions, but remain impermeable to larger molecules like propidium iodide. Previous work has shown that nanopores are stable for minutes after exposure, suggesting that formation of nanopores in excitable cells could lead to prolonged action potential inhibition. Previously, we measured the formation of nanopores in neuroblastoma cells by measuring the influx of extracellular calcium by preloading cells with Calcium Green-AM. In this work, we explored the impact of changing the width of a single nsPEF, at constant amplitude, on uptake of extracellular calcium ions by primary hippocampal neurons (PHN). Calcium Green was again used to measure the influx of extracellular calcium and FM1-43 was used to monitor changes in membrane conformation. The observed thresholds for nanopore formation in PHN by nsPEF were comparable to those measured in neuroblastoma. This work is the first study of nsPEF effects on PHN and strongly suggests that neurological inhibition by nanosecond electrical pulses is highly likely at doses well below irreversible damage.

  16. Anode initiated impulse breakdown in water: the dependence on pulse rise time for nanosecond and sub-nanosecond pulses and initiation mechanism based on electrostriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seepersad, Yohan; Fridman, Alexander; Dobrynin, Danil

    2015-10-01

    The effect of the voltage rise time on nanosecond and sub-nanosecond impulse breakdown of distilled water is studied. The dependence of anode initiated streamer inception on this parameter is shown to be more intricate than previously reported, particularly as it relates to mechanisms directly in the liquid phase. Dynamics of the emission phase for sub-nanosecond pulses with 600 ps rise time are presented to enable comparison with previous work on nanosecond initiation features. Schlieren imaging is also used to show the development of optical density perturbations and rarefactions as a result of electrostriction in the liquid which were previously found for nanosecond pulses as well. The mechanism of nanopore generation in the liquid due to fast impulses proposed by Shneider, Pekker and Fridman is used to explain the results.

  17. Production of picosecond, kilojoule, and petawatt laser pulses via Raman amplification of nanosecond pulses.

    PubMed

    Trines, R M G M; Fiúza, F; Bingham, R; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O; Cairns, R A; Norreys, P A

    2011-09-01

    Raman amplification in plasma has been promoted as a means of compressing picosecond optical laser pulses to femtosecond duration to explore the intensity frontier. Here we show for the first time that it can be used, with equal success, to compress laser pulses from nanosecond to picosecond duration. Simulations show up to 60% energy transfer from pump pulse to probe pulse, implying that multikilojoule ultraviolet petawatt laser pulses can be produced using this scheme. This has important consequences for the demonstration of fast-ignition inertial confinement fusion. PMID:21981507

  18. Ablation of Myocardial Tissue With Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Fei; Varghese, Frency; Pakhomov, Andrei G.; Semenov, Iurii; Xiao, Shu; Philpott, Jonathan; Zemlin, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Ablation of cardiac tissue is an essential tool for the treatment of arrhythmias, particularly of atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ventricular tachycardia. Current ablation technologies suffer from substantial recurrence rates, thermal side effects, and long procedure times. We demonstrate that ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) can potentially overcome these limitations. Methods We used optical mapping to monitor electrical activity in Langendorff-perfused New Zealand rabbit hearts (n = 12). We repeatedly inserted two shock electrodes, spaced 2–4 mm apart, into the ventricles (through the entire wall) and applied nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) (5–20 kV/cm, 350 ns duration, at varying pulse numbers and frequencies) to create linear lesions of 12–18 mm length. Hearts were stained either with tetrazolium chloride (TTC) or propidium iodide (PI) to determine the extent of ablation. Some stained lesions were sectioned to obtain the three-dimensional geometry of the ablated volume. Results In all animals (12/12), we were able to create nonconducting lesions with less than 2 seconds of nsPEF application per site and minimal heating (< 0.2°C) of the tissue. The geometry of the ablated volume was smoother and more uniform throughout the wall than typical for RF ablation. The width of the lesions could be controlled up to 6 mm via the electrode spacing and the shock parameters. Conclusions Ablation with nsPEFs is a promising alternative to radiofrequency (RF) ablation of AF. It may dramatically reduce procedure times and produce more consistent lesion thickness than RF ablation. PMID:26658139

  19. Nanosecond electric pulses deprive zinc ions of carboxypeptidase G2.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tinghe; Fu, Xiao

    2015-02-01

    Nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP, 10kV/cm with a pulse duration of 8, 16 or 24ns) inhibited the activity of carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2), a zinc-dependent homodimer; the relative activity was <20% when the total exposure time was >120s. No alterations were detected in electrophoresis, chromatography, mass spectroscopy and circular dichroism, thus demonstrating intactness of the apoenzyme. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry indicated that zinc levels were 3.30μg/mg protein in control CPG2, and decreased to 0.40, 0.12 or 0.38μg/mg protein after 240s of 8-, 16- or 24-ns pulses, respectively. In CPG2 exposed to 240s of 8-, 16- and 24-ns pulses, the reloading of zinc with redialysis recovered the activity to 94.7±3.4%, 84.0±5.2% and 81.7±7.0%, respectively (p=0.0853, 0.0741, 0.0668). These data demonstrated that nsEP inhibited CPG2 via removal of zinc, and that nsEP can be used to modulate CPG2. PMID:25049063

  20. Generation of nanosecond neutron pulses in vacuum accelerating tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenko, A. N.; Shikanov, A. E.; Rashchikov, V. I.; Ryzhkov, V. I.; Shatokhin, V. L.

    2014-06-01

    The generation of neutron pulses with a duration of 1-100 ns using small vacuum accelerating tubes is considered. Two physical models of acceleration of short deuteron bunches in pulse neutron generators are described. The dependences of an instantaneous neutron flux in accelerating tubes on the parameters of pulse neutron generators are obtained using computer simulation. The results of experimental investigation of short-pulse neutron generators based on the accelerating tube with a vacuum-arc deuteron source, connected in the circuit with a discharge peaker, and an accelerating tube with a laser deuteron source, connected according to the Arkad'ev-Marx circuit, are given. In the experiments, the neutron yield per pulse reached 107 for a pulse duration of 10-100 ns. The resultant experimental data are in satisfactory agreement with the results of computer simulation.

  1. Fluid modeling of a high-voltage nanosecond pulsed xenon microdischarge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2016-07-01

    A computational modeling study of high-voltage nanosecond pulsed microdischarge in xenon gas at 10 atm is presented. The discharge is observed to develop as two streamers originating from the cathode and the anode, and propagating toward each other until they merge to form a single continuous discharge channel. The peak plasma density obtained in the simulations is ˜1024 m-3, i.e., the ionization degree of plasma does not exceed 1%. The influence of the initial gas pre-ionization is established. It is seen that an increase in the seeded plasma density results in an increase in the streamer propagation velocity and an increase in the plasma density obtained after the merging of two streamers.

  2. Spectroscopic and electrical characters of SBD plasma excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zi-Lu; Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Yuan, Hao; Zhang, Li; Wang, Sen; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Zhang, Shuai

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an atmospheric surface barrier discharge (SBD) generated by annular electrodes in quartz tube is presented through employing bipolar nanosecond pulse voltage in air. The discharge images, waveforms of pulse voltage and discharge current, and optical emission spectra emitted from the discharges are recorded and calculated. A spectra simulation method is developed to separate the overlap of the secondary diffraction spectra which are produced by grating in monochromator, and N2 (B3Πg → A3Σu+) and O (3p5P → 3s5S2o) are extracted. The effects of pulse voltage and discharge power on the emission intensities of OH (A2Σ+ → X2Пi), N2+ (B2Σu+ → X2Σg+), N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg), N2 (B3Πg → A3Σu+), and O (3p5P → 3s5S2o) are investigated. It is found that increasing the pulse peak voltage can lead to an easier formation of N2+ (B2Σu+) than that of N2 (C3Πu). Additionally, vibrational and rotational temperatures of the plasma are determined by comparing the experimental and simulated spectra of N2+ (B2Σu+ → X2Σg+), and the results show that the vibrational and rotational temperatures are 3250 ± 20 K and 350 ± 5 K under the pulse peak voltage of 28 kV, respectively.

  3. Spectroscopic and electrical characters of SBD plasma excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse in atmospheric air.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zi-Lu; Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Yuan, Hao; Zhang, Li; Wang, Sen; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Zhang, Shuai

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, an atmospheric surface barrier discharge (SBD) generated by annular electrodes in quartz tube is presented through employing bipolar nanosecond pulse voltage in air. The discharge images, waveforms of pulse voltage and discharge current, and optical emission spectra emitted from the discharges are recorded and calculated. A spectra simulation method is developed to separate the overlap of the secondary diffraction spectra which are produced by grating in monochromator, and N2 (B(3)Πg→A(3)Σu(+)) and O (3p(5)P→3s(5)S2(o)) are extracted. The effects of pulse voltage and discharge power on the emission intensities of OH (A(2)Σ(+)→X(2)Пi), N2(+) (B(2)Σu(+)→X(2)Σg(+)), N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg), N2 (B(3)Πg→A(3)Σu(+)), and O (3p(5)P→3s(5)S2(o)) are investigated. It is found that increasing the pulse peak voltage can lead to an easier formation of N2(+) (B(2)Σu(+)) than that of N2 (C(3)Πu). Additionally, vibrational and rotational temperatures of the plasma are determined by comparing the experimental and simulated spectra of N2(+) (B(2)Σu(+)→X(2)Σg(+)), and the results show that the vibrational and rotational temperatures are 3250±20K and 350±5K under the pulse peak voltage of 28kV, respectively. PMID:26924210

  4. Accessing defect dynamics using intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Guo, H.; Hosemann, P.; Lidia, S.; Minor, A. M.; Seidl, P. A.; Schenkel, T.

    2015-06-18

    Gaining in-situ access to relaxation dynamics of radiation induced defects will lead to a better understanding of materials and is important for the verification of theoretical models and simulations. We show preliminary results from experiments at the new Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that will enable in-situ access to defect dynamics through pump-probe experiments. Here, the unique capabilities of the NDCX-II accelerator to generate intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams are utilized. Preliminary data of channeling experiments using lithium and potassium ions and silicon membranes are shown. We compare these data to simulation results using Crystal Trim. Furthermore, we discuss the improvements to the accelerator to higher performance levels and the new diagnostics tools that are being incorporated.

  5. Accessing defect dynamics using intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Persaud, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Guo, H.; Hosemann, P.; Lidia, S.; Minor, A. M.; Seidl, P. A.; Schenkel, T.

    2015-06-18

    Gaining in-situ access to relaxation dynamics of radiation induced defects will lead to a better understanding of materials and is important for the verification of theoretical models and simulations. We show preliminary results from experiments at the new Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that will enable in-situ access to defect dynamics through pump-probe experiments. Here, the unique capabilities of the NDCX-II accelerator to generate intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams are utilized. Preliminary data of channeling experiments using lithium and potassium ions and silicon membranes are shown. We compare these data to simulation results using Crystalmore » Trim. Furthermore, we discuss the improvements to the accelerator to higher performance levels and the new diagnostics tools that are being incorporated.« less

  6. Fluorescence of silicon nanoparticles prepared by nanosecond pulsed laser

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chunyang Sui, Xin; Yang, Fang; Ma, Wei; Li, Jishun; Xue, Yujun; Fu, Xing

    2014-03-15

    A pulsed laser fabrication method is used to prepare fluorescent microstructures on silicon substrates in this paper. A 355 nm nanosecond pulsed laser micromachining system was designed, and the performance was verified and optimized. Fluorescence microscopy was used to analyze the photoluminescence of the microstructures which were formed using the pulsed laser processing technique. Photoluminescence spectra of the microstructure reveal a peak emission around 500 nm, from 370 nm laser irradiation. The light intensity also shows an exponential decay with irradiation time, which is similar to attenuation processes seen in porous silicon. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the microstructure in the fabricated region was also analyzed with multifunction scanning electron microscopy. Spherical particles are produced with diameters around 100 nm. The structure is compared with porous silicon. It is likely that these nanoparticles act as luminescence recombination centers on the silicon surface. The small diameter of the particles modifies the band gap of silicon by quantum confinement effects. Electron-hole pairs recombine and the fluorescence emission shifts into the visible range. The chemical elements of the processed region are also changed during the interaction between laser and silicon. Oxidation and carbonization play an important role in the enhancement of fluorescence emission.

  7. Mechanism study of skin tissue ablation by nanosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qiyin

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms in laser tissue ablation is essential to improve clinical laser applications by reducing collateral damage and laser pulse energy requirement. The motive of this dissertation is to study skin tissue ablation by nanosecond laser pulses in a wide spectral region from near-infrared to ultraviolet for a clear understanding of the mechanism that can be used to improve future design of the pulsed lasers for dermatology and plastic surgery. Multiple laser and optical configurations have been constructed to generate 9 to 12ns laser pulses with similar profiles at 1064. 532, 266 and 213nm for this study of skin tissue ablation. Through measurements of ablation depth as a function cf laser pulse energy, the 589nm spectral line in the secondary radiation from ablated skin tissue samples was identified as the signature of the occurrence of ablation. Subsequently, this spectral signature has been used to investigate the probabilistic process of the ablation near the threshold at the four wavelengths. Measurements of the ablation probability were conducted as a function of the electrical field strength of the laser pulse and the ablation thresholds in a wide spectral range from 1064nm to 213nm were determined. Histology analysis and an optical transmission method were applied in assessing of the ablation depth per pulse to study the ablation process at irradiance levels higher than threshold. Because more than 70% of the wet weight of the skin tissue is water, optical breakdown and backscattering in water was also investigated along with a nonlinear refraction index measurement using a z-scan technique. Preliminary studies on ablation of a gelatin based tissue phantom are also reported. The current theoretical models describing ablation of soft tissue ablation by short laser pulses were critically reviewed. Since none of the existing models was found capable of explaining the experimental results, a new plasma-mediated model was developed

  8. Considering effects of nanosecond pulsed electric fields on proteins.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Stephen J

    2015-06-01

    Most, if not all, effects of intense, pulsed electric fields are analyzed in terms of electrical charging of plasma membranes and/or subcellular membranes. However, not all cell responses from nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) are fully explained by poration of cell membranes. Observations that nsPEFs induce a Ca2-dependent dissipation of the mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm), which is enhanced when high frequency components are present in fast rise-fall waveforms, are not compatible with a poration event. Ca(2+) is shown to have little or no effect on propidium iodide uptake as a measure of plasma membrane poration and consequently intracellular membranes. Since most if not all Ca(2+)-regulated events are mediated by proteins, actions of nsPEFs on a protein(s) that regulate and/or affect the mitochondria membrane potential are possible. To show that nsPEFs can directly affect proteins, nsPEFs non-thermally inactivated the catalytic (phosphotransferase) activity of the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which is the prototype of the protein kinase superfamily that share a common catalytic mechanism and whose functions are highly dependent on their structure. These studies present indirect and direct evidences that nsPEFs can affect proteins and their functions, at least in part, by affecting their structure. PMID:25218277

  9. Effects of nanosecond pulse electric fields on cellular elasticity.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Diganta; Asmar, Anthony; Stacey, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effects of a single 60 nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) of low (15 kV/cm) and high (60 kV/cm) field strengths on cellular morphology and membrane elasticity in Jurkat cells using fluorescent microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We performed force displacement measurements on cells using AFM and calculated the Young's modulus for membrane elasticity. Differential effects were observed depending upon pulsing conditions. We found that a single nsPEF of low field strength did not induce any apparent cytoskeletal breakdown and had minor morphological changes. Interestingly, force measurements and calculation of Young's modulus showed a significant decrease in membrane elasticity. A single nsPEF of high field strength induced stark morphological changes due to disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and a marked decrease in elasticity likely caused by irreversible membrane damage. We suggest that the cellular morphology is mainly dependent on stabilization by the actin cytoskeleton, while the elasticity changes are partially dependent on the cytoskeletal integrity. PMID:25732004

  10. Nanosecond laser ablation for pulsed laser deposition of yttria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sucharita

    2013-09-01

    A thermal model to describe high-power nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of yttria (Y2O3) has been developed. This model simulates ablation of material occurring primarily through vaporization and also accounts for attenuation of the incident laser beam in the evolving vapor plume. Theoretical estimates of process features such as time evolution of target temperature distribution, melt depth and ablation rate and their dependence on laser parameters particularly for laser fluences in the range of 6 to 30 J/cm2 are investigated. Calculated maximum surface temperatures when compared with the estimated critical temperature for yttria indicate absence of explosive boiling at typical laser fluxes of 10 to 30 J/cm2. Material ejection in large fragments associated with explosive boiling of the target needs to be avoided when depositing thin films via the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique as it leads to coatings with high residual porosity and poor compaction restricting the protective quality of such corrosion-resistant yttria coatings. Our model calculations facilitate proper selection of laser parameters to be employed for deposition of PLD yttria corrosion-resistive coatings. Such coatings have been found to be highly effective in handling and containment of liquid uranium.

  11. An investigation into the cumulative breakdown process of polymethylmethacrylate in quasi-uniform electric field under nanosecond pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Liang; Cang Su, Jian; Bo Zhang, Xi; Feng Pan, Ya; Min Wang, Li; Peng Fang, Jin; Sun, Xu; Lui, Rui

    2013-08-15

    A group of complete images on the discharge channel developed in PMMA in quasi-uniform electric field under nanosecond pulses are observed with an on-line transmission microscope. The characteristics of the cumulative breakdown process are also generalized, which include initiating from the vicinity of the cathode, developing to the anode with a branch-like shape, and taking on a wormhole appearance when final breakdown occurs. The concluded characteristics are explained by referring to the conceptions of “low density domain” and “free radical” and considering the initial discharge channel as a virtual needle. The characteristics are helpful for designers to enhance the lifetime of insulators employed on a nanosecond time scale.

  12. Thermal and hydrodynamic effects of nanosecond discharges in atmospheric pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, D. A.; Shneider, M. N.; Lacoste, D. A.; Laux, C. O.

    2014-06-01

    We present quantitative schlieren measurements and numerical analyses of the thermal and hydrodynamic effects of a nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) discharge in atmospheric pressure air at 300 and 1000 K. The plasma is created by voltage pulses at an amplitude of 10 kV and a duration of 10 ns, applied at a frequency of 1-10 kHz between two pin electrodes separated by 2 or 4 mm. The electrical energy of each pulse is of the order of 1 mJ. We recorded single-shot schlieren images starting from 50 ns to 3 µs after the discharge. The time-resolved images show the shock-wave propagation and the expansion of the heated gas channel. Gas density profiles simulated in 1D cylindrical coordinates have been used to reconstruct numerical schlieren images for comparison with experimental ones. We propose an original method to determine the initial gas temperature and the fraction of energy transferred into ultrafast gas heating, using a comparison of the contrast profiles obtained from experimental and numerical schlieren images. This method is found to be much more sensitive to these parameters than the direct comparison of measured and predicted shock-wave and heated channel radii. The results show that a significant fraction of the electric energy is converted into gas heating within a few tens of ns. The values range from about 25% at a reduced electric field of 164 Td to about 75% at 270 Td, with a strong dependance on the initial gas temperature. These experiments support the fast heating processes via dissociative quenching of N2(B3 Πg, C3 Πu) by molecular oxygen.

  13. Retinal threshold studies for nanosecond and picosecond visible laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, William P.; DiCarlo, Cheryl D.; Noojin, Gary D.; Stolarski, David J.; Amnotte, Rodney E.; Smith, Audrey B.; Rogers, Mark E.; Cain, Clarence P.

    1995-05-01

    Threshold measurements for Minimum Visible Lesions (MVL) at the retina are reported for 60 picoseconds (ps) and 4 nanoseconds (ns), single laser pulses in rhesus monkey eyes using a visible wavelength of 532 nanometers (nm) from a doubled Nd:YAG laser. The 50% probability for damage (ED50) dosages are calculated for 1 hour and 24 hour post exposures using 95% fiducial limits. For both pulsewidths, the threshold values calculated by probit analysis decrease between the 1 hour and 24 hour ophthalmoscopic evaluations. The ED50 value determined for the 60 ps pulsewidth was less than half the value at 4 ns (0.43 (mu) J/60 ps vs. 0.90 (mu) J/4 ns at 24 hours) for both readings. Of the 136 exposures for pulse energies ranging from 0.03 to 5.0 (mu) J no hemorrhagic lesions were produced for either pulsewidth studied. However, at 6.6 (mu) J one intraretinal hemorrhagic lesion was observed for 60 ps. The slope of the probit curve was higher for 60 ps when compared with the 4 ns value (3.03 at 60 ps vs. 2.68 at 4 ns). MVL threshold doses calculated are comparable with those reported in the literature. However, the 4 ns MVL values is less than one order of magnitude (a factor 4.7) above the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) level as defined by the 'American National Standard For The Safe Use Of Lasers', ANSI Z136.1-19932. We present the current MVL data as it compares with previous data obtained for picosecond and femtosecond laser pulse thresholds and provide a preliminary assessment of how the ANSI MPE standard might be amended.

  14. High-power megavolt pulse generator with nanosecond rise time

    SciTech Connect

    Basov, G.F.; Bastrikov, A.N.; Koval`chuk, B.M.

    1995-10-01

    A pulse generator with a power of 0.1 TW, an amplitude of up to 2 MV and {approximately}1.5-nsec rise time is described. A Marx voltage pulse generator charges a low-inductance capacitor (1.8 nF) and a radial line (0.9 nF) to a voltage of {approximately}2 MV in 200 nsec. At the peak voltage, a water switch is actuated at the center of the radial line resulting in {approximately} 2.5-MV voltage pulse at the end of the line. This pulse propagates along the oil-insulated line. The line is connected to an oil-filled peaking switch with a metal diaphragm, which reduces the transfer capacitance of the discharge gap to 5 pF to match the radial-line wave impedance to the load connected to the switch output. A crossover switch may be used when operating in the short-pulse mode. A pulse with a width of up to 20 nsec has been generated across a load equivalent matched to the line.

  15. Bipolar nanosecond electric pulses are less efficient at electropermeabilization and killing cells than monopolar pulses

    PubMed Central

    Ibey, Bennett L.; Ullery, Jody; Pakhomova, Olga N.; Roth, Caleb C.; Semenov, Iurri; Beier, Hope T.; Tarango, Melissa; Xiao, Shu; Schoenbach, Karl; Pakhomov, Andrei G.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that bipolar (BP) electric pulses in the microsecond range are more effective at permeabilizing cells while maintaining similar cell survival rates as compared to monopolar (MP) pulse equivalents. In this paper, we investigated whether the same advantage existed for BP nanosecond-pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) as compared to MP nsPEF. To study permeabilization effectiveness, MP or BP pulses were delivered to single Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and the response of three dyes, Calcium Green-1, Propidium Iodide (PI), and FM1-43, was measured by confocal microscopy. Results show that BP pulses were less effective at increasing intracellular calcium concentration or PI uptake and cause less membrane reorganization (FM1-43) than MP pulses. Twenty-four hour survival was measured in three cell lines (Jurkat, U937, CHO) and over ten times more BP pulses were required to induce death as compared to MP pulses of similar magnitude and duration. Flow cytometry analysis of CHO cells after exposure (15 minutes) revealed that to achieve positive FITC-Annexin V and PI expression, ten times more BP pulses were required than MP pulses. Overall, unlike longer pulse exposures, BP nsPEF exposures proved far less effective at both membrane permeabilization and cell killing than MP nsPEF. PMID:24332942

  16. The influence of the repetition rate on the nanosecond pulsed pin-to-pin microdischarges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bang-Dou; Takashima, Keisuke; Zhu, Xi-Ming; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2014-10-01

    The effect of repetition rate on a nanosecond atmospheric pressure discharge is investigated. The discharge is generated between two pins in a mixture of Ne and Ar. The voltage, current, power waveforms and the temporally and spatially resolved electron density and an ‘effective’ electron temperature are measured, with a pulse interval between 1.5 and 200 µs. It is found that not only does the repetition rate have a strong influence on the breakdown voltage and the peak discharge power, but it can also affect the rise rate of the volume averaged electron density and its peak value. Temporally and spatially resolved measurement of the electron density and the effective electron temperature show that the spatial distributions of both quantities are also influenced by the repetition rate. In the initial discharge period of all cases, the sharp rise of the electron density correlates with the drastic drop of the effective electron temperature. It is suggested that the residual charges have a strong impact on the axial distribution of the electric field and energetic electrons between the electrodes during the breakdown period, as illustrated by a simple sheath model.

  17. A high voltage nanosecond pulser with independently adjustable output voltage, pulse width, and pulse repetition frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, James; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Carscadden, John; Slobodov, Ilia

    2014-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT) is developing a high voltage nanosecond pulser capable of generating microwaves and non-equilibrium plasmas for plasma medicine, material science, enhanced combustion, drag reduction, and other research applications. The EHT nanosecond pulser technology is capable of producing high voltage (up to 60 kV) pulses (width 20-500 ns) with fast rise times (<10 ns) at high pulse repetition frequency (adjustable up to 100 kHz) for CW operation. The pulser does not require the use of saturable core magnetics, which allows for the output voltage, pulse width, and pulse repetition frequency to be fully adjustable, enabling researchers to explore non-equilibrium plasmas over a wide range of parameters. A magnetic compression stage can be added to improve the rise time and drive lower impedance loads without sacrificing high pulse repetition frequency operation. Work supported in part by the US Navy under Contract Number N00014-14-P-1055 and the US Air Force under Contract Number FA9550-14-C-0006.

  18. A nanosecond surface dielectric barrier discharge at elevated pressures: time-resolved electric field and efficiency of initiation of combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosarev, I. N.; Khorunzhenko, V. I.; Mintoussov, E. I.; Sagulenko, P. N.; Popov, N. A.; Starikovskaia, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    We study a nanosecond surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) initiated by negative or positive polarity pulses 10-15 kV in amplitude in a cable, 25-30 ns FWHM, 5 ns rise time, in the regime of a single shot or 3 Hz repetitive frequency. Discharge parameters, namely spatial structure of the discharge and time- and space-resolved electric field are studied in a N2 : O2 = 4 : 1 mixture for P = 1-5 atm. The possibility of igniting a combustible mixture with the help of an SDBD is demonstrated using the example of a stoichiometric C2H6 : O2 mixture at ambient initial temperature and at 1 atm pressure. Flame propagation and ignited volume as a function of time are compared experimentally for two discharge geometries: SDBD and pin-to-pin configurations at the same shape and amplitude of the incident pulse. It is shown that the SDBD can be considered as a multi-point ignition system with maximum energy release near the high-voltage electrode. Numerical modeling of the discharge and subsequent combustion kinetics for the SDBD conditions is performed. The discharge action leads to the production of atoms and radicals as well as to fast gas heating, due to the relaxation of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. The calculated ignition delay time is in reasonable agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Damage to dry plasmid DNA induced by nanosecond XUV-laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nováková, Eva; Davídková, Marie; Vyšín, Ludék; Burian, Tomáš; Grisham, Michael E.; Heinbuch, Scott; Rocca, Jorge J.; Juha, Libor

    2011-06-01

    Ionizing radiation induces a variety of DNA damages including single-strand breaks (SSBs), double-strand breaks (DSBs), abasic sites, modified sugar and bases. Most theoretical and experimental studies have been focused on DNA strand scissions, in particular production of DNA double-strand breaks. DSBs have been proven to be a key damage at a molecular level responsible for the formation of chromosomal aberrations, leading often to cell death. The complexity of lesions produced in DNA by ionizing radiations is thought to depend on the amount of energy deposited at the site of each lesion. We have studied the nature of DNA damage induced directly by the pulsed 46.9 nm radiation provided by a capillary-discharge Ne-like Ar laser (CDL). Different surface doses were delivered with a repetition rate of a few Hz and an average pulse energy ~ 1 μJ. A simple model DNA molecule, i.e., dried closed-circular plasmid DNA (pBR322), was irradiated. The agarose gel electrophoresis method was used for determination of both SSB and DSB yields. Results are compared with a previous study of plasmid DNA irradiated with a single sub-nanosecond 1-keV X-ray pulse produced by a large-scale, double-stream gas puff target, illuminated by sub-kJ, near-infrared (NIR) focused laser pulses at the PALS facility (Prague Asterix Laser System).

  20. Diamondoid synthesis by nanosecond pulsed microplasmas generated in He at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauss, Sven; Shizuno, Tomoki; Oshima, Fumito; Pai, David Z.; Terashima, Kazuo

    2012-10-01

    Diamondoids are sp^3 hybridized carbon nanomaterials that possess interesting properties making them attractive for biotechnology, medicine, and opto- and nanoelectronics. So far, larger diamondoids have been synthesized using the smallest diamondoid (adamantane) as a precursor. For this electric discharges and pulsed laser plasmas generated in supercritical fluids, and hot filament chemical vapor deposition have been used, but these methods are difficult to realize or very time-consuming. We have developed a more convenient approach where diamondoids are synthesized by high-voltage nanosecond pulsed microplasmas (voltage 15 kVp-p, frequency 1 Hz, pulse width 10 ns) generated in He at atmospheric pressure using point-to-plane tungsten electrodes. Adamantane was used as a precursor, and synthesis was conducted for 10^5 pulses at gas temperatures of 297, 373 and 473 K. Energy dispersive X-ray and micro-Raman spectroscopy were conducted to determine the composition of the products, and gas chromatography - mass spectra indicated the formation of diamantane. It was found that synthesis is more efficient at room temperature than at higher temperatures, and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy suggest that the chemical reactions take place in the afterglow.

  1. Fluid and hybrid modeling of nanosecond surface discharges: effect of polarity and secondary electrons emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Tereshonok, Dmitry V.; Naidis, George V.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of nanosecond pulsed surface discharges of positive and negative polarity using a 2D fluid and fluid-Monte Carlo simulation. The streamers propagate along the dielectric surface in an asymmetric actuator geometry. The essential difference between the streamers of positive and negative polarities is observed. For positive polarity the intense sheath region is formed near the surface having high values of the electric field. The negative streamer has a lower field at the streamer front and in the sheath region. The disparity between the positive and negative surface streamers increases when electron Monte Carlo simulation is used that treats the energetic secondary electrons in a fully kinetic way. We also found that for a negative polarity applied to the exposed electrode, a thin layer of precursor electrons ahead of a streamer is formed having a shape of a narrow protruding needle. The effect is attributed to the production and trapping of fast secondary electrons in the narrow anodic sheath region.

  2. Conditions for uniform impact of the plasma of a runaway-electron-induced pulsed diffuse discharge on an anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erofeev, M. V.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2015-09-01

    The subject matters in this work are (i) the spatial structure of a volume (diffuse) discharge initiated in atmospheric-pressure air in a heavily nonuniform electric field by nanosecond voltage pulses and (ii) the influence of its plasma on the surface of a plane aluminum anode. It is shown that a diffuse discharge initiated by nanosecond voltage pulses makes it possible to uniformly process the anode's surface in atmospheric-pressure air in contrast to a spark discharge, which results in microcracking, locally changes the surface properties, and thereby degrades the surface.

  3. Material micromachining using a pulsed fiber laser platform with fine temporal nanosecond pulse shaping capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deladurantaye, Pascal; Gay, David; Cournoyer, Alain; Roy, Vincent; Labranche, Bruno; Levesque, Marc; Taillon, Yves

    2009-02-01

    We report on recent advances in laser material processing using a novel pulsed fiber laser platform providing pulse shape agility at the nanosecond time scale and at high repetition rates. The pulse shapes can be programmed with a time resolution of 2.5 ns and with an amplitude resolution of 10 bits. Depending on the desired laser performances, the pulses are generated either by directly modulating the drive current of a seed laser diode or by modulating the output of a seed laser diode operated in CW with electro-optic modulators. The pulses are amplified in an amplifier chain in a MOPA configuration. Advanced polarization maintaining LMA fiber designs enable output energy per pulse up to 60 μJ at 1064 nm at a repetition rate of 200 kHz with excellent beam quality (M2< 1.1) and narrow line widths suitable for efficient frequency conversion. Micro-milling experiments were carried out with stainless steel, in which processing microstructures of a few tens of microns in size usually represents a challenge, and aluminum, whose thermal conductivity is about 20 times higher than stainless steel. The results obtained with two metals having very different thermal properties using different pulse shapes with durations varying between 3 ns and 80 ns demonstrate the benefits of using lasers offering flexible pulse durations and controllable pulse intensity profiles for rapidly optimizing a process in different applications while using the same laser with respect to conventional methods based on pulsed laser with fixed pulse shapes. Numerous applications are envisioned in a near future, like the micromachining of multi-layered structures, in particular when working with the harmonics of the laser.

  4. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields and the cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlke, Megan A.

    Exposure to nanosecond pulsed electrical fields (nsPEFs) can cause poration of external and internal cell membranes, DNA damage, and disassociation of cytoskeletal components, all of which are capable of disrupting a cell's ability to replicate. The phase of the cell cycle at the time of exposure is linked to differential sensitivities to nsPEFs across cell lines, as DNA structure, membrane elasticity, and cytoskeletal structure change dramatically during the cell cycle. Additionally, nsPEFs are capable of activating cell cycle checkpoints, which could lead to apoptosis or slow population growth. NsPEFs are emerging as a method for treating tumors via apoptotic induction; therefore, investigating the relevance of nsPEFs and the cell cycle could translate into improved efficacy in tumor treatment. Populations of Jurkat and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were examined post-exposure (10 ns pulse trains at 150kV/cm) by analysis of DNA content via propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis at various time points (1, 6, and 12h post-exposure) to determine population distribution in cell cycle phases. Additionally, CHO and Jurkat cells were synchronized in G1/S and G2/M phases, pulsed, and analyzed to evaluate the role of cell cycle phase in survival of nsPEFs. CHO populations appeared similar to sham populations post-nsPEFs but exhibited arrest in the G1 phase at 6h after exposure. Jurkat cells exhibited increased cell death after nsPEFs compared to CHO cells but did not exhibit checkpoint arrest at any observed time point. The G1/S phase checkpoint is partially controlled by the action of p53; the lack of an active p53 response in Jurkat cells could contribute to their ability to pass this checkpoint and resist cell cycle arrest. Both cell lines exhibited increased sensitivity to nsPEFs in G2/M phase. Live imaging of CHO cells after nsPEF exposure supports the theory of G1/S phase arrest, as a reduced number of cells undergo mitosis within 24 h when

  5. Evolution of Striation in Pulsed Glow Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanye; He, Feng; Zhao, Xiaofei; Ouyang, Jiting

    2016-01-01

    In this work, striations in pulsed glow discharges are studied by experiments and Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Collision (PIC/MCC) simulation. The spatio-temporal evolution of the potential and the electron energy during the discharge are analyzed. The processes of striation formation in pulsed glow discharges and dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) are compared. The results show that the mechanisms of striation in pulsed DC discharge and DBD are similar to each other. The evolution of electron energy distribution function before and after the striation formation indicates that the striation results from the potential well of the space charge. During a pulsed breakdown, the striations are formed one by one towards the anode in a weak field channel. This indicates that the formation of striations in a pulsed discharge depends on the flow of modulated electrons. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 10875010 and 11175017)

  6. A Nanosecond Pulsed Plasma Brush for Surface Decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuber, Johanna; Malik, Muhammad; Song, Shutong; Jiang, Chunqi

    2015-11-01

    This work optimizes a non-thermal, atmospheric pressure plasma brush for surface decontamination. The generated plasma plumes with a maximum length of 2 cm are arranged in a 5 cm long, brush-like array. The plasma was generated in ambient air with <= 10 kV, 200 ns pulses at a repetition rate of 1.5 kHz. The energy per pulse and average power are in the range of 1-3 mJ and 0.5-1.5 W, respectively. Helium containing varying concentrations of water vapor was evaluated as the carrier gas and was fed into the plasma chamber at a rate varying between 1 to 7 SLPM. Optimization of the cold plasma brush for surface decontamination was tested in a study of the plasma inactivation of two common pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Laminate surfaces inoculated with over-night cultured bacteria were subject to the plasma treatment for varying water concentrations in He, flow rates and discharge voltages. It was found that increasing the water content of the feed gas greatly enhanced the bactericidal effect. Emission spectroscopy was performed to identify the reactive plasma species that contribute to this variation. Additional affiliation: Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics

  7. Characterization of acoustic shockwaves generated by exposure to nanosecond electrical pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Caleb C.; Maswadi, Saher; Ibey, Bennett L.; Beier, Hope T.; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2014-03-01

    Despite 30 years of research, the mechanism behind the induced breakdown of plasma membranes by electrical pulses, termed electroporation, remains unknown. Current theories treat the interaction between the electrical field and the membrane as an entirely electrical event pointing to multiple plausible mechanisms. By investigating the biophysical interaction between plasma membranes and nanosecond electrical pulses (nsEP), we may have identified a non-electric field driven mechanism, previously unstudied in nsEP, which could be responsible for nanoporation of plasma membranes. In this investigation, we use a non-contact optical technique, termed probe beam deflection technique (PBDT), to characterize acoustic shockwaves generated by nsEP traveling through tungsten wire electrodes. We conclude these acoustic shockwaves are the result of the nsEP exposure imparting electrohydraulic forces on the buffer solution. When these acoustic shockwaves occur in close proximity to lipid bilayer membranes, it is possible that they impart a sufficient amount of mechanical stress to cause poration of that membrane. This research establishes for the first time that nsEP discharged in an aqueous medium generate measureable pressure waves of a magnitude capable of mechanical deformation and possibly damage to plasma membranes. These findings provide a new insight into the longunanswered question of how electric fields cause the breakdown of plasma membranes.

  8. Morphological effects of nanosecond- and femtosecond-pulsed laser ablation on human middle ear ossicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgner, Justus F. R.; Wehner, Martin M.; Lorenzen, Johann; Bovi, Manfred; Westhofen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of nanosecond-pulsed and femtosecond-pulsed lasers for otologic surgery. The outcome parameters are cutting precision (in micrometers), ablation rate (in micrometers per second), scanning speed (in millimeters per second), and morphological effects on human middle ear ossicles. We examine single-spot ablations by a nanosecond-pulsed, frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser (355 nm, beam diameter 10µm, pulse rate 2 kHz, power 250 mW) on isolated human mallei. A similar system (355 nm, beam diameter 20µm, pulse rate 10 kHz, power 160-1500 mW) and a femtosecond-pulsed CrLi:SAF-Laser (850 nm, pulse duration 100 fs, pulse energy 40 µJ, beam diameter 36 µm, pulse rate 1 kHz) are coupled to a scanner to perform bone surface ablation over a defined area. In our setups 1 and 2, marginal carbonization is visible in all single-spot ablations of 1-s exposures and longer: With an exposure time of 0.5 s, precise cutting margins without carbonization are observed. Cooling with saline solution result is in no carbonization at 1500 mW and a scan speed of 500 mm/s. Our third setup shows no carbonization but greater cutting precision, although the ablation volume is lower. Nanosecond- and femtosecond-pulsed laser systems bear the potential to increase cutting precision in otologic surgery.

  9. Intense Nanosecond-Pulsed Cavity-Dumped Laser Radiation at 1.04 THz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    We report first results of intense far-infrared (FIR) nanosecond-pulsed laser radiation at 1.04 THz from a previously described[2] cavity-dumped, optically-pumped molecular gas laser. The gain medium, methyl fluoride, is pumped by the 9R20 line of a TEA CO2 laser[3] with a pulse energy of 200 mJ. The THz laser pulses contain of 30 kW peak power in 5 nanosecond pulse widths at a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. The line width, measured by a scanning metal-mesh FIR Fabry-Perot interferometer, is 100 MHz. The novel THz laser is being used in experiments to resonantly excite coherent ns-pulsed 1.04 THz longitudinal acoustic phonons in silicon doping-superlattices. The research is supported by NASA EPSCoR NNX11AM04A and AFOSR FA9550-12-1-0100 awards.

  10. Supershort avalanche electron beams and x-ray in high-pressure nanosecond discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V.

    2008-07-01

    Since 2003, an interest to investigation of e-beams generation in gas-filled diodes with high pressures has been rekindled. In 2005, the advanced recording methods of electron beams and the use of digital oscilloscopes with wide bandwidth provided the measurements of the beam current duration with time resolution of sim 100 ps. In this paper, the recent measurement results on duration and amplitude of a beam, generated at a nanosecond discharge in different gases have been summarized (Tarasenko et al. 2005, Baksht et al. 2007, Tarasenko et al. 2008). Voltage pulses sim 25, sim 150 and sim 250 kV in amplitude were applied to the gas gap with inhomogeneous electric field. It is presented that the current of supershort avalanche electrons beam (SAEB) recording through a area with a small diameter the pulse duration behind a foil from the gas diode with air at atmospheric pressure is no more than 90 ps. For recording, the pulse shape it is necessary to use a small-sized coaxial collector, loaded to a high-frequency cable, and the same collector is used for taking the charge density distribution over the foil surface in order to determine the SAEB amplitude. The electron distribution over the foil section should be compared with a per pulse distribution. In these experiments, we have compared the distributions obtained per pulse on a RF-3 and luminophore films, placed behind a foil. Besides that, intensity distribution of X-ray radiation at the gas diode output was recorded by using a multi-channel detection device based on microstrip arsenide-gallium detectors of ionizing radiation. An analysis of those data shows that at the beam current duration (FWHM) of sim 90 ps the beam current amplitude behind the 10- mu m thickness Al-foil at atmospheric pressure of air is sim 50 A. Discharge formation and SAEB generation in sulfur hexafluoride and xenon at pressure of 0.01-2.5 atm and helium of 10^-4 - 12 atm have been investigated. The beam of runaway electrons behind 45 mu m

  11. Investigation of capillary nanosecond discharges in air at moderate pressure: comparison of experiments and 2D numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, Andrei V.; Starikovskaia, Svetlana M.; Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-09-01

    Nanosecond electrical discharges in the form of ionization waves are of interest for rapidly ionizing and exciting complex gas mixtures to initiate chemical reactions. Operating with a small discharge tube diameter can significantly increase the specific energy deposition and so enable optimization of the initiation process. Analysis of the uniformity of energy release in small diameter capillary tubes will aid in this optimization. In this paper, results for the experimentally derived characteristics of nanosecond capillary discharges in air at moderate pressure are presented and compared with results from a two-dimensional model. The quartz capillary tube, having inner and outer diameters of 1.5 and 3.4 mm, is about 80 mm long and filled with synthetic dry air at 27 mbar. The capillary tube with two electrodes at the ends is inserted into a break of the central wire of a long coaxial cable. A metal screen around the tube is connected to the cable ground shield. The discharge is driven by a 19 kV 35 ns voltage pulse applied to the powered electrode. The experimental measurements are conducted primarily by using a calibrated capacitive probe and back current shunts. The numerical modelling focuses on the fast ionization wave (FIW) and the plasma properties in the immediate afterglow after the conductive plasma channel has been established between the two electrodes. The FIW produces a highly focused region of electric field on the tube axis that sustains the ionization wave that eventually bridges the electrode gap. Results from the model predict FIW propagation speed and current rise time that agree with the experiment.

  12. Pulsed Corona Discharge Generated By Marx Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sretenovic, G. B.; Obradovic, B. M.; Kovacevic, V. V.; Kuraica, M. M.; Puric J.

    2010-07-01

    The pulsed plasma has a significant role in new environmental protection technologies. As a part of a pulsed corona system for pollution control applications, Marx type repetitive pulse generator was constructed and tested in arrangement with wire-plate corona reactor. We performed electrical measurements, and obtained voltage and current signals, and also power and energy delivered per pulse. Ozone formation by streamer plasma in air was chosen to monitor chemical activity of the pulsed corona discharge.

  13. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  14. Dynamics of a wire-to-cylinder atmospheric pressure high-voltage nanosecond discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2015-08-15

    The dynamics of a wire-to-cylinder atmospheric pressure high-voltage nanosecond discharge is studied by the one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collisions model in cylindrical coordinates. The x-ray photons emitted from the anode are found to be inconsequential to the generation of dense plasma in the gap. Rather, the electron impact ionization resulting from acceleration of naturally occurring background electrons in the discharge gap are enough to explain the generation of high-density (∼10{sup 15 }cm{sup −3}) non-equilibrium plasma. The influence of the high-voltage rise time on the plasma parameters is discussed.

  15. Characterization of combined power plasma jet using AC high voltage and nanosecond pulse for reactive species composition control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Konishi, Hideaki; Kato, Toshiaki; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2014-10-01

    In the application studies for both bio-medical and agricultural applications, the roles of the reactive oxide and/or nitride species generated in the plasma has been reported as a key to control the effects and ill-effects on the living organism. The correlation between total OH radical exposure from an air atmospheric pressure plasma jet and the sterilization threshold on Botrytis cinerea is presented. With the increase of the OH radical exposure to the Botrytis cinerea, the probability of sterilization is increased. In this study, to resolve the roles of reactive species including OH radicals, a combined power plasma jet using nanosecond pulses and low-frequency sinusoidal AC high voltage (a few kHz) is studied for controlling the composition of the reactive species. The nanosecond pulses are superimposed on the AC voltage which is in synchronization with the AC phase. The undergoing work to characterize the combined power discharge with electric charge and voltage cycle on the plasma jet will also be presented to discuss the discharge characteristics to control the composition of the reactive species.

  16. A simple sub-nanosecond ultraviolet light pulse generator with high repetition rate and peak power.

    PubMed

    Binh, P H; Trong, V D; Renucci, P; Marie, X

    2013-08-01

    We present a simple ultraviolet sub-nanosecond pulse generator using commercial ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission wavelengths of 290 nm, 318 nm, 338 nm, and 405 nm. The generator is based on step recovery diode, short-circuited transmission line, and current-shaping circuit. The narrowest pulses achieved have 630 ps full width at half maximum at repetition rate of 80 MHz. Optical pulse power in the range of several hundreds of microwatts depends on the applied bias voltage. The bias voltage dependences of the output optical pulse width and peak power are analysed and discussed. Compared to commercial UV sub-nanosecond generators, the proposed generator can produce much higher pulse repetition rate and peak power. PMID:24007048

  17. A simple sub-nanosecond ultraviolet light pulse generator with high repetition rate and peak power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binh, P. H.; Trong, V. D.; Renucci, P.; Marie, X.

    2013-08-01

    We present a simple ultraviolet sub-nanosecond pulse generator using commercial ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission wavelengths of 290 nm, 318 nm, 338 nm, and 405 nm. The generator is based on step recovery diode, short-circuited transmission line, and current-shaping circuit. The narrowest pulses achieved have 630 ps full width at half maximum at repetition rate of 80 MHz. Optical pulse power in the range of several hundreds of microwatts depends on the applied bias voltage. The bias voltage dependences of the output optical pulse width and peak power are analysed and discussed. Compared to commercial UV sub-nanosecond generators, the proposed generator can produce much higher pulse repetition rate and peak power.

  18. Numerical simulation of impurity desorption induced by nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Chi Yinsheng; Lin Xiaohui; Chen Minhua; Chen Yunfei

    2006-08-01

    A model based on a stochastic process was developed to study the impurity molecule desorption from a substrate induced by nanosecond and femtosecond lasers. The dynamics of adsorbed molecules irradiated by the laser pulses can be considered to be a Brownian motion in the bath of excited energy carriers. A two-step model was used to describe the nonequilibrium heating process induced by the femtosecond laser pulses. The difference between the desorption processes induced by nanosecond and femtosecond lasers was discussed based on the numerical results for the desorption of CO molecules from a Ru surface. Results indicate that the femtosecond laser is a much better tool for desorption than the nanosecond laser.

  19. The design of nanosecond high-voltage ultra wide band bipolar pulse generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jincheng; Liu, Baiyu; Gou, Yongsheng

    2015-10-01

    The design of nanosecond high-voltage ultra wide band bipolar pulse generator is shown in this paper. By analyzing the principle of the avalanche diode and doing the research of the related circuit acting on the pulse, this generator can generate a nanosecond high-voltage ultra wide band bipolar pulse, which its peak-to-peak voltage is about 400V and the pulse time width is 2ns. The experimental results showed a good agreement with the simulation results. A negative unipolar high-voltage pulse, having a fast falling-edge and a slowly exponential rising-edge, was firstly generated by the MARX circuit consist of the avalanche diodes. Then the use of the high speed avalanche diode could generate a negative unipolar high-voltage narrow Gaussian pulse, having a fast falling-edge and a fast rising-edge. In an attempt to cancel the reflection of the pulse made by the impedance mismatch, the circuit introduced the capacitor(C) and inductor(L) by calculating. Eventually a nanosecond high-voltage ultra wide band bipolar pulse could be got after going through the differentiator consist of introducing the right resistance, capacitance and inductance by calculation and experiment, and a filter with 2GHz bandwidth makes the bipolar smooth and perfect.

  20. A nanosecond pulsed laser heating system for studying liquid and supercooled liquid films in ultrahigh vacuum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuntao; Dibble, Collin J; Petrik, Nikolay G; Smith, R Scott; Joly, Alan G; Tonkyn, Russell G; Kay, Bruce D; Kimmel, Greg A

    2016-04-28

    A pulsed laser heating system has been developed that enables investigations of the dynamics and kinetics of nanoscale liquid films and liquid/solid interfaces on the nanosecond time scale in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Details of the design, implementation, and characterization of a nanosecond pulsed laser system for transiently heating nanoscale films are described. Nanosecond pulses from a Nd:YAG laser are used to rapidly heat thin films of adsorbed water or other volatile materials on a clean, well-characterized Pt(111) crystal in UHV. Heating rates of ∼10(10) K/s for temperature increases of ∼100-200 K are obtained. Subsequent rapid cooling (∼5 × 10(9) K/s) quenches the film, permitting in-situ, post-heating analysis using a variety of surface science techniques. Lateral variations in the laser pulse energy are ∼±2.7% leading to a temperature uncertainty of ∼±4.4 K for a temperature jump of 200 K. Initial experiments with the apparatus demonstrate that crystalline ice films initially held at 90 K can be rapidly transformed into liquid water films with T > 273 K. No discernable recrystallization occurs during the rapid cooling back to cryogenic temperatures. In contrast, amorphous solid water films heated below the melting point rapidly crystallize. The nanosecond pulsed laser heating system can prepare nanoscale liquid and supercooled liquid films that persist for nanoseconds per heat pulse in an UHV environment, enabling experimental studies of a wide range of phenomena in liquids and at liquid/solid interfaces. PMID:27131543

  1. A nanosecond pulsed laser heating system for studying liquid and supercooled liquid films in ultrahigh vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuntao; Dibble, Collin J.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Smith, R. Scott; Joly, Alan G.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Kay, Bruce D.; Kimmel, Greg A.

    2016-04-01

    A pulsed laser heating system has been developed that enables investigations of the dynamics and kinetics of nanoscale liquid films and liquid/solid interfaces on the nanosecond time scale in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Details of the design, implementation, and characterization of a nanosecond pulsed laser system for transiently heating nanoscale films are described. Nanosecond pulses from a Nd:YAG laser are used to rapidly heat thin films of adsorbed water or other volatile materials on a clean, well-characterized Pt(111) crystal in UHV. Heating rates of ˜1010 K/s for temperature increases of ˜100-200 K are obtained. Subsequent rapid cooling (˜5 × 109 K/s) quenches the film, permitting in-situ, post-heating analysis using a variety of surface science techniques. Lateral variations in the laser pulse energy are ˜±2.7% leading to a temperature uncertainty of ˜±4.4 K for a temperature jump of 200 K. Initial experiments with the apparatus demonstrate that crystalline ice films initially held at 90 K can be rapidly transformed into liquid water films with T > 273 K. No discernable recrystallization occurs during the rapid cooling back to cryogenic temperatures. In contrast, amorphous solid water films heated below the melting point rapidly crystallize. The nanosecond pulsed laser heating system can prepare nanoscale liquid and supercooled liquid films that persist for nanoseconds per heat pulse in an UHV environment, enabling experimental studies of a wide range of phenomena in liquids and at liquid/solid interfaces.

  2. Explosive boiling of metals upon irradiation by a nanosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Mazhukin, V I; Demin, M M; Shapranov, A V; Samokhin, A A

    2014-04-28

    A repeated effect of explosive boiling has been found in metals exposed to a nanosecond laser pulse in the framework of molecular dynamic simulations combined with a continuum description of a conduction band electrons system. This effect can be used, in particular, as a marker of approaching critical parameters of the region in the irradiated matter. (letters)

  3. Gene transfer into mammalian cells by use of a nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Ogura, Makoto; Sato, Shunichi; Wakisaka, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Uenoyama, Maki; Masaki, Yoshinori; Obara, Minoru

    2004-06-01

    Plasmid DNA has been successfully delivered to mammalian cells by applying a nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress wave (LISW). Cells exposed to a LISW were selectively transfected with plasmids coding for green fluorescent protein. It was also shown that transient, mild cellular heating (~43 °C) was effective in improving the transfection efficiency.

  4. Nanosecond pulsed power generator for a voltage amplitude up to 300 kV and a repetition rate up to 16 Hz for fine disintegration of quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastelev, E. G.; Sedin, A. A.; Tugushev, V. I.

    2015-12-01

    A generator of high-power high-voltage nanosecond pulses is intended for electrical discharge disintegration of mineral quartz and other nonconducting minerals. It includes a 320 kV Marx pulsed voltage generator, a high-voltage glycerin-insulated coaxial peaking capacitor, and an output gas spark switch followed by a load, an electric discharge disintegration chamber. The main parameters of the generator are as follows: a voltage pulse amplitude of up to 300 kV, an output impedance of ≈10 Ω, a discharge current amplitude of up to 25 kA for a half-period of 80-90 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of up to 16 Hz.

  5. Nanosecond pulsed power generator for a voltage amplitude up to 300 kV and a repetition rate up to 16 Hz for fine disintegration of quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Krastelev, E. G. Sedin, A. A.; Tugushev, V. I.

    2015-12-15

    A generator of high-power high-voltage nanosecond pulses is intended for electrical discharge disintegration of mineral quartz and other nonconducting minerals. It includes a 320 kV Marx pulsed voltage generator, a high-voltage glycerin-insulated coaxial peaking capacitor, and an output gas spark switch followed by a load, an electric discharge disintegration chamber. The main parameters of the generator are as follows: a voltage pulse amplitude of up to 300 kV, an output impedance of ≈10 Ω, a discharge current amplitude of up to 25 kA for a half-period of 80–90 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of up to 16 Hz.

  6. Development of a nanosecond-laser-pumped Raman amplifier for short laser pulses in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Y.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Wang, T.-L.; Clark, D. S.; Wilks, S. C.; Meezan, N.; Berger, R. L.; Wurtele, J.; Fisch, N. J.; Malkin, V. M.; Valeo, E. J.; Martins, S. F.; Joshi, C.

    2009-12-01

    Progress on developing a plasma amplifier/compressor based on stimulated Raman scattering of nanosecond laser pulses is reported. Generation of a millijoule seed pulse at a wavelength that is redshifted relative to the pump beam has been achieved using an external Raman gas cell. By interacting the shifted picosecond seed pulse and the nanosecond pump pulse in a gas jet plasma at a density of ˜1019 cm-3, the upper limit of the pump intensity to avoid angular spray of the amplified seed has been determined. The Raman amplification has been studied as a function of the pump and seed intensities. Although the heating of plasma by the nanosecond pump pulse results in strong Landau damping of the plasma wave, an amplified pulse with an energy of up to 14 mJ has been demonstrated, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest output energy so far by Raman amplification in a plasma. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations indicate that the saturation of amplification is consistent with onset of particle trapping, which might be overcome by employing a shorter seed pulse.

  7. Development of a nanosecond-laser-pumped Raman amplifier for short laser pulses in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, Y.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Clark, D. S.; Wilks, S. C.; Meezan, N.; Berger, R. L.; Wang, T.-L.; Martins, S. F.; Joshi, C.; Wurtele, J.; Fisch, N. J.; Malkin, V. M.; Valeo, E. J.

    2009-12-15

    Progress on developing a plasma amplifier/compressor based on stimulated Raman scattering of nanosecond laser pulses is reported. Generation of a millijoule seed pulse at a wavelength that is redshifted relative to the pump beam has been achieved using an external Raman gas cell. By interacting the shifted picosecond seed pulse and the nanosecond pump pulse in a gas jet plasma at a density of approx10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, the upper limit of the pump intensity to avoid angular spray of the amplified seed has been determined. The Raman amplification has been studied as a function of the pump and seed intensities. Although the heating of plasma by the nanosecond pump pulse results in strong Landau damping of the plasma wave, an amplified pulse with an energy of up to 14 mJ has been demonstrated, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest output energy so far by Raman amplification in a plasma. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations indicate that the saturation of amplification is consistent with onset of particle trapping, which might be overcome by employing a shorter seed pulse.

  8. Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge

    DOEpatents

    Gutsol, Alexander F.; Fridman, Alexander; Blank, Kenneth; Korobtsev, Sergey; Shiryaevsky, Valery; Medvedev, Dmitry

    2012-05-08

    The invention is a method and system for the generation of high voltage, pulsed, periodic corona discharges capable of being used in the presence of conductive liquid droplets. The method and system can be used, for example, in different devices for cleaning of gaseous or liquid media using pulsed corona discharge. Specially designed electrodes and an inductor increase the efficiency of the system, permit the plasma chemical oxidation of detrimental impurities, and increase the range of stable discharge operations in the presence of droplets of water or other conductive liquids in the discharge chamber.

  9. High on/off ratio nanosecond laser pulses for a triggered single-photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Gang; Liu, Bei; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2016-07-01

    An 852 nm nanosecond laser pulse chain with a high on/off ratio is generated by chopping a continuous-wave laser beam using a Mach–Zehnder-type electro-optic intensity modulator (MZ-EOIM). The detailed dependence of the MZ-EOIM’s on/off ratio on various parameters is characterized. By optimizing the incident beam polarization and stabilizing the MZ-EOIM temperature, a static on/off ratio of 12600:1 is achieved. The dynamic on/off ratios versus the pulse repetition rate and the pulse duty cycle are measured and discussed. The high-on/off-ratio nanosecond pulsed laser system was used in a triggered single-photon source based on a trapped single cesium atom, which reveals clear antibunching.

  10. Permeabilization of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls using nanosecond high power electrical pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirke, A.; Zimkus, A.; Balevicius, S.; Stankevic, V.; Ramanaviciene, A.; Ramanavicius, A.; Zurauskiene, N.

    2014-12-01

    The electrical field-induced changes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells permeabilization to tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) ions were studied using square-shaped, nanosecond duration high power electrical pulses. It was obtained that pulses having durations ranging from 10 ns to 60 ns, and generating electric field strengths up to 190 kV/cm significantly (up to 65 times) increase the absorption rate of TPP+ ions without any detectible influence on the yeast cell viability. The modelling of the TPP+ absorption process using a second order rate equation demonstrates that depending on the duration of the pulses, yeast cell clusters of different sizes are homogeniously permeabilized. It was concluded, that nanosecond pulse-induced permeabilization can be applied to increase the operational speed of whole cell biosensors.

  11. Cluster ion control by simultaneous irradiations of femtosecond laser and nanosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, H.; Hiratani, Y.; Toyoda, K.

    2002-09-01

    Generation of multiply charged ions and molecular ions have been investigated using simultaneous irradiation of high intensity and ultrashort pulse of Ti:sapphire laser and fourth harmonics of Q-switched nanosecond pulse of Nd:YAG laser on carbon targets [Morimoto et al., in: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on High-Power Particles Beams (BEAMS2000),Vol. PB-89, Nagaoka, 2000, p. 359; Toyoda et al., in: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference (GCL-HPL2000), Vol. P1.60, 2000, p. 101]. The ion current waveforms have been analyzed by means of time-of-flight (tof) mass measurement. Simultaneous irradiation of high intensity and ultrashort pulse of Ti:sapphire laser and fourth harmonics of Q-switched nanosecond pulse of Nd:YAG laser on carbon targets was found to generate molecular ions of carbon.

  12. Over 0.5 MW green laser from sub-nanosecond giant pulsed microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lihe; Taira, Takunori

    2016-03-01

    A sub-nanosecond green laser with laser head sized 35 × 35 × 35 mm3 was developed from a giant pulsed microchip laser for laser processing on organic superconducting transistor with a flexible substrate. A composite monolithic Y3Al5O12 (YAG) /Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG/YAG crystal was designed for generating giant pulsed 1064 nm laser. A fibercoupled 30 W laser diode centered at 808 nm was used with pump pulse duration of 245 μs. The 532 nm green laser was obtained from a LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal with output energy of 150 μJ and pulse duration of 268 ps. The sub-nanosecond green laser is interesting for 2-D ablation patterns.

  13. OES characterization of streamers in a nanosecond pulsed SDBD using N2 and Ar transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goekce, S.; Peschke, P.; Hollenstein, Ch; Leyland, P.; Ott, P.

    2016-08-01

    The characterization of non-thermal homogeneous plasmas is possible using optical emission spectroscopy (OES), notably by estimating the reduced electric field. This method was applied to characterize streamers generated by a nanosecond pulsed surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) operated in quiescent air at atmospheric pressure and also at 0.5 atm. The average reduced electric field associated with the surface streamers was determined using four different sets of transitions occurring in air plasmas, the first negative system (FNS) of \\text{N}2+ , the first positive system (FPS) and second positive system (SPS) of {{\\text{N}}2} and argon transitions 2{{p}x}-1{{s}y} . The analysis of the results allowed to critically assess the validity of the estimated reduced electric field for the present conditions. It is shown experimentally that the inhomogeneous nature of the streamer head influences significantly the estimation of the reduced electric field. Moreover, the estimated reduced electric field is not sufficient to characterize the processes taking place in the streamer head, due to the steep variation of both the reduced electric field E/N and the electron density n e in space and time. To overcome this limitation, a new method is proposed to take into account the spatial structure of a streamer head. The applicability of the new method is demonstrated for these experimental conditions and shows a very good agreement for the transitions tested.

  14. Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Mejean, Guillaume; Ackermann, Roland; Kasparian, Jerome; Salmon, Estelle; Yu Jin; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Rethmeier, Kay; Kalkner, Wilfried; Rohwetter, Philipp; Stelmaszczyk, Kamil; Woeste, Ludger

    2006-01-09

    We demonstrate that the capacity of ultrashort high-power laser pulses to trigger and guide high-voltage discharges can be significantly enhanced by a subsequent visible nanosecond laser pulse. The femtosecond pulse induces a bundle of filaments, which creates a conducting channel of low density and cold plasma connecting the electrodes. The subsequent laser pulse photodetaches electrons from O{sub 2}{sup -} ions in the electrode leader. The resulting electrons allow efficient heating by Joule effect in a retroaction loop, resulting in a 5% reduction of the breakdown voltage.

  15. 188 W nanosecond pulsed fiber amplifier at 1064 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zebiao; Guo, Chao; Li, Qi; Zhao, Pengfei; Li, Chengyu; Huang, Zhihua; Tang, Xuan; Lin, Honghuan; Xu, Shanhui; Yang, Zhongmin; Wang, Jianjun; Jing, Feng

    2016-07-01

    We report an all-fiber high power nanosecond pulsed laser at a center wavelength of 1064 nm. Optimizing the coiling diameter of the active fiber, 188 W average power is achieved at a repetition rate of 40 kHz. The pulse width is measured as 101 ns, while the peak power can be estimated to 46.5 kW.

  16. Interaction Of CO2 Laser Nanosecond Pulse Train With The Metallic Targets In Optical Breakdown Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonov, V. V.; Firsov, K. N.; Konov, V. I.; Nikitin, P. I.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Silenok, A. S.; Sorochenko, V. R.

    1986-11-01

    In the present paper the electric field and currents in the air-breakdown plasma, produced by the train of nanosecond pulses of TEA-002 - regenerative amplifier near the un-charged targets are studied. The breakdown thresholds and the efficiency of plasma-target heat transmission are also measured. The results of numerical calculations made for increasing of the pulse train contrast with respect to the background in a regenerative amplifier are advanced.

  17. An IGBT-based High Voltage, Variable Pulse Width Nanosecond Pulser for Plasma Creation Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Prager, James; Carscadden, John

    2013-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT) has developed a modular solid state power supply based on IGBT technology, which can support a wide array of applications. The EHT Integrated Power Module (IPM) incorporates fast gate drive technology, high voltage isolation (~30 kV), fiber optic control, and optional crowbar diodes into a single unit. The EHT IPM can be configured to produce variable pulsed width (20 to 1000 ns), high voltage (>20 kV) high repetition frequency (2 MHz) nanosecond pulser. Nanosecond pulser applications include plasma creation for drag reduction, medical applications, water decontamination, fuel mixing and control of flue gas emissions.

  18. Percussion drilling of metals using bursts of nanosecond pulses.

    PubMed

    Hendow, Sami T; Romero, Rosa; Shakir, Sami A; Guerreiro, Paulo T

    2011-05-23

    The effect of ns bursting on percussion drilling of metal is investigated experimentally and analytically, and compared with the efficiency and quality of drilling using single ns pulses. Key advantages are demonstrated, correlating well with the results from a thermal theoretical model. The 1064 nm bursts contain up to 14 pulses of various pulse widths and spacing, and at frequencies of tens of MHz within the burst. The individual pulses have pulse widths of 10 to 200 ns, and up to 12 kW peak power. Burst repetition frequency is single shot to 500 kHz. PMID:21643280

  19. Plasma density evolution during nanosecond discharge in hydrogen gas at (1-3) × 105 Pa pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatom, S.; Krasik, Ya E.

    2014-05-01

    The results of a study of the nanosecond discharge in H2 gas at pressures of (1-3) × 105 Pa using fast-framing photography and space- and time-resolved spectroscopy are presented. The discharge is initiated by the application of a high-voltage pulse with an amplitude of ˜100 kV and duration of ˜5 ns to a blade cathode placed at a distance of 20 mm from the anode. The results show the dynamics of the discharge formation and the build-up of the plasma electron density in the discharge channels close to and at a distance from the edge of the cathode. The results obtained are compared to those obtained in recent studies of similar discharges in air and He gas. It was shown that the time and space evolution of the plasma light emission in the H2 gas discharge is very similar to that in air. Namely, the generation of the plasma is mainly confined to the plasma channels initiated at the top and bottom edges of the cathode electrode and that there are no new plasma channels formed from the explosive emission centres along the blade as it was obtained in earlier experiments with He gas. Spectroscopic measurements showed that the plasma density reaches 2 × 1017 cm-3 and 1.6 × 1016 cm-3 in the vicinity of the cathode and the middle of the anode-cathode gap, respectively, for a plasma electron temperature of <1.5 eV. The values of plasma electron density and the previously presented results of electric field measurements allow calculation of the resistance of the plasma channels.

  20. Plasma in a Pulsed Discharge Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remy, J.; Bienier, L.; Salama, F.

    2005-01-01

    The plasma generated in a pulsed slit discharge nozzle is used to form molecular ions in an astrophysically relevant environment. The plasma has been characterized as a glow discharge in the abnormal regime. Laboratory studies help understand the formation processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ions that are thought to be the source of the ubiquitous unidentified infrared bands.

  1. Spatial and temporal dependence of interspark interactions in femtosecond-nanosecond dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Scaffidi, Jon; Pearman, William; Lawrence, Marion; Carter, J Chance; Colston, Bill W; Angel, S Michael

    2004-09-20

    A femtosecond air spark has recently been combined with a nanosecond ablative pulse in order to map the spatial and temporal interactions of the two plasmas in femtosecond-nanosecond orthogonal preablation spark dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Good spatial and temporal correlation was found for reduced atomic emission from atmospheric species (nitrogen and oxygen) and increased atomic emission from ablated species (copper and aluminum) in the femtosecond-nanosecond plasma, suggesting a potential role for atmospheric pressure or nitrogen/oxygen concentration reduction following air spark formation in generating atomic emission enhancements in dual-pulse LIBS. PMID:15473246

  2. Spatial and Temporal Dependence of Interspark Interactions in Femtosecond-Nanosecond Dual-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaffidi, Jon; Pearman, William; Lawrence, Marion; Chance Carter, J.; Colston, Bill W., Jr.; Angel, S. Michael

    2004-09-01

    A femtosecond air spark has recently been combined with a nanosecond ablative pulse in order to map the spatial and temporal interactions of the two plasmas in femtosecond-nanosecond orthogonal preablation spark dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Good spatial and temporal correlation was found for reduced atomic emission from atmospheric species (nitrogen and oxygen) and increased atomic emission from ablated species (copper and aluminum) in the femtosecond-nanosecond plasma, suggesting a potential role for atmospheric pressure or nitrogen/oxygen concentration reduction following air spark formation in generating atomic emission enhancements in dual-pulse LIBS.

  3. Mechanisms of deflagration-to-detonation transition under initiation by high-voltage nanosecond discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Rakitin, Aleksandr E.; Starikovskii, Andrei Yu.

    2008-10-15

    An experimental study of detonation initiation in a stoichiometric propane-oxygen mixture by a high-voltage nanosecond gas discharge was performed in a detonation tube with a single-cell discharge chamber. The discharge study performed in this geometry showed that three modes of discharge development were realized under the experimental conditions: a spark mode with high-temperature channel formation, a streamer mode with nonuniform gas excitation, and a transient mode. Under spark and transient initiation, simultaneous ignition inside the discharge channel occurred, forming a shock wave and leading to a conventional deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) via an adiabatic explosion. The DDT length and time at 1 bar of initial pressure in the square smooth tube with a 20-mm transverse size amounted to 50 mm and 50{mu}s, respectively. The streamer mode of discharge development at an initial pressure of 1 bar resulted in nonuniform mixture excitation and a successful DDT via a gradient mechanism, which was confirmed by high-speed time resolved ICCD imaging. The gradient mechanism implied a longer DDT time of 150{mu}s, a DDT run-up distance of 50 mm, and an initiation energy of 1 J, which is two orders of magnitude less than the direct initiation energy for a planar detonation under these conditions. (author)

  4. Observations in collinear femtosecond-nanosecond dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Scaffidi, J; Pearman, W; Carter, J C; Angel, S M

    2006-01-01

    In the work reported herein, we have combined a short-lived femtosecond laser-induced plasma (LIP) and a longer-lived nanosecond LIP in a collinear pulse configuration to examine the source(s) of atomic emission and signal-to-noise enhancement in dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Initial studies indicate that the primary source of dual-pulse LIBS enhancement in the collinear configuration may in large part be a matter of pulse focus; focusing on the sample surface, for example, yields atomic emission enhancements whose lifetime correlates reasonably well with the femtosecond LIP emissive lifetime, suggesting that plasma-plasma coupling may play an important role at that pulse focus. At a second "optimal" focal position above the sample surface, alternatively, atomic emission and signal-to-noise enhancements correlate quite well with the nitrogen and oxygen atomic emission reductions previously seen following use of a femtosecond air spark and a nanosecond ablative pulse in the orthogonal dual-pulse configuration, suggesting that pressure or number density reductions due to femtosecond LIP formation in air may be significant at that pulse focus. PMID:16454914

  5. Ion transport into cells exposed to monopolar and bipolar nanosecond pulses.

    PubMed

    Schoenbach, Karl H; Pakhomov, Andrei G; Semenov, Iurii; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, Olga N; Ibey, Bennett L

    2015-06-01

    Experiments with CHO cells exposed to 60 and 300 ns pulsed electric fields with amplitudes in the range from several kV/cm to tens of kV/cm showed a decrease of the uptake of calcium ions by more than an order of magnitude when, immediately after a first pulse, a second one of opposite polarity was applied. This effect is assumed to be due to the reversal of the electrophoretic transport of ions through the electroporated membrane during the second phase of the bipolar pulse. This assumption, however, is only valid if electrophoresis is the dominant transport mechanism, rather than diffusion. Comparison of calculated calcium ion currents with experimental results showed that for nanosecond pulses, electrophoresis is at least as important as diffusion. By delaying the second pulse with respect to the first one, the effect of reverse electrophoresis is reduced. Consequently, separating nanosecond pulses of opposite polarity by up to approximately hundred microseconds allows us to vary the uptake of ions from very small values to those obtained with two pulses of the same polarity. The measured calcium ion uptake obtained with bipolar pulses also allowed us to determine the membrane pore recovery time. The calculated recovery time constants are on the order of 10 μs. PMID:25212701

  6. Ion transport into cells exposed to monopolar and bipolar nanosecond pulses

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbach, Karl H.; Pakhomov, Andrei G.; Semenov, Iurii; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, Olga N.; Ibey, Bennet L.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments with CHO cells exposed to 60 and 300 ns pulsed electric fields with amplitudes in the range from several kV/cm to tens of kV/cm, showed a decrease of the uptake of calcium ions by more than an order of magnitude when, immediately after a first pulse, a second one of opposite polarity was applied. This effect is assumed to be due to the reversal of the electrophoretic transport of ions through the electroporated membrane during the second phase of the bipolar pulse. This assumption, however, is only valid if electrophoresis is the dominant transport mechanism, rather than diffusion. Comparison of calculated calcium ion currents with experimental results showed that for nanosecond pulses, electrophoresis is at least as important as diffusion. By delaying the second pulse with respect to the first one, the effect of reverse electrophoresis is reduced. Consequently, separating nanosecond pulses of opposite polarity by up to approximately hundred microseconds allows us to vary the uptake of ions from very small values to that obtained with two pulses of the same polarity. The measured calcium ion uptake obtained with bipolar pulses also allowed us to determine the membrane pore recovery time. The calculated recovery time constants are on the order of ten microseconds. PMID:25212701

  7. Studies on laser material processing with nanosecond and sub-nanosecond and picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Sha; Wang, Brian; Zhao, Jay

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, laser ablation of widely used metal (Al, Cu. stainless-steel), semiconductor (Si), transparent material (glass, sapphire), ceramic (Al2O3, AlN) and polymer (PI, PMMA) in industry were systematically studied with pulse width from nanosecond (5-100ns), picosecond (6-10ps) to sub-picosecond (0.8-0.95ps). A critical damage zone (CDZ) of up to 100um with ns laser, <=50um with ps laser, and <=20um with sub-ps laser, respectively was observed as a criteria of selecting the laser pulse width. The effects of laser processing parameters on speed and efficiency were also investigated. This is to explore how to provide industry users the best laser solution for device micro-fabrication with best price. Our studies of cutting and drilling with ns, ps, and sub-ps lasers indicate that it is feasible to achieve user accepted quality and speed with cost-effective and reliable laser by optimizing processing conditions.

  8. Wind tunnel experiments on flow separation control of an Unmanned Air Vehicle by nanosecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chen; Hua, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Plasma flow control (PFC) is a new kind of active flow control technology, which can improve the aerodynamic performances of aircrafts remarkably. The flow separation control of an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) by nanosecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation (NDPAA) is investigated experimentally in this paper. Experimental results show that the applied voltages for both the nanosecond discharge and the millisecond discharge are nearly the same, but the current for nanosecond discharge (30 A) is much bigger than that for millisecond discharge (0.1 A). The flow field induced by the NDPAA is similar to a shock wave upward, and has a maximal velocity of less than 0.5 m/s. Fast heating effect for nanosecond discharge induces shock waves in the quiescent air. The lasting time of the shock waves is about 80 μs and its spread velocity is nearly 380 m/s. By using the NDPAA, the flow separation on the suction side of the UAV can be totally suppressed and the critical stall angle of attack increases from 20° to 27° with a maximal lift coefficient increment of 11.24%. The flow separation can be suppressed when the discharge voltage is larger than the threshold value, and the optimum operation frequency for the NDPAA is the one which makes the Strouhal number equal one. The NDPAA is more effective than the millisecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation (MDPAA) in boundary layer flow control. The main mechanism for nanosecond discharge is shock effect. Shock effect is more effective in flow control than momentum effect in high speed flow control. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61503302, 51207169, and 51276197), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M562446), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2015JM1001).

  9. A Single Pulse Sub-Nanosecond Proton RFQ

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, R W; Pearce-Percy, H; Pearson, D; Rougieri, M; Weir, J; Zografos, A; Guethlein, G; Hawkins, S; Falabella, S; Poole, B; Blackfield, D

    2011-03-29

    A Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac system has been developed to provide a single pulse of 2 MeV protons with a beam pulse width of {approx}300 ps and a charge of 30 pC, either for injection into a pulsed Dielectric Wall Accelerator or for bombardment of a target to produce a fast neutron pulse. The 1.2 m long RFQ structure operates at 425 MHz and bunches and accelerates a single 2.35 ns beam pulse injected into it at 35 keV using a parallel plate deflector placed directly in front of the RFQ entrance. The input acceptance properties of the RFQ allow a simple dc bias voltage on the plates to block acceleration of the unwanted beam, with a short rf voltage pulse applied to null the deflection field for the ions within the 8 mm 'kicker' plate length. The use of the RFQ as the accelerating structure allows one to efficiently produce a large charge in a single sub-ns bunch. In addition, the kicker can also be used without the dc bias voltage to produce a 'notch' in the normal RFQ output beam for synchrotron injection.

  10. Nanosecond pulse pumped, narrow linewidth all-fiber Raman amplifier with stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Rongtao; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Lü, Haibin; Xu, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    We report on a narrow linewidth nanosecond all-fiber Raman amplifier core pumped by a pulsed laser at approximately 1030 nm. The Raman amplifier was based on a standard single-mode fiber with a length of ∼1 km, and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) was suppressed by employing pulses with a short pulse width. 1083 nm pulses with an average power of 32.6 mW, a repetition rate of 2 MHz, and pulse widths of ∼7.2 ns were achieved. A maximum slope efficiency of 46.1% and a gain of 31 dB were obtained. The output Raman power can be scaled further by using fiber with shorter lengths and pump pulses with a higher power.

  11. Conductive versus capacitive coupling for cell electroporation with nanosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, David M.; Uhler, Michael D.; Gilgenbach, Ronald M.; Lau, Y. Y.

    2009-10-01

    Experiments and simulations were performed to determine the difference between capacitive coupling and conductive connection for the electroporation of cells. The pulses used in the experiments have a peak voltage of 24 kV, 0.6 ns rise time, and 1.6 ns full width at half maximum. Experiments performed compare the conductive connection of the cell suspension versus a capacitively coupled cell suspension. The magnitude of the electric field was 16 kV/cm in both cases; however, the pulse shape is different. For the conductively connected case the cells located between the electrodes experienced an electric field in one direction only, whereas cells located between the electrodes in the capacitive coupling case were subject to an electric field that reverses direction. For the capacitively coupled case the bipolar pulse leads to no net cell charging. The conductive connection case is different, in that cells are left with a net polarization after the pulse is applied. Experimentally, only cells subject to the pulse with conductive connection demonstrated electroporation with the drug Bleomycin.

  12. Effects of high voltage nanosecond electric pulses on eukaryotic cells (in vitro): A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Batista Napotnik, Tina; Reberšek, Matej; Vernier, P Thomas; Mali, Barbara; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-08-01

    For this systematic review, 203 published reports on effects of electroporation using nanosecond high-voltage electric pulses (nsEP) on eukaryotic cells (human, animal, plant) in vitro were analyzed. A field synopsis summarizes current published data in the field with respect to publication year, cell types, exposure configuration, and pulse duration. Published data were analyzed for effects observed in eight main target areas (plasma membrane, intracellular, apoptosis, calcium level and distribution, survival, nucleus, mitochondria, stress) and an additional 107 detailed outcomes. We statistically analyzed effects of nsEP with respect to three pulse duration groups: A: 1-10ns, B: 11-100ns and C: 101-999ns. The analysis confirmed that the plasma membrane is more affected with longer pulses than with short pulses, seen best in uptake of dye molecules after applying single pulses. Additionally, we have reviewed measurements of nsEP and evaluations of the electric fields to which cells were exposed in these reports, and we provide recommendations for assessing nanosecond pulsed electric field effects in electroporation studies. PMID:26946156

  13. Infrared nanosecond laser-metal ablation in atmosphere: Initial plasma during laser pulse and further expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jian; Wei, Wenfu; Li, Xingwen; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici

    2013-04-22

    We have investigated the dynamics of the nanosecond laser ablated plasma within and after the laser pulse irradiation using fast photography. A 1064 nm, 15 ns laser beam was focused onto a target made from various materials with an energy density in the order of J/mm{sup 2} in atmosphere. The plasma dynamics during the nanosecond laser pulse were observed, which could be divided into three stages: fast expansion, division into the primary plasma and the front plasma, and stagnation. After the laser terminated, a critical moment when the primary plasma expansion transited from the shock model to the drag model was resolved, and this phenomenon could be understood in terms of interactions between the primary and the front plasmas.

  14. Laser breakdown in alcohols and water induced by λ = 1064 nm nanosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, Tatiana; Toker, Gregory; Bulatov, Valery; Schechter, Israel

    2010-11-01

    Laser breakdown, induced by nanosecond pulses of 1064 nm wavelength, was studied in four alcohols and in water. The time dependent structure and physical properties of the breakdown were measured at high temporal and spatial resolutions, using Mach-Zehnder interferometry, shadow and Schlieren diagnostic techniques. The results indicate that just after the laser pulse the spark column has essentially discrete character and in all liquids it consists of a train of plasma micro-balls, triggered by microscopic inclusion particles. At longer times, namely in a few nanoseconds, micro-bubbles and associated micro-spherical shockwaves appear. These structures and their time-evolution were measured. Warmed channels were observed in the focal volume in all studied liquids.

  15. Investigation of Vacuum Insulator Surface Dielectric Strength with Nanosecond Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, W C; Krogh, M; Williams, C; Trimble, D; Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G

    2003-06-03

    The maximum vacuum insulator surface dielectric strength determines the acceleration electric field gradient possible in a short pulse accelerator. Previous work has indicated that higher electric field strengths along the insulator-vacuum interface might be obtained as the pulse duration is decreased. In this work, a 250 kV, single ns wide impulse source was applied to small diameter, segmented insulators samples in a vacuum to evaluate the multi-layer surface dielectric strength of the sample construction. Resonances in the low inductance test geometry were used to obtain unipolar, pulsed electric fields in excess of 100 MV/m on the insulator surface. The sample construction, experimental arrangement and experimental results are presented for the initial data in this work. Modeling of the multi-layer structure is discussed and methods of improving insulator surface dielectric strength in a vacuum are proposed.

  16. Nonlinear-optical transformation of nanosecond laser pulses and controlled supercontinuum generation in photonic-crystal fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, I. V. Fedotov, A. B.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2007-11-15

    Photonic-crystal fibers are shown to allow efficient spectral transformation of nanosecond laser pulses through parametric four-wave mixing and stimulated Raman scattering. Regimes providing highly efficient transformation of nanosecond laser pulses into white-light broadband radiation (supercontinuum) are identified. A strong parametric coupling between Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman sidebands around the wavelength of zero group-velocity dispersion is shown to increase the bandwidth and to improve the spectral quality of supercontinuum radiation.

  17. Conversion of high explosive chemical energy into energy of powerful nanosecond high-current pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, K. V.; Mikhaylov, V. M.; Nesterov, E. V.; Stroganov, V. A.; Chernykh, E. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study is a contribution into the development of physicotechnical foundations for generation of powerful nanosecond high-current pulses on the basis of explosively driven magnetic flux compression generators. This problem is solved by using inductive storage of energy for matching comparatively low-voltage explosively driven magnetic flux compression generators and high-impedance loads; short forming lines and vacuum diodes. Experimental data of charging of forming lines are given.

  18. Electric Field in a Plasma Channel in a High-Pressure Nanosecond Discharge in Hydrogen: A Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatom, S.; Tskhai, S.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2013-12-01

    Experimental results of a study of the electric field in a plasma channel produced during nanosecond discharge at a H2 gas pressure of (2-3)×105 Pa by the coherent anti-Stokes scattering method are reported. The discharge was ignited by applying a voltage pulse with an amplitude of ˜100 kV and a duration of ˜5 ns to a blade cathode placed at a distance of 10 and 20 mm from the anode. It was shown that this type of gas discharge is characterized by the presence of an electric field in the plasma channel with root-mean-square intensities of up to 30 kV/cm. Using polarization measurements, it was found that the direction of the electric field is along the cathode-anode axis.

  19. Nanosecond pulsed laser generation of holographic structures on metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, Krystian L.; Ardron, Marcus; Weston, Nick J.; Hand, Duncan P.

    2016-03-01

    A laser-based process for the generation of phase holographic structures directly onto the surface of metals is presented. This process uses 35ns long laser pulses of wavelength 355nm to generate optically-smooth surface deformations on a metal. The laser-induced surface deformations (LISDs) are produced by either localized laser melting or the combination of melting and evaporation. The geometry (shape and dimension) of the LISDs depends on the laser processing parameters, in particular the pulse energy, as well as on the chemical composition of a metal. In this paper, we explain the mechanism of the LISDs formation on various metals, such as stainless steel, pure nickel and nickel-chromium Inconel® alloys. In addition, we provide information about the design and fabrication process of the phase holographic structures and demonstrate their use as robust markings for the identification and traceability of high value metal goods.

  20. UV laser removal of varnish on tempera paints with nanosecond and femtosecond pulses.

    PubMed

    Oujja, Mohamed; García, Ana; Romero, Carolina; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Moreno, Pablo; Castillejo, Marta

    2011-03-14

    Two laser cleaning approaches based on ablation by ultraviolet laser pulses of femtosecond (fs) and nanosecond (ns) durations for the removal of shellac varnish from egg-yolk based tempera paints are investigated. Laser irradiation effects, induced on the varnish layer and on the underlying temperas by multiple pulses in the fs domain at 398 and 265 nm and single pulses in the ns domain at 213 nm, were examined following a spectroanalytical approach. By using optical microscopy, colorimetry and laser induced fluorescence it was found that irradiation of the varnished temperas with fs pulses changes the texture of the varnish surface and results in degradation of the underlying coloured paint. In contrast, operating with pulses of 15 ns at the highly absorbed wavelength of 213 nm, controlled micrometric layer removal of the varnish is possible without noticeable modification of the coloured temperas. These results widen the choice of laser conditions for painting restoration. PMID:21264373

  1. Energy deposition characteristics of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators: Influence of dielectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correale, G.; Winkel, R.; Kotsonis, M.

    2015-08-01

    An experimental study aimed at the characterization of energy deposition of nanosecond Dielectric Barrier Discharge (ns-DBD) plasma actuators was carried out. Special attention was given on the effect of the thickness and material used for dielectric barrier. The selected materials for this study were polyimide film (Kapton), polyamide based nylon (PA2200), and silicone rubber. Schlieren measurements were carried out in quiescent air conditions in order to observe density gradients induced by energy deposited. Size of heated area was used to qualify the energy deposition coupled with electrical power measurements performed using the back-current shunt technique. Additionally, light intensity measurements showed a different nature of discharge based upon the material used for barrier, for a fixed thickness and frequency of discharge. Finally, a characterisation study was performed for the three tested materials. Dielectric constant, volume resistivity, and thermal conductivity were measured. Strong trends between the control parameters and the energy deposited into the fluid during the discharge were observed. Results indicate that efficiency of energy deposition mechanism relative to the thickness of the barrier strongly depends upon the material used for the dielectric barrier itself. In general, a high dielectric strength and a low volumetric resistivity are preferred for a barrier, together with a high heat capacitance and a low thermal conductivity coefficient in order to maximize the efficiency of the thermal energy deposition induced by an ns-DBD plasma actuator.

  2. Generation and dynamics of single-electrode nanosecond pulsed microplasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunqi; Lane, Jamie; Song, Shutong; Plasma; Pulsed Power Lab at ODU-CBE Team

    2015-11-01

    Several millimeter long, 160 - 260 micrometer-in-width, helium plasma jets were generated in ambient atmosphere when a needle electrode was excited with nanosecond high voltage pulses at single shot or up to 500 Hz. This single-electrode system does not require the use of ground electrode for plasma generation, and thus has advantages in simplicity and small-dimension for a variety of biomedical applications. Dynamics of the microplasma jet powered by high voltage pulses with two different nanosecond pulses - 5 ns and 164 ns, was studied with high speed imaging, and spatiotemporally resolved optical emission spectroscopy. Whereas the plasma jet exhibits three different modes including a positive-streamer mode, a stochastic transition, and a negative streamer-like mode when it was excited with 164 ns kilovolt pulses, such modes and transitions in the plasma development were not observed for the 5 ns pulsed excitation. Shorter pulses with shorter rise times allowed higher energy deposition into the plasma and promote rapid acceleration of the plasma wavefronts; 5 ns pulsed excitation resulted in 4 times increase in the wavefront velocity compared with the 164 ns pulsed excitation. Importantly, the production of excited atomic oxygen increased by a factor of 2 for the 5 ns pulsed plasma jet when compared with that for a 164 ns pulsed plasma jet, whereas the other excited species including He, O, H, OH, N2(C-B) and N2+(B-X) were produced at comparable rates for the two plasma jets. Work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR Award No. FA9550-11-1-0190).

  3. A Tesla-type repetitive nanosecond pulse generator for solid dielectric breakdown research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Pan, Ya Feng; Su, Jian Cang; Zhang, Xi Bo; Wang, Li Min; Fang, Jin Peng; Sun, Xu; Lui, Rui

    2013-10-01

    A Tesla-type repetitive nanosecond pulse generator including a pair of electrode and a matched absorption resistor is established for the application of solid dielectric breakdown research. As major components, a built-in Tesla transformer and a gas-gap switch are designed to boost and shape the output pulse, respectively; the electrode is to form the anticipated electric field; the resistor is parallel to the electrode to absorb the reflected energy from the test sample. The parameters of the generator are a pulse width of 10 ns, a rise and fall time of 3 ns, and a maximum amplitude of 300 kV. By modifying the primary circuit of the Tesla transformer, the generator can produce both positive and negative pulses at a repetition rate of 1-50 Hz. In addition, a real-time measurement and control system is established based on the solid dielectric breakdown requirements for this generator. With this system, experiments on test samples made of common insulation materials in pulsed power systems are conducted. The preliminary experimental results show that the constructed generator is capable to research the solid dielectric breakdown phenomenon on a nanosecond time scale.

  4. A Tesla-type repetitive nanosecond pulse generator for solid dielectric breakdown research.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Pan, Ya Feng; Su, Jian Cang; Zhang, Xi Bo; Wang, Li Min; Fang, Jin Peng; Sun, Xu; Lui, Rui

    2013-10-01

    A Tesla-type repetitive nanosecond pulse generator including a pair of electrode and a matched absorption resistor is established for the application of solid dielectric breakdown research. As major components, a built-in Tesla transformer and a gas-gap switch are designed to boost and shape the output pulse, respectively; the electrode is to form the anticipated electric field; the resistor is parallel to the electrode to absorb the reflected energy from the test sample. The parameters of the generator are a pulse width of 10 ns, a rise and fall time of 3 ns, and a maximum amplitude of 300 kV. By modifying the primary circuit of the Tesla transformer, the generator can produce both positive and negative pulses at a repetition rate of 1-50 Hz. In addition, a real-time measurement and control system is established based on the solid dielectric breakdown requirements for this generator. With this system, experiments on test samples made of common insulation materials in pulsed power systems are conducted. The preliminary experimental results show that the constructed generator is capable to research the solid dielectric breakdown phenomenon on a nanosecond time scale. PMID:24182170

  5. The effects of gaseous bubble composition and gap distance on the characteristics of nanosecond discharges in distilled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min Suk

    2016-06-01

    Electric discharge in liquids with bubbles can reduce the energy consumption, which increases treatment efficiency. We present an experimental study of nanosecond discharges in distilled water bubbled with the monoatomic gas argon and with the polyatomic gases methane, carbon dioxide, and propane. We monitor the time evolution of the voltage and current waveforms, and calculate the injected charges to characterize the discharge. We establish a relationship between the injected charges and the shape of the plasma by time-resolved imaging to find that increasing the size of the gap reduces the injected charges. Moreover, we determine the plasma characteristics, including electron density, excitation temperatures (for atoms and ions), and rotational temperature of the OH and C2 radicals found in the plasma. Our space- and time-averaged measurements allow us to propose a spatial distribution of the plasma that is helpful for understanding the plasma dynamics necessary to develop and optimize applications based on nanosecond discharges in bubbled liquids.

  6. Studies of nanosecond pulsed power for modifications of biomaterials and nanomaterials (SWCNT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Meng-Tse

    This work investigates the modification of biological materials through the applications of modern nanosecond pulsed power, along with other forms of nanotechnologies. The work was initially envisaged as a study of the effect of intense nanosecond pulsed electric fields on cancer cells. As the work progressed, the studies suggested incorporation of additional technologies, in particular, cold plasmas, and carbon nanotubes. The reasons for these are discussed below, however, they were largely suggested by the systems that we were studying, and resulted in new and potentially important medical therapies. Using nanosecond cold plasmas powered with nanosecond pulses, collaboration with endodontists and biofilm experts demonstrated a killing effect on biofilms deep within root canals, suggesting a fundamentally new approach to an ongoing problem of root canal sterilization. This work derived from the application of nanosecond pulsed power, resulting in effective biofilm disinfection, without excessive heating, and is being investigated for additional dental and other medical applications. In the second area, collaboration with medical and nanotube experts, studies of gliomamultiforme (GBM) led to the incorporation of functionalized carbon nanotubes. Single-walled carbon nanotube-fluorescein carbazide (SWCNT-FC) conjugates demonstrated that the entry mechanism of the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was through an energy-dependent endocytotic pathway. Finally, a monotonic pH sensitivity of the intracellular fluorescence emission of SWCNT-FC conjugates in human ovarian cancer cells suggests these conjugates may serve as intracellular pH sensors. Light-stimulated intracellular hydrolysis of the amide linkage and localized intracellular pH changes are proposed as mechanisms. The use of SWCNTs for cancer therapy of gliomas, resulting in hyperthermia effect after 808 nm infrared radiations, absorbed specifically by SWCNTs but not by biological tissue. Heat was only

  7. Conductivity affects nanosecond electrical pulse induced pressure transient formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Caleb C.; Barnes, Ronald A.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Beier, Hope T.; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoporation occurs in cells exposed to high amplitude short duration (< 1μs) electrical pulses. The biophysical mechanism(s) responsible for nanoporation is unknown although several theories exist. Current theories focus exclusively on the electrical field, citing electrostriction, water dipole alignment and/or electrodeformation as the primary mechanisms for pore formation. Our group has shown that mechanical forces of substantial magnitude are also generated during nsEP exposures. We hypothesize that these mechanical forces may contribute to pore formation. In this paper, we report that alteration of the conductivity of the exposure solution also altered the level of mechanical forces generated during a nsEP exposure. By reducing the conductivity of the exposure solutions, we found that we could completely eliminate any pressure transients normally created by nsEP exposure. The data collected for this proceeding does not definitively show that the pressure transients previously identified contribute to nanoporation; however; it indicates that conductivity influences both survival and pressure transient formation.

  8. In vivo imaging rhodopsin distribution in the photoreceptors with nano-second pulsed scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tan; Liu, Xiaojing; Wen, Rong; Lam, Byron L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rhodopsin is a biomarker for the function of rod photoreceptors, the dysfunction of which is related to many blinding diseases like retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Imaging rhodopsin quantitatively may provide a powerful clinical tool for diagnosis of these diseases. To map rhodopsin distribution accurately in the retina, absorption by rhodopsin intermediates need to be minimized. Methods and materials We developed nano-second pulsed scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) to image rhodopsin distribution in the retina. The system takes advantage of the light-induced shift of rhodopsin absorption spectra, which in turn affects the fundus spectral reflection before and after photo-bleaching. By imaging the retina twice, one in the dark-adapted state and the other one in the light-adapted state, the rhodopsin absorption change can be calculated from the differential image, which is a function of the rhodopsin concentration in the rod photoreceptors. Results The system was successfully applied to in vivo imaging of rat retina in different bleaching conditions to verify its feasibility. Our studies showed that the differential image between the dark- and light-adapted states represents rhodopsin distribution in the retina. We also conducted a dynamic bleaching experiment to prove the importance of reducing light absorption of rhodopsin intermediates. Conclusions The preliminary results showed that our nano-second pulsed-light SLO is promising in imaging the functional biomarker of the rod photoreceptors. By using nanosecond pulsed laser, in which one laser pulse generates one pixel of the image, the absorption of rhodopsin intermediates can be reduced. PMID:25694955

  9. Interaction between pulsed discharge and radio frequency discharge burst at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Ying; Shi, Yuncheng; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2015-08-01

    The atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) with dual excitations in terms of pulsed voltage and pulse-modulation radio frequency (rf) power are studied experimentally between two parallel plates electrodes. Pulse-modulation applied in rf APGD temporally separates the discharge into repetitive discharge bursts, between which the high voltage pulses are introduced to ignite sub-microsecond pulsed discharge. The discharge characteristics and spatio-temporal evolution are investigated by means of current voltage characteristics and time resolved imaging, which suggests that the introduced pulsed discharge assists the ignition of rf discharge burst and reduces the maintain voltage of rf discharge burst. Furtherly, the time instant of pulsed discharge between rf discharge bursts is manipulated to study the ignition dynamics of rf discharge burst.

  10. Interaction between pulsed discharge and radio frequency discharge burst at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Ying; Shi, Yuncheng; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2015-08-15

    The atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) with dual excitations in terms of pulsed voltage and pulse-modulation radio frequency (rf) power are studied experimentally between two parallel plates electrodes. Pulse-modulation applied in rf APGD temporally separates the discharge into repetitive discharge bursts, between which the high voltage pulses are introduced to ignite sub-microsecond pulsed discharge. The discharge characteristics and spatio-temporal evolution are investigated by means of current voltage characteristics and time resolved imaging, which suggests that the introduced pulsed discharge assists the ignition of rf discharge burst and reduces the maintain voltage of rf discharge burst. Furtherly, the time instant of pulsed discharge between rf discharge bursts is manipulated to study the ignition dynamics of rf discharge burst.

  11. Long-lived plasma and fast quenching of N2(C3Π u ) by electrons in the afterglow of a nanosecond capillary discharge in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepikhin, N. D.; Klochko, A. V.; Popov, N. A.; Starikovskaia, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    Quenching of electronically excited nitrogen state, {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u},{{v}\\prime}=0\\right) , in the afterglow of nanosecond capillary discharge in pure nitrogen is studied. It is found experimentally that an additional collisional mechanism appears and dominates at high specific deposited energies leading to the anomalously fast quenching of the {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) in the afterglow. On the basis of obtained experimental data and of the analysis of possible quenching agents, it is concluded that the anomalously fast deactivation of the {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) can be explained by quenching by electrons. Long-lived plasma at time scale of hundreds nanoseconds after the end of the pulse is observed. High electron densities, about 1014 cm‑3 at 27 mbar, are sustained by reactions of associative ionization. Kinetic 1D numerical modeling and comparison of calculated results with experimentally measured electric fields in the second high-voltage pulse 250 ns after the initial pulse, and electron density measurements in the afterglow confirm the validity of the suggested mechanism.

  12. Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery through a hollow-core Negative Curvature Fiber for micro-machining applications.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Piotr; Yu, Fei; Maier, Robert R J; Wadsworth, William J; Knight, Jonathan C; Shephard, Jonathan D; Hand, Duncan P

    2013-09-23

    We present high average power picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery at 1030 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths respectively through a novel hollow-core Negative Curvature Fiber (NCF) for high-precision micro-machining applications. Picosecond pulses with an average power above 36 W and energies of 92 µJ, corresponding to a peak power density of 1.5 TWcm⁻² have been transmitted through the fiber without introducing any damage to the input and output fiber end-faces. High-energy nanosecond pulses (>1 mJ), which are ideal for micro-machining have been successfully delivered through the NCF with a coupling efficiency of 92%. Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery have been demonstrated in fiber-based laser micro-machining of fused silica, aluminum and titanium. PMID:24104161

  13. Dynamics of the microstructure of current channels and the generation of high-energy electrons in nanosecond discharges in air

    SciTech Connect

    Karelin, V. I.; Trenkin, A. A. Fedoseev, I. G.

    2015-12-15

    The results of the three-dimensional numerical simulation of the dynamics of the microstructure of high-voltage nanosecond discharges in air at atmospheric pressure are presented. It is established that the fast (at a time of ≈10 ns) broadening and significant decrease in the gas concentration in the microchannels occur as a result of the ohmic heating of microchannels with the diameter of 1–30 μm. It was shown that the broadening of microchannels in a nanosecond diffusive discharge provides an increase in the ratio of the electric field strength to the gas concentration in microchannels to values sufficient for the generation highenergy electron beams and X-ray bremsstrahlung in them. Features of the dynamics of the system of microchannels and its effect on the efficiency of the generation of high-energy electrons in discharges developing in the microstructuring regime of the current channels are considered.

  14. 100  J-level nanosecond pulsed diode pumped solid state laser.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Saumyabrata; Mason, Paul D; Ertel, Klaus; Jonathan Phillips, P; De Vido, Mariastefania; Chekhlov, Oleg; Divoky, Martin; Pilar, Jan; Smith, Jodie; Butcher, Thomas; Lintern, Andrew; Tomlinson, Steph; Shaikh, Waseem; Hooker, Chris; Lucianetti, Antonio; Hernandez-Gomez, Cristina; Mocek, Tomas; Edwards, Chris; Collier, John L

    2016-05-01

    We report on the successful demonstration of a 100 J-level, diode pumped solid state laser based on cryogenic gas cooled, multi-slab ceramic Yb:YAG amplifier technology. When operated at 175 K, the system delivered a pulse energy of 107 J at a 1 Hz repetition rate and 10 ns pulse duration, pumped by 506 J of diode energy at 940 nm, corresponding to an optical-to-optical efficiency of 21%. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest energy obtained from a nanosecond pulsed diode pumped solid state laser. This demonstration confirms the energy scalability of the diode pumped optical laser for experiments laser architecture. PMID:27128081

  15. Time resolved optical methods for investigation of phase transformations in materials exposed to nanosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martan, J.; Semmar, N.; Cibulka, O.

    2011-06-01

    Infrared (IR) radiometry and time resolved reflectivity (TRR) methods can be used for investigation of laser pulse effects on materials in nanosecond time scale. The methods in combination are capable to quantify object temperature and detect phase transformations in the solid state, melting and plasma formation from vapour. Measurements with different laser pulse energy densities provide threshold of the transformation. The melt duration can be also determined. The experimental system is described. It contains KrF excimer laser with homogenizer and variable attenuator, fast IR detector for radiometry, continuous probing laser with Si photodiode for reflectivity measurement and UV detector for pump laser pulse reflection measurement. The system was applied to investigation of responses to laser light of silicon and different pure metals and alloys. The range of energy densities used was 1-5500 mJ.cm-2 and measurements were done with temporal resolution of 6 ns for radiometry and 1 ns for reflectivity.

  16. Dynamics of optical breakdown in air induced by single and double nanosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein; Akbari Jafarabadi, Marzieh

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an optical breakdown in air induced by single and double nanosecond laser pulses was studied. A high power Nd:YAG laser beam was used for producing optical breakdown plasma in the air. The dynamics of breakdown plasma were studied using an optical probe beam. A portion of the laser beam was used, as the probe beam and was aligned to propagate (perpendicular to the pump beam) through the breakdown region. The transmission of the probe beam (through the breakdown region) was temporally measured for both single and double pulse irradiations. The results were used to describe the evolution of the induced plasma in both conditions. These results show that the plasma formation time and its absorptivity are strongly dependent on the single or double pulse configurations.

  17. Dynamics of optical breakdown in air induced by single and double nanosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein Akbari Jafarabadi, Marzieh

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, an optical breakdown in air induced by single and double nanosecond laser pulses was studied. A high power Nd:YAG laser beam was used for producing optical breakdown plasma in the air. The dynamics of breakdown plasma were studied using an optical probe beam. A portion of the laser beam was used, as the probe beam and was aligned to propagate (perpendicular to the pump beam) through the breakdown region. The transmission of the probe beam (through the breakdown region) was temporally measured for both single and double pulse irradiations. The results were used to describe the evolution of the induced plasma in both conditions. These results show that the plasma formation time and its absorptivity are strongly dependent on the single or double pulse configurations.

  18. Amplitude decay of photoacoustic signals in biological tissue when irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewhurst, Richard J.; Li, Teng; Gondek, Grzegorz

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we report on sequential decreases in the amplitude of photoacoustic (PA) signals from nanosecond laser pulse irradiation of various samples. These samples include biological tissues, such as dental-enamel and chicken/turkey breast as well as some non-biological samples. Laser energy densities in the range of 80mJ/cm2 to 300mJ/cm2 were used in our experiments, typical of those used in PA imaging regimes. Induced temperature rises are modelled to show that the average temperature rise for each pulse in those biological tissues is less than one degree centigrade. Measurements reveal a rapid decay of photoacoustic signals within the first few laser pulses absorbed by the sample and this decay is irreversible in the short term. The phenomenon indicates that laser irradiation interacts with biological samples, causing long-term physical changes that can be attributed to a reduction of optical absorption within the samples.

  19. Kinetic mechanism of plasma recombination in methane, ethane and propane after high-voltage nanosecond discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anokhin, E. M.; Popov, M. A.; Kochetov, I. V.; Starikovskiy, A. Yu; Aleksandrov, N. L.

    2016-08-01

    The results of the experimental and numerical study of high-voltage nanosecond discharge afterglow in pure methane, ethane and propane are presented for room temperature and pressures from 2 to 20 Torr. Time-resolved electron density during the plasma decay was measured with a microwave interferometer for initial electron densities in the range between 5  ×  1010 and 3  ×  1012 cm‑3 and the effective recombination coefficients were obtained. Measured effective recombination coefficients increased with gas pressure and were much higher than the recombination coefficients for simple molecular hydrocarbon ions. The properties of plasma in the discharge afterglow were numerically simulated by solving the balance equations for charged particles and electron temperature. Calculations showed that electrons had time to thermalize prior to the recombination. The measured data were interpreted under the assumption that cluster hydrocarbon ions are formed during the plasma decay that is controlled by the dissociative electron recombination with these ions at electron room temperature. Based on the analysis of the experimental data, the rates of three-body formation of cluster ions and recombination coefficients for these ions were estimated.

  20. Targeted gene transfer into rat facial muscles by nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Akihiro; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Satoh, Yasushi; Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Obara, Minoru; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the feasibility of using nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves (LISWs) for gene transfer into rat facial muscles. LISWs are generated by irradiating a black natural rubber disk placed on the target tissue with nanosecond pulsed laser light from the second harmonics (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, which is widely used in head and neck surgery and proven to be safe. After injection of plasmid deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) coding for Lac Z into rat facial muscles, pulsed laser is used to irradiate the laser target on the skin surface without incision or exposure of muscles. Lac Z expression is detected by X-gal staining of excised rat facial skin and muscles. Strong Lac Z expression is observed seven days after gene transfer, and sustained for up to 14 days. Gene transfer is achieved in facial muscles several millimeters deep from the surface. Gene expression is localized to the tissue exposed to LISWs. No tissue damage from LISWs is observed. LISW is a promising nonviral target gene transfer method because of its high spatial controllability, easy applicability, and minimal invasiveness. Gene transfer using LISW to produce therapeutic proteins such as growth factors could be used to treat nerve injury and paralysis.

  1. Targeted gene transfer into rat facial muscles by nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Akihiro; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Satoh, Yasushi; Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Obara, Minoru; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the feasibility of using nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves (LISWs) for gene transfer into rat facial muscles. LISWs are generated by irradiating a black natural rubber disk placed on the target tissue with nanosecond pulsed laser light from the second harmonics (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, which is widely used in head and neck surgery and proven to be safe. After injection of plasmid deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) coding for Lac Z into rat facial muscles, pulsed laser is used to irradiate the laser target on the skin surface without incision or exposure of muscles. Lac Z expression is detected by X-gal staining of excised rat facial skin and muscles. Strong Lac Z expression is observed seven days after gene transfer, and sustained for up to 14 days. Gene transfer is achieved in facial muscles several millimeters deep from the surface. Gene expression is localized to the tissue exposed to LISWs. No tissue damage from LISWs is observed. LISW is a promising nonviral target gene transfer method because of its high spatial controllability, easy applicability, and minimal invasiveness. Gene transfer using LISW to produce therapeutic proteins such as growth factors could be used to treat nerve injury and paralysis. PMID:21950944

  2. Controlled oxide films formation by nanosecond laser pulses for color marking.

    PubMed

    Veiko, Vadim; Odintsova, Galina; Ageev, Eduard; Karlagina, Yulia; Loginov, Anatoliy; Skuratova, Alexandra; Gorbunova, Elena

    2014-10-01

    A technology of laser-induced coloration of metals by surface oxidation is demonstrated. Each color of the oxide film corresponds to a technologic chromacity coefficient, which takes into account the temperature of the sample after exposure by sequence of laser pulses with nanosecond duration and effective time of action. The coefficient can be used for the calculation of laser exposure regimes for the development of a specific color on the metal. A correlation between the composition of the films obtained on the surface of stainless steel AISI 304 and commercial titanium Grade 2 and its color and chromacity coordinates is shown. PMID:25322009

  3. Low-density plasma formation in aqueous biological media using sub-nanosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genc, Suzanne L.; Ma, Huan; Venugopalan, Vasan

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate the formation of low- and high-density plasmas in aqueous media using sub-nanosecond laser pulses delivered at low numerical aperture (NA = 0.25). We observe two distinct regimes of plasma formation in deionized water, phosphate buffered saline, Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), and MEM supplemented with phenol red. Optical breakdown is first initiated in a low-energy regime and characterized by bubble formation without plasma luminescence with threshold pulse energies in the range of Ep ≈ 4-5 μJ, depending on media formulation. The onset of this regime occurs over a very narrow interval of pulse energies and produces small bubbles (Rmax = 2-20 μm) due to a tiny conversion (η < 0.01%) of laser energy to bubble energy EB. The lack of visible plasma luminescence, sharp energy onset, and low bubble energy conversion are all hallmarks of low-density plasma (LDP) formation. At higher pulse energies (Ep = 11-20 μJ), the process transitions to a second regime characterized by plasma luminescence and large bubble formation. Bubbles formed in this regime are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger in size ( R max ≳ 100 μ m ) due to a roughly two-order-of-magnitude increase in bubble energy conversion (η ≳ 3%). These characteristics are consistent with high-density plasma formation produced by avalanche ionization and thermal runaway. Additionally, we show that supplementation of MEM with fetal bovine serum (FBS) limits optical breakdown to this high-energy regime. The ability to produce LDPs using sub-nanosecond pulses focused at low NA in a variety of cell culture media formulations without FBS can provide for cellular manipulation at high throughput with precision approaching that of femtosecond pulses delivered at high NA.

  4. Low-density plasma formation in aqueous biological media using sub-nanosecond laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Suzanne L.; Ma, Huan; Venugopalan, Vasan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the formation of low- and high-density plasmas in aqueous media using sub-nanosecond laser pulses delivered at low numerical aperture (NA = 0.25). We observe two distinct regimes of plasma formation in deionized water, phosphate buffered saline, Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), and MEM supplemented with phenol red. Optical breakdown is first initiated in a low-energy regime and characterized by bubble formation without plasma luminescence with threshold pulse energies in the range of Ep ≈ 4–5 μJ, depending on media formulation. The onset of this regime occurs over a very narrow interval of pulse energies and produces small bubbles (Rmax = 2–20 μm) due to a tiny conversion (η < 0.01%) of laser energy to bubble energy EB. The lack of visible plasma luminescence, sharp energy onset, and low bubble energy conversion are all hallmarks of low-density plasma (LDP) formation. At higher pulse energies (Ep = 11–20 μJ), the process transitions to a second regime characterized by plasma luminescence and large bubble formation. Bubbles formed in this regime are 1–2 orders of magnitude larger in size (Rmax≳100 μm) due to a roughly two-order-of-magnitude increase in bubble energy conversion (η ≳ 3%). These characteristics are consistent with high-density plasma formation produced by avalanche ionization and thermal runaway. Additionally, we show that supplementation of MEM with fetal bovine serum (FBS) limits optical breakdown to this high-energy regime. The ability to produce LDPs using sub-nanosecond pulses focused at low NA in a variety of cell culture media formulations without FBS can provide for cellular manipulation at high throughput with precision approaching that of femtosecond pulses delivered at high NA. PMID:25278618

  5. Low-density plasma formation in aqueous biological media using sub-nanosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Genc, Suzanne L; Ma, Huan; Venugopalan, Vasan

    2014-08-11

    We demonstrate the formation of low- and high-density plasmas in aqueous media using sub-nanosecond laser pulses delivered at low numerical aperture (NA = 0.25). We observe two distinct regimes of plasma formation in deionized water, phosphate buffered saline, Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), and MEM supplemented with phenol red. Optical breakdown is first initiated in a low-energy regime and characterized by bubble formation without plasma luminescence with threshold pulse energies in the range of E p ≈ 4-5 μJ, depending on media formulation. The onset of this regime occurs over a very narrow interval of pulse energies and produces small bubbles (R max = 2-20 μm) due to a tiny conversion (η < 0.01%) of laser energy to bubble energy E B. The lack of visible plasma luminescence, sharp energy onset, and low bubble energy conversion are all hallmarks of low-density plasma (LDP) formation. At higher pulse energies (E p = 11-20 μJ), the process transitions to a second regime characterized by plasma luminescence and large bubble formation. Bubbles formed in this regime are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger in size [Formula: see text] due to a roughly two-order-of-magnitude increase in bubble energy conversion (η ≳ 3%). These characteristics are consistent with high-density plasma formation produced by avalanche ionization and thermal runaway. Additionally, we show that supplementation of MEM with fetal bovine serum (FBS) limits optical breakdown to this high-energy regime. The ability to produce LDPs using sub-nanosecond pulses focused at low NA in a variety of cell culture media formulations without FBS can provide for cellular manipulation at high throughput with precision approaching that of femtosecond pulses delivered at high NA. PMID:25278618

  6. Radiative Characteristics of the Pulse-Periodic Discharge Plasma Initiated by Runaway Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomaev, M. I.; Beloplotov, D. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Sorokin, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    Results of experimental investigations of amplitude-temporal and spectral characteristics of radiation of a pulse-periodic discharge plasma initiated in nitrogen by runaway electrons are presented. The discharge was initiated by high-voltage nanosecond voltage pulses with repetition frequency of 60 Hz in a sharply inhomogeneous electric field in a gap between the conic potential cathode and the planar grounded aluminum anode. It is established that intensive lines of Al I atoms and Al II atomic ions, lines of N I atoms and N II ions, bands of the first (1+) and second positive (2+) nitrogen systems, as well as bands of cyanogen CN are observed in the emission spectrum of the discharge plasma under the given excitation conditions.

  7. Nanosecond laser-induced phase transitions in pulsed laser deposition-deposited GeTe films

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xinxing Thelander, Erik; Lorenz, Pierre; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Decker, Ulrich; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2014-10-07

    Phase transformations between amorphous and crystalline states induced by irradiation of pulsed laser deposition grown GeTe thin films with nanosecond laser pulses at 248 nm and pulse duration of 20 ns are studied. Structural and optical properties of the Ge-Te phase-change films were studied by X-ray diffraction and optical reflectivity measurements as a function of the number of laser pulses between 0 and 30 pulses and of the laser fluence up to 195 mJ/cm². A reversible phase transition by using pulse numbers ≥ 5 at a fluence above the threshold fluence between 11 and 14 mJ/cm² for crystallization and single pulses at a fluence between 162 and 182 mJ/cm² for amorphization could be proved. For laser fluences from 36 up to 130 mJ/cm², a high optical contrast of 14.7% between the amorphous and crystalline state is measured. A simple model is used that allows the discussion on the distribution of temperature in dependency on the laser fluence.

  8. Transient features in nanosecond pulsed electric fields differentially modulate mitochondria and viability.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Stephen J; Chen, Yeong-Jer; Sain, Nova M; Schoenbach, Karl H; Xiao, Shu

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that high frequency components of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs), determined by transient pulse features, are important for maximizing electric field interactions with intracellular structures. For monopolar square wave pulses, these transient features are determined by the rapid rise and fall of the pulsed electric fields. To determine effects on mitochondria membranes and plasma membranes, N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma cells were exposed to single 600 ns pulses with varying electric fields (0-80 kV/cm) and short (15 ns) or long (150 ns) rise and fall times. Plasma membrane effects were evaluated using Fluo-4 to determine calcium influx, the only measurable source of increases in intracellular calcium. Mitochondria membrane effects were evaluated using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) to determine mitochondria membrane potentials (ΔΨm). Single pulses with short rise and fall times caused electric field-dependent increases in calcium influx, dissipation of ΔΨm and cell death. Pulses with long rise and fall times exhibited electric field-dependent increases in calcium influx, but diminished effects on dissipation of ΔΨm and viability. Results indicate that high frequency components have significant differential impact on mitochondria membranes, which determines cell death, but lesser variances on plasma membranes, which allows calcium influxes, a primary determinant for dissipation of ΔΨm and cell death. PMID:23284682

  9. Reliability performance of pulse discharge capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, L.R.

    1997-02-01

    There is a void of public specifications for pulse discharge capacitor applications. Sandia National Laboratories has developed, over the past 25 years, specifications and test procedures for evaluating capacitor designs for this specialized use. There are three primary destructive tests that are used to assess the reliability potential of a given design at a required rated voltage. These are ultimate short time breakdown strength, life at voltage, and pulse discharge life. The strategy of the method is to accelerate the test conditions so that failures are observable and then extrapolate to the desired use conditions where the failure rates are low. This paper will present the statistical methodologies employed to analyze experimental data and to provide a point estimate of reliability with a lower confidence bound as a function of rated voltage. In addition, methods for establishing lot-acceptance-criteria specifications will be discussed. The techniques will be illustrated with actual data on a commercially available, low-inductance, pulse-discharge capacitor. The capacitor is an impregnated dual dielectric (mica-paper/polymer film), extended-foil type.

  10. Generation of neutrons in a nanosecond low-pressure discharge in deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomaev, M. I.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Dudkin, G. N.; Sorokin, D. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shuvalov, E. N.

    2015-04-01

    The neutron yield is measured in a high-voltage Townsend discharge in deuterium with a hollow cylinder made of tungsten or steel used as a polarizing anode of electrons. A flat metallic plate covered by a layer of deuterated zirconium is applied as a grounded cathode. The highest yield of neutrons in the reaction 2H(d,n)3He, ˜1.2 × 104 neutrons per pulse, is observed in the case of the tungsten anode at a deuterium pressure on the order of 100 Pa. The pulsed neutron flux duration estimated with data obtained from a scintillation detector is roughly equal to 1.5 ns.