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1

Nanostructured composite reinforced material  

DOEpatents

A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2012-07-31

2

Composite, nanostructured, super-hydrophobic material  

DOEpatents

A hydrophobic disordered composite material having a protrusive surface feature includes a recessive phase and a protrusive phase, the recessive phase having a higher susceptibility to a preselected etchant than the protrusive phase, the composite material having an etched surface wherein the protrusive phase protrudes from the surface to form a protrusive surface feature, the protrusive feature being hydrophobic.

D'Urso, Brian R. (Clinton, TN); Simpson, John T. (Clinton, TN)

2007-08-21

3

Three dimensional, bulk nanostructured materials and composites have matured into a new class of materials that is being considered in a variety of engineering applications. The successful synthesis of large-scale nanostructured materials is of  

E-print Network

Three dimensional, bulk nanostructured materials and composites have matured into a new class of large-scale nanostructured materials is of technological and scientific significance. From- scale nanostructured materials will permit systematic investigations of the physical and mechanical

4

Composite nano-structured calcium silicate phase change materials for thermal buffering in food packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new nano-structured calcium silicate (NCS) phase change composite material has been developed to provide effective thermal buffering for paperboard packages during the transport and temporary storage of chilled perishable food from the supplier to the market. NCS is a proprietary material comprising nano-size platelets stacked together in a unique open framework structure having a high pore volume and

James H. Johnston; James E. Grindrod; Margaret Dodds; Katrin Schimitschek

2008-01-01

5

Nano-particulate dispersion and reinforcement of nanostructured composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigated the feasibility of reinforcing polymer composites using 30 nm SiC nanoparticles in a vinyl ester resin. The SiC nanoparticles were examined using transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Gamma-methacryloxy propyl trimethoxy silane (MPS) was chosen as the coupling agent. Both mixing procedures with (1) the nanoparticles pretreated with a dilute MPS solution in an acid 5% (v/v) water-ethanol mixture and (2) the MPS sonicated as an integral blend with the filled vinyl ester, were attempted. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study the silanol condensation between MPS and the SiC nanoparticles. The results show that ultrasonic mixing did not fully disperse the particles. Hence the composite strength did not improve although the modulus increased. The use of MPS improved the dispersion quality and hence the composite strength. The rheological behavior of SiC nanoparticle-filled vinyl ester resin systems was evaluated in terms of the Bingham, power law, Herschel-Bulkley, and Casson models. Even when the particle loading was less then 4% by weight, the viscosity of the nanoparticle suspension was found to increase much more than that of a microparticle suspension. This phenomenon may be the result of association between nanoparticles and polymer molecules, effectively making the nanoparticles larger. The resulting reduction in the mobility of polymer molecules also led to delayed curing. The maximum particle loading corresponding to infinite viscosity was determined as 0.1 volume fraction using the (1 - eta r-1/2) - ? dependence. The experimental optimum fractional weight per cent of the dispersants (wt. % dispersant/wt. % SiC) was found to be around 40% for 30 nm SiC nanoparticles, which is in close agreement with the theoretically calculated monolayer coverage dosage of 67%.

Yong, Virginia Hiu-Hung

2005-12-01

6

The Process of Nanostructuring of Metal (Iron) Matrix in Composite Materials for Directional Control of the Mechanical Properties  

PubMed Central

We justified theoretical and experimental bases of synthesis of new class of highly nanostructured composite nanomaterials based on metal matrix with titanium carbide nanowires as dispersed phase. A new combined method for obtaining of metal iron-based composite materials comprising the powder metallurgy processes and the surface design of the dispersed phase is considered. The following stages of material synthesis are investigated: (1) preparation of porous metal matrix; (2) surface structuring of the porous metal matrix by TiC nanowires; (3) pressing and sintering to give solid metal composite nanostructured materials based on iron with TiC nanostructures with size 150?nm. This material can be represented as the material type frame in the frame that represents iron metal frame reinforcing the frame of different chemical compositions based on TiC. Study of material functional properties showed that the mechanical properties of composite materials based on iron with TiC dispersed phase despite the presence of residual porosity are comparable to the properties of the best grades of steel containing expensive dopants and obtained by molding. This will solve the problem of developing a new generation of nanostructured metal (iron-based) materials with improved mechanical properties for the different areas of technology. PMID:24695459

Zemtsova, Elena

2014-01-01

7

Catalytical Functions of Metallic Nanostructures and Nanostructured Materials  

E-print Network

Catalytical Functions of Metallic Nanostructures and Nanostructured Materials T. Diemant1 , R: Functional Nanostructures, T. Schimmel and H. v. Loehneysen (Eds.) (Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg New

Pfeifer, Holger

8

Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage  

DOEpatents

A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

Williamson, Andrew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Reboredo, Fernando A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2007-12-04

9

Microstructure and composition analysis of nanostructured materials using HREM and FEG-TEM  

PubMed

The microstructure in nanostructured (NS) materials synthesized by different methods have been characterized by electron microscopy methods. NS-Pd was prepared by inert-gas condensation and in situ compacting method (IGCC), NS-alloys by amorphous crystallization method (ACM) and NS-Cu and Cu100-xFe(x) alloy by mechanical alloying (MA) methods. The experimental results have revealed that different preparation techniques lead to different microstructures. The grain boundaries have ordered and disordered structures and high density of defects were frequently detected in NS-materials synthesized by IGCC and MA. For the NS-alloys produced by ACM, however, the structures of GBs are similar to those in coarse-grained materials and the grains have nearly perfect crystal structure. For immiscible systems, a supersaturated Fe-Cu solid solution can be obtained by MA, but it is difficult using IGCC. PMID:10831304

Li; Ping; Huang; Yu; Ye

2000-10-01

10

Characterization of nanostructured PbO2PANi composite materials synthesized by combining electrochemical and chemical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured PbO2PANi composite materials were prepared by combining electrochemical and chemical methods. Firstly, PbO2 was deposited on a stainless steel substrate by pulsed current method and then obtained PbO2 electrode was immersed into acidic aniline solution to form nanostructured PbO2PANi composites. The synthesized samples were characterized by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on those composites was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization from 1.4 to 2.2 V versus Ag/AgCl/saturated KCl electrode. The adsorption of NH group as well as the presence of benzoid and quinoid ring vibrations on IR-spectrum asserts that PANi coexisted with ?-PbO2 which is evidenced by x-ray analysis. With increasing immersion times of the PbO2 electrode in the acidic aniline solution the electrocatalytic performance of the obtained PbO2PANi composites for methanol oxidation was improved due to the formation of less closely knitted nano-sized PANi fibers, which was confirmed by surface morphology analysis.

Binh Phan, Thi; Tot Pham, Thi; Thanh Thuy Mai, Thi

2013-03-01

11

Nanostructured, electroactive and bioapplicable materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel nanostructured porous sol-gel materials, nanocomposites, electroactive and bioapplicable materials have been successfully developed for a wide range of perceivable applications. Several versatile nonsurfactant templated sol-gel pathways have been developed to prepare nanostructured porous materials and composites with different morphologies (e.g., monoliths, nanospheres, nanoparticles, and thin films), structures, compositions and properties. The synthetic conditions were systematically studied and optimized. The template effects on pore structure as well as synthetic process, especially template removal steps, have been investigated. The composition and pore structures were thoroughly studied with various spectroscopic and microscopic methods such as IR, TGA, SEM, TEM, BET and XRD. The obtained mesoporous materials usually exhibit high surface area, large pore volume and narrowly distributed pore diameter. The porosity can be fine tuned simply by adjusting the template concentration. The convenient synthesis as well as the distinctive structure and physical-chemical properties render these sol-gel materials great suitability for a wide range of potential applications, such as chemical and biological sensors, catalysts, drug delivery and functional coatings. Biocompatible and electroactive nanocomposites have been prepared through a biological agent (i.e., collagen) templated chemical polymerization of aniline monomers. The resultant polyaniline-collagen complexes exhibit well controlled doping-dedoping electroactivity and much enhanced solubility. Demonstrated with cell growth studies, the polyaniline-collagen complexes show improved biocompatibility in comparison to polyaniline. The new materials can be used to fabricate scaffolds, with which the effect of electrical stimuli on cell growth and differentiation can be evaluated with the hope of ultimately using electrical signal to stimulate controllable cell and tissue regeneration. Aniline derivative substituted quinoline ligand compounds and their complexes have been prepared and investigated as potential electroluminescent materials.

Cheng, Shan

12

Curved nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphite is a layered material that is very flexible, in which each layer is able to curve in order to form cages, nanotubes, nanocoils, nanocones, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that various synthetic routes are capable of producing graphite-like nanomaterials with fascinating electronic and mechanical properties. There are other layered systems, which could curl and bend, thus generating novel nanostructures with positive and negative Gaussian curvature. In this context, we will also demonstrate that hexagonal boron nitride, tungsten disulfide (WS2), molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and rhenium disulfide (ReS2) are also able to create nanocages, nanotubes and nano-arrangements exhibiting novel physico-chemical properties that could revolutionize materials science in the 21st century.

Terrones, Humberto; Terrones, Mauricio

2003-10-01

13

Nanostructured Materials for Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of both inorganic and organic nanostructured materials in producing high efficiency photovoltaics is discussed in this paper. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of semiconductor quantum dots in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell. In addition, it has also recently been demonstrated that quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. A similar improvement in these types of cells has also been observed by employing single wall carbon nanotubes. This relatively new carbon allotrope may assist both in the disassociation of excitons as well as carrier transport through the composite material. This paper reviews the efforts that are currently underway to produce and characterize these nanoscale materials and to exploit their unique properties.

Bailey, Sheila; Raffaelle, Ryne; Castro, Stephanie; Fahey, S.; Gennett, T.; Tin, P.

2003-01-01

14

Hierarchically nanostructured materials for sustainable environmental applications  

PubMed Central

This review presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions, and multiple functionalities toward water remediation, biosensing, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing, and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology. PMID:24790946

Ren, Zheng; Guo, Yanbing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Gao, Pu-Xian

2013-01-01

15

An investigation of electromagnetic response of composite polymer materials containing carbon nanostructures within the range of frequencies 10 MHz - 1.1 THz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic characteristics of composite polymer materials based on multilayer carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) and nano-onion carbon structures in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix are investigated. The purpose is to identify a functional relationship between the size, kind, type of processing, concentration of nanotubes and electromagnetic characteristics of composite materials within the frequency range 10 MHz - 1.1 THz. Use is made of the coaxial waveguide, resonator, and quasi-optical methods. The spectra of reflection and transmission coefficients are reported. The composite materials based on carbon nanostructures are shown to actively interact with electromagnetic radiation in a wide range of frequencies.

Suslyaev, V. I.; Kuznetsov, V. L.; Zhuravlev, V. A.; Mazov, I. N.; Korovin, E. Yu.; Moseenkov, S. I.; Dorozhkin, K. V.

2013-01-01

16

Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry mixing with pure polymer powder followed by compression molding. The EMI shielding material was developed using copper nanowires. CuNW/Polystyrene composites exhibit EMI shielding effectiveness exceeding that of metal microfillers and carbon nanotube/polymer composites and approaching that of coating techniques have been formulated by solution processing and dry mixing.

Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

17

Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramiccarbon composites, ceramiccarbonmetal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices.

Orilall, M. Christopher; Wiesner, Ulrich

2011-01-01

18

Nanostructured polyaniline rice husk composite as adsorption materials synthesized by different methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composites based on polyaniline (PANi) and rice husk (RH) were prepared by two methods: the first one was chemical method by combining RH contained in acid medium and aniline using ammonium persulfate as an oxidation agent and the second one was that of soaking RH into PANi solution. The presence of PANi combined with RH to form nanocomposite was clearly demonstrated by infrared (IR) spectra as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Lead(II) and cadmium(II) ion concentrations in solution before and after adsorption process on those composites were analysed by atomic adsorption spectroscopy. Of the above preparation methods, the soaking one provided a composite onto which the maximum adsorption capacity was higher for lead(II) ion (200 mg g?1), but lower for cadmium(II) ion (106.383 mg g?1) in comparison with the chemical one. However, their adsorption process occurring on both composites also fitted well into the Langmuir isotherm model.

Tot Pham, Thi; Thanh Thuy Mai, Thi; Quy Bui, Minh; Mai, Thi Xuan; Yen Tran, Hai; Binh Phan, Thi

2014-03-01

19

Nanostructured thin film thermoelectric composite materials using conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS  

E-print Network

Thermoelectric materials have the ability to convert heat directly into electricity. This clean energy technology has advantages over other renewable technologies in that it requires no sunlight, has no moving parts, and ...

Kuryak, Chris A. (Chris Adam)

2013-01-01

20

Prediction of Material Properties of Nanostructured Polymer Composites Using Atomistic Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atomistic models of epoxy polymers were built in order to assess the effect of structure at the nanometer scale on the resulting bulk properties such as elastic modulus and thermal conductivity. Atomistic models of both bulk polymer and carbon nanotube polymer composites were built. For the bulk models, the effect of moisture content and temperature on the resulting elastic constants was calculated. A relatively consistent decrease in modulus was seen with increasing temperature. The dependence of modulus on moisture content was less consistent. This behavior was seen for two different epoxy systems, one containing a difunctional epoxy molecule and the other a tetrafunctional epoxy molecule. Both epoxy structures were crosslinked with diamine curing agents. Multifunctional properties were calculated with the nanocomposite models. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to estimate the interfacial thermal (Kapitza) resistance between the carbon nanotube and the surrounding epoxy matrix. These estimated values were used in a multiscale model in order to predict the thermal conductivity of a nanocomposite as a function of the nanometer scaled molecular structure.

Hinkley, J.A.; Clancy, T.C.; Frankland, S.J.V.

2009-01-01

21

Composite material  

DOEpatents

A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

Hutchens, Stacy A. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Solihull, GB); Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN); O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-02-07

22

Functional nanostructured plasmonic materials.  

SciTech Connect

Plasmonic crystals fabricated with precisely controlled arrays of subwavelength metal nanostructures provide a promising platform for sensing and imaging of surface binding events with micrometer spatial resolution over large areas. Soft nanoimprint lithography provides a robust, cost-effective method for producing highly uniform plasmonic crystals of this type with predictable optical properties. The tunable multimode plasmonic resonances of these crystals and their ability for integration into lab-on-a-chip microfluidic systems can both be harnessed to achieve exceptionally high analytical sensitivities down to submonolayer levels using even a common optical microscope, circumventing numerous technical limitations of more conventional surface plasmon resonance techniques. In this article, we highlight some recent advances in this field with an emphasis on the fabrication and characterization of these integrated devices and their demonstrated applications.

Yao, J.; Le, A.-P.; Gray, S. K.; Moore, J. S.; Rogers, J. A.; Nuzzo, R. G.; Univ. of Illinois

2010-03-12

23

Nanoprobes, nanostructured materials and solid state materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel templates have been developed to prepare nanostructured porous materials through nonsurfactant templated pathway. And new applications of these materials, such as drug delivery and molecular imprinting, have been explored. The relationship between template content and pore structure has been investigated. The composition and pore structures were studied in detail using IR, TGA, SEM, TEM, BET and XRD. The obtained mesoporous materials have tunable diameters in the range of 2--12 nm. Due to the many advantages of this nonsurfactant templated pathway, such as environment friendly and biocompatibility, controlled release of antibiotics in the nanoporous materials were studied. The in vitro release properties were found to depend on the silica structures which were well tuned by varying the template content. A controlled long-term release pattern of vancomycin was achieved when the template content was 30 wt% or lower. Nanoscale electrochemical probes with dimensions as small as 50 nm in diameter and 1--2 mum in length were fabricated using electron beam deposition on the apex of conventional micron size electrodes. The electroactive region was limited to the extreme tip of the nanoprobe by coating with an insulating polymer and re-opening of the coating at the extreme tip. The novel nanoelectrodes thus prepared were employed to probe neurons in mouse brain slice and the results suggest that the nanoprobes were capable of recording neuronal excitatory postsynaptic potential signals. Interesting solid state chemistry was found in oxygenated iron phthalocyanine. Their Mossbauer spectra show the formation of four oxygenated species apart from the unoxygenated parent compound. The oxygen-bridged compounds formed in the solid matrix bear no resemblance to the one formed by solution chemistry. Tentative assignment of species has been made with the help of Mossbauer and IR spectroscopy. An effort to modify aniline trimer for potential nanoelectronics applications and to investigate the formation of "nano-pancake" shape aggregation was also reported.

Yin, Houping

2005-07-01

24

Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication  

DOEpatents

Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

2012-11-27

25

Application opportunities for nanostructured materials and coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured materials have the potential to change materials science as we know it today significantly, as well as to provide a new generation of materials with a quantum improvement in properties. While many interesting properties have been generated in the laboratory, there is still much work to be done before there are production applications for nanostructured materials and coatings in

Maurice Gell

1995-01-01

26

Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials  

SciTech Connect

The two-and-a-half day symposium on the "Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials" will be the first comprehensive meeting on this topic held under the auspices of a major U.S. professional society. Spring MRS Meetings provide a natural venue for this symposium as they attract a broad audience of researchers that represents a cross-section of the state-of-the-art regarding synthesis, structure-property relations, and applications of nanostructured materials. Close interactions among the experts in local structure measurements and materials researchers will help both to identify measurement needs pertinent to ??real-world? materials problems and to familiarize the materials research community with the state-of-the-art local structure measurement techniques. We have chosen invited speakers that reflect the multidisciplinary and international nature of this topic and the need to continually nurture productive interfaces among university, government and industrial laboratories. The intent of the symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for discussion and exchange of ideas on the recent progress in quantitative characterization of structural order in nanomaterials using different experimental techniques and theory. The symposium is expected to facilitate discussions on optimal approaches for determining atomic structure at the nanoscale using combined inputs from multiple measurement techniques.

Dr. Frank (Bud) Bridges, University of California-Santa Cruz

2010-08-05

27

MRS Symposium Q: Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials and Nanocomposites  

E-print Network

in nanostructures · Structure and mechanical properties of nanocomposites: polymer with dispersed ceramic or metalMRS Symposium Q: Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials and Nanocomposites Nanostructured materials and nanocomposites exhibiting unique functional and structural properties have

Ovid'ko Ilya A.

28

Nanostructured materials: state of the art and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured materials (NsM) are solids composed of structural elements - mostly crystallites - with a characteristic size (in at least one direction) of a few nanometers. NsM may be classified into twelve groups according to the shape and chemical composition of their constituent structural elements. The atomic structure and properties of NsM deviate from the ones of a single crystal

H. Gleiter

1995-01-01

29

Inflammatory Response to Implanted Nanostructured Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured materials are implanted for dynamic application in therapies such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, biosensing,\\u000a and imaging. The interaction between nanostructured materials and the tissues of the body can be used to alter cellular attachment\\u000a and motility, detect analytes in vivo, and simulate tissue organization. These interactions may also lead to a variety of\\u000a adverse immune responses, such as

Kristy M. Ainslie; Rahul G. Thakar; Daniel A. Bernards; Tejal A. Desai

30

Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(?-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppl, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

2008-02-01

31

Nanostructured SiC composite anodes for lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured SiC composite materials were prepared by dispersing nanocrystalline Si in carbon aerogel and subsequent carbonization. Through this process, nanosize Si was homogeneously distributed in a carbon matrix. The SiC composites exhibit a reversible lithium storage capacity of 1450 mAh\\/g when used as anodes in lithium-ion cells. The nanostructured SiC composite electrodes demonstrated good cyclability. The SiC composites could provide

G. X Wang; J. H Ahn; Jane Yao; Steve Bewlay; H. K Liu

2004-01-01

32

Nanostructured metal-polyaniline composites  

DOEpatents

Metal-polyaniline (PANI) composites are provided together with a process of preparing such composites by an electrodeless process. The metal of the composite can have nanoscale structural features and the composites can be used in applications such as catalysis for hydrogenation reactions and for analytical detection methods employing SERS.

Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Li, Wenguang (Elgin, IL); Bailey, James A. (Los Alamos, NM); Gao, Yuan (Brewer, ME)

2010-08-31

33

Thermal transport in nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents the experimental study and theoretical analysis of thermal transport in crystalline nanostructured materials. Traditionally, alloys are known to have the lowest thermal conductivity of crystalline solids, which is often known as the "alloy limit." In this dissertation it is shown that by using epitaxially embedded nanoparticles in alloys, it is possible to reduce the thermal conductivity below the alloy limit over a wide temperature range. The materials studied in this dissertation include In0.53Ga 0.47As containing epitaxially embedded ErAs nanoparticles that are few nanometers in size, ErAs:InGaAs/InGaAlAs superlattices, and TiN/GaN multilayers. Thermal conductivity measurements have been done on these samples from 40 to 800 K using the 3o method. The experiments clearly show that by embedding ErAs nanoparticles, the thermal conductivity can be reduced below that of In0.53Ga0.47As alloy over a wide temperature range. The alloy limit was beaten regardless of whether the ErAs nanoparticles were incorporated into the In0.53Ga0.47As either randomly, or in an ordered manner resulting in ErAs/In0.53Ga0.47As superlattices. Both the size and the spacing between ErAs nanoparticles are critical for thermal conductivity reduction. The theoretical analysis developed here is focused on explaining why and how randomly distributed polydispersed ErAs nanoparticles reduce the thermal transport in In0.53Ga0.47As. Predictions of thermal conductivity are based on a Callaway model that accounts for phonon scattering by nanoparticles. This is achieved by generalizing the model for predicting phonon mean free paths due to alloy scattering and incorporating a statistical size distribution of nanoparticles. The theoretical analysis suggests that while point defects in alloys scatter short wavelength phonons most efficiently, the nanoparticles provide an additional efficient scattering mechanism for the mid to long wavelength phonons. In randomly distributed ErAs in In0.53Ga0.47As, a broad range of the phonon spectrum is thereby blocked due to the size distribution of the ErAs nanoparticles. It is concluded that by varying size distribution and concentration of nanoparticles, one can tune thermal transport of material. The thermal conductivity of ErAs:InGaAs/InGaAlAs superlattices with different carrier concentrations was measured to study the effect of electronic contribution to thermal conductivity. Preliminary results of TiN/GaN multilayer suggest that combinations of coherent and incoherent phonon transport may exist in this structure.

Kim, Woo Chul

34

Nanostructure SnCoC composite lithium ion battery electrode with unique stability and high electrochemical performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructure SnCoC composites with different compositions are synthesized by a simple solution polymerization using inexpensive raw materials followed by pyrolysis in nitrogen atmosphere. The nanostructure SnCoC composites are characterized using various analytic techniques. The results show that the electrochemical performances of the composites are strongly dependent on their structure and composition. Among these composites the SnCoC-1 with a weight composition

Meng-Yuan Li; Chun-Ling Liu; Mei-Rong Shi; Wen-Sheng Dong

2011-01-01

35

What can chemists do for nanostructured materials?  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured materials have now been investigated for more than a decade using a rather wide range of experimental methods. The structures and properties of these new materials, which are artificially synthesized from nanometer-sized ``building blocks``, such as clusters, grains or layers, have been elucidated in a number of important areas and the relationships among these areas are beginning to be understood. Various investigations of their mechanical, chemical, electrical, magnetic, and optical behavior have demonstrated the possibilities to engineer the properties of nanostructured materials through control of the sizes of their constituent clusters, grains or layers and the manner in which these constituents are assembled. There are, however, tremendous opportunities remaining for creative new tailored chemical synthesis and processing methods and for developing an understanding of the important role of surface and interface chemistry in the assembly and resulting properties of these materials. Some aspects of the present understanding of nanostructured materials and their properties are briefly presented here, along with some thoughts regarding a few critical future research needs in various areas of chemistry that would add greatly to the field of nanostructured materials.

Siegel, R.W. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.

1995-04-01

36

Materials that Power Our World Nanostructured Carbon  

E-print Network

Efficiency Using Nano-C's Solar C-FDs 1.5 2.5 Nano-C Today Nano-C Potential 1.0 Competitors Note: Tested power · Light weight · Efficiency/lifetime not a deterrent Challenges · Efficiency · Lifetime Nanonano-c 1 Materials that Power Our World Nanostructured Carbon 22nd NREL Growth Forum (modified

37

Giant magnetoresistive nanostructured materials by electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NiFe/Cu and CoFe/Cu multilayers and NiFe compositional modulated alloys (CMA) electrodeposited by newly developed flow-through electrochemical reactor. Sub-micron (Ni)Cu and nano-size (CoFe)Cu granular alloys have been electrodeposited by magneto-electrodeposition method. These two methods eliminate the problems confronted by conventional methods and provide a new direction in fabrication of nanostructured materials by electrodeposition. Prior to fabrication of GMR materials, electrodeposition kinetics of individual metals (Co, NiFe, Cu) were studied. In Co electrodeposition and dissolution from sulfate bath, substrates have a great impact on the initial growth mode of film. On polycrystalline platinum metal, cobalt film grew in hemispherical shape (nodule) where it grew in right conical shape on amorphous glass carbon. In NiFe alloys electrodeposition, the effects of applied current density, solution composition, substrate and solution hydrodynamics on current efficiency, film composition, crystal structure, corrosion resistant, and magnetic properties of NiFe alloys from all-chloride and citrate-sulfate-chloride bath have been studied. Citrate ions enhance the anomalous codeposition phenomena in NiFe electrodeposition. In crystal structure studies on electrodeposited. NiFe, the narrow mixed phase solid region was noted around 50% Fe. In addition, the smallest grain size were also observed in that region. In corrosion studies, the maximum corrosion resistance was observed at 50% Fe in naturally aerated 0.5 M NaCl. In Ni/Cu and Co/Cu multilayers by single bath technique, the optimum deposition potential ranges of pure copper and nickel (cobalt) were determined to minimize copper codeposition during nickel (cobalt) deposition and to minimize cobalt dissolution during copper deposition. Well defined laminated NiFe/Cu and CoFe/Cu multilayers and NiFe compositional modulated alloys (CMA) were successfully electrodeposited by utilizing flow-through electrochemical reactor. By this technique, pure magnetic layers were able to deposit without copper codeposition. In addition, NiFe CMA were electrdeposited with controlled Fe content by varying the applied current density and solution hydrodynamics, simultaneously. Sharply defined, smooth laminated NiFe/Cu and CoFe/Cu multilayers were deposited on smooth gold sputtered glass substrate. Layer roughness was observed on film deposited on rough brass substrate. (CoFe)Cu and (Ni)Cu granular alloys were electrodeposited by a novel magneto-electrodeposition.

Myung, No Sang

38

Nanostructured materials: basic concepts and microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured Materials (NsM) are materials with a microstructure the characteristic length scale of which is on the order of a few (typically 110) nanometers. NsM may be in or far away from thermodynamic equilibrium. NsM synthesized by supramolecular chemistry are examples of NsM in thermodynamic equilibrium. NsM consisting of nanometer-sized crystallites (e.g. of Au or NaCl) with different crystallographic orientations

H. Gleiter

2000-01-01

39

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various topics relating to composite structural materials for use in aircraft structures are discussed. The mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers, carbon fiber-epoxy interface bonds, composite fractures, residual stress in high modulus and high strength carbon fibers, fatigue in composite materials, and the mechanical properties of polymeric matrix composite laminates are among the topics discussed.

Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

1985-01-01

40

Heat generation by irradiated complex composite nanostructures.  

PubMed

Heating of irradiated metallic e-beam generated nanostructures was quantified through direct measurements paralleled by novel model-based numerical calculations. By comparing discs, triangles, and stars we showed how particle shape and composition determines the heating. Importantly, our results revealed that substantial heat is generated in the titanium adhesive layer between gold and glass. Even when the Ti layer is as thin as 2 nm it absorbs as much as a 30 nm Au layer and hence should not be ignored. PMID:24392799

Ma, Haiyan; Tian, Pengfei; Pello, Josselin; Bendix, Poul Martin; Oddershede, Lene B

2014-02-12

41

Advanced titania nanostructures and composites for lithium ion battery  

E-print Network

REVIEW Advanced titania nanostructures and composites for lithium ion battery Xin Su · QingLiu Wu to the increasing demand of energy and shifting to the renewable energy resources, lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have on designing the nanostructures of TiO2 and its composites to reduce the diffusion length of Li-ion insertion

Guo, John Zhanhu

42

Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof  

DOEpatents

Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Jeon, Sea Ho (Dracut, MA); Mack, Nathan H. (Los Alamos, NM)

2012-04-03

43

Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof  

DOEpatents

Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Jeon, Sea Ho (Dracut, MA); Mack, Nathan H. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-08-02

44

Supramolecular materials: Self-organized nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miniaturized triblock copolymers have been found to self-assemble into nanostructures that are highly regular in size and shape. Mushroom-shaped supramolecular structures of about 200 kilodaltons form by crystallization of the chemically identical blocks and self-organize into films containing 100 or more layers stacked in a polar arrangement. The polar supramolecular material exhibits spontaneous second-harmonic generation from infrared to green photons

S. I. Stupp; V. LeBonheur; K. Walker

1997-01-01

45

Tough Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers and working group summaries are presented which address composite material behavior and performance improvement. Topic areas include composite fracture toughness and impact characterization, constituent properties and interrelationships, and matrix synthesis and characterization.

Vosteen, L. F. (compiler); Johnson, N. J. (compiler); Teichman, L. A. (compiler)

1984-01-01

46

Controlled thermal sintering of a metal-metal oxide-carbon ternary composite with a multi-scale hollow nanostructure for use as an anode material in Li-ion batteries.  

PubMed

We report a synthetic scheme for preparing a SnO2-Sn-carbon triad inverse opal porous material using the controlled sintering of Sn precursor-infiltrated polystyrene (PS) nanobead films. Because the uniform PS nanobead film, which can be converted into carbon via a sintering step, uptakes the precursor solution, the carbon can be uniformly distributed throughout the Sn-based anode material. Moreover, the partial carbonization of the PS nanobeads under a controlled Ar/oxygen environment not only produces a composite material with an inverse opal-like porous nanostructure but also converts the Sn precursor/PS into a SnO2-Sn-C triad electrode. PMID:24463739

Kim, Hwan Jin; Zhang, Kan; Choi, Jae-Man; Song, Min Sang; Park, Jong Hyeok

2014-03-11

47

Aerogel Derived Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials  

SciTech Connect

Americas dependence on foreign sources for fuel represents a economic and security threat for the country. These non renewable resources are depleting, and the effects of pollutants from fuels such as oil are reaching a problematic that affects the global community. Solar concentration power (SCP) production systems offer the opportunity to harness one of the United States most under utilized natural resources; sunlight. While commercialization of this technology is increasing, in order to become a significant source of electricity production in the United States the costs of deploying and operating SCP plants must be further reduced. Parabolic Trough SCP technologies are close to meeting energy production cost levels that would raise interest in the technology and help accelerate its adoption as a method to produce a significant portion of the Countrys electric power needs. During this program, Aspen Aerogels will develop a transparent aerogel insulation that can replace the costly vacuum insulation systems that are currently used in parabolic trough designs. During the Phase I program, Aspen Aerogels will optimize the optical and thermal properties of aerogel to meet the needs of this application. These properties will be tested, and the results will be used to model the performance of a parabolic trough HCE system which uses this novel material in place of vacuum. During the Phase II program, Aspen Aerogels will scale up this technology. Together with industry partners, Aspen Aerogels will build and test a prototype Heat Collection Element that is insulated with the novel transparent aerogel material. This new device will find use in parabolic trough SCP applications.

Wendell E Rhine, PI; Dong, Wenting; Greg Caggiano, PM

2010-10-08

48

Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between material parameters of host nematic liquid crystals (LCs) and Kerr constant of their nanostructured chiral LC composites was investigated. We made certain that the Kerr constant of nanostrutured chiral LC composites was closely related to the parameters of their host LCs, such as value of the difference of refractive index (Deltan), the dielectric anisotropy (Delta?), and bend

Suk-Won Choi; Shin-Ichi Yamamoto; Yasuhiro Haseba; Hiroki Higuchi; Hirotsugu Kikuchi

2008-01-01

49

Nanostructured Materials Development for Space Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There have been many recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for space power applications. In particular, the use of high purity single wall nanotubes holds promise for a variety of generation and storage devices including: thin film lithium ion batteries, microelectronic proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, polymeric thin film solar cells, and thermionic power supplies is presented. Semiconducting quantum dots alone and in conjunction with carbon nanotubes are also being investigated for possible use in high efficiency photovoltaic solar cells. This paper will review some of the work being done at RIT in conjunction with the NASA Glenn Research Center to utilize nanomaterials in space power devices.

Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, B. J.; Elich, J. B.; Gennett, T.; Castro, S. L.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

2003-01-01

50

Benzoxazine resin/carbon nanotube nanostructured composite's degradation kinetic.  

PubMed

In the last decades a new class of thermoset phenolic resin is emerging as a substitute of the traditional epoxy and phenolic resins in the aircraft industry. This new class is called polybenzoxazines and its associates the epoxy resin's mechanical properties and phenolic resin's thermal and flame retardant properties, resulting in a resin with superior properties when analyzed with the others singly. The introduction of carbon nanotubes in low concentration into polymeric matrices can produce nanostructured materials with good properties. Thus, in this study, nanostructured composites of benzoxazine resin were processed with different concentration of carbon nanotubes (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% w/w). In order to evaluate the thermostability of the benzoxazine resin and its nanostructured composites, it was performed a degradation kinetic study using the thermogravimetric technique. For that, the analysis have been done with the temperature ranging from 25 degrees C to 1000 degrees C at nitrogen atmosphere (100 mL x min(-1)) and in different heating rates (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 20 degrees C x min(-1)), in order to obtain the kinetic parameters (activation energy, E(a), and pre-exponential factor, A), based on Ozawa-Wall-Flynn model. The results showed excellent agreement between the thermogravimetric curves obtained and the Ozawa-Wall-Flynn method. The degradation kinetic study showed that the introduction of carbon nanotubes in the benzoxazine matrix does not change the thermostability of the resin, so that it does not have a significant influence in the shelf life of the material. PMID:24757993

Untem, Flvia O; Botelho, Edson C; Rezende, Mirabel C; Costa, Michelle Leali

2014-07-01

51

Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials: From Superlattices to Nanocomposites Ronggui Yang1  

E-print Network

Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials: From Superlattices to Nanocomposites Ronggui Yang1. Materials with a large thermoelectric figure of merit can be used to develop efficient solid-state devices nanocomposites, aiming at developing high efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion materials. 1. Introduction

Chen, Gang

52

Electron and Phonon Engineering in Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials Zhifeng Ren  

E-print Network

2.00pm Electron and Phonon Engineering in Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials Zhifeng Ren Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts Abstract Thermoelectric materials a successful case for potentially large scale application using thermoelectric materials. Biography Dr Zhifeng

Levi, Anthony F. J.

53

Core-Shell and Segmented Polymer-Metal Composite Nanostructures  

PubMed Central

Composite nanostructures (~200 nm wide and several ?m long) of metal and polyaniline (PANI) in two new variations of core-shell (PANI-Au) and segmented (Au-PANI and Ni-Au-PANI) architectures were fabricated electrochemically within anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Control over the structure of these composites (including the length of the gold shells in the core-shell structures) was accomplished by adjusting the time and rate of electrodeposition, and the pH of the solution from which the materials were grown. Exposure of the core-shell structures to oxygen plasma removed the PANI and yielded aligned gold nanotubes. In the segmented structures, a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of thioaniline nucleated the growth of PANI on top of metal nanorods, and acted as an adhesion layer between the metal and PANI components. PMID:16968046

Lahav, Michal; Weiss, Emily; Xu, Qiaobing; Whitesides, George M.

2008-01-01

54

Electrically conductive composite material  

DOEpatents

An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

1989-05-23

55

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overall emphasis is on basic long-term research in the following categories: constituent materials, composite materials, generic structural elements, processing science technology; and maintaining long-term structural integrity. Research in basic composition, characteristics, and processing science of composite materials and their constituents is balanced against the mechanics, conceptual design, fabrication, and testing of generic structural elements typical of aerospace vehicles so as to encourage the discovery of unusual solutions to present and future problems. Detailed descriptions of the progress achieved in the various component parts of this comprehensive program are presented.

Loewy, R.; Wiberley, S. E.

1986-01-01

56

Electrically conductive composite material  

DOEpatents

An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

1988-06-20

57

Final Technical Progress Report NANOSTRUCTURED MAGNETIC MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes progress made during the final phase of our DOE-funded program on Nanostructured Magnetic Materials. This period was quite productive, resulting in the submission of three papers and presentation of three talks at international conferences and three seminars at research institutions. Our DOE-funded research efforts were directed toward studies of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces in high-quality, well-characterized materials prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and sputtering. We have an exceptionally well-equipped laboratory for these studies, with: Thin film preparation equipment; Characterization equipment; Equipment to study magnetic properties of surfaces and ultra-thin magnetic films and interfaces in multi-layers and superlattices.

Charles M. Falco

2012-09-13

58

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and application of composite materials to aerospace vehicle structures which began in the mid 1960's has now progressed to the point where what can be considered entire airframes are being designed and built using composites. Issues related to the fabrication of non-resin matrix composites and the micro, mezzo and macromechanics of thermoplastic and metal matrix composites are emphasized. Several research efforts are presented. They are entitled: (1) The effects of chemical vapor deposition and thermal treatments on the properties of pitch-based carbon fiber; (2) Inelastic deformation of metal matrix laminates; (3) Analysis of fatigue damage in fibrous MMC laminates; (4) Delamination fracture toughness in thermoplastic matrix composites; (5) Numerical investigation of the microhardness of composite fracture; and (6) General beam theory for composite structures.

Loewy, Robert G.; Wiberley, Stephen E.

1987-01-01

59

Wear corrosion properties of nano-structured SiCnickel composite coatings obtained by electroplating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in materials performance often require the development of composite systems. Coated materials could be one form to use. The abrasion and corrosion resistance of components can be greatly increased by protective coatings and this is a growing industry of considerable economic importance. These paper aims with a comparative wear corrosion study of pure nickel and NiSiC nano-structured composite coating.

Lidia Benea; Pier Luigi Bonora; Alberto Borello; Stefano Martelli

2001-01-01

60

Rheological and morphological characterization of hierarchically nanostructured materials  

E-print Network

Hierarchically nanostructured materials exhibit order on multiple length scales, with at least one of a few nanometers. The expected enhancements for applications using these materials include improved mechanical, thermal ...

Wang, Benjamin Ning-Haw

2007-01-01

61

Direct composite restorative materials.  

PubMed

Composite dental restorative materials have advanced considerably over the past 10 years. Although composites have not totally replaced amalgam, they have become a viable substitute in many situations. Problems still exist with polymerization contraction stress, large differences in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of composites compared with tooth structure, and with some technique sensitivity; however, new expanding resins, nanofiller technology, and improved bonding systems have the potential to reduce these problems. With increased patient demands for esthetic restorations, the use of direct filling composite materials will continue to grow. The one major caveat to this prediction is that clinicians must continue to use sound judgment on when, where, and how to use composite restoratives in their practices. PMID:17586149

Puckett, Aaron D; Fitchie, James G; Kirk, Pia Chaterjee; Gamblin, Jefferson

2007-07-01

62

Design of nanostructured materials from block copolymer self-assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present two classes of nanostructured materials by combining the self assembly of block copolymer (BCP) with suitable small molecule chemistry, which are applicable to organic electro-optics (EO) and as etch-resistant masks for nanofabrication. The underlying principles of designing the specific interactions between BCP host and guest molecules, driving the self-assembly in bulk and thin film, and dictating domain orientation are concepts common to both of these areas. Nanostructured EO materials were created by selectively encapsulating EO chromophores by hydrogen-bonding to the pyridine groups of a linear-diblock copolymer (linear-diBCP) namely polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinyl pyridine) [PS-b-P4VP], or a linear-dendritic-BCP. With the linear-diBCP host, we discovered that poled order in confined domains depends on domain shape, chromophore concentration within the domain, and thermal history. The linear-dendritic-BCP is an excellent host as it efficiently disperses the chromophores into small domains (5-10nm), and keeps the chromophores apart within the domains due to the dendritic architecture. These morphological effects translated into excellent film processability, increased chromophore loading, and two-fold enhancements in the EO coefficient (r 33) when compared to a corresponding homopolymer system. A new class of organic-inorganic nanostructured materials based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) was synthesized as a passive template for pattern transfer. We developed a living anionic polymerization route for methacrylate-functionalized POSS and synthesized two kinds of BCPs, namely PS-b-PMAPOSS and PMMA-b-PMAPOSS. The anionic route allows high degree of polymerization, narrow polydispersity, and tunable POSS block length. These lead to well defined spherical, cylindrical, and lamellar morphologies, as well as formation of hierarchical structures upon thermal annealing. Both POSS-containing BCPs were assembled in thin film and converted to hard masks by single step selective oxygen plasma etching. The control over domain orientation, the high etch-selectivity between the blocks, and the ability to access small domain sizes (< 10nm) make POSS-containing BCPs a unique material platform to create etch-resistant masks. We developed a synthetically straightforward approach to designing organic-inorganic nanostructures by exploiting non-covalent interactions between PS-b-P4VP BCP host and epoxy-functionalized POSS. These composites resulted in dot arrays, which were converted to silica templates for potential applications in biosensing and heterogenous catalysis.

Leolukman, Melvina

63

Modified Composite Materials Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reduction or elimination of the hazard which results from accidental release of graphite fibers from composite materials was studied at a workshop. At the workshop, groups were organized to consider six topics: epoxy modifications, epoxy replacement, fiber modifications, fiber coatings and new fibers, hybrids, and fiber release testing. Because of the time required to develop a new material and acquire a design data base, most of the workers concluded that a modified composite material would require about four to five years of development and testing before it could be applied to aircraft structures. The hybrid working group considered that some hybrid composites which reduce the risk of accidental fiber release might be put into service over the near term. The fiber release testing working group recommended a coordinated effort to define a suitable laboratory test.

Dicus, D. L. (compiler)

1978-01-01

64

TOPICAL REVIEW: Conducting polymer-based nanostructurized materials: electrochemical aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New modern technologies require new materials. During the past decade, the movement towards nanodimensions in many areas of technology aroused a huge interest in nanostructurized materials. The present article reviews recent works dealing with electrochemistry-related aspects of nanostructurized conducting polymers. Electrochemical synthesis and some properties of nanostructurized conducting polymers, and nanocomposites derived from conducting polymers and metals, carbon, and inorganic and organic materials are considered. Some potential areas for electrochemistry-related applications of nanocomposites are highlighted, including batteries, supercapacitors, energy conversion systems, corrosion protection, and sensors.

Malinauskas, A.; Malinauskiene, J.; Ramanavicius, A.

2005-10-01

65

Conducting polymer-based nanostructurized materials: electrochemical aspects.  

PubMed

New modern technologies require new materials. During the past decade, the movement towards nanodimensions in many areas of technology aroused a huge interest in nanostructurized materials. The present article reviews recent works dealing with electrochemistry-related aspects of nanostructurized conducting polymers. Electrochemical synthesis and some properties of nanostructurized conducting polymers, and nanocomposites derived from conducting polymers and metals, carbon, and inorganic and organic materials are considered. Some potential areas for electrochemistry-related applications of nanocomposites are highlighted, including batteries, supercapacitors, energy conversion systems, corrosion protection, and sensors. PMID:20817958

Malinauskas, A; Malinauskiene, J; Ramanavi?ius, A

2005-10-01

66

Material Transfer of Composite Contact Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite technology provides very promising possibilities of improving one property of a given material without changing the other for the worse. The material transfer behavior of some fiber composite materials like AgNi and CuPd has been studied. Fiber composite contact materials can be fabricated in a simple and thus inexpensive way by bundling and simultaneous deformation of clad wires. It

HANS H. KOCHER; D. Stockel

1979-01-01

67

PROPERTIES AND NANOSTRUCTURES OF MATERIALS PROCESSED BY SPD TECHNIQUES  

SciTech Connect

Metallic materials usually exhibit higher strength but lower ductility after being plastically deformed by conventional techniques such as rolling, drawing and extrusion. In contrast, nanostructured metals and alloys processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) have demonstrated both high strength and high ductility. This extraordinary mechanical behavior is attributed to the unique nanostructures generated by SPD processing. It demonstrates the possibility of tailoring the microstructures of metals and alloys by SPD to obtain superior mechanical properties. The SPD-generated nanostructures have many features related to deformation, including high dislocation densities, and high- and low-angle grain boundaries in equilibrium or non-equilibrium states. This paper reviews the mechanical properties and the defect structures of SPD-processed nanostructured materials. Keywords: strength, ductility, nanostructures, SPD, non-equilibrium grain boundary

Liao, Xiaoshan; Huang, J. (Jianyu); Zhu, Y. T. (Yuntian Theodore)

2001-01-01

68

Composite materials: Testing and design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present conference discusses topics in the analysis of composite structures, composite materials' impact and compression behavior, composite materials characterization methods, composite failure mechanisms, NDE methods for composites, and filament-wound and woven composite materials' fabrication. Attention is given to the automated design of a composite plate for damage tolerance, the effects of adhesive layers on composite laminate impact damage, instability-related delamination growth in thermoset and thermoplastic composites, a simple shear fatigue test for unidirectional E-glass epoxy, the growth of elliptic delaminations in laminates under cyclic transverse shear, and the mechanical behavior of braided composite materials.

Whitcomb, John D. (editor)

1988-01-01

69

Development of Nanostructured Materials with Improved Radiation Tolerance for Advanced Nuclear Systems  

SciTech Connect

This project will explore the fundamental mechanisms through which interfaces in nanolayered structures and grain boundaries of bulk nanomaterials are able to attract and rapidly eliminate point defects and unwanted foreign species. Candidate materials that will be studied include both nanostructured multilayer composites synthesized by magnetron sputtering and structural bulk nanomaterials produced by severed plastic deformation, equal channel angular extrusion.

Zinghang Zhang; K. Ted Hartwig

2009-08-12

70

Novel nanostructured rare-earth-free magnetic materials with high energy products.  

PubMed

Novel nanostructured Zr2 Co11 -based magnetic materials are fabricated in a single step process using cluster-deposition method. The composition, atomic ordering, and spin structure are precisely controlled to achieve a substantial magnetic remanence and coercivity, as well as the highest energy product for non-rare-earth and Pt-free permanent-magnet alloys. PMID:24038456

Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Das, Bhaskar; Skomski, Ralph; Zhang, Wenyong Y; Sellmyer, David J

2013-11-13

71

Modified carbon nanostructures as materials for hydrogen storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of ab initio simulation, a number of modifications of well-known carbon nanostructures are proposed, which could form the basis for designing materials with high adsorptivity for molecular hydrogen.

Avdeenkov, A. V.; Bibikov, A. V.; Bodrenko, I. V.; Nikolaev, A. V.; Taran, M. D.; Tkalya, E. V.

2009-11-01

72

Nano-structured polymer composites and process for preparing same  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing a polymer composite that includes reacting (a) a multi-functional monomer and (b) a block copolymer comprising (i) a first block and (ii) a second block that includes a functional group capable of reacting with the multi-functional monomer, to form a crosslinked, nano-structured, bi-continuous composite. The composite includes a continuous matrix phase and a second continuous phase comprising the first block of the block copolymer.

Hillmyer, Marc; Chen, Liang

2013-04-16

73

Tough composite materials: Recent developments  

SciTech Connect

A series of studies on tough composite materials is presented in this book. These composite materials are strong, but lightweight; and they are being used as metal replacements in applications where weight reduction is important. The material covered here provides an overview of NASA and other research aimed at improving composite material performance and increasing the understanding of composite material behavior. The book covers composite fracture toughness and impact characterization, constituent properties and interrelationships, matrix synthesis and characterization, and selected additional subjects.

Not Available

1985-01-01

74

TOPICAL REVIEW: Lyotropic liquid crystal directed synthesis of nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review introduces and summarizes lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) directed syntheses of nanostructured materials consisting of porous nanostructures and zero-dimensional (0-D), one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructures. After a brief introduction to the liquid crystals, the LLCs used to prepare mesoporous materials are discussed; in particular, recent advances in controlling mesostructures are summarized. The LLC templates directing the syntheses of nanoparticles, nanorods, nanowires and nanoplates are also presented. Finally, future development in this field is discussed.

Wang, Cuiqing; Chen, Dairong; Jiao, Xiuling

2009-04-01

75

The influence of nanostructured materials on biointerfacial interactions.  

PubMed

Control over biointerfacial interactions in vitro and in vivo is the key to many biomedical applications: from cell culture and diagnostic tools to drug delivery, biomaterials and regenerative medicine. The increasing use of nanostructured materials is placing a greater demand on improving our understanding of how these new materials influence biointerfacial interactions, including protein adsorption and subsequent cellular responses. A range of nanoscale material properties influence these interactions, and material toxicity. The ability to manipulate both material nanochemistry and nanotopography remains challenging in its own right, however, a more in-depth knowledge of the subsequent biological responses to these new materials must occur simultaneously if they are ever to be affective in the clinic. We highlight some of the key technologies used for fabrication of nanostructured materials, examine how nanostructured materials influence the behavior of proteins and cells at surfaces and provide details of important analytical techniques used in this context. PMID:22705547

Koegler, Peter; Clayton, Andrew; Thissen, Helmut; Santos, Gil Nonato C; Kingshott, Peter

2012-12-01

76

Aerogel/polymer composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

77

Equivalent-continuum modeling of nano-structured materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been proposed for developing structure-property relationships of nano-structured materials. This method serves as a link between computational chemistry and solid mechanics by substituting discrete molecular structures with equivalent-continuum models. It has been shown that this substitution may be accomplished by equating the molecular potential energy of a nano-structured material with the strain energy of representative truss and

Gregory M. Odegard; Thomas S. Gates; Lee M. Nicholson; Kristopher E. Wise

2002-01-01

78

Composite electric contact materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-phase composite materials, i.e., a high-melting component combined with a material exhibiting good electrical and thermal properties find a wide range of application for the manufacture of small- and medium-load relays and switches. Composite contacts can be used in air circuit-breakers (W-Ag, Ag-Ni), oil circuit-breakers (W-Cu, Mo-Cn), vacuum-type switches (W-CuSb, CuCr), and also switches operating in an atmosphere of SF sub 6 (W-Cu). Present-day trends aimed at increasing operating reliability and extending the service life of electrical equipment are finding their expression in efforts being made to modify the classical composites with a veiw to imparting new properties to them by suitably changing their composition and structure. These trends are also aimed at reducing the consumption of noble metals and of strategically important ones. Modern materials engineering and metallurgical technologies are being used, including isostatic sintering or explosive forming. Owing to the high activity of the constituents, all processes are conducted under high vacuum or in pure reducing atmospheres.

Senkara, J.; Kowalczyk, J.

1985-12-01

79

Understanding and tuning nanostructured materials for chemical energy conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conversion of energy that employs chemical reaction is termed chemical energy conversion. In my dissertation, I have focused on chemical energy conversion systems involving energetic materials and lithium ion batteries, where performance is strongly dependent on the properties of materials and their architecture. The objective of this study is to enhance our understanding and tuning of nanostructured materials that might find application toward energetic materials and electrode materials in lithium ion batteries. Rapid heating diagnostics tools, i.e. temperature-jump techniques, have been used to study the ignition of aluminum nanoparticles, nanothermite reaction mechanism and metal oxides nanoparticles decomposition under rapid heating conditions (105-106 K/s). Time-resolved mass spectra results support the hypothesis that Al containing species diffuse outwards through the oxide shell. Low effective activation energies were found for metal oxides nanoparticles decomposition at high heating rates, implying the mass transfer control at high heating rates. The role of oxygen release from oxidizer in nanothermite reactions have been examined for several different systems, including some using microsized oxidizer (i.e., nano-Al/micro-I 2O5). In particular, for periodate based nanothermites, direct evidence from high heating rate SEM and mass spectrometry results support that direct gas phase oxygen release from oxidizer decomposition is critical in its ignition and combustion. Efforts have also been made to synthesize nanostructured materials for nanoenergetic materials and lithium ion batteries applications. Hollow CuO spheres were synthesized by aerosol spray pyrolysis, employing a gas blowing mechanism for the formation of hollow structure during aerosol synthesis. The materials synthesized as oxidizers in nanothermite demonstrated superior performance, and of particular note, periodate salts based nanothermite demonstrated the best gas generating performance for nanothermite materials. Energetic composite nanofibrous mats (NC/Al-CuO, NC/Al-Fe2O3, and NC/Al-Bi2O3) were also prepared by an electrospinning method and evaluated for their combustion performance. Aerosol spray pyrolysis was employed to produce carbon coated CuO hollow spheres, Mn3O4 hollow spheres, and Fe2O 3 mesoporous spheres. These hollow/mesoporous spheres demonstrated superior electrochemical performance when used as anode materials in lithium ion batteries. The effects of the amorphous and crystal structures on the electrochemical performance and the structure evolution during electrochemical tests were also investigated.

Jian, Guoqiang

80

Novel Ti-base nanostructure-dendrite composite with enhanced plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-phase nanocrystalline materials undergo inhomogeneous plastic deformation under loading at room temperature, which results in a very limited plastic strain (smaller than 0-3%). The materials therefore display low ductility, leading to catastrophic failure, which severely restricts their application. Here, we present a new in situ-formed nanostructured matrix\\/ductile dendritic phase composite microstructure for Ti-base alloys, which exhibits up to 14.5% compressive

Guo He; Jrgen Eckert; Wolfgang Lser; Ludwig Schultz

2003-01-01

81

Hollow Nanostructured Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

PubMed Central

Hollow nanostructured anode materials lie at the heart of research relating to Li-ion batteries, which require high capacity, high rate capability, and high safety. The higher capacity and higher rate capability for hollow nanostructured anode materials than that for the bulk counterparts can be attributed to their higher surface area, shorter path length for Li+ transport, and more freedom for volume change, which can reduce the overpotential and allow better reaction kinetics at the electrode surface. In this article, we review recent research activities on hollow nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries, including carbon materials, metals, metal oxides, and their hybrid materials. The major goal of this review is to highlight some recent progresses in using these hollow nanomaterials as anode materials to develop Li-ion batteries with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. PMID:21076674

2010-01-01

82

Surface analysis of nanostructured carbonaceous materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of surfaces is central to understanding its interaction with other materials. Current ground-breaking research in interfacial science is focusing on surfaces which have a nanoscopic-size to their structuring. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been explored extensively. However, to utilize these materials in commercial and scientific applications, the surfaces are often modified to tailor specific properties, such as dispersion, sorption, and reactivity. The focus of this thesis is to apply surface analytical techniques to explore the chemical and structural characteristics of modified nanostructured surfaces. Specifically studied are the covalent surface modifications of CNTs by strategies that involve the direct incorporation of specific elements into the graphene sidewalls by commonly used wet chemical oxidants. These resulting CNTs are then evaluated in terms of their change in surface chemistry and structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the surface oxidation, while chemical derivatization techniques in conjunction with XPS afforded the concentration of carboxyl, carbonyl, and hydroxyl groups on the CNT surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was able to provide detailed structural information on the modified CNT, including the extent of sidewall damage. Results indicate that the distribution of oxygen-containing functional groups was insensitive to the reaction conditions, but was dependent upon the identity of the oxidant. These trends in functional group concentration were then applied to determining environmental properties, specifically divalent metal cation sorption. Consistently, the increases in COOH functional groups result in an increase in sorption capacity of divalent metal cations, such as Zn2+ and Cd2+. Furthermore, the interactions of size-selected metal and metal-oxide nanoclusters with graphite surfaces were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and XPS. Chemical and structural analysis of the clusters reveal that the oxidation state of the metal is tunable based on preparation conditions and that the oxidation state affects the mobility and structure of the clusters upon the graphite surfaces. Collectively, the results of these studies have shown the value of understanding the surface chemistry of a material in understanding their behavior even at the nanoscopic level.

Wepasnick, Kevin Andrew

83

Nanostructured materials for energy storage and energy conversion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

US Nanocorp, Inc. (USN) has developed an aqueous solution reaction (ASR) technique scalable for high volume production of nanostructured materials (n-materials) for a wide range of applications. By definition, nanophase materials have at least one physical dimension less than 10 nanometers (nm) in length, an attribute which imparts exceptional properties to them because the particle dimensions are close to atomic

David E. Reisner; T. Danny Xiao; Peter R Strutt; Alvin J. Salkind

1997-01-01

84

Advanced composite materials and processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

Baucom, Robert M.

1991-01-01

85

Synthesis, characterization, and properties of low-dimensional nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanometer scale structures represent an exciting and rapidly expanding area of research. Studies on new physical/chemical properties and applications of nanomaterials and nanostructures are possible only when nanostructured materials are made available with desired size, morphology, crystal and microstructure, and composition. Thus, controlled synthesis of nanomaterials is the essential aspect of nanotechnology. This thesis describes the development of simple and versatile solution-based approaches to synthesize low-dimensional nanostructures. The first major goal of this research is to design and fabricate morphology-controlled alpha-Fe 2O3 nanoarchitectures in aqueous solution through a programmed microwave-assisted hydrothermal route, taking advantage of microwave irradiation and hydrothermal effects. Free-standing alpha-Fe2O3 nanorings are prepared by hydrolysis of FeCl3 in the presence of phosphate ions. The as-formed architecture of alpha-Fe2O 3 nanorings is an exciting new member in the family of iron oxide nanostructures. Our preliminary results demonstrate that sensors made of the alpha-Fe 2O3 nanorings exhibit high sensitivity not only for bio-sensing of hydrogen peroxide in a physiological solution but also for gas-sensing of alcohol vapor at room temperature. Moreover, monodisperse alpha-Fe 2O3 nanocrystals with continuous aspect-ratio tuning and fine shape control are achieved by controlling the experimental conditions. The as-formed alpha-Fe2O3 exhibits shape-dependent infrared optical properties. The growth process of colloidal alpha-Fe 2O3 crystals in the presence of phosphate ions is discussed. In addition, through an efficient microwave-assisted hydrothermal process, self-assembled hierarchical alpha-Fe2O3 nanoarchitectures are synthesized on a large scale. The second major goal of this research is to develop convenient microwave-hydrothermal approaches for the fabrication of carbon-based nanocomposites: (1) A one-pot solution-phase route, namely microwave-assisted hydrothermal reduction/carbonization (MAHRC), is developed to prepare coaxial Ag/amorphous-carbon (a-C) nanocables. The as-grown Ag/C nanocables can self-assemble in an end-to-end fashion. (2) A novel Se/C nanocomposite with core-shell structures is prepared. The new material consists of a trigonal-Se (t-Se) core and an amorphous-C (a-C) shell. The Se/C composite can be converted to hollow carbon capsules by thermal treatment. (3) A Fe 3O4/C nanocomposite is synthesized by a green wet-chemical approach. The product possesses porous microstructures and exhibits superparamagnetic behavior. The third major goal of this research is develop facile solution-based methods for preparing carbonaceous nano test tubes, thin films of metal iodides, and spherical selenium spheres: (1) Carbonaceous nano test tubes are fabricated by a facile "decoring" route using a core-sheath Te carbon nanocomposite as the precursor. The as-formed carbonaceous material looks like a "test tube" with an average diameter of about 120 nm and lengths up to 5 mum. (2) Tetrahedral-shaped CuI crystals were formed on a variety of copper substrates (e.g. grids, flat/porous foils, and macro-/nano- wires) via an interfacial reaction between a copper substrate and iodine in water at room temperature. This preparation approach can also be used to grow PbI2 and AgI nano- and micro-crystals with different morphologies on corresponding substrates. (3) Colloidal trigonal selenium (t-Se) microspheres are synthesized through a mild hydrothermal reduction reaction, using glucose as a reducing regent and water as an environmentally friendly solvent. Importantly, the resulting t-Se microspheres inherit functional groups from the starting materials and possess hydrophilic and biocompatible surfaces.

Hu, Xianluo

2007-05-01

86

Cylindrical nanostructured MoS2 directly grown on CNT composites for lithium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

Direct attachment of MoS2 to materials with carbonaceous architecture remains a major challenge because of non-intimate contact between the carbonaceous materials and active MoS2 material. In this study, we report a new unique synthetic method to produce a new type of hybrid nanostructure of MoS2-CNTs composites. We developed a novel strategy for the synthesis of cylindrical MoS2 directly grown on CNT composites without the use of any other additives, exhibiting superior electrochemical performance as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries via a microwave irradiation technique. We adopted a simple step-by-step method: coating sulfur on CNTs and then reaction with a Mo source to synthesize hybrid cylindrical nanostructures of the MoS2-CNT composite. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that the as-synthesized MoS2-CNTs possessed a hybrid nanostructure, in which MoS2 sheets were well attached to the CNTs. The directly attached MoS2 sheets on the CNTs showed superior electrochemical performance as anode materials in a lithium-ion battery. PMID:25631660

Yoo, HeeJoun; Tiwari, Anand P; Lee, JeongTaik; Kim, Doyoung; Park, Jong Hyeok; Lee, Hyoyoung

2015-02-12

87

Nanoporous and Nanostructured Materials for Energy Storage and Sensor Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major objective of this work is to design nanostructured and nanoporous materials targeting the special needs of the energy storage and sensing fields. Nanostructured and nanoporous materials are increasingly finding applications in many fields, including electrical energy storage and explosive sensing. The advancement of energy storage devices is important to the development of three fields that have strong effects on human society: renewable energy, transportation, and portable devices. More sensitive explosive sensors will help to prevent terrorism activities and boost national security. Hierarchically porous LiFePO4 (LFP)/C composites were prepared using a surfactant and colloidal crystals as dual templates. The surfactant serves as the template for mesopores and polymeric colloidal spheres serve as the template for macropores. The confinement of the surfactant-LFP-carbon precursor in the colloidal templates is crucial to suppress the fast crystallization of LFP and helps to maintain the ordered structure. The obtained composites with high surface areas and ordered porous structure showed excellent rate performance when used as cathode materials for LIBs, which will allow them to be used as a power source for EVs and HEVs. The synthesis of LiFePO 4 in three dimensionally confined spaces within the colloidal template resulted in the formation of spherical particles. Densely packed LiFePO 4 spheres in a carbon matrix were obtained by spin-casting the LFP-carbon precursor on a quartz substrate and then pyrolyzing it. The product showed high capacity and could be charged /discharged with very little capacity fading over many cycles. Three-dimensionally ordered mesoporous carbons were prepared from nano-sized silica sphere colloidal crystal templates. These materials with very high surface areas and ordered porous structure showed high capacitance and excellent rate capability when used as electrodes for supercapacitors. Mesoporous silica thin films of different morphologies, including disordered (wormlike), 2D-hexagonal, 3D-hexagonal, and cubic structure, were prepared. The films were then doped or bridged with fluorescence compounds and used as sensors for nitroaromatic compounds. The sensor performance depended on both the film structure and the mode of fluorophore attachment. The best films showed high quenching rates and were stable during long time storage. The films can potentially be incorporated in portable sensing devices.

Vu, Anh D.

88

Short courses in Composite Materials  

E-print Network

manufacturing techniques will continue to advance mechanical design. The influence of these technologies such advanced materials is the change in process and behaviours required to design and manufacture composites to composite materials technology, or indeed individuals who would like to understand how composite materials

Davies, John N.

89

Applications of Ultrasound to the Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in nanostructured materials have been led by the\\u000a development of new synthetic methods that provide control over size,\\u000a morphology, and nano\\/microstructure. The utilization of high intensity\\u000a ultrasound offers a facile, versatile synthetic tool for nanostructured\\u000a materials that are offers a facile, by conventional methods. The primary\\u000a physical phenomena associated with ultrasound that are relevant to\\u000a materials synthesis are

Jin Ho Bang; Kenneth S. Suslick

2010-01-01

90

Electron holography of nanostructured materials Rafal E Dunin-Borkowski  

E-print Network

Electron holography of nanostructured materials Rafal E Dunin-Borkowski Center for Electron-axis electron holography to the characterization of magnetic and electrostatic fields in nanoscale materials resolution off-axis electron holography is increasingly used to characterize magnetic and electrostatic

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

91

Conducting nanotubes or nanostructures based composites, method of making them and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding material includes a matrix of a dielectric or partially conducting polymer, such as foamed polystyrene, with carbon nanotubes or other nanostructures dispersed therein in sufficient concentration to make the material electrically conducting. The composite is formed by dispersing the nanotube material in a solvent in which the dielectric or partially conducting polymer is soluble and mixing the resulting suspension with the dielectric or partially conducting polymer. A foaming agent can be added to produce a lightweight foamed material. An organometallic compound can be added to enhance the conductivity further by decomposition into a metal phase.

Gupta, Mool C. (Inventor); Yang, Yonglai (Inventor); Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Lawrence, Roland W. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

92

Preparation and properties on hollow nano-structured smoke material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the weapon systems of laser guidance and infrared (IR) imaging guidance have been widely used in modern warfare because of their high precision and strong anti-interference. Notwithstanding, military smoke, as a rapid and effective passive jamming means, can effectively counteract the attack of enemy precision-guided weapons by scattering and absorbability. Conventional smoke has good attenuation capability only to visible light (0.4-0.76 ?m), but hardly any effect to other electromagnetic wave band. The weapon systems of laser guidance and IR imaging guidance usually work in broad band, including near IR (1-3 ?m), middle IR (3-5 ?m), far IR (8-14 ?m), and so on. Accordingly, exploiting and using new efficient obscurant materials, which is one of the important factors that develop smoke technology, have become a focus and attracted more interests around the world. Then nano-structured materials that are developing very quickly have turned into our new choice. Hollow nano-structured materials (HNSM) have many special properties because of their nano-size wall-thickness and sub-micron grain-size. After a lot of HNSM were synthesized in this paper, their physical and chemical properties, including grain size, phase composition, microstructure, optical properties and resistivity were tested and analysed. Then the experimental results of the optical properties showed that HNSM exhibit excellent wave-absorbing ability in ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions. On the basis of the physicochemmical properties, HNSM are firstly applied in smoke technology field. And the obscuration performance of HNSM smoke was tested in smoke chamber. The testing waveband included 1.06?m and 10.6?m laser, 3-5?m and 8-14?m IR radiation. Then the main parameters were obtained, including the attenuation rate, the transmission rate, the mass extinction coefficient, the efficiency obscuring time, and the sedimentation rate, etc. The main parameters of HNSM smoke were contrasted in detail with graphite powder smoke agent. The results showed that HNSM smoke possesses better obscuration capability compared with the smoke performance of conventional materials (such as HC, RP, oil, carbon black, and graphite powder). Therefore, they are new smoke obscurant materials which can effectively interfere with broadband electromagnetic radiation, including 1.06 ?m and 10.6 ?m laser, 3-5 ?m and 8-14 ?m IR waveband.

Liu, Xiang-cui; Dai, Meng-yan; Fang, Guo-feng; Shi, Wei-dong; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Hai-feng; Zhang, Tong

2013-09-01

93

Nanostructure materials for biosensing and bioimaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of the thesis our work on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor will be presented. It will begin with understanding the working principle of SPR sensing technology and the basic concept of SPR biosensing. In SPR technology, there are different coupling schemes to excite surface plasmons such as prism coupler, grating coupler and waveguide coupler. Our setup will be based on the attenuated total reflection (ATR) prism coupling configuration. A gold sensing film is attached to one face of the prism. The samples are flowing over the gold surface and the light source is directed to the prism side. The reflected beam containing SPR information is collected and analyzed. SPR biosensors have become powerful tools in biological and chemical sensing application because of their capability of real-time monitoring and label-free sensing. Quantitative measurements such as the binding kinetics and the binding affinity between two biomolecules can be readily calculated from the SPR sensorgram. In our design, SPR phase will be monitored using photoelastic modulation (PEM) technique. The PEM is used to produce a modulation signal so that the phase quantity can be extracted by measuring the relative amplitudes of the harmonic signals. Since this system contains no moving component and only single beam and single detector are used, precise component alignment, which may be troublesome in making the setup compact and robust, can be eliminated. In order to demonstrate the operation of the proposed approach, two experiments were performed. The first one was to measure the refractive index change caused by varying the concentration of glycerin-water mixtures. The second one was to monitor the binding reactions between biotin and streptavidin--BSA complex at the sensor surface. Recently, the use of metallic nanoparticle on SPR platform has received great attention due to the capability of sensitivity enhancement. Although the mechanism of the enhancement is still not fully understand, three possible factors are concluded after systematic researches: (i) an increase of the absolute mass in each binding event, (ii) an increase in the bulk refractive index of the analyte, and (iii) coupling between the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metallic nanoparticles and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the sensing film. Indeed, the role of plasmonic coupling in sensitivity enhancement is still an open question. In order to obtain a better understanding of this phenomenon, at the end of part I, extended studies were performed to investigate how the LSPR properties of metallic nanoparticle labels correlate with the enhancement factor. For this purpose, gold nanorods (Au-NRs) were chosen as the amplification labels because of the easy tunability of LSPR peak of Au-NR. After reading the "Result and Discussion" section, the readers will have better understanding of "plasmonic coupling" between the sensing film and the metallic labels with suitable operating laser source. In the second part of the thesis, the bioimaging part, the application of nanostructure materials in live cancer cell imaging and small animal imaging were demonstrated. There are different types of imaging technique available in laboratories and clinics: optical imaging, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), thermography and ultrasound imaging. Although such imaging techniques have been well developed and used over a decade, improving the sensitivity, enhancing the contrast, decreasing the acquisition time and reducing the toxicity of the contrast agent are highly desirable. For optical imaging, the scientists discovered that the use of near infrared fluorescence materials can assist the surgeon to locate the tumor, the nerve and the lymph node more accurately. For CT scan, the use of Au-NR as the contrast agent can improve the sensitivity. Iron oxide nanoparticle or gadolinium ion containing nanoparticle can greatly enhance the contrast of MRI. On the one hand, concrete effort

Law, Wing Cheung

94

Synthesis of nanostructured materials in inverse miniemulsions and their applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymeric nanogels, inorganic nanoparticles, and organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles can be prepared via the inverse miniemulsion technique. Hydrophilic functional cargos, such as proteins, DNA, and macromolecular fluoresceins, may be conveniently encapsulated in these nanostructured materials. In this review, the progress of inverse miniemulsions since 2000 is summarized on the basis of the types of reactions carried out in inverse miniemulsions, including conventional free radical polymerization, controlled/living radical polymerization, polycondensation, polyaddition, anionic polymerization, catalytic oxidation reaction, sol-gel process, and precipitation reaction of inorganic precursors. In addition, the applications of the nanostructured materials synthesized in inverse miniemulsions are also reviewed.

Cao, Zhihai; Ziener, Ulrich

2013-10-01

95

Processing composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fabrication of several composite structural articles including DC-10 upper aft rudders, L-1011 vertical fins and composite biomedical appliances are discussed. Innovative composite processing methods are included.

Baucom, R. M.

1982-01-01

96

Compositional ordering and stability in nanostructured, bulk thermoelectric alloys.  

SciTech Connect

Thermoelectric materials have many applications in the conversion of thermal energy to electrical power and in solid-state cooling. One route to improving thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency in bulk material is to embed nanoscale inclusions. This report summarize key results from a recently completed LDRD project exploring the science underpinning the formation and stability of nanostructures in bulk thermoelectric and the quantitative relationships between such structures and thermoelectric properties.

Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Faleev, S.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Leonard, F.; Lensch-Falk, J.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Sugar, J. D.

2009-09-01

97

Synthesis and chemical modification of carbon nanostructures for materials applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores the structure, chemical reactivities, electromagnetic response, and materials properties of various carbon nanostructures, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphite, and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Efficient production and modification of these unique structures, each with their own distinct properties, will make them more accessible for applications in electronics, materials, and biology. A method is reported for controlling the permittivity from 1--1000 MHz of SWCNT-polymer composites (0.5 wt%) for radio frequency applications including passive RF antenna structures and EMI shielding. The magnitude of the real permittivity varied between 20 and 3.3, decreasing as higher fractions of functionalized-SWCNTs were added. The microwave absorbing properties and subsequent heating of carbon nanotubes were used to rapidly cure ceramic composites. With less than 1 wt% carbon nanotube additives and 30--40 W of directed microwave power (2.45 GHz), bulk composite samples reached temperatures above 500C within 1 min. Graphite oxide (GO) polymer nanocomposites were developed at 1, 5, and 10 wt% for the purpose of evaluating the flammability reduction and materials properties of the resulting systems. Microscale oxygen consumption calorimetry revealed that addition of GO reduced the total heat release in all systems, and GO-polycarbonate composites demonstrated very fast self-extinguishing times in vertical open flame tests. A simple solution-based oxidative process using potassium permanganate in sulfuric acid was developed for producing nearly 100% yield of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) by lengthwise cutting and unraveling of MWCNT sidewalls. Subsequent chemical reduction of the GNRs resulted in restoration of electrical conductivity. The GNR synthetic conditions were investigated in further depth, and an improved method which utilized a two-acid reaction medium was found to produce GNRs with fewer defects and/or holes on the basal plane and higher aspect ratio. Two different covalent functionalization methods for GNRs based on diazonium chemistry were developed. The resulting functionalized GNRs (f-GNRs) are readily soluble in organic solvents which increase their solution processability. The f-GNRs were also found to be in a reduced state, with minimal sp2 carbon disruption, while also keeping the ribbon shape.

Higginbotham, Amanda Lynn

98

Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

2003-09-01

99

Formation of nanostructured MnO/Co/solid-electrolyte interphase ternary composites as a durable anode material for lithium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

Nanoporous MnO frameworks with highly dispersed Co nanoparticles were produced from MnCO3 precursors prepared in a gel matrix. The MnO frameworks that contain 20 mol% Co exhibited excellent cycle performance as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. The solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed in the frameworks through the electrochemical reaction mediates the active materials, such as MnO, Mn, and Li2O, during the conversion reaction in the charge-discharge cycle. The Co nanoparticles and SEI provide the electron and Li-ion conductive networks, respectively. The ternary nanocomposites of the MnO framework, metallic Co nanoparticles, and embedded SEI are categorized as durable anode materials for Li-ion batteries. PMID:23401355

Dang, Feng; Oaki, Yuya; Kokubu, Takao; Hosono, Eiji; Zhou, Haoshen; Imai, Hiroaki

2013-04-01

100

Nanostructured thermoelectric materials and optical method for thermal conductivity measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A good thermoelectric material has large electrical conductivity, large Seebeck coefficient, and small thermal conductivity. Among the different techniques to achieve small thermal conductivity is the nanostructuring method. In a nanostructured material the thermal conductivity decreases due to the increased interfacial scattering of phonons. In most thermoelectric materials, due to the larger mean free path of phonons compared with electrons, the effect of interfaces on phonon scatterings is more than on carrier scattering. Therefore, reduction of the thermal conductivity becomes possible with almost no or small change in the electrical conductivity via nanostructuring. The materials that have shown large power factor but have small efficiency due to their large thermal conductivity are good candidates for nanostructuring. For high temperature applications, several transition metal silicides have shown high power factor while they have large thermal conductivity. While silicides have been investigated in crystalline and polycrystalline form in the past, their nanostructuring had not been pursued extensively at the time that this research started. In this PhD dissertation, we have developed several nanostructured materials based on transition metal silicides. In the path to develop high temperature thermoelectric materials, synthesis, structural characterizations, thermoelectric properties measurements, and analysis of the nanostructured bulk Si1-xGex, Higher Manganese Silicide (HMS), Si0.8Ge0.2 structures with CrSi2 nanocrystallite inclusions, and nanocomposites of SiGe-FeSi2 were completed. The synthesis process parameters including powder processing and sintering parameters were derived for each material system. Model calculations for electron and phonon transport were performed in detail to explain the measured data and direct the experiments. Boron precipitation effect on thermoelectric properties of Si0.8Ge0.2 was also studied by analyzing the experimental data and through theoretical calculations. At the device level, in order to find the optimum metal contact for HMS, an extensive study was performed to find the best electrical contact for HMS thermoelectric devices. Along with thermoelectric material development, a novel ultrafast optical characterization method for thermal properties measurement and ultrafast carrier dynamics study was also developed. The designed optical system is a new pump-probe arrangement to perform both thermal properties measurement and ultrafast carrier dynamics study in one set up. The existing radial heat flow analysis for thermal properties measurement was extended to three-dimensional heat flow, which is applicable for distinguishing the xyz thermal conductivity of the anisotropic material.

Zamanipour, Zahra

101

Structural Characterization and Structure-property Correlation of Nanostructured Superconducting Coated Conductors and Thermoelectric Materials .  

E-print Network

??Materials drive innovation of devices and materials prepared by innovative technologies were investigated in this study. A microstructural study of device relevant nanostructured energy materials, (more)

Aabdin, Zainul

2013-01-01

102

Novel H2 Sorption Measurements of Nanostructured Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

To expeditiously develop nanostructured materials with high hydrogen sorption capacities, a novel volumetric measurement apparatus was designed and constructed that is suitable for rapid analysis of the small samples (milligram) typically available in the laboratory. The instrument enables both low temperature (down to 12K) volumetric measurements and high temperature (up to 1300K) sample processing without the need for sample transfers.

Lin Simpson; Phillip Parilla; Jeff Blackburn; Kevin O'Neill; Michael Sanders; Anne Dillon; Erin Whitney; Michael Heben; Thomas Gennett

2007-01-01

103

Utilising thermoporometry to obtain new insights into nanostructured materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoporometry is a relatively new method of characterising porous properties of nanostructured materials based on observation\\u000a of solidliquid phase transitions of materials confined in pores. It provides several advantages over the conventional characterisation\\u000a methods, mercury porosimetry and gas sorption. The advantages include possibility of using short measurement times, non-toxic\\u000a chemicals and wet samples. In addition, complicated sample preparation and specialised

Joakim Riikonen; Jarno Salonen; Vesa-Pekka Lehto

104

Room temperature magnetic materials from nanostructured diblock copolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured magnetic materials are important for many advanced applications. Consequently, new methods for their fabrication are critical. However, coupling self-assembly to the generation of magnetic materials in a simple, straight-forward manner has remained elusive. Although several approaches have been considered, most have multiple processing steps, thus diminishing their use of self-assembly to influence magnetic properties. Here we develop novel block

Zoha M. Al-Badri; Raghavendra R. Maddikeri; Yongping Zha; Hitesh D. Thaker; Priyanka Dobriyal; Raja Shunmugam; Thomas P. Russell; Gregory N. Tew

2011-01-01

105

Magnetism of nanostructured permanent-magnet materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sm2Co17-type high-temperature permanent magnets with composition Sm(Co, Fe, Cu, Ti)z are investigated. The effects of Ti (or Zr), Cu, Fe and z value, as well as the effect of heat treatment on the magnetic properties are reported. Ti is found a necessity to form the cellular microstructure with grain size less than 100 nm. The Cu-rich Sm(Co, Cu)5 phase forms the grain-boundary which pins the magnetic domain-wall motion. Low Cu content makes the high-temperature coercivity vary in an abnormal way. A record-high high-temperature coercivity of 12.3 kOe at 500C has been obtained. Granular SmCoz (z = 3--7.5) and Sm-Co-Cu-Ti thin films were produced by thermal processing of sputtered Sm-Co single layers and SmCo 5/(CuTi) multilayers. Inplane anisotropy was found in SmCoz for the composition range of z < 5.5, whereas for z > 5.5 the films exhibits three-dimensional random anisotropy. Sm-Co-Cu-Ti films were sputtered onto Si substrates with a Cr underlayer and coverlayer. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the hexagonal 1:5 phase forms after annealing. Electron micrographs of the processed films show that grains with diameters of 5 to 10 nm are embedded in a matrix. Both the grains and the matrix phase exhibit the CaCu5 Structure. The hysteresis loops show that these films have large coercivities of up to 50.4 kOe. FePt single layer and FePt/Fe multilayer thin films are prepared by magnetron sputtering. The single-phase behavior of the hysteresis loops of FePt/Fe multilayers indicates the existence of exchange coupling in these materials. An energy product of 19 MGOe has been obtained. Nanocrystalline Sm12(Co, Cu, Ti)88 powders are produced by mechanical alloying and are investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis and magnetization measurements. Different heat treatments are performed to investigate the influence on the magnetic properties and crystal structures. The intrinsic coercivity of the powders increases with an increasing amount of Cu. Short annealing time produces a metastable 1:7 phase with high crystalline anisotropy that results in large coercivity. A room temperature coercivity of 22 kOe was obtained in Sm12Co76Cu9Ti 3 powder. Sm-Co binary alloys are also investigated. A coercivity of 41 kOe is obtained in Sm2Co7. The magnetization reversal mechanism is analyzed in both Sm-Co-Cu-Ti and Sm-Co alloys. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Zhou, Jian

106

Mechanical properties of nanostructure of biological materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural biological materials such as bone, teeth and nacre are nanocomposites of protein and mineral with superior strength. It is quite a marvel that nature produces hard and tough materials out of protein as soft as human skin and mineral as brittle as classroom chalk. What are the secrets of nature? Can we learn from this to produce bio-inspired materials

Baohua Ji; Huajian Gao

2004-01-01

107

Nanostructured mesoporous materials for lithium-ion battery applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Energy crisis happens to be one of the greatest challenges we are facing today. In this view, much effort has been made in developing new, cost effective, environmentally friendly energy conversion and storage devices. The performance of such devices is fundamentally related to material properties. Hence, innovative materials engineering is important in solving the energy crisis problem. One such innovation in materials engineering is porous materials for energy storage. Porous electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) offer a high degree of electrolyte-electrode wettability, thus enhancing the electrochemical activity within the material. Among the porous materials, mesoporous materials draw special attention, owing to shorter diffusion lengths for Li+ and electronic movement. Nanostructured mesoporous materials also offer better packing density compared to their nanostructured counterparts such as nanopowders, nanowires, nanotubes etc., thus opening a window for developing electrode materials with high volumetric energy densities. This would directly translate into a scenario of building batteries which are much lighter than today's commercial LIBs. In this article, the authors present a simple, soft template approach for preparing both cathode and anode materials with high packing density for LIBs. The impact of porosity on the electrochemical storage performance is highlighted.

Balaya, P.; Saravanan, K.; Hariharan, S.; Ramar, V.; Lee, H. S.; Kuezma, M.; Devaraj, S.; Nagaraju, D. H.; Ananthanarayanan, K.; Mason, C. W.

2011-06-01

108

A new approach for modeling composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing use of composite materials is due to their ability to tailor materials for special purposes, with applications evolving day by day. This is why predicting the properties of these systems from their constituents, or phases, has become so important. However, assigning macroscopical optical properties for these materials from the bulk properties of their constituents is not a straightforward task. In this research, we present a spectral analysis of three-dimensional random composite typical nanostructures using an Extension of the Discrete Dipole Approximation (E-DDA code), comparing different approaches and emphasizing the influences of optical properties of constituents and their concentration. In particular, we hypothesize a new approach that preserves the individual nature of the constituents introducing at the same time a variation in the optical properties of each discrete element that is driven by the surrounding medium. The results obtained with this new approach compare more favorably with the experiment than previous ones. We have also applied it to a non-conventional material composed of a metamaterial embedded in a dielectric matrix. Our version of the Discrete Dipole Approximation code, the EDDA code, has been formulated specifically to tackle this kind of problem, including materials with either magnetic and tensor properties.

Alcaraz de la Osa, R.; Moreno, F.; Saiz, J. M.

2013-03-01

109

Bioapplicable, nanostructured and nanocomposite materials for catalytic and biosensor applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel, nanostructured porous nanocomposites and bioapplicable materials have been successfully developed for catalytic, sensor and reinforcement applications. For the first time, porous silver nanoparticle/silica composites were synthesized using a simple method of silver nitrate reduction. The glucose template present inside the mesoporous silica material reduces silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles. The particles thus formed are lodged inside the porous silica matrix. Organic/inorganic hybrid nanofiber mats were fabricated for the first time using the electrospinning technology. The fiber mats have high surface area and good mechanical properties. These fibers mats are then used in reinforcement applications, by utilizing them as fillers in dental materials. The mechanical properties of dental materials thus produced are seen to improve dramatically with the addition of just a small amount of fiber sample. An in-situ method was used to produce silver and gold nanoparticles inside porous silica nanofibers via electrospinning. Metal salts used to produce the nanoparticles are mixed with silica and polymer precursors and spun into fibers. The fibers are then heat-treated to reduce the metal salt into metal nanoparticles. The factors affecting the size and distribution of the nanoparticles inside the porous fibers were studied. The fibers thus produced were then tested for catalytic activity. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme was also encapsulated in porous silica nanofibers via electrospinning. The fibers showed significant enhancement in enzyme activity, which was three orders of magnitude greater than that of the non-templated, conventional microporous silica materials. The factors affecting the enzyme activity, like pH, temperature, etc., was also studied. The response time of the encapsulated enzymes to the external reagents was 2 to 3 seconds, showing high efficiency of the fibers to sensor applications. Finally, the encapsulation and alignment of quantum dots in silica nanofibers for sensor and telecommunication applications was attempted. MnO2 and several enzymes encapsulated porous silica samples were also synthesized for universities and companies as part of the ongoing collaborative research work for various catalytic applications. All the above-mentioned products were then characterized in detail.

Patel, Alpa C.

110

Applications of ultrasound to the synthesis of nanostructured materials.  

PubMed

Recent advances in nanostructured materials have been led by the development of new synthetic methods that provide control over size, morphology, and nano/microstructure. The utilization of high intensity ultrasound offers a facile, versatile synthetic tool for nanostructured materials that are often unavailable by conventional methods. The primary physical phenomena associated with ultrasound that are relevant to materials synthesis are cavitation and nebulization. Acoustic cavitation (the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of bubbles in a liquid) creates extreme conditions inside the collapsing bubble and serves as the origin of most sonochemical phenomena in liquids or liquid-solid slurries. Nebulization (the creation of mist from ultrasound passing through a liquid and impinging on a liquid-gas interface) is the basis for ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) with subsequent reactions occurring in the heated droplets of the mist. In both cases, we have examples of phase-separated attoliter microreactors: for sonochemistry, it is a hot gas inside bubbles isolated from one another in a liquid, while for USP it is hot droplets isolated from one another in a gas. Cavitation-induced sonochemistry provides a unique interaction between energy and matter, with hot spots inside the bubbles of approximately 5000 K, pressures of approximately 1000 bar, heating and cooling rates of >10(10) K s(-1); these extraordinary conditions permit access to a range of chemical reaction space normally not accessible, which allows for the synthesis of a wide variety of unusual nanostructured materials. Complementary to cavitational chemistry, the microdroplet reactors created by USP facilitate the formation of a wide range of nanocomposites. In this review, we summarize the fundamental principles of both synthetic methods and recent development in the applications of ultrasound in nanostructured materials synthesis. PMID:20401929

Bang, Jin Ho; Suslick, Kenneth S

2010-03-12

111

Nanostructured Assemblies of Thermoelectric Composite Materials  

SciTech Connect

At the end of the funding period (March 2003) for our program in ferroelectric oxide nanomaterials, we had 3 publications in print, one more had been submitted and two more were in preparation in peer-reviewed journals and invited symposia lectures had been given since starting the project in the Fall of 1999. We hired two postdoctoral fellows, Dr. Ki-Seog Chang and Dr. Wenzhong Wang. We have also trained two graduate students, Ms. Keri Williams and Ms. Bernadette Hernandez, and one undergraduate student (Mr. Michael Scancella).

Peter K. Dorhout; Ellen R. Fisher

2008-02-26

112

Equivalent-Continuum Modeling of Nano-Structured Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been developed for modeling structure-property relationships of nano-structured materials. This method serves as a link between computational chemistry and solid mechanics by substituting discrete molecular structures with an equivalent-continuum model. It has been shown that this substitution may be accomplished by equating the vibrational potential energy of a nano-structured material with the strain energy of representative truss and continuum models. As an important example with direct application to the development and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes, the model has been applied to determine the effective continuum geometry of a graphene sheet. A representative volume element of the equivalent-continuum model has been developed with an effective thickness. This effective thickness has been shown to be similar to, but slightly smaller than, the interatomic spacing of graphite.

Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Thomas S.; Nicholson, Lee M.; Wise, Kristopher E.

2001-01-01

113

Reversibly assembled cellular composite materials.  

PubMed

We introduce composite materials made by reversibly assembling a three-dimensional lattice of mass-produced carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite parts with integrated mechanical interlocking connections. The resulting cellular composite materials can respond as an elastic solid with an extremely large measured modulus for an ultralight material (12.3 megapascals at a density of 7.2 milligrams per cubic centimeter). These materials offer a hierarchical decomposition in modeling, with bulk properties that can be predicted from component measurements and deformation modes that can be determined by the placement of part types. Because site locations are locally constrained, structures can be produced in a relative assembly process that merges desirable features of fiber composites, cellular materials, and additive manufacturing. PMID:23950496

Cheung, Kenneth C; Gershenfeld, Neil

2013-09-13

114

Manufacturing of nanostructured Al/WCp metal- matrix composites by accumulative press bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accumulative press bonding (APB) process used as a novel technique in this study provides an effective alternative method for manufacturing Al/10 vol.% WCp metal matrix composites (MMCs). The results revealed that by increasing the number of APB cycles (a) the uniformity of WC particles in aluminum matrix improved, (b) the porosity of the composite eliminated, (c) the particle free zones decreased. The X-ray diffraction results also showed that nanostructured Al/WCp composite with the average crystallite size of 58.4 nm was successfully achieved by employing 14 cycles of APB technique. The tensile strength of the composites enhanced by increasing the number of APB cycles, and reached to a maximum value of 216 MPa at the end of 14th cycle, which is 2.45 and 1.2 times higher than obtained values for annealed (raw material, 88 MPa) and 14 cycles APB-ed monolithic aluminum (180 MPa), respectively

Amirkhanlou, Sajjad; Ketabchi, Mostafa; Parvin, Nader; Khorsand, Shohreh; Carreo, Fernando

2014-08-01

115

Thermoelectric energy conversion using nanostructured materials  

E-print Network

High performance thermoelectric materials in a wide range of temperatures are essential to broaden the application spectrum of thermoelectric devices. This paper presents experiments on the power and efficiency characteristics ...

Chen, Gang

116

Gas-mediated charged particle beam processing of nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas mediated processing under a charged particle (electron or ion) beam enables direct-write, high resolution surface functionalization, chemical dry etching and chemical vapor deposition of a wide range of materials including catalytic metals, optoelectronic grade semiconductors and oxides. Here we highlight three recent developments of particular interest to the optical materials and nanofabrication communities: fabrication of self-supporting, three dimensional, fluorescent diamond nanostructures, electron beam induced deposition (EBID) of high purity materials via activated chemisorption, and post-growth purification of nanocrystalline EBID-grown platinum suitable for catalysis applications.

Lobo, C. J.; Martin, A. A.; Elbadawi, C.; Bishop, J.; Aharonovich, I.; Toth, M.

2014-03-01

117

Design of nanostructured materials from block copolymer self-assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present two classes of nanostructured materials by combining the self assembly of block copolymer (BCP) with suitable small molecule chemistry, which are applicable to organic electro-optics (EO) and as etch-resistant masks for nanofabrication. The underlying principles of designing the specific interactions between BCP host and guest molecules, driving the self-assembly in bulk and thin film, and dictating domain orientation

Melvina Leolukman

2010-01-01

118

Hierarchical Assembly of Multifunctional Oxide-based Composite Nanostructures for Energy and Environmental Applications  

PubMed Central

Composite nanoarchitectures represent a class of nanostructured entities that integrates various dissimilar nanoscale building blocks including nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanofilms toward realizing multifunctional characteristics. A broad array of composite nanoarchitectures can be designed and fabricated, involving generic materials such as metal, ceramics, and polymers in nanoscale form. In this review, we will highlight the latest progress on composite nanostructures in our research group, particularly on various metal oxides including binary semiconductors, ABO3-type perovskites, A2BO4 spinels and quaternary dielectric hydroxyl metal oxides (AB(OH)6) with diverse application potential. Through a generic template strategy in conjunction with various synthetic approaches such as hydrothermal decomposition, colloidal deposition, physical sputtering, thermal decomposition and thermal oxidation, semiconductor oxide alloy nanowires, metal oxide/perovskite (spinel) composite nanowires, stannate based nanocompostes, as well as semiconductor heterojunctionarrays and networks have been self-assembled in large scale and are being developed as promising classes of composite nanoarchitectures, which may open a new array of advanced nanotechnologies in solid state lighting, solar absorption, photocatalysis and battery, auto-emission control, and chemical sensing. PMID:22837702

Gao, Pu-Xian; Shimpi, Paresh; Gao, Haiyong; Liu, Caihong; Guo, Yanbing; Cai, Wenjie; Liao, Kuo-Ting; Wrobel, Gregory; Zhang, Zhonghua; Ren, Zheng; Lin, Hui-Jan

2012-01-01

119

Composite WO3/TiO2 Nanostructures for High Electrochromic Activity.  

PubMed

A composite material consisting of TiO2 nanotubes (NT) with WO3 electrodeposited on its surface has been fabricated, detached from its Ti substrate, and attached to a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) film on glass for application to electrochromic (EC) reactions. Several adhesion layers were tested, finding that a paste of TiO2 made from commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles creates an interface for the TiO2 NT film to attach to the FTO glass, which is conductive and does not cause solution-phase ions in an electrolyte to bind irreversibly with the material. The effect of NT length and WO3 concentration on the EC performance were studied. The composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures showed higher ion storage capacity, better stability, enhanced EC contrast, and longer memory time compared with the pure WO3 and TiO2 materials. PMID:25562778

Reyes-Gil, Karla R; Stephens, Zachary D; Stavila, Vitalie; Robinson, David B

2015-02-01

120

Magnetic Cluster States in Nanostructured Materials  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this work is to fabricate model nanomaterials with different types of disorder and use atomic-scale characterization and macroscopic magnetization measurements to understand better how specific types of disorder affects macroscopic magnetic behavior. This information can be used to produce magnetic nanomaterials with specific properties for applications such as permanent magnets, soft magnetic material for motors and biomedical applications.

Diandra Leslie-Pelecky

2008-06-13

121

Soft magnetic composite materials (SMCs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft magnetic composites (SMCs), which are used in electromagnetic applications, can be described as ferromagnetic powder particles surrounded by an electrical insulating film. SMC components are normally manufactured by conventional PM compaction combined with new techniques, such as two step compaction, warm compaction, multi-step and magnetic annealing followed by a heat treatment at relatively low temperature. These composite materials offer

H. Shokrollahi; K. Janghorban

2007-01-01

122

Nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering*  

PubMed Central

Research in the areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering has witnessed tremendous progress in recent years due to their unlimited potential to improve human health. Meanwhile, the development of nanotechnology provides opportunities to characterize, manipulate and organize matter systematically at the nanometer scale. Biomaterials with nano-scale organizations have been used as controlled release reservoirs for drug delivery and artificial matrices for tissue engineering. Drug-delivery systems can be synthesized with controlled composition, shape, size and morphology. Their surface properties can be manipulated to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. The limitations of current drug delivery systems include suboptimal bioavailability, limited effective targeting and potential cytotoxicity. Promising and versatile nano-scale drug-delivery systems include nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanotubes, nanogels and dendrimers. They can be used to deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of biomacromolecules, such as peptides, proteins, plasmid DNA and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. Whereas traditional tissue-engineering scaffolds were based on hydrolytically degradable macroporous materials, current approaches emphasize the control over cell behaviors and tissue formation by nano-scale topography that closely mimics the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). The understanding that the natural ECM is a multifunctional nanocomposite motivated researchers to develop nanofibrous scaffolds through electrospinning or self-assembly. Nanocomposites containing nanocrystals have been shown to elicit active bone growth. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely related fields. In fact, tissue engineering can be viewed as a special case of drug delivery where the goal is to accomplish controlled delivery of mammalian cells. Controlled release of therapeutic factors in turn will enhance the efficacy of tissue engineering. From a materials point of view, both the drug-delivery vehicles and tissue-engineering scaffolds need to be biocompatible and biodegradable. The biological functions of encapsulated drugs and cells can be dramatically enhanced by designing biomaterials with controlled organizations at the nanometer scale. This review summarizes the most recent development in utilizing nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. PMID:17471764

GOLDBERG, MICHAEL; LANGER, ROBERT; JIA, XINQIAO

2010-01-01

123

Lamellar Self-Assembly Nanostructured Magnetic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of lamellar self-assemblies symmetric polystyrenepolybutylmethacrylate (PSPBMA) copolymers, doped by magnetic nanoparticles was described. Self-assembly is a spontaneous process by which molecules and nanophase entities may materialize into organized aggregates or networks. As soon as particles are coated by a grafted PS layer, they can be confined in the PS layer of the polymeric smectic. The lamellar order was maintained

B. Hamdoun

2004-01-01

124

Computer modelling of the plasma chemistry and plasma-based growth mechanisms for nanostructured materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review paper, an overview is given of different modelling efforts for plasmas used for the formation and growth of nanostructured materials. This includes both the plasma chemistry, providing information on the precursors for nanostructure formation, as well as the growth processes itself. We limit ourselves to carbon (and silicon) nanostructures. Examples of the plasma modelling comprise nanoparticle formation

Annemie Bogaerts; Maxie Eckert; Ming Mao; Erik Neyts

2011-01-01

125

Nanostructured Materials for Portable and Stationary Energy Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storing energy electrochemically involves electronic and ionic processes and chemical transformation inside and at the interface of materials. The ability to understand and design nanostructures and their interfaces afford the great opportunities for controlling these fundamental processes, which can ultimately lead to high performance energy storage devices. Here I will present several exciting examples on designing nanostructures and their interfaces to realize high performance energy storage devices. One example is on designing nanowires and heterostructured nanowires for ultrahigh capacity storage of lithium ions in silicon anodes and sulfur cathodes. The challenges associated with large volume expansion, electron and ion transport, and solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) have been addressed. Another example is to design open framework stucture of nanocrystals, which facility facile insertion of sodium and potassium ions. The high power, high energy efficiency and low-cost aqueous batteries can be enabled for grid scale stationary storage.

Cui, Yi

2012-02-01

126

Exciton transport and coherence in molecular and nanostructured materials  

E-print Network

Over the past 20 years a new classes of optically active materials have been developed that are composites of nano-engineered constituents such as molecules, polymers, and nanocrystals. These disordered materials have ...

Akselrod, Gleb M. (Gleb Markovitch)

2013-01-01

127

Disclinations in bulk nanostructured materials: their origin, relaxation and role in material properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of disclinations in the processing, microstructure and properties of bulk nanostructured materials is reviewed. Models of grain subdivision during severe plastic deformation (SPD) based on the disclination concept, a structural model of the bulk nanostructured materials processed by SPD are presented. The critical strength of triple junction disclinations is estimated. Kinetics of relaxation of triple junction disclinations and their role in the grain boundary diffusion are studied. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN2012, 30 October2 November, 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

Nazarov, Ayrat A.

2013-09-01

128

Nanostructured metal-nanocarbon composites: Production and studying of structural and mechanical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past two decades, the design methods of nanostructured composites with hierarchical structure consisting of metal-matrix composed nanoparticles and various binding between them - so-called metal-matrix nanocomposites (MNCs) - have intensively develop. At manufacturing MNCs, numerous combinations of matrixes and additives are used. Fabrication methods are an important part of the design process for MNCs, as well. It is anticipated that bulk materials with nanocarbon constituents could have high mechanical properties due to peculiarities of the nanostructure and special properties of its nano-building blocks, such as nanodiamond, fullerenes and nanotubes. In this work we report the design and properties of bulk MNCs containing nanocarbon in metal nanocrystals, and nanocarbon also serves as a binding medium filling interfaces. These works were conducted within 20072012 in TISNCM. We manufactured MNCs by mechanical alloying (high energy ball milling) of the parent materials, such as metals (Fe, Steels, Al, Al-alloys, Cu, W) and refractory carbides (WC, ZrC, TaC, TiC), with nanocarbon followed by high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) treatment. Nanocarbon (C60, soot, graphite and nanodiamond) was used as an additive. New nanostructured and modified by nanocarbon bulk samples has been sintered from appropriate nanoclusters.

Prokhorov, V. M.; Blank, V. D.; Bagramov, R. H.; Perfilov, S. A.; Pivovarov, G. I.

2013-12-01

129

High-strength, thermally-stable nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of two technologically important precipitation-treatable alloys - Al 6061 and Inconel 718, that are deformed to large plastic strains at room temperature by machining, are presented. The strong effect of prior density of precipitates on the consequent microstructure refinement during chip formation was determined by deforming Al 6061 of different tempers to varying levels of strain, by varying the tool rake angle. Chips cut from peak-aged 6061, consisting of a fine dispersion of precipitates, produced the finest microstructure and are composed of sub-100 nm grains. On the other hand, coarser precipitate distributions in over-aged 6061 and an absence of precipitates in solution-treated 6061 resulted in much coarser microstructures. Thermal stability of such nanostructured chips with different levels of strain and precipitate distributions is analyzed by studying evolution of Vickers micro-hardness and microstructure after different heat treatments. Chips produced from the peak-aged temper and over-aged temper soften following heat treatment while those from the solution-treated state first, gain strength before softening. The results are rationalized based on prior studies of the characteristics and kinetics of precipitation and coarsening in Al-Mg-Si systems. It is then demonstrated that precipitate-stabilized nanostructured materials synthesized from a prototypical alloy system - Inconel 718, are extremely stable even after prolonged heat treatment for 240 hours at temperatures as high as one-half of the melting point. This extraordinary thermal stability is traced to the retention of a fine dispersion of precipitates in a nanostructured matrix even after extended heat treatment. It is anticipated that general design principles garnered from understanding of the causal phenomena determining strengthening and thermal stability, can lead to the development of alloy systems for the manufacture of high-strength, thermally-stable nanostructured materials.

Shankar, Ravi

130

Structure and transport properties of nanostructured materials.  

PubMed

In the present manuscript, we have presented the simulation of nanoporous aluminum oxide using a molecular-dynamics approach with recently developed dynamic charge transfer potential using serial/parallel programming techniques (Streitz and Mintmire Phys. Rev. B 1994, 50, 11996). The structures resembling recently invented ordered nanoporous crystalline material, MCM-41/SBA-15 (Kresge et al. Nature 1992, 359, 710), and inverted porous solids (hollow nanospheres) with up to 10 000 atoms were fabricated and studied in the present work. These materials have been used for separation of gases and catalysis. On several occasions including the design of the reactor, the knowledge of surface diffusion is necessary. In the present work, a new method for estimating surface transport of gases based on a hybrid Monte Carlo method with unbiased random walk of tracer atom on the pore surface has been introduced. The nonoverlapping packings used in the present work were fabricated using an algorithm of very slowly settling rigid spheres from a dilute suspension into a randomly packed bed. The algorithm was modified to obtain unimodal, homogeneous Gaussian and segregated bimodal porous solids. The porosity of these solids was varied by densification using an arbitrary function or by coarsening from a highly densified pellet. The surface tortuosity for the densified solids indicated an inverted bell shape curve consistent with the fact that at very high porosities there is a reduction in the connectivity while at low porosities the pores become inaccessible or dead-end. The first passage time distribution approach was found to be more efficient in terms of computation time (fewer tracer atoms needed for the linearity of Einstein's plot). Results by hybrid discrete-continuum simulations were close to the discrete simulations for a boundary layer thickness of 5lambda. PMID:16851615

Sonwane, C G; Li, Q

2005-03-31

131

Novel H2 Sorption Measurements of Nanostructured Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To expeditiously develop nanostructured materials with high hydrogen sorption capacities, a novel volumetric measurement apparatus was designed and constructed that is suitable for rapid analysis of the small samples (milligram) typically available in the laboratory. The instrument enables both low temperature (down to 12K) volumetric measurements and high temperature (up to 1300K) sample processing without the need for sample transfers. The instrument has been used to study the hydrogen sorption behavior of chemically and thermally processed raw and purified nanostructured materials (e.g. nanotubes, activated carbons, polymers, aerogels). Hydrogen sorption, specific surface area, and binding energy results for different samples will be reported. The goal of these activities is to engineer hydrogen sorption materials that can ultimately meet the DOE's targets for vehicular fuel cell applications. Funding for this effort provided by the DOE's EERE Hydrogen Program within the Center of Excellence on Carbon-based Hydrogen Storage Materials, and by the Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering under subcontract DE-AC36-99GO10337 to NREL.

Simpson, Lin; Parilla, Phillip; Blackburn, Jeff; O'Neill, Kevin; Sanders, Michael; Dillon, Anne; Whitney, Erin; Heben, Michael; Gennett, Thomas

2007-03-01

132

Nanophase and Composite Optical Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk will focus on accomplishments, current developments, and future directions of our work on composite optical materials for microgravity science and space exploration. This research spans the order parameter from quasi-fractal structures such as sol-gels and other aggregated or porous media, to statistically random cluster media such as metal colloids, to highly ordered materials such as layered media and photonic bandgap materials. The common focus is on flexible materials that can be used to produce composite or artificial materials with superior optical properties that could not be achieved with homogeneous materials. Applications of this work to NASA exploration goals such as terraforming, biosensors, solar sails, solar cells, and vehicle health monitoring, will be discussed.

2003-01-01

133

Fabrication of bioinspired nanostructured materials via colloidal self-assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through millions of years of evolution, nature creates unique structures and materials that exhibit remarkable performance on mechanicals, opticals, and physical properties. For instance, nacre (mother of pearl), bone and tooth show excellent combination of strong minerals and elastic proteins as reinforced materials. Structured butterfly's wing and moth's eye can selectively reflect light or absorb light without dyes. Lotus leaf and cicada's wing are superhydrophobic to prevent water accumulation. The principles of particular biological capabilities, attributed to the highly sophisticated structures with complex hierarchical designs, have been extensively studied. Recently, a large variety of novel materials have been enabled by natural-inspired designs and nanotechnologies. These advanced materials will have huge impact on practical applications. We have utilized bottom-up approaches to fabricate nacre-like nanocomposites with "brick and mortar" structures. First, we used self-assembly processes, including convective self-assembly, dip-coating, and electrophoretic deposition to form well oriented layer structure of synthesized gibbsite (aluminum hydroxide) nanoplatelets. Low viscous monomer was permeated into layered nanoplatelets and followed by photo-curing. Gibbsite-polymer composite displays 2 times higher tensile strength and 3 times higher modulus when compared with pure polymer. More improvement occurred when surface-modified gibbsite platelets were cross-linked with the polymer matrix. We observed 4 times higher strength and nearly 1 order of magnitude higher modulus than pure polymer. To further improve the mechanical strength and toughness of inorganicorganic nanocomposites, we exploited ultrastrong graphene oxide (GO), a single atom thick hexagonal carbon sheet with pendant oxidation groups. GO nanocomposite is made by co-filtrating GO/polyvinyl alcohol suspension on 0.2 im pore-sized membrane. It shows 2 times higher strength and 15 times higher ultimate strains than nacre and pure GO paper (also synthesized by filtration). Specifically, it exhibits 30 times higher fracture energy than filtrated graphene paper and nacre, 100 times tougher than filtrated GO paper. Besides reinforced nanocomposites, we further explored the self-assembly of spherical colloids and the templating nanofabrication of moth-eye-inspired broadband antireflection coatings. Binary crystalline structures can be easily accomplished by spin-coating double-layer nonclose-packed colloidal crystals as templates, followed by colloidal templating. The polymer matrix between self-assembled colloidal crystal has been used as a sacrificial template to define the resulting periodic binary nanostructures, including intercalated arrays of silica spheres and polymer posts, gold nanohole arrays with binary sizes, and dimple-nipple antireflection coatings. The binary-structured antireflection coatings exhibit better antireflective properties than unitary coatings. Natural optical structures and nanocomposites teach us a great deal on how to create high performance artificial materials. The bottom-up technologies developed in this thesis are scalable and compatible with standard industrial processes, promising for manufacturing high-performance materials for the benefits of human beings.

Huang, Wei-Han

134

Magneto-optics: from bulk materials to nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we review two main recently dominating applications of magneto-optics (MO). The first one is related to a unique MO non-reciprocity. For example, the MO non-reciprocity in the isolators enables complete transmission in the forward propagation direction, while it prevents spurious back-reflection, which is needed to preserve proper operation of active optical elements like lasers or amplifiers in optical systems. Local enhancement of MO activity by optical field concentration in nanostructured magneto-plasmonic and magneto-photonic systems opens new horizons in optical isolators, circulators, and switches. We will discuss enhancement of MO effects using surface magneto-plasmons in periodic grating and apply it to nonreciprocal isolating systems. The second main application of the magneto-optics is the characterization of magnetic multilayers, periodic systems, and nanostructures. MO techniques profit from high near-surface sensitivity to local magnetization, nondestructive character, ultrafast response, and possibility to measure all components of the magnetization vector by means of MO vector magnetometry. Furthermore, the MO Kerr effect allows the separation of magnetic contributions originating in different depths, different materials in multilayer systems as well as laterally modulated and self-organized nanostructures fabricated via modern nanotechnologies.

Postava, K.; Halaga?ka, L.; Vanwolleghem, M.; Pitora, J.

2014-12-01

135

Novel Nanostructured Materials for Hydrogen Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the Office of Basic Sciences have concluded that hydrogen storage is a cornerstone technology for implementing a hydrogen energy economy. However, significant scientific advancement is still required if a viable on-board storage technology is to be developed. For example, an adsorption process for on-board vehicular storage will require a hydrogen binding energy between 20-60 kJ/mol to allow for near-room temperature operation at reasonable pressures. Typically, non-dissociative physisorption due purely to van der Waals forces involves a binding energy of only 4 kJ/mol, whereas a chemical bond is 400 kJ/mol. The desired binding energy range for vehicular hydrogen storage therefore dictates that molecular H2 be stabilized in an unusual manor. Hydrogen adsorption has been observed with a binding energy of 50 kJ /mol on carbon multi-wall nanotubes (MWNTs) containing iron nanoparticles at their tips. However, hydrogen adsorption at near ambient conditions is neither anticipated nor observed on either purified MWNTs or iron nanoparticles by themselves. Recent theoretical studies have shown that an iron adatom forms a complex with a C36 fullerene and shares charge with four carbon atoms of a bent five-membered ring in the C36 molecule. Three H2 ligands then also coordinate with the iron forming a stable 18-electron organo-metallic complex. Here the binding energy of the molecular hydrogen ligands is 43 kJ /mol. It is believed that a similar interaction may be occurring for MWNTs containing iron nanoparticles. However, a more optimized material must be produced in order to increase the hydrogen capacity. Iron has also been predicted to complex with all twelve of the five-membered rings in C60 with a binding energy of 42 kJ/mol and an H2 capacity of 4.9 wt.%. Further, Scandium has been shown to complex with the twelve five-membered rings in C60 with a binding energy of 42 kJ/mol and an H2 capacity of 8.7 wt.%. These theoretical findings as well as experimental efforts to synthesize organo-metallic fullerene complexes for vehicular hydrogen storage applications will be discussed in detail.

Dillon, Anne

2005-03-01

136

Composite materials for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the program were to: generate mechanical, thermal, and physical property test data for as-fabricated advanced materials; design and fabricate an accelerated thermal cycling chamber; and determine the effect of thermal cycling on thermomechanical properties and dimensional stability of composites. In the current program, extensive mechanical and thermophysical property tests of various organic matrix, metal matrix, glass matrix, and carbon-carbon composites were conducted, and a reliable database was constructed for spacecraft material selection. Material property results for the majority of the as-fabricated composites were consistent with the predicted values, providing a measure of consolidation integrity attained during fabrication. To determine the effect of thermal cycling on mechanical properties, microcracking, and thermal expansion behavior, approximately 500 composite specimens were exposed to 10,000 cycles between -150 and +150 F. These specimens were placed in a large (18 cu ft work space) thermal cycling chamber that was specially designed and fabricated to simulate one year low earth orbital (LEO) thermal cycling in 20 days. With this rate of thermal cycling, this is the largest thermal cycling unit in the country. Material property measurements of the thermal cycled organic matrix composite laminate specimens exhibited less than 24 percent decrease in strength, whereas, the remaining materials exhibited less than 8 percent decrease in strength. The thermal expansion response of each of the thermal cycled specimens revealed significant reduction in hysteresis and residual strain, and the average CTE values were close to the predicted values.

Rawal, Suraj P.; Misra, Mohan S.; Wendt, Robert G.

1990-01-01

137

Novel Nanostructures Enabled by On-Wire Lithography: New Materials and Architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in nanotechnology enable researches to study and utilize new materials properties and are in large part driven by development and improvement of methods for synthesizing nanostructures. This dissertation discuses the advancement of one such method, On-Wire Lithography (OWL), a template directed electrochemical nanostructure synthesis technique. Chapter 2 is a demonstration of what was the first extension of OWL to an inorganic semiconductor material, namely anatase TiO2. The combination of this material with plasmonically active Au disk dimers results in the formation of composite plasmonic-semiconducting nanowires. This is accomplished via the sol-gel electrochemical deposition of Ti precursors on the Au dimers, followed by the selective chemical etching of Ni, and annealing of the Ti gel to form the anatase phase of TiO2. Chapter 3 extends the OWL toolbox to include Pd metal as a material. It is also shown that by taking advantage of the ability of OWL to form small gaps within the nanowire structure, a Pd based hydrogen gas sensor can be achieved. Chapter 4 shows the power of OWL for controlling the geometric architecture of nanowire-based structures. By introducing multiple nanowire dimers within the same structure, a single nanostructure exhibiting multiple plasmon resonances can be made. The spectral response of these structures is tailorable allowing one to create broadband absorbing structures. It is also demonstrated that by precise placement of the nanowire dimers with respect to each other a near field coupling effect can be observed which increases the total extinction of the structure by 12%. In Chapter 5 a composite plasmonic-semiconductor material composed of OWL fabricated nanowire dimers within sheets of Anatase TiO2 is fabricated. Despite the harsh conditions necessary to synthesize crystalline TiO2 sheets, the gapped nanostructures remain intact. Additionally, the optical properties of these structures can be tailored to produce structures with various gap sizes exhibiting different electric field intensities at the metal semiconductor interface. Finally, we show that this composite amplifies the electric field of incident light on it by a factor of 103, which is more that 750 times greater than other types of materials typically used for these systems.

Mangelson, Bryan Farrin

138

Composite material impregnation unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This memorandum presents an introduction to the NASA multi-purpose prepregging unit which is now installed and fully operational at the Langley Research Center in the Polymeric Materials Branch. A description of the various impregnation methods that are available to the prepregger are presented. Machine operating details and protocol are provided for its various modes of operation. These include, where appropriate, the related equations for predicting the desired prepreg specifications. Also, as the prepregger is modular in its construction, each individual section is described and discussed. Safety concerns are an important factor and a chapter has been included that highlights the major safety features. Initial experiences and observations for fiber impregnation are described. These first observations have given great insight into the areas of future work that need to be addressed. Future memorandums will focus on these individual processes and their related problems.

Wilkinson, S. P.; Marchello, J. M.; Johnston, N. J.

1993-01-01

139

Differentiation of magnetic composites in terms of their nanostructural organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Important direction of technological progress is creation of substances, materials, and articles with controlled properties. Development of nanotechnologies will result in mass production of substances, materials, and articles containing nanoparticles. This poses new problems to forensics: identification and differentiation of nanomaterials by their properties. Determination of specific features of structure, composition, and other physicochemical properties of objects produced by nanotechnologies

N. N. Lobanov; V. N. Nikiforov; S. A. Gudoshnikov; V. P. Sirotinkin; Yu. A. Koksharov; N. A. Usov; V. G. Sredin; Yu. S. Sitnov; A. V. Garshev; V. I. Putlyaev; D. M. Itkis; O. A. Skoromnikova; G. N. Fedotov

2009-01-01

140

Tunable nanostructured composite with built-in metallic wire-grid electrode  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors report an experimental demonstration of microwave reflection tuning in carbon nanostructure-based composites by means of an external voltage supplied to the material. DC bias voltages are imparted through a metal wire-grid. The magnitude of the reflection coefficient is measured upon oblique plane-wave incidence. Increasing the bias from 13 to 700 V results in a lowering of ?20 dB, and a blueshift of ?600 MHz of the material absorption resonance. Observed phenomena are ascribed to a change of the dielectric response of the carbon material. Inherently, the physical role of tunneling between nanofillers (carbon nanotubes) is discussed. Achievements aim at the realization of a tunable absorber. There are similar studies in literature that focus on tunable metamaterials operating at either optical or THz wavelengths.

Micheli, Davide, E-mail: davide.micheli@uniroma1.it; Pastore, Roberto; Marchetti, Mario [Department of Astronautics, Electrical and Energy Engineering, University of Rome Sapienza Via Eudossiana, 18, 00184 Rome (Italy)] [Department of Astronautics, Electrical and Energy Engineering, University of Rome Sapienza Via Eudossiana, 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Gradoni, Gabriele [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Paint Branch Drive, MD-20740 (United States)] [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Paint Branch Drive, MD-20740 (United States)

2013-11-15

141

Nanostructured porous sol-gel materials for applications in solar cells engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two nanostructured Sol-Gel composite materials for application in solar cells engineering were created and studied: the TiO2/SiO2 films for antireflecting coatings of cells, and PMMA/SiO2 insulating layers on metal substrate for efficient heat extraction from a cell. Structural and optical investigation of the first composite proved that its parameters are adequate to serve the purpose; when doped with the dye absorbing UV light and emitting in the visible, it could also increase quantum yield of a cell. The second composite is designed for use in a hybrid PV/Thermal system, where it could optimize the heat exchange between a cell and solar plane collector, which also leads to an increase of efficiency of the system.

Zakharchenko, R. V.; Daz-Flores, L. L.; Prez-Robles, J. F.; Gonzlez-Hernndez, J.; Vorobiev, Y. V.

2005-06-01

142

Development of sensors based on advanced micro- and nanostructured carbon materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thesis is focused on the development of sensors based on advanced micro- and nano-structured carbon materials. In particular, we developed prototype diamond-based ultraviolet photodetectors and carbon nanotubes-based gas sensors. We describe the method of preparation and characterization of the active carbon-based materials and their structural and compositional characterizations. This is followed by the corresponding device fabrication and testing. The thesis briefly gives an introduction to our current understanding about carbon materials, with emphasis on synthetic diamond and bamboo-like carbon nanotubes, and to the materials' properties that are useful for ultraviolet photodetectors and gas sensor applications. The thesis also give an overview of the experience gained through this research, and some suggestions for those who would like follow the research methods employ here. It provides experimental information learned through experience that may be helpful and avoid delays to the newer experimentalists.

Mendoza Centeno, Frank Willi

143

Delamination growth in composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research related to growth of an imbedded through-width delamination (ITWD) in a compression loaded composite structural element is presented. Composites with widely different interlaminar fracture resistance were examined, viz., graphite/epoxy (CYCOM 982) and graphite/PEEK (APC-2). The initial part of the program consisted of characterizing the material in tension, compression and shear mainly to obtain consistent material properties for analysis, but also as a check of the processing method developed for the thermoplastic APC-2 material. The characterization of the delamination growth in the ITWD specimen, which for the unidirectional case is essentially a mixed Mode 1 and 2 geometry, requires verified mixed-mode growth criteria for the two materials involved. For this purpose the main emphasis during this part of the investigation was on Mode 1 and 2 fracture specimens, namely the Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and End Notched Flexure (ENF) specimens.

Gillespie, J. W., Jr.; Carlson, L. A.; Pipes, R. B.; Rothschilds, R.; Trethewey, B.; Smiley, A.

1985-01-01

144

Micro- and Nanostructured Materials for Active Devices and Molecular Electronics  

SciTech Connect

Traditional single layer barrier coatings are not adequate in preventing degradation of the performance of organic molecular electronic and other active devices. Most advanced devices used in display technology now consist of micro and nanostructured small molecule, polymer and inorganic coatings with thin high reactive group 1A metals. This includes organic electronics such as organic light emitting devices (OLED). The lifetimes of these devices rapidly degrades when they are exposed to atmospheric oxygen and water vapor. Thin film photovoltaics and batteries are also susceptible to degradation by moisture and oxygen. Using in-line coating techniques we apply a composite nanostructured inorganic/polymer thin film barrier that restricts moisture and oxygen permeation to undetectable levels using conventional permeation test equipment. We describe permeation mechanisms for this encapsulation coating and flat panel display and other device applications. Permeation through the multilayer barrier coating is defect and pore limited and can be described by Knudsen diffusion involving a long and tortuous path. Device lifetime is also enhanced by the long lag times required to reach the steady state flux regime. Permeation rates in the range of 10-6 cc,g/m2/d have been achieved and OLED device lifetimes. The structure is robust, yet flexible. The resulting device performance and lifetimes will also be described. The barrier film can be capped with a thin film of transparent conductive oxide yielding an engineered nanostructured device for next generation, rugged, lightweight or flexible displays. This enables, for the first time, thin film encapsulation of emissive organic displays.

Martin, Peter M.; Graff, Gordon L.; Gross, Mark E.; Burrows, Paul E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Mast, Eric S.; Hall, Michael G.; Bonham, Charles C.; Zumhoff, Mac R.; Williford, Rick E.

2003-10-01

145

Predicting Properties Of Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micromechanical Combined Stress Analysis (MICSTRAN) computer code provides materials engineers with easy-to-use personal-computer-based software tool to calculate overall properties of composite, given properties of fibers and matrix. Computes overall thermoelastic parameters and stresses by micromechanical analysis. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Naik, Rajiv A.

1994-01-01

146

Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto (University of New Mexico); Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

2011-10-01

147

Novel hybrid nanostructured materials of magnetite nanoparticles and pectin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel hybrid nanostructured material comprising superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and pectin was synthesized by crosslinking with Ca2+ ions to form spherical calcium pectinate nanostructures, referred as MCPs, which were typically found to be 100-150 nm in size in dried condition, confirmed from transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The uniform size distribution was revealed from dynamic light scattering measurement. In aqueous medium the MCPs showed swelling behavior with an average size of 400 nm. A mechanism of formation of spherical MCPs is outlined constituting a MNP-pectin interface encapsulated by calcium pectinate at the periphery, by using an array of characterization techniques like zeta potential, thermogravimetry, Fourier transformed infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MCPs were stable in simulated gastrointestinal fluid and ensured minimal loss of magnetic material. They exhibited superparamagnetic behavior, confirmed from zero field cooled and field cooled profiles and showed high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 46.21 emu/g at 2.5 T and 300 K. Ms decreased with increasing precursor pectin concentrations, attributed to quenching of magnetic moments by formation of a magnetic dead layer on the MNPs.

Sahu, Saurabh; Dutta, Raj Kumar

2011-04-01

148

Template synthesis and characterization of nanostructured lithium insertion electrodes and nanogold\\/porous aluminum oxide composite membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane-based template synthesis method was used to prepare nanostructured Li-ion battery electrodes and nanogold\\/porous aluminum oxide composite membranes. Membrane-based template synthesis is a general method for the preparation of nanomaterials which entails deposition of the material of interest, or a suitable precursor, within the nanometer-diameter pores in a porous template membrane. This method allows for control of nanoparticle size

Charles John Patrissi

2000-01-01

149

High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication  

DOEpatents

A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01

150

High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication  

DOEpatents

A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

151

High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication  

DOEpatents

A high performance capacitor is described which is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200--300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The ``notepad`` capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

1996-01-23

152

High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication  

DOEpatents

A high performance capacitor is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The notepad capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

1995-05-09

153

Nanostructuring superconductors by ion beams: A path towards materials engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with nanostructuring of superconducting materials by means of swift heavy ion beams. The aim is to modify their structural, optical and electromagnetic properties in a controlled way, to provide possibility of making them functional for specific applications. Results are presented concerning flux pinning effects (implantation of columnar defects with nanosize cross section to enhance critical currents and irreversibility fields), confined flux-flow and vortex guidance, design of devices by locally tailoring the superconducting material properties, analysis of disorder-induced effects in multi-band superconductors. These studies were carried out on different kinds of superconducting samples, from single crystals to thin films, from superconducting oxides to magnesium diboride, to recently discovered iron-based superconductors.

Gerbaldo, Roberto; Ghigo, Gianluca; Gozzelino, Laura; Laviano, Francesco; Amato, Antonino; Rovelli, Alberto; Cherubini, Roberto

2013-07-01

154

Nanostructuring superconductors by ion beams: A path towards materials engineering  

SciTech Connect

The paper deals with nanostructuring of superconducting materials by means of swift heavy ion beams. The aim is to modify their structural, optical and electromagnetic properties in a controlled way, to provide possibility of making them functional for specific applications. Results are presented concerning flux pinning effects (implantation of columnar defects with nanosize cross section to enhance critical currents and irreversibility fields), confined flux-flow and vortex guidance, design of devices by locally tailoring the superconducting material properties, analysis of disorder-induced effects in multi-band superconductors. These studies were carried out on different kinds of superconducting samples, from single crystals to thin films, from superconducting oxides to magnesium diboride, to recently discovered iron-based superconductors.

Gerbaldo, Roberto; Ghigo, Gianluca; Gozzelino, Laura; Laviano, Francesco [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino c.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy and INFN Sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Amato, Antonino; Rovelli, Alberto [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Cherubini, Roberto [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell'Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

2013-07-18

155

Composition profiling of inhomogeneous SiGe nanostructures by Raman spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

In this work, we present an experimental procedure to measure the composition distribution within inhomogeneous SiGe nanostructures. The method is based on the Raman spectra of the nanostructures, quantitatively analyzed through the knowledge of the scattering efficiency of SiGe as a function of composition and excitation wavelength. The accuracy of the method and its limitations are evidenced through the analysis of a multilayer and of self-assembled islands. PMID:23171543

2012-01-01

156

A nanostructured composite based on polyaniline and gold nanoparticles: synthesis and gas sensing properties.  

PubMed

Nanostructured composite materials based on polyaniline (PANI) and gold nanoparticles have been prepared by means of an osmosis based method. Several morphologies have been obtained for the pristine nanoPANI and for nanoPANI-Au composite, ranging from amorphous to sponge-like and spherical shapes. On the basis of this morphological investigation, different materials with high surface area have been selected and tested as chemical interactive materials for room temperature gas and vapor sensing. The resistive sensor devices have been exposed to different vapor organic compounds (VOCs) of interest in the fields of environmental monitoring and biomedical applications, such as toluene, acetic acid, ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile, water, ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The effect of doping with H2SO4 has been studied for both nanoPANI and nanoPANI-Au samples. In particular, nanoPANI-Au showed sensitivity to ammonia (up to 10ppm) higher than that to other VOCs or interfering analytes. The facile preparation method and the improved properties achieved for the polyaniline-gold composite materials are significant in the nanomaterials field and have promise for applications in ammonia vapor monitoring. PMID:23518508

Venditti, Iole; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Russo, Maria Vittoria; Bearzotti, Andrea

2013-04-19

157

A nanostructured composite based on polyaniline and gold nanoparticles: synthesis and gas sensing properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured composite materials based on polyaniline (PANI) and gold nanoparticles have been prepared by means of an osmosis based method. Several morphologies have been obtained for the pristine nanoPANI and for nanoPANI-Au composite, ranging from amorphous to sponge-like and spherical shapes. On the basis of this morphological investigation, different materials with high surface area have been selected and tested as chemical interactive materials for room temperature gas and vapor sensing. The resistive sensor devices have been exposed to different vapor organic compounds (VOCs) of interest in the fields of environmental monitoring and biomedical applications, such as toluene, acetic acid, ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile, water, ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The effect of doping with H2SO4 has been studied for both nanoPANI and nanoPANI-Au samples. In particular, nanoPANI-Au showed sensitivity to ammonia (up to 10 ppm) higher than that to other VOCs or interfering analytes. The facile preparation method and the improved properties achieved for the polyaniline-gold composite materials are significant in the nanomaterials field and have promise for applications in ammonia vapor monitoring.

Venditti, Iole; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Vittoria Russo, Maria; Bearzotti, Andrea

2013-04-01

158

EPR and magnetism of the nanostructured natural carbonaceous material shungite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-band EPR and magnetic susceptibility in the temperature range 4.2-300 K study of the shungite-I, natural nanostructured material from the deposit of Shunga are reported. Obtained results allow us to assign the EPR signal to conduction electrons, estimate their number, N P, and evaluate the Pauli paramagnetism contribution to shungite susceptibility. A small occupation (~5%) of the localized nonbonding ? states in the zigzag edges of the open-ended graphene-like layers and/or on ? ( sp 2+ x ) orbitals in the curved parts of the shungite globules has been also revealed. The observed temperature dependence of the EPR linewidth can be explained by the earlier considered interaction of conduction ? electrons with local phonon modes associated with the vibration of peripheral carbon atoms of the open zigzag-type edges and with peripheral carbon atoms cross-linking different nanostructures. The relaxation time T 2 and diffusion time T D are found to have comparable values (2.84 10-8 and 1.73 10-8 s at 5.2 K, respectively), and similar dependence on temperature. The magnetic measurements have revealed the suppression of orbital diamagnetism due to small amount of large enough fragments of the graphene layers.

Augustyniak-Jab?okow, Maria Aldona; Yablokov, Yurii V.; Andrzejewski, Bart?omiej; Kempi?ski, Wojciech; ?o?, Szymon; Tadyszak, Krzysztof; Yablokov, Mikhail Y.; Zhikharev, Valentin A.

2010-04-01

159

Multifunctional Upconversion-Magnetic Hybrid Nanostructured Materials: Synthesis and Bioapplications  

PubMed Central

The combination of nanotechnology and biology has developed into an emerging research area: nano-biotechnology. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have attracted a great deal of attention in bioapplications due to their high chemical stability, low toxicity, and high signal-to-noise ratio. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are also well-established nanomaterials that offer controlled size, ability to be manipulated externally, and enhancement of contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As a result, these nanoparticles could have many applications in biology and medicine, including protein purification, drug delivery, and medical imaging. Because of the potential benefits of multimodal functionality in biomedical applications, researchers would like to design and fabricate multifunctional upconversion-magnetic hybrid nanostructured materials. The hybrid nanostructures, which combine UCNPs with MNPs, exhibit upconversion fluorescence alongside superparamagnetism property. Such structures could provide a platform for enhanced bioimaging and controlled drug delivery. We expect that the combination of unique structural characteristics and integrated functions of multifunctional upconversion-magnetic nanoparticles will attract increasing research interest and could lead to new opportunities in nano-bioapplications. PMID:23650477

Li, Xiaomin; Zhao, Dongyuan; Zhang, Fan

2013-01-01

160

Aeroelastic tailoring of composite materials  

E-print Network

LIST OF FIGURES IiiTRODUCTI ON ST!!UCTURAL RESPONSE Deformation of Uniformly Stressed Isotropic and Anisotropic Plates Characterization of Composite Laminates . Effect of Material Parameters APPLICATIONS Aircraft Propellers Ship Propell rs... Aircraft Wings and Stabilizers Static Aeroelasticity Dynamic Aeroelasticity . Aeroelastic Tailoring SPECIAL TOPICS The Effects of Time, Tc?. perature, iio'. sture and Fa!:ic!ue Time Dependent Behavior Fatigue Residual Stresses Due to the Cure Cycle...

Rogers, Jesse Byron

2012-06-07

161

Nanostructured metal oxide-based materials as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

The search for new electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands for better performance with higher energy/power densities, improved safety and longer cycle life. Nanostructured metal oxides exhibit good electrochemical properties, and they are regarded as promising anode materials for high-performance LIBs. In this feature article, we will focus on three different categories of metal oxides with distinct lithium storage mechanisms: tin dioxide (SnO(2)), which utilizes alloying/dealloying processes to reversibly store/release lithium ions during charge/discharge; titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), where lithium ions are inserted/deinserted into/out of the TiO(2) crystal framework; and transition metal oxides including iron oxide and cobalt oxide, which react with lithium ions via an unusual conversion reaction. For all three systems, we will emphasize that creating nanomaterials with unique structures could effectively improve the lithium storage properties of these metal oxides. We will also highlight that the lithium storage capability can be further enhanced through designing advanced nanocomposite materials containing metal oxides and other carbonaceous supports. By providing such a rather systematic survey, we aim to stress the importance of proper nanostructuring and advanced compositing that would result in improved physicochemical properties of metal oxides, thus making them promising negative electrodes for next-generation LIBs. PMID:22460594

Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lou, Xiong Wen David

2012-04-21

162

Nanostructured metal oxide-based materials as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for new electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands for better performance with higher energy/power densities, improved safety and longer cycle life. Nanostructured metal oxides exhibit good electrochemical properties, and they are regarded as promising anode materials for high-performance LIBs. In this feature article, we will focus on three different categories of metal oxides with distinct lithium storage mechanisms: tin dioxide (SnO2), which utilizes alloying/dealloying processes to reversibly store/release lithium ions during charge/discharge; titanium dioxide (TiO2), where lithium ions are inserted/deinserted into/out of the TiO2 crystal framework; and transition metal oxides including iron oxide and cobalt oxide, which react with lithium ions via an unusual conversion reaction. For all three systems, we will emphasize that creating nanomaterials with unique structures could effectively improve the lithium storage properties of these metal oxides. We will also highlight that the lithium storage capability can be further enhanced through designing advanced nanocomposite materials containing metal oxides and other carbonaceous supports. By providing such a rather systematic survey, we aim to stress the importance of proper nanostructuring and advanced compositing that would result in improved physicochemical properties of metal oxides, thus making them promising negative electrodes for next-generation LIBs.

Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Hng, Huey Hoon; Wen (David) Lou, Xiong

2012-03-01

163

Improved Silica Aerogel Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A family of aerogel-matrix composite materials having thermal-stability and mechanical- integrity properties better than those of neat aerogels has been developed. Aerogels are known to be excellent thermal- and acoustic-insulation materials because of their molecular-scale porosity, but heretofore, the use of aerogels has been inhibited by two factors: (1) Their brittleness makes processing and handling difficult. (2) They shrink during production and shrink more when heated to high temperatures during use. The shrinkage and the consequent cracking make it difficult to use them to encapsulate objects in thermal-insulation materials. The underlying concept of aerogel-matrix composites is not new; the novelty of the present family of materials lies in formulations and processes that result in superior properties, which include (1) much less shrinkage during a supercritical-drying process employed in producing a typical aerogel, (2) much less shrinkage during exposure to high temperatures, and (3) as a result of the reduction in shrinkage, much less or even no cracking.

Paik, Jong-Ah; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Jones, Steven

2008-01-01

164

Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Composites Containing MQ (II-VI) Slabs: A New Class of Nanostructures with  

E-print Network

Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Composites Containing MQ (II-VI) Slabs: A New Class of Nanostructures. Revised Manuscript Received June 7, 2001 A new class of nanostructures has been prepared and characterized molecules that act as links as well as spacers. The most intriguing properties of these nanostructures

Li, Jing

165

Composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures for high electrochromic activity.  

SciTech Connect

A composite material consisting of TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) with WO3 electrodeposited homogeneously on its surface has been fabricated, detached from its substrate, and attached to a fluorine-doped tin oxide film on glass for application to electrochromic (EC) reactions. A paste of TiO2 made from commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles creates an interface for the TiO2 NT film to attach to the FTO glass, which is conductive and does not cause solution-phase ions in an electrolyte to bind irreversibly with the material. The effect of NT length on the current density and the EC contrast of the material were studied. The EC redox reaction seen in this material is diffusion- limited, having relatively fast reaction rates at the electrode surface. The composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures showed higher ion storage capacity, better stability, enhanced EC contrast and longer memory time compared with the pure WO3 and TiO2.

Reyes, Karla Rosa; Stephens, Zachary Dan.; Robinson, David B.

2013-05-01

166

Processing of nanostructured metallic matrix composites by a modified accumulative roll bonding method with structural and mechanical considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate reinforced metallic matrix composites have attracted considerable attention due to their lightweight, high strength, high specific modulus, and good wear resistance. Al/B4C composite strips were produced in this work by a modified accumulative roll bonding process where the strips were rotated 90 around the normal direction between successive passes. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses reveal the development of nanostructures in the Al matrix after seven passes. It is found that the B4C reinforcement distribution in the matrix is improved by progression of the process. Additionally, the tensile yield strength and elongation of the processed materials are increased with the increase of passes.

Yaghtin, Amir Hossein; Salahinejad, Erfan; Khosravifard, Ali

2012-10-01

167

Integration of mechanical alloying and equal channel angular extrusion for production of nanostructured materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study is to develop the technology to produce nanostructured materials with superior mechanical and chemical behavior. The focus of this research is mainly on two issues: (1) Use of mechanical alloying (MA) to produce nanostructured titanium silicide (Ti5Si 3) in powder form. (2) Use of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) for consolidation of mechanically alloyed

Xhemal Kaculi

2002-01-01

168

Off-axis electron holography of magnetic fields in nanostructured materials Rafal E Dunin-Borkowski  

E-print Network

Off-axis electron holography of magnetic fields in nanostructured materials Rafal E Dunin holography in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) allows the magnetic fields within nanostructured-axis electron holography to characterise the magnetic microstructure of periodic arrays of nanomagnets that were

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

169

Hydrogen storage properties of nano-structural carbon and metal hydrides composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic and structural properties of some ball-milled mixtures composed of the hydrogenated nanostructural carbon (C nanoH x) and metal hydride (MH; M=Li, Na, Mg and Ca) were examined from thermal desoroption mass spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. The results showed that the hydrogen desorption temperatures are significantly lowered from those of each hydride (C nanoH x, MH) in the composites. This indicates that a new type of interaction exists between C nanoH x and MH, which destabilizes C-H and/or M-H bonding as well. Therefore, the above Metal-C-H system would be recognized as a new family of hydrogen storage materials.

Miyaoka, Hiroki; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Isobe, Shigehito; Fujii, Hironobu

2006-08-01

170

Metal-ceramic/ceramic nanostructured layered composites for solid oxide fuel cells by spark plasma sintering.  

PubMed

In this work, bi-layered Fe-Ni-Co-YSZ/YSZ nanostructured composites for solid oxide fuel cells were obtained using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The microstructures of the anode and electrolyte were controlled by optimization of SPS consolidation parameters. The resulting bilayers have a full dense YSZ electrolyte and porous Fe-Ni-Co/YSZ anode as well as crack-free and well-bonded anode/electrolyte interface. On the other hand, SPS under non-optimized processing parameters cannot yield the desired results. The high resistance to thermal stresses of the fabricated half-cells was achieved with Fe-Ni-Co/YSZ anode. The developed anode showed higher thermal compatibility with YSZ electrolyte than usual Ni/YSZ cermet. Thus, with the successful combination of SPS parameters and anode material, we have obtained bi-layers for SOFCs with required microstructure and thermal compatibility. PMID:24738374

Bezdorozhev, Oleksii; Borodianska, Hanna; Sakka, Yoshio; Vasylkiv, Oleg

2014-06-01

171

A nanostructured graphene\\/polyaniline hybrid material for supercapacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible graphene\\/polyaniline hybrid material as a supercapacitor electrode was synthesized by an in situ polymerization-reduction\\/dedoping-redoping process. This product was first prepared in an ethylene glycol medium, then treated with hot sodium hydroxide solution to obtain the reduced graphene oxide\\/polyaniline hybrid material. Sodium hydroxide also acted as a dedoping reagent for polyaniline in the composite. After redoping in an acidic

Hualan Wang; Qingli Hao; Xujie Yang; Lude Lu; Xin Wang

2010-01-01

172

Nanostructured Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries (Final Technical Report)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to explore new ways to create nanostructured electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Of particular interests are unique nanostructures created by electrochemical deposition, etching and combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). Three-dimensional nanoporous Cu6Sn5 alloy has been successfully prepared using an electrochemical co-deposition process. The walls of the foam structure are highly-porous and consist of numerous small grains. This represents a novel way of creating porous structures that allow not only fast transport of gas and liquid but also rapid electrochemical reactions due to high surface area. The Cu6Sn5 samples display a reversible capacity of {approx}400 mAhg-1. Furthermore, these materials exhibit superior rate capability. At a current drain of 10 mA/cm2(20C rate), the obtainable capacity was more than 50% of the capacity at 0.5 mA/cm2 (1C rate). Highly open and porous SnO2 thin films with columnar structure were obtained on Si/SiO2/Au substrates by CCVD. The thickness was readily controlled by the deposition time, varying from 1 to 5 microns. The columnar grains were covered by nanoparticles less than 20 nm. These thin film electrodes exhibited substantially high specific capacity. The reversible specific capacity of {approx}3.3 mAH/cm2 was demonstrated for up to 80 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 0.3 mA/cm2. When discharged at 0.9 mA/cm2, the capacity was about 2.1 mAH/cm2. Tin dioxide box beams or tubes with square or rectangular cross sections were synthesized using CCVD. The cross-sectional width of the SnO2 tubules was tunable from 50 nm to sub-micrometer depending on synthesis temperature. The tubes are readily aligned in the direction perpendicular to the substrate surface to form tube arrays. Silicon wafers were electrochemically etched to produce porous silicon (PS) with honeycomb-type channels and nanoporous walls. The diameters of the channels are about 1 to 3 microns and the depth of the channels can be up to 100 microns. We have successfully used the PS as a matrix for Si-Li-based alloy. Other component(s) can be incorporated into the PS either by an electroless metallization or by kinetically controlled vapor deposition.

Meilin Liu, James Gole

2006-12-14

173

ULTRASONIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased use of composite materials in critical structural applications it is more important than ever to independently assure structural integrity. Complexity of the advanced composite materials including layered and bonded structures represents challenges in developing optimized ultrasonic tests. Traditional ultrasonic NDT methods are inappropriate and often misleading when applied to anisotropic and nonhomogeneous composite materials. In advanced technology applications

B. Boro Djordjevic

174

Survey of materials for nanoskiving and influence of the cutting process on the nanostructures produced.  

PubMed

This paper examines the factors that influence the quality of nanostructures fabricated by sectioning thin films with an ultramicrotome ("nanoskiving"). It surveys different materials (metals, ceramics, semiconductors, and conjugated polymers), deposition techniques (evaporation, sputter deposition, electroless deposition, chemical-vapor deposition, solution-phase synthesis, and spin-coating), and geometries (nanowires or two-dimensional arrays of rings and crescents). It then correlates the extent of fragmentation of the nanostructures with the composition of the thin films, the methods used to deposit them, and the parameters used for sectioning. There are four major conclusions. (i) Films of soft and compliant metals (those that have bulk values of hardness less than or equal to those of palladium, or ?500 MPa) tend to remain intact upon sectioning, whereas hard and stiff metals (those that have values of hardness greater than or equal to those of platinum, or ?500 MPa) tend to fragment. (ii) All conjugated polymers tested form intact nanostructures. (iii) The extent of fragmentation is lowest when the direction of cutting is perpendicular to the exposed edge of the embedded film. (iv) The speed of cutting-from 0.1 to 8 mm/s-has no effect on the frequency of defects. Defects generated during sectioning include scoring from defects in the knife, delamination of the film from the matrix, and compression of the matrix. The materials tested were: aluminum, titanium, nickel, copper, palladium, silver, platinum, gold, lead, bismuth, germanium, silicon dioxide (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), lead sulfide nanocrystals, the semiconducting polymers poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV), poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline ladder) (BBL), and the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). PMID:20815347

Lipomi, Darren J; Martinez, Ramses V; Rioux, Robert M; Cademartiri, Ludovico; Reus, William F; Whitesides, George M

2010-09-01

175

Thermoelectric figure of merit for bulk nanostructured composites with distributed parameters  

SciTech Connect

The effective properties of composites whose structure includes nanocontacts between bulk-phase macrocrystallites are considered. A model for such a nanostructured composite is constructed. Effective values of the thermoelectric power, thermal and electrical conductivities, and thermoelectric figure of merit are calculated in the mean-field approximation.

Snarskii, A. A. [National Technical University 'Kyiv Polytechnic Institute' (Ukraine); Sarychev, A. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electromagnetics (Russian Federation); Bezsudnov, I. V., E-mail: biv@akuan.ru ['Nauka-Service' Scientific and Production Company (Russian Federation); Lagarkov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electromagnetics (Russian Federation)

2012-05-15

176

Properties of nanostructured diamond-silicon carbide composites sintered by high pressure infiltration technique  

E-print Network

Properties of nanostructured diamond-silicon carbide composites sintered by high pressure, decreases composite hardness, and improves fracture toughness. I. INTRODUCTION Diamond­silicon carbide March 2004; accepted 4 June 2004) A high-pressure silicon infiltration technique was applied to sinter

Gubicza, Jenõ

177

Efficient and versatile fibrous adsorbent based on magnetic amphiphilic composites of chrysotile/carbon nanostructures for the removal of ethynilestradiol.  

PubMed

In this work, chrysotile was used as support to grow carbon nanotubes and nanofibers to produce fibrous amphiphilic magnetic nanostructured composites. Iron impregnated on the chrysotile surface at 1, 5 and 15 wt% was used as catalyst to grow carbon nanostructures by CVD (chemical vapor deposition) with ethanol at 800C. Raman, TG/DTA, Mssbauer, XRD, BET, SEM, TEM, elemental analyses and contact angle measurements suggested the formation of a complex amphiphilic material containing up to 21% of nanostructured hydrophobic carbon supported on hydrophilic Mg silicate fibers with magnetic Fe cores protected by carbon coating. Adsorption tests for the hormone ethynilestradiol (EE), a hazardous water contaminant, showed remarkable adsorption capacities even compared to high surface area activated carbon and multiwall carbon nanotubes. These results are discussed in terms of the hydrophobic surface of the carbon nanotubes and nanofibers completely exposed and accessible for the adsorption of the EE molecules combined with the hydrophilic Mg silicate surface which allows good dispersion in water. The composites are magnetic and after adsorption the dispersed particles can be removed by a simple magnetic process. Moreover, the fibrous composites can be conformed as threads, screens and pellets to produce different filtering media. PMID:23399907

Teixeira, Ana Paula C; Purceno, Aluir D; de Paula, Camila C A; da Silva, Julio Csar C; Ardisson, Jos D; Lago, Rochel M

2013-03-15

178

Ionic self-assembly for functional hierarchical nanostructured materials.  

PubMed

CONSPECTUS: The challenge of constructing soft functional materials over multiple length scales can be addressed by a number of different routes based on the principles of self-assembly, with the judicious use of various noncovalent interactions providing the tools to control such self-assembly processes. It is within the context of this challenge that we have extensively explored the use of an important approach for materials construction over the past decade: exploiting electrostatic interactions in our ionic self-assembly (ISA) method. In this approach, cooperative assembly of carefully chosen charged surfactants and oppositely charged building blocks (or tectons) provides a facile noncovalent route for the rational design and production of functional nanostructured materials. Generally, our research efforts have developed with an initial focus on establishing rules for the construction of novel noncovalent liquid-crystalline (LC) materials. We found that the use of double-tailed surfactant species (especially branched double-tailed surfactants) led to the facile formation of thermotropic (and, in certain cases, lyotropic) phases, as demonstrated by extensive temperature-dependent X-ray and light microscopy investigations. From this core area of activity, research expanded to cover issues beyond simple construction of anisotropic materials, turning to the challenge of inclusion and exploitation of switchable functionality. The use of photoactive azobenzene-containing ISA materials afforded opportunities to exploit both photo-orientation and surface relief grating formation. The preparation of these anisotropic LC materials was of interest, as the aim was the facile production of disposable and low-cost optical components for display applications and data storage. However, the prohibitive cost of the photo-orientation processes hampered further exploitation of these materials. We also expanded our activities to explore ISA of biologically relevant tectons, specifically deoxyguanosine monophosphate. This approach proved, in combination with block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly, very fruitful for the construction of complex and hierarchical functional materials across multiple length scales. Molecular frustration and incommensurability, which played a major role in structure formation in combination with nucleotide assembly, have now become important tools to tune supramolecular structure formation. These concepts, that is, the use of BCP assembly and incommensurability, in combination with metal-containing polymeric materials, have provided access to novel supramolecular morphologies and, more importantly, design rules to prepare such constructs. These design rules are now also being applied to the assembly of electroactive oligo(aniline)-based materials for the preparation of highly ordered functional soft materials, and present an opportunity for materials development for applications in energy storage. In this Account, we therefore discuss investigations into (i) the inclusion and preparation of supramolecular photoactive and electroactive materials; (ii) the exploitation and control over multiple noncovalent interactions to fine-tune function, internal structure, and long-range order and (iii) exploration of construction over multiple length scales by combination of ISA with well-known BCP self-assembly. Combination of ISA with tuning of volume fractions, mutual compatibility, and molecular frustration now provides a versatile tool kit to construct complex and hierarchical functional materials in a facile noncovalent way. A direct challenge for future ISA activities would certainly be the construction of functional mesoscale objects. However, within a broader scientific context, the challenge would be to exploit this powerful assembly tool for application in areas of research with societal impact, for example, energy storage and generation. The hope is that this Account will provide a platform for such future research activities and opportunities. PMID:25191750

Faul, Charl F J

2014-12-16

179

Nanostructured Graphene-Titanium Dioxide Composites Synthesized by a Single-Step Aerosol Process for Photoreduction of Carbon Dioxide.  

PubMed

Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to hydrocarbons by using nanostructured materials activated by solar energy is a promising approach to recycling CO2 as a fuel feedstock. CO2 photoreduction, however, suffers from low efficiency mainly due to the inherent drawback of fast electron-hole recombination in photocatalysts. This work reports the synthesis of nanostructured composites of titania (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets via an aerosol approach. The role of synthesis temperature and TiO2/GO ratio in CO2 photoreduction was investigated. As-prepared nanocomposites demonstrated enhanced CO2 conversion performance as compared with that of pristine TiO2 NPs due to the strong electron trapping capability of the rGO nanosheets. PMID:25053879

Wang, Wei-Ning; Jiang, Yi; Fortner, John D; Biswas, Pratim

2014-07-01

180

Tuning energy transport in solar thermal systems using nanostructured materials  

E-print Network

Solar thermal energy conversion can harness the entire solar spectrum and theoretically achieve very high efficiencies while interfacing with thermal storage or back-up systems for dispatchable power generation. Nanostructured ...

Lenert, Andrej

2014-01-01

181

Enhancing thermoelectric properties of organic composites through hierarchical nanostructures.  

PubMed

Organic thermoelectric (TE) materials are very attractive due to easy processing, material abundance, and environmentally-benign characteristics, but their potential is significantly restricted by the inferior thermoelectric properties. In this work, noncovalently functionalized graphene with fullerene by ?-? stacking in a liquid-liquid interface was integrated into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate). Graphene helps to improve electrical conductivity while fullerene enhances the Seebeck coefficient and hinders thermal conductivity, resulting in the synergistic effect on enhancing thermoelectric properties. With the integration of nanohybrids, the electrical conductivity increased from ~10,000 to ~70,000?S/m, the thermal conductivity changed from 0.2 to 2?WK(-1)m(-1) while the Seebeck coefficient was enhanced by around 4-fold. As a result, nanohybrids-based polymer composites demonstrated the figure of merit (ZT) as high as 6.7 10(-2), indicating an enhancement of more than one order of magnitude in comparison to single-phase filler-based polymer composites with ZT at the level of 10(-3). PMID:24336319

Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Shiren

2013-01-01

182

Delamination growth in composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and the End Notched Flexure (ENF) specimens are employed to characterize MODE I and MODE II interlaminar fracture resistance of graphite/epoxy (CYCOM 982) and graphite/PEEK (APC2) composites. Sizing of test specimen geometries to achieve crack growth in the linear elastic regime is presented. Data reduction schemes based upon beam theory are derived for the ENF specimen and include the effects of shear deformation and friction between crack surfaces on compliance, C, and strain energy release rate, G sub II. Finite element (FE) analyses of the ENF geometry including the contact problem with friction are presented to assess the accuracy of beam theory expressions for C and G sub II. Virtual crack closure techniques verify that the ENF specimen is a pure Mode II test. Beam theory expressions are shown to be conservative by 20 to 40 percent for typical unidirectional test specimen geometries. A FE parametric study investigating the influence of delamination length and depth, span, thickness and material properties on G sub II is presented. Mode I and II interlaminar fracture test results are presented. Important experimental parameters are isolated, such as precracking techniques, rate effects, and nonlinear load-deflection response. It is found that subcritical crack growth and inelastic materials behavior, responsible for the observed nonlinearities, are highly rate-dependent phenomena with high rates generally leading to linear elastic response.

Gillespie, J. W., Jr.; Carlsson, L. A.; Pipes, R. B.; Rothschilds, R.; Trethewey, B.; Smiley, A.

1986-01-01

183

Composite materials for space structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of advanced composites for space structures is reviewed. Barriers likely to limit further applications of composites are discussed and highlights of research to improve composites are presented. Developments in composites technology which could impact spacecraft systems are reviewed to identify technology needs and opportunities.

Tenney, D. R.; Sykes, G. F.; Bowles, D. E.

1985-01-01

184

Nonlinear Dynamic Properties of Layered Composite Materials  

SciTech Connect

We present an application of the asymptotic homogenization method to study wave propagation in a one-dimensional composite material consisting of a matrix material and coated inclusions. Physical nonlinearity is taken into account by considering the composite's components as a Murnaghan material, structural nonlinearity is caused by the bonding condition between the components.

Andrianov, Igor V.; Topol, Heiko; Weichert, Dieter [Institute of General Mechanics, RWTH Aachen University, Termplergraben 64, Aachen, D-52062 (Germany); Danishevs'kyy, Vladyslav V. [Prydniprovs'ka State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Dnipropetrovs'k, Chernishevs'kogo 24a, UA-49600 (Ukraine)

2010-09-30

185

Synthesis and applications of bioinspired inorganic nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the study of biominerals may be traced back many centuries, it is only recently that biological principles have been applied to synthetic systems in processes termed "biomimetic" and "bioinspired" to yield materials syntheses that are otherwise not possible and may also reduce the expenditure of energy and/or eliminate toxic byproducts. Many investigators have taken inspiration from interesting and unusual minerals formed by organisms, in a process termed biomineralisation, to tailor the nanostructure of inorganic materials not necessarily found biogenically. However, the fields of nanoparticle synthesis and biomineralisation remain largely separate, and this thesis is an attempt to apply new studies on biomineralisation to nanomaterials science. Principally among the proteins that influence biomineralisation is a group comprised largely of negatively charged aspartic acid residues present in serum. This study is an investigation determining the ability of these serum proteins and other anolagous biomolecules to stabilise biologically relevant amorphous minerals and influence the formation of a variety of materials at the nanoscale. Three different materials were chosen to demonstrate this effect; gold was templated into nanosized single crystals by the action of bioorganic molecules, and the utility of these nanoparticles as a biosensor was explored. The influence of bioorganic molecules on the phase selection and crystal size restriction of titanium dioxide, an important semiconductor with many applications, was explored. The use of bioorganically derived nanoparticles of titanium dioxide was then demonstrated as a highly efficient photocatalyst. Finally, calcium carbonate, a prevalent biomineral was shown to form highly ordered structures over a variety of length scales and different crystalline polymorphs under the influence of a templating protein. In addition, an alternative route to producing calcium phosphate nanoparticle dispersions by mechanical filtration was explored and use as a transfection vector was optimised in two cell lines. Several significant achievements are presented: (i) the assessment of the relative ability of serum, serum derived proteins and their analogues to stabilize the amorphous state, (ii) the formation of single crystalline gold templated by an antibody, (iii) the formation of highly photocatalytically active nanoparticulate anatase by a phosphorylated cyclic esther, (iv) the formation of conical structures at the air liquid interface by the templating ability of a protein and (v) the optimisation of calcium phosphate nanoparticle mediated transfection in two cell lines by mechanical filtration.

Bassett, David C.

2011-12-01

186

Method for machining holes in composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for boring well defined holes in a composite material such as graphite/epoxy is discussed. A slurry of silicon carbide powder and water is projected onto a work area of the composite material in which a hole is to be bored with a conventional drill bit. The silicon carbide powder and water slurry allow the drill bit, while experiencing only normal wear, to bore smooth, cylindrical holes in the composite material.

Daniels, Julia G. (inventor); Ledbetter, Frank E., III (inventor); Clemons, Johnny M. (inventor); Penn, Benjamin G. (inventor); White, William T. (inventor)

1987-01-01

187

Morphology and composition controlled synthesis of flower-like silver nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flower-like silver nanostructures with controlled morphology and composition were prepared through wet-chemical synthesis. The reaction rate is simply manipulated by the amount of catalyzing agent ammonia added which is the key point to determine the ratio of hexagonal close-packed (HCP) to face-centered cubic (FCC) phase in silver nanostructures. The existence of formic acid that is the oxidation product of aldehyde group is demonstrated to play a crucial role in achieving the metastable HCP crystal structures by replacing ionic surfactants with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Utilizing flower-like silver nanostructures as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates, Raman signal of Rhodamine 6G, or 4-aminothiophenol with concentration as low as 10-7 M was detected. Moreover, it is demonstrated that phase composition has no direct relation to the SERS enhancing factor which is mainly determined by the amount of hot spots.

Zhou, Ning; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren

2014-06-01

188

Morphology and composition controlled synthesis of flower-like silver nanostructures  

PubMed Central

Flower-like silver nanostructures with controlled morphology and composition were prepared through wet-chemical synthesis. The reaction rate is simply manipulated by the amount of catalyzing agent ammonia added which is the key point to determine the ratio of hexagonal close-packed (HCP) to face-centered cubic (FCC) phase in silver nanostructures. The existence of formic acid that is the oxidation product of aldehyde group is demonstrated to play a crucial role in achieving the metastable HCP crystal structures by replacing ionic surfactants with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Utilizing flower-like silver nanostructures as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates, Raman signal of Rhodamine 6G, or 4-aminothiophenol with concentration as low as 10?7M was detected. Moreover, it is demonstrated that phase composition has no direct relation to the SERS enhancing factor which is mainly determined by the amount of hot spots. PMID:24994957

2014-01-01

189

NASA technology utilization survey on composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and NASA-funded contractor contributions to the field of composite materials are surveyed. Existing and potential non-aerospace applications of the newer composite materials are emphasized. Economic factors for selection of a composite for a particular application are weight savings, performance (high strength, high elastic modulus, low coefficient of expansion, heat resistance, corrosion resistance,), longer service life, and reduced maintenance. Applications for composites in agriculture, chemical and petrochemical industries, construction, consumer goods, machinery, power generation and distribution, transportation, biomedicine, and safety are presented. With the continuing trend toward further cost reductions, composites warrant consideration in a wide range of non-aerospace applications. Composite materials discussed include filamentary reinforced materials, laminates, multiphase alloys, solid multiphase lubricants, and multiphase ceramics. New processes developed to aid in fabrication of composites are given.

Leeds, M. A.; Schwartz, S.; Holm, G. J.; Krainess, A. M.; Wykes, D. M.; Delzell, M. T.; Veazie, W. H., Jr.

1972-01-01

190

Nanostructure and optoelectronic phenomena in germanium-transparent conductive oxide (Ge:TCO) composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured composites are attracting intense interest for electronic and optoelectronic device applications, specifically as active elements in thin film photovoltaic (PV) device architectures. These systems implement fundamentally different concepts of enhancing energy conversion efficiencies compared to those seen in current commercial devices. This is possible through considerable flexibility in the manipulation of device-relevant properties through control of the interplay between the nanostructure and the optoelectronic response. In the present work, inorganic nanocomposites of semiconductor Ge embedded in transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) as well as Ge in zinc oxide (ZnO) were produced by a single step RF-magnetron sputter deposition process. It is shown that, by controlling the design of the nanocomposites as well as heat treatment conditions, decreases in the physical dimensions of Ge nanophase size provided an effective tuning of the optical absorption and charge transport properties. This effect of changes in the optical properties of nanophase semiconductors with respect to size is known as the quantum confinement effect. Variation in the embedding matrix material between ITO and ZnO with corresponding characterization of optoelectronic properties exhibit notable differences in the presence and evolution of an interfacial oxide within these composites. Further studies of interfacial structures were performed using depth-profiling XPS and Raman spectroscopy, while study of the corresponding electronic effects were performed using room temperature and temperature-dependent Hall Effect. Optical absorption was noted to shift to higher onset energies upon heat treatment with a decrease in the observed Ge domain size, indicating quantum confinement effects within these systems. This contrasts to previous investigations that have involved the introduction of nanoscale Ge into insulating, amorphous oxides. Comparison of these different matrix chemistries highlights the overarching role of interfacial structures on quantum-size characteristics. The opportunity to tune the spectral response of these PV materials, via control of semiconductor phase assembly in the nanocomposite, directly impacts the potential for the use of these materials as sensitizing elements for enhanced solar cell conversion efficiency.

Shih, Grace Hwei-Pyng

191

Aerosol route to functional nanostructured inorganic and hybrid porous materials.  

PubMed

The major advances in the field of the designed construction of hierarchically structured porous inorganic or hybrid materials wherein multiscale texturation is obtained via the combination of aerosol or spray processing with sol-gel chemistry, self-assembly and multiple templating are the topic of this review. The available materials span a very large set of structures and chemical compositions (silicates, aluminates, transition metal oxides, nanocomposites including metallic or chalcogenides nanoparticles, hybrid organic-inorganic, biohybrids). The resulting materials are manifested as powders or smart coatings via aerosol-directed writing combine the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of the inorganic or hybrid matrices with defined multiscale porous networks having a tunable pore size and connectivity, high surface area and accessibility. Indeed the combination of soft chemical routes and spray processing provides "a wind of change" in the field of "advanced materials". These strategies give birth to a promising family of innovative materials with many actual and future potential applications in various domains such as catalysis, sensing, photonic and microelectronic devices, nano-ionics and energy, functional coatings, biomaterials, multifunctional therapeutic carriers, and microfluidics, among others. PMID:20963791

Boissiere, Cedric; Grosso, David; Chaumonnot, Alexandra; Nicole, Lionel; Sanchez, Clement

2011-02-01

192

Composite materials in dynamic shipboard structural mounts  

E-print Network

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the viability of replacing traditional metal structural and machinery mounts with padding made of composite material. The two types of padding or isolation materials are represented ...

Faulk, Joanna (Joanna E.)

2011-01-01

193

Nanostructured carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes for supercapacitors: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a review of the research progress in the carbon-metal oxide composites for supercapacitor electrodes. In the past decade, various carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes have been developed by integrating metal oxides into different carbon nanostructures including zero-dimensional carbon nanoparticles, one-dimensional nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers), two-dimensional nanosheets (graphene and reduced graphene oxides) as well as three-dimensional porous carbon nano-architectures. This paper has described the constituent, the structure and the properties of the carbon-metal oxide composites. An emphasis is placed on the synergistic effects of the composite on the performance of supercapacitors in terms of specific capacitance, energy density, power density, rate capability and cyclic stability. This paper has also discussed the physico-chemical processes such as charge transport, ion diffusion and redox reactions involved in supercapacitors.

Zhi, Mingjia; Xiang, Chengcheng; Li, Jiangtian; Li, Ming; Wu, Nianqiang

2012-12-01

194

Synthesis of branched metal nanostructures with controlled architecture and composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On account of their small size, metal nanoparticles are proven to be outstanding catalysts for numerous chemical transformations and represent promising platforms for applications in the fields of electronics, chemical sensing, medicine, and beyond. Many properties of metal nanoparticles are size-dependent and can be further manipulated through their shape and architecture (e.g., spherical vs. branched). Achieving morphology control of nanoparticles through solution-based techniques has proven challenging due to limited knowledge of morphology development in nanosyntheses. To overcome these complications, a systematic examination of the local ligand environment of metal precursors on nanostructure formation was undertaken to evaluate its contribution to nanoparticle nucleation rate and subsequent growth processes. Specifically, this thesis will provide evidence from ex situ studies---Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis)---that support the hypothesis that strongly coordinated ligands delay burst-like nucleation to generate spherical metal nanoparticles and ligands with intermediate binding affinity regulate the gradual reduction of metal precursors to promote aggregated assembly of nanodendrites. These ex situ studies were coupled with a new in situ perspective, providing detailed understanding of metal precursor transformation, its direct relation to nanoparticle morphology development, and the ligand influence towards the formation of structurally complex metal nanostructures, using in situ synchrotron X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Ultra Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS). The principles extracted from the study of monometallic nanostructure formation were also found to be generally applicable to the synthesis of bimetallic nanostructures, e.g., Pd-Pt architectures, with either core-shell or alloyed structures that were readily achieved by ligand selection. These outcomes provide a direct connection between fundamental principles of coordination chemistry and nanoparticle formation, with a stronger foundation for the predictive synthesis of future nanomaterials with controllable structural features.

Ortiz, Nancy

195

Nanostructured metal-polyaniline composites and applications thereof  

DOEpatents

Metal-polyaniline (PANI) composites are provided together with a process of preparing such composites by an electrodeless process. The metal of the composite can have nanoscale structural features and the composites can be used in applications such as catalysis for hydrogenation reactions and for analytical detection methods employing SERS.

Wang, Hsing-Lin; Li, Wenguang; Bailey, James A.; Gao, Yuan

2012-10-02

196

Microstructure, hardness and toughness of nanostructured and conventional WC-Co composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure and mechanical properties of nanograin-sized WC-Co composites were investigated and compared with those of conventional cermets. The dislocation density in the nanometer-sized WC crystals is lower than in the conventional ones, and no inclusions are observed in them. Nanostructured composites have higher tungsten content in the binder phase and a higher FCCHCP ratio of the cobalt. An amorphous

K. Jia; T. E. Fischer; B. Gallois

1998-01-01

197

Effect of Interface Structure on Mechanical Properties of Advanced Composite Materials  

PubMed Central

This paper deals with the effect of interface structures on the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced composite materials. First, the background of research, development and applications on hybrid composite materials is introduced. Second, metal/polymer composite bonded structures are discussed. Then, the rationale is given for nanostructuring the interface in composite materials and structures by introducing nanoscale features such as nanopores and nanofibers. The effects of modifying matrices and nano-architecturing interfaces on the mechanical properties of nanocomposite materials are examined. A nonlinear damage model for characterizing the deformation behavior of polymeric nanocomposites is presented and the application of this model to carbon nanotube-reinforced and reactive graphite nanotube-reinforced epoxy composite materials is shown. PMID:20054466

Gan, Yong X.

2009-01-01

198

Clues for biomimetics from natural composite materials  

PubMed Central

Bio-inspired material systems are derived from different living organisms such as plants, arthropods, mammals and marine organisms. These biomaterial systems from nature are always present in the form of composites, with molecular-scale interactions optimized to direct functional features. With interest in replacing synthetic materials with natural materials due to biocompatibility, sustainability and green chemistry issues, it is important to understand the molecular structure and chemistry of the raw component materials to also learn from their natural engineering, interfaces and interactions leading to durable and highly functional material architectures. This review will focus on applications of biomaterials in single material forms, as well as biomimetic composites inspired by natural organizational features. Examples of different natural composite systems will be described, followed by implementation of the principles underlying their composite organization into artificial bio-inspired systems for materials with new functional features for future medicine. PMID:22994958

Lapidot, Shaul; Meirovitch, Sigal; Sharon, Sigal; Heyman, Arnon; Kaplan, David L; Shoseyov, Oded

2013-01-01

199

Damage and fracture mechanics of composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of structural systems in the aerospace industry has been characterized by a continuing search for strong, yet lightweight, materials to achieve maximum payload capability for minimum weight. In recent years, this search has led to a wide use of fiber reinforced composites, such as carbon, glass and kevelar based composites. Comparison of these new materials with the traditional

Saleh Ramadan Abdussalam

1999-01-01

200

Hysteresis losses in soft magnetic composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To analyze the Jiles and Atherton hysteresis model used for hysteresis losses estimation in soft magnetic composite (SMC) material. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The Jiles and Atherton hysteresis model parameters are optimized with genetic algorithms (GAs) according to measured symmetric hysteresis loop of soft magnetic composite material. To overcome the uncertainty, finding the best-optimized parameters in a wide predefined searching

Bogomir Zidari?; Mykhaylo Zagirnyak; Konrad Lenasi; Damijan Miljavec

2006-01-01

201

Composite materials and method of making  

DOEpatents

A method for forming improved composite materials using a thermosetting polyester urethane hybrid resin, a closed cavity mold having an internal heat transfer mechanism used in this method, and the composite materials formed by this method having a hybrid of a carbon fiber layer and a fiberglass layer.

Simmons, Kevin L [Kennewick, WA; Wood, Geoffrey M [North Saanich, CA

2011-05-17

202

Ultrasonic Inspection Of Composite-Material Paraboloid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic imaging system scanning three-dimensional curved surfaces developed. In original application, system used to determine integrity of composite-material paraboloidal reflector and its supporting structure. System also used to inspect composite-material structures with curved surfaces other than paraboloids, provided surfaces describable by mathematical functions. Position and orientation of transducer adjusted continuously to maintain normal incidence.

Chern, E. James

1994-01-01

203

Graphene-based nanostructured hybrid materials for conductive and superhydrophobic functional coatings.  

PubMed

A bi-functional, conductive and superhydrophobic, graphene-based nanostructured hybrid material was fabricated. In order to construct the bi-functional hybrid material, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) were introduced. The water contact angle (WCA) of the graphene/POSS/CNT coating reached about 155 degrees and its conductivity was about 1-10 S/cm. Such graphene-based nanostructured hybrid materials could have great potential as an antistatic and self-cleaning coating in various applications. PMID:22097478

Jin, J; Wang, X; Song, M

2011-09-01

204

Composite materials for biomedical applications: a review.  

PubMed

The word "composite" refers to the combination, on a macroscopic scale, of two or more materials, different for composition, morphology and general physical properties. In many cases, and depending on the constituent properties, composites can be designed with a view to produce materials with properties tailored to fulfill specific chemical, physical or mechanical requirements. Therefore over the past 40 years the use of composites has progressively increased, and today composite materials have many different applications, i.e., aeronautic, automotive, naval, and so on. Consequently many composite biomaterials have recently been studied and tested for medical application. Some of them are currently commercialized for their advantages over traditional materials. Most human tissues such as bones, tendons, skin, ligaments, teeth, etc., are composites, made up of single constituents whose amount, distribution, morphology and properties determine the final behavior of the resulting tissue or organ. Man-made composites can, to some extent, be used to make prostheses able to mimic these biological tissues, to match their mechanical behavior and to restore the mechanical functions of the damaged tissue. Different types of composites that are already in use or are being investigated for various biomedical applications are presented in this paper. Specific advantages and critical issues of using composite biomaterials are also described (Journal of Applied Bio-materials & Biomechanics 2003; 1: 3-18). PMID:20803468

Salernitano, E; Migliaresi, C

2003-01-01

205

Self-Assembly and Headgroup Effect in Nanostructured Organogels via Cationic Amphiphile-Graphene Oxide Composites  

PubMed Central

Self-assembly of hierarchical graphene oxide (GO)-based nanomaterials with novel functions has received a great deal of attentions. In this study, nanostructured organogels based on cationic amphiphile-GO composites were prepared. The gelation behaviors of amphiphile-GO composites in organic solvents can be regulated by changing the headgroups of amphiphiles. Ammonium substituted headgroup in molecular structures in present self-assembled composites is more favorable for the gelation in comparison to pyridinium headgroup. A possible mechanism for headgroup effects on self-assembly and as-prepared nanostructures is proposed. It is believed that the present amphiphile-GO self-assembled system will provide an alternative platform for the design of new GO nanomaterials and soft matters. PMID:24983466

Jiao, Tifeng; Wang, Yujin; Zhang, Qingrui; Yan, Xuehai; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Jingxin; Gao, Faming

2014-01-01

206

Flame-retardant composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The properties of eight different graphite composite panels fabricated using four different resin matrices and two types of graphite reinforcement are described. The resin matrices included: VPSP/BMI, a blend of vinylpolystyryl pyridine and bismaleimide; BMI, a bismaleimide; and phenolic and PSP, a polystyryl pyridine. The graphite fiber used was AS-4 in the form of either tape or fabric. The properties of these composites were compared with epoxy composites. It was determined that VPSP/BMI with the graphite tape was the optimum design giving the lowest heat release rate.

Kourtides, Demetrius A.

1991-01-01

207

Method of making nanopatterns and nanostructures and nanopatterned functional oxide materials  

DOEpatents

Method for nanopatterning of inorganic materials, such as ceramic (e.g. metal oxide) materials, and organic materials, such as polymer materials, on a variety of substrates to form nanopatterns and/or nanostructures with control of dimensions and location, all without the need for etching the materials and without the need for re-alignment between multiple patterning steps in forming nanostructures, such as heterostructures comprising multiple materials. The method involves patterning a resist-coated substrate using electron beam lithography, removing a portion of the resist to provide a patterned resist-coated substrate, and spin coating the patterned resist-coated substrate with a liquid precursor, such as a sol precursor, of the inorganic or organic material. The remaining resist is removed and the spin coated substrate is heated at an elevated temperature to crystallize the deposited precursor material.

Dravid, Vinayak P; Donthu, Suresh K; Pan, Zixiao

2014-02-11

208

Materials research at Stanford University. [composite materials, crystal structure, acoustics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research activity related to the science of materials is described. The following areas are included: elastic and thermal properties of composite materials, acoustic waves and devices, amorphous materials, crystal structure, synthesis of metal-metal bonds, interactions of solids with solutions, electrochemistry, fatigue damage, superconductivity and molecular physics and phase transition kinetics.

1975-01-01

209

Hierarchical nanostructured semiconductor porous materials for gas sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas sensitive layers with a fractal structure based on tin oxide were prepared by the solgel-method. Investigations of the film structure were carried out by atomic force microscopy. The basic evolution steps of this fractal system were found to be diffusion-limited aggregation, clustercluster aggregation, formation of percolating transition and netting nanostructures. Gas-sensitivity measurements of synthesized samples were taken. The emergence

Vyacheslav A. Moshnikov; Irina E. Gracheva; Vladimir V. Kuznezov; Alexsandr I. Maximov; Svetlana S. Karpova; Alina A. Ponomareva

2010-01-01

210

Superhydrophobic ceramic coatings enabled by phase-separated nanostructured composite TiO2-Cu2O thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By exploiting phase-separation in oxide materials, we present a simple and potentially low-cost approach to create exceptional superhydrophobicity in thin-film based coatings. By selecting the TiO2-Cu2O system and depositing through magnetron sputtering onto single crystal and metal templates, we demonstrate growth of nanostructured, chemically phase-segregated composite films. These coatings, after appropriate chemical surface modification, demonstrate a robust, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and yield an exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles reaching to 172 and sliding angles <1. As an added benefit, despite the photo-active nature of TiO2, the chemically coated composite film surfaces display UV stability and retain superhydrophobic attributes even after exposure to UV (275 nm) radiation for an extended period of time. The present approach could benefit a variety of outdoor applications of superhydrophobic coatings, especially for those where exposure to extreme atmospheric conditions is required.

Aytug, Tolga; Bogorin, Daniela F.; Paranthaman, Parans M.; Mathis, John E.; Simpson, John T.; Christen, David K.

2014-06-01

211

Synthesis and Electron Field-Emission of 1-D Carbon-Related Nanostructured Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes, a new stable form of carbon that was first identified in 1991 [1], are fullerene-related structures which consist of graphitic cylinders closed at either end with caps containing pentagonal rings. Although carbon nanotube structures are closely related to graphite, the curvature, symmetry and small size induce marked deviations from the graphitic behavior. Various methods have been used to produce carbon nanotubes, e.g., arc-discharge, laser-vaporization, catalytic chemical vapor deposition, but too many impurities also be produced, such as fullerenes, carbon nanoparticles and amorphous carbons. The microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) system has been used to grow carbon nanotubes in this work and other 1-D carbon-related nanostructured materials was synthesized by the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system. Plasma is generated by microwave excitation at 2.45 GHz by a magnetron passes through a waveguide and fed perpendicularly through a quartz dome into an 875 G magnetic field generated by the coils surrounding the resonance volume that creates the ECR condition. The deposition chamber was pumped down to the base pressure of 6.7X10-4 Pa (5X10-6 Torr) with a turbomolecular pump for ECR-plasma and subatmospheric pressures for MPECVD by a rotary mechanical pump. Well-aligned carbon-related nanostructures have been synthesized in nanoporous alumina or silicon with a uniform diameter of 30-100 nm by microwave excited plasma of CH_4, C_2H_2, N_2, H2 and Ar precursors. Nickel nanowires not only serve as catalysts to decompose hydrocarbons to form nanostructures but also function as an electrical conductor for other advanced applications. A negative dc bias is always applied to the substrate to promote the flow of ion fluxes through the nanochannels of the template materials that facilitate the physical adsorption and subsequent chemical absorption in the formation of carbon- and carbon-nitride nanotubes[2]. The electron field emission characteristics of the 1-D carbon-related nanostructures were measured by the conventional diode method at an ambient pressure of 1.3X10-3 Pa (10-5 Torr). The films (1X1-cm^2) were separated from the anode by ITO (indium tin oxide) coated glass, where a glass fiber spacer was maintained at 150 ?m from the cathode. The current density and electric field characteristics were measured using a Keithley 237 electrometer. A range of onset electron emission field from 3.5 to 1.5 V/?m and an emission current density up to 1 mA/cm^2 at 3V/?m have been achieved in this study, apparently superior to other carbon-based electron field emitters[3]. The results were reproducible over a period of weeks and the nanotubes did not degrade physically when exposing to a humid air of RH 90using the Fowler-Nordheim model, I=aV^2 exp (-b?_e^3/2/V) , where a and b are constants. The turn-on voltage was estimated as the voltage deviating from ln(I/V^2)-1/V curve. The effective work function (?_e=?/?) of the arrayed carbon nanotubes was calculated from the slope of the Fowler-Nordheim plot, where the value of ?, the field enhancement factor, was found to be 1517. This value increased to 3357 when nitrogen was doped, but decreased to 974 when boron was doped. The incorporation of nitrogen or boron into the carbon network apparently changes the original nanostructure and the chemical bonding. The structural and compositional modification by the incorporation of nitrogen, boron, or hydrogen into the 1-D carbon-related nanostructured materials were analyzed by FTIR , XPS , Raman spectroscopy , and FE-SEM . Various forms in connection with 1-D nanostructured materials applicable to the NEMS , e.g. , nanowelding of nanotubes[4], tubes on tube , open-end nanotubes and coils of nanofiber and nanotubes have been produced in this research depending on the plasma chemistry, catalytic effect and the design of template. [1]. S. Iijima, Nature 354, 56 (1991). [2]. S. L. Sung, S. H. Tsai, C. H. Tseng, X. W. Liu, and H. C. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 197 (1999). [3]. S. H. Tsai,

Shih, Han C.

2002-10-01

212

Effects of antibacterial nanostructured composite films on vascular stents: Hemodynamic behaviors, microstructural characteristics, and biomechanical properties.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to investigate stresses resulting from different thicknesses and compositions of hydrogenated Cu-incorporated diamond-like carbon (a-C:H/Cu) films at the interface between vascular stent and the artery using three-dimensional reversed finite element models (FEMs). Blood flow velocity variation in vessels with plaques was examined by angiography, and the a-C:H/Cu films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy to analyze surface morphology. FEMs were constructed using a computer-aided reverse design system, and the effects of antibacterial nanostructured composite films in the stress field were investigated. The maximum stress in the vascular stent occurred at the intersections of net-like structures. Data analysis indicated that the stress decreased by 15% in vascular stents with antibacterial nanostructured composite films compared to the control group, and the stress decreased with increasing film thickness. The present results confirmed that antibacterial nanostructured composite films improve the biomechanical properties of vascular stents and release abnormal stress to prevent restenosis. The results of the present study offer the clinical benefit of inducing superior biomechanical behavior in vascular stents. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 269-275, 2015. PMID:24648307

Cheng, Han-Yi; Hsiao, Wen-Tien; Lin, Li-Hsiang; Hsu, Ya-Ju; Sinrang, Andi Wardihan; Ou, Keng-Liang

2015-01-01

213

PROPERTIES AND NANOSTRUCTURES OF NANO-MATERIALS PROCESSED BY SEVERE PLASTIC DEFORMATION (SPD).  

SciTech Connect

Metallic materials usually exhibit higher strength but lower ductility after being plastically deformed by conventional techniques such as rolling, drawing and extrusion. In contrast, nanostructured metals and alloys processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) have demonstrated both high strength and high ductility. This extraordinary mechanical behavior is attributed to the unique nanostructures generated by SPD processing. The combination of ultrafine grain size and high-density dislocations appears to enable deformation by new mechanisms not active in coarse-grained metals and alloys. These results demonstrate the possibility of tailoring the microstructures of metals and alloys by SPD to obtain superior mechanical properties. Nanostructured metals and alloys processed by SPD techniques have unique nanostructures not observed in nanomaterials synthesized by other techniques such as the consolidation of nanopowders. The SPD-generated nanostructures have many features related to deformation, including high dislocation densities, and high- and low-angle grain boundaries in equilibrium or nonequilibrium states. Future studies are needed to investigate the deformation mechanisms that relate the unique nanostructures with the superior mechanical properties exhibited by SPD-processed metals and alloys.

Zhu, Y. T. (Yuntian Theodore)

2001-01-01

214

Distribution patterns of different carbon nanostructures in silicon nitride composites.  

PubMed

The dispersion properties of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes as well as mechanically exfoliated few layer graphene flakes within the silicon nitride ceramic matrix have been investigated. Small angle neutron scattering experiments have been employed to gain information on the dispersion of the nano-scale carbon fillers throughout the entire volume of the samples. The neutron scattering data combined with scanning electron microscopy revealed strikingly different distribution patterns for different types of carbon nanostructures. The scattering intensities for single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) reveal a decay exponent characteristic to surface fractals, which indicate that the predominant part of nanotubes can be found in loose networks wrapping the grains of the polycrystalline matrix. By contrast, multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were found to be present mainly in the form of bulk aggregate structures, while few-layer graphene (FLG) flakes have been individually dispersed within the host matrix, under the very same preparation and processing conditions. PMID:23421284

Tapaszt, Orsolya; Mark, Mrton; Balzsi, Csaba

2012-11-01

215

Ceramic composites: Enabling aerospace materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites (CMC) have the potential for significant impact on the performance of aerospace propulsion and power systems. In this paper, the potential benefits are discussed in broad qualitative terms and are illustrated by some specific application case studies. The key issues in need of resolution for the potential of ceramics to be realized are discussed.

Levine, S. R.

1992-01-01

216

Advanced composite materials for precision segmented reflectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective in the NASA Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) project is to develop new composite material concepts for highly stable and durable reflectors with precision surfaces. The project focuses on alternate material concepts such as the development of new low coefficient of thermal expansion resins as matrices for graphite fiber reinforced composites, quartz fiber reinforced epoxies, and graphite reinforced glass. Low residual stress fabrication methods will be developed. When coupon specimens of these new material concepts have demonstrated the required surface accuracies and resistance to thermal distortion and microcracking, reflector panels will be fabricated and tested in simulated space environments. An important part of the program is the analytical modeling of environmental stability of these new composite materials concepts through constitutive equation development, modeling of microdamage in the composite matrix, and prediction of long term stability (including viscoelasticity). These analyses include both closed form and finite element solutions at the micro and macro levels.

Stein, Bland A.; Bowles, David E.

1988-01-01

217

Manufacturing technology of the composite materials: nanocrystalline material - polymer type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This paper presents the material and technological solution which makes it possible to obtain the nanocrystalline, ferromagnetic powder material of Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 alloy after its thermal nanocrystallization with the succeeding high-energy milling. Another aspect was to develop the technology to obtain the nanocrystalline composite materials made by binding the obtained powder material with the high density low- pressures polyethylene (PEHD)

B. Zi?bowicz; D. Szewieczek; L. A. Dobrza?ski

218

Composite Material Application to Liquid Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The substitution of reinforced plastic composite (RPC) materials for metal was studied. The major objectives were to: (1) determine the extent to which composite materials can be beneficially used in liquid rocket engines; (2) identify additional technology requirements; and (3) determine those areas which have the greatest potential for return. Weight savings, fabrication costs, performance, life, and maintainability factors were considered. Two baseline designs, representative of Earth to orbit and orbit to orbit engine systems, were selected. Weight savings are found to be possible for selected components with the substitution of materials for metal. Various technology needs are identified before RPC material can be used in rocket engine applications.

Judd, D. C.

1982-01-01

219

NASA Thermographic Inspection of Advanced Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the use of advanced composite materials continues to increase in the aerospace community, the need for a quantitative, rapid, in situ inspection technology has become a critical concern throughout the industry. In many applications it is necessary to monitor changes in these materials over an extended period of time to determine the effects of various load conditions. Additionally, the detection and characterization of defects such as delaminations, is of great concern. This paper will present the application of infrared thermography to characterize various composite materials and show the advantages of different heat source types. Finally, various analysis methodologies used for quantitative material property characterization will be discussed.

Cramer, K. Elliott

2004-01-01

220

Composite materials inspection. [ultrasonic vibration holographic NDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of the application requirements, advantages, and limitations of nondestructive testing by a technique of ultrasonic-vibration holographic-interferometry readout used in a production control facility for the inspection of a single product such as composite compressor blades. It is shown that, for the detection and characterization of disbonds in composite material structures, this technique may represent the most inclusive test method.

Erf, R. K.

1974-01-01

221

Acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The techniques of acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials is described. It is highly sensitive, quasi-nondestructive testing method that indicates the origin and behavior of flaws in such materials when submitted to different load exposures. With the use of sophisticated signal analysis methods it is possible the distinguish between different types of failure mechanisms, such as fiber fracture delamination or fiber pull-out. Imperfections can be detected while monitoring complex composite structures by acoustic emission measurements.

Bardenheier, R.

1981-01-01

222

Method of making a composite refractory material  

DOEpatents

A composite refractory material is prepared by combining boron carbide with furan resin to form a mixture containing about 8 wt. % furan resin. The mixture is formed into a pellet which is placed into a grit pack comprising an oxide of an element such as yttrium to form a sinterable body. The sinterable body is sintered under vacuum with microwave energy at a temperature no greater than 2000 C to form a composite refractory material.

Morrow, M.S.; Holcombe, C.E.

1995-09-26

223

Method of making a composite refractory material  

DOEpatents

A composite refractory material is prepared by combining boron carbide with furan resin to form a mixture containing about 8 wt. % furan resin. The mixture is formed into a pellet which is placed into a grit pack comprising an oxide of an element such as yttrium to form a sinterable body. The sinterable body is sintered under vacuum with microwave energy at a temperature no greater than 2000.degree. C. to form a composite refractory material.

Morrow, Marvin S. (Kingston, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

224

Method to fabricate layered material compositions  

DOEpatents

A new class of processes suited to the fabrication of layered material compositions is disclosed. Layered material compositions are typically three-dimensional structures which can be decomposed into a stack of structured layers. The best known examples are the photonic lattices. The present invention combines the characteristic features of photolithography and chemical-mechanical polishing to permit the direct and facile fabrication of, e.g., photonic lattices having photonic bandgaps in the 0.1-20.mu. spectral range.

Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

225

Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications  

E-print Network

J. New Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Materials with Differentnanowires from hybrid-perovskite materials. The materialsPerovskite Semiconductors in Porous Templates Introduction Layered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites represent a unique class of materials

Rauda, Iris Ester

2012-01-01

226

Aerosol Route Synthesis and Applications of Doped Nanostructured Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology presents an attractive opportunity to address various challenges in air and water purification, energy, and other environment issues. Thus, the development of new nanoscale materials in low-cost scalable synthesis processes is important. Furthermore, the ability to independently manipulate the material properties as well as characterize the material at different steps along the synthesis route will aide in product optimization. In addition, to ensure safe and sustainable development of nanotechnology applications, potential impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, nanomaterial synthesis in a single-step gas phase reactor to continuously produce doped metal oxides was demonstrated. Copper-doped TiO2 nanomaterial properties (composition, size, and crystal phase) were independently controlled based on nanoparticle formation and growth mechanisms dictated by process control parameters. Copper dopant found to significantly affect TiO2 properties such as particle size, crystal phase, stability in the suspension, and absorption spectrum (shift from UV to visible light absorption). The in-situ charge distribution characterization of the synthesized nanomaterials was carried out by integrating a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) set up with the flame reactor synthesis system. Both singly- and doubly- charged nanoparticles were measured, with the charged fractions dependent on particle mobility and dopant concentration. A theoretical calculation was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of the two charging mechanisms, diffusion and thermo-ionization, in the flame. Nanoparticle exposure characterization was conducted during synthesis as a function of operating condition, product recovery and handling technique, and during maintenance of the reactors. Strategies were then indentified to minimize the exposure risk. The nanoparticle exposure potential varied depending on the operating conditions such as precursor feed rate, working conditions of the fume hood, ventilation system, and distance from the reactors. Nanoparticle exposure varied during product recovery and handling depending on the quantity of nanomaterial handled. Most nanomaterial applications require nanomaterials to be in solution. Thus, the role of nanomaterial physio-chemical properties (size, crystal phase, dopant types and concentrations) on dispersion properties was investigated based on hydrodynamic size and surface charge. Dopant type and concentration were found to significantly affect iso-electric point (IEP)-shifting the IEP to a high or lower pH value compared to pristine TiO2 based on the oxidation state of the dopant. The microbial inactivation effectiveness of as-synthesized nanomaterials was investigated under different light irradiation conditions. Microbial inactivation was found to strongly depend on the light irradiation condition as well as on material properties such chemical composition, crystal phase, and particle size. The potential interaction mechanisms of copper-doped TiO2 nanomaterial with microbes were also explored. The studies conducted as part of this dissertation addressed issues in nanomaterial synthesis, characterization and their potential environmental applications.

Sahu, Manoranjan

227

Development and characterization of renewable resource- structural composite materials  

E-print Network

Cannabis sativa as reinforcement/filler of thermoplastic composite materials." Composites Part A: Applied ScienceCannabis sativa as reinforcement/filler of thermoplastic composite materials." Composites Part A: Applied Science

Cutter, Andrea Gillian

2008-01-01

228

Raman scattering in Si/SiGe nanostructures: Revealing chemical composition, strain, intermixing, and heat dissipation  

SciTech Connect

We present a quantitative analysis of Raman scattering in various Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} multilayered nanostructures with well-defined Ge composition (x) and layer thicknesses. Using Raman and transmission electron microscopy data, we discuss and model Si/SiGe intermixing and strain. By analyzing Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman signals, we calculate temperature and discuss heat dissipation in the samples under intense laser illumination.

Mala, S. A.; Tsybeskov, L., E-mail: tsybesko@njit.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States); Lockwood, D. J.; Wu, X.; Baribeau, J.-M. [National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

2014-07-07

229

Nanostructure and mineral composition of trabecular bone in the lateral femoral neck: implications for bone fragility in elderly women.  

PubMed

Despite interest in investigating age-related hip fractures, the determinants of decreased bone strength in advanced age are not clear enough. Hitherto it has been obscure how the aging process affects the femoral neck nanostructure and composition, particularly in the lateral subregion of the femoral neck, which is considered as a fracture-initiating site. The femoral bone samples used in this study were obtained at autopsy in 10 women without skeletal disease (five younger: aged 20-40 years, and five elderly: aged 73-94 years). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to explore the mineral grain size in situ in young vs. old trabecular bone samples from the lateral femoral neck. The chemical compositions of the samples were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and direct current argon arc plasma optical emission spectrometry. Our AFM study revealed differences in trabecular bone nanostructure between young and elderly women. The mineral grain size in the trabeculae of the old women was larger than that in the young (median: 95 vs. 59nm), with a particular bimodal distribution: 45% were small grains (similar to the young) and the rest were larger. Since chemical analyses showed that levels of calcium and phosphorus were unchanged with age, our study suggests that during aging the existing bone mineral is reorganized and forms larger aggregates. Given the mechanical disadvantage of large-grained structures (decreased material strength), the observed nanostructural differences contribute to our understanding of the increased fragility of the lateral femoral neck in aged females. Moreover, increasing data on mineral grains in natural bone is essential for advancing calcium-phosphate ceramics for bone tissue replacement. PMID:21658479

Milovanovic, Petar; Potocnik, Jelena; Stoiljkovic, Milovan; Djonic, Danijela; Nikolic, Slobodan; Neskovic, Olivera; Djuric, Marija; Rakocevic, Zlatko

2011-09-01

230

Synthesis and microwave absorption properties of graphene/nickel composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene/nickel composite materials were successfully prepared via a one-step in situ reduction from nickel chloride, graphene oxide, and hydrazine at 80 C for 3 h. Face-centered cubic Ni nanostructures with uniform size and high dispersion assembled on graphene sheets. Through the measurement of complex relative permittivity and permeability, their microwave absorption properties were evaluated. In comparison with pure Ni nanoparticles and graphene, the composite materials demonstrated much better characteristics of microwave absorption. The lowest reflection loss value of the composites with a thickness of 3 mm can reach -23.3 dB at 7.5 GHz. Our research reveals that graphene/Ni composites are promising microwave absorption materials with desirable absorption properties and reduced material weight.

Wang, Xiaoxia; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Baoqin; Dong, Lifeng

2014-11-01

231

Nanostructured inorganic materials: Synthesis and associated electrochemical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic strategy for preparing potential battery materials at low temperature was developed. Magnetite (Fe3O4), silver hollandnite (AgxMn8O16), magnesium manganese oxide (MgxMnO 2?yH2O), and silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (Ag 2VO2PO4) were studied. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was prepared by coprecipitation induced by triethylamine from aqueous iron(II) and iron(III) chloride solutions of varying concentrations. Variation of the iron(II) and iron(III) concentrations results in crystallite size control of the Fe3O4 products. Materials characterization of the Fe3O4 samples is reported, including Brunauer-Emmitt-Teller (BET) surface area, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size, and saturation magnetization results. A strong correlation between discharge capacity and voltage recovery behavior versus crystallite size was observed when tested as an electrode material in lithium electrochemical cells. Silver hollandite (AgxMn8O16) was successfully synthesized through a low temperature reflux reaction. The crystallite size and silver content of AgxMn8O16 by varying the reactant ratio of silver permanganate (AgMnO4) and manganese sulfate monohydrate (MnSO4?H2O). Silver hollandite was characterized by Brunauer-Emmitt-Teller (BET) surface area, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP-OES) spectrometry, helium pycnometry, simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The crystallite size showed a strong correlation with silver content, BET surface area, and particle sizes. The silver hollandite cathode showed good discharge capacity retention in 30 cycles of discharge-charge. There were a good relationship between crystallite size and rate capability and pulse ability. Magnesium manganese oxide (MgxMnO2?yH 2O) was made by redox reaction by mixing sodium hydroxide (NaOH), manganese sulfate monohydrate (MnSO4?HO2), and potassium persulfate (K2S2O8). The solid samples were characterized by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP-OES) spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The solid had a plate-like morphology. The preliminary electrochemical results showed that MgxMnO2?yH2O had a very good cycliability and the capacity retention in 20 discharge-charge cycles. When the sample was dried at 100C after collection, the discharge capacity would increase from 80 mAh/g to 155 mAh/g in the first discharge process in cycling test. Silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (SVPO, Ag2VO2PO 4) was prepared in various reaction temperatures. It was the first time that Ag2VO2PO4 was synthesized successfully at room temperature. The solid was characterized by Brunauer-Emmitt-Teller surface area (BET), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP-OES) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), magnetic susceptibility measurement, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Ag2VO2PO4 crystallite sizes showed a strong linear correlation with reaction temperature. The BET surface area was decreased as the crystallite size increased linearly. In addition, the acicular morphology started to develop at 50C. The impact of silver deposition loading on the silver-polypyrrole composite electrode was studied using cyclic voltammetry. The minimum Ag loading of 0.08 mg/cm2 was determined to maximize the oxygen reduction activity for the Ag/Ppy composite catalyst. In addition, the Ag/Ppy coated carbon electrode showed higher oxygen reduction activities in both air and oxygen compared to the uncoated carbon electrode.

Yau, Shali Zhu

232

The Interaction of Bacteria with Engineered Nanostructured Polymeric Materials: A Review  

PubMed Central

Bacterial infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In spite of great advances in biomaterials research and development, a significant proportion of medical devices undergo bacterial colonization and become the target of an implant-related infection. We present a review of the two major classes of antibacterial nanostructured materials: polymeric nanocomposites and surface-engineered materials. The paper describes antibacterial effects due to the induced material properties, along with the principles of bacterial adhesion and the biofilm formation process. Methods for antimicrobial modifications of polymers using a nanocomposite approach as well as surface modification procedures are surveyed and discussed, followed by a concise examination of techniques used in estimating bacteria/material interactions. Finally, we present an outline of future sceneries and perspectives on antibacterial applications of nanostructured materials to resist or counteract implant infections. PMID:25025086

Armentano, Ilaria; Arciola, Carla Renata; Fortunati, Elena; Ferrari, Davide; Mattioli, Samantha; Amoroso, Concetta Floriana; Rizzo, Jessica; Kenny, Jose M.; Imbriani, Marcello; Visai, Livia

2014-01-01

233

3-D molecular assembly of function in titania-based composite material systems.  

PubMed

Various examples of composite titania-based nanostructured materials exhibiting cooperative functionalities between different active components are presented. The fabrication of these integrated composite materials is based on one-pot supramolecular templating techniques combined with acidic sol-gel chemistry. The defined 3-D nanoscale organization and integration of various functional components results in advanced optoelectronic and photonic applications such as visible light sensitization of mesoporous titania photocatalysts with cadmium sulfide nanocrystals acting as sensitizing integral part of the mesopore wall structure, narrow bandwidth emission from rare earth ion activated nanocrystalline mesoporous titania films, and mirrorless lasing in dye-doped hybrid organic/inorganic mesostructured titania waveguides. PMID:15835873

Bartl, Michael H; Boettcher, Shannon W; Frindell, Karen L; Stucky, Galen D

2005-04-01

234

AFM technicques for nanostructured materials used in optoelectronic and gas sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural and electrical properties of nanostructured materials for optoelectronic and gas sensors have been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The original technique, based on combined conductive AFM, allows analyzing of electrical properties with high lateral resolution. This technique was applied for conductance and homogeneity study of In nanoislands formed on monocrystalline PbTe on Si. Original C-AFM methodic allows performing

Irina E. Gracheva; Yulia M. Spivak; Vyacheslav A. Moshnikov

2009-01-01

235

Ceramic Materials and Nano-structures for Chemical Sensing Abdul-Majeed Azad  

E-print Network

Ceramic Materials and Nano-structures for Chemical Sensing Abdul-Majeed Azad Department of Chemical in the solid-state ceramic-based chemical sensors. Since the sensing mechanism and catalytic activity: Semiconducting ceramic oxides, Redox reactions, Microstructure, Chemical sensors Proceedings of Optics East SPIE

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

236

Nanostructure evolution studies of bulk polymer materials with synchrotron radiation: progress in method development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospects of a modern analysis of nanostructure evolution during the processing of polymer materials by means of scattering from synchrotron radiation are demonstrated in examples. The beam sources have gained stability, shortages are located in beamline setups and in method development for the quantitative analysis of voluminous data sets.By using the proposed multidimensional chord distribution function (CDF) analysis method,

Norbert Stribeck

2003-01-01

237

Ultrasonic stress wave characterization of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work reported covers three simultaneous projects. The first project was concerned with: (1) establishing the sensitivity of the acousto-ultrasonic method for evaluating subtle forms of damage development in cyclically loaded composite materials, (2) establishing the ability of the acousto-ultrasonic method for detecting initial material imperfections that lead to localized damage growth and final specimen failure, and (3) characteristics of the NBS/Proctor sensor/receiver for acousto-ultrasonic evaluation of laminated composite materials. The second project was concerned with examining the nature of the wave propagation that occurs during acoustic-ultrasonic evaluation of composite laminates and demonstrating the role of Lamb or plate wave modes and their utilization for characterizing composite laminates. The third project was concerned with the replacement of contact-type receiving piezotransducers with noncontacting laser-optical sensors for acousto-ultrasonic signal acquisition.

Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.

1986-01-01

238

MRS Symposium I: Nanomaterials for Structural Applications About a decade of research has shown that nanostructured materials have the potential to significantly impact growth at  

E-print Network

of nanomaterials · Nanocomposites: polymer with dispersed ceramic or metal nanoparticles, ceramic/ceramic or metal, as well as films, coatings and nanocomposites. Particular emphasis is placed on bringing researchers of nanostructured materials · Fracture of nanostructured materials · Fatigue properties of nanostructured materials

Ovid'ko Ilya A.

239

ENG 4793: Composite Materials and Processes 1 Compression Molding  

E-print Network

1 ENG 4793: Composite Materials and Processes 1 Compression Molding ver 2 ENG 4793: Composite and Processes 4 Schematic of a Compression Molding Press ENG 4793: Composite Materials and Processes 5 Matched Die Mold ENG 4793: Composite Materials and Processes 6 #12;2 ENG 4793: Composite Materials

Colton, Jonathan S.

240

Energy absorption of composite material and structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from a joint research program on helicopter crashworthiness conducted by the U.S. Army Aerostructures Directorate and NASA Langley. Through the ongoing research program an in-depth understanding has been developed on the cause/effect relationships between material and architectural variables and the energy-absorption capability of composite material and structure. Composite materials were found to be efficient energy absorbers. Graphite/epoxy subfloor structures were more efficient energy absorbers than comparable structures fabricated from Kevlar or aluminum. An accurate method of predicting the energy-absorption capability of beams was developed.

Farley, Gary L.

1987-01-01

241

Quantifying protein adsorption and function at nanostructured materials: enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase at GLAD structured electrodes.  

PubMed

Nanostructured materials strongly modulate the behavior of adsorbed proteins; however, the characterization of such interactions is challenging. Here we present a novel method combining protein adsorption studies at nanostructured quartz crystal microbalance sensor surfaces (QCM-D) with optical (surface plasmon resonance SPR) and electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry CV) allowing quantification of both bound protein amount and activity. The redox enzyme glucose oxidase is studied as a model system to explore alterations in protein functional behavior caused by adsorption onto flat and nanostructured surfaces. This enzyme and such materials interactions are relevant for biosensor applications. Novel nanostructured gold electrode surfaces with controlled curvature were fabricated using colloidal lithography and glancing angle deposition (GLAD). The adsorption of enzyme to nanostructured interfaces was found to be significantly larger compared to flat interfaces even after normalization for the increased surface area, and no substantial desorption was observed within 24 h. A decreased enzymatic activity was observed over the same period of time, which indicates a slow conformational change of the adsorbed enzyme induced by the materials interface. Additionally, we make use of inherent localized surface plasmon resonances in these nanostructured materials to directly quantify the protein binding. We hereby demonstrate a QCM-D-based methodology to quantify protein binding at complex nanostructured materials. Our approach allows label free quantification of protein binding at nanostructured interfaces. PMID:22746098

Jensen, Uffe B; Ferapontova, Elena E; Sutherland, Duncan S

2012-07-31

242

Nanostructured materials for selective recognition and targeted drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective recognition requires the introduction of a molecular memory into a polymer matrix in order to make it capable of rebinding an analyte with a very high specificity. In addition, targeted drug delivery requires drug-loaded vesicles which preferentially localize to the sites of injury and avoid uptake into uninvolved tissues. The rapid evolution of nanotechnology is aiming to fulfill the goal of selective recognition and optimal drug delivery through the development of molecularly imprinted polymeric (MIP) nanoparticles, tailor-made for a diverse range of analytes (e.g., pharmaceuticals, pesticides, amino acids, etc.) and of nanostructured targeted drug carriers (e.g., liposomes and micelles) with increased circulation lifetimes. In the present study, PLGA microparticles containing multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), and MIP nanoparticles were synthesized to be employed as drug carriers and synthetic receptors respectively.

Kotrotsiou, O.; Kotti, K.; Dini, E.; Kammona, O.; Kiparissides, C.

2005-01-01

243

Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures as cathode materials for flexible lithium-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} composites as a high-performance cathode material for flexible lithium-ion batteries have been prepared by using a co-precipitation method to synthesize graphene/LiFePO4 powders as precursors and then followed by a solvent evaporation process. - Highlights: Flexible LiFePO{sub 4}/graphene films were prepared first time by a solvent evaporation process. The flexible electrode exhibited a high discharge capacity without conductive additives. Graphene network offers the electrode adequate strength to withstand repeated flexing. - Abstract: Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures for flexible lithium-ion batteries were successfully prepared by solvent evaporation method. Structural characteristics of flexible electrodes were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical performance of graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} was examined by a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures showed high electrochemical properties and significant flexibility. The composites with low graphene content exhibited a high capacity of 163.7 mAh g{sup ?1} at 0.1 C and 114 mAh g{sup ?1} at 5 C without further incorporation of conductive agents.

Ding, Y.H., E-mail: yhding@xtu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Ren, H.M. [Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Huang, Y.Y. [BTR New Energy Materials Inc., Shenzhen 518000 (China); Chang, F.H.; Zhang, P. [Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

2013-10-15

244

Crustacean-derived biomimetic components and nanostructured composites.  

PubMed

Over millions of years, the crustacean exoskeleton has evolved into a rigid, tough, and complex cuticle that is used for structural support, mobility, protection of vital organs, and defense against predation. The crustacean cuticle is characterized by a hierarchically arranged chitin fiber scaffold, mineralized predominately by calcium carbonate and/or calcium phosphate. The structural organization of the mineral and organic within the cuticle occurs over multiple length scales, resulting in a strong and tough biological composite. Here, the ultrastructural details observed in three species of crustacean are reviewed: the American lobster (Homarus americanus), the edible crab (Cancer pagurus), and the peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus). The Review concludes with a discussion of recent advances in the development of biomimetics with controlled organic scaffolding, mineralization, and the construction of nanoscale composites, inspired by the organization and formation of the crustacean cuticle. PMID:24833136

Grunenfelder, Lessa Kay; Herrera, Steven; Kisailus, David

2014-08-27

245

Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High-Efficiency Power-Generation Modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

For thermoelectric applications, the best materials have high electrical conductivity and thermopower and, simultaneously,\\u000a low thermal conductivity. Such a combination of properties is usually found in heavily doped semiconductors. Renewed interest\\u000a in this topic has followed recent theoretical predictions that significant increases in performance are possible for nanostructured\\u000a materials, and this has been experimentally verified. During exploratory synthetic studies of

Timothy P. Hogan; Adam Downey; Jarrod Short; Jonathan DAngelo; Chun-I. Wu; Eric Quarez; John Androulakis; Pierre F. P. Poudeu; Joseph R. Sootsman; Duck-Young Chung; Mercouri G. Kanatzidis; S. D. Mahanti; Edward J. Timm; Harold Schock; Fei Ren; Jason Johnson; Eldon D. Case

2007-01-01

246

Ceramic Aerogel Composite Materials and Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerogels a.k.a "Solid Smoke" are gels with the liquid phase replaced by gas, leaving behind a highly porous material with a nanoscale framework. Due to the porous, nanoscale structure, aerogels have the lowest known density and conductivity of solids. Aerogels have the potential for being a breakthrough material because of their extremely light weight and unique properties. In this paper, we address overcoming their most profound weaknesses: mechanical fragility and very high surface activity, which leads to a lowered sintering temperature. A matrix of ceramic aerogel composite materials was produced to investigate their properties and functionality. Mechanical property measurements and Scanning Electron Micrographs are used to identify trends and structure of these ceramic composite materials. Thermal cycling was used to identify the sintering points of the materials.

White, Susan; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

247

Tensile failure criteria for fiber composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis provides insight into the failure mechanics of these materials and defines criteria which serve as tools for preliminary design material selection and for material reliability assessment. The model incorporates both dispersed and propagation type failures and includes the influence of material heterogeneity. The important effects of localized matrix damage and post-failure matrix shear stress transfer are included in the treatment. The model is used to evaluate the influence of key parameters on the failure of several commonly used fiber-matrix systems. Analyses of three possible failure modes were developed. These modes are the fiber break propagation mode, the cumulative group fracture mode, and the weakest link mode. Application of the new model to composite material systems has indicated several results which require attention in the development of reliable structural composites. Prominent among these are the size effect and the influence of fiber strength variability.

Rosen, B. W.; Zweben, C. H.

1972-01-01

248

Review on recent progress of nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review highlights the recent research advances in active nanostructured anode materials for the next generation of Li-ion batteries (LIBs). In fact, in order to address both energy and power demands of secondary LIBs for future energy storage applications, it is required the development of innovative kinds of electrodes. Nanostructured materials based on carbon, metal/semiconductor, metal oxides and metal phosphides/nitrides/sulfides show a variety of admirable properties for LIBs applications such as high surface area, low diffusion distance, high electrical and ionic conductivity. Therefore, nanosized active materials are extremely promising for bridging the gap towards the realization of the next generation of LIBs with high reversible capacities, increased power capability, long cycling stability and free from safety concerns. In this review, anode materials are classified, depending on their electrochemical reaction with lithium, into three groups: intercalation/de-intercalation, alloy/de-alloy and conversion materials. Furthermore, the effect of nanoscale size and morphology on the electrochemical performance is presented. Synthesis of the nanostructures, lithium battery performance and electrode reaction mechanisms are also discussed. To conclude, the main aim of this review is to provide an organic outline of the wide range of recent research progresses and perspectives on nanosized active anode materials for future LIBs.

Goriparti, Subrahmanyam; Miele, Ermanno; De Angelis, Francesco; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; Capiglia, Claudio

2014-07-01

249

Health monitoring method for composite materials  

DOEpatents

An in-situ method for monitoring the health of a composite component utilizes a condition sensor made of electrically conductive particles dispersed in a polymeric matrix. The sensor is bonded or otherwise formed on the matrix surface of the composite material. Age-related shrinkage of the sensor matrix results in a decrease in the resistivity of the condition sensor. Correlation of measured sensor resistivity with data from aged specimens allows indirect determination of mechanical damage and remaining age of the composite component.

Watkins, Jr., Kenneth S. (Dahlonega, GA); Morris, Shelby J. (Hampton, VA)

2011-04-12

250

Computational modeling of composite material fires.  

SciTech Connect

Composite materials behave differently from conventional fuel sources and have the potential to smolder and burn for extended time periods. As the amount of composite materials on modern aircraft continues to increase, understanding the response of composites in fire environments becomes increasingly important. An effort is ongoing to enhance the capability to simulate composite material response in fires including the decomposition of the composite and the interaction with a fire. To adequately model composite material in a fire, two physical model development tasks are necessary; first, the decomposition model for the composite material and second, the interaction with a fire. A porous media approach for the decomposition model including a time dependent formulation with the effects of heat, mass, species, and momentum transfer of the porous solid and gas phase is being implemented in an engineering code, ARIA. ARIA is a Sandia National Laboratories multiphysics code including a range of capabilities such as incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, energy transport equations, species transport equations, non-Newtonian fluid rheology, linear elastic solid mechanics, and electro-statics. To simulate the fire, FUEGO, also a Sandia National Laboratories code, is coupled to ARIA. FUEGO represents the turbulent, buoyantly driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and combustion. FUEGO and ARIA are uniquely able to solve this problem because they were designed using a common architecture (SIERRA) that enhances multiphysics coupling and both codes are capable of massively parallel calculations, enhancing performance. The decomposition reaction model is developed from small scale experimental data including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in both nitrogen and air for a range of heating rates and from available data in the literature. The response of the composite material subject to a radiant heat flux boundary condition is examined to study the propagation of decomposition fronts of the epoxy and carbon fiber and their dependence on the ambient conditions such as oxygen concentration, surface flow velocity, and radiant heat flux. In addition to the computational effort, small scaled experimental efforts to attain adequate data used to validate model predictions is ongoing. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the progress of the capability for a typical composite material and emphasize the path forward.

Brown, Alexander L.; Erickson, Kenneth L.; Hubbard, Joshua Allen; Dodd, Amanda B.

2010-10-01

251

[The application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum].  

PubMed

The objective of the present work was to estimate the effectiveness of the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum. A total of 80 patients were recruited for the study. Half of them underwent plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material. Forty patients were treated using no biotransplants. The functional state of nasal cavity mucosa was evaluated before and after surgery. It is concluded that the nanostructured bioplastic material used in the present study ensures efficacious reconstruction of nasal septum integrity after plastic correction of septal perforations. PMID:25588475

Grigor'eva, M V; Akimov, A V; Bagautdinov, A A

2014-01-01

252

Thermal expansion properties of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal expansion data for several composite materials, including generic epoxy resins, various graphite, boron, and glass fibers, and unidirectional and woven fabric composites in an epoxy matrix, were compiled. A discussion of the design, material, environmental, and fabrication properties affecting thermal expansion behavior is presented. Test methods and their accuracy are discussed. Analytical approaches to predict laminate coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) based on lamination theory and micromechanics are also included. A discussion is included of methods of tuning a laminate to obtain a near-zero CTE for space applications.

Johnson, R. R.; Kural, M. H.; Mackey, G. B.

1981-01-01

253

Grafting in cellulose - polystyrene composite materials  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate the effect of the grafting of polystyrene on model cellulosic fibers, several composite materials were processed, (1) by simply dispersing microfibrils into a polystyrene matrix, (2) by dispersing the same fibers but modified by phenyl groups, (3) by grafting a functionalized polystyrene on the fibers surface and mixing with the matrix. The characterization of the coupling agent used has been performed by several techniques: FTIR, NMR, DSC and elemental analysis. Evidence of grafting onto the fibers surface was displayed by FTIR measurements and elemental analysis. All the composite materials were characterized by DSC, tensile tests and mechanical spectroscopy.

Trejo O`Reilly, J.A.; Cavaille, J.Y.; Dufresne, A. [CERMAV-CNRS, Grenoble (France)] [and others

1995-12-01

254

Composite material characterization for large space structures.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program phase to characterize advanced composite materials for a large reflector support truss on the ATS F & G spacecraft is described. The selection of a Hercules Incorporated, 2002M graphite fiber reinforced epoxy material was based on criteria of spacecraft system requirements and the potential of this material to meet these requirements. The objective of this phase was to develop materials data required for development, design, fabrication, test, and flight of a graphite-fiber, reinforced-plastic spacecraft structure. Testing within a temperature range from -300 F to +200 F covered the generation of data for physical, mechanical, thermophysical, and space environmental properties for the selected material. Additional testing covered adhesive bonded joint materials within the temperature ranges of the spacecraft environment. Descriptions of the spacecraft, reflector support truss, design, requirements, materials, tests, and developed data are presented.

Macneill, C. E.

1972-01-01

255

Photoconductivity for silver nitrate in nanostructured sol-gel materials.  

PubMed

We report on the photoconductive response of nanostructured sol-gel films in function of the silver nitrate concentration (ions and colloids). Silver colloids were obtained by spontaneous reduction process of Ag+ ions to Ag(0). 2-d hexagonal nanosructured sol-gel thin films were prepared by dip-coating method using the non-ionic diblock copolymer Brij58 to produce channels into the film, which house the silver nanoparticles. An optical absorption band located at 430 nm was detected by optical absorption; it corresponds to the surface plasmon. A fit to this band with modified Gans theory is presented. Photoconductivity studies were performed on films with silver ions and films with silver colloids to characterize their mechanisms of charge transport in the darkness and under illumination at 420 and 633 nm wavelengths. The films with silver colloids exhibit a photovoltaic effect stronger than the films with silver ions. While a photoconductive behaviour is observed in the films with silver ions. PMID:19205242

Franco, Alfredo; Rentera, Victor; Valverde-Aguilar, Guadalupe; Garca-Macedo, Jorge A

2008-12-01

256

Thermal conduction phenomena in carbon nanotubes and related nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extremely high thermal conductivities of carbon nanotubes have motivated a wealth of research. Progress includes innovative conduction metrology based on microfabricated platforms and scanning thermal probes as well as simulations exploring phonon dispersion and scattering using both transport theory and molecular dynamics. This article highlights these advancements as part of a detailed review of heat conduction research on both individual carbon nanotubes and nanostructured films consisting of arrays of nanotubes or disordered nanotube mats. Nanotube length, diameter, and chirality strongly influence the thermal conductivities of individual nanotubes and the transition from primarily diffusive to ballistic heat transport with decreasing temperature. A key experimental challenge, for both individual nanotubes and aligned films, is the separation of intrinsic and contact resistances. Molecular dynamics simulations have studied the impacts of specific types of imperfections on the nanotube conductance and its variation with length and chirality. While the properties of aligned films fall short of predictions based on individual nanotube data, improvements in surface engagement and postfabrication nanotube quality are promising for a variety of applications including mechanically compliant thermal contacts.

Marconnet, Amy M.; Panzer, Matthew A.; Goodson, Kenneth E.

2013-07-01

257

Ground exposure of composite materials for helicopters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Residual strength results are presented on four composite material systems that were exposed for three years at locations on the North American Continent. The exposure locations are near the areas where Bell Model 206L Helicopters, that are in a NSA/U.S. Army sponsored flight service program, are flying in daily commercial service. The composite systems are: (1) Kevlar-49 fabric/F-185 epoxy; (2) Kevlar-49 fabric/LRF-277 epoxy; (3) Kevlar-49 fabric/CE-306 epoxy; and (4) T-300 Graphite/E-788 epoxy. All material systems exhibited good strength retention in compression and short beam shear. The Kevlar-49/LRF-277 epoxy retained 88 to 93 percent of the baseline strength while the other material systems exceeded 95 percent of baseline strength. Residual tensile strength of all materials did not show a significant reduction. The available moisture absorption data is also presented.

Baker, D. J.

1984-01-01

258

Dental applications of nanostructured bioactive glass and its composites  

PubMed Central

To improve treatments for bone or dental trauma, and for diseases such as osteoporosis, cancer, and infections, scientists who perform basic research are collaborating with clinicians to design and test new biomaterials for the regeneration of lost or injured tissue. Developed some 40 years ago, bioactive glass (BG) has recently become one of the most promising biomaterials, a consequence of discoveries that its unusual properties elicit specific biological responses inside the body. Among these important properties are the capability of BG to form strong interfaces with both hard and soft tissues, and its release of ions upon dissolution. Recent developments in nanotechnology have introduced opportunities for materials sciences to advance dental and bone therapies. For example, the applications for BG expand as it becomes possible to finely control structures and physicochemical properties of materials at the molecular level. Here we review how the properties of these materials have been enhanced by the advent of nanotechnology; and how these developments are producing promising results in hard-tissue regeneration and development of innovative BG-based drug-delivery systems. PMID:23606653

Polini, Alessandro; Bai, Hao; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2013-01-01

259

Method of producing catalytic materials for fabricating nanostructures  

DOEpatents

Methods of fabricating nano-catalysts are described. In some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a powder-based substrate material and is some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a solid-based substrate material. In some embodiments the substrate material may include metal, ceramic, or silicon or another metalloid. The nano-catalysts typically have metal nanoparticles disposed adjacent the surface of the substrate material. The methods typically include functionalizing the surface of the substrate material with a chelating agent, such as a chemical having dissociated carboxyl functional groups (--COO), that provides an enhanced affinity for metal ions. The functionalized substrate surface may then be exposed to a chemical solution that contains metal ions. The metal ions are then bound to the substrate material and may then be reduced, such as by a stream of gas that includes hydrogen, to form metal nanoparticles adjacent the surface of the substrate.

Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

2013-02-19

260

Method of making carbon nanotube composite materials  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of making a composite polymeric material by dissolving a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes and optionally additives in a solvent to make a solution and removing at least a portion of the solvent after casting onto a substrate to make thin films. The material has enhanced conductivity properties due to the blending of the un-functionalized and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes.

O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

2014-05-20

261

Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smart materials have been widely investigated to explore new functionalities unavailable to traditional materials or to mimic the multifunctionality of biological systems. Synthetic polymers are particularly attractive as they already possess some of the attributes required for smart materials, and there are vast room to further enhance the existing properties or impart new properties by polymer synthesis or composite formulation. In this work, three types of smart polymer and composites have been investigated with important new applications: (1) healable polymer composites for structural application and healable composite conductor for electronic device application; (2) conducting polymer polypyrrole actuator for implantable medical device application; and (3) ferroelectric polymer and ceramic nanoparticles composites for electrocaloric effect based solid state refrigeration application. These application entail highly challenging materials innovation, and my work has led to significant progress in all three areas. For the healable polymer composites, well known intrinsically healable polymer 2MEP4F (a Diels-Alder crosslinked polymer formed from a monomer with four furan groups and another monomer with two maleimide groups) was first chosen as the matrix reinforced with fiber. Glass fibers were successfully functionalized with maleimide functional groups on their surface. Composites from functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F healable polymer were made to compare with composites made from commercial carbon fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. Dramatically improved short beam shear strength was obtained from composite of functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. The high cost of 2MEP4F polymer can potentially limit the large-scale application of the developed healable composite, we further developed a new healable polymer with much lower cost. This new polymer was formed through the Diels-Alder crosslinking of poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) and 1,1'-(Methylenedi-4,1-phenylene)bismaleimide (MDPB). It showed the same healing ability as 2MEP4F while all starting materials are cheaper and commercially available. To further improve the mechanical strength of the PFA-MDPB healable polymer, epoxy as a strengthening component was mixed with PFA-MDPB healable polymer. The PFA, MDPB and epoxy composite polymers were further reinforced by carbon fiber as done with 2MEP4F matrix and the final composites were proved to have higher short beam shear strength than 2MEP4F while exhibiting a similar healing efficiency. Healable polymer MDPB (a two maleimide groups monomer) -- FGEEDR (a four furan groups monomer) was also designed and synthesized for transparent healable polymer. The MDPB-FGEEDR healable polymer was composited with silver nanowires (AgNWs) to afford healable transparent composite conductor. Razer blade cuts in the composite conductor could heal upon heating to recover the mechanical strength and electrical conductivity of the composite. The healing could be repeated for multiple times on the same cut location. The healing process was as fast as 3 minutes for conductivity to recover 97% of the original value. For electroactive polymer polypyrrole, the fast volume change upon electrical field change due to electrochemical oxidization or reduction was studied for actuation targeting toward a robotic application. The flexibility of polypyrrole was improved via copolymerization with pyrrole derivatives. Actuator devices are fabricated that more suitable for implantable medical device application than pyrrole homopolymer. The change of dipole re-orientation and thus dielectric constant of ferroelectric polymers and ceramics upon electrical field may be exploited for electrocaloric effect (ECE) and solid state refrigeration. For ferroelectric ceramics, we synthesized a series of Ba1-xSrxTiO3 nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 8-12 nm and characterized their dielectric and ferroelectric properties through hysteresis measurement. It was found that 8 nm BaTiO3 nanocrystals are stable at cubic crystal structure without ferroelectric

Gong, Chaokun

262

Composite materials microstructure for radiation shielding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shielding against radiation is a concern for applications on earth, in space, and on extraterrestrial surfaces. On earth EMI is an important factor, while in space and on extraterrestrial surfaces particle (high charge-Z and high energy-E) radiation is a critical issue. Conventional metallic materials currently used for EMI shielding incur large weight penalties. To overcome this weight penalty, ultra-lightweight composite materials utilizing fillers ranging from carbon microballoons to silver coated ceramic microballoons are proposed. The crucial shielding requirement is conductivity of the constituent materials, while the hollow microballoon geometry is utilized to yield low weight. Methods of processing and composition effects are examined and these results are compared to the effectiveness of varying the conductive microballoon material. The resulting ultralightweight materials, developed for EMI shielding, can be tailored through the application of the understanding of the relative effects of variables such as those tested. Initial experimental results reveal that these tailored ultralightweight composite materials are superior to traditional aluminum shielding at only a small fraction of the weight.

Radford, Donald W.; Sadeh, Willy Z.; Cheng, Boyle C.

1992-01-01

263

Wetting, superhydrophobicity, and icephobicity in biomimetic composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in nano- and bio-technology require new materials. Among these new classes of materials which have emerged in the recent years are biomimetic materials, which mimic structure and properties of materials found in living nature. There are a large number of biological objects including bacteria, animals and plants with properties of interest for engineers. Among these properties is the ability of the lotus leaf and other natural materials to repel water, which has inspired researchers to prepare similar surfaces. The Lotus effect involving roughness-induced superhydrophobicity is a way to design nonwetting, self-cleaning, omniphobic, icephobic, and antifouling surfaces. The range of actual and potential applications of superhydrophobic surfaces is diverse including optical, building and architecture, textiles, solar panels, lab-on-a-chip, microfluidic devices, and applications requiring antifouling from biological and organic contaminants. In this thesis, in chapter one, we introduce the general concepts and definitions regarding the wetting properties of the surfaces. In chapter two, we develop novel models and conduct experiments on wetting of composite materials. To design sustainable superhydrophobic metal matrix composite (MMC) surfaces, we suggest using hydrophobic reinforcement in the bulk of the material, rather than only at its surface. We experimentally study the wetting properties of graphite-reinforced Al- and Cu-based composites and conclude that the Cu-based MMCs have the potential to be used in the future for the applications where the wear-resistant superhydrophobicity is required. In chapter three, we introduce hydrophobic coating at the surface of concrete materials making them waterproof to prevent material failure, because concretes and ceramics cannot stop water from seeping through them and forming cracks. We create water-repellant concretes with CA close to 160o using superhydrophobic coating. In chapter four, experimental data are collected in terms of oleophobicity especially when underwater applications are of interest. We develop models for four-phase rough interface of underwater oleophobicity and develop a novel approach to predict the CA of organic liquid on the rough surfaces immersed in water. We investigate wetting transition on a patterned surface in underwater systems, using a phase field model. We demonstrated that roughening on an immersed solid surface can drive the transition from Wenzel to Cassie-Baxter state. This discovery improves our understanding of underwater systems and their surface interactions during the wetting phenomenon and can be applied for the development of underwater oil-repellent materials which are of interest for various applications in the water industry, and marine devices. In chapter five, we experimentally and theoretically investigate the icephobicity of composite materials. A novel comprehensive definition of icephobicity, broad enough to cover a variety of situations including low adhesion strength, delayed ice crystallization, and bouncing is determined. Wetting behavior and ice adhesion properties of various samples are theoretically and experimentally compared. We conclude superhydrophobic surfaces are not necessarily icephobic. The models are tested against the experimental data to verify the good agreement between them. The models can be used for the design of novel superhydrophobic, oleophobic, omniphobic and icephobic composite materials. Finally we conclude that creating surface micro/nanostructures using mechanical abrasion or chemical etching as well as applying low energy materials are the most simple, inexpensive, and durable techniques to create superhydrophobic, oleophobic, and icephobic materials.

Hejazi, Vahid

264

Composite materials for rail transit systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential is explored for using composite materials in urban mass transit systems. The emphasis was to identify specific advantages of composite materials in order to determine their actual and potential usage for carbody and guideway structure applications. The literature was reviewed, contacts were made with major domestic system operators, designers, and builders, and an analysis was made of potential composite application to railcar construction. Composites were found to be in use throughout the transit industry, usually in secondary or auxiliary applications such as car interior and nonstructural exterior panels. More recently, considerable activity has been initiated in the area of using composites in the load bearing elements of civil engineering structures such as highway bridges. It is believed that new and improved manufacturing refinements in pultrusion and filament winding will permit the production of beam sections which can be used in guideway structures. The inherent corrosion resistance and low maintenance characteristics of composites should result in lowered maintenance costs over a prolonged life of the structure.

Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Guerdal, Zafer; Herakovich, Carl T.

1987-01-01

265

Synthesis of nanostructured materials by mechanical milling: problems and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical attrition as a method to produce nanocrystalline (nc) materials is reviewed. Its advantages include the fact that all classes of materials including brittle compounds are amenable to the method; it can be easily scaled up to tonnage quantities. The phenomenology and suggested mechanisms for formation of nc microstructures are discussed for ball milling of single component powders,

C. C. Koch

1997-01-01

266

Composite materials for precision space reflector panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the critical technology needs of large precision reflectors for future astrophysical and optical communications satellites lies in the area of structural materials. Results from a materials research and development program at NASA Langley Research Center to provide materials for these reflector applications are discussed. Advanced materials that meet the reflector panel requirements are identified and thermal, mechanical and durability properties of candidate materials after exposure to simulated space environments are compared. Results from analytical studies to define material properties that control laminate properties and reflector deformation are discussed. A parabolic, graphite-phenolic honeycomb composite panel having a surface accuracy of 70.8 microinches RMS and an areal weight of 1.17 lbm/ft2 was fabricated with T50/ERL1962 facesheets, a PAEI thermoplastic surface film, and Al and SiOx coatings.

Tompkins, Stephen S.; Funk, Joan G.; Bowles, David E.; Towell, Timothy W.; Connell, John W.

1992-09-01

267

Thermoplastic Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical and thermo-physical properties of composites materials with thermoplastic matrix (PEEK/IM7, TPI/IM7 and PPS/IM7) used for aerospace applications have been analyzed as function of two different process techniques: compression molding and fiber placement process "hot gas assisted."

Casula, G.; Lenzi, F.; Vitiello, C.

2008-08-01

268

Soft magnetic composites-materials and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The group of soft magnetic composites (SMCs) have expanded by the introduction of new materials with significantly improved low-medium frequency properties, which has made SMCs a viable alternative to steel laminations in a range of new applications, such as rotating machinery, sensors and fast switching solenoids. SMC components are successfully manufactured using the powder metallurgy compaction process. The isotropic nature

L. O. Hultman; A. G. Jack

2003-01-01

269

Silicon nitride reinforced nickel alloy composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

An erosion resistant composite material is described comprising silicon nitride rod reinforced nickel alloy, where the silicon nitride is cold pressed and sintered and substantially nonreactive with the alloy at high temperatures. The silicon nitride can either be polycrystalline or amorphous containing alumina, 15% yttria and about 2% to about 5% silica. Three to 8% alumina is used in the

F. S. Galasso; R. D. Veltri

1985-01-01

270

Surface-hardened nanostructured Ti- and Zr-matrix composites for medical and engineering applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combined studies have been conducted on the structural-phase state and physical-mechanical and tribological properties of nanostructured titanium and zirconium subjected to ion-beam implantation or microplasma oxidation. Low-temperature ion-beam nitriding of the materials examined is shown to provide a 25-35-fold increase in the wear resistance of their surface layers and a 40% decrease in the friction coefficient for tribological interaction with contact surfaces. Microplasma oxidation of titanium in aqueous solution of phosphoric acid, hydroxylapatite and calcium carbonate powders enables calcium-phosphate coatings with high physical-mechanical properties to be produced. Tribological tests in a dry friction regime and in isotonic solution of sodium chloride have revealed that a nanostructured titanium substrate-calcium phosphate coating biocomposite exhibits a fairly high friction coefficient (0.4-1.0) in tribological interactions with ultrahigh molecular-weight polyethylene or bone tissue. A substantial improvement in the tribotechnical properties of nanostructured titanium and zirconium with modified surface layers makes them very promising materials for medical and engineering applications.

Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Kukareko, V. A.; Legostaeva, E. V.; Byeli, A. V.

2011-03-01

271

Effective load transfer by a chromium carbide nanostructure in a multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper matrix composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced copper (Cu) matrix composites, which exhibit chromium (Cr) carbide nanostructures at the MWCNT/Cu interface, were prepared through a carbide formation using CuCr alloy powder. The fully densified and oriented MWCNTs dispersed throughout the composites were prepared using spark plasma sintering (SPS) followed by hot extrusion. The tensile strengths of the MWCNT/CuCr composites increased with increasing MWCNTs content, while the tensile strength of MWCNT/Cu composite decreased from that of monolithic Cu. The enhanced tensile strength of the MWCNT/CuCr composites is a result of possible load-transfer mechanisms of the interfacial Cr carbide nanostructures. The multi-wall failure of MWCNTs observed in the fracture surface of the MWCNT/CuCr composites indicates an improvement in the load-bearing capacity of the MWCNTs. This result shows that the Cr carbide nanostructures effectively transferred the tensile load to the MWCNTs during fracture through carbide nanostructure formation in the MWCNT/Cu composite.

Cho, Seungchan; Kikuchi, Keiko; Kawasaki, Akira; Kwon, Hansang; Kim, Yangdo

2012-08-01

272

Effective load transfer by a chromium carbide nanostructure in a multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper matrix composite.  

PubMed

Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced copper (Cu) matrix composites, which exhibit chromium (Cr) carbide nanostructures at the MWCNT/Cu interface, were prepared through a carbide formation using CuCr alloy powder. The fully densified and oriented MWCNTs dispersed throughout the composites were prepared using spark plasma sintering (SPS) followed by hot extrusion. The tensile strengths of the MWCNT/CuCr composites increased with increasing MWCNTs content, while the tensile strength of MWCNT/Cu composite decreased from that of monolithic Cu. The enhanced tensile strength of the MWCNT/CuCr composites is a result of possible load-transfer mechanisms of the interfacial Cr carbide nanostructures. The multi-wall failure of MWCNTs observed in the fracture surface of the MWCNT/CuCr composites indicates an improvement in the load-bearing capacity of the MWCNTs. This result shows that the Cr carbide nanostructures effectively transferred the tensile load to the MWCNTs during fracture through carbide nanostructure formation in the MWCNT/Cu composite. PMID:22797555

Cho, Seungchan; Kikuchi, Keiko; Kawasaki, Akira; Kwon, Hansang; Kim, Yangdo

2012-08-10

273

Antireflection effects at nanostructured material interfaces and the suppression of thin-film interference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin-film interference is a well-known effect, and it is commonly observed in the colored appearance of many natural phenomena. Caused by the interference of light reflected from the interfaces of thin material layers, such interference effects can lead to wavelength and angle-selective behavior in thin-film devices. In this work, we describe the use of interfacial nanostructures to eliminate interference effects in thin films. Using the same principle inspired by moth-eye structures, this approach creates an effective medium where the index is gradually varying between the neighboring materials. We present the fabrication process for such nanostructures at a polymer-silicon interface, and experimentally demonstrate its effectiveness in suppressing thin-film interference. The principle demonstrated in this work can lead to enhanced efficiency and reduce wavelength/angle sensitivity in multilayer optoelectronic devices.

Yang, Qiaoyin; Zhang, Xu A.; Bagal, Abhijeet; Guo, Wei; Chang, Chih-Hao

2013-06-01

274

R. Huang Group Research: Mechanics of Electronic Materials and Nanostructures  

E-print Network

, Structures and Materials Clear Plastic Nanoindentation of Single-Crystal Silicon Nanolines: friction and Technology (NIST) · Sandia National Lab· Sandia National Lab · Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC

Huang, Rui

275

Satellite surface material composition from synthetic spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research was to determine if measurements from a Sagnac interferometer could provide reliable estimates of satellite material composition. The Sagnac interferometer yields a spatial interferogram that can be sampled by a linear detector array. The interferogram is related to the spectrum of the source through a Fourier transform. Here, spectral reflectivities of nine common satellite materials were used to simulate the spectrum on obtains from an ideal Sagnac interferometer in the beam-train of a ground-based telescope whose mission is to view satellites. The signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrum was varied to simulate the effect of range variation between the sensor and the satellite. The simulated spectra consisted of a linear mixture of spectra from two of the nine materials. Three different architectures were developed and their performances compared. One of the three architectures consisted of nine artificial neural networks (ANN's), one for each material, and a linear estimator that estimated the satellite surface area attributable to each material. This method estimates the material composition by using a classifier to identify the materials contributing to the mixture, then eliminating unlikely contributors to the mixture before performing a constrained linear estimate. It is shown that due to high classification errors, the system using solely a linear estimator provides the estimate with the lowest errors.

Caudill, Eugene L.

1994-12-01

276

Compatibility of RPECVD silicon dioxide with depletion gate materials for silicon-based nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this work has been upon deposited oxide and gate materials suitable for use in silicon-based nanostructures. The latter use e-beam patterned depletion gates in order to create three-dimensional confinement of electrons in the 2-dimensional electron gas of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) inversion layer. Remote Plasma Enhanced chemical Vapor Deposition (RPECVD) silicon dioxide was selected as

Mary Jo Rack

1998-01-01

277

Three-dimensional nanostructuring by two-photon polymerization of hybrid materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-photon polymerization (2PP) of photosensitive inorganic-organic hybrid polymers (ORMOCERs, developed at the Frauenhofer Institut fr Silicatforschung) is demonstrated as a very promising approach for the fabrication of complicated three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures. These materials are produced by sol-gel synthesis with molecular level mixing of different components. It is remarkable that properties of the hybrid polymers can be tuned from those

Jesper J. Serbin; Boris N. Chichkov

2003-01-01

278

Three-dimensional nanostructuring of hybrid materials by two-photon polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-photon polymerization (2PP) of photosensitive inorganic-organic hybrid polymers (ORMOCERs, developed at the Frauenhofer Institut fr Silicatforschung) is demonstrated as a very promising approach for the fabrication of complicated three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures. These materials are produced by sol-gel synthesis with molecular level mixing of different components. It is remarkable that properties of the hybrid polymers can be tuned from those

Jesper Serbin; Boris N. Chichkov; Ruth Houbertz

2003-01-01

279

Composite materials for precision space reflector panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the critical technology needs of large precision reflectors for future astrophysical and optical communications satellites lies in the area of structural materials. Results from a materials research and development program at NASA Langley Research Center to provide materials for these reflector applications are discussed. Advanced materials that meet the reflector panel requirements are identified, and thermal, mechanical and durability properties of candidate materials after exposure to simulated space environments are compared. A parabolic, graphite-phenolic honeycomb composite panel having a surface accuracy of 70.8 microinches rms and an areal weight of 1.17 lbm/sq ft was fabricated with T50/ERL1962 facesheets, a PAEI thermoplastic surface film, and Al and SiO(x) coatings.

Tompkins, Stephen S.; Funk, Joan G.; Bowles, David E.; Towell, Timothy W.; Connell, John W.

1992-01-01

280

Electrical, thermal, catalytic and magnetic properties of nano-structured materials and their applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology is a subject that studies the fabrication, properties, and applications of materials on the nanometer-scale. Top-down and bottom-up approaches are commonly used in nano-structure fabrication. The top-down approach is used to fabricate nano-structures from bulk materials by lithography, etching, and polishing etc. It is commonly used in mechanical, electronic, and photonic devices. Bottom-up approaches fabricate nano-structures from atoms or molecules by chemical synthesis, self-assembly, and deposition, such as sol-gel processing, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), focused ion beam (FIB) milling/deposition, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and electro-deposition etc. Nano-structures can have several different dimensionalities, including zero-dimensional nano-structures, such as fullerenes, nano-particles, quantum dots, nano-sized clusters; one-dimensional nano-structures, such as carbon nanotubes, metallic and semiconducting nanowires; two-dimensional nano-structures, such as graphene, super lattice, thin films; and three-dimensional nano-structures, such as photonic structures, anodic aluminum oxide, and molecular sieves. These nano-structured materials exhibit unique electrical, thermal, optical, mechanical, chemical, and magnetic properties in the quantum mechanical regime. Various techniques can be used to study these properties, such as scanning probe microscopy (SPM), scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), micro Raman spectroscopy, etc. These unique properties have important applications in modern technologies, such as random access memories, display, solar energy conversion, chemical sensing, and bio-medical devices. This thesis includes four main topics in the broad area of nanoscience: magnetic properties of ferro-magnetic cobalt nanowires, plasmonic properties of metallic nano-particles, photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide nanotubes, and electro-thermal-optical properties of carbon nanotubes. These materials and their properties are briefly reviewed in Chapter One, including the concepts of ferro-magnetism, plasmonics, photocatalysis, thermal emission, and Raman spectra of carbon nanotubes. In Chapter Two, we focus on the magnetic properties of ferro-magnetic cobalt nanowires with high crystalline quality synthesized via a low voltage electro-deposition method. The crystal structure of these Co nanowires is characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties of individual nanowires and nanowire arrays are investigated by magnetic force microscope (MFM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements. A theoretical model is developed to explain these experimental observations. In Chapter Three, we exploit the strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles. We also demonstrate a new method for patterning SERS (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy) aggregates of gold nanoparticles by using a focused laser beam to optically trap the nanoparticles in a water suspension. Raman spectroscopy is used to estimate the temperature in the laser spot during the in-situ aggregation, by measuring the Raman peak of the hydroxyl bond of water. In Chapter Four, we demonstrate plasmonic enhancement of photocatalytic water splitting under visible illumination by integrating strongly plasmonic Au nanoparticles with strongly catalytic TiO2. Electromagnetic simulations indicate that the near-field optical enhancement increases the electron-hole pair generation rate at the surface of the TiO2, thus increasing the amount of photo-generated charge contributing to catalysis. Our results suggest that enhancement factors many times larger than this are possible if this mechanism can be optimized. In Chapter Five, we study the Raman spectra and thermal emission spectra of individual suspended carbon nanotubes induced by electrical heating. Semiconducting and metallic devices exhibit different spectra, based on their distinctive band structures. Raman spectra and the blackbody emission background are used to fit the device temper

Liu, Zuwei

281

Processing and nanostructure influences on mechanical properties of thermoelectric materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectric (TE) materials are materials that can generate an electric current from a thermal gradient, with possible service in recovery of waste heat such as engine exhaust. Significant progress has been made in improving TE conversion efficiency, typically reported according to the figure of merit, ZT, with several recent papers publishing ZT values above 2. Furthermore, cost reductions may be made by the use of lower cost elements such as Mg, Si, Sn, Pb, Se and S in TE materials, while achieving ZT values between 1.3 and 1.8. To be used in a device, the thermoelectric material must be able to withstand the applied thermal and mechanical forces without failure. However, these materials are brittle, with low fracture toughness typically less than 1.5 MPa-m1/2, and often less than 0.5 MPa-m1/2. For comparison, window glass is approximately 0.75 MPa-m1/2. They have been optimized with nanoprecipitates, nanoparticles, doping, alterations in stoichiometry, powder processing and other techniques, all of which may alter the mechanical properties. In this study, the effect of SiC nanoparticle additions in Mg2Si, SnTe and Ag nanoparticle additions in the skutterudite Ba0.3Co 4Sb12 on the elastic moduli, hardness and fracture toughness are measured. Large changes (20%) in the elastic moduli in SnTe 1+x as a function of x at 0 and 0.016 are shown. The effect on mechanical properties of doping and precipitates of CdS or ZnS in a PbS or PbSe matrix have been reported. Changes in sintering behavior of the skutterudite with the Ag nanoparticle additions were explored. Possible liquid phase sintering, with associated benefits in lower processing temperature, faster densification and lower cost, has been shown. A technique has been proposed for determining additional liquid phase sintering aids in other TE materials. The effects of porosity, grain size, powder processing method, and sintering method were explored with YbAl3 and Ba0.3Co4Sb 12, with the porosity dependence of the elastic moduli reported. Only one other TE material has the porosity dependence of the elastic moduli previously reported in the literature, lead-antimony-silver-tellurium (LAST), and the effect of different powder processing and sintering methods has never been reported previously on TE materials.

Schmidt, Robert David

282

Nanostructured materials for advanced energy conversion and storage devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. This review describes some recent developments in the discovery of nanoelectrolytes and nanoelectrodes for lithium batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors. The advantages and disadvantages of the nanoscale in materials design for such devices are highlighted.

Aric, Antonino Salvatore; Bruce, Peter; Scrosati, Bruno; Tarascon, Jean-Marie; van Schalkwijk, Walter

2005-05-01

283

Nanostructured materials for advanced energy conversion and storage devices.  

PubMed

New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. This review describes some recent developments in the discovery of nanoelectrolytes and nanoelectrodes for lithium batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors. The advantages and disadvantages of the nanoscale in materials design for such devices are highlighted. PMID:15867920

Aric, Antonino Salvatore; Bruce, Peter; Scrosati, Bruno; Tarascon, Jean-Marie; van Schalkwijk, Walter

2005-05-01

284

Surface Anchoring of Nematic Phase on Carbon Nanotubes: Nanostructure of Ultra-High Temperature Materials  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear energy is a dependable and economical source of electricity. Because fuel supply sources are available domestically, nuclear energy can be a strong domestic industry that can reduce dependence on foreign energy sources. Commercial nuclear power plants have extensive security measures to protect the facility from intruders [1]. However, additional research efforts are needed to increase the inherent process safety of nuclear energy plants to protect the public in the event of a reactor malfunction. The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) is envisioned to utilize a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design with an operating temperature of 650-1000?°C [2]. One of the most important safety design requirements for this reactor is that it must be inherently safe, i.e., the reactor must shut down safely in the event that the coolant flow is interrupted [2]. This next-generation Gen IV reactor must operate in an inherently safe mode where the off-normal temperatures may reach 1500?°C due to coolant-flow interruption. Metallic alloys used currently in reactor internals will melt at such temperatures. Structural materials that will not melt at such ultra-high temperatures are carbon/graphtic fibers and carbon-matrix composites. Graphite does not have a measurable melting point; it is known to sublime starting about 3300?°C. However, neutron radiation-damage effects on carbon fibers are poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this project is to obtain a fundamental understanding of the role of nanotexture on the properties of resulting carbon fibers and their neutron-damage characteristics. Although polygranular graphite has been used in nuclear environment for almost fifty years, it is not suitable for structural applications because it do not possess adequate strength, stiffness, or toughness that is required of structural components such as reaction control-rods, upper plenum shroud, and lower core-support plate [2,3]. For structural purposes, composites consisting of strong carbon fibers embedded in a carbon matrix are needed. Such carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have been used in aerospace industry to produce missile nose cones, space shuttle leading edge, and aircraft brake-pads. However, radiation-tolerance of such materials is not adequately known because only limited radiation studies have been performed on C/C composites, which suggest that pitch-based carbon fibers have better dimensional stability than that of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based fibers [4]. The thermodynamically-stable state of graphitic crystalline packing of carbon atoms derived from mesophase pitch leads to a greater stability during neutron irradiation [5]. The specific objectives of this project were: (i) to generating novel carbonaceous nanostructures, (ii) measure extent of graphitic crystallinity and the extent of anisotropy, and (iii) collaborate with the Carbon Materials group at Oak Ridge National Lab to have neutron irradiation studies and post-irradiation examinations conducted on the carbon fibers produced in this research project.

Ogale, Amod A

2012-04-27

285

Compression Testing of Textile Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of existing test methods, which were developed primarily for laminates made of unidirectional prepreg tape, to textile composites is an area of concern. The issue is whether the values measured for the 2-D and 3-D braided, woven, stitched, and knit materials are accurate representations of the true material response. This report provides a review of efforts to establish a compression test method for textile reinforced composite materials. Experimental data have been gathered from several sources and evaluated to assess the effectiveness of a variety of test methods. The effectiveness of the individual test methods to measure the material's modulus and strength is determined. Data are presented for 2-D triaxial braided, 3-D woven, and stitched graphite/epoxy material. However, the determination of a recommended test method and specimen dimensions is based, primarily, on experimental results obtained by the Boeing Defense and Space Group for 2-D triaxially braided materials. They evaluated seven test methods: NASA Short Block, Modified IITRI, Boeing Open Hole Compression, Zabora Compression, Boeing Compression after Impact, NASA ST-4, and a Sandwich Column Test.

Masters, John E.

1996-01-01

286

ENG 4793: Composite Materials and Processes 1 Injection Molding  

E-print Network

1 ENG 4793: Composite Materials and Processes 1 Injection Molding ver 1 ENG 4793: Composite · Ejection force · Design rules ENG 4793: Composite Materials and Processes 3 Equipment Clamp Mold Hopper screw nozzle clamp mold cavity pellets motor / drive throat #12;2 ENG 4793: Composite Materials

Colton, Jonathan S.

287

Using biological inspiration to engineer functional nanostructured materials.  

PubMed

Humans have always looked to nature for design inspiration, and material design on the molecular level is no different. Here we explore how this idea applies to nanoscale biomimicry, specifically examining both recent advances and our own work on engineering lipid and polymer membrane systems with cellular processes. PMID:17192981

Wendell, David W; Patti, Jordan; Montemagno, Carlo D

2006-11-01

288

Nanostructured materials for advanced energy conversion and storage devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. This review describes some recent developments

Antonino Salvatore Aric; Peter Bruce; Bruno Scrosati; Jean-Marie Tarascon; Walter van Schalkwijk

2005-01-01

289

Applications of Ultrasound to the Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials  

E-print Network

Cavitation Chemistry deals with the interaction between energy and matter, and chemical reactions require some form of energy (e.g., heat, REVIEW www.MaterialsViews.com www.advmat.de [*] Prof. K. S. Suslick synthesis are cavitation and nebulization. Acoustic cavitation (the formation, growth, and implosive

Suslick, Kenneth S.

290

ACEE Composite Structures Technology: Review of selected NASA research on composite materials and structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Composite Primary Aircraft Structures Program was designed to develop technology for advanced composites in commercial aircraft. Research on composite materials, aircraft structures, and aircraft design is presented herein. The following parameters of composite materials were addressed: residual strength, damage tolerance, toughness, tensile strength, impact resistance, buckling, and noise transmission within composite materials structures.

1984-01-01

291

Putting it Together: The Science and Technology of Composite Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Composite materials are light, strong, corrosion-resistant composites of two or more materials used commonly in manufacturing. This recent report is from the Australian Academy of Science with support from The Cooperative Research Centre for Advanced Composite Structures, Ltd. and the Commonwealth Department of Industry, Science and Resources. It gives information on the history, manufacturing techniques, and efficiency of composite materials. A glossary, reference list, and links to educational sites as well as other composite materials sites are also featured.

2000-01-01

292

Interface chemistry of nanostructured materials: ion adsorption on mesoporous alumina.  

PubMed

This paper presents a part of our work on understanding the effect of nanoscale pore space confinement on ion sorption by mesoporous materials. Acid-base titration experiments were performed on both mesoporous alumina and alumina particles under various ionic strengths. The point of zero charge (PZC) for mesoporous alumina was measured to be approximately 9.1, similar to that for nonmesoporous alumina materials, indicating that nanoscale pore space confinement does not have a significant effect on the PZC of pore surfaces. However, for a given pH deviation from the PZC, (pH-PZC), the surface charge per mass on mesoporous alumina was as much as 45 times higher than that on alumina particles. This difference cannot be fully explained by the surface area difference between the two materials. Our titration data have demonstrated that nanoscale confinement has a significant effect, most likely via the overlap of the electric double layer (EDL), on ion sorption onto mesopore surfaces. This effect cannot be adequately modeled by existing surface complexation models, which were developed mostly for an unconfined solid-water interface. Our titration data have also indicated that the rate of ion uptake by mesoporous alumina is relatively slow, probably due to diffusion into mesopores, and complete equilibration for sorption could take 4-5 min. A molecular simulation using a density functional theory was performed to calculate ion adsorption coefficients as a function of pore size. The calculation has shown that as pore size is reduced to nanoscales (<10 nm), the adsorption coefficients of ions can vary by more than two orders of magnitude relative to those for unconfined interfaces. The prediction is supported by our experimental data on Zn sorption onto mesoporous alumina. Owing to their unique surface chemistry, mesoporous materials can potentially be used as effective ion adsorbents for separation processes and environmental cleanup. PMID:12702421

Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles; Xu, Huifang; Pohl, Phil; Yang, Yi; Brinker, C Jeffrey

2002-10-01

293

Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Lillehei, P. T.; Bryant, R. G.

2012-01-01

294

Nanostructured high-energy cathode materials for advanced lithium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel-rich layered lithium transition-metal oxides, LiNi1-xMxO2 (M?=?transition metal), have been under intense investigation as high-energy cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries because of their high specific capacity and relatively low cost. However, the commercial deployment of nickel-rich oxides has been severely hindered by their intrinsic poor thermal stability at the fully charged state and insufficient cycle life, especially at elevated temperatures. Here, we report a nickel-rich lithium transition-metal oxide with a very high capacity (215?mA?h?g-1), where the nickel concentration decreases linearly whereas the manganese concentration increases linearly from the centre to the outer layer of each particle. Using this nano-functional full-gradient approach, we are able to harness the high energy density of the nickel-rich core and the high thermal stability and long life of the manganese-rich outer layers. Moreover, the micrometre-size secondary particles of this cathode material are composed of aligned needle-like nanosize primary particles, resulting in a high rate capability. The experimental results suggest that this nano-functional full-gradient cathode material is promising for applications that require high energy, long calendar life and excellent abuse tolerance such as electric vehicles.

Sun, Yang-Kook; Chen, Zonghai; Noh, Hyung-Joo; Lee, Dong-Ju; Jung, Hun-Gi; Ren, Yang; Wang, Steve; Yoon, Chong Seung; Myung, Seung-Taek; Amine, Khalil

2012-11-01

295

Temperature dependence of nanostructure in PbSeZnSe composite thin film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanostructure of PbSeZnSe composite thin films prepared by the hot-wall deposition (HWD) method was investigated using small-angle x-ray (SAXS) scattering. The SAXS profiles indicate the formation of two kinds of nanoparticles: large nanoparticles that vanish and small particles that increase in size with increasing temperature. At high substrate temperatures, the volume fraction of all the nanoparticles estimated from SAXS is consistent with that of PbSe obtained by chemical analysis. This shows that PbSe forms nanoparticles at high substrate temperatures. On the other hand, the same analysis for the volume fraction at low substrate temperatures reveals that the chemical composition of the nanoparticles differs from PbSe. Pb nanoparticles are probably formed at low substrate temperatures and disappear with increasing substrate temperature.

Oba, Yojiro; Abe, Seishi; Ohnuma, Masato; Sato, Nobuhiro; Sugiyama, Masaaki

2014-10-01

296

Multiaxial analysis of dental composite materials.  

PubMed

Dental composites are subjected to extreme chemical and mechanical conditions in the oral environment, contributing to the degradation and ultimate failure of the material in vivo. The objective of this study is to validate an alternative method of mechanically loading dental composite materials. Confined compression testing more closely represents the complex loading that dental restorations experience in the oral cavity. Dental composites, a nanofilled and a hybrid microfilled, were prepared as cylindrical specimens, light-cured in ring molds of 6061 aluminum, with the ends polished to ensure parallel surfaces. The samples were subjected to confined compression loading to 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15% axial strain. Upon loading, the ring constrains radial expansion of the specimen, generating confinement stresses. A strain gage placed on the outer wall of the aluminum confining ring records hoop strain. Assuming plane stress conditions, the confining stress (sigma(c)) can be calculated at the sample/ring interface. Following mechanical loading, tomographic data was generated using a high-resolution microtomography system developed at beamline 2-BM of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Extraction of the crack and void surfaces present in the material bulk is numerically represented as crack edge/volume (CE/V), and calculated as a fraction of total specimen volume. Initial results indicate that as the strain level increases the CE/V increases. Analysis of the composite specimens under different mechanical loads suggests that microtomography is a useful tool for three-dimensional evaluation of dental composite fracture surfaces. PMID:18506811

Kotche, Miiri; Drummond, James L; Sun, Kang; Vural, Murat; DeCarlo, Francesco

2009-02-01

297

Aromatic acetylenes for carbon matrix composite material  

SciTech Connect

Carbon composite materials are being used increasingly in aerospace structures because of the high strength to weight ratio of such materials. Acetylenic substituted aromatic compounds, which have low melting points, can be easily processed, lose little weight during their curing, and do not need multiple impregnations to achieve high density, are good candidates as carbon precursor materials. In this laboratory, the compound 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(phenylethynyl)benzene 1 was prepared by the palladium catalyzed reaction of phenylacetylene with 1,2,4,5-tetrabromobenzene in the presence of excess amine base. Laboratory studies have shown that 1 melts at 195{degrees}C and forms a thermosetting material with high thermal and oxidative stability and a high char yield upon pyrolysis under nitrogen. Changes which occurred upon pyrolysis in air were studied by infrared spectroscopy. The monomer 1 is a crystalline solid that is stable indefinitely at room temperature.

Jones, K.M.; Keller, T.M. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1993-12-31

298

NDE of polymeric composite material bridge components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid advancements with respect to utilization of polymeric composite materials for bridge components is occurring. This situation is driven primarily by the potential improvements offered by these materials with respect to long term durability. However, because of the developmental nature of these materials much of the materials characterization has involved short term testing without the synergistic effects of environmental exposure. Efforts to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures, essential for any wide spread use in critical structural applications, have been consequently limited. This paper discuses the effort to develop NDE methods for field inspection of hybrid glass and carbon fiber reinforced vinyl ester pultruded 'double box' I beams that are installed in a small bridge over Tom's Creek, in Blacksburg, Virginia. Integrated structural element sensors, dormant infrared devices, as well as acousto-ultrasonic methods are under development for detecting and monitoring the occurrence and progression of life limiting deterioration mechanisms.

Duke, John C., Jr.; Horne, Michael R.

1998-03-01

299

Using Composite Materials in a Cryogenic Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several modifications have been made to the design and operation of an extended-shaft cryogenic pump to increase the efficiency of pumping. In general, the efficiency of pumping a cryogenic fluid is limited by thermal losses which is itself caused by pump inefficiency and leakage of heat through the pump structure. A typical cryogenic pump includes a drive shaft and two main concentric static components (an outer pressure containment tube and an intermediate static support tube) made from stainless steel. The modifications made include replacement of the stainless-steel drive shaft and the concentric static stainless-steel components with components made of a glass/epoxy composite. The leakage of heat is thus reduced because the thermal conductivity of the composite is an order of magnitude below that of stainless steel. Taking advantage of the margin afforded by the decrease in thermal conductivity, the drive shaft could be shortened to increase its effective stiffness, thereby increasing the rotordynamic critical speeds, thereby further making it possible to operate the pump at a higher speed to increase pumping efficiency. During the modification effort, an analysis revealed that substitution of the shorter glass/epoxy shaft for the longer stainless-steel shaft was not, by itself, sufficient to satisfy the rotordynamic requirements at the desired increased speed. Hence, it became necessary to increase the stiffness of the composite shaft. This stiffening was accomplished by means of a carbon-fiber-composite overwrap along most of the length of the shaft. Concomitantly with the modifications described thus far, it was necessary to provide for joining the composite-material components with metallic components required by different aspects of the pump design. An adhesive material formulated specially to bond the composite and metal components was chosen as a means to satisfy these requirements.

Batton, William D.; Dillard, James E.; Rottmund, Matthew E.; Tupper, Michael L.; Mallick, Kaushik; Francis, William H.

2008-01-01

300

A risk forecasting process for nanostructured materials, and nanomanufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials exhibit novel properties that enable new applications ranging from molecular electronics to energy production. Proactive consideration of the potential impacts on human health and the environment resulting from nanomaterial production and use requires methods for forecasting risk associated with of these novel materials. However, the potential variety of nanomaterials is virtually infinite and a case-by-case analysis of the risks these materials may pose is not possible. The challenge of forecasting risk for a broad number of materials is further complicated by large degrees of uncertainty concerning production amounts, the characteristics and uses of these materials, exposure pathways, and a scarcity of data concerning the relationship between nanomaterial characteristics and their effects on organisms and ecosystems. A traditional risk assessment on nanomaterials is therefore not possible at this time. In its place, an evolving process is needed for analyzing the risks associated with emerging nanomaterials-related industries. In this communication, we propose that such a process should include the following six key features: (1) the ability to generate forecasts and associated levels of uncertainty for questions of immediate concern; (2) a consideration of all pertinent sources of nanomaterials; (3) an inclusive consideration of the impacts of activities stemming from nanomaterial use and production that extends beyond the boundaries of toxicology and include full life cycle impacts; (4) the ability to adapt and update risk forecasts as new information becomes available; (5) feedback to improve information gathering; and (6) feedback to improve nanomaterial design. Feature #6 implies that the potential risks of nanomaterials must ultimately be determined as a function of fundamental, quantifiable properties of nanomaterials, so that when these properties are observed in a new material, they can be recognized as indicators of risk. Thus, the required risk assessment process for nanomaterials addresses needs that span from urgent, short-term questions dealing with nanomaterials currently in commerce, to longer-term issues that will require basic research and advances in theory. In the following sections we outline issues surrounding each of these six features and discuss.

Wiesner, Mark R.; Bottero, Jean-Yves

2011-09-01

301

Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.

Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

302

Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

1997-01-01

303

Bottom-up nanostructured bulk silicon: a practical high-efficiency thermoelectric material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of thermoelectric (TE) materials is quantified by the dimensionless figure of merit (zT). An ideal way to enhance zT is by scattering phonons without scattering electrons. Here we show that, using a simple bottom-up method, we can prepare bulk nanostructured Si that exhibits an exceptionally high zT of 0.6 at 1050 K, at least three times higher than that of the optimized bulk Si. The nanoscale precipitates in this material connected coherently or semi-coherently with the Si matrix, effectively scattering heat-carrying phonons without significantly influencing the material's electron transport properties, leading to the high zT.The effectiveness of thermoelectric (TE) materials is quantified by the dimensionless figure of merit (zT). An ideal way to enhance zT is by scattering phonons without scattering electrons. Here we show that, using a simple bottom-up method, we can prepare bulk nanostructured Si that exhibits an exceptionally high zT of 0.6 at 1050 K, at least three times higher than that of the optimized bulk Si. The nanoscale precipitates in this material connected coherently or semi-coherently with the Si matrix, effectively scattering heat-carrying phonons without significantly influencing the material's electron transport properties, leading to the high zT. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04470c

Yusufu, Aikebaier; Kurosaki, Ken; Miyazaki, Yoshinobu; Ishimaru, Manabu; Kosuga, Atsuko; Ohishi, Yuji; Muta, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

2014-10-01

304

Test Plan for Composite Hydrogen Getter Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intent of this test plan is to provide details of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) effort to evaluate composite getter materials for eventual use in expanding the wattage limits for transportation of contact-handled transuranic waste (CH-TRU). This effort is funded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) under Technical Task Plan (TTP) SR-1-9-MW-45 and is the result of

2000-01-01

305

Machine augmented composite materials for damping purposes  

E-print Network

???????........??...27 4. INVESTIGATION OF FLUID FLOW IN AND INTERACTION WITH TUBES EMBEDDED IN A MATRIX............................................................38 4.1 Modeling of Sealed Tubes Embedded in an Elastomer Matrix??....??..38.... On the other hand, common elastomers possess good damping characteristics and low density, but they have relatively low stiffness and strength. Conventional composite materials have large stiffness to density ratios, but many lack good damping properties...

McCutcheon, David Matthew

2005-02-17

306

Silicon nitride reinforced nickel alloy composite materials  

SciTech Connect

An erosion resistant composite material is described comprising silicon nitride rod reinforced nickel alloy, where the silicon nitride is cold pressed and sintered and substantially nonreactive with the alloy at high temperatures. The silicon nitride can either be polycrystalline or amorphous containing alumina, 15% yttria and about 2% to about 5% silica. Three to 8% alumina is used in the case of polycrystalline silicon nitride and 2% to 6% alumina is used in the case of amorphous silicon nitride.

Galasso, F. S.; Veltri, R. D.

1985-10-29

307

Mechanics Methodology for Textile Preform Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and its contractors have completed a program to develop a basic mechanics underpinning for textile composites. Three major deliverables were produced by the program: 1. A set of test methods for measuring material properties and design allowables; 2. Mechanics models to predict the effects of the fiber preform architecture and constituent properties on engineering moduli, strength, damage resistance, and fatigue life; and 3. An electronic data base of coupon type test data. This report describes these three deliverables.

Poe, Clarence C., Jr.

1996-01-01

308

Impact of solids on composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The failure modes of composite materials as a result of low velocity impact were investigated by simulating the impact with a finite element analysis. An important facet of the project is the modeling of the impact of a solid onto cylindrical shells composed of composite materials. The model under development will simulate the delamination sustained when a composite material encounters impact from another rigid body. The computer equipment was installed, the computer network tested, and a finite element method model was developed to compare results with known experimental data. The model simulated the impact of a steel rod onto a rotating shaft. Pre-processing programs (GMESH and TANVEL) were developed to generate node and element data for the input into the three dimensional, dynamic finite element analysis code (DYNA3D). The finite element mesh was configured with a fine mesh near the impact zone and a coarser mesh for the impacting rod and the regions surrounding the impacting zone. For the computer simulation, five impacting loads were used to determine the time history of the stresses, the scribed surface areas, and the amount of ridging. The processing time of the computer codes amounted from 1 to 4 days. The calculated surface area were within 6-12 percent, relative error when compated to the actual scratch area.

Bronson, Arturo; Maldonado, Jerry; Chern, Tzong; Martinez, Francisco; Mccord-Medrano, Johnnie; Roschke, Paul N.

1987-01-01

309

Raman Studies of the Nanostructure of Sol-Gel Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four sol-gel systems (alumina, aluminum hydroxide, zirconia, and magnesia) were investigated, primarily by laser spectroscopy, on several series of materials prepared by systematically varying the synthesis procedures. Nanocrystalline boehmite, gamma -AlO(OH), was found to be the principal component in the sol-gel alumina system. Materials were prepared by the hot-water hydrolysis/condensation of rm Al(OC_4H_9)_3, the Yoldas process, as a function of process variables such as the time spent in the sol phase. Small but systematic changes, as a function of sol aging time, were discovered in the lineshape and position of the dominant boehmite Raman band observed in the alumina hydrogels. These spectral changes were interpreted in terms of nanocrystallinity-induced finite-size effects associated with the slow growth of AlO(OH) nanocrystals in the sol. X-ray diffraction experiments were used to determine nanocrystal sizes (as small as 3 nm for gels prepared from fresh sols) and to estimate growth kinetics from the Raman-lineshape results. These results appear to be among the first available for crystallite growth kinetics (ripening) in the near-atomic-scale nanocrystal regime. The trihydroxide polymorph system is closely related to the sol-gel alumina system. The processing temperature and the method of hydrolysis were varied, in order to determine their effect on the trihydroxide phase mix. The trihydroxide phase mix does not change with time; it depends only on the initial hydrolysis conditions. Bayerite is the primary phase present for materials processed at 25 C, while nordstrandite is the primary phase present for materials processed at 60 C. It is shown that the trihydroxide crystal nucleation kinetics are responsible for the Al(OH)_3 phase mix. Hydroxide/oxyhydroxide phase-mix kinetics were also studied; this ratio increases with time. The associated rate constant decreases with increasing temperature. Sol-gel zirconia was prepared by using atmospheric water to hydrolyze a mixture of zirconium propoxide, acetic acid, and n-propanol. This produces a clear gel. Hydrogen peroxide was found to chemically react with the gels. Clean Raman spectra reveal a broad-band structure (the full width at half maximum is 150 cm^{-1} ) centered at about 460 cm^{ -1}. Raman and luminescent spectra (both obtained on the Raman spectrometer) were used to monitor the conversion of magnesium-carbonate-based materials to magnesium oxide, as a function of temperature. This new phase-determination technique utilizes the krypton 674.1 nm laser line so that the carbonate symmetric-stretch band and the MgO:Cr ^{+++} luminescence band are readily observable on the same spectrum. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Doss, Calvin James

310

Muorganic/inorganic nanostructured materials: Towards synergistic mechanical and optical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study utilizes the "bricks" and "mortar" approach to assemble representative organic and inorganic nanostructures into functional hybrid nanomaterials. Zero-dimensional spherical nanoparticles, one-dimensional silver nanowires, and two-dimensional silver nanoplates represent the inorganic functional nanostructured "bricks". Functional-group bearing polystyrene2-polyethyleneoxide1 (PS2-PEO 1) star polymer, poly(allylamine hydrochloride), and poly(styrene sulfonate) were employed as the "mortar". Mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of the resulting organic/inorganic microstructures were investigated to establish structure-property relationships. Beyond the design, fabrication, and characterization of these novel hybrid nanomaterials two potential applications have been explored: (1) ultra-thin composite film-based pressure sensor and (2) single nanoparticle SERS-based chemical sensors. One-dimensional silver nanowires (diameter = 80 +/- 5 nm, length = 6 +/- 2 microm) were sandwiched into layer-by-layer (LbL) polyelectrolyte film to yield a series of robust freestanding ultrathin structures (< 100 nm thick). The sandwich architecture allows facile control over volume fraction of silver nanowires (2.5 ? ? ? 22.5%), and hence their composite Young's moduli. Furthermore, the composite film was found to be conductive (110--660 S/cm) within the range of volume fraction in par with percolation threshold predicted for a two-dimensional film. Subsequently, an array of silver nanowires was unidirectionally aligned by means of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The unidirectionally oriented silver nanowires were sandwiched into LbL film to give an anisotropic nanocomposite film with much stiffer (fivefold) mechanical response in the direction of nanowire orientation. In addition to their tailored mechanical and electrical properties, these films are robust and can be easily transferred onto various microfabricated substrates. To fabricate these nanostructures, two experimental techniques were developed to characterize the micromechanical properties of the nanocomposite film and array of one-dimensional metallic nanostructures: interferometry of bulged film and buckling of array of highly-oriented nanowires, respectively. Next, using the same silver nanowire building block a different design of organic/inorganic hybrid nanostructures was explored. With the aid of a three-arm (X-PEO)1-(PS1-Y)2 star polymer linker, spherical gold nanoparticles were assembled onto a silver nanowire surface. We demonstrated that such hybrid, silver-gold nanowires resembling nanocobs, possess significant SERS ability and can serve as bright anisotropic SERS-markers for Raman-based chemical sensor. The influence of core nanostructure geometries (1-D silver nanowire versus 2-D silver nanoplates) were subsequently investigated for their single-nanoparticle hybrid SERS-enhancing ability and control over optical plasmon absorption within the visible and near infrared range. In the latter design, an improved design of SERS-nanostructure was explored by replacing the three-arm star polymer with polyelectrolyte "mortar" which can absorb chemical analytes into the intra-particle "hot-spots".

Gunawidjaja, Ray

311

Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.  

SciTech Connect

Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

Sigmund, Wolfgang M. (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL); Woan, Karran V. (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL); Bell, Nelson Simmons

2010-11-01

312

Nanostructure multilayer dielectric materials for capacitors and insulators  

DOEpatents

A capacitor is formed of at least two metal conductors having a multilayer dielectric and opposite dielectric-conductor interface layers in between. The multilayer dielectric includes many alternating layers of amorphous zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The dielectric-conductor interface layers are engineered for increased voltage breakdown and extended service life. The local interfacial work function is increased to reduce charge injection and thus increase breakdown voltage. Proper material choices can prevent electrochemical reactions and diffusion between the conductor and dielectric. Physical vapor deposition is used to deposit the zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in alternating layers to form a nano-laminate. 1 fig.

Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

1998-04-21

313

Nanostructure multilayer dielectric materials for capacitors and insulators  

DOEpatents

A capacitor is formed of at least two metal conductors having a multilayer dielectric and opposite dielectric-conductor interface layers in between. The multilayer dielectric includes many alternating layers of amorphous zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2) and alumina (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3). The dielectric-conductor interface layers are engineered for increased voltage breakdown and extended service life. The local interfacial work function is increased to reduce charge injection and thus increase breakdown voltage. Proper material choices can prevent electrochemical reactions and diffusion between the conductor and dielectric. Physical vapor deposition is used to deposit the zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2) and alumina (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3) in alternating layers to form a nano-laminate.

Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA)

1998-04-21

314

Synthesis of nanostructured materials using laser vaporization/condensation technique  

SciTech Connect

A method which combines laser vaporization of metal targets with controlled condensation in a diffusion cloud chamber is used to synthesize nanoscale metal oxide and metal carbide particles (10-20 nm). In this work we present the results for the synthesis and characterization of SiO{sub 2} and ZnO as examples of metal oxide nanoparticles. The silica nanoparticles aggregate into a novel web-like microstructure. These aggregates are very porous and have a very large surface area (460 m{sup 2}/g). Bright blue photoluminescence from the nanoparticle silica has been observed upon irradiation with UV light. The photoluminescence is explained by the presence of intrinsic defects of the type Si{sub 2}{sup o} in the amorphous silica. This material could have special applications in optical devices, catalysis and as a polymer reinforcing agent.

El-Shall, M.S. [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States); Graiver, D.; Pernisz, U. [Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

315

Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of nanostructured thermoelectric materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bismuth in the bulk form is a semimetal with a rhombohedral structure. It has a small band overlap between the conduction and valence bands and a highly anisotropic electron effective-mass tensor. Thermoelectric materials, in which one of the three dimensions is in the nanometer regime, exhibit unique quantum confinement properties and have generated much interest in recent years. Theoretical investigations have suggested that nanowires with diameters ? 10 nm will possess a figure-of-merit ZT > 2. Prior to this study, it has been shown that Bi nanowires with small enough diameters (10 nm), prepared via the pulsed laser vaporization method, undergo a transition from a semimetal with a small band overlap to a semiconductor with a small indirect band gap. Infrared absorption and UV-visible measurements were used to confirm this semimetal-to-semiconductor phase transition. In this thesis, we report the synthesis and optical characteristics of a variety of various potential thermoelectric materials including bismuth, nickel sulfide and cadmium sulfide. The infrared absorption in our Bi nanorods is blue-shifted in energy when compared to the corresponding spectra in bulk Bi, and when cooled down to liquid nitrogen temperatures, group theory suggests a strong temperature dependence in the Bi band structure. We also find that the Bi nanorod suspension displays excellent optical limiting properties at both 532 and 1064 nm excitations in the nanosecond laser pulse regime. We have also synthesized nickel sulfide nanoparticles with an average size of 5 nm by a one-step solid phase reaction. The intensity-dependent nonlinear transmission study was carried out using a 7 ns Nd:YAG laser at 532nm using Z-scan, and the nonlinear scattering was found to be the dominant mechanism for the observed response. Importantly, the modified Z-scan method allowed us to measure two competing mechanisms simultaneously - the optical limiting and saturable absorption in surface-modified nickel sulfide nanoparticles suspensions.

Reppert, Jason Brooks

316

Template synthesis and characterization of nanostructured lithium insertion electrodes and nanogold/porous aluminum oxide composite membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A membrane-based template synthesis method was used to prepare nanostructured Li-ion battery electrodes and nanogold/porous aluminum oxide composite membranes. Membrane-based template synthesis is a general method for the preparation of nanomaterials which entails deposition of the material of interest, or a suitable precursor, within the nanometer-diameter pores in a porous template membrane. This method allows for control of nanoparticle size and shape and is compatible with many methods of synthesis for bulk materials. The template membranes used in this work were commercially available porous polycarbonate filtration membranes and nanoporous aluminum oxide membranes that were prepared in-house. Nanostructured electrodes of orthorhombic V2O5, prepared using membrane-based template synthesis, were used to investigate the effects of Li-ion diffusion distance and V2O5 surface area on electrode rate capability. Nanowires of V2O5 were prepared by depositing a precursor in the pores of microporous polycarbonate filtration membranes. The result was an ensemble of 115 nm diameter, 2 mum long nanowires of V2O5 which protruded from a V 2O5 surface layer like the bristles of a brush. The Li + storage capacity of the nanostructured electrode was compared to a thin film control electrode at high discharge rates. Results show that the nanostructured electrode delivered three to four times the capacity of the thin film electrode at discharge rates above 500 C. A membrane based template synthesis method was also used to prepare crystalline V2O5 electrodes which have high volumetric charge capacities, at high discharge rates, compared to a thin-film control electrode. In order to obtain high volumetric rate capability, the as-received polycarbonate template membranes were chemically etched to increase membrane porosity. Nanofibrous electrodes of crystalline V2O5 were then prepared by depositing an alkoxide precursor in the pores of the etched membranes. Electrode volumetric capacity was further increased by addition of the V2O 5 precursor to the parent nanostructured electrodes. Results on the volumetric and geometric rate capabilities and the cycling performance of these electrodes are presented. Finally, nanogold was electrochemically deposited in porous aluminum oxide template membranes to study the effect of temperature on the shape and optical properties of the gold nanoparticles. Low aspect ratio nanoparticles were observed, via electron microscopy, to be thin skinned, flakes of Au within the pores. After heat treatment at temperatures well below the melting point of gold (<400 C) these particles changed shape to become nearly spherical. Visually, the color of these membranes changed from blue to red after the heat treatment. In contrast, the nanoparticles with an aspect ratio of ca. 3 showed essentially no detectable change in shape or optical properties after exposure to the same heating program. The membranes started red and did not change color with heating.

Patrissi, Charles John

317

Reflective and magnetic properties of photonic polymer composite materials based on porous silicon and magnetite nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Photonic polymer composite materials exhibiting both reflective and magnetic properties were prepared by the replication of rugate porous silicon (PS) using polystyrene and magnetite nanoparticle (Fe3O4). Rugate PS prepared by applying a computer-generated pseudo-sinusoidal current waveform resulted in a mirror with high reflectivity in a specific narrow spectral region and served as a template for replicating its nanostructure with polystyrene containing the magnetic nanoparticles of magnetite. The composite films replicated a sharp photonic resonance with full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of 20 nm from rugate PS in the reflectivity spectrum as well as displayed a magnetic property of magnetite nanoparticles in SQUID magnetometry. Optical characteristics of composite films indicated that the surface of polymer film had a negative structure of rugate PS. The composite films were stable in aqueous solutions for several days without any degradation. PMID:20358975

Kim, Jihoon; Koh, Youngdae; Jang, Seunghyun; Jung, Kyoungsun; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Kim, Sungsoo; Sohn, Honglae

2010-05-01

318

Composite material systems for hydrogen management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The task of managing hydrogen entry into elevated temperature structural materials employed in turbomachinery is a critical engineering area for propulsion systems employing hydrogen or decomposable hydrocarbons as fuel. Extant structural materials, such as the Inconel series, are embrittled by the ingress of hydrogen in service, leading to a loss of endurance and general deterioration of load-bearing dependability. Although the development of hydrogen-insensitive material systems is an obvious engineering option, to date insensitive systems cannot meet the time-temperature-loading service extremes encountered. A short-term approach that is both feasible and technologically sound is the development and employment of hydrogen barrier coatings. The present project is concerned with developing, analyzing, and physically testing laminate composite hydrogen barrier systems, employing Inconel 718 as the structural material to be protected. Barrier systems will include all metallic, metallic-to-ceramic, and, eventually, metallic/ceramic composites as the lamellae. Since space propulsion implies repetitive engine firings without earth-based inspection and repair, coating durability will be closely examined, and testing regimes will include repetitive thermal cycling to simulate damage accumulation. The target accomplishments include: generation of actual hydrogen permeation data for metallic, ceramic-metallic, and hybrid metallic/ceramic composition barrier systems, practically none of which is currently extant; definition of physical damage modes imported to barrier systems due to thermal cycling, both transient temperature profiles and steady-state thermal mismatch stress states being examined as sources of damage; and computational models that incorporate general laminate schemes as described above, including manufacturing realities such as porosity, and whatever defects are introduced through service and characterized during the experimental programs.

Pangborn, R. N.; Queeney, R. A.

1991-01-01

319

Toward designer magnetite/polystyrene colloidal composite microspheres with controllable nanostructures and desirable surface functionalities.  

PubMed

An effective method was developed for synthesizing magnetite/polymer colloidal composite microspheres with controllable variations in size and shape of the nanostructures and desirable interfacial chemical functionalities, using surfactant-free seeded emulsion polymerization with magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) colloidal nanocrystal clusters (CNCs) as the seed, styrene (St) as the monomer, and potassium persulfate (KPS) as the initiator. The sub-micrometer-sized citrate-acid-stabilized Fe(3)O(4) CNCs were first obtained via ethylene glycol (EG)-mediated solvothermal synthesis, followed by 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MPS) modification to immobilize the active vinyl groups onto the surfaces, and then the hydrophobic St monomers were polymerized at the interfaces to form the polymer shells by seeded emulsion radical polymerization. The morphology of the composite microspheres could be controlled from raspberry- and flower-like shapes, to eccentric structures by simply adjusting the feeding weight ratio of the seed to the monomer (Fe(3)O(4)/St) and varying the amount of cross-linker divinyl benzene (DVB). The morphological transition was rationalized by considering the viscosity of monomer-swollen polymer matrix and interfacial tension between the seeds and polymer matrix. Functional groups, such as carboxyl, hydroxyl, and epoxy, can be facilely introduced onto the composite microspheres through copolymerization of St with other functional monomers. The resultant microspheres displayed a high saturation magnetization (46 emu/g), well-defined core-shell nanostructures, and surface chemical functionalities, as well as a sustained colloidal stability, promising for further biomedical applications. PMID:22288525

Xu, Shuai; Ma, Wan-Fu; You, Li-Jun; Li, Ju-Mei; Guo, Jia; Hu, Jack J; Wang, Chang-Chun

2012-02-14

320

Superhydrophobic ceramic coatings enabled by phase-separated nanostructured composite TiO2-Cu2O thin films.  

PubMed

By exploiting phase-separation in oxide materials, we present a simple and potentially low-cost approach to create exceptional superhydrophobicity in thin-film based coatings. By selecting the TiO2-Cu2O system and depositing through magnetron sputtering onto single crystal and metal templates, we demonstrate growth of nanostructured, chemically phase-segregated composite films. These coatings, after appropriate chemical surface modification, demonstrate a robust, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and yield an exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles reaching to ~172 and sliding angles <1. As an added benefit, despite the photo-active nature of TiO2, the chemically coated composite film surfaces display UV stability and retain superhydrophobic attributes even after exposure to UV (275 nm) radiation for an extended period of time. The present approach could benefit a variety of outdoor applications of superhydrophobic coatings, especially for those where exposure to extreme atmospheric conditions is required. PMID:24857856

Aytug, Tolga; Bogorin, Daniela F; Paranthaman, Parans M; Mathis, John E; Simpson, John T; Christen, David K

2014-06-20

321

Composite materials for thermal energy storage  

DOEpatents

The present invention discloses composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These phase change materials do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions, such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Burrows, Richard W. (Conifer, CO); Shinton, Yvonne D. (Northglenn, CO)

1986-01-01

322

Polymer-composite materials for radiation protection.  

PubMed

Unwanted exposures to high-energy or ionizing radiation can be hazardous to health. Prolonged or accumulated radiation dosage from either particle-emissions such as alpha/beta, proton, electron, neutron emissions, or high-energy electromagnetic waves such as X-rays/? rays, may result in carcinogenesis, cell mutations, organ failure, etc. To avoid occupational hazards from these kinds of exposures, researchers have traditionally used heavy metals or their composites to attenuate the radiation. However, protective gear made of heavy metals are not only cumbersome but also are capable of producing more penetrative secondary radiations which requires additional shielding, increasing the cost and the weight factor. Consequently, significant research efforts have been focused toward designing efficient, lightweight, cost-effective, and flexible shielding materials for protection against radiation encountered in various industries (aerospace, hospitals, and nuclear reactors). In this regard, polymer composites have become attractive candidates for developing materials that can be designed to effectively attenuate photon or particle radiation. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art of polymer composites reinforced with micro/nanomaterials, for their use as radiation shields. PMID:23009182

Nambiar, Shruti; Yeow, John T W

2012-11-01

323

Nanostructure and mineral composition of trabecular bone in the lateral femoral neck: Implications for bone fragility in elderly women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite interest in investigating age-related hip fractures, the determinants of decreased bone strength in advanced age are not clear enough. Hitherto it has been obscure how the aging process affects the femoral neck nanostructure and composition, particularly in the lateral subregion of the femoral neck, which is considered as a fracture-initiating site. The femoral bone samples used in this study

Petar Milovanovic; Jelena Potocnik; Milovan Stoiljkovic; Danijela Djonic; Slobodan Nikolic; Olivera Neskovic; Marija Djuric; Zlatko Rakocevic

2011-01-01

324

Immobilization of lipase and keratinase on functionalized SBA-15 nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SBA-15 nanostructured materials were synthesized via hydrothermal treatment and were functionalized with 3- aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The obtained samples were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, BET, TEM, IR and DTA. After functionalization, it showed that these nanostrucrured materials still maintained the hexagonal pore structure of the parent SBA-15. The model enzyms chosen in this study were lipase and keratinase. Lipase was a biocatalyst for hydrolyzation of long chain triglycerides or methyl esters of long chain alcohols and fatty acids; keratinase is a proteolytic enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of keratin. The functionalized SBA-15 materials were used to immobilize lipase and keratinase, exhibiting higher activity than that of the unfunctionalized pure silica SBA-15 ones. This might be due to the enhancing of surface hydrophobicity upon functionalization. The surface functionalization of the nanostructured silicas with organic groups can favor the interaction between enzyme and the supports and consequently increasing the operational stability of the immobilized enzymes. The loading of lipase on functionalized SBA-15 materials was higher than that of keratinase. This might be rationalized by the difference in size of enzyms.

Le, Hy G.; Vu, Tuan A.; Tran, Hoa T. K.; Dang, Phuong T.

2013-12-01

325

Active composite materials as sensing elements for fiber-reinforced smart composite structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer based piezoelectric composite materials can be readily integrated within laminated composite structures to provide sensing and actuating capabilities. In this study composite films of ferroelectric ceramic\\/polymer materials have been developed and characterized as in-situ multi purpose sensing elements for the nondestructive monitoring of fiber reinforced composites. In this paper the response of embedded composite films to simulated acoustic emission

Panagiotis Blanas; Matthew P. Wenger; Elias J. Rigas; Dilip K. Das-Gupta

1998-01-01

326

Glasses, ceramics, and composites from lunar materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of useful silicate materials can be synthesized from lunar rocks and soils. The simplest to manufacture are glasses and glass-ceramics. Glass fibers can be drawn from a variety of basaltic glasses. Glass articles formed from titania-rich basalts are capable of fine-grained internal crystallization, with resulting strength and abrasion resistance allowing their wide application in construction. Specialty glass-ceramics and fiber-reinforced composites would rely on chemical separation of magnesium silicates and aluminosilicates as well as oxides titania and alumina. Polycrystalline enstatite with induced lamellar twinning has high fracture toughness, while cordierite glass-ceramics combine excellent thermal shock resistance with high flexural strengths. If sapphire or rutile whiskers can be made, composites of even better mechanical properties are envisioned.

Beall, George H.

1992-01-01

327

Reactive Ballistic Deposition of Nanostructured Model Materials for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage  

SciTech Connect

Finely structured, supported thin films offer a host of opportunities for fundamental and applied research. Nanostructured materials often exhibit physical properties which differ from their bulk counterparts due to the increased importance of the surface in determining the thermodynamics and behavior of the system. Thus, control of the characteristic size, porosity, morphology, and surface area presents opportunities to tailor new materials which are useful platforms for elucidating the fundamental processes related to energy conversion and storage. The ability to produce high purity materials with direct control of relevant film parameters such as porosity, film thickness, and film morphology is of immediate interest in the fields of electrochemistry, photocatalysis, and thermal catalysis. Studies of various photoactive materials have introduced questions concerning the effects of film architecture and surface structure on the performance of the materials, while recent work has demonstrated that nanostructured, mesoporous, or disordered materials often deform plastically, making them robust in applications where volumetric expansion and phase transformations occur, such as in materials for lithium-ion batteries. Moreover, renewed emphasis has been placed on the formation of semi-conductive electrodes with controlled pore-size and large surface areas for the study and application of pseudo-capacitance and cation insertion processes for electrical energy storage. Understanding how the performance of such materials depends on morphology, porosity, and surface structure and area requires a synthesis technique which provides for incremental variations in structure and facilitates assessment of the performance with the appropriate analytical tools, preferably those that provide both structural information and kinetic insight into photoelectrochemical processes.

Flaherty, David W.; Hahn, Nathan T.; May, Robert A.; Berglund, Sean P.; Lin, Yong-Mao; Stevenson, Keith J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kay, Bruce D.; Mullins, C. Buddie

2012-03-20

328

Recycling technologies for thermoset composite materialscurrent status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technologies for recycling thermoset composite materials are reviewed. Mechanical recycling techniques involve the use of grinding techniques to comminute the scrap material and produce recyclate products in different size ranges suitable for reuse as fillers or partial reinforcement in new composite material. Thermal recycling processes involve the use of heat to break the scrap composite down and a range

S. J. Pickering

2006-01-01

329

Thermal, mechanical and dielectric properties of nanostructured epoxy-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of the thermal, mechanical and dielectric measurements conducted on polymer nanocomposites consisting of epoxy and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). The material composites were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Glass transition temperatures of the composites were measured with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Stress,

M. Takala; M. Karttunen; J. Pelto; P. Salovaara; T. Munter; M. Honkanen; T. Auletta; K. Kannus

2008-01-01

330

Composite materials for thermal energy storage  

DOEpatents

A composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These PCM's do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.; Shinton, Y.D.

1985-01-04

331

Nanostructured exchange coupled hard/soft composites: From the local magnetization profile to an extended 3d simple model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nanocomposite magnetic materials the exchange coupling between phases plays a central role in the determination of the extrinsic magnetic properties of the material: coercive field,remanence magnetization. Exchange coupling is therefore of crucial importance in composite systems made of magnetically hard and soft grains or in partially crystallized media including nanosized crystallites in a soft matrix. It has been shown also to be a key point in the control of stratified hard/soft media coercive field in the research for optimized recording media. A signature of the exchange coupling due to the nanostructure is generally obtained on the magnetization curve M(H) with a plateau characteristic of the domain wall compression at the hard/soft interface ending at the depinning of the wall inside the hard phase. This compression/depinning behavior is clearly evidenced through one dimensional description of the interface, which is rigorously possible only in stratified media. Starting from a local description of the hard/soft interface in a model for nanocomposite system we show that one can extend this kind of behavior for system of hard crystallites embedded in a soft matrix.

Russier, V.; Younsi, K.; Bessais, L.

2012-03-01

332

Estimating Weibull parameters for composite materials.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper deals with the statistical analysis of strength and fracture of materials in general, with application to fiber composites. The 'weakest link' model is considered in a fairly general form, and the resulting equations are demonstrated by using a Weibull distribution for flaws. This distribution appears naturally in a variety of problems, and therefore additional attention is devoted to analysis and statistical estimation connected with this distribution. Special working charts are included to facilitate interpretation of observed data and estimation of parameters. Implications of the size effect are considered for various kinds of flaw distributions. The paper describes failure and damage in a fiber-reinforced systems.

Robinson, E. Y.

1972-01-01

333

Composite materials flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Organic composite test specimens were flown on several LDEF experiments. Both bare and coated composites were flown. Atomic oxygen eroded bare composite material, with the resins being recessed at a greater rate than the fibers. Selected coating techniques protected the composite substrate in each case. Tensile and optical properties are reported for numerous specimens. Fiberglass and metal matrix composites were also flown.

George, Pete E.; Dursch, Harry W.; Pippin, H. Gary

1995-01-01

334

Plasma-based ion implantation: a valuable technology for the elaboration of innovative materials and nanostructured thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII), invented in 1987, can now be considered as a mature technology for thin film modification. After a brief recapitulation of the principle and physics of PBII, its advantages and disadvantages, as compared to conventional ion beam implantation, are listed and discussed. The elaboration of thin films and the modification of their functional properties by PBII have already been achieved in many fields, such as microelectronics (plasma doping/PLAD), biomaterials (surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible materials), plastics (grafting, surface adhesion) and metallurgy (hard coatings, tribology), to name a few. The major advantages of PBII processing lie, on the one hand, in its flexibility in terms of ion implantation energy (from 0 to 100 keV) and operating conditions (plasma density, collisional or non-collisional ion sheath), and, on the other hand, in the easy transferrability of processes from the laboratory to industry. The possibility of modifying the composition and physical nature of the films, or of drastically changing their physical properties over several orders of magnitude makes this technology very attractive for the elaboration of innovative materials, including metastable materials, and the realization of micro- or nanostructures. A review of the state of the art in these domains is presented and illustrated through a few selected examples. The perspectives opened up by PBII processing, as well as its limitations, are discussed.

Vempaire, D.; Pelletier, J.; Lacoste, A.; Bchu, S.; Sirou, J.; Miraglia, S.; Fruchart, D.

2005-05-01

335

Fluorescence lifetimes and correlated photon statistics from single CdSe/oligo(phenylene vinylene) composite nanostructures.  

PubMed

We present measurements of fluorescence intensity trajectories and associated excited-state decay times from individual CdSe/oligo(phenylene vinylene) (CdSe-OPV) quantum dot nanostructures using time-tagged, time-resolved (TTTR) photon counting techniques. We find that fluorescence decay times for the quantum dot emitter in these composite systems are at least an order of magnitude shorter than ZnS-capped CdSe quantum dot systems. We show that both the blinking suppression and associated lifetime/count rate behavior can be described by a modified version of the diffusive reaction coordinate model which couples slow fluctuations in quantum dot electron (1Se, 1Pe) energies to Auger-assisted hole trapping processes, hence modifying both blinking statistics and excited-state decay rates. PMID:17655370

Odoi, M Y; Hammer, N I; Early, K T; McCarthy, K D; Tangirala, R; Emrick, T; Barnes, M D

2007-09-01

336

Nanostructured DPG Spring Meeting  

E-print Network

Bulk Nanostructured Materials DPG Spring Meeting 26 ­28 March 2012 Berlin symposium #12;Research and development in the field of bulk nano-structured materials has become a prominent topic in modern materials recently, also functional properties of bulk nanostructured materials have increasingly moved

Stummer, Wolfgang

337

Composite and diamond cold cathode materials  

SciTech Connect

Cold-cathode technology for Crossed-Field Amplifiers (CFAs) has not changed significantly over the last thirty years. The material typically used for cold cathode CFAs is either platinum (Pt) or beryllium (Be), although numerous other materials with higher secondary electron emission ratios have been tested. Beryllium cathodes display higher secondary emission ratios, {approximately} 3.4, than Pt, but require a partial pressure of oxygen to maintain a beryllium oxide (BeO) surface layer. These dispensers limit the life of the CFA, both directly, due to oxygen-source filament burnout, and indirectly, by the production of undesirable gases which adversely affect the performance of the CFA. In an attempt to reduce or eliminate the required oxygen dispenser output level, cathodes were constructed from three varieties of Be/BeO composite material and tested in L-4808s, standard forward-wave AEGIS CFAs. Diamond and diamond-like carbons are desirable as cathode materials because of their extremely high secondary electron emission ratio, greater than 20, but their use has previously been prohibitive because of cost, available, and physical characteristics. Because of recent advances in diamond growth technology it is now possible to deposit thin layers of diamond on a variety of geometric objects. In coordination with Penn State University four annular diamond emitters have been fabricated. The diamond emitters will be tested in a standard AEGIS CFA, both under vacuum and with a partial pressure of hydrogen.

Worthington, M.S.; Wheeland, C.L.; Ramacher, K.; Doyle, E. [Litton Systems Inc., Williamsport, PA (United States). Electron Devices Div.

1996-12-31

338

Vertically Aligned Nanostructured Arrays of Inorganic Materials: Synthesis, Distinctive Physical Phenomena, and Device Integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manifestation of novel physical phenomena upon scaling materials to finite size has inspired new device concepts that take advantage of the distinctive electrical, mechanical, and optical, properties of nanostructures. The development of fabrication approaches for the preparation of their 1D nanostructured form, such as nanowires and nanotubes, has contributed greatly to advancing fundamental understanding of these systems, and has spurred the integration of these materials in novel electronics, photonic devices, power sources, and energy scavenging constructs. Significant progress has been achieved over the last decade in the preparation of ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes, II---VI and III---V semiconductors, and some binary oxides such as ZnO. In contrast, relatively less attention has been focused on layered materials with potential for electrochemical energy storage. Here, we describe the catalyzed vapor transport growth of vertical arrays of orthorhombic V2O 5 nanowires. In addition, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is used to precisely probe the alignment, uniformity in crystal growth direction, and electronic structure of single-crystalline V2O5 nanowire arrays prepared by a cobalt-catalyzed vapor transport process. The dipole selection rules operational for core-level electron spectroscopy enable angle-dependant NEXAFS spectroscopy to be used as a sensitive probe of the anisotropy of these systems and provides detailed insight into bond orientation and the symmetry of the frontier orbital states. The experimental spectra are matched to previous theoretical predictions and allow experimental verification of features such as the origin of the split-off conduction band responsible for the n-type conductivity of V2O5 and the strongly anisotropic nature of vanadyl-oxygen-derived (V=O) states thought to be involved in catalysis. We have also invested substantial effort in obtaining shape and size control of metal oxide materials to obtain a fundamental understanding of the influence of finite size and surface restructuring on electronic instabilities in the proximity of the Fermi level. We present here a novel synthetic approach that takes advantage of the intrinsic octahedral symmetry of rock-salt-structured VO to facilitate the growth of six-armed nanocrystallites of related, technologically more important binary vanadium oxide V2O5 . The prepared nanostructures exhibit clear six-fold symmetry and most notably show remarkable retention of electronic structure. The latter has been evidenced through extensive X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. We have further designed a facile, generalizable, and entirely scalable approach for the fabrication of vertically aligned arrays of Fe2O 3/polypyrrole core---shell nanostructures and polypyrrole nanotubes. Our "all electrochemical" approach is based on the fabrication of ?-Fe 2O3 nanowire arrays by the simple heat treatment of commodity low carbon steel substrates, followed by electropolymerization of conformal polypyrrole sheaths around the nanowires. Subsequently, electrochemical etching of the nanowires yields large-area vertically aligned polypyrrole nanotube arrays on the steel substrate. The developed methodology is generalizable to functionalized pyrrole monomers and represents a significant practical advance of relevance to the technological implementation of conjugated polymer nanostructures in electrochromics, electrochemical energy storage, and sensing. As another variation of this general synthetic route, we have extended the practice of our simple oxidative process for the fabrication of large-area ZnO nanostructures, specifically highly aligned nanowire arrays integrated onto galvanized steel substrates which via a simple device design and additive piezoelectric nanopower generation were measured across the array substrates. The nanomaterial syntheses and device fabrication approaches developed here will enable facile integration of piezoelectric nanogenerators on to structural components.

Velazquez, Jesus Manuel

339

Phase evolution in carbide dispersion strengthened nanostructured copper composite by high energy ball milling  

SciTech Connect

In this study, high-energy ball milling was applied to synthesis in situ nanostructured copper based composite reinforced with metal carbides. Cu, M (M=W or Ti) and graphite powder mixture were mechanically alloyed for various milling time in a planetary ball mill with composition of Cu-20vol%WC and Cu-20vol%TiC. Then the as-milled powder were compacted at 200 to 400 MPa and sintered in a vacuum furnace at 900 Degree-Sign C. The results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that formation of tungsten carbides (W{sub 2}C and WC phases) was observed after sintering of Cu-W-C mixture while TiC precipitated in as-milled powder of Cu-Ti-C composite after 5 h and become amorphous with longer milling. Mechanism of MA explained the cold welding and fracturing event during milling. Cu-W-C system shows fracturing event is more dominant at early stage of milling and W particle still existed after milling up to 60 h. While in Cu-Ti-C system, cold welding is more dominant and all Ti particles dissolved into Cu matrix.

Hussain, Zuhailawati; Nur Hawadah, M. S. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

2012-09-06

340

Bottom-up nanostructured bulk silicon: a practical high-efficiency thermoelectric material.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of thermoelectric (TE) materials is quantified by the dimensionless figure of merit (zT). An ideal way to enhance zT is by scattering phonons without scattering electrons. Here we show that, using a simple bottom-up method, we can prepare bulk nanostructured Si that exhibits an exceptionally high zT of 0.6 at 1050 K, at least three times higher than that of the optimized bulk Si. The nanoscale precipitates in this material connected coherently or semi-coherently with the Si matrix, effectively scattering heat-carrying phonons without significantly influencing the material's electron transport properties, leading to the high zT. PMID:25311105

Yusufu, Aikebaier; Kurosaki, Ken; Miyazaki, Yoshinobu; Ishimaru, Manabu; Kosuga, Atsuko; Ohishi, Yuji; Muta, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

2014-11-21

341

Electrochemical Properties of Nanostructured Al1-xCux Alloys as Anode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries  

E-print Network

challenge to use metallic alloys as anodes in rechargeable lithium batteries is to improve their cycling anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been widely investigated becauseElectrochemical Properties of Nanostructured Al1-xCux Alloys as Anode Materials for Rechargeable

Ceder, Gerbrand

342

Electron Holography of Magnetic and Electric Fields in Nanostructured Materials Prepared for TEM Examination Using Focused Ion Beam Milling  

E-print Network

Electron Holography of Magnetic and Electric Fields in Nanostructured Materials Prepared for TEM-axis electron holography is a powerful technique for mapping magnetic and electrostatic fields in materials holography imposes four important limitations on the geometry and quality of an electron-transparent specimen

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

343

Making nanostructured pyrotechnics in a beaker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling composition at the nanometer scale is well known to alter material properties in sometimes highly desirable and dramatic ways. In the field of energetic materials component distributions, particle size, and morphology, effect both sensitivity and reactivity performance. To date nanostructured energetic materials are largely unknowns with the exception of nanometer-sized reactive powders now being produced at a number of

A E Gash; R L Simpson; T M Tillotson; J H Satcher; L W Hrubesh

2000-01-01

344

Development of collagen-hydroxyapatite nanostructured composites via a calcium phosphate precursor mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone is an interpenetrating inorganic/organic composite that consists of mineralized collagen fibrils, which is hierarchically organized into various structures. The structure of mineralized collagen fibril, in which nano-crystals of hydroxyapatite are embedded within the collagen fibrils, provides remarkable mechanical and bio-resorptive properties. Therefore, there have been many attempts to produce collagen-hydroxyapatite composites having a bone-like structure. However, duplication of even the most fundamental level of bone structure has not been easily achieved by conventional nucleation and growth techniques, which are based on the most widely accepted hypothesis of bone mineralization. In nature, the collagen fibril is mineralized via intrafibrillar mineralization, which produces preferentially oriented hydroxyapatite nano-crystals occupying the interstices in collagen fibrils. Our group has demonstrated that intrafibrillar mineralization can be achieved by using a new method based on the Polymer-Induced Liquid-Precursor (PILP) mineralization process. In the PILP process, a poly-anionic additive can produce an amorphous calcium phosphate precursor which enables us to achieve intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen. It is thought that the precursor is pulled into the interstices of the collagen fibrils via capillary forces, and upon solidification and crystallization of the precursor produces an interpenetrating composite with the nanostructured architecture of bone. In this dissertation, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PILP process on the intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen fibril, various collagen scaffolds, such as turkey tendon, bovine tendon and synthetic collagen sponge, were mineralized by the PILP process. Various poly-aspartates with different molecular weight were also used for the optimization of the PILP process for the mineralization of the collagen scaffolds. With the systematic researches, we discovered that the molecular weight of poly-aspartic acid affects the degree of intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen scaffolds. High molecular weight poly-aspartic acid could produce a stable and dispersed amorphous precursor, leading to a high degree of intrafibrillar mineralization. The mineral content of the collagen sponge mineralized using high molecular weight poly-aspartic acid was equivalent to the mineral content of bone. According to X-ray diffraction analysis of the mineralized collagen, the size and composition of the intrafibrillar hydroxyapatite produced by the PILP process were almost identical to carbonated hydroxyapatite in bone. The selective area electron diffraction patterns indicated that the [001] direction of hydroxyapatite is roughly aligned along the c-axis of collagen fibril, leading to the formation 002 arcs. Using dark field imaging, it was possible to visualize the preferentially oriented hydroxyapatite in TEM. Thermal analysis of mineralized collagen also showed a reduction in the thermal stability of collagen, which is similar to that observed in the collagen in bone, due to the presence of intrafibrillar hydroxyapatite. Now, we confidently suggest that the PILP process can provide a new way to develop synthetic bone-like composites whose nano-structure is very close to the nano-structure of natural bone. Moreover, we hope that our successful intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen via the precursor mechanism revives discussion of hypothesis of bone mineralization via the amorphous calcium phosphate phase.

Jee, Sang Soo

345

Material sensitive scanning probe microscopy of subsurface semiconductor nanostructures via beam exit Ar ion polishing.  

PubMed

Whereas scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is highly appreciated for its nanometre scale resolution and sensitivity to surface properties, it generally cannot image solid state nanostructures under the immediate sample surface. Existing methods of cross-sectioning (focused ion beam milling and mechanical and Ar ion polishing) are either prohibitively slow or cannot provide a required surface quality. In this paper we present a novel method of Ar ion beam cross-section polishing via a beam exiting the sample. In this approach, a sample is tilted at a small angle with respect to the polishing beam that enters from underneath the surface of interest and exits at a glancing angle. This creates an almost perfect nanometre scale flat cross-section with close to open angle prismatic shape of the polished and pristine sample surfaces ideal for SPM imaging. Using the new method and material sensitive ultrasonic force microscopy we mapped the internal structure of an InSb/InAs quantum dot superlattice of 18 nm layer periodicity with the depth resolution of the order of 5 nm. We also report using this method to reveal details of interfaces in VLSI (very large scale of integration) low k dielectric interconnects, as well as discussing the performance of the new approach for SPM as well as for scanning electron microscopy studies of nanostructured materials and devices. PMID:21415470

Kolosov, O V; Grishin, I; Jones, R

2011-05-01

346

Effect of Strand Symmetry on the Nanostructure and Material Properties in Beta-Hairpin Peptide Hydrogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogels have been established as promising biomaterials for applications such as scaffolds for tissue engineering, controlled drug delivery and cell encapsulation. De novo designed beta hairpin peptides, capable of undergoing self assembly and hydrogel formation, were investigated that contain asymmetric beta strand arms surrounding a turn sequence. The stimuli responsive self assembly of the hydrogels occurs via an intramolecular folding and strand interdigitation mechanism. CD and FTIR indicate a beta sheet secondary structure. WAXS shows a fibril structure reminiscent of the cross beta spine. SANS has been employed to globally quantify the local structure as being rod-like. Modification of the strand registry results in fibrils with non-twisting, laminated vs. twisted nanostructure. Fibril dimensions as measured by TEM and AFM corroborate the interdigitated assembly. Bulk material properties of these hydrogels studied using oscillatory rheology vary significantly for the different morphologies. Differences in the peptide registry that drive hydrogel nanostructure and the consequent material properties can be potentially utilized for usage in specific biomaterial applications.

Hule, Rohan; Pochan, Darrin; Nagarkar, Radhika; Schneider, Joel

2007-03-01

347

In vivo and in vitro investigations of a nanostructured coating material a preclinical study  

PubMed Central

Immediate loading of dental implants is only possible if a firm bone-implant anchorage at early stages is developed. This implies early and high bone apposition onto the implant surface. A nanostructured coating material based on an osseoinductive bone grafting is investigated in relation to the osseointegration at early stages. The goal is to transmit the structure (silica matrix with embedded hydroxyapatite) and the properties of the bone grafting into a coating material. The bone grafting substitute offers an osseoinductive potential caused by an exchange of the silica matrix in vivo accompanied by vascularization. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis show that the coating material consists of a high porous silica matrix with embedded nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with the same morphology as human hydroxyapatite. An in vitro investigation shows the early interaction between coating and human blood. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis showed that the silica matrix was replaced by an organic matrix within a few minutes. Uncoated and coated titanium implants were inserted into the femora of New Zealand White rabbits. The bone-to-implant contact (BIC) was measured after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The BIC of the coated implants was increased significantly at 2 and 4 weeks. After 6 weeks, the BIC was decreased to the level of the control group. A histological analysis revealed high bone apposition on the coated implant surface after 2 and 4 weeks. Osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities on the coating material indicated that the coating participates in the bone-remodeling process. The nanostructure of the coating material led to an exchange of the silica matrix by an autologous, organic matrix without delamination of the coating. This is the key issue in understanding initial bone formation on a coated surface. PMID:24627631

Adam, Martin; Ganz, Cornelia; Xu, Weiguo; Sarajian, Hamid-Reza; Gtz, Werner; Gerber, Thomas

2014-01-01

348

Isotopic Compositions of Uranium Reference Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium isotopic compositions of a variety of U standard materials were measured at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and are reported here. Both thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and multi-collector inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) were used to determine ratios of the naturally occurring isotopes of U. Establishing an internally coherent set of isotopic values for a range of U standards is essential for inter-laboratory comparison of small differences in 238U/235U, as well as the minor isotopes of U. Differences of ~1.3 are now being observed in 238U/235U in natural samples, and may play an important role in understanding U geochemistry where tracing the origin of U is aided by U isotopic compositions. The 238U/235U ratios were measured with a TRITON TIMS using a mixed 233U-236U isotopic tracer to correct for instrument fractionation. This tracer was extremely pure and resulted in only very minor corrections on the measured 238U/235U ratios of ~0.03. The values obtained for 238U/235U are: IRMM184 = 137.698 0.020 (n=15), SRM950a = 137.870 0.018 (n=8), and CRM112a = 137.866 0.030 (n=16). Uncertainties represent 2 s.d. of the population. Our measured value for IRMM184 is in near-perfect agreement with the certified value of 137.697 0.042. However, the U isotopic compositions of SRM950a and CRM112a are not certified. Minor isotopes of U were determined with a Nu Plasma HR MC-ICPMS and mass bias was corrected by sample/standard bracketing to IRMM184, using its certified 238U/235U ratio. Thus, the isotopic compositions determined using both instruments are compatible. The values obtained for 234U/235U are: SRM950a = (7.437 0.043)x10-3 (n=18), and CRM112a = (7.281 0.050)x10-3 (n=16), both of which are in good agreement with published values. The value for 236U/235U in SRM950a was determined to be (8.48 2.63)x10-6, whereas 236U was not detected in CRM112a. We are currently obtaining the U isotopic composition of CRM129a. Preliminary results suggest that the 238U/235U ratio is within error, but slightly lower than the certified value of 137.71.

Jacobsen, B.; Borg, L. E.; Williams, R. W.; Brennecka, G.; Hutcheon, I. D.

2009-12-01

349

APPLICATION OF ELECTROLESS METAL DEPOSITION FOR ADVANCED COMPOSITE SHIELDING MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the principles of formation and properties of new fibre composite materials for electromagnetic shields. Composite fibres consist of organic basis and metallic particles formed on surface and in the volume of fibre using electroless deposition technology. Polyacrylonitrile was the main type of fibres material that employed for modification and creation of composite structure. Polymer-like transformation of polyacrylonitrile

V. Bogush

350

Composite materials: Tomorrow for the day after tomorrow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the history of the use of composite materials in the aerospace industry. Research programs underway to obtain exact data on the behavior of composite materials over time are discussed. It is concluded that metal composites have not yet replaced metals, but that that this may be a future possibility.

Condom, P.

1982-01-01

351

Review on advanced composite materials boring mechanism and tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace manufacturing technology, advanced composite materials represented by carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) and super hybrid composites (fibre\\/metal plates) are more and more widely applied. The fibres are mainly carbon fibre, boron fibre, Aramid fiber and Sic fibre. The matrixes are resin matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix. Advanced composite materials have higher

Runping Shi; Chengyong Wang

2010-01-01

352

Temporal Evolution of the Nanostructure and Phase Compositions in a Model Ni-Al-Cr Alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a Ni-5.2 Al-14.2 Cr at.% alloy with moderate solute supersaturations and a very small gamma/gamma prime lattice parameter misfit, the nanostructural and compositional pathways during gamma prime(L12) precipitation at 873 K are investigated using atom-probe tomography, conventional transmission electron microscopy, and hardness measurements. Nucleation of high number densities (N(sub v) greater than 10(sup 23) per cubic meters) of solute-rich precipitates (mean radius = [R] = 0.75 nm), with a critical nucleus composition of Ni-18.3 plus or minus 0.9 Al-9.3 plus or minus 0.7 Cr at.%, initiates between 0.0833 and 0.167 h. With increasing aging time (a) the solute concentrations decay in spheroidal precipitates ([R] less than 10 nm); (b) the observed early-stage coalescence peaks at maximum N(sub v) in coincidence with the smallest interprecipitate spacing; and (c) the reaction enters a quasi-stationary regime where growth and coarsening operate concomitantly. During this quasi-stationary regime, the c (face-centered cubic)-matrix solute supersaturations decay with a power-law dependence of about -1/3, while the dependencies of [R] and N(sub v) are 0.29 plus or minus 0.05 and -0.64 plus or minus 0.06 at a coarsening rate slower than model predications. Coarsening models allow both equilibrium phase compositions to be determined from the compositional measurements. The observed early-stage coalescence is discussed in further detail.

Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Yoon, Kevin E.; Seidman, David N.; Seidman, David N.

2006-01-01

353

Method of preparing corrosion resistant composite materials  

DOEpatents

Method of manufacture of ceramic materials which require stability in severely-corrosive environment having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These surfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

Kaun, Thomas D. (320 Willow St., New Lenox, IL 60451)

1993-01-01

354

The Center for Nanostructured Materials: A User Facility at The University of Texas at Arlington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Nanostructured Materials (CNM) located at the University of Texas at Arlington is a fully equipped user facility that houses a variety of instrumentation for the characterization of nanomaterials. Several state-of-the-art characterization techniques are available including Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), Raman Spectroscopy, Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID), and X-ray Diffraction of thin films, powders, and single crystals. The range of instrumentation supports interdisciplinary collaborations in physics, chemistry and materials science and provides an excellent resource for training undergraduate and graduate students. The primary goal of CNM is to foster interdisciplinary collaborations for a wide range of researchers and as such we welcome all potential users. In this presentation I will discuss CNM's capabilities and user access policies.

Yousufuddin, Muhammed

2009-10-01

355

High strain rate effects for composite materials  

SciTech Connect

We have been developing the capability to characterize the high strain rate response of continuous fiber polymer composites. The data presented covers strain rates from 0/sec to 3000/sec. A combination of test machines and specimen geometries was investigated. Strain rates from 0--100/sec were generated using conventional and high speed hydraulic test machines. Strain rates from 10--1000/sec were generated using a high energy drop tower, and rates from 1000--3000/sec were generated using a split Hopkinson bar. Strain rates above 100/sec have only been generated for uniaxial compression. Our efforts have primarily focused on developing the high energy drop tower for these purposes. Specimen geometries for compression include tapered cubes, one inch tubes, and solid rods. For tension a smaller 0.5 in. diameter version of our 2.0 in. diameter multiaxial test specimen was developed and has been successfully used at strain rates up to 100 per second. Fixtures were also developed for performing high strain rate shear testing and through thickness penetration studies of composite plates. The objective of these experiments is to develop dynamic material models for use in finite element design tools. This presentation will focus on the methods and results obtained from this study.

Groves, S.E.; Sanchez, R.J.; Lyon, R.E.; Brown, A.E.

1992-04-16

356

Morphological and structural characterization of SiC based composite nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on producing SiC based nanostructures (SiC, W-SiC, CNS-SiC) by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and radio-frequency plasma assisted PLD. Simple and composite targets (SiC, 3/4 SiC + 1/4 tungsten and 3/4 SiC + 1/4 graphite) were irradiated by a 266 nm pulsed laser beam having a pulse duration of 7 ns. The silicon substrates were kept either at room temperature or heated up to 600 C. The depositions were performed in argon at various pressures, ranging from 0.05 mbar up to 2 mbar. The influence of deposition parameters on the structure, surface morphology and composition of different SiC based structures was studied by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Fibers, tubes, nanoparticles and rolled sheets structures were obtained by varying laser fluence, substrate temperature, gas pressure and radio-frequency power.

Filipescu, M.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Colceag, D.; Nedelcea, A.; Birjega, R.; Nistor, L. C.; Dinescu, M.

2013-08-01

357

Method for preparing polyolefin composites containing a phase change material  

DOEpatents

A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyolefin matrix having a phase change material such as a crystalline alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein. The composite is useful in forming pellets, sheets or fibers having thermal energy storage characteristics; methods for forming the composite are also disclosed.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1990-01-01

358

First-Principles Materials Design of Chalcopyrite-Type Photovoltaic Materials with Self-Organized Nano-Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) is a chalcopyrite-type semiconductor and one of the most promising materials for low cost photovoltaic solar-cells. In this paper, based on first-principles calculations, we propose that spinodal decomposition will enhance the conversion efficiency in CIGS. Our calculations are based on the KKR-CPA-LDA [1] with the self-interaction correction [2]. From the calculated mixing energy of CIGS, it is found that the system favors the spinodal decomposition. We also perform Monte Carlo simulations and find that quasi-one-dimensional nano-structures with high concentration of impurities are formed under the layer-by-layer crystal growth condition in CIGS [3]. It is expected that the photo-generated electron-hole pairs are efficiently separated by the type-II interface and then effectively transferred along the quasi-one-dimensional structures in CIGS. Moreover, we can expect multiplication of generated carriers due to the multi-exciton effects in nano-structures [3]. [4pt] [1] H. Akai, http://sham.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp/kkr/ [0pt] [2] A. Filippetti and N. A. Spaldin, Phys. Rev. B 67 (2003) 125109.[0pt] [3] Y. Tani et al., Appl. Phys. Express 3 (2010) 101201.

Tani, Yoshimasa; Sato, Kazunori; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi

2012-02-01

359

Nano-structured Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon composite for high-rate lithium-ion batteries Anqiang Pan a,b  

E-print Network

Nano-structured Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon composite for high-rate lithium-ion batteries Anqiang Pan a2(PO4)3 High-power battery Nano-structured Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon composite (Li3V2(PO4)3/C) has been September 2010 Available online 22 September 2010 Keywords: Li-ion batteries Cathode Vanadium phosphate Li3V

Cao, Guozhong

360

Development of Micro and Nanostructured Materials for Interfacial Self-Healing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Damage in polymeric coatings, adhesives, microelectronic components, and composites spans many length scales. For small scale damage, autonomic self-healing can repair multiple damage modes without manual intervention. In autonomic self-healing materials, a healing response is triggered by damage to the material. Size scale considerations, such as

Blaiszik, Benjamin James

2009-01-01

361

Lithium AlPO 4 composite polymer battery with nanostructured LiMn 2 O 4 cathode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The borate ester plasticized AlPO4 composite solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) have been synthesized and studied as candidates for lithium polymer battery (LPB)\\u000a application. The electrochemical and thermal properties of SPE were shown to be suitable for practical LPB. Nanostructured\\u000a LiMn2O4 with spherical particles was synthesized via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique and has shown a superior performance to\\u000a the one prepared

Zhumabay Bakenov; Masanobu Nakayama; Masataka Wakihara; Izumi Taniguchi

2008-01-01

362

First Principles Investigations of Technologically and Environmentally Important Nano-structured Materials and Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the course of my PhD I have worked on a broad range of problems using simulations from first principles: from catalysis and chemical reactions at surfaces and on nanostructures, characterization of carbon-based systems and devices, and surface and interface physics. My research activities focused on the application of ab-initio electronic structure techniques to the theoretical study of important aspects of the physics and chemistry of materials for energy and environmental applications and nano-electronic devices. A common theme of my research is the computational study of chemical reactions of environmentally important molecules (CO, CO2) using high performance simulations. In particular, my principal aim was to design novel nano-structured functional catalytic surfaces and interfaces for environmentally relevant remediation and recycling reactions, with particular attention to the management of carbon dioxide. We have studied the carbon-mediated partial sequestration and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO), both in the presence and absence of hydrogen, on graphitic edges. Using first-principles calculations we have studied several reactions of CO with carbon nanostructures, where the active sites can be regenerated by the deposition of carbon decomposed from the reactant (CO) to make the reactions self-sustained. Using statistical mechanics, we have also studied the conditions under which the conversion of CO to graphene and carbon dioxide is thermodynamically favorable, both in the presence and in the absence of hydrogen. These results are a first step toward the development of processes for the carbon-mediated partial sequestration and selective oxidation of CO in a hydrogen atmosphere. We have elucidated the atomic scale mechanisms of activation and reduction of carbon dioxide on specifically designed catalytic surfaces via the rational manipulation of the surface properties that can be achieved by combining transition metal thin films on oxide substrates. We have analyzed the mechanisms of the molecular reactions on the class of catalytic surfaces so designed in an effort to optimize materials parameters in the search of optimal catalytic materials. All these studies are likely to bring new perspectives and substantial advancement in the field of high-performance simulations in catalysis and the characterization of nanostructures for energy and environmental applications. Moving to novel materials for electronics applications, I have studied the structural and vibrational properties of mono and bi-layer graphene. I have characterized the lattice thermal conductivity of ideal monolayer and bi-layer graphene, demonstrating that their behavior is similar to that observed in graphite and indicating that the intra-layer coupling does not affect significantly the thermal conductance. I have also calculated the electron-phonon interaction in monolayer graphene and obtained electron scattering rates associated with all phonon modes and the intrinsic resistivity/mobility of monolayer graphene is estimated as a function of temperature. On another project, I have worked on ab initio molecular dynamic studies of novel Phase Change Materials (PCM) for memory and 3D-integration. We characterized high-temperature, sodium | nickel chloride, rechargeable batteries. These batteries are under consideration for hybrid drive systems in transportation applications. As part of our activities to improve performance and reliability of these batteries, we developed an engineering transport model of the component electrochemical cell. To support that model, we have proposed a reaction kinetics expression for the REDOX (reduction-oxidation) reaction at the porous positive electrode. We validate the kinetics expression with electrochemical measurements. A methodology based on the transistor body effect is used to estimate inversion oxide thicknesses (Tinv) in high-kappa/metal gate, undoped, ultra-thin body SOI FINFETs. The extracted Tinvs are compared to independent capacitance voltage (CV) measurements.

Paul, Sujata

363

Neutron scatteringThe key characterization tool for nanostructured magnetic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The novel properties of materials produced using nanoscale manufacturing processes often arise from interactions across interfaces between dissimilar materials. Thus, to characterize the structure and magnetism of nanoscale materials demands tools with interface specificity. Neutron scattering has long been known to provide unique and quantitative information about nuclear and magnetic structures of bulk materials. Moreover, the specialty techniques of polarized neutron reflectometry and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) with polarized neutron beams and polarization analysis, are ideally and often uniquely suited to studies of nanostructured magnetic materials. Since neutron scattering is a weakly interacting probe, it gives quantifiable and easily-interpreted information on properties of statistically representative quantities of bulk, thin film and interfacial materials. In addition, neutron scattering can provide information to complement that obtained with bulk probes (magnetization, Kerr effect) or surface measurements obtained with scanning probe microscopy or resonant soft x-ray scattering. The straightforward interpretation and the simultaneous availability of structural information, make neutron scattering the technique of choice for the structural and physical characterization of many novel materials, especially those with buried interfaces, ones allowing for isotopic substitutions to decorate buried interfaces, or cases where the magnetic response to an external stimulus can be measured. We describe recent applications of neutron scattering to important thin film materials systems and future opportunities. Unquestionably, neutron scattering has played a decisive role in the development and study of new emergent phenomena. We argue with the advent of new techniques in neutron scattering and sample environment, neutron scattering's role in such studies will become even more dominant. In particular, neutron scattering will clarify and distinguish between intrinsic vs. extrinsic origins of unusual behavior which invariably plague novel materials. Key to realizing these opportunities will be the development of sample environment capabilities especially tailored to test the origins of novel phenomena, and techniques to collect, analyze and correlate neutron event detection with time dependent perturbations to the sample's environment.

Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Schuller, Ivan K.

2014-01-01

364

ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF URANIUM REFERENCE MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Uranium isotopic compositions of a variety of U standard materials were measured at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and are reported here. Both thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and multi-collector inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) were used to determine ratios of the naturally occurring isotopes of U. Establishing an internally coherent set of isotopic values for a range of U standards is essential for inter-laboratory comparison of small differences in {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U, as well as the minor isotopes of U. Differences of {approx} 1.3{per_thousand} are now being observed in {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U in natural samples, and may play an important role in understanding U geochemistry where tracing the origin of U is aided by U isotopic compositions. The {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratios were measured with a TRITON TIMS using a mixed {sup 233}U-{sup 236}U isotopic tracer to correct for instrument fractionation. this tracer was extremely pure and resulted in only very minor corrections on the measured {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratios of {approx} 0.03. The values obtained for {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U are: IRMM184 = 137.698 {+-} 0.020 (n = 15), SRM950a = 137.870 {+-} 0.018 (n = 8), and CRM112a = 137.866 {+-} 0.030 (n = 16). Uncertainties represent 2 s.d. of the population. The measured value for IRMM184 is in near-perfect agreement with the certified value of 137.697 {+-} 0.042. However, the U isotopic compositions of SRM950a and CRM112a are not certified. Minor isotopes of U were determined with a Nu Plasma HR MC-ICPMS and mass bias was corrected by sample/standard bracketing to IRMM184, using its certified {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratio. Thus, the isotopic compositions determined using both instruments are compatible. The values obtained for {sup 234}U/{sup 235}U are: SRM950a = (7.437 {+-} 0.043) x 10{sup -3} (n = 18), and CRM112a = (7.281 {+-} 0.050) x 10{sup -3} (n = 16), both of which are in good agreement with published values. The value for {sup 236}U/{sup 235}U in SRM950a was determined to be (8.48 {+-} 2.63) x 10{sup -6}, whereas {sup 236}U was not detected in CRM112a. They are currently obtaining the U isotopic composition of CRM129a. Preliminary results suggest that the {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratio is within error, but slightly lower than the certified value of 137.71.

Jacobsen, B; Borg, L; Williams, R; Brennecka, G; Hutcheon, I

2009-09-03

365

Doping Cu into ZnO nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled doping appropriate elements into semiconductor nanostructures is of vital importance to develop novel materials and functional devices. Herein, we present three methods to synthesize Cu-doped ZnO nanostructures using a simple vapor phase transport process and adopting CuCl2, CuO or Cu as doping precursors. The corresponding morphology, structure, and chemical composition were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission

G. Z. Xing; J. G. Tao; G. P. Li; Z. Zhang; L. M. Wong; S. J. Wang; C. Huan; T. Wu

2008-01-01

366

Oxygen isotope composition of trinitite postdetonation materials.  

PubMed

Trinitite is the melt glass produced subsequent the first nuclear bomb test conducted on July 16, 1945, at White Sands Range (Alamagordo, NM). The geological background of the latter consists of arkosic sand that was fused with radioactive debris and anthropogenic materials at ground zero subsequent detonation of the device. Postdetonation materials from historic nuclear weapon test sites provide ideal samples for development of novel forensic methods for attribution and studying the chemical/isotopic effects of the explosion on the natural geological environment. In particular, the latter effects can be evaluated relative to their spatial distribution from ground zero. We report here ?(18)O() values for nonmelted, precursor minerals phases (quartz, feldspar, calcite), "feldspathic-rich" glass, "average" melt glass, and bulk (natural) unmelted sand from the Trinity site. Prior to oxygen isotope analysis, grains/crystals were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to determine their corresponding major element composition. ?(18)O values for bulk trinitite samples exhibit a large range (11.2-15.5) and do not correlate with activity levels for activation product (152)Eu; the latter levels are a function of their spatial distribution relative to ground zero. Therefore, the slow neutron flux associated with the nuclear explosion did not perturb the (18)O/(16)O isotope systematics. The oxygen isotope values do correlate with the abundances of major elements derived from precursor minerals present within the arkosic sand. Hence, the O isotope ratios documented here for trinitite melt glass can be attributed to a mixture of the respective signatures for precursor minerals at the Trinity site prior to the nuclear explosion. PMID:24304329

Koeman, Elizabeth C; Simonetti, Antonio; Chen, Wei; Burns, Peter C

2013-12-17

367

Prevention of microbial biofilms - the contribution of micro and nanostructured materials.  

PubMed

Microbial biofilms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance to most of the antimicrobial agents and with frequent treatment failures, generating the search for novel strategies which can eradicate infections by preventing the persistent colonization of the hospital environment, medical devices or human tissues. Some of the current approaches for fighting biofilms are represented by the development of novel biomaterials with increased resistance to microbial colonization and by the improvement of the current therapeutic solutions with the aid of nano (bio)technology. This special issues includes papers describing the applications of nanotechnology and biomaterials science for the development of improved drug delivery systems and nanostructured surfaces for the prevention and treatment of medical biofilms. Nanomaterials display unique and well-defined physical and chemical properties making them useful for biomedical applications, such as: very high surface area to volume ratio, biocompatibility, biodegradation, safety for human ingestion, capacity to support surface modification and therefore, to be combined with other bioactive molecules or substrata and more importantly being seemingly not attracting antimicrobial resistance. The use of biomaterials is significantly contributing to the reduction of the excessive use of antibiotics, and consequently to the decrease of the emergence rate of resistant microorganisms, as well as of the associated toxic effects. Various biomaterials with intrinsic antimicrobial activity (inorganic nanoparticles, polymers, composites), medical devices for drug delivery, as well as factors influencing their antimicrobial properties are presented. One of the presented papers reviews the recent literature on the use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP)-based nanomaterials in antimicrobial applications for biomedicine, focusing on the growth inhibition and killing of bacteria and fungi, and, on viral inactivation. The anti-pathogenic activity of the most common types of metallic/metal oxide nanoparticles, as well as the photocontrolled targeted drug-delivery system and the development of traditional Chinese herbs nanoparticles are some of the highlights of another paper of this issue. The applications of synthetic, biodegradable polymers for the improvement of antiinfective therapeutic and prophylactic agents (i.e., antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents and vaccines) activity, as well as for the design of biomaterials with increased biocompatibility and resistance to microbial colonization are also discussed, as well as one of the most recent paradigms of the pharmaceutical field and nanobiotechnology, represented by the design of smart multifunctional polymeric nanocarriers for controlled drug delivery. These systems are responding to physico-chemical changes and as a result, they can release the active substances in a controlled and targeted manner. The advantages and limitations of the main routes of polymerization by which these nanovehicles are obtained, as well as the practical appllications in the field of drug nanocarriers are presented. The authors describe the therapeutic applications of dendrimers, which are unimolecular, monodisperse nanocarriers with unique branched tree-like globular structure. The applications of nanotechnology for the stabilization and improved release of anti-pathogenic natural or synthetic compounds, which do not interfere with the microbial growth, but inhibit different features of microbial pathogenicity are also highlighted. We expect this special issue would offer a comprehensive update and give new directions for the design of micro/nano engineered materials to inhibit microbial colonization on the surfaces or to potentiate the efficiency of the current/ novel/alternative antimicrobial agents by improving their bioavailability and pharmacokinetic features. PMID:24606506

Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chifiriuc, Carmen Mariana

2014-01-01

368

Efficient plasma route to nanostructure materials: case study on the use of m-WO3 for solar water splitting.  

PubMed

One of the main challenges in developing highly efficient nanostructured photoelectrodes is to achieve good control over the desired morphology and good electrical conductivity. We present an efficient plasma-processing technique to form porous structures in tungsten substrates. After an optimized two-step annealling procedure, the mesoporous tungsten transforms into photoactive monoclinic WO3. The excellent control over the feature size and good contact between the crystallites obtained with the plasma technique offers an exciting new synthesis route for nanostructured materials for use in processes such as solar water splitting. PMID:23855799

de Respinis, Moreno; De Temmerman, Gregory; Tanyeli, Irem; van de Sanden, Mauritius C M; Doerner, Russ P; Baldwin, Matthew J; van de Krol, Roel

2013-08-14

369

Synthesis of nano-structured materials by laser-ablation and their application to sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the synthesis of nano-structured materials of ZnO and Pd by laser ablation and their applications to sensors. The synthesis of ZnO nano-wires was performed by nano-particle assisted deposition (NPAD) where nano-crystals were grown with nano-particles generated by laser-ablating a ZnO sintered target in an Ar background gas. The synthesized ZnO nano-wires were characterized with a scanning electron microscopy and the photoluminescent characteristics were examined under an excitation with the third harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser. The nano-wires with a diameter in the range from 50 to 150 nm and a length of up to 5 ?m were taken out of the substrate by laser blow-off technique and/or sonication. It was confirmed that the nano-wires showed the stimulated emission under optical pumping, indicating a high quality of the crystalinity. Pd nano-particles were generated by laser-ablating a Pd plate in pure water. The transmission electron microscope observation revealed that Pd nano-particles with a diameter in the range from 3 nm to several tens of nanometers were produced. Using these nano-structured materials, we successfully fabricated sensors by the dielectrophoresis techniques. In the case of the ultraviolet photosensor, a detection sensitivity of 10 nW/cm 2 was achieved and in the case of hydrogen sensing, the response time of less than 10 s has been demonstrated with Pd nano-particles.

Okada, T.; Suehiro, J.

2007-07-01

370

Observations of unusual temperature dependent photoluminescence anti-quenching in two-dimensional nanosheets of ZnS/ZnO composites and polarization dependent photoluminescence enhancement in fungi-like ZnO nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid semiconductor nanostructures which integrate the favourable characteristics of both the component materials are found recently to be attractive candidate materials for research investigations having interesting optical properties. Considering the fact that the temperature of the materials used in photo-luminescent devices may vary while using them in a real device, it is essential to study the performances of such materials at variable temperatures. But the photoluminescence (PL) emission capabilities of such materials above room temperatures have not been well investigated, yet. However, in this work we have reported temperature dependent unusual PL emission characteristics of 2D nanosheets of ZnS/ZnO composite in the temperature range of 273-333 K. The composite sample has been produced by annealing the organic-inorganic ZnS(ethylenediamine)0.5 nanosheets, which are obtained by solvothermal technique. The as-synthesized nanosheets and another thermally annealed product of ZnO nanostructures showed usual thermally quenched PL emissions, whereas luminescence temperature anti-quenching (LTAQ) effect has been found in the ZnS/ZnO composite nanosheets. The PL emission intensity has been enhanced up to 242% with a small temperature variation of 60 K. The LTAQ effect has been explained by using the Berthelot-type model. It has been found that the diffused oxygen present in the composite nanostructures is acting as trap centre and played the major role in LTAQ effect. The analyses of time resolved PL emission spectroscopy data also confirmed the presence of oxygen trap level within the band gap of the material. Further, enhanced PL emission from the synthesized fungi-like ZnO samples has also been reported under the excitation of polarised ultraviolet light.

Kole, A. K.; Kumbhakar, P.; Ganguly, T.

2014-06-01

371

Phase composition and nanostructure of Zr2Co11-based alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of Mo addition on phase composition and nanostructure of nanocrystalline Zr16Co84-xMox (x = 0-2.0) melt spun at 55 m/s has been investigated. All the ribbons consist mainly of a hard magnetic Zr2Co11 phase with rhombohedral crystal structure but also contain minor amounts of soft-magnetic phases. The increase in cell volume on alloying suggests that Mo mainly enters the rhombohedral Zr2Co11 structure and occupies the Co site. Mo addition promotes the formation of the hard magnetic phase and increases its volume fraction. The mean grain size of the hard magnetic phase remains almost unchanged with the increase of Mo content. But the average grain size of the soft magnetic phase decreases from about 200 nm to 50 nm. This promotes the exchange coupling of the hard and soft magnetic phases and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and isotropic energy product, from 0.6 kOe and 0.5 MGOe for x = 0 to 2.9 kOe and 4.2 MGOe for x = 1.5.

Jin, Y. L.; Zhang, W. Y.; Skomski, R.; Valloppilly, S.; Shield, J. E.; Sellmyer, D. J.

2014-05-01

372

Sonoelectrochemical Approach Towards Nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will report on the sonoelectrochemical synthesis of nanostructured semiconductor materials. The talk will focus on the control of the nanostructure size, shape, and composition using sonolectrochemistry as a versatile synthesis tool. The synthesis of targeted nanostructures requires thorough control of the redox chemistry during the growth process. The composition of the product can be controlled by changing the initial metal-ligand concentration. Futhermore, the properties of the novel materials will be discussed. Powder X-ray diffraction of the products confirmed the compositional change in the nanomaterials. Control of the involved sonoelectrochemistry also allows for the formation of highly monodispersed 1-D Nanorods. Qiu, Xiaofeng; Lou, Yongbing; Samia, Anna C. S.; Devadoss, Anando; Burgess, James D.; Dayal, Smita; Burda, Clemens. PbTe nanorods by sonoelectrochemistry. Angewandte Chemie, International Edition (2005), 44(36), 5855-5857. Qiu, Xiaofeng; Burda, Clemens; Fu, Ruiling; Pu, Lin; Chen, Hongyuan; Zhu, Junjie. Heterostructured Bi2Se3 Nanowires with Periodic Phase Boundaries. Journal of the American Chemical Society (2004), 126(50), 16276-16277.

Burda, Clemens; Qiu, Xiaofeng

2006-03-01

373

Organometallic synthesis, structure determination, shape evolution, and formation mechanism of hexapod-like ternary PbSe(x)S(1-x) nanostructures with tunable compositions.  

PubMed

The fabrication of hexapod-like ternary PbSexS1-x nanostructures has been reported via an alternative organometallic route from reaction of Pb(II) salt with triphenylphosphine selenide (Ph3PSe) and dibenzyl disulfide (DBDS) in dibenzylamine (DBA) with addition of oleic acid (OA) at 260 C. The shape, structure, and composition of the nanostructured hexapods are investigated and determined by techniques of XRD, SEM, TEM, Raman, HRTEM, SAED, XPS, EDX, and HAADF-STEM, and the obtained ternary nanostructured hexapods are of typical rock salt phase with Pb-rich features without phase separation, and their compositions could be systematically regulated by facile variations of reaction parameters. Investigations reveal that the successful fabrication of the ternary hexapods with tunable compositions is resulted from the effective selection of Se and S sources of Ph3PSe and DBDS that have similar reactivity in the current reaction system along with small lattice mismatch between the two end members of PbSe and PbS. Generally, the relations between the composition and lattice parameters for the ternary nanostructures obtained in DBA with varied addition of OA exhibit linear slops that are consistent well with Vegard's law. Interestingly, intensive investigations show that the nanostructures are mainly gradiently alloyed nanostructures with somewhat chalcogen-element segregations or disorders rather than homogeneously alloyed solid-state solutions due to kinetic limitation for short reaction time even though thermodynamics is feasible in the system, and also, high concentration of S element in the feedstocks tends to relative high density of disorders in the ternary nanostructures. Based on the revealing of the formation mechanism for the nanostructures with varied microstructures, the ternary PbSexS1-x hexapods can be tuned from gradient alloys with segregations to approximately homogeneous via enlongating reaction time. In addition, the photolysis of the nanostructures to lead oxysulfate and oxyselenate species is evidenced at ambient condition via Raman detection although they are stable at -190 C. PMID:24963993

Shao, Genrong; Chen, Guihuan; Zuo, Jian; Gong, Ming; Yang, Qing

2014-07-01

374

Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

2013-09-01

375

Computational study of energy filtering effects in one-dimensional composite nano-structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possibilities to improve the Seebeck coefficient S versus electrical conductance G trade-off of diffusive composite nano-structures are explored using an electro-thermal simulation framework based on the non-equilibrium Green's function method for quantum electron transport and the lattice heat diffusion equation. We examine the role of the grain size d, potential barrier height ?B, grain doping, and the lattice thermal conductivity ?L using a one-dimensional model structure. For a uniform ?L, simulation results show that the power factor of a composite structure may be improved over bulk with the optimum ?B being about kBT, where kB and T are the Boltzmann constant and the temperature, respectively. An optimum ?B occurs because the current flow near the Fermi level is not obstructed too much while S still improves due to barriers. The optimum grain size dopt is significantly longer than the momentum relaxation length ?p so that G is not seriously degraded due to the barriers, and dopt is comparable to or somewhat larger than the energy relaxation length ?E so that the carrier energy is not fully relaxed within the grain and |S| remains high. Simulation results also show that if ?L in the barrier region is smaller than in the grain, S and power factor are further improved. In such cases, the optimum ?B and dopt increase, and the power factor may improve even for ?B (d) significantly higher (longer) than kBT (?E). We find that the results from this quantum mechanical approach are readily understood using a simple, semi-classical model.

Kim, Raseong; Lundstrom, Mark S.

2012-01-01

376

Liquid crystal alignment in electro-responsive nanostructured thermosetting materials based on block copolymer dispersed liquid crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel well-defined nanostructured thermosetting systems were prepared by modification of a diglicydylether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin (DGEBA) with 10 or 15 wt% amphiphilic poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) block copolymer (PSEO) and 30 or 40 wt% low molecular weight liquid crystal 4'-(hexyl)-4-biphenyl-carbonitrile (HBC) using m-xylylenediamine (MXDA) as a curing agent. The competition between well-defined nanostructured materials and the ability for alignment of the liquid crystal phase in the materials obtained has been studied by atomic and electrostatic force microscopy, AFM and EFM, respectively. Based on our knowledge, this is the first time that addition of an adequate amount (10 wt%) of a block copolymer to 40 wt% HBC-(DGEBA/MXDA) leads to a well-organized nanostructured thermosetting system (between a hexagonal and worm-like ordered structure), which is also electro-responsive with high rate contrast. This behavior was confirmed using electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), by means of the response of the HBC liquid crystal phase to the voltage applied to the EFM tip. In contrast, though materials containing 15 wt% PSEO and 30 wt% HBC also form a well-defined nanostructured thermosetting system, they do not show such a high contrast between the uncharged and charged surface.

Tercjak, A.; Garcia, I.; Mondragon, I.

2008-07-01

377

Homogenization of nanostructured media in magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem of homogenization of nanostructured media in magnetic field has been considered. Possibility of introduction of effective material parameters dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability for three classes of media such as magnetic metal nanostructures, film metal-dielectric composite media and 3D-nanocomposites on the base of opal matrices has been investigated. It has been stated that the introduction of effective parameters far from magnetic resonance conditions is possible at millimeter waveband frequencies. Strict introduction of effective magnetic permeability of nanostructured media near magnetic resonance is not possible.

Rinkevich, A. B.; Perov, D. V.

2014-11-01

378

Improved Damage Resistant Composite Materials Incorporating Shape Memory Alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallic shape memory alloys (SMA) such as nitinol have unique shape recovery behavior and mechanical properties associated with a material phase change that have been used in a variety of sensing and actuation applications. Recent studies have shown that integrating nitinol-SMA actuators into composite materials increases the composite material's functionality. Hybrid composites of conventional graphite/epoxy or glass/epoxy and nitinol-SMA elements can perform functions in applications where monolithic composites perform inadequately. One such application is the use of hybrid composites to function both in load bearing and armor capacities. While monolithic composites with high strength-to-weight ratios function efficiently as loadbearing structures, because of their brittle nature, impact loading can cause significant catastrophic damage. Initial composite failure modes such as delamination and matrix cracking dissipate some impact energy, but when stress exceeds the composite's ultimate strength, fiber fracture and material perforation become dominant. One of the few methods that has been developed to reduce material perforation is hybridizing polymer matrix composites with tough kevlar or high modulus polyethynylene plies. The tough fibers increase the impact resistance and the stiffer and stronger graphite fibers carry the majority of the load. Similarly, by adding nitinol-SMA elements that absorb impact energy through the stress-induced martensitic phase transformation, the composites' impact perforation resistance can be greatly enhanced. The results of drop-weight and high velocity gas-gun impact testing of various composite materials will be presented. The results demonstrate that hybridizing composites with nitinol-SMA elements significantly increases perforation resistance compared to other traditional toughening elements. Inspection of the composite specimens at various stages of perforation by optical microscope illustrates the mechanisms by which perforation is initiated. Results suggest that the out-of-plane transverse shear properties of the composite and nitinol elements have a significant effect on the perforation resistance. Applications that can utilize the hybrid composites effectively will also be presented with the experimental studies.

Paine, Jeffrey S. N.; Rogers, Craig A.

1996-01-01

379

Controlled intermittent interfacial bond concept for composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concept will enhance fracture resistance of high-strength filamentary composite without degrading its tensile strength or elastic modulus. Concept provides more economical composite systems, tailored for specific applications, and composite materials with mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, fracture strain, and fracture toughness, that can be optimized.

Marston, T. U.; Atkins, A. G.

1975-01-01

380

Nanostructured materials and their role as heterogeneous catalysts in the conversion of biomass to biofuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior to the discovery of inexpensive and readily available fossil fuels, the world relied heavily on biomass to provide its energy needs. Due to a worldwide growth in demand for fossil fuels coupled with the shrinkage of petroleum resources, and mounting economic, political, and environmental concerns, it has become more pressing to develop sustainable fuels and chemicals from biomass. The present dissertation studies multiple nanostructured catalysts investigated in various processes related to gasification of biomass into synthesis gas, and further upgrading to biofuels and value added chemicals. These reactions include: syngas conditioning, alcohol synthesis from carbon monoxide hydrogenation, and steam reforming ethanol to form higher hydrocarbons. Nanomaterials were synthesized, characterized, studied in given reactions, and then further characterized post-reaction. Overall goals were aimed at determining catalytic activities towards desired products and determining which material properties were most desirable based on experimental results. Strategies to improve material design for second-generation materials are suggested based on promising reaction results coupled with pre and post reaction characterization analysis.

Cadigan, Chris

381

Development of Nano-structured Electrode Materials for High Performance Energy Storage System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systematic studies have been done to develop a low cost, environmental-friendly facile fabrication process for the preparation of high performance nanostructured electrode materials and to fully understand the influence factors on the electrochemical performance in the application of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) or supercapacitors. For LIBs, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) with a 1D porous structure has been developed as cathode material. The tube-like 1D structure consists of inter-linked, multi-facet nanoparticles of approximately 100-500nm in diameter. The microscopically porous structure originates from the honeycomb-shaped precursor foaming gel, which serves as self-template during the stepwise calcination process. The 1D NCM presents specific capacities of 153, 140, 130 and 118mAhg-1 at current densities of 0.1C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C, respectively. Subsequently, a novel stepwise crystallization process consisting of a higher crystallization temperature and longer period for grain growth is employed to prepare single crystal NCM nanoparticles. The modified sol-gel process followed by optimized crystallization process results in significant improvements in chemical and physical characteristics of the NCM particles. They include a fully-developed single crystal NCM with uniform composition and a porous NCM architecture with a reduced degree of fusion and a large specific surface area. The NCM cathode material with these structural modifications in turn presents significantly enhanced specific capacities of 173.9, 166.9, 158.3 and 142.3mAhg -1 at 0.1C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C, respectively. Carbon nanotube (CNT) is used to improve the relative low power capability and poor cyclic stability of NCM caused by its poor electrical conductivity. The NCM/CNT nanocomposites cathodes are prepared through simply mixing of the two component materials followed by a thermal treatment. The CNTs were functionalized to obtain uniformly-dispersed MWCNTs in the NCM matrix. The electrochemical tests found reduced inner electron resistance and improved rate capability of the nanocomposite cathodes compared to the neat NCM, which were attributed to the 3D spatial conductive network formed by MWCNTs and Super p carbon black in the nanocomposites. The capacity retention ratios after 100 cycles of Li/NCM-CNTs cell were about 81%, much higher than that of Li/NCM cell (72%). As for supercapacitor, the annealed GO/CNT films or papers the binder-free electrodes are prepared and use for high performance supercapacitors. The amphiphilic nature of graphene oxide (GO) sheets allows adsorption of CNTs onto their surface in water, capable of forming highly stable dispersion. Thus, the GO/CNT hybrid films or papers are self-assembled via simple casting or vacuum filtration of aqueous dispersion. The hybrid thin film electrode with a moderate CNT content, typically 12.5wt%, give rise to remarkable electrochemical performance with extremely high specific capacitances of 428 and 145 Fg -1 at current densities of 0.5 and 100 Ag-1, respectively, as well as a remarkable retention rate 98% of the initial value after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The same as film type electrode, the rGO/CNT sandwich papers gives rise to an excellent specific capacitance of 151 Fg-1 at a current density of 0.5 Ag -1, as well as a remarkable retention ratio of 86 % of the initial value after 6,000 charge/discharge cycles at 5 Ag-1. These improvements arise from the synergistic effects of the increased electronic conductivity and effective surface area associated with large electrochemical active sites. The synergistic effects arising from i) the enlarged surface area of electrodes due to the intercalation of CNTs between the stacked GO sheets with associated large electrochemical active sites and ii) the improved conductivity through the formation of 3D network aided by CNTs, are mainly responsible for these findings. The effects of reduction process are also studied on the supercapacitive behavior of electrodes made from flexible graphene oxide (GO) papers. It is found that the s

Huang, Zhendong

382

Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of dental composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutagenicity of single compounds of dental resinous materials has been investigated on many occasions before, but the induction of mutagenic effects by extracts of clinically used composites is still unknown. Here, cytotoxic effects and the formation of micronuclei were determined in V79 fibroblasts after exposure to extracts of modern composite filling materials (Solitaire, Solitaire 2, Tetric Ceram, Dyract AP, Definite).

Helmut Schweikl; Karl-Anton Hiller; Carola Bolay; Marion Kreissl; Wetscheslaw Kreismann; Agathe Nusser; Stefanie Steinhauser; Janusz Wieczorek; Rudolf Vasold; Gottfried Schmalz

2005-01-01

383

Industry technology assessment of graphite-polymide composite materials. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the current state of the art and the future prospects for graphite polyimide composite material technology is presented. Presentations and discussions given at a minisymposium of major issues on the present and future use, availability, processing, manufacturing, and testing of graphite polyimide composite materials are summarized.

1975-01-01

384

Pistons and Cylinders Made of Carbon-Carbon Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved reciprocating internal combustion engine has a plurality of engine pistons, which are fabricated from carbon---carbon composite materials, in operative association with an engine cylinder block, or an engine cylinder tube, or an engine cylinder jug, all of which are also fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials.

Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Schwind, Francis A. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

385

Pistons and Cylinders Made of Carbon-Carbon Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved reciprocating internal combustion engine has a plurality of engine pistons, which are fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials, in operative association with an engine cylinder block, or an engine cylinder tube, or an engine cylinder jug, all of which are also fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials.

Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Schwind, Francis A. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

386

Characterization of a High Strain Composite Material I. Maqueda  

E-print Network

Characterization of a High Strain Composite Material I. Maqueda and S. Pellegrino California and developed a high-strain composite material consisting of car- bon fibers embedded in a silicone matrix that localize the high-strain capability in narrow regions of a structure, so that elastic fold lines are formed

Pellegrino, Sergio

387

Orthotic devices using lightweight composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential applications of high strength, lightweight composite technology in the orthotic field were studied. Several devices were designed and fabricated using graphite-epoxy composite technology. Devices included shoe plates, assistive walker devices, and a Simes prosthesis reinforcement. Several other projects having medical application were investigated and evaluations were made of the potential for use of composite technology. A seat assembly was fabricated using sandwich construction techniques for the Total Wheelchair Project.

Harrison, E., Jr.

1983-01-01

388

Advanced organic composite materials for aircraft structures: Future program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Revolutionary advances in structural materials have been responsible for revolutionary changes in all fields of engineering. These advances have had and are still having a significant impact on aircraft design and performance. Composites are engineered materials. Their properties are tailored through the use of a mix or blend of different constituents to maximize selected properties of strength and/or stiffness at reduced weights. More than 20 years have passed since the potentials of filamentary composite materials were identified. During the 1970s much lower cost carbon filaments became a reality and gradually designers turned from boron to carbon composites. Despite progress in this field, filamentary composites still have significant unfulfilled potential for increasing aircraft productivity; the rendering of advanced organic composite materials into production aircraft structures was disappointingly slow. Why this is and research and technology development actions that will assist in accelerating the application of advanced organic composites to production aircraft is discussed.

1987-01-01

389

Material, process, and product design of thermoplastic composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastic composites made of polypropylene (PP) and E-glass fibers were investigated experimentally as well as theoretically for two new classes of product designs. The first application was for reinforcement of wood. Commingled PP/glass yarn was consolidated and bonded on wood panel using a tie layer. The processing parameters, including temperature, pressure, heating time, cooling time, bonding strength, and bending strength were tested experimentally and evaluated analytically. The thermoplastic adhesive interface was investigated with environmental scanning electron microscopy. The wood/composite structural design was optimized and evaluated using a Graphic Method. In the second application, we evaluated use of thermoplastic composites for explosion containment in an arrester. PP/glass yarn was fabricated in a sleeve form and wrapped around the arrester. After consolidation, the flexible composite sleeve forms a solid composite shell. The composite shell acts as a protection layer in a surge test to contain the fragments of the arrester. The manufacturing process for forming the composite shell was designed. Woven, knitted, and braided textile composite shells made of commingled PP/glass yarn were tested and evaluated. Mechanical performance of the woven, knitted, and braided composite shells was examined analytically. The theoretical predictions were used to verify the experimental results.

Dai, Heming

390

Controlled synthesis of organic nanophotonic materials with specific structures and compositions.  

PubMed

Organic nanomaterials have drawn great interest for their potential applications in high-speed miniaturized photonic integration due to their high photoluminescence quantum efficiency, structural processability, ultrafast photoresponse, and excellent property engineering. Based on the rational design on morphological and componential levels, a series of organic nanomaterials have been controllably synthesized in recent years, and their excitonic/photonic behaviors has been fine-tuned to steer the light flow for specific optical applications. This review presents a comprehensive summary of recent breakthroughs in the controlled synthesis of organic nanomaterials with specific structures and compositions, whose tunable photonic properties would provide a novel platform for multifunctional applications. First, we give a general overview of the tailored construction of novel nanostructures with various photonic properties. Then, we summarize the design and controllable synthesis of composite materials for the modulation of their functionalities. Subsequently, special emphasis is put on the fabrication of complex nanostructures towards wide applications in isolated photonic devices. We conclude with our personal viewpoints on the development directions in the novel design and controllable construction of organic nanomaterials for future applications in highly integrated photonic devices and chips. PMID:24782347

Cui, Qiu Hong; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

2014-10-29

391

Properties and fabrication of nanostructured 2Cr-Al2O3 composite for prosthetic bearing replacements.  

PubMed

Cr2O3 and Al powder were used as raw powders, and were milled by the high energy ball milling method. The nanostructured 2Cr-Al2O3 composite from the milled powder was both synthesized and densificated within a short time, by the pulsed current activated sintering (PCAS) apparatus. The relative density of the sintered 2Cr-Al2O3 composite was 99%. The hardness and the fracture toughness of the specimen were 1630kg/mm(2), and 9.3MPam(1/2), respectively. The weight loss of the composite was measured by a pin-on-disk type apparatus, without a lubricant. Lastly, the 2Cr-Al2O3 composite has a very good cell viability. PMID:25491856

Park, Na-Ra; Shon, In-Jin

2014-12-01

392

Local Debonding and Fiber Breakage in Composite Materials Modeled Accurately  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prerequisite for full utilization of composite materials in aerospace components is accurate design and life prediction tools that enable the assessment of component performance and reliability. Such tools assist both structural analysts, who design and optimize structures composed of composite materials, and materials scientists who design and optimize the composite materials themselves. NASA Glenn Research Center's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) software package (http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/LPB/mac) addresses this need for composite design and life prediction tools by providing a widely applicable and accurate approach to modeling composite materials. Furthermore, MAC/GMC serves as a platform for incorporating new local models and capabilities that are under development at NASA, thus enabling these new capabilities to progress rapidly to a stage in which they can be employed by the code's end users.

Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

2001-01-01

393

Study of composites as substrate materials in large space telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonmetallic composites such as the graphite/epoxy system were investigated as possible substrates for the primary mirror of the large space telescope. The possible use of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites was reviewed in the literature. Problems arising out of the use of composites as substrate materials such as grinding, polishing, adherence of reflective coatings, rigidity of substrate, hygrospcopici tendency of the composites, thermal and temporal stability and other related problems were examined.

Sharma, A. V.

1979-01-01

394

Flexible hydrogel-based functional composite materials  

DOEpatents

A composite having a flexible hydrogel polymer formed by mixing an organic phase with an inorganic composition, the organic phase selected from the group consisting of a hydrogel monomer, a crosslinker, a radical initiator, and/or a solvent. A polymerization mixture is formed and polymerized into a desired shape and size.

2013-10-08

395

Corrosion inhibiting composition for treating asbestos containing materials  

DOEpatents

A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, optionally a source of fluoride ions, and a corrosion inhibiting amount of thiourea, a lower alkylthiourea, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkylpyridinium halide or mixtures thereof. A method of transforming an asbestos-containing building material, while part of a building structure, into a non-asbestos material by using the present composition also is disclosed.

Hartman, Judithann Ruth (Columbia, MD)

1998-04-21

396

Corrosion inhibiting composition for treating asbestos containing materials  

DOEpatents

A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, optionally a source of fluoride ions, and a corrosion inhibiting amount of thiourea, a lower alkylthiourea, a C{sub 8}{single_bond}C{sub 15} alkylpyridinium halide or mixtures. A method of transforming an asbestos-containing building material, while part of a building structure, into a non-asbestos material by using the present composition also is disclosed.

Hartman, J.R.

1998-04-21

397

[The emergency plastic reconstruction of the tympanic membrane defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic etiology with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material].  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to estimate the effectiveness of the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic etiology. The authors report the results of the emergency plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic nature with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material (giamatrix). The analysis of the results of the study prfovidd definitive evidence of the effectiveness of plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material. PMID:25588474

Zabirov, R A; Kar'kaeva, S M; Shchetinin, V N; Akimov, A V

2014-01-01

398

Active composite materials as sensing elements for fiber-reinforced smart composite structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer based piezoelectric composite materials can be readily integrated within laminated composite structures to provide sensing and actuating capabilities. In this study composite films of ferroelectric ceramic/polymer materials have been developed and characterized as in-situ multi purpose sensing elements for the nondestructive monitoring of fiber reinforced composites. In this paper the response of embedded composite films to simulated acoustic emission signals will be presented and discussed. Results show the ability of the composite sensors to detect signals from acoustic emission sources over a wide bandwidth.

Blanas, Panagiotis; Wenger, Matthew P.; Rigas, Elias J.; Das-Gupta, Dilip K.

1998-07-01

399

Improving the reliability of road materials based on micronized sulfur composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work contains the results of a nano-structural modification of sulfur that prevents polymorphic transformations from influencing the properties of sulfur composites where sulfur is present in a thermodynamic stable condition that precludes destruction when operated. It has been established that the properties of sulfur-based composite materials can be significantly improved by modifying sulfur and structuring sulfur binder by nano-dispersed fiber particles and ultra-dispersed state filler. The paper shows the possibility of modifying Tengiz sulfur by its fragmenting which ensures that the structured sulfur is structurally changed and stabilized through reinforcement by ultra-dispersed fiber particles allowing the phase contact area to be multiplied. Interaction between nano-dispersed fibers of chrysotile asbestos and sulfur ensures the implementation of the mechanical properties of chrysotile asbestos tubes in reinforced composite and its integrity provided that the surface of chrysotile asbestos tubes are highly moistened with molten sulfur and there is high adhesion between the tubes and the matrix that, in addition to sulfur, contains limestone microparticles. Ability to apply materials in severe operation conditions and possibility of exposure in both aggressive medium and mechanical loads makes produced sulfur composites required by the road construction industry.

Abdrakhmanova, K. K.

2015-01-01

400

A Nanostructured Composites Thermal Switch Controls Internal and External Short Circuit in Lithium Ion Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document discusses a thin layer of composite material, made from nano scale particles of nickel and Teflon, placed within a battery cell as a layer within the anode and/or the cathode. There it conducts electrons at room temperature, then switches to an insulator at an elevated temperature to prevent thermal runaway caused by internal short circuits. The material layer controls excess currents from metal-to-metal or metal-to-carbon shorts that might result from cell crush or a manufacturing defect

McDonald, Robert C.; VanBlarcom, Shelly L.; Kwasnik, Katherine E.

2013-01-01

401

Optoacoustic Microscopy for Investigation of Material Nanostructures-Embracing the Ultrasmall, Ultrafast, and the Invisible  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this grant was the development of a new type of scanning acoustic microscope for nanometer resolution ultrasound imaging, based on ultrafast optoacoustics (>GHz). In the microscope, subpicosecond laser pulses was used to generate and detect very high frequency ultrasound with nanometer wavelengths. We report here on the outcome of the 3-year DOE/BES grant which involved the design, multifaceted construction, and proof-of-concept demonstration of an instrument that can be used for quantitative imaging of nanoscale material features including features that may be buried so as to be inaccessible to conventional lightwave or electron microscopies. The research program has produced a prototype scanning optoacoustic microscope which, in combination with advanced computational modeling, is a system-level new technology (two patents issues) which offer novel means for precision metrology of material nanostructures, particularly those that are of contemporary interest to the frontline micro- and optoelectronics device industry. For accomplishing the ambitious technical goals, the research roadmap was designed and implemented in two phases. In Phase I, we constructed a non-focusing optoacoustic microscope instrument (POAM), with nanometer vertical (z-) resolution, while limited to approximately 10 micrometer scale lateral recolution. The Phase I version of the instrument which was guided by extensive acoustic and optical numerical modeling of the basic underlying acoustic and optical physics, featured nanometer scale close loop positioning between the optoacoustic transducer element and a nanostructured material sample under investigation. In phase II, we implemented and demonstrated a scanning version of the instrument (SOAM) where incident acoustic energy is focused, and scanned on lateral (x-y) spatial scale in the 100 nm range as per the goals of the project. In so doing we developed advanced numerical simulations to provide computational models of the focusing of multi-GHz acoustic waves to the nanometer scale and innovated a series fabrication approaches for a new type of broadband high-frequency acoustic focusing microscope objective by applying methods on nanoimprinting and focused-ion beam techniques. In the following, the Phase I and Phase II instrument development is reported as Section II. The first segment of this section describes the POAM instrument and its development, while including much of the underlying ultrafast acoustic physics which is common to all of our work for this grant. Then, the science and engineering of the SOAM instrument is described, including the methods of fabricating new types of acoustic microlenses. The results section is followed by reports on publications (Section III), Participants (Section IV), and statement of full use of the allocated grant funds (Section V).

Nurmikko, Arto; Humphrey, Maris

2014-07-10

402

About composite materials and their use in bone surgery.  

PubMed

Composite materials consist of two or even more different material components or phases, which are combined with the aim to improve physical, mechanical and/or biological properties. Such structures are designed to fulfil very specific requirements with respect to a selected device application making full use of their higher weight-specific strength and/or stiffness. Furthermore, these materials offer an opportunity for constructing radiolucent devices. In medical technology, composite materials mainly consist of a polymer matrix and fibres as a reinforcement phase. Composites similar to those known from technical applications reveal a number of specific biological problems. This is due to the materials and manufacturing processes available for the construction of such composites preventing their unrestricted use in direct bone contact. Nevertheless, an application potential for these materials in bone surgery exists and justifies further research and development efforts. PMID:11270081

Gasser, B

2000-12-01

403

Multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling of a person employs an evaporative cooling liquid that changes phase from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The evaporative cooling liquid is absorbed into a superabsorbent material enclosed within the multilayer composite material. The multilayer composite material has a high percentage of the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix. The cooling effect can be sustained for an extended period of time because of the high percentage of phase change liquid that can be absorbed into the superabsorbent. Such a composite can be used for cooling febrile patients by evaporative cooling as the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix changes from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The composite can be made with a perforated barrier material around the outside to regulate the evaporation rate of the phase change liquid. Alternatively, the composite can be made with an imperveous barrier material or semipermeable membrane on one side to prevent the liquid from contacting the person's skin. The evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix can be recharged by soaking the material in the liquid. The multilayer composite material can be fashioned into blankets, garments and other articles.

Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

404

School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Composites Materials and Engineering Center  

E-print Network

and manufacturing technologies from a range of recycled and renewable resources. In 2015, CMEC will join other WSU and bio-based composite materials and sustainable manufacturing processes and design; ability to seekSchool of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and Composites Materials and Engineering Center

Collins, Gary S.

405

Fundamental investigation of the tribological and mechanical responses of materials and nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the field of tribology, the ability to predict, and ultimately control, frictional performance is of critical importance for the optimization of tribological systems. As such, understanding the specific mechanisms involved in the lubrication processes for different materials is a fundamental step in tribological system design. In this work, a combination of computational and experimental methods that include classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments, and multivariate statistical analyses provides fundamental insight into the tribological and mechanical properties of carbon-based and inorganic nanostructures, lamellar materials, and inorganic ceramic compounds. One class of materials of modern interest for tribological applications is nanoparticles, which can be employed either as solid lubricating films or as lubricant additives. In experimental systems, however, it is often challenging to attain the in situ observation of tribological interfaces necessary to identify the atomic-level mechanisms involved during lubrication and response to mechanical deformation. Here, classical MD simulations establish the mechanisms occurring during the friction and compression of several types of nanoparticles including carbon nano-onions, amorphous carbon nanoparticles, and inorganic fullerene-like MoS2 nanoparticles. Specifically, the effect of a nanoparticle's structural properties on the lubrication mechanisms of rolling, sliding, and lamellar exfoliation is indicated; the findings quantify the relative impact of each mechanism on the tribological and mechanical properties of these nanoparticles. Beyond identifying the lubrication mechanisms of known lubricating materials, the continual advancement of modern technology necessitates the identification of new candidate materials for use in tribological applications. To this effect, atomic-scale AFM friction experiments on the aluminosilicate mineral pyrophyllite demonstrate that pyrophyllite provides a low friction coefficient and low shear stresses as well as a high threshold to interfacial wear; this suggests the potential for use of pyrophyllite as a lubricious material under specific conditions. Also, a robust and accurate model for estimating the friction coefficients of inorganic ceramic materials that is based on the fundamental relationships between material properties is presented, which was developed using multivariate data mining algorithms. These findings provide the tribological community with a new means of quickly identifying candidate materials that may provide specific frictional properties for desired applications.

Bucholz, Eric W.

406

Alternative materials and processing techniques for optimized nanostructures in dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) represent an exciting application of nanotechnology and offer an appealing alternative to conventional solar cells based on photovoltaic devices, with significantly reduced production and material costs. However, further improvements are required to enhance the commercial viability of these solar cells. These improvements may be achieved through the careful manipulation of the structure at the nanoscale and the application of novel processing techniques, which may help to increase the efficiency of these solar cells, improve the ease of manufacture and allow the production of flexible, solid-state solar cells. For example, the use of a nanometre-thick coating of an insulating oxide over the semiconducting film in these solar cells may reduce recombination losses. Also, selective heating techniques such as microwave heating may assist in the production of efficient solar cells on polymer, rather than glass, substrates, by allowing a rapid heat treatment to be applied to the titanium dioxide film at a higher temperature than would be possible with conventional heating. Some novel approaches to the production of semiconducting thin films for dye-sensitized solar cells, as well as the use of alternative materials and nanostructures, are reviewed. PMID:18572634

Hart, Judy N; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Simon, George P; Spiccia, Leone

2008-05-01

407

Nano composite phase change materials microcapsules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MicroPCMs with nano composite structures (NC-MicroPCMs) have been systematically studied. NC-MicroPCMs were fabricated by the in situ polymerization and addition of silver NPs into core-shell structures. A full factorial experiment was designed, including three factors of core/shell, molar ratio of formaldehyde/melamine and NPs addition. 12 MicroPCMs samples were prepared. The encapsulated efficiency is approximately 80% to 90%. The structural/morphological features of the NC-MicroPCMs were evaluated. The size was in a range of 3.4 mu m to 4.0 mu m. The coarse appearance is attributed to NPs and NPs are distributed on the surface, within the shell and core. The NC-MicroPCMs contain new chemical components and molecular groups, due to the formation of chemical bonds after the pretreatment of NPs. Extra X-ray diffraction peaks of silver were found indicating silver nano-particles were formed into an integral structure with the core/shell structure by means of chemical bonds and physical linkages. Extra functionalities were found, including: (1) enhancement of IR radiation properties; (2) depression of super-cooling, and (3) increase of thermal stabilities. The effects of SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy) arising from the silver nano-particles were observed. The Raman scattering intensity was magnified more than 100 times. These effects were also exhibited in macroscopic level in the fabric coatings as enhanced IR radiation properties were detected by the "Fabric Infrared Radiation Management Tester" (FRMT). "Degree of Crystallinity" (DOC) was measured and found the three factors have a strong influence on it. DOC is closely related to thermal stability and MicroPCMs with a higher DOC show better temperature resistance. The thermal regulating effects of the MicroPCMs coatings were studied. A "plateau regions" was detected around the temperature of phase change, showing the function of PCMs. Addition of silver nano-particles to the MicroPCMs has a positive influence on it. NC-MicroPCMs with introducing silver nano particles into the MicroPCMs structure, have shown excellent multifunctional thermal properties and thermal stabilities that are far beyond those of the conventional MicroPCMs. The novel NC-MicroPCMs can be used to develop advanced smart materials and products with prosperous and promising applications in a number of industries.

Song, Qingwen

408

Active Nano-Structured Composite Coatings for Corrosion and Wear Protection of Steel  

E-print Network

In order to obtain sustainable engineering systems, this research investigates surface and interface properties of metals and active nanostructured coatings. The goal is to develop new approaches in order to improve the corrosion resistance...

Kim, Yoo Sung

2013-08-06

409

Reflection and transmission for layered composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A layered planar structure consisting of different bianisotropic materials separated by jump-immittance sheets is considered. Reflection and transmission coefficients are determined via a chain-matrix algorithm. Applications are important for radomes and radar-absorbing materials.

Graglia, Roberto D.; Uslenghi, Piergiorgio L. E.

1991-01-01

410

Composite material application for liquid rocket engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With increasing emphasis on improving engine thrust-to-weight ratios to provide improved payload capabilities, weight reductions achievable by the use of composites have become attractive. Of primary significance is the weight reduction offered by composites, although high temperature properties and cost reduction were also considered. The potential for application of composites to components of Earth-to-orbit hydrocarbon engines and orbit-to-orbit LOX/H2 engines was assessed. The components most likely to benefit from the application of composites were identified, as were the critical technology areas where developed would be required. Recommendations were made and a program outlined for the design, fabrication, and demonstration of specific engine components.

Heubner, S. W.

1982-01-01

411

Preparation of composite materials in space. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reported objectives were to define promising materials, to obtain significant processing criteria and the related processing techniques and apparatus for the preparation of composites in space, and to establish a program for zero-g experiments and the required developmental efforts. Preparation was studied of the following composite types: (1) metal-base fiber and particle composites, including cemented compacts, (2) controlled density metals, comprising plain and reinforced metal foams, and (3) unidirectionally solidified eutectic alloys. The zero-g environment of orbital operations offers the capability to produce metal-base composite materials and castings which exhibit properties and, particularly, unique combinations of properties that cannot be achieved in terrestrial production.

Steurer, W. H.; Kaye, S.

1973-01-01

412

Nanostructured hydroxyapatite/TiO(2) composite coating applied to commercially pure titanium by a co-sputtering technique.  

PubMed

We demonstrate an approach for the coating of nanostructured hydroxyapatite(HAP)/TiO(2) composite on commercially pure Ti (CP-Ti) by a co-sputtering process. HAP/TiO(2) composite film was obtained by controlling the processing pressure. It was observed that decomposition of HAP into CaO was easily induced during sputtering at 0.53Pa, a typical sputtering condition for film deposition. However, HAP/TiO(2) composite film was obtained with the sputtering pressure of 2.67Pa. The Ca/P ratio was nearly maintained at 1.66 by sputter deposition at 2.67Pa. We further confirmed by analysis of plasma spectral emission that the variation of the hydroxyl (OH) radical present was due to the Ar pressure during sputtering. It has been shown that HAP coatings are dependent on the processing pressure, which the hydroxyl radical requires in order to create HAP. PMID:21832643

Lee, Baek-Hee; Koshizaki, Naoto

2008-10-15

413

Production of composites by using gliadin as a bonding material  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In our previous papers, a new technology that produces biopolymer composites by particle-bonding was introduced. During the manufacturing process, micrometer-scale raw material was coated with a corn protein, zein, which is then processed to form a rigid material. The coating of raw-material particl...

414

Advanced composites: Fabrication processes for selected resin matrix materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This design note is based on present state of the art for epoxy and polyimide matrix composite fabrication technology. Boron/epoxy and polyimide and graphite/epoxy and polyimide structural parts can be successfully fabricated. Fabrication cycles for polyimide matrix composites have been shortened to near epoxy cycle times. Nondestructive testing has proven useful in detecting defects and anomalies in composite structure elements. Fabrication methods and tooling materials are discussed along with the advantages and disadvantages of different tooling materials. Types of honeycomb core, material costs and fabrication methods are shown in table form for comparison. Fabrication limits based on tooling size, pressure capabilities and various machining operations are also discussed.

Welhart, E. K.

1976-01-01

415

Preparation of composite materials in space. Volume 2: Technical report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study to define promising materials, significant processing criteria, and the related processing techniques and apparatus for the preparation of composite materials in space was conducted. The study also established a program for zero gravity experiments and the required developmental efforts. The following composite types were considered: (1) metal-base fiber and particle composites, including cemented compacts, (2) controlled density metals, comprising plain and reinforced metal foams, and (3) unidirectionally solidified eutectic alloys. A program of suborbital and orbital experiments for the 1972 to 1978 time period was established to identify materials, processes, and required experiment equipment.

Steurer, W. H.; Kaye, S.

1973-01-01

416

New advantages and challenges for laser-induced nanostructured cluster materials: functional capability for experimental verification of macroscopic quantum phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of our work is the laser fabrication of nanostructured materials including the nano- and microclusters for control of electrical, optical and other properties of obtained structures. First, we took an opportunity to select nanoparticles in various sizes and weights and also in topology distribution for some materials (carbon, Ni, PbTe, etc). Second, for a deposited extended array of nanoparticles we used a method of laser-induced nanoparticle fabrication in colloid and deposition metal (and/or oxide) nanoparticles from colloidal systems (LDPCS) to obtain the multilayered nanostructures with controlled topology, including the fractal cluster structures (for Ni, Pb Te et al). Electrophysical properties are analyzed for such nanocluster systems as well. A brief analogy of the obtained nanocluster structures with a quantum correlated state evidence is carried out.

Abramov, D. V.; Antipov, A. A.; Arakelian, S. M.; Khorkov, K. S.; Kucherik, A. O.; Kutrovskaya, S. V.; Prokoshev, V. G.

2014-07-01