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Sample records for nanostructured composite materials

  1. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    SciTech Connect

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  2. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  3. Composite, nanostructured, super-hydrophobic material

    DOEpatents

    D'Urso, Brian R. (Clinton, TN); Simpson, John T. (Clinton, TN)

    2007-08-21

    A hydrophobic disordered composite material having a protrusive surface feature includes a recessive phase and a protrusive phase, the recessive phase having a higher susceptibility to a preselected etchant than the protrusive phase, the composite material having an etched surface wherein the protrusive phase protrudes from the surface to form a protrusive surface feature, the protrusive feature being hydrophobic.

  4. Three dimensional, bulk nanostructured materials and composites have matured into a new class of materials that is being considered in a variety of engineering applications. The successful synthesis of large-scale nanostructured materials is of

    E-print Network

    Three dimensional, bulk nanostructured materials and composites have matured into a new class of materials that is being considered in a variety of engineering applications. The successful synthesis of large-scale nanostructured materials is of technological and scientific significance. From

  5. Nano-particulate dispersion and reinforcement of nanostructured composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Virginia Hiu-Hung

    2005-12-01

    This research investigated the feasibility of reinforcing polymer composites using 30 nm SiC nanoparticles in a vinyl ester resin. The SiC nanoparticles were examined using transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Gamma-methacryloxy propyl trimethoxy silane (MPS) was chosen as the coupling agent. Both mixing procedures with (1) the nanoparticles pretreated with a dilute MPS solution in an acid 5% (v/v) water-ethanol mixture and (2) the MPS sonicated as an integral blend with the filled vinyl ester, were attempted. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study the silanol condensation between MPS and the SiC nanoparticles. The results show that ultrasonic mixing did not fully disperse the particles. Hence the composite strength did not improve although the modulus increased. The use of MPS improved the dispersion quality and hence the composite strength. The rheological behavior of SiC nanoparticle-filled vinyl ester resin systems was evaluated in terms of the Bingham, power law, Herschel-Bulkley, and Casson models. Even when the particle loading was less then 4% by weight, the viscosity of the nanoparticle suspension was found to increase much more than that of a microparticle suspension. This phenomenon may be the result of association between nanoparticles and polymer molecules, effectively making the nanoparticles larger. The resulting reduction in the mobility of polymer molecules also led to delayed curing. The maximum particle loading corresponding to infinite viscosity was determined as 0.1 volume fraction using the (1 - eta r-1/2) - ? dependence. The experimental optimum fractional weight per cent of the dispersants (wt. % dispersant/wt. % SiC) was found to be around 40% for 30 nm SiC nanoparticles, which is in close agreement with the theoretically calculated monolayer coverage dosage of 67%.

  6. The Process of Nanostructuring of Metal (Iron) Matrix in Composite Materials for Directional Control of the Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zemtsova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    We justified theoretical and experimental bases of synthesis of new class of highly nanostructured composite nanomaterials based on metal matrix with titanium carbide nanowires as dispersed phase. A new combined method for obtaining of metal iron-based composite materials comprising the powder metallurgy processes and the surface design of the dispersed phase is considered. The following stages of material synthesis are investigated: (1) preparation of porous metal matrix; (2) surface structuring of the porous metal matrix by TiC nanowires; (3) pressing and sintering to give solid metal composite nanostructured materials based on iron with TiC nanostructures with size 150?nm. This material can be represented as the material type frame in the frame that represents iron metal frame reinforcing the frame of different chemical compositions based on TiC. Study of material functional properties showed that the mechanical properties of composite materials based on iron with TiC dispersed phase despite the presence of residual porosity are comparable to the properties of the best grades of steel containing expensive dopants and obtained by molding. This will solve the problem of developing a new generation of nanostructured metal (iron-based) materials with improved mechanical properties for the different areas of technology. PMID:24695459

  7. Synthesis and characterization of bismuth telluride based nanostructured thermoelectric composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz Khorasgani, Mohsen

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials and devices are attractive in solid-state energy conversion applications such as waste heat recovery, air-conditioning, and refrigeration. Since the 1950's lots of unremitting efforts have been made to enhance the efficiency of energy conversion in TE materials (i. e. improving the figure of merit (ZT)), however, most of commercial bulk TE materials still suffer from low efficiency with ZTs around unity. To enhance the performance of bismuth telluride based TE alloys, we have developed composite TE materials, based on the idea that introducing more engineered interfaces in the bulk TE materials may lead to thermal conductivity reduction due to increased phonon scattering by these interfaces. In this approach it is expected that the electronic transport properties of the material are not effectively affected. Consequently, ZT enhancement can be achieved. In this dissertation we will discuss synthesis and characterization of two types of bismuth telluride based bulk composite TE materials. The first type is engineered to contain the presence of coherent interfaces between phases in the material resulting from different mixtures of totally miscible compounds with similar composition. The second type includes the nanocomposites with embedded foreign nano-particles in which the matrix and the particles are delimited by incoherent interfaces. The synthesis procedure, micro- and nano-structures as well as thermoelectric properties of these composites will be presented. In our study on the composites with coherent interfaces, we produced a series of different composites of p-type bismuth antimony telluride alloys and studied their microstructure and thermoelectric properties. Each composite consists of two phases that were obtained in powder form by mechanical alloying. Mixed powders in various proportions of the two different phases were consolidated by hot extrusion to obtain each bulk composite. The minimum grain size of bulk composites as revealed by scanning electron microscopy shows a 50% reduction compared to the conventional (Bi0.2Sb0.8)2Te 3 . XRD analysis indicates a systematic decrease of crystallite size in the composite materials. Scattering mechanisms of charge carriers were evaluated by Hall effect measurements. There is no evidence of carriers scattering linked to the composite nature in these materials. The composites show no significant degradation of the power factor and high peak ZT values ranging from 0.86 to 1.04. It was found, contrary to expectations that the thermal conductivity of the composites slightly increases compared to the conventional alloy. This behavior has been attributed to two factors: (1) the grains of the composites are not sufficiently small to increase phonon scattering, and (2) the lattice thermal conductivity of single phase (Bi 0.2Sb0.8)2Te3 alloy has the smaller value in comparison with the lattice thermal conductivity of each of the components of the composites. Importantly, we have already demonstrated the feasibility of this approach to conserve the electronic transport properties while more interfaces are introduced in the material. We believe that continued investigation following this approach can guide us to achieve an enhanced figure of merit. We have also studied bulk nanocomposites of p-type (Bi0.2Sb0.8)2Te3 and n-type (Bi0.95Sb0.05)2(Te 0.95Se0.05)3 with embedded MoS2 nano-inclusions, which were obtained by mechanical alloying and hot extrusion. This series of TE nanocomposites contain incoherent interfaces between nano-particles and the matrix. We have found that addition of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2) nano-particles to the matrix improves the extrusion process and limits the grain growth in bismuth telluride based alloys. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that grain boundaries of the matrix are decorated by nano-inclusions, leading to a significant reduction of average grain size and crystallite size compared to those of the conventional single phase alloy. Scanning electron microscope images show that the average grain size of p-t

  8. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Andrew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Reboredo, Fernando A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  9. Nanostructured, electroactive and bioapplicable materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shan

    Novel nanostructured porous sol-gel materials, nanocomposites, electroactive and bioapplicable materials have been successfully developed for a wide range of perceivable applications. Several versatile nonsurfactant templated sol-gel pathways have been developed to prepare nanostructured porous materials and composites with different morphologies (e.g., monoliths, nanospheres, nanoparticles, and thin films), structures, compositions and properties. The synthetic conditions were systematically studied and optimized. The template effects on pore structure as well as synthetic process, especially template removal steps, have been investigated. The composition and pore structures were thoroughly studied with various spectroscopic and microscopic methods such as IR, TGA, SEM, TEM, BET and XRD. The obtained mesoporous materials usually exhibit high surface area, large pore volume and narrowly distributed pore diameter. The porosity can be fine tuned simply by adjusting the template concentration. The convenient synthesis as well as the distinctive structure and physical-chemical properties render these sol-gel materials great suitability for a wide range of potential applications, such as chemical and biological sensors, catalysts, drug delivery and functional coatings. Biocompatible and electroactive nanocomposites have been prepared through a biological agent (i.e., collagen) templated chemical polymerization of aniline monomers. The resultant polyaniline-collagen complexes exhibit well controlled doping-dedoping electroactivity and much enhanced solubility. Demonstrated with cell growth studies, the polyaniline-collagen complexes show improved biocompatibility in comparison to polyaniline. The new materials can be used to fabricate scaffolds, with which the effect of electrical stimuli on cell growth and differentiation can be evaluated with the hope of ultimately using electrical signal to stimulate controllable cell and tissue regeneration. Aniline derivative substituted quinoline ligand compounds and their complexes have been prepared and investigated as potential electroluminescent materials.

  10. Nanostructured Materials for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Raffaelle, Ryne; Castro, Stephanie; Fahey, S.; Gennett, T.; Tin, P.

    2003-01-01

    The use of both inorganic and organic nanostructured materials in producing high efficiency photovoltaics is discussed in this paper. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of semiconductor quantum dots in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell. In addition, it has also recently been demonstrated that quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. A similar improvement in these types of cells has also been observed by employing single wall carbon nanotubes. This relatively new carbon allotrope may assist both in the disassociation of excitons as well as carrier transport through the composite material. This paper reviews the efforts that are currently underway to produce and characterize these nanoscale materials and to exploit their unique properties.

  11. Hierarchically nanostructured materials for sustainable environmental applications

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zheng; Guo, Yanbing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions, and multiple functionalities toward water remediation, biosensing, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing, and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology. PMID:24790946

  12. Hierarchically nanostructured materials for sustainable environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zheng; Guo, Yanbing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions, and multiple functionalities toward water remediation, biosensing, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing, and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology. PMID:24790946

  13. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zheng; Guo, Yanbing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  14. Surface doping of composite plasmonic material by functional graphene nanostructures for organic solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi-Chu; Yang, Cheng-Du; Kao, Yi-Lun; Chiu, Nan-Fu

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we're binding gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by cystamine (Cys). The PEDOT:PSS mix GNPs/Cys/rGO as a hole transport layer of the solar cell. From the experimental result shows the PEDOT:PSS/GNPs/Cys/rGO/ITO film than ITO film have the best transmittance. It's transmittance was decreased for 1.01% at 545 nm wavelength. The sheet resistance of PEDOT:PSS/GNPs/Cys/rGO/ITO was reduce than PEDOT:PSS/ITO, when it was doped with Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and rGO on ITO glass. The former is than the latter decreased for 1%. For these reasons due to impact by surface doping of composite plasmonic material.

  15. Nanostructured materials for photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.D.; Ruland, G.; Yoshida, M.; Lal, M.; Bhawalkar, J.; He, G.S.; Prasad, P.N.

    1996-12-31

    Nanocomposite materials for application in photonics were developed by sol-gel processing and reverse micellar microemulsion techniques. The capability of incorporating many materials with different functional properties in sol-gel processed glass matrices has been explored in making these materials. The large pore volume fraction and the enormous surface area of the sol-gel glasses enables one to introduce many materials in a phase separated fashion, where the phase separation is in the nanometer range. It is possible to introduce an active material on to the pore surface by solution infiltration and subsequent removal of the solvent, then filling the pores with a monomer containing another active material, and polymerizing inside the pores. Using this approach the authors have developed composite materials for optical power limiting applications at different wavelengths and a tunable solid state dye lasing medium. Optically transparent polyimide:TiO{sub 2} composite waveguide materials were prepared by the dispersion of nano-sized TiO{sub 2} particles into a polyimide matrix. The particles were produced through reverse micelles using the sol-gel method, and were incorporated into the fluorinated polyimide solution. A polyimide:TiO{sub 2} (4 wt%) composite waveguide was produced from the solution. Since the particle size is so small, no noticeable scattering loss was observed. The measured optical propagation loss at 633 nm was 1.4 dB/cm, which is equivalent to that of the pure polyimide. The refractive index was increased from 1.550 to 1.560 by the incorporation of TiO{sub 2}.

  16. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry mixing with pure polymer powder followed by compression molding. The EMI shielding material was developed using copper nanowires. CuNW/Polystyrene composites exhibit EMI shielding effectiveness exceeding that of metal microfillers and carbon nanotube/polymer composites and approaching that of coating techniques have been formulated by solution processing and dry mixing.

  17. Nanostructured polyaniline rice husk composite as adsorption materials synthesized by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tot Pham, Thi; Thanh Thuy Mai, Thi; Quy Bui, Minh; Mai, Thi Xuan; Yen Tran, Hai; Binh Phan, Thi

    2014-03-01

    Composites based on polyaniline (PANi) and rice husk (RH) were prepared by two methods: the first one was chemical method by combining RH contained in acid medium and aniline using ammonium persulfate as an oxidation agent and the second one was that of soaking RH into PANi solution. The presence of PANi combined with RH to form nanocomposite was clearly demonstrated by infrared (IR) spectra as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Lead(II) and cadmium(II) ion concentrations in solution before and after adsorption process on those composites were analysed by atomic adsorption spectroscopy. Of the above preparation methods, the soaking one provided a composite onto which the maximum adsorption capacity was higher for lead(II) ion (200 mg g-1), but lower for cadmium(II) ion (106.383 mg g-1) in comparison with the chemical one. However, their adsorption process occurring on both composites also fitted well into the Langmuir isotherm model.

  18. Nanostructured thin film thermoelectric composite materials using conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS

    E-print Network

    Kuryak, Chris A. (Chris Adam)

    2013-01-01

    Thermoelectric materials have the ability to convert heat directly into electricity. This clean energy technology has advantages over other renewable technologies in that it requires no sunlight, has no moving parts, and ...

  19. Nanostructured Ti-Zr-Pd-Si-(Nb) bulk metallic composites: Novel biocompatible materials with superior mechanical strength and elastic recovery.

    PubMed

    Hynowska, A; Blanquer, A; Pellicer, E; Fornell, J; Suriach, S; Bar, M D; Gebert, A; Calin, M; Eckert, J; Nogus, C; Ibez, E; Barrios, L; Sort, J

    2015-11-01

    The microstructure, mechanical behaviour, and biocompatibility (cell culture, morphology, and cell adhesion) of nanostructured Ti45 Zr15 Pd35- x Si5 Nbx with x?=?0, 5 (at. %) alloys, synthesized by arc melting and subsequent Cu mould suction casting, in the form of rods with 3 mm in diameter, are investigated. Both Ti-Zr-Pd-Si-(Nb) materials show a multi-phase (composite-like) microstructure. The main phase is cubic ?-Ti phase (Im3m) but hexagonal ?-Ti (P63/mmc), cubic TiPd (Pm3m), cubic PdZr (Fm3m), and hexagonal (Ti, Zr)5 Si3 (P63/mmc) phases are also present. Nanoindentation experiments show that the Ti45 Zr15 Pd30 Si5 Nb5 sample exhibits lower Young's modulus than Ti45 Zr15 Pd35 Si5 . Conversely, Ti45 Zr15 Pd35 Si5 is mechanically harder. Actually, both alloys exhibit larger values of hardness when compared with commercial Ti-40Nb, (HTi-Zr-Pd-Si ? 14 GPa, HTi-Zr-Pd-Si-Nb ? 10 GPa and HTi-40Nb ? 2.7 GPa). Concerning the biological behaviour, preliminary results of cell viability performed on several Ti-Zr-Pd-Si-(Nb) discs indicate that the number of live cells is superior to 94% in both cases. The studied Ti-Zr-Pd-Si-(Nb) bulk metallic system is thus interesting for biomedical applications because of the outstanding mechanical properties (relatively low Young's modulus combined with large hardness), together with the excellent biocompatibility. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 103B: 1569-1579, 2015. PMID:25533018

  20. Laser nanostructuring of materials surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zavestovskaya, I N

    2010-12-29

    This paper reviews results of experimental and theoretical studies of surface micro- and nanostructuring of metals and other materials irradiated directly by short and ultrashort laser pulses. Special attention is paid to direct laser action involving melting of the material (with or without ablation), followed by ultrarapid surface solidification, which is an effective approach to producing surface nanostructures. Theoretical analysis of recrystallisation kinetics after irradiation by ultrashort laser pulses makes it possible to determine the volume fraction of crystallised phase and the average size of forming crystalline structures as functions of laser treatment regime and thermodynamic properties of the material. The present results can be used to optimise pulsed laser treatment regime in order to ensure control nanostructuring of metal surfaces. (photonics and nanotechnology)

  1. Atomistic simulation of nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ronghua

    Atomistic based computer modeling and simulation of nanostructured materials has become an important subfield of materials research. Based on the multiresolution method, which combines the continuum mechanics, kinetic Monte Carlo method and molecular dynamics method, we study the nanostructured materials grown by quantum-dot self-assembly, mechanical properties of strained semiconductors, and mechanical properties of carbon nanotube reinforced composites. This thesis covers the following three main contributions. 1. Self-organization of semiconductors InAs/GaAs in Stranski-Krastanov growth mode is studied using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations method coupled with the Green's function solution for the elastic strain energy distribution. The relevant growth parameters such as growth temperature, surface coverage, flux rate, and growth interruption time are investigated. It is shown clearly that when the long-range strain energy is included in the simulation, ordered uniform size distribution can be achieved. To address the effect of material anisotropy, the anisotropic substrates of GaAs with different growth orientations (001), (111), and (113) and an isotropic substrate Iso (001), reduced from cubic GaAs, are also investigated. Simulation results show that at selected growth parameters for temperature, coverage, and growth interruption time, strain energy field in the substrate is the key factor that controls the pattern of island distribution. Furthermore, layer-by-layer growth of quantum dots is also simulated briefly, and vertical alignment is observed that could lead to progressively uniform island sizes and spatial ordering. 2. Since the misfit strain will be induced during the quantum dots epitaxial growth, the mechanical property of the grown semiconductors will be influenced. In this thesis, utilizing the basic continuum mechanics, we present a molecular dynamic prediction for the elastic stiffness C11, C12 and C 44 in strained silicon and InAs as functions of the volumetric (misfit) strain. The bulk modulus, effective elastic stiffness C 11, C12 and C44 of the strained silicon, including also the effective Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, are all calculated and presented. In general, our simulation indicates that the bulk moduli, C11 and C12 increase with increasing volumetric strain whilst C44 is almost independent of the volumetric strain. 3. Also using MD method, the carbon nanotube reinforced Epon 862 composite is studied. The stress-strain relations and the elastic Young's moduli along the longitudinal direction (parallel to CNT) are simulated with the results being also compared with those from the rule-of-mixture. Our results show that, with increasing strain in the longitudinal direction, the Young's modulus of CNT increases whilst that of the Epon 862 composite or matrix decreases. A long CNT can greatly improve the Young's modulus of the Epon 862 composite (about 10 times stiffer), which is also consistent with the prediction based on the rule-of-mixture at low strain level. Furthermore, even a short CNT can also enhance the Young's modulus of the Epon 862 composite, with an increment of 20% being observed as compared to that of the Epon 862 matrix.

  2. Prediction of Material Properties of Nanostructured Polymer Composites Using Atomistic Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, J.A.; Clancy, T.C.; Frankland, S.J.V.

    2009-01-01

    Atomistic models of epoxy polymers were built in order to assess the effect of structure at the nanometer scale on the resulting bulk properties such as elastic modulus and thermal conductivity. Atomistic models of both bulk polymer and carbon nanotube polymer composites were built. For the bulk models, the effect of moisture content and temperature on the resulting elastic constants was calculated. A relatively consistent decrease in modulus was seen with increasing temperature. The dependence of modulus on moisture content was less consistent. This behavior was seen for two different epoxy systems, one containing a difunctional epoxy molecule and the other a tetrafunctional epoxy molecule. Both epoxy structures were crosslinked with diamine curing agents. Multifunctional properties were calculated with the nanocomposite models. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to estimate the interfacial thermal (Kapitza) resistance between the carbon nanotube and the surrounding epoxy matrix. These estimated values were used in a multiscale model in order to predict the thermal conductivity of a nanocomposite as a function of the nanometer scaled molecular structure.

  3. Spongins: nanostructural investigations and development of biomimetic material model

    E-print Network

    Maldonado, Manuel

    Spongins: nanostructural investigations and development of biomimetic material model Hermann the investigations for development of nano-sized biomimetic composites. Sponges (Porifera) are presently gaining mineralized textures, the nanolocalization of biologically active bromotyrosine derivatives, the biomimetic

  4. Electron Holography of Nanostructured Materials

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    CHAPTER 5 Electron Holography of Nanostructured Materials RAFAL E DUNIN-BORKOWSKI,*a TAKESHI KASAMAb AND RICHARD J HARRISONc a Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grunberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Julich D-52425, Julich, Germany; b Center for Electron

  5. Composite material

    DOEpatents

    Hutchens, Stacy A. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Solihull, GB); Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN); O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  6. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  7. Multiphasic nanostructured composites for photonics: Fullerene-doped monolith glass

    SciTech Connect

    Gvishi, R.; Bhawalkar, J.D.; Kumar, N.D.; Ruland, G.; Narang, U.; Praasad, P.N.

    1995-11-01

    The authors prepared nanostructured composite materials via sol-gel methods where doping of either C{sub 60} or bisbenzothiazole 3,4-didecyloxythiophene (BBTDOT) was employed. A multiphasic composite glass doped with both C{sub 60} and BBTDOT displayed significant optical power at 532 and 800 nm due to independent limiting effects of each dopant. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-06-01

    The prospect of drastic climate change and the ceaseless fluctuation of fossil fuel prices provide motivation to reduce the use of fossil fuels and to find new energy conversion and storage systems that are able to limit carbon dioxide generation. Among known systems, lithium-ion batteries are recognized as the most appropriate energy storage system because of their high energy density and thus space saving in applications. Introduction of nanotechnology to electrode material is beneficial to improve the resulting electrode performances such as capacity, its retention, and rate capability. The nanostructure is highly available not only when used alone but also is more highlighted when harmonized in forms of core-shell structure and composites with carbon nanotubes, graphene or reduced graphene oxides. This review covers syntheses and electrochemical properties of nanoscale, nanosized, and nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  9. Carbothermal reduction of SiO2 promoted with tungsten and morphology of WC-W2C-?-SiC nanostructured composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowski, Jacek; Kubiak, Andrzej; Andrzejczuk, Mariusz

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the influence of tungsten as a structure promoter in the carbothermal reduction of silica. The morphology and surface structure of the obtained materials were analyzed using XRD, SEM-EDS, TEM and FTIR techniques. Surface area and porosity were evaluated on the basis of low temperature adsorption of nitrogen. The WC-W2C-?-SiC nanostructured composite material formed from the carbothermal reduction of SiO2 promoted with tungsten had a larger surface area (25.8 m2 g-1) in comparison to that measured for a ?-SiC sample obtained by the simple carbothermal reduction of silica. Based on the results of this research, tungsten promoted carbothermal reduction of silica appears as a relatively simple procedure for obtaining valuable materials with a sufficiently high surface area to be used in catalysis.

  10. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  11. Processes for fabricating composite reinforced material

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2015-11-24

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  12. Superconducting nanostructured materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Metlushko, V.

    1998-07-13

    Within the last year it has been realized that the remarkable properties of superconducting thin films containing a periodic array of defects (such as sub-micron sized holes) offer a new route for developing a novel superconducting materials based on precise control of microstructure by modern photolithography. A superconductor is a material which, when cooled below a certain temperature, loses all resistance to electricity. This means that superconducting materials can carry large electrical currents without any energy loss--but there are limits to how much current can flow before superconductivity is destroyed. The current at which superconductivity breaks down is called the critical current. The value of the critical current is determined by the balance of Lorentz forces and pinning forces acting on the flux lines in the superconductor. Lorentz forces proportional to the current flow tend to drive the flux lines into motion, which dissipates energy and destroys zero resistance. Pinning forces created by isolated defects in the microstructure oppose flux line motion and increase the critical current. Many kinds of artificial pinning centers have been proposed and developed to increase critical current performance, ranging from dispersal of small non-superconducting second phases to creation of defects by proton, neutron or heavy ion irradiation. In all of these methods, the pinning centers are randomly distributed over the superconducting material, causing them to operate well below their maximum efficiency. We are overcome this drawback by creating pinning centers in aperiodic lattice (see Fig 1) so that each pin site interacts strongly with only one or a few flux lines.

  13. Nanostructured systems for biological materials.

    PubMed

    Lan, Esther H; Dunn, Bruce; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2005-01-01

    The sol-gel process is a chemical technique for immobilizing biomolecules in an inorganic, transparent matrix. The dopant biomolecules reside in an interconnected mesoporous network and become part of the nanostructured architecture of the entire material. In this chapter, we review the sol-gel immobilization approach and discuss how it leads to the stabilization of a number of proteins against aggressive chemical and thermal environments. We also review the sensor applications of this material that result from having analyte molecules diffuse through the matrix and reach the immobilized biomolecule. PMID:15657479

  14. Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Frank Bridges, University of California-Santa Cruz

    2010-08-05

    The two-and-a-half day symposium on the "Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials" will be the first comprehensive meeting on this topic held under the auspices of a major U.S. professional society. Spring MRS Meetings provide a natural venue for this symposium as they attract a broad audience of researchers that represents a cross-section of the state-of-the-art regarding synthesis, structure-property relations, and applications of nanostructured materials. Close interactions among the experts in local structure measurements and materials researchers will help both to identify measurement needs pertinent to ??real-world? materials problems and to familiarize the materials research community with the state-of-the-art local structure measurement techniques. We have chosen invited speakers that reflect the multidisciplinary and international nature of this topic and the need to continually nurture productive interfaces among university, government and industrial laboratories. The intent of the symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for discussion and exchange of ideas on the recent progress in quantitative characterization of structural order in nanomaterials using different experimental techniques and theory. The symposium is expected to facilitate discussions on optimal approaches for determining atomic structure at the nanoscale using combined inputs from multiple measurement techniques.

  15. Electron emission from nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safir, Abdelilah

    In this dissertation, standardized methods for measuring electron emission (EE) from nanostructured materials are established. Design of an emitter array platform, synthesis and nanomanipulation of different types of are successfully conducted. Preexisting as well as novel nanostructures are examined for possible use as electron point sources. Three main categories of emitters are under evaluation: oxide nanowires, metallic nanowires and carbon based nanomaterials (CBNs). Tungsten oxides nanowires have low work function, then metallic nanowires have high electrical conductivity and abundant number of free electrons at and below their Fermi level and lastly, CBNs have superior electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal properties. This evaluation is designed to compare and choose among the nanoemitters that are suitable for EE. Simulation through theoretical modeling is provided to optimize the parameters directly or indirectly affecting EE properties. The models are to enhance the emitter's performance through increase the packing density, reduce the field screening effect, lower the turn-on and the threshold electric fields and increase the emission current densities. The current estimations and the modeling of the validity regions where EE types theoretically exist, help to select and fabricate optimum emitters. An assembly consisting of sample substrate, electrical feedthroughs, electrodes, nano/micro-manipulator and insulators are mounted within a vacuum chamber. An ion vacuum pump and a turbo pump are used to reach a vacuum pressure of 10-7 Torr. Two systems are used for EE characterization of nanostructures: bulk and In-situ configurations. The bulk investigation is realized by designing a vacuum chamber and different sample holders that can resist harsh environment as well as high temperature for both FE and TE experiments. In-situ experiments are conducted in the chamber of the scanning electron microscope (SEM), it consists of designing special sample holders plus modifications of the SEM chamber for the ease of EE characterization. Samples with different materials, densities, radii of curvatures, and lengths ranging respectively from 107--109 emitter/cm2, 5--300 nm, and 3*103--10 7 nm, are produced. The CBNs used are characterized by different structures and shapes that are defined by the monolayer carbon sheet takes. Cylindrical sheets are equivalent to nanotubes while graphene are flat sheets. Emitter's structures are varied by altering the critical growth parameters such as temperature, pressure and constituent materials. Enhancement of the FE properties, the design of an optimum emitter density and reduction of the field screening effect is possible by selecting appropriate materials, synthesizing nanostructures with small radius (10 nm), high aspect ratio (greater than 1000), the ideal density where the inter-emitter distance is comparable to the emitter height, the cathodes' uniformity, the treatment of the emitting surface, and integrating triode arrangement. Initially, the thermionic Emission (TE) investigations of these nanostructures produce emission at an onset temperature of 500 C, current densities of 160 mA/cm2 at temperatures of 700--1200 C and predict the work function of the emitting materials. In addition, nanostructures can enhance the local electric field and increase the packing density to produce better EE properties. Then, FE investigations from different nanostructures showed that the small tip's diameter, high aspect ratio and tapered structures enhance emission through low turn-on fields (< 0.8 V/microm), low threshold fields (< 3 V/microm) and high current densities (520 mA/cm2). CCNTs having inter-emitters distance comparable to their average height contribute to the reduction of the field screening effect through large field enhancement factor beta (> 7000) and enhancement of the EE properties. EE experimental data along with its analysis demonstrate that CBNs have lower turn-on electric field, lower threshold fields, higher current density and higher field enhance

  16. Nanostructured Energetic Materials with Sol-Gel Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A; Satcher, J; Simpson, R; Clapsaddle, B

    2003-11-25

    The utilization of sol-gel chemical methodology to prepare nanostructured energetic materials as well as the concepts of nanoenergetics is described. The preparation and characterization of two totally different compositions is detailed. In one example, nanostructured aerogel and xerogel composites of sol-gel iron (III) oxide and ultra fine grained aluminum (UFG Al) are prepared, characterized, and compared to a conventional micron-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al thermite. The exquisite degree of mixing and intimate nanostructuring of this material is illustrated using transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM). The nanocomposite material has markedly different energy release (burn rate) and thermal properties compared to the conventional composite, results of which will be discussed. Small-scale safety characterization was performed aerogels and xerogels of the nanostructured thermite. The second nanostructured energetic material consists of a nanostructured hydrocarbon resin fuel network with fine ammonium perchlorate (NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4}) oxidizer present.

  17. Computational Materials: Modeling and Simulation of Nanostructured Materials and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper provides details on the structure and implementation of the Computational Materials program at the NASA Langley Research Center. Examples are given that illustrate the suggested approaches to predicting the behavior and influencing the design of nanostructured materials such as high-performance polymers, composites, and nanotube-reinforced polymers. Primary simulation and measurement methods applicable to multi-scale modeling are outlined. Key challenges including verification and validation of models are highlighted and discussed within the context of NASA's broad mission objectives.

  18. Nanostructured polymer composites for electronics and sensor applications

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Frank

    Nanostructured polymer composites for electronics and sensor applications Wednesday November 10 Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI Nanostructured composites based on polymer matrix and carbon nanotubes (CNT), metallic nanoparticles and polymer core-shell latex systems will play a critical role

  19. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S-poisoning resistance. Further investigation is needed for unraveling the understanding, design and selection principles of this new class of nanostructure based monolithic catalysts.

  20. Nanostructured metal-polyaniline composites

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Li, Wenguang (Elgin, IL); Bailey, James A. (Los Alamos, NM); Gao, Yuan (Brewer, ME)

    2010-08-31

    Metal-polyaniline (PANI) composites are provided together with a process of preparing such composites by an electrodeless process. The metal of the composite can have nanoscale structural features and the composites can be used in applications such as catalysis for hydrogenation reactions and for analytical detection methods employing SERS.

  1. Biomimetic nanostructured materials: potential regulators for osteogenesis?

    PubMed

    Ngiam, Michelle; Nguyen, Luong T H; Liao, Susan; Chan, Casey K; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2011-05-01

    Nanostructured materials are gaining new impetus owing to the advancements in material fabrication techniques and their unique properties (their nanosize, high surface area-to-volume ratio, and high porosity). Such nanostructured materials mimic the subtleties of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, creating artifi cial microenvironments which resemble the native niches in the body. On the other hand, the isolation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various tissue sources has resulted in the interest to study the multiple differentiation lineages for various therapeutic treatments. In this review, our focus is tailored towards the potential of biomimetic nanostructured materials as osteoinductive scaffolds for bone regeneration to differentiate MSCs towards osteoblastic cell types without the presence of soluble factors. In addition to mimicking the nanostructure of native bone, the supplement of collagen and hydroxyapatite which mimic the main components of the ECM also brings signifi cant advantages to these materials. PMID:21678012

  2. Nanostructured hybrid materials from aqueous polymer dispersions.

    PubMed

    Castelvetro, Valter; De Vita, Cinzia

    2004-05-20

    Organic-inorganic (O-I) hybrids with well-defined morphology and structure controlled at the nanometric scale represent a very interesting class of materials both for their use as biomimetic composites and because of their potential use in a wide range of technologically advanced as well as more conventional application fields. Their unique features can be exploited or their role envisaged as components of electronic and optoelectronic devices, in controlled release and bioencapsulation, as active substrates for chromatographic separation and catalysis, as nanofillers for composite films in packaging and coating, in nanowriting and nanolithography, etc. A synergistic combination or totally new properties with respect to the two components of the hybrid can arise from nanostructuration, achieved by surface modification of nanostructures, self-assembling or simply heterophase dispersion. In fact, owing to the extremely large total surface area associated with the resulting morphologies, the interfacial interactions can deeply modify the bulk properties of each component. A wide range of starting materials and of production processes have been studied in recent years for the controlled synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures, from nanoparticle or lamellar dispersions to mesoporous materials obtained from templating nanoparticle dispersions in a continuous, e.g. ceramic precursor, matrix. This review is aimed at giving some basic definitions of what is intended as a hybrid (O-I) material and what are the main synthetic routes available. The various methods for preparing hybrid nanostructures and, among them, inorganic-organic or O-I core-shell nanoparticles, are critically analyzed and classified based on the reaction medium (aqueous, non-aqueous), and on the role it plays in directing the final morphology. Particular attention is devoted to aqueous systems and water-borne dispersions which, in addition to being environmentally more acceptable or even a mandatory choice for any future development of large output applications (e.g. in paint, ink and coating industry), can provide the thermodynamic drive for self-assembling of amphiphilics, adsorption onto colloidal particles or partitioning of the hybrid's precursors between dispersed nanosized reaction loci, as in emulsion or miniemulsion free-radical polymerization. While nanoencapsulation and self-assembling processes are already exploited as commercially viable fabrication methods, a newly developed technique based on two-stage sol-gel and free-radical emulsion polymerization is described, which can grant a versatile synthetic approach to hybrid O-I nanoparticles with tailor-made composition of both the organic core and the silica or organosilica shell, and good control on morphology, size and heterophase structure in the 50-500 nm range. Styrene or acrylate homo- and copolymer core latex particles need to be modified with a reactive comonomer, such as trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate, to achieve efficient interfacial coupling with the inorganic shell. Accurate control over pH and process conditions is required to avoid latex coagulation or, in case of organic particles with uniform composition, incipient intraparticle crosslinking. PMID:15072940

  3. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppl, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(?-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  4. Nanostructured Materials for Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose overall objective is to advance the fundamental understanding of novel photoelectronic organic device structures integrated with inorganic nanostructures, while also expanding the general field of nanomaterials for renewable energy devices and systems.

  5. Mechanisms of direct laser nanostructuring of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. Yu; Shmakov, V. A.

    2015-05-01

    In the given paper, recent results on the development of physical mechanisms and theoretical models of direct laser surface nanostructuring are reviewed. Attention is paid to nanosecond lasers, as they are cheaper and simpler in use than pico- and femtosecond lasers, which is important for the development of further applications. The formation of so-called 'nonresonant' structures, whose period is not directly related to the laser radiation wavelength, is considered. Nanostructuring mechanisms for a number of surface modification processes with and without melting are studied. Corresponding experimental illustrations of nanostructures are given for various materials - polymers, metals, ceramics, and diamond films.

  6. Shockwave consolidation of nanostructured thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Taylor, Patrick; Nemir, David

    2014-09-01

    Nanotechnology based thermoelectric materials are considered attractive for developing highly efficient thermoelectric devices. Nano-structured thermoelectric materials are predicted to offer higher ZT over bulk materials by reducing thermal conductivity and increasing electrical conductivity. Consolidation of nano-structured powders into dense materials without losing nanostructure is essential towards practical device development. Using the gas atomization process, amorphous nano-structured powders were produced. Shockwave consolidation is accomplished by surrounding the nanopowder-containing tube with explosives and then detonated. The resulting shock wave causes rapid fusing of the powders without the melt and subsequent grain growth. We have been successful in generating consolidated nanostructured bismuth telluride alloy powders by using shockwave technique. Using these consolidated materials, several types of thermoelectric power generator devices have been developed. Shockwave consolidation is anticipated to generate large quantities of nanostructred materials expeditiously and cost effectively. In this paper, the technique of shockwave consolidation will be presented followed by Seebeck Coefficient and thermal conductivity measurements of consolidated materials. Preliminary results indicate a substantial increase in electrical conductivity due to shockwave consolidation technique.

  7. Shockwave Consolidation of Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Taylor, Patrick; Nemir, David

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology based thermoelectric materials are considered attractive for developing highly efficient thermoelectric devices. Nano-structured thermoelectric materials are predicted to offer higher ZT over bulk materials by reducing thermal conductivity and increasing electrical conductivity. Consolidation of nano-structured powders into dense materials without losing nanostructure is essential towards practical device development. Using the gas atomization process, amorphous nano-structured powders were produced. Shockwave consolidation is accomplished by surrounding the nanopowder-containing tube with explosives and then detonating. The resulting shock wave causes rapid fusing of the powders without the melt and subsequent grain growth. We have been successful in generating consolidated nano-structured bismuth telluride alloy powders by using the shockwave technique. Using these consolidated materials, several types of thermoelectric power generating devices have been developed. Shockwave consolidation is anticipated to generate large quantities of nanostructred materials expeditiously and cost effectively. In this paper, the technique of shockwave consolidation will be presented followed by Seebeck Coefficient and thermal conductivity measurements of consolidated materials. Preliminary results indicate a substantial increase in electrical conductivity due to shockwave consolidation technique.

  8. MRS Symposium Q: Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials and Nanocomposites

    E-print Network

    Ovid'ko Ilya A.

    MRS Symposium Q: Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials and Nanocomposites Nanostructured materials and nanocomposites exhibiting unique functional and structural properties have materials and nanocomposites. In the past decade, tremendous investments in time, energy, and resources have

  9. Quantum Design of Complex Nanostructured Electronic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    Over the last decade, our ability to predict the fundamental properties of nanoscale building blocks such as quantum dots, wires, and slabs has improved dramatically. In particular, first principles modeling techniques can now routinely predict how the structural, electronic, optical, and transport properties of these building blocks depends on their size, shape, composition, and surface structure. In this talk we present the results of three projects designed to build upon these fundamental studies to engineer novel, nanostructured materials with tailored electronic properties. These complex, nanoscale heterostructure materials utilize both the unique properties of their nanoscale building blocks and the interactions between the constituent building blocks to engineer the ideal material properties. (i) We will describe the design of a silicon/germanium nanowire based thermoelectric material whose performance is enhanced by suppressing thermal transport and enhancing electronic transport. This is achieved by engineering the nanoscale confinement and scattering of phonons and electrons. (ii) We will describe the design of a silicon based laser, constructed from silicon nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous silicon nitride matrix. Models of the electronic states in the nanocrystal, the surrounding matrix, and the interface between the two, enable us to optimize the optical efficiency of the emission and electrically pump the laser. (iii) We will describe the use of first principles models to predict the optical response of silicon nanowires. These predictions are used to interpret the results of optical scatterometry metrology which can measure the size and surface roughness of nanoscale electronic devices produced by a combination of lithography and etching. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy at the University of California/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract no. W-7405-Eng-48.

  10. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Jeon, Sea Ho (Dracut, MA); Mack, Nathan H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-08-02

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  11. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Jeon, Sea Ho (Dracut, MA); Mack, Nathan H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-04-03

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  12. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    Various topics relating to composite structural materials for use in aircraft structures are discussed. The mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers, carbon fiber-epoxy interface bonds, composite fractures, residual stress in high modulus and high strength carbon fibers, fatigue in composite materials, and the mechanical properties of polymeric matrix composite laminates are among the topics discussed.

  13. Nanostructure material for supercapacitor application

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Chu, C.T.; Wei, Q.; Zheng, H.

    2000-07-01

    Transition metal nitrides and carbonitride materials were fabricated via sol-gel technology. The transition metal amides were synthesized by two methods: chemical route and electrolysis. The transition metal amides were then further polymerized, sintering to high temperature in an inert or reduced atmosphere. Transition metal nitrides and carbonitrides powders with surface area up to 160 m{sup 2}/g were obtained. The resultant electrode material showed high specific capacitance as crystalline ruthenium oxide.

  14. Composite material dosimeters

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a composite material containing a mix of dosimeter material powder and a polymer powder wherein the polymer is transparent to the photon emission of the dosimeter material powder. By mixing dosimeter material powder with polymer powder, less dosimeter material is needed compared to a monolithic dosimeter material chip. Interrogation is done with excitation by visible light.

  15. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1983-01-01

    Transverse properties of fiber constituents in composites, fatigue in composite materials, matrix dominated properties of high performance composites, numerical investigation of moisture effects, numerical investigation of the micromechanics of composite fracture, advanced analysis methods, compact lug design, and the RP-1 and RP-2 sailplanes projects are discussed.

  16. Tough Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vosteen, L. F. (compiler); Johnson, N. J. (compiler); Teichman, L. A. (compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Papers and working group summaries are presented which address composite material behavior and performance improvement. Topic areas include composite fracture toughness and impact characterization, constituent properties and interrelationships, and matrix synthesis and characterization.

  17. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    Technology utilization of fiber reinforced composite materials is discussed in the areas of physical properties, and life prediction. Programs related to the Composite Aircraft Program are described in detail.

  18. Benzoxazine resin/carbon nanotube nanostructured composite's degradation kinetic.

    PubMed

    Untem, Flvia O; Botelho, Edson C; Rezende, Mirabel C; Costa, Michelle Leali

    2014-07-01

    In the last decades a new class of thermoset phenolic resin is emerging as a substitute of the traditional epoxy and phenolic resins in the aircraft industry. This new class is called polybenzoxazines and its associates the epoxy resin's mechanical properties and phenolic resin's thermal and flame retardant properties, resulting in a resin with superior properties when analyzed with the others singly. The introduction of carbon nanotubes in low concentration into polymeric matrices can produce nanostructured materials with good properties. Thus, in this study, nanostructured composites of benzoxazine resin were processed with different concentration of carbon nanotubes (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% w/w). In order to evaluate the thermostability of the benzoxazine resin and its nanostructured composites, it was performed a degradation kinetic study using the thermogravimetric technique. For that, the analysis have been done with the temperature ranging from 25 degrees C to 1000 degrees C at nitrogen atmosphere (100 mL x min(-1)) and in different heating rates (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 20 degrees C x min(-1)), in order to obtain the kinetic parameters (activation energy, E(a), and pre-exponential factor, A), based on Ozawa-Wall-Flynn model. The results showed excellent agreement between the thermogravimetric curves obtained and the Ozawa-Wall-Flynn method. The degradation kinetic study showed that the introduction of carbon nanotubes in the benzoxazine matrix does not change the thermostability of the resin, so that it does not have a significant influence in the shelf life of the material. PMID:24757993

  19. Nano-composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  20. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    Solution-phase processing presents an attractive avenue for building unique architectures from a wide variety of materials that exhibit functional properties, making them ideal candidates for various energy applications. The most basic building block or precursor in solution-based syntheses is a soluble species that can either self-assemble, or coassemble with a structure directing agent or template, to create a unique architecture. Soluble inorganic-based building blocks ranging from atomic-scale charged molecular complexes to nanometer-scale preformed nanocrystals are utilized to construct functional inorganic materials. These nanostructured materials are excellent candidates for integrating into electronic and energy-storage devices, including photovoltaics and pseudocapacitors. The goal of this work is to create inorganic nanostructured materials from solution-based methods. This work is divided into two parts: the first involves the synthesis of inorganic semiconductor-based nanostructured materials; the second focuses on developing porous metal oxide-based pseudocapacitors. The first part describes three distinct synthetic approaches to nanostructured semiconductors: the synthesis of complex metal chalcogenide semiconductors produced from highly soluble hydrazinium-based precursors using a porous template; low-temperature melt processing of an organic-inorganic hybrid semiconductor into porous templates to produce vertically-aligned arrays with a concentric multilayered structure; and solution-phase assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals of CdSe into nanoporous architectures via polymer templating. These nanostructured semiconductors are electrically interconnected through intimate contact between the molecular or nanoscale precursors achieved during solution-phase synthesis, making them suitable for a range of applications. In the second part, porous metal-oxide based materials are constructed by the assembly of nanosized building blocks into 3D porous architectures via polymer templating. Two main approaches are described: first, a general route for templating both redox-active oxides (Mn3O4, MnFe2O4) and conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystals is described; second, nanocrystal-based porous architectures of a ITO are coated with redox-active V2O5 via atomic layer deposition to produce nanoporous composites. The porous architectures exhibit high surface areas, providing ample redox active sites, and an interconnected open porosity, facilitating solvent/ion diffusion to those sites. In the ITO-V2O 5 composites, the electron-transfer reactions are facilitated by the increased conductivity leading to high pseudocapacitive contributions to charge storage that are accompanied by fast charging/discharging rates.

  1. Preparation and reactivity of gasless nanostructured energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Manukyan, Khachatur V; Shuck, Christopher E; Rogachev, Alexander S; Mukasyan, Alexander S

    2015-01-01

    High-Energy Ball Milling (HEBM) is a ball milling process where a powder mixture placed in the ball mill is subjected to high-energy collisions from the balls. Among other applications, it is a versatile technique that allows for effective preparation of gasless reactive nanostructured materials with high energy density per volume (Ni+Al, Ta+C, Ti+C). The structural transformations of reactive media, which take place during HEBM, define the reaction mechanism in the produced energeticcomposites. Varying the processing conditions permits fine tuning of the milling-induced microstructures of the fabricated composite particles. In turn, the reactivity, i.e., self-ignition temperature, ignition delay time, as well as reaction kinetics, of high energy density materials depends on its microstructure. Analysis of the milling-induced microstructures suggests that the formation of fresh oxygen-free intimate high surface area contacts between the reagents is responsible for the enhancement of their reactivity. This manifests itself in a reduction of ignition temperature and delay time, an increased rate of chemical reaction, and an overall decrease of the effective activation energy of the reaction. The protocol provides a detailed description for the preparation of reactive nanocomposites with tailored microstructure using short-term HEBM method. It also describes a high-speed thermal imaging technique to determine the ignition/combustion characteristics of the energetic materials. The protocol can be adapted to preparation and characterization of a variety of nanostructured energetic composites. PMID:25868065

  2. Arc Plasma Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials: Techniques and Innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Das, A. K.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Kakati, M.; Karmakar, Soumen

    2008-10-23

    Arc plasma aided synthesis of nanostructured materials has the potential of producing complex nano phase structures in bulk quantities. Successful implementation of this potential capability to industrial scale nano generation needs establishment of a plasma parameter control regime in terms of plasma gas, flow pattern, pressure, local temperature and the plasma fields to obtain the desired nano phase structures. However, there is a need to design innovative in situ experiments for generation of an extensive database and subsequently to correlate plasma parameters to the size, shape and phase of the generated nanostructures. The present paper reviews the various approaches utilized in the field of arc plasma nanosynthesis in general and in the authors' laboratories in particular. Simple plasma diagnostics and monitoring schemes have been used in conjunction with nano materials characterization tools to explore the possibility of controlling the size, shape, yield and phase composition of the arc generated nanostructures through plasma control. Case studies related to synthesis of AlN, Al2O3, TiO2, ZrO2, ZnO), magnetic (e.g. {gamma}-Fe2O3, Fe3O4) and single elemental materials (e.g. carbon nanotubes) are presented.

  3. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    A multifaceted program is described in which aeronautical, mechanical, and materials engineers interact to develop composite aircraft structures. Topics covered include: (1) the design of an advanced composite elevator and a proposed spar and rib assembly; (2) optimizing fiber orientation in the vicinity of heavily loaded joints; (3) failure mechanisms and delamination; (4) the construction of an ultralight sailplane; (5) computer-aided design; finite element analysis programs, preprocessor development, and array preprocessor for SPAR; (6) advanced analysis methods for composite structures; (7) ultrasonic nondestructive testing; (8) physical properties of epoxy resins and composites; (9) fatigue in composite materials, and (10) transverse thermal expansion of carbon/epoxy composites.

  4. Thermoelectric Properties of Solution Synthesized Nanostructured Materials.

    PubMed

    Finefrock, Scott W; Yang, Haoran; Fang, Haiyu; Wu, Yue

    2015-07-24

    Thermoelectric nanocomposites made by solution synthesis and compression of nanostructured chalcogenides could potentially be low-cost, scalable alternatives to traditional solid-state synthesized materials. We review the progress in this field by comparing the power factor and/or the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, of four classes of materials: (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3, PbTe, ternary and quaternary copper chalcogenides, and silver chalcogenides. We also discuss the thermal conductivity reduction associated with multiphased nanocomposites. The ZT of the best solution synthesized materials are, in several cases, shown to be equal to or greater than the corresponding bulk materials despite the generally reduced mobility associated with solution synthesized nanocomposites. For the solution synthesized materials with the highest performance, the synthesis and processing conditions are summarized to provide guidance for future work. PMID:25938922

  5. Aerogel Derived Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wendell E Rhine, PI; Dong, Wenting; Greg Caggiano, PM

    2010-10-08

    Americas dependence on foreign sources for fuel represents a economic and security threat for the country. These non renewable resources are depleting, and the effects of pollutants from fuels such as oil are reaching a problematic that affects the global community. Solar concentration power (SCP) production systems offer the opportunity to harness one of the United States most under utilized natural resources; sunlight. While commercialization of this technology is increasing, in order to become a significant source of electricity production in the United States the costs of deploying and operating SCP plants must be further reduced. Parabolic Trough SCP technologies are close to meeting energy production cost levels that would raise interest in the technology and help accelerate its adoption as a method to produce a significant portion of the Countrys electric power needs. During this program, Aspen Aerogels will develop a transparent aerogel insulation that can replace the costly vacuum insulation systems that are currently used in parabolic trough designs. During the Phase I program, Aspen Aerogels will optimize the optical and thermal properties of aerogel to meet the needs of this application. These properties will be tested, and the results will be used to model the performance of a parabolic trough HCE system which uses this novel material in place of vacuum. During the Phase II program, Aspen Aerogels will scale up this technology. Together with industry partners, Aspen Aerogels will build and test a prototype Heat Collection Element that is insulated with the novel transparent aerogel material. This new device will find use in parabolic trough SCP applications.

  6. Nanostructured Carbon Materials Myoung-Woon Moon,1

    E-print Network

    Kim, Ho-Young

    , and diamond or porous carbon, respectively. Furthermore, car- bon materials can have new functionsEditorial Nanostructured Carbon Materials Myoung-Woon Moon,1 Ho-Young Kim,2 Aiying Wang,3, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Nanostructured carbon materials have

  7. Nanostructure and composition of bivalve shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Soldati, A. L.; Wirth, R.; Huth, J.; Wehrmeister, U.; Hofmeister, W.

    2009-04-01

    Shells and pearls of unionid mussels (Hyriopsis cumingii, Margaritifera margaritifera, Diplodon chilensis patagonicus) were studied by high resolution microbeam methods and -computer tomography to gather insight into the nanostructure and chemical composition of nacre and prism layers. Natural and cultured pearls are formed by many mollusc species and their generation is very similar to that of shells resulting in identical prismatic and nacreous structures of shells and pearls. Basic difference is, however that pearl culturing methods induce biomineralisation of CaCO3 around a crystalline bead which results in a reverse structural organisation compared to bivalve shells. Bivalve shell growth starts from a thick organic matrix (the periostracum; Eyster and Morse, 1984) which is followed towards the inside by two variously thick layers consisting of prismatic CaCO3 aggregations and layers of CaCO3 platelets, respectively. Platelets and prisms are individually covered by a chitinous organic matrix which lends structural support and is thought to exert control over the mineralization process. The minerals within the organic sheaths are highly-aligned poly-twinned crystals with a slightly distorted lattice due to inclusions of organic molecules (Pokroy et al., 2006). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman Microscopy analyses of the shells and pearls show that both structures, prisms and platelets, consist of nanometre-sized organic membrane-coated granules of CaCO3 (Jacob et al., 2008). In the vicinity of the periostracum, the granules consist of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), but the crystallinity increases with increasing distance from the periostracum. The transition from disordered (amorphous) to crystalline CaCO3 is gradual within a few micrometers and coincides with a decrease in porosity. Concentrations of sulphur and phosphorus are higher in ACC than in aragonite indicating a higher organic content of ACC. Bivalve larval shells were shown to consist entirely of ACC before this phase crystallizes to form aragonite (Weiss, et al., 2002). The occurrence of ACC in pearls and adult shells close to the periostracum reported here and by Jacob et al. (2008) is taken as evidence that bivalve shell formation starts from ACC secreted in organic vesicles. Lately, a number of studies reported similar granular nanostructures for many different mollusc species which implies that shell growth by secretion of ACC vesicles could be a widespread phenomenon in biology. Vaterite could be identified in freshwater cultured pearls as well as in shells of Hyriopsis cumingii and Diplodon chilensis patagonicus. Aragonite and vaterite were found to coexist and are crosscut by growth lines, implying simultaneous formation. In pearls, it was found that vaterite, like aragonite, forms from ACC (Jacob et al., 2008) and is therefore not the precursor phase of aragonite in this system. Eyster L.S. and Morse M. P. (1984). Early shell formation during molluscan embryogenesis, with new studies on the Surf clam, Spisula solidissima. Am. Zoologist 24: 871-882. Jacob, D.E., A.L. Soldati, R. Wirth, J. Huth, U. Wehrmeister und W. Hofmeister (2008). Nanostructure, chemical composition and mechanisms of bivalve shell growth. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 72, 22, 5401-5415. Pokroy B., Fitch A. N., Lee P. L., Quintana J. P., Caspi E. N., and Zolotoyabko E. (2006) Anisotropic lattice distortions in the mollusk-made aragonite: A widespread phenomenon. J. Structural Biology 153, 145-150. Weiss I. M., Tuross N., Addadi L., and Weiner S. (2002) Mollusc larval shell formation: Amorphous calcium carbonate is a precursor phase for aragonite. J. Exp. Zoology 293, 478-491.

  8. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the RPI composites program is to develop advanced technology in the areas of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, reliability and life prediction. Concommitant goals are to educate engineers to design and use composite materials as normal or conventional materials. A multifaceted program was instituted to achieve these objectives.

  9. Nanostructured Materials Development for Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, B. J.; Elich, J. B.; Gennett, T.; Castro, S. L.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2003-01-01

    There have been many recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for space power applications. In particular, the use of high purity single wall nanotubes holds promise for a variety of generation and storage devices including: thin film lithium ion batteries, microelectronic proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, polymeric thin film solar cells, and thermionic power supplies is presented. Semiconducting quantum dots alone and in conjunction with carbon nanotubes are also being investigated for possible use in high efficiency photovoltaic solar cells. This paper will review some of the work being done at RIT in conjunction with the NASA Glenn Research Center to utilize nanomaterials in space power devices.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of carbon and boron carbide nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud, Sara

    Carbon is present in nature in a variety of allotropes and chemical compounds. Due to reduced dimensionality, nanostructured carbon materials, i.e. single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties. There is a potential for SWNTs use as biological probes and assists for tunable tissue growth in biomedical applications. However, the presumed cytotoxicity of SWNTs requires investigation of the risks of their incorporation into living systems. Boron is not found in nature in elementary form. Boron based materials are chemically complex and exist in various polymorphic forms, i.e. boron carbide (BC). Because BC is a lightweight material with exceptional mechanical and elastic properties, it is the ideal candidate for armor and ballistic applications. However, practical use of BC as armor material is limited because of its anomalous glass-like behaviour at high velocity impacts, which has been linked to stress-induced structural instability in one of BC polymorphs, B12(CCC). Theoretical calculations suggest that formation of B12(CCC) in BC could be suppressed by silicon doping. In the first part of this thesis, biocompatibility of SWNTs is investigated. It is shown that under normal cell implantation conditions, the electrical conductivity of the SWNTs decreases due to an increase in structural disorder. This research suggests that SWNTs can be functionalized by protein and biological cells reducing the risk of cytotoxicity. In the second part of this thesis, boron carbide nanostructured materials are synthesized and investigated. Radio frequency sputtering deposition technique is employed for fabrication of BC (Si free) and BC:Si thin films. Variation of plasma conditions and temperature are found to affect chemical composition, adhesion to the substrate and morphology of the films. It is shown that BC films are predominantly amorphous and a small addition of Si largely improves their mechanical properties. In addition, nanostructured BC compounds are fabricated by arc discharge technique using graphite or boron carbide electrodes submerged in liquid nitrogen, de-ionised water, or argon gas. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigation of the synthesized material confirms formation of various BC and carbon nanostructures. Specifically, arc discharge initiated in inert environment by applying low current leads to the formation of nanostructured BC without contaminants.

  11. Waterproofing Nanostructured Aerogel-Ceramic Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan; Hsu, Ming Ta; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Aerogels are nanoporous materials which can be used to enhance the transport properties of ceramic fiber materials, to exploit their unique properties such as high porosity, large surface area, low density and low thermal conductivity. Numerous applications have been investigated. major obstacle to commercialization is that the structure of aerogels collapses due to the adsorption of water. simple and relatively cheap process has been developed to waterproof silica, alumina and alumina-silica and carbon aerogels and composites incorporating them. Previous waterproofing methods are short lived or expensive and time consuming.

  12. Optical composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Beecroft, L.L.; Ober, C.K.; Barber, D.B.

    1995-12-31

    Optical quality composite materials can be useful for many applications. This work concerns optical quality composite films constructed from very small (<100 nm) particles of optically functional material embedded in a matrix of the same refractive index (RI). The particles impart their optical properties, while the matrix allows for processing of films. The initial optical composite studied contained Cr-forsterite (Cr-Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), a tunable solid state laser material in the attractive near-IR regime (1167-1345 nm). Small Cr-forsterite particles were synthesized by firing preceramic dispersion polymerization beads, and were embedded in unusually high RI polymeric matrix materials. Work to make optical amplification measurements is underway. This composite concept can be extended to other optically interesting materials.

  13. Characterization of nanostructured materials using SEM and HREM techniques.

    PubMed

    Perez, R; Gomez, J

    1998-01-01

    A microstructural characterization based on analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM) was carried out on nanostructured M50-type steel and also on nanometer-sized gold particles. Both nanostructured materials were prepared with different chemical methods recently reported in the literature. The obtained nanostructured steel powders were subsequently consolidated into bulk samples. The SEM studies of the M50 compound probes show the presence of pores of different sizes. The composition of the specimens indicates small differences with the M50-type steel alloy, with strong variations of the vanadium amount in the cavities of the compound. The HREM images show the presence of small precipitates in the range of a few nanometers in size. The structural characteristics of the grain boundaries between the nanometric crystallites were also explored. The geometrical relationships between adjacent alpha-Fe grains were obtained for some particular boundary arrangements. The nanometric gold particles show diameters which vary from 4 to 11 nm. Some of these particles display twin boundary arrangements. The nature of these twin arrangements was also explored. Theoretical simulations based on the multislice theory of the electron diffraction dynamical theory were carried out mainly to explore the nature of the twin boundaries obtained in the gold particles. Comparisons between the simulated images and the experimental results are presented. PMID:9443153

  14. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewy, R.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1986-01-01

    Overall emphasis is on basic long-term research in the following categories: constituent materials, composite materials, generic structural elements, processing science technology; and maintaining long-term structural integrity. Research in basic composition, characteristics, and processing science of composite materials and their constituents is balanced against the mechanics, conceptual design, fabrication, and testing of generic structural elements typical of aerospace vehicles so as to encourage the discovery of unusual solutions to present and future problems. Detailed descriptions of the progress achieved in the various component parts of this comprehensive program are presented.

  15. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  16. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1989-05-23

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  17. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  18. Composite Structural Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberly, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    The development and application of filamentary composite materials, is considered. Such interest is based on the possibility of using relatively brittle materials with high modulus, high strength, but low density in composites with good durability and high tolerance to damage. Fiber reinforced composite materials of this kind offer substantially improved performance and potentially lower costs for aerospace hardware. Much progress has been made since the initial developments in the mid 1960's. There were only limited applied to the primary structure of operational vehicles, mainly as aircrafts.

  19. Final Technical Progress Report NANOSTRUCTURED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Falco

    2012-09-13

    This report describes progress made during the final phase of our DOE-funded program on Nanostructured Magnetic Materials. This period was quite productive, resulting in the submission of three papers and presentation of three talks at international conferences and three seminars at research institutions. Our DOE-funded research efforts were directed toward studies of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces in high-quality, well-characterized materials prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and sputtering. We have an exceptionally well-equipped laboratory for these studies, with: Thin film preparation equipment; Characterization equipment; Equipment to study magnetic properties of surfaces and ultra-thin magnetic films and interfaces in multi-layers and superlattices.

  20. Supramolecular materials: Self-organized nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Stupp, S.I.; LeBonheur, V.; Walker, K.

    1997-04-18

    Miniaturized triblock copolymers have been found to self-assemble into nanostructures that are highly regular in size and shape. Mushroom-shaped supramolecular structures of about 200 kilodaltons form by crystallization of the chemically identical blocks and self-organize into films containing 100 or more layers stacked in a polar arrangement. The polar supramolecular material exhibits spontaneous second-harmonic generation from infrared to green photons and has an adhesive tape-like character with nonadhesive-hydrophobic and hydrophilic-sticky opposite surfaces. The films also have reasonable shear strength and adhere tenaciously to glass surfaces on one side only. The regular and finite size of the supramolecular units is believed to be mediated by repulsive forces among some of the segments in the triblock molecules. A large diversity of multifunctional materials could be formed from regular supramolecular units weighing hundreds of kilodaltons. 21 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Composite Material Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  2. Composite Material Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  3. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    The promise of filamentary composite materials, whose development may be considered as entering its second generation, continues to generate intense interest and applications activity. Fiber reinforced composite materials offer substantially improved performance and potentially lower costs for aerospace hardware. Much progress has been achieved since the initial developments in the mid 1960's. Rather limited applications to primary aircraft structure have been made, however, mainly in a material-substitution mode on military aircraft, except for a few experiments currently underway on large passenger airplanes in commercial operation. To fulfill the promise of composite materials completely requires a strong technology base. NASA and AFOSR recognize the present state of the art to be such that to fully exploit composites in sophisticated aerospace structures, the technology base must be improved. This, in turn, calls for expanding fundamental knowledge and the means by which it can be successfully applied in design and manufacture.

  4. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    Research in the basic composition, characteristics, and processng science of composite materials and their constituents is balanced against the mechanics, conceptual design, fabrication, and testing of generic structural elements typical of aerospace vehicles so as to encourage the discovery of unusual solutions to problems. Detailed descriptions of the progress achieved in the various component parts of his program are presented.

  5. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewy, Robert G.; Wiberley, Stephen E.

    1987-01-01

    The development and application of composite materials to aerospace vehicle structures which began in the mid 1960's has now progressed to the point where what can be considered entire airframes are being designed and built using composites. Issues related to the fabrication of non-resin matrix composites and the micro, mezzo and macromechanics of thermoplastic and metal matrix composites are emphasized. Several research efforts are presented. They are entitled: (1) The effects of chemical vapor deposition and thermal treatments on the properties of pitch-based carbon fiber; (2) Inelastic deformation of metal matrix laminates; (3) Analysis of fatigue damage in fibrous MMC laminates; (4) Delamination fracture toughness in thermoplastic matrix composites; (5) Numerical investigation of the microhardness of composite fracture; and (6) General beam theory for composite structures.

  6. Rheological and morphological characterization of hierarchically nanostructured materials

    E-print Network

    Wang, Benjamin Ning-Haw

    2007-01-01

    Hierarchically nanostructured materials exhibit order on multiple length scales, with at least one of a few nanometers. The expected enhancements for applications using these materials include improved mechanical, thermal ...

  7. Nano-structured polymer composites and process for preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Hillmyer, Marc; Chen, Liang

    2013-04-16

    A process for preparing a polymer composite that includes reacting (a) a multi-functional monomer and (b) a block copolymer comprising (i) a first block and (ii) a second block that includes a functional group capable of reacting with the multi-functional monomer, to form a crosslinked, nano-structured, bi-continuous composite. The composite includes a continuous matrix phase and a second continuous phase comprising the first block of the block copolymer.

  8. Resin composite restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Ilie, N; Hickel, R

    2011-06-01

    This paper surveys the most important developments in resin-based dental composites and focuses on the deficits (e.g. polymerization shrinkage) and strengths of the materials and their clinical implications. Moreover, differences between composite categories, such as hybrid, nanohybrid, microfilled, packable, ormocer-based, silorane-based, polyacid-modified composites (compomers) and flowable composites are highlighted, especially in view of their mechanical behaviour. In addition to the classical dimethacrylate-based composites, special attention is given to alternative monomers, such as siloranes, ormocers or high-molecular-weight dimethacrylate monomers (e.g. dimer acid-based dimethacrylates and tricyclodecane (TCD)-urethane), analysing their advantages, behaviour and abilities. Finally, the paper attempts to establish the needs and wishes of clinicians for further development of resin-based composites. PMID:21564116

  9. Growth of Carbon Nanostructure Materials Using Laser Vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehozeky, S.

    2000-01-01

    Since the potential applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT) was discovered in many fields, such as non-structure electronics, lightweight composite structure, and drug delivery, CNT has been grown by many techniques in which high yield single wall CNT has been produced by physical processes including arc vaporization and laser vaporization. In this presentation, the growth mechanism of the carbon nanostructure materials by laser vaporization is to be discussed. Carbon nanoparticles and nanotubes have been synthesized using pulsed laser vaporization on Si substrates in various temperatures and pressures. Two kinds of targets were used to grow the nanostructure materials. One was a pure graphite target and the other one contained Ni and Co catalysts. The growth temperatures were 600-1000 C and the pressures varied from several torr to 500 torr. Carbon nanoparticles were observed when a graphite target was used, although catalysts were deposited on substrates before growing carbon films. When the target contains catalysts, carbon nanotubes (CNT) are obtained. The CNT were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, optical absorption and transmission, and Raman spectroscopy. The temperature-and pressure-dependencies of carbon nanotubes' growth rate and size were investigated.

  10. Probing Compositional Variation within Hybrid Nanostructures

    E-print Network

    , Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720. These authors, the unique structure and bonding in bimetallics can also lead to alterations in the electronic structure or reducing environments.9 As nanostructured systems increase in complexity, the potential for structural

  11. Modified Composite Materials Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicus, D. L. (compiler)

    1978-01-01

    The reduction or elimination of the hazard which results from accidental release of graphite fibers from composite materials was studied at a workshop. At the workshop, groups were organized to consider six topics: epoxy modifications, epoxy replacement, fiber modifications, fiber coatings and new fibers, hybrids, and fiber release testing. Because of the time required to develop a new material and acquire a design data base, most of the workers concluded that a modified composite material would require about four to five years of development and testing before it could be applied to aircraft structures. The hybrid working group considered that some hybrid composites which reduce the risk of accidental fiber release might be put into service over the near term. The fiber release testing working group recommended a coordinated effort to define a suitable laboratory test.

  12. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1983-01-01

    Progress and plans are reported for investigations of: (1) the mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers; (2) fatigue in composite materials; (3) moisture and temperature effects on the mechanical properties of graphite-epoxy laminates; (4) the theory of inhomogeneous swelling in epoxy resin; (5) numerical studies of the micromechanics of composite fracture; (6) free edge failures of composite laminates; (7) analysis of unbalanced laminates; (8) compact lug design; (9) quantification of Saint-Venant's principles for a general prismatic member; (10) variation of resin properties through the thickness of cured samples; and (11) the wing fuselage ensemble of the RP-1 and RP-2 sailplanes.

  13. Development of Nanostructured Materials with Improved Radiation Tolerance for Advanced Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zinghang Zhang; K. Ted Hartwig

    2009-08-12

    This project will explore the fundamental mechanisms through which interfaces in nanolayered structures and grain boundaries of bulk nanomaterials are able to attract and rapidly eliminate point defects and unwanted foreign species. Candidate materials that will be studied include both nanostructured multilayer composites synthesized by magnetron sputtering and structural bulk nanomaterials produced by severed plastic deformation, equal channel angular extrusion.

  14. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  15. Aerogel/polymer composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

  16. Understanding and tuning nanostructured materials for chemical energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Guoqiang

    The conversion of energy that employs chemical reaction is termed chemical energy conversion. In my dissertation, I have focused on chemical energy conversion systems involving energetic materials and lithium ion batteries, where performance is strongly dependent on the properties of materials and their architecture. The objective of this study is to enhance our understanding and tuning of nanostructured materials that might find application toward energetic materials and electrode materials in lithium ion batteries. Rapid heating diagnostics tools, i.e. temperature-jump techniques, have been used to study the ignition of aluminum nanoparticles, nanothermite reaction mechanism and metal oxides nanoparticles decomposition under rapid heating conditions (105-106 K/s). Time-resolved mass spectra results support the hypothesis that Al containing species diffuse outwards through the oxide shell. Low effective activation energies were found for metal oxides nanoparticles decomposition at high heating rates, implying the mass transfer control at high heating rates. The role of oxygen release from oxidizer in nanothermite reactions have been examined for several different systems, including some using microsized oxidizer (i.e., nano-Al/micro-I 2O5). In particular, for periodate based nanothermites, direct evidence from high heating rate SEM and mass spectrometry results support that direct gas phase oxygen release from oxidizer decomposition is critical in its ignition and combustion. Efforts have also been made to synthesize nanostructured materials for nanoenergetic materials and lithium ion batteries applications. Hollow CuO spheres were synthesized by aerosol spray pyrolysis, employing a gas blowing mechanism for the formation of hollow structure during aerosol synthesis. The materials synthesized as oxidizers in nanothermite demonstrated superior performance, and of particular note, periodate salts based nanothermite demonstrated the best gas generating performance for nanothermite materials. Energetic composite nanofibrous mats (NC/Al-CuO, NC/Al-Fe2O3, and NC/Al-Bi2O3) were also prepared by an electrospinning method and evaluated for their combustion performance. Aerosol spray pyrolysis was employed to produce carbon coated CuO hollow spheres, Mn3O4 hollow spheres, and Fe2O 3 mesoporous spheres. These hollow/mesoporous spheres demonstrated superior electrochemical performance when used as anode materials in lithium ion batteries. The effects of the amorphous and crystal structures on the electrochemical performance and the structure evolution during electrochemical tests were also investigated.

  17. Hollow Nanostructured Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Hollow nanostructured anode materials lie at the heart of research relating to Li-ion batteries, which require high capacity, high rate capability, and high safety. The higher capacity and higher rate capability for hollow nanostructured anode materials than that for the bulk counterparts can be attributed to their higher surface area, shorter path length for Li+ transport, and more freedom for volume change, which can reduce the overpotential and allow better reaction kinetics at the electrode surface. In this article, we review recent research activities on hollow nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries, including carbon materials, metals, metal oxides, and their hybrid materials. The major goal of this review is to highlight some recent progresses in using these hollow nanomaterials as anode materials to develop Li-ion batteries with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. PMID:21076674

  18. Conducting nanotubes or nanostructures based composites, method of making them and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Mool C. (Inventor); Yang, Yonglai (Inventor); Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Lawrence, Roland W. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding material includes a matrix of a dielectric or partially conducting polymer, such as foamed polystyrene, with carbon nanotubes or other nanostructures dispersed therein in sufficient concentration to make the material electrically conducting. The composite is formed by dispersing the nanotube material in a solvent in which the dielectric or partially conducting polymer is soluble and mixing the resulting suspension with the dielectric or partially conducting polymer. A foaming agent can be added to produce a lightweight foamed material. An organometallic compound can be added to enhance the conductivity further by decomposition into a metal phase.

  19. Advanced composite materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

  20. Review on the application of nanostructure materials in solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Elham N.; Xosrovashvili, Georgi; Rouhi, Rasoul; Gorji, Nima E.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, nanostructure materials have opened a promising route to future of the renewable sources, especially in the solar cells. This paper considers the advantages of nanostructure materials in improving the performance and stability of the solar cell structures. These structures have been employed for various performance/energy conversion enhancement strategies. Here, we have investigated four types of nanostructures applied in solar cells, where all of them are named as quantum solar cells. We have also discussed recent development of quantum dot nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes enabling quantum solar cells to be competitive with the conventional solar cells. Furthermore, the advantages, disadvantages and industrializing challenges of nanostructured solar cells have been investigated.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and properties of low-dimensional nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xianluo

    2007-05-01

    Nanometer scale structures represent an exciting and rapidly expanding area of research. Studies on new physical/chemical properties and applications of nanomaterials and nanostructures are possible only when nanostructured materials are made available with desired size, morphology, crystal and microstructure, and composition. Thus, controlled synthesis of nanomaterials is the essential aspect of nanotechnology. This thesis describes the development of simple and versatile solution-based approaches to synthesize low-dimensional nanostructures. The first major goal of this research is to design and fabricate morphology-controlled alpha-Fe 2O3 nanoarchitectures in aqueous solution through a programmed microwave-assisted hydrothermal route, taking advantage of microwave irradiation and hydrothermal effects. Free-standing alpha-Fe2O3 nanorings are prepared by hydrolysis of FeCl3 in the presence of phosphate ions. The as-formed architecture of alpha-Fe2O 3 nanorings is an exciting new member in the family of iron oxide nanostructures. Our preliminary results demonstrate that sensors made of the alpha-Fe 2O3 nanorings exhibit high sensitivity not only for bio-sensing of hydrogen peroxide in a physiological solution but also for gas-sensing of alcohol vapor at room temperature. Moreover, monodisperse alpha-Fe 2O3 nanocrystals with continuous aspect-ratio tuning and fine shape control are achieved by controlling the experimental conditions. The as-formed alpha-Fe2O3 exhibits shape-dependent infrared optical properties. The growth process of colloidal alpha-Fe 2O3 crystals in the presence of phosphate ions is discussed. In addition, through an efficient microwave-assisted hydrothermal process, self-assembled hierarchical alpha-Fe2O3 nanoarchitectures are synthesized on a large scale. The second major goal of this research is to develop convenient microwave-hydrothermal approaches for the fabrication of carbon-based nanocomposites: (1) A one-pot solution-phase route, namely microwave-assisted hydrothermal reduction/carbonization (MAHRC), is developed to prepare coaxial Ag/amorphous-carbon (a-C) nanocables. The as-grown Ag/C nanocables can self-assemble in an end-to-end fashion. (2) A novel Se/C nanocomposite with core-shell structures is prepared. The new material consists of a trigonal-Se (t-Se) core and an amorphous-C (a-C) shell. The Se/C composite can be converted to hollow carbon capsules by thermal treatment. (3) A Fe 3O4/C nanocomposite is synthesized by a green wet-chemical approach. The product possesses porous microstructures and exhibits superparamagnetic behavior. The third major goal of this research is develop facile solution-based methods for preparing carbonaceous nano test tubes, thin films of metal iodides, and spherical selenium spheres: (1) Carbonaceous nano test tubes are fabricated by a facile "decoring" route using a core-sheath Te carbon nanocomposite as the precursor. The as-formed carbonaceous material looks like a "test tube" with an average diameter of about 120 nm and lengths up to 5 mum. (2) Tetrahedral-shaped CuI crystals were formed on a variety of copper substrates (e.g. grids, flat/porous foils, and macro-/nano- wires) via an interfacial reaction between a copper substrate and iodine in water at room temperature. This preparation approach can also be used to grow PbI2 and AgI nano- and micro-crystals with different morphologies on corresponding substrates. (3) Colloidal trigonal selenium (t-Se) microspheres are synthesized through a mild hydrothermal reduction reaction, using glucose as a reducing regent and water as an environmentally friendly solvent. Importantly, the resulting t-Se microspheres inherit functional groups from the starting materials and possess hydrophilic and biocompatible surfaces.

  2. Compositional ordering and stability in nanostructured, bulk thermoelectric alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Faleev, S.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Leonard, F.; Lensch-Falk, J.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Sugar, J. D.

    2009-09-01

    Thermoelectric materials have many applications in the conversion of thermal energy to electrical power and in solid-state cooling. One route to improving thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency in bulk material is to embed nanoscale inclusions. This report summarize key results from a recently completed LDRD project exploring the science underpinning the formation and stability of nanostructures in bulk thermoelectric and the quantitative relationships between such structures and thermoelectric properties.

  3. The influence of laser radiation on human osteoblasts cultured on nanostructured composite substrates

    PubMed Central

    CRISAN, LIANA; SORITAU, OLGA; BACIUT, MIHAELA; BACIUT, GRIGORE; CRISAN, BOGDAN VASILE

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide and graphene have been explored by researchers as well as the industry. Graphene is a new nanomaterial which has commercial and scientific advantages. Laser therapy has proven highly useful in biomedicine, with the use of different laser types and energies for distinct purposes. The low level laser therapy (LLLT) can have anti-inflammatory, analgesic and biostimulant effects. Recent research has shown that laser radiation has different effects on osteoblasts. The aim of this study was to identify the influence of laser radiation on human osteoblastic cells cultured on nanostructured composite substrates. Materials and methods Four types of substrates were created using colloidal suspensions of nanostructured composites in PBS at a concentration of 30 ?g/ml. We used human osteoblasts isolated from patella bone pieces harvested during arthroplasty. Irradiation of osteoblasts cultured on nanostructured composite substrates was made with a semiconductor laser model BTL-10 having a wavelength of 830 nm. The proliferation activity of osteoblast cells was assessed using the MTT assay. After laser irradiation procedure the viability and proliferation of osteoblast cells were analyzed using fluorescein diacetate (FDA) staining. Results The osteoblast cells viability and proliferation were evaluated with MTT assay at 30 minutes, 24 hours, 5 days and 10 days after laser irradiation. In the first 30 minutes there were no significant differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated cells. At 24 hours after laser irradiation procedure a significant increase of MTT values in case of irradiated osteoblasts cultivated on nanostructured hydroxyapatite, nanostructured hydroxyapatite with gold nanoparticles and 1.6% and 3.15% graphenes composites substrates was observed. A more marked proliferation rate was observed after 10 days of irradiation for irradiated osteoblasts seeded on nanostructured hydroxyapatite with gold nanoparticles and graphenes containing substrate. Using FDA staining we obtained very similar results with MTT test. Conclusions The association between the 830 nm laser irradiation of osteoblasts and their long-term cultivation of the nanostructured composite substrates induces the cell proliferation and differentiation and therefore it will be a useful alternative for bone regeneration therapy. PMID:26528075

  4. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials: From Superlattices to Nanocomposites Ronggui Yang1

    E-print Network

    Chen, Gang

    Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials: From Superlattices to Nanocomposites Ronggui Yang1 conductivity led to a large increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit in several superlattice systems. Materials with a large thermoelectric figure of merit can be used to develop efficient solid-state devices

  5. Preparation and properties on hollow nano-structured smoke material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang-cui; Dai, Meng-yan; Fang, Guo-feng; Shi, Wei-dong; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Hai-feng; Zhang, Tong

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the weapon systems of laser guidance and infrared (IR) imaging guidance have been widely used in modern warfare because of their high precision and strong anti-interference. Notwithstanding, military smoke, as a rapid and effective passive jamming means, can effectively counteract the attack of enemy precision-guided weapons by scattering and absorbability. Conventional smoke has good attenuation capability only to visible light (0.4-0.76 ?m), but hardly any effect to other electromagnetic wave band. The weapon systems of laser guidance and IR imaging guidance usually work in broad band, including near IR (1-3 ?m), middle IR (3-5 ?m), far IR (8-14 ?m), and so on. Accordingly, exploiting and using new efficient obscurant materials, which is one of the important factors that develop smoke technology, have become a focus and attracted more interests around the world. Then nano-structured materials that are developing very quickly have turned into our new choice. Hollow nano-structured materials (HNSM) have many special properties because of their nano-size wall-thickness and sub-micron grain-size. After a lot of HNSM were synthesized in this paper, their physical and chemical properties, including grain size, phase composition, microstructure, optical properties and resistivity were tested and analysed. Then the experimental results of the optical properties showed that HNSM exhibit excellent wave-absorbing ability in ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions. On the basis of the physicochemmical properties, HNSM are firstly applied in smoke technology field. And the obscuration performance of HNSM smoke was tested in smoke chamber. The testing waveband included 1.06?m and 10.6?m laser, 3-5?m and 8-14?m IR radiation. Then the main parameters were obtained, including the attenuation rate, the transmission rate, the mass extinction coefficient, the efficiency obscuring time, and the sedimentation rate, etc. The main parameters of HNSM smoke were contrasted in detail with graphite powder smoke agent. The results showed that HNSM smoke possesses better obscuration capability compared with the smoke performance of conventional materials (such as HC, RP, oil, carbon black, and graphite powder). Therefore, they are new smoke obscurant materials which can effectively interfere with broadband electromagnetic radiation, including 1.06 ?m and 10.6 ?m laser, 3-5 ?m and 8-14 ?m IR waveband.

  6. Nanostructure materials for biosensing and bioimaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Wing Cheung

    In the first part of the thesis our work on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor will be presented. It will begin with understanding the working principle of SPR sensing technology and the basic concept of SPR biosensing. In SPR technology, there are different coupling schemes to excite surface plasmons such as prism coupler, grating coupler and waveguide coupler. Our setup will be based on the attenuated total reflection (ATR) prism coupling configuration. A gold sensing film is attached to one face of the prism. The samples are flowing over the gold surface and the light source is directed to the prism side. The reflected beam containing SPR information is collected and analyzed. SPR biosensors have become powerful tools in biological and chemical sensing application because of their capability of real-time monitoring and label-free sensing. Quantitative measurements such as the binding kinetics and the binding affinity between two biomolecules can be readily calculated from the SPR sensorgram. In our design, SPR phase will be monitored using photoelastic modulation (PEM) technique. The PEM is used to produce a modulation signal so that the phase quantity can be extracted by measuring the relative amplitudes of the harmonic signals. Since this system contains no moving component and only single beam and single detector are used, precise component alignment, which may be troublesome in making the setup compact and robust, can be eliminated. In order to demonstrate the operation of the proposed approach, two experiments were performed. The first one was to measure the refractive index change caused by varying the concentration of glycerin-water mixtures. The second one was to monitor the binding reactions between biotin and streptavidin--BSA complex at the sensor surface. Recently, the use of metallic nanoparticle on SPR platform has received great attention due to the capability of sensitivity enhancement. Although the mechanism of the enhancement is still not fully understand, three possible factors are concluded after systematic researches: (i) an increase of the absolute mass in each binding event, (ii) an increase in the bulk refractive index of the analyte, and (iii) coupling between the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metallic nanoparticles and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the sensing film. Indeed, the role of plasmonic coupling in sensitivity enhancement is still an open question. In order to obtain a better understanding of this phenomenon, at the end of part I, extended studies were performed to investigate how the LSPR properties of metallic nanoparticle labels correlate with the enhancement factor. For this purpose, gold nanorods (Au-NRs) were chosen as the amplification labels because of the easy tunability of LSPR peak of Au-NR. After reading the "Result and Discussion" section, the readers will have better understanding of "plasmonic coupling" between the sensing film and the metallic labels with suitable operating laser source. In the second part of the thesis, the bioimaging part, the application of nanostructure materials in live cancer cell imaging and small animal imaging were demonstrated. There are different types of imaging technique available in laboratories and clinics: optical imaging, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), thermography and ultrasound imaging. Although such imaging techniques have been well developed and used over a decade, improving the sensitivity, enhancing the contrast, decreasing the acquisition time and reducing the toxicity of the contrast agent are highly desirable. For optical imaging, the scientists discovered that the use of near infrared fluorescence materials can assist the surgeon to locate the tumor, the nerve and the lymph node more accurately. For CT scan, the use of Au-NR as the contrast agent can improve the sensitivity. Iron oxide nanoparticle or gadolinium ion containing nanoparticle can greatly enhance the contrast of MRI. On the one hand, concrete effort

  7. Preparation of nanostructured materials having improved ductility

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian T.

    2010-04-20

    A method for preparing a nanostructured aluminum alloy involves heating an aluminum alloy workpiece at temperature sufficient to produce a single phase coarse grained aluminum alloy, then refining the grain size of the workpiece at a temperature at or below room temperature, and then aging the workpiece to precipitate second phase particles in the nanosized grains of the workpiece that increase the ductility without decreasing the strength of the workpiece.

  8. Scaling laws for van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials

    PubMed Central

    Gobre, Vivekanand V.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Van der Waals interactions have a fundamental role in biology, physics and chemistry, in particular in the self-assembly and the ensuing function of nanostructured materials. Here we utilize an efficient microscopic method to demonstrate that van der Waals interactions in nanomaterials act at distances greater than typically assumed, and can be characterized by different scaling laws depending on the dimensionality and size of the system. Specifically, we study the behaviour of van der Waals interactions in single-layer and multilayer graphene, fullerenes of varying size, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. As a function of nanostructure size, the van der Waals coefficients follow unusual trends for all of the considered systems, and deviate significantly from the conventionally employed pairwise-additive picture. We propose that the peculiar van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials could be exploited to control their self-assembly. PMID:23955481

  9. Nanostructured Block Copolymer Solutions and Composites: Mechanical and Structural Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Lynn

    2015-03-01

    Self-assembled block copolymer templates are used to control the nanoscale structure of materials that would not otherwise order in solution. In this work, we have developed a technique to use close-packed cubic and cylindrical mesophases of a thermoreversible block copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO) to impart spatial order on dispersed nanoparticles. The thermoreversible nature of the template allows for the dispersion of particles synthesized outside the template. This feature extends the applicability of this templating method to many particle-polymer systems, including proteins, and also permits a systematic evaluation of the impact of design parameters on the structure and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. The criteria for forming co-crystals have been characterized using small-angle scatting and the mechanical properties of these soft crystals determined. Numerous crystal structures have been reported for the block copolymer system and we have taken advantage of several to generate soft co-crystals. The result of this templating is spatially ordered nanoparticle arrays embedded within the block copolymer nanostructure. These soft materials can be shear aligned into crystals with long range order and this shear alignment is discussed. Finally, the dynamics of nanoparticles within the nanostructured material are characterized with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). The applications and general behavior of these nanostructured hydrogels are outlined.

  10. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    SciTech Connect

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi; Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  11. Characterization of gas tunnel type plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite-nanostructure titania composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugeswaran, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Ucisik, A. Hikmet; Subramanian, B.

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated onto metal implants as a ceramic biocompatible coating to bridge the growth between implants and human tissue. Meanwhile many efforts have been made to improve the mechanical properties of the HA coatings without affecting its bioactivity. In the present study, nanostructure titania (TiO2) was mixed with HA powder and HA-nanostructure TiO2 composite coatings were produced by gas tunnel type plasma spraying torch under optimized spraying conditions. For this purpose, composition of 10 wt% TiO2 + 90 wt% HA, 20 wt% TiO2 + 80 wt% HA and 30 wt% TiO2 + 70 wt% HA were selected as the feedstock materials. The phase, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coatings were characterized. The obtained results validated that the increase in weight percentage of nanostructure TiO2 in HA coating significantly increased the microhardness, adhesive strength and wear resistance of the coatings. Analysis of the in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were done using conventional simulated body fluid (c-SBF) solution and cultured green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled marrow stromal cells (MSCs) respectively. The bioactivity results revealed that the composite coating has bio-active surface with good cytocompatibility.

  12. Probing Compositional Variation within Hybrid Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhas, Benjamin D.; Habas, Susan E.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Mokari, Taleb

    2010-06-22

    We present a detailed analysis of the structural and magnetic properties of solution-grown PtCo-CdS hybrid structures in comparison to similar free-standing PtCo alloy nanoparticles. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is utilized as a sensitive probe for identifying subtle differences in the structure of the hybrid materials. We found that the growth of bimetallic tips on a CdS nanorod substrate leads to a more complex nanoparticle structure composed of a PtCo alloy core and thin CoO shell. The core-shell architecture is an unexpected consequence of the different nanoparticle growth mechanism on the nanorod tip, as compared to free growth in solution. Magnetic measurements indicate that the PtCo-CdS hybrid structures are superparamagnetic despite the presence of a CoO shell. The use of X-ray spectroscopic techniques to detect minute differences in atomic structure and bonding in complex nanosystems makes it possible to better understand and predict catalytic or magnetic properties for nanoscale bimetallic hybrid materials.

  13. Composite material and method for production of improved composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A laminated composite material with improved interlaminar strength and damage tolerance having short rods distributed evenly throughout the composite material perpendicular to the laminae. Each rod is shorter than the thickness of the finished laminate, but several times as long as the thickness of each lamina. The laminate is made by inserting short rods in layers of prepreg material, and then stacking and curing prepreg material with rods inserted therethrough.

  14. Boron and Boron Carbide Materials: Nanostructures and Crystalline Solids

    E-print Network

    Pandey, Ravi

    Boron and Boron Carbide Materials: Nanostructures and Crystalline Solids Kah Chun Lau, Yoke Khin popularity between the boron and carbon in the scientific literature. Carbon-based structures are well studied compared with boron-based structures. Consequently, understanding of the role played by boron

  15. Nanostructured electrocatalyst for fuel cells : silica templated synthesis of Pt/C composites.

    SciTech Connect

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Switzer, Elise E.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov; Cornelius, Christopher James; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2007-09-01

    Platinum-based electrocatalysts are currently required for state-of-the-art fuel cells and represent a significant portion of the overall fuel cell cost. If fuel cell technology is to become competitive with other energy conversion technologies, improve the utilization of precious metal catalysts is essential. A primary focus of this work is on creating enhanced nanostructured materials which improve precious-metal utilization. The goal is to engineer superior electrocatalytic materials through the synthesis, development and investigation of novel templated open frame structures synthesized in an aerosol-based approach. Bulk templating methods for both Pt/C and Pt-Ru composites are evaluated in this study and are found to be limited due to the fact that the nanostructure is not maintained throughout the entire sample. Therefore, an accurate examination of structural effects was previously impossible. An aerosol-based templating method of synthesizing nanostructured Pt-Ru electrocatalysts has been developed wherein the effects of structure can be related to electrocatalytic performance. The aerosol-based templating method developed in this work is extremely versatile as it can be conveniently modified to synthesize alternative materials for other systems. The synthesis method was able to be extended to nanostructured Pt-Sn for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. Nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were evaluated in a unique approach tailored to electrocatalytic studies in alkaline media. At low temperatures, nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were found to have significantly higher ethanol oxidation activity than a comparable nanostructured Pt catalyst. At higher temperatures, the oxygen-containing species contribution likely provided by Sn is insignificant due to a more oxidized Pt surface. The importance of the surface coverage of oxygen-containing species in the reaction mechanism is established in these studies. The investigations in this work present original studies of anion exchange ionomers as entrapment materials for rotating disc electrode (RDE) studies in alkaline media. Their significance is linked to the development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with the same ionomer for a KOH-free alkaline fuel cell (AFC).

  16. Hybrid materials of ZnO nanostructures with reduced graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles: enhanced photodegradation rates in relation to their composition and morphology.

    PubMed

    Bramhaiah, K; Singh, Vidya N; John, Neena S

    2016-01-21

    Binary and ternary hybrid systems of ZnO possessing nanoparticle and nanorod morphologies on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and rGO with Au nanoparticles are explored as photocatalysts and a comparative study of their photodegradation performance is presented. Various preparation methods such as solution phase and hydrothermal routes have been employed to produce rGO-ZnO hybrids and rGO-Au-ZnO hybrids to impart different morphologies and defect states in ZnO. All the hybrids exhibit faster photodegradation kinetics and the rGO-Au-ZnO system exhibits the highest rate, five times faster than bare ZnO, followed by the binary systems, rGO-ZnO nanoparticles and nanorods. Various factors such as structure, morphology, charge transfer and adsorption are considered to explain the observed kinetics. Excited state electron transfer from ZnO to both rGO and Au levels facilitates faster dye degradation for rGO-Au-ZnO and is reflected as highly quenched band edge and defect state photoluminescence. Intimate physical interfaces formed between rGO, Au and ZnO in the hybrid material during in situ reactions favour charge transfer across the components. The charge transfer contribution even dominates the adsorption factor and the rGO-Au-ZnO system with a slightly lower adsorption capacity than the rGO-ZnO system exhibits a higher degradation rate. A power law dependence of the photodegradation rate on light intensity is also expressed. PMID:26659334

  17. Current status of nanostructured tungsten-based materials development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurishita, H.; Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H.; Sakamoto, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K.; Okano, H.; Watanabe, H.; Yoshida, N.; Torikai, Y.; Hatano, Y.; Takida, T.; Kato, M.; Ikegaya, A.; Ueda, Y.; Hatakeyama, M.; Shikama, T.

    2014-04-01

    Nanostructured tungsten (W)-based materials offer many advantages for use as plasma facing materials and components exposed to heavy thermal loads combined with irradiation with high-energy neutron and low-energy ion. This paper first presents the recent progress in nanostructured toughened, fine grained, recrystallized W materials. Thermal desorption spectrometry apparatus equipped with an ion gun has been installed in the radiation controlled area in our Center at Tohoku University to systematically investigate the effects of displacement damage due to high-energy neutron irradiation on hydrogen isotope retention in connection with the nano- or micro-structures in W-based materials. In this paper, the effects of high-energy heavy ion irradiation on deuterium retention in W with different microstructures are described as a preliminary work with the prospective view of neutron irradiation effects.

  18. Nanostructured Materials Developed for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Fahey, Stephen D.; Gennett, Thomas; Tin, Padetha

    2004-01-01

    There has been considerable investigation recently regarding the potential for the use of nanomaterials and nanostructures to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. Efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center have involved the development and use of quantum dots and carbon nanotubes to enhance inorganic and organic cell efficiencies. Theoretical results have shown that a photovoltaic device with a single intermediate band of states resulting from the introduction of quantum dots offers a potential efficiency of 63.2 percent. A recent publication extended the intermediate band theory to two intermediate bands and calculated a limiting efficiency of 71.7 percent. The enhanced efficiency results from converting photons of energy less than the band gap of the cell by an intermediate band. The intermediate band provides a mechanism for low-energy photons to excite carriers across the energy gap by a two-step process.

  19. When 1+1>2: Nanostructured composites for hard tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Uskokovi?, Vuk

    2015-12-01

    Multicomponent, synergistic and multifunctional nanostructures have taken over the spotlight in the realm of biomedical nanotechnologies. The most prospective materials for bone regeneration today are almost exclusively composites comprising two or more components that compensate for the shortcomings of each one of them alone. This is quite natural in view of the fact that all hard tissues in the human body, except perhaps the tooth enamel, are composite nanostructures. This review article highlights some of the most prospective breakthroughs made in this research direction, with the hard tissues in main focus being those comprising bone, tooth cementum, dentin and enamel. The major obstacles to creating collagen/apatite composites modeled after the structure of bone are mentioned, including the immunogenicity of xenogeneic collagen and continuously failing attempts to replicate the biomineralization process in vitro. Composites comprising a polymeric component and calcium phosphate are discussed in light of their ability to emulate the soft/hard composite structure of bone. Hard tissue engineering composites created using hard material components other than calcium phosphates, including silica, metals and several types of nanotubes, are also discoursed on, alongside additional components deliverable using these materials, such as cells, growth factors, peptides, antibiotics, antiresorptive and anabolic agents, pharmacokinetic conjugates and various cell-specific targeting moieties. It is concluded that a variety of hard tissue structures in the body necessitates a similar variety of biomaterials for their regeneration. The ongoing development of nanocomposites for bone restoration will result in smart, theranostic materials, capable of acting therapeutically in direct feedback with the outcome of in situ disease monitoring at the cellular and subcellular scales. Progress in this research direction is expected to take us to the next generation of biomaterials, designed with the purpose of fulfilling Daedalus' dream - not restoring the tissues, but rather augmenting them. PMID:26354283

  20. Hierarchical Assembly of Multifunctional Oxide-based Composite Nanostructures for Energy and Environmental Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Pu-Xian; Shimpi, Paresh; Gao, Haiyong; Liu, Caihong; Guo, Yanbing; Cai, Wenjie; Liao, Kuo-Ting; Wrobel, Gregory; Zhang, Zhonghua; Ren, Zheng; Lin, Hui-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Composite nanoarchitectures represent a class of nanostructured entities that integrates various dissimilar nanoscale building blocks including nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanofilms toward realizing multifunctional characteristics. A broad array of composite nanoarchitectures can be designed and fabricated, involving generic materials such as metal, ceramics, and polymers in nanoscale form. In this review, we will highlight the latest progress on composite nanostructures in our research group, particularly on various metal oxides including binary semiconductors, ABO3-type perovskites, A2BO4 spinels and quaternary dielectric hydroxyl metal oxides (AB(OH)6) with diverse application potential. Through a generic template strategy in conjunction with various synthetic approaches such as hydrothermal decomposition, colloidal deposition, physical sputtering, thermal decomposition and thermal oxidation, semiconductor oxide alloy nanowires, metal oxide/perovskite (spinel) composite nanowires, stannate based nanocompostes, as well as semiconductor heterojunctionarrays and networks have been self-assembled in large scale and are being developed as promising classes of composite nanoarchitectures, which may open a new array of advanced nanotechnologies in solid state lighting, solar absorption, photocatalysis and battery, auto-emission control, and chemical sensing. PMID:22837702

  1. Hierarchical assembly of multifunctional oxide-based composite nanostructures for energy and environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pu-Xian; Shimpi, Paresh; Gao, Haiyong; Liu, Caihong; Guo, Yanbing; Cai, Wenjie; Liao, Kuo-Ting; Wrobel, Gregory; Zhang, Zhonghua; Ren, Zheng; Lin, Hui-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Composite nanoarchitectures represent a class of nanostructured entities that integrates various dissimilar nanoscale building blocks including nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanofilms toward realizing multifunctional characteristics. A broad array of composite nanoarchitectures can be designed and fabricated, involving generic materials such as metal, ceramics, and polymers in nanoscale form. In this review, we will highlight the latest progress on composite nanostructures in our research group, particularly on various metal oxides including binary semiconductors, ABO(3)-type perovskites, A(2)BO(4) spinels and quaternary dielectric hydroxyl metal oxides (AB(OH)(6)) with diverse application potential. Through a generic template strategy in conjunction with various synthetic approaches- such as hydrothermal decomposition, colloidal deposition, physical sputtering, thermal decomposition and thermal oxidation, semiconductor oxide alloy nanowires, metal oxide/perovskite (spinel) composite nanowires, stannate based nanocompostes, as well as semiconductor heterojunction-arrays and networks have been self-assembled in large scale and are being developed as promising classes of composite nanoarchitectures, which may open a new array of advanced nanotechnologies in solid state lighting, solar absorption, photocatalysis and battery, auto-emission control, and chemical sensing. PMID:22837702

  2. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    The composite aircraft program component (CAPCOMP) is a graduate level project conducted in parallel with a composite structures program. The composite aircraft program glider (CAPGLIDE) is an undergraduate demonstration project which has as its objectives the design, fabrication, and testing of a foot launched ultralight glider using composite structures. The objective of the computer aided design (COMPAD) portion of the composites project is to provide computer tools for the analysis and design of composite structures. The major thrust of COMPAD is in the finite element area with effort directed at implementing finite element analysis capabilities and developing interactive graphics preprocessing and postprocessing capabilities. The criteria for selecting research projects to be conducted under the innovative and supporting research (INSURE) program are described.

  3. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewy, Robert G.; Wiberley, Stephen E.

    1988-01-01

    A decade long program to develop critical advanced composite technology in the areas of physical properties, structural concept and analysis, manufacturing, reliability, and life predictions is reviewed. Specific goals are discussed. The status of the chemical vapor deposition effects on carbon fiber properties; inelastic deformation of metal matrix laminates; fatigue damage in fibrous MMC laminates; delamination fracture toughness in thermoplastic matrix composites; and numerical analysis of composite micromechanical behavior are presented.

  4. Nanostructured material formulated acrylic bone cements with enhanced drug release.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shou-Cang; Ng, Wai Kiong; Dong, Yuan-Cai; Ng, Junwei; Tan, Reginald Beng Hee

    2016-01-01

    To improve antibiotic properties, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based bone cements are formulated with antibiotic and nanostructured materials, such as hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanorods, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) as drug carriers. For nonporous HAP nanorods, the release of gentamicin (GTMC) is not obviously improved when the content of HAP is below 10%; while the high content of HAP shows detrimental to mechanical properties although the release of GTMC can be substantially increased. As a comparison, low content of hollow nanostructured CNT and MSN can enhance drug delivery efficiency. The presence of 5.3% of CNT in formulation can facilitate the release of more than 75% of GTMC in 80days, however, its mechanical strength is seriously impaired. Among nanostructured drug carriers, antibiotic/MSN formulation can effectively improve drug delivery and exhibit well preserved mechanical properties. The hollow nanostructured materials are believed to build up nano-networks for antibiotic to diffuse from the bone cement matrix to surface and achieve sustained drug release. Based on MSN drug carrier in formulated bone cement, a binary delivery system is also investigated to release GTMC together with other antibiotics. PMID:26478307

  5. Nanostructured Assemblies of Thermoelectric Composite Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Peter K. Dorhout; Ellen R. Fisher

    2008-02-26

    At the end of the funding period (March 2003) for our program in ferroelectric oxide nanomaterials, we had 3 publications in print, one more had been submitted and two more were in preparation in peer-reviewed journals and invited symposia lectures had been given since starting the project in the Fall of 1999. We hired two postdoctoral fellows, Dr. Ki-Seog Chang and Dr. Wenzhong Wang. We have also trained two graduate students, Ms. Keri Williams and Ms. Bernadette Hernandez, and one undergraduate student (Mr. Michael Scancella).

  6. A new approach to the fabrication of ``smart`` near-surface nanostructure composites

    SciTech Connect

    Gea, L.; Honda, S.; Boatner, L.A.; Haynes, T.E.; Sales, B.C.; Modine, F.A.; Meldrum, A.; Budai, J.D.; Beckers, L.

    1998-01-01

    A new method for the formation of smart near-surface nanoscale composites has been developed. In this approach, small precipitates of active phases are embedded in the near-surface region of the material that is to be modified by a combination of ion implantation and thermal processing. The dispersion, concentration, and microstructure of the nanocrystals formed in the substrate material can be tailored through a careful choice of processing parameters - making this approach well suited to high value added, high technology applications. The applicability of this approach to forming smart surfaces on otherwise inactive materials was established in the case of VO{sup 2} precipitates which were embedded in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals to create a medium suitable for optical applications--including optical data storage. Most recently, this concept has been extended to the fabrication of magnetic field sensitive nanostructured surfaces by forming magnetostrictive precipitates of materials such as Ni or RFe{sub 2} (with R = Tm, Tb, Sm) that are embedded in various single crystal oxide hosts. These nanostructured, active surface composites have been characterized using XRD, RBS, TEM, and magneto-optical techniques.

  7. Composite materials: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Design, analysis and fabrication techniques for boron-aluminum composite-structure technology is presented and a new method of joining different laminated composites without mechanical fasteners is proposed. Also discussed is a low-cost procedure for rigidifying expanded honeycomb tubing and piping simulations. A brief note on patent information is added.

  8. Nanostructured BN-Mg composites: features of interface bonding and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Kvashnin, Dmitry G; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V; Shtansky, Dmitry; Sorokin, Pavel B; Golberg, Dmitri

    2015-12-23

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the lightest industrially used metals. However, wide applications of Mg-based components require a substantial enhancement of their mechanical characteristics. This can be achieved by introducing small particles or fibers into the metal matrix. Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the stability and mechanical properties of a nanocomposite made of magnesium reinforced with boron nitride (BN) nanostructures (BN nanotubes and BN monolayers). We show that boron vacancies at the BN/Mg interface lead to a substantial increase in BN/Mg bonding establishing an efficient route towards the development of BN/Mg composite materials with enhanced mechanical properties. PMID:26662205

  9. Composite structural materials. [aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of filamentary composite materials in the design and construction of primary aircraft structures is considered with emphasis on efforts to develop advanced technology in the areas of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, and reliability and life prediction. The redesign of a main spar/rib region on the Boeing 727 elevator near its actuator attachment point is discussed. A composite fabrication and test facility is described as well as the use of minicomputers for computer aided design. Other topics covered include (1) advanced structural analysis methids for composites; (2) ultrasonic nondestructive testing of composite structures; (3) optimum combination of hardeners in the cure of epoxy; (4) fatigue in composite materials; (5) resin matrix characterization and properties; (6) postbuckling analysis of curved laminate composite panels; and (7) acoustic emission testing of composite tensile specimens.

  10. Nanostructured metal-nanocarbon composites: Production and studying of structural and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, V. M.; Blank, V. D.; Bagramov, R. H.; Perfilov, S. A.; Pivovarov, G. I.

    2013-12-01

    In the past two decades, the design methods of nanostructured composites with hierarchical structure consisting of metal-matrix composed nanoparticles and various binding between them - so-called metal-matrix nanocomposites (MNCs) - have intensively develop. At manufacturing MNCs, numerous combinations of matrixes and additives are used. Fabrication methods are an important part of the design process for MNCs, as well. It is anticipated that bulk materials with nanocarbon constituents could have high mechanical properties due to peculiarities of the nanostructure and special properties of its nano-building blocks, such as nanodiamond, fullerenes and nanotubes. In this work we report the design and properties of bulk MNCs containing nanocarbon in metal nanocrystals, and nanocarbon also serves as a binding medium filling interfaces. These works were conducted within 20072012 in TISNCM. We manufactured MNCs by mechanical alloying (high energy ball milling) of the parent materials, such as metals (Fe, Steels, Al, Al-alloys, Cu, W) and refractory carbides (WC, ZrC, TaC, TiC), with nanocarbon followed by high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) treatment. Nanocarbon (C60, soot, graphite and nanodiamond) was used as an additive. New nanostructured and modified by nanocarbon bulk samples has been sintered from appropriate nanoclusters.

  11. Structure and properties of composites based chitosan and carbon nanostructures: atomistic and coarse-grained simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Kolesnikova, A. S.; Grishina, O. A.; Slepchenkov, M. M.

    2015-03-01

    At the present time actual task of the modern materials is the creation of biodegradable biocompatible composite materials possessing high strength properties for medical purposes. One of the most promising biomaterials from a position of creation on their basis super strong nanofibres is chitosan. The aim of this work is a theoretical study of the structural features and physico-mechanical properties of biocomposite materials based on chitosan and carbon nanostructures. As matrix nanocomposite we considered various carbon nano-objects, namely carbon nanotubes and graphene. Using the developed original software complex KVAZAR we built atomistic and coarse-grained models of the biocomposite material. To identify regularities of influence of the configuration of the carbon matrix on the mechanical and electronic properties of biocomposite we carried out a series of numerical experiments using a classical algorithm of molecular dynamics and semi-empirical methods. The obtained results allow us to suggest that the generated biocomposite based on chitosan and carbon nanostructures has high stability and strength characteristics. Such materials can be used in biomedicine as a base material for creating of artificial limbs.

  12. Combination of lightweight elements and nanostructured materials for batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Cheng, Fangyi

    2009-06-16

    In a society that increasingly relies on mobile electronics, demand is rapidly growing for both primary and rechargeable batteries that power devices from cell phones to vehicles. Existing batteries utilize lightweight active materials that use electrochemical reactions of ions such as H(+), OH(-) and Li(+)/Mg(2+) to facilitate energy storage and conversion. Ideal batteries should be inexpensive, have high energy density, and be made from environmentally friendly materials; batteries based on bulk active materials do not meet these requirements. Because of slow electrode process kinetics and low-rate ionic diffusion/migration, most conventional batteries demonstrate huge gaps between their theoretical and practical performance. Therefore, efforts are underway to improve existing battery technologies and develop new electrode reactions for the next generation of electrochemical devices. Advances in electrochemistry, surface science, and materials chemistry are leading to the use of nanomaterials for efficient energy storage and conversion. Nanostructures offer advantages over comparable bulk materials in improving battery performance. This Account summarizes our progress in battery development using a combination of lightweight elements and nanostructured materials. We highlight the benefits of nanostructured active materials for primary zinc-manganese dioxide (Zn-Mn), lithium-manganese dioxide (Li-Mn), and metal (Mg, Al, Zn)-air batteries, as well as rechargeable lithium ion (Li-ion) and nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. Through selected examples, we illustrate the effect of structure, shape, and size on the electrochemical properties of electrode materials. Because of their numerous active sites and facile electronic/ionic transfer and diffusion, nanostructures can improve battery efficiency. In particular, we demonstrate the properties of nanostructured active materials including Mg, Al, Si, Zn, MnO(2), CuV(2)O(6), LiNi(0.8)Co(0.2)O(2), LiFePO(4), Fe(2)O(3), Co(3)O(4), TiS(2), and Ni(OH)(2) in battery applications. Electrochemical investigations reveal that we generally attain larger capacities and improved kinetics for electrode materials as their average particle size decreases. Novel nanostructures such as nanowires, nanotubes, nanourchins, and porous nanospheres show lower activation energy, enhanced reactivity, improved high-rate charge/discharge capability, and more controlled structural flexibility than their bulk counterparts. In particular, anode materials such as Si nanospheres and Fe(2)O(3) nanotubes can deliver reversible capacity exceeding 500 mA.h/g. (Graphite used commercially has a theoretical capacity of 372 mA x h/g.) Nanocomposite cathode materials such as NiP-doped LiFePO(4) and metal hydroxide-coated Ni(OH)(2) nanotubes allow us to integrate functional components, which enhance electrical conductivity and suppress volume expansion. Therefore, shifting from bulk to nanostructured electrode materials could offer a revolutionary opportunity to develop advanced green batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, and long cycle life. PMID:19354236

  13. Novel thermal properties of nanostructured materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, J. A.

    1999-01-13

    A new class of heat transfer fluids, termed nanofluids, has been developed by suspending nanocrystalline particles in liquids. Due to the orders-of-magnitude larger thermal conductivities of solids compared to those of liquids such as water, significantly enhanced thermal properties are obtained with nanofluids. For example, an approximately 20% improvement in effective thermal conductivity is observed when 5 vol.% CuO nanoparticles are added to water. Even more importantly, the heat transfer coefficient of water under dynamic flow conditions is increased more than 15% with the addition of less than 1 vol.% CuO particles. The use of nanofluids could impact many industrial sectors, including transportation, energy supply and production, electronics, textiles, and paper production by, for example, decreasing pumping power needs or reducing heat exchanger sizes. In contrast to the enhancement in effective thermal transport rates that is obtained when nanoparticles are suspended in fluids, nanocrystalline coatings are expected to exhibit reduced thermal conductivities compared to coarse-grained coatings. Reduced thermal conductivities are predicted to arise because of a reduction in the mean free path of phonons due to presence of grain boundaries. This behavior, combined with improved mechanical properties, makes nanostructured zirconia coatings excellent candidates for future applications as thermal barriers. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films are being produced by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques. Preliminary results have indicated that the thermal conductivity is reduced by approximately a factor-of-two at room temperature in 10 nm grain-sized YSZ compared to coarse-grained or single crystal YSZ.

  14. Evaluation of different conductive nanostructured particles as filler in smart piezoresistive composites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a comparison between three piezoresistive composite materials based on nanostructured conductive fillers in a polydimethylsiloxane insulating elastomeric matrix for sensing applications. Without any mechanical deformation upon an applied bias, the prepared composites present an insulating electric behavior, while, when subjected to mechanical load, the electric resistance is reduced exponentially. Three different metal fillers were tested: commercial nickel and copper spiky-particles and synthesized highly-pointed gold nanostars. These particles were chosen because of their high electrical conductivity and especially for the presence of nanosized sharp tips on their surface. These features generate an enhancement of the local electric field increasing the tunneling probability between the particles. Different figures of merit concerning the morphology of the fillers were evaluated and correlated with the corresponding functional response of the composite. PMID:22721506

  15. Equivalent-Continuum Modeling of Nano-Structured Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Thomas S.; Nicholson, Lee M.; Wise, Kristopher E.

    2001-01-01

    A method has been developed for modeling structure-property relationships of nano-structured materials. This method serves as a link between computational chemistry and solid mechanics by substituting discrete molecular structures with an equivalent-continuum model. It has been shown that this substitution may be accomplished by equating the vibrational potential energy of a nano-structured material with the strain energy of representative truss and continuum models. As an important example with direct application to the development and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes, the model has been applied to determine the effective continuum geometry of a graphene sheet. A representative volume element of the equivalent-continuum model has been developed with an effective thickness. This effective thickness has been shown to be similar to, but slightly smaller than, the interatomic spacing of graphite.

  16. Improving the Capacity of Sodium Ion Battery Using a Virus-Templated Nanostructured Composite Cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, M; Li, Z; Qi, JF; Xing, WT; Xiang, K; Chiang, YM; Belcher, AM

    2015-05-01

    In this work we investigated an energy-efficient biotemplated route to synthesize nanostructured FePO4 for sodium-based batteries. Self-assembled M13 viruses and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been used as a template to grow amorphous FePO4 nanoparticles at room temperature (the active composite is denoted as Bio-FePO4-CNT) to enhance the electronic conductivity of the active material. Preliminary tests demonstrate a discharge capacity as high as 166 mAh/g at C/10 rate, corresponding to composition Na0.9FePO4, which along with higher C-rate tests show this material to have the highest capacity and power performance reported for amorphous FePO4 electrodes to date.

  17. Improving the capacity of sodium ion battery using a virus-templated nanostructured composite cathode.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Maryam; Li, Zheng; Qi, Jifa; Xing, Wenting; Xiang, Kai; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Belcher, Angela M

    2015-05-13

    In this work we investigated an energy-efficient biotemplated route to synthesize nanostructured FePO4 for sodium-based batteries. Self-assembled M13 viruses and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been used as a template to grow amorphous FePO4 nanoparticles at room temperature (the active composite is denoted as Bio-FePO4-CNT) to enhance the electronic conductivity of the active material. Preliminary tests demonstrate a discharge capacity as high as 166 mAh/g at C/10 rate, corresponding to composition Na0.9FePO4, which along with higher C-rate tests show this material to have the highest capacity and power performance reported for amorphous FePO4 electrodes to date. PMID:25811762

  18. Thermoelectric energy conversion using nanostructured materials

    E-print Network

    Chen, Gang

    High performance thermoelectric materials in a wide range of temperatures are essential to broaden the application spectrum of thermoelectric devices. This paper presents experiments on the power and efficiency characteristics ...

  19. Synthesis and processing of nanostructured BN and BN/Ti composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Robert Steven

    Superhard materials, such as cubic-BN, are widely used in machine tools, grinding wheels, and abrasives. Low density combined with high hardness makes c-BN and its composites attractive candidate materials for personnel and vehicular armor. However, improvements in toughness, and ballistic-impact performance, are needed to meet anticipated performance requirements. To achieve such improvements, we have targeted for development nanostructured c-BN, and its composites with Ti. Current research utilizes an experimental high pressure/high temperature (HPHT) method to produce these materials on a laboratory scale. Results from this work should transfer well into the industrial arena, utilizing high-tonnage presses used in the production of synthetic diamond and c-BN. Progress has been made in: (1) HPHT synthesis of cBN powder using Mg as catalyst; (2) HPHT consolidation of cBN powder to produce nanostructured cBN; (3) reactive-HPHT consolidation of mixed cBN/Ti powder to produce nanostructured Ti- or TiB2/TiN-bonded cBN; and (4) reactive-HPHT consolidation of mixed hBN/Ti powder to produce nanostructured Ti-bonded TiB2/TiN or TiB2/TiN. Even so, much remains to be done to lay a firm scientific foundation to enable the reproducible fabrication of large-area panels for armor applications. To this end, Rutgers has formed a partnership with a major producer of hard and superhard materials. The ability to produce hard and superhard nanostructured composites by reacting cBN or hBN with Ti under high pressure also enables multi-layered structures to be developed. Such structures may be designed to satisfy impedance-mismatch requirements for high performance armor, and possibly provide a multi-hit capability. A demonstration has been made of reactive-HPHT processing of multi-layered composites, consisting of alternating layers of superhard Ti-bonded cBN and tough Ti. It is noteworthy that the pressure requirements for processing Ti-bonded cBN, Ti-bonded TiB2/TiN, and their corresponding multi-layered structures are in the 0.1-1.0 GPa range, well within the capabilities of today's hot-pressing technologies; thus scaling this new reactive-HPHT processing technology seems assured. Future research will focus on establishing mechanisms and kinetics of the various phase transformations observed during reactive-HPHT processing, with the objective of being able to optimize processing parameters to generate nanostructured cBN-based and TiB2/TiN-based composites that display superior mechanical properties, particularly under high-strain-rate conditions.

  20. Composite structural materials. [aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    The development of composite materials for aircraft applications is addressed with specific consideration of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, reliability, and life prediction. The design and flight testing of composite ultralight gliders is documented. Advances in computer aided design and methods for nondestructive testing are also discussed.

  1. Nondestructive Characterization of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Increasingly, composite materials are applied to fracture-critical structures of aircraft and spacecraft...Ultrasonics offer the most capable inspection technology and recently developed techniques appear to improve this technology significantly... Recent progress in ultrasonic NDE of composites will be reviewed.

  2. Nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering*

    PubMed Central

    GOLDBERG, MICHAEL; LANGER, ROBERT; JIA, XINQIAO

    2010-01-01

    Research in the areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering has witnessed tremendous progress in recent years due to their unlimited potential to improve human health. Meanwhile, the development of nanotechnology provides opportunities to characterize, manipulate and organize matter systematically at the nanometer scale. Biomaterials with nano-scale organizations have been used as controlled release reservoirs for drug delivery and artificial matrices for tissue engineering. Drug-delivery systems can be synthesized with controlled composition, shape, size and morphology. Their surface properties can be manipulated to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. The limitations of current drug delivery systems include suboptimal bioavailability, limited effective targeting and potential cytotoxicity. Promising and versatile nano-scale drug-delivery systems include nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanotubes, nanogels and dendrimers. They can be used to deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of biomacromolecules, such as peptides, proteins, plasmid DNA and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. Whereas traditional tissue-engineering scaffolds were based on hydrolytically degradable macroporous materials, current approaches emphasize the control over cell behaviors and tissue formation by nano-scale topography that closely mimics the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). The understanding that the natural ECM is a multifunctional nanocomposite motivated researchers to develop nanofibrous scaffolds through electrospinning or self-assembly. Nanocomposites containing nanocrystals have been shown to elicit active bone growth. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely related fields. In fact, tissue engineering can be viewed as a special case of drug delivery where the goal is to accomplish controlled delivery of mammalian cells. Controlled release of therapeutic factors in turn will enhance the efficacy of tissue engineering. From a materials point of view, both the drug-delivery vehicles and tissue-engineering scaffolds need to be biocompatible and biodegradable. The biological functions of encapsulated drugs and cells can be dramatically enhanced by designing biomaterials with controlled organizations at the nanometer scale. This review summarizes the most recent development in utilizing nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. PMID:17471764

  3. Bulk Materials with Micro- and Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wan-Ting; Zhao, Wen-Yu; Zhou, Hong-Yu; Yu, Jian; Tang, Ding-Guo; Liu, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Qing-Jie

    2014-06-01

    A cost-efficient method has been developed based on the combination of hydrothermal exfoliation and spark plasma sintering (SPS) to fabricate Bi0.48Sb1.52Te3 bulk material with multiscale microstructures composed of micro- and nanosized microstructures. The thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of the bulk material with multiscale microstructures were measured along the directions parallel (||) and perpendicular (?) to the SPS pressing direction. It is confirmed that the anisotropy of the electrical conductivity ( ?) and thermal conductivity ( ?) was decreased by the transformation of the microstructure from a single microscale structure to multiscale microstructures. As compared with Bi0.48Sb1.52Te3 bulk material with single microscale microstructures, the ? value of the Bi0.48Sb1.52Te3 bulk material with multiscale microstructures was significantly reduced, the ? value was slightly decreased, while the ? value was slightly increased. Thus, a maximum ZT value of 1.1 was achieved at 350 K along the direction perpendicular to the pressing direction, increased by 20%. The enhanced ZT value was mainly attributed to the significant decrease in ? induced by the multiscale microstructures. This work offers a new approach to improve TE performance by multiscale microstructural engineering.

  4. Exciton transport and coherence in molecular and nanostructured materials

    E-print Network

    Akselrod, Gleb M. (Gleb Markovitch)

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 20 years a new classes of optically active materials have been developed that are composites of nano-engineered constituents such as molecules, polymers, and nanocrystals. These disordered materials have ...

  5. Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials Determined Through Molecular Modeling Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, Thomas C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    The potential for gains in material properties over conventional materials has motivated an effort to develop novel nanostructured materials for aerospace applications. These novel materials typically consist of a polymer matrix reinforced with particles on the nanometer length scale. In this study, molecular modeling is used to construct fully atomistic models of a carbon nanotube embedded in an epoxy polymer matrix. Functionalization of the nanotube which consists of the introduction of direct chemical bonding between the polymer matrix and the nanotube, hence providing a load transfer mechanism, is systematically varied. The relative effectiveness of functionalization in a nanostructured material may depend on a variety of factors related to the details of the chemical bonding and the polymer structure at the nanotube-polymer interface. The objective of this modeling is to determine what influence the details of functionalization of the carbon nanotube with the polymer matrix has on the resulting mechanical properties. By considering a range of degree of functionalization, the structure-property relationships of these materials is examined and mechanical properties of these models are calculated using standard techniques.

  6. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  7. Tunable nanostructured composite with built-in metallic wire-grid electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Micheli, Davide Pastore, Roberto; Marchetti, Mario; Gradoni, Gabriele

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, the authors report an experimental demonstration of microwave reflection tuning in carbon nanostructure-based composites by means of an external voltage supplied to the material. DC bias voltages are imparted through a metal wire-grid. The magnitude of the reflection coefficient is measured upon oblique plane-wave incidence. Increasing the bias from 13 to 700 V results in a lowering of ?20 dB, and a blueshift of ?600 MHz of the material absorption resonance. Observed phenomena are ascribed to a change of the dielectric response of the carbon material. Inherently, the physical role of tunneling between nanofillers (carbon nanotubes) is discussed. Achievements aim at the realization of a tunable absorber. There are similar studies in literature that focus on tunable metamaterials operating at either optical or THz wavelengths.

  8. On the origin of increased phonon scattering in nanostructured PbTe based thermoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    He, Jiaqing; Sootsman, Joseph R; Girard, Steven N; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Wen, Jianguo; Zhu, Yimei; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Dravid, Vinayak P

    2010-06-30

    We have investigated the possible mechanisms of phonon scattering by nanostructures and defects in PbTe-X (X = 2% Sb, Bi, or Pb) thermoelectric materials systems. We find that among these three compositions, PbTe-2% Sb has the lowest lattice thermal conductivity and exhibits a larger strain and notably more misfit dislocations at the precipitate/PbTe interfaces than the other two compositions. In the PbTe-Bi 2% sample, we infer some weaker phonon scattering BiTe precipitates, in addition to the abundant Bi nanostructures. In the PbTe-Pb 2% sample, we also find that pure Pb nanoparticles exhibit stronger phonon scattering than nanostructures with Te vacancies. Within the accepted error range, the theoretical calculations of the lattice thermal conductivity in the three systems are in close agreement with the experimental measurements, highlighting the important role of misfit dislocations, nanoscale particles, and associated interfacial elastic strain play in phonon scattering. We further propose that such particle-induced local elastic perturbations interfere with the phonon propagation pathway, thereby contributing to further reduction in lattice thermal conductivity, and consequently can enhance the overall thermoelectric figure of merit. PMID:20524606

  9. Nanostructured Materials Utilized in Biopolymer-based Plastics for Food Packaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Oleyaei, Seyed Amir; Almasi, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Most materials currently used for food packaging are nondegradable, generating environmental problems. Several biopolymers have been exploited to develop materials for ecofriendly food packaging. However, the use of biopolymers has been limited because of their usually poor mechanical and barrier properties, which may be improved by adding reinforcing compounds (fillers), forming composites. Most reinforced materials present poor matrix-filler interactions, which tend to improve with decreasing filler dimensions. The use of fillers with at least one nanoscale dimension (nanoparticles) produces nanocomposites. Nanoparticles have proportionally larger surface area than their microscale counterparts, which favors the filler-matrix interactions and the performance of the resulting material. Besides nanoreinforcements, nanoparticles can have other functions when added to a polymer, such as antimicrobial activity, etc. in this review paper, the structure and properties of main kinds of nanostructured materials which have been studied to use as nanofiller in biopolymer matrices are overviewed, as well as their effects and applications. PMID:24798951

  10. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    DOEpatents

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  11. Nanophase and Composite Optical Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This talk will focus on accomplishments, current developments, and future directions of our work on composite optical materials for microgravity science and space exploration. This research spans the order parameter from quasi-fractal structures such as sol-gels and other aggregated or porous media, to statistically random cluster media such as metal colloids, to highly ordered materials such as layered media and photonic bandgap materials. The common focus is on flexible materials that can be used to produce composite or artificial materials with superior optical properties that could not be achieved with homogeneous materials. Applications of this work to NASA exploration goals such as terraforming, biosensors, solar sails, solar cells, and vehicle health monitoring, will be discussed.

  12. Fabrication of bioinspired nanostructured materials via colloidal self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Han

    Through millions of years of evolution, nature creates unique structures and materials that exhibit remarkable performance on mechanicals, opticals, and physical properties. For instance, nacre (mother of pearl), bone and tooth show excellent combination of strong minerals and elastic proteins as reinforced materials. Structured butterfly's wing and moth's eye can selectively reflect light or absorb light without dyes. Lotus leaf and cicada's wing are superhydrophobic to prevent water accumulation. The principles of particular biological capabilities, attributed to the highly sophisticated structures with complex hierarchical designs, have been extensively studied. Recently, a large variety of novel materials have been enabled by natural-inspired designs and nanotechnologies. These advanced materials will have huge impact on practical applications. We have utilized bottom-up approaches to fabricate nacre-like nanocomposites with "brick and mortar" structures. First, we used self-assembly processes, including convective self-assembly, dip-coating, and electrophoretic deposition to form well oriented layer structure of synthesized gibbsite (aluminum hydroxide) nanoplatelets. Low viscous monomer was permeated into layered nanoplatelets and followed by photo-curing. Gibbsite-polymer composite displays 2 times higher tensile strength and 3 times higher modulus when compared with pure polymer. More improvement occurred when surface-modified gibbsite platelets were cross-linked with the polymer matrix. We observed 4 times higher strength and nearly 1 order of magnitude higher modulus than pure polymer. To further improve the mechanical strength and toughness of inorganicorganic nanocomposites, we exploited ultrastrong graphene oxide (GO), a single atom thick hexagonal carbon sheet with pendant oxidation groups. GO nanocomposite is made by co-filtrating GO/polyvinyl alcohol suspension on 0.2 im pore-sized membrane. It shows 2 times higher strength and 15 times higher ultimate strains than nacre and pure GO paper (also synthesized by filtration). Specifically, it exhibits 30 times higher fracture energy than filtrated graphene paper and nacre, 100 times tougher than filtrated GO paper. Besides reinforced nanocomposites, we further explored the self-assembly of spherical colloids and the templating nanofabrication of moth-eye-inspired broadband antireflection coatings. Binary crystalline structures can be easily accomplished by spin-coating double-layer nonclose-packed colloidal crystals as templates, followed by colloidal templating. The polymer matrix between self-assembled colloidal crystal has been used as a sacrificial template to define the resulting periodic binary nanostructures, including intercalated arrays of silica spheres and polymer posts, gold nanohole arrays with binary sizes, and dimple-nipple antireflection coatings. The binary-structured antireflection coatings exhibit better antireflective properties than unitary coatings. Natural optical structures and nanocomposites teach us a great deal on how to create high performance artificial materials. The bottom-up technologies developed in this thesis are scalable and compatible with standard industrial processes, promising for manufacturing high-performance materials for the benefits of human beings.

  13. Vanadium-based nanostructure materials for secondary lithium battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hui Teng; Rui, Xianhong; Sun, Wenping; Yan, Qingyu; Lim, Tuti Mariana

    2015-08-01

    Vanadium-based materials, such as V2O5, LiV3O8, VO2(B) and Li3V2(PO4)3 are compounds that share the characteristic of intercalation chemistry. Their layered or open frameworks allow facile ion movement through the interspaces, making them promising cathodes for LIB applications. To bypass bottlenecks occurring in the electrochemical performances of vanadium-based cathodes that derive from their intrinsic low electrical conductivity and ion diffusion coefficients, nano-engineering strategies have been implemented to ``create'' newly emerging properties that are unattainable at the bulk solid level. Integrating this concept into vanadium-based cathodes represents a promising way to circumvent the aforementioned problems as nanostructuring offers potential improvements in electrochemical performances by providing shorter mass transport distances, higher electrode/electrolyte contact interfaces, and better accommodation of strain upon lithium uptake/release. The significance of nanoscopic architectures has been exemplified in the literature, showing that the idea of developing vanadium-based nanostructures is an exciting prospect to be explored. In this review, we will be casting light on the recent advances in the synthesis of nanostructured vanadium-based cathodes. Furthermore, efficient strategies such as hybridization with foreign matrices and elemental doping are introduced as a possible way to boost their electrochemical performances (e.g., rate capability, cycling stability) to a higher level. Finally, some suggestions relating to the perspectives for the future developments of vanadium-based cathodes are made to provide insight into their commercialization.

  14. Fabrication and geometrical characterization of metal and metal-dielectric composite periodic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Siddhartha

    Periodic metal and metal-dielectric composite nanostructures have been of interest from the field of plasmonics and metamaterial fabrication. In order to exploit the behavior of these unique materials in the visible region of the optical spectrum, these structures need to be significantly shorter than the wavelength of response, and hence fabrication of these have posed unique challenges. One of the key fabrication aspects is the metal thin film deposition. This study has looked at key parameters in PVD which influence the grain structure and morphology, in one of the metals of interest, Ag, and further examined how these factors influence formation of these periodic nanostructures. Our findings indicate small grain sizes formed with high source-to-substrate spacing are optimal conditions for forming nanostructures with different geometries with size less than 100nm. Additionally our studies also indicate these conditions provide films with least agglomeration and a smooth texture which could have significant impact on their optical behavior. The study also looked at formation of nano structures through different processes---(i) additive process via lift-off and electron beam lithography (EBL) and (ii) subtractive processes of ion beam milling, and reactive ion etch (RIE). This included examining three metals of interest in plasmonics---Ag, Au and Al. Our findings indicate that the optimized process is dependent on the metal systems and lift-off with EBL remains the most flexible option. RIE may be suitable for Al based systems where we form a volatile species during etch while it may not be as successful for Au and Ag. For isolated nanostructures as discussed in this paper, ion beam etch is highly dependent on grain sizes and may have some fundamental limitations in isolating structures. The structural and morphological characterization of nanostructures has also been of importance and has been carried out as part of this work with SEM, AFM, EDS, and TEM studies. The impact and application of these structures could be greatly enhanced by their formation in a flexible polymer membrane and this was also demonstrated as part of this thesis. Finally, we also present some optical data of these nanostructures where we see a difference in extinction coefficient of these structures based on both geometry and metal choice.

  15. Composite materials for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawal, Suraj P.; Misra, Mohan S.; Wendt, Robert G.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the program were to: generate mechanical, thermal, and physical property test data for as-fabricated advanced materials; design and fabricate an accelerated thermal cycling chamber; and determine the effect of thermal cycling on thermomechanical properties and dimensional stability of composites. In the current program, extensive mechanical and thermophysical property tests of various organic matrix, metal matrix, glass matrix, and carbon-carbon composites were conducted, and a reliable database was constructed for spacecraft material selection. Material property results for the majority of the as-fabricated composites were consistent with the predicted values, providing a measure of consolidation integrity attained during fabrication. To determine the effect of thermal cycling on mechanical properties, microcracking, and thermal expansion behavior, approximately 500 composite specimens were exposed to 10,000 cycles between -150 and +150 F. These specimens were placed in a large (18 cu ft work space) thermal cycling chamber that was specially designed and fabricated to simulate one year low earth orbital (LEO) thermal cycling in 20 days. With this rate of thermal cycling, this is the largest thermal cycling unit in the country. Material property measurements of the thermal cycled organic matrix composite laminate specimens exhibited less than 24 percent decrease in strength, whereas, the remaining materials exhibited less than 8 percent decrease in strength. The thermal expansion response of each of the thermal cycled specimens revealed significant reduction in hysteresis and residual strain, and the average CTE values were close to the predicted values.

  16. Bulk Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials: Preparation, Structure and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tie-Jun; Cao, Yi-Qi; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Xin-Bing

    2010-09-01

    Bulk nanostructured materials have recently emerged as a new paradigm for improving the performance of existing thermoelectric materials. Here, we fabricated two kinds of bulk nanostructured thermoelectric materials by a bottom-up strategy and an in situ precipitation method, respectively. Binary PbTe was fabricated by a combination of chemical synthesis and hot pressing. The grain sizes of the hot pressed bulk samples varied from 200 nm to 400 nm, which significantly contributed to the reduction of thermal conductivity due to the enhanced boundary phonon scattering. The highest figure of merit ZT of the binary PbTe sample reached 0.8 at 580 K. Mg2(Si,Sn) solid solutions have shown great promise for thermoelectric application, due to good thermoelectric properties, non-toxicity, and abundantly available constituent elements. The nanoscale microstructure observation of the compounds showed the existence of nanophases formed in situ, which is believed to be related to the relatively low lattice thermal conductivity in this material system. The highest ZT of Sb-doped Mg2(Si,Sn) samples reached 1.1 at 770 K.

  17. Cellular Composites with Ambient and Autoclaved Type of Hardening with Application of Nanostructured Binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelyubova, V.; Pavlenko, N.; Netsvet, D.

    2015-11-01

    The research presents the dimensional and structural characteristics of nonhydrational hardening binders - nanostructured binders. Rational areas of their use in composites for construction purposes are given. The paper presents the results of the development of natural hardening foam concrete and aerated autoclaved concrete for thermal insulating and construction and thermal insulating purposes. Thus nanostructured binder (NB) in the composites was used as a primary binder and a high reactive modifier.

  18. Fiber composite materials technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Chiao, T.T.

    1980-10-23

    The FY1980 technical accomplishments from the Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) for the Fiber Composite Materials Technology Development Task fo the MEST project are summarized. The task is divided into three areas: Engineering data base for flywheel design (Washington University will report this part separately), new materials evaluation, and time-dependent behavior of Kevlar composite strands. An epoxy matrix was formulated which can be used in composites for 120/sup 0/C service with good processing and mechanical properties. Preliminary results on the time-dependent properties of the Kevlar 49/epoxy strands indicate: Fatigue loading, as compared to sustained loading, drastically reduces the lifetime of a Kevlar composie; the more the number of on-off load cycles, the less the lifetime; and dynamic fatigue of the Kevlar composite can not be predicted by current damage theories such as Miner's Rule.

  19. Dense, finely, grained composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D. (Davis, CA); Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA); Kingman, Donald D. (Danville, CA); Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA)

    1990-01-01

    Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.

  20. Fundamental study and practical applications of composite colloidal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebl, James Andrew

    In recent years, nanomaterials, defined as materials with a size of < 100 nm in at least one axis, have attracted widespread interest due to their promise in many applications. Due to their small sizes, nanoparticles exhibit unique properties not found in their bulk counterparts, such as superparamagnetism in magnetic nanoparticles, as well as quantized plasma oscillations leading to well-defined extinction peaks in metal nanoparticles. Although many fabrication techniques exist to produce these unique materials, colloidal nanomaterials are of particular importance due to their low cost and ready scalability, and their easy suspension in solutions. Current research focuses on improving syntheses and developing new types of materials with novel properties, as well as studying the underlying mechanisms behind their growth in solution. One area of investigation involves producing composite nanomaterials, which contain two or more different nanoscale components. By making a composite material, it is possible to produce a material which possesses the properties of all of its components, or even a material with entirely new properties. Composite materials can also be produced as intermediates, often with one material acting as a sacrificial template which is later removed, to produce a material with a morphology unattainable with conventional synthesis. In this work, a variety of uses have been explored for colloidal nanoscale composites. First, the mechanism for the seeded growth of 2D silver nanoplates was studied through a marker experiment. Prior to growth, a thin layer of gold was deposited on the plate edges, which defined the original boundary of the nanoplate seed, allowing easy observation of the direction of growth and making it possible to explain previously observed shape transitions during this process. In later work, gold microplates were conjugated to amine-terminated magnetic nanoparticles to create a material which was both anisotropic, magnetic, and highly reflective. This composite was studied as a micron-size actuated mirror system, which was found to have a fast magnetic response and good optical contrast between the "on" and "off" states. Finally, a gold-titania core-shell composite was developed, which proved resistant to high-temperature sintering and was able to photocatalytically produce hydrogen from ethanol.

  1. Strong and ductile nanostructured Cu-carbon nanotube composite Hongqi Li,1,a

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Yuntian T.

    . Past research effort mainly focused on the polymer/ceramic-based CNT composites58 and studies on metal in the CNT-metallic matrix composites has been growing rapidly for the past five years.921 GenerallyStrong and ductile nanostructured Cu-carbon nanotube composite Hongqi Li,1,a Amit Misra,1 Zenji

  2. Composite material impregnation unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, S. P.; Marchello, J. M.; Johnston, N. J.

    1993-01-01

    This memorandum presents an introduction to the NASA multi-purpose prepregging unit which is now installed and fully operational at the Langley Research Center in the Polymeric Materials Branch. A description of the various impregnation methods that are available to the prepregger are presented. Machine operating details and protocol are provided for its various modes of operation. These include, where appropriate, the related equations for predicting the desired prepreg specifications. Also, as the prepregger is modular in its construction, each individual section is described and discussed. Safety concerns are an important factor and a chapter has been included that highlights the major safety features. Initial experiences and observations for fiber impregnation are described. These first observations have given great insight into the areas of future work that need to be addressed. Future memorandums will focus on these individual processes and their related problems.

  3. Laser ablation-based methods for nanostructuring of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabashin, A. V.

    2009-05-01

    An overview of laser-ablation-based methods for nanofabrication developed by our research group is presented. All methods imply laser-related ablation of material from a solid target and the production of nanoclusters, which are then either deposited on a substrate to form a nanostructured thin film or released to a liquid to form a colloidal nanoparticle solution. Particular attention is given on the absence or presence of the plasmarelated absorption of laser radiation, which provides different nano fabrication regimes. The methods lead to the production of nanomaterials, which are of importance for photonics and biosensing applications.

  4. Development of sensors based on advanced micro- and nanostructured carbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza Centeno, Frank Willi

    The thesis is focused on the development of sensors based on advanced micro- and nano-structured carbon materials. In particular, we developed prototype diamond-based ultraviolet photodetectors and carbon nanotubes-based gas sensors. We describe the method of preparation and characterization of the active carbon-based materials and their structural and compositional characterizations. This is followed by the corresponding device fabrication and testing. The thesis briefly gives an introduction to our current understanding about carbon materials, with emphasis on synthetic diamond and bamboo-like carbon nanotubes, and to the materials' properties that are useful for ultraviolet photodetectors and gas sensor applications. The thesis also give an overview of the experience gained through this research, and some suggestions for those who would like follow the research methods employ here. It provides experimental information learned through experience that may be helpful and avoid delays to the newer experimentalists.

  5. Micro- and Nanostructured Materials for Active Devices and Molecular Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.; Graff, Gordon L.; Gross, Mark E.; Burrows, Paul E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Mast, Eric S.; Hall, Michael G.; Bonham, Charles C.; Zumhoff, Mac R.; Williford, Rick E.

    2003-10-01

    Traditional single layer barrier coatings are not adequate in preventing degradation of the performance of organic molecular electronic and other active devices. Most advanced devices used in display technology now consist of micro and nanostructured small molecule, polymer and inorganic coatings with thin high reactive group 1A metals. This includes organic electronics such as organic light emitting devices (OLED). The lifetimes of these devices rapidly degrades when they are exposed to atmospheric oxygen and water vapor. Thin film photovoltaics and batteries are also susceptible to degradation by moisture and oxygen. Using in-line coating techniques we apply a composite nanostructured inorganic/polymer thin film barrier that restricts moisture and oxygen permeation to undetectable levels using conventional permeation test equipment. We describe permeation mechanisms for this encapsulation coating and flat panel display and other device applications. Permeation through the multilayer barrier coating is defect and pore limited and can be described by Knudsen diffusion involving a long and tortuous path. Device lifetime is also enhanced by the long lag times required to reach the steady state flux regime. Permeation rates in the range of 10-6 cc,g/m2/d have been achieved and OLED device lifetimes. The structure is robust, yet flexible. The resulting device performance and lifetimes will also be described. The barrier film can be capped with a thin film of transparent conductive oxide yielding an engineered nanostructured device for next generation, rugged, lightweight or flexible displays. This enables, for the first time, thin film encapsulation of emissive organic displays.

  6. Synthesis of 3D nanostructured metal alloy of immiscible materials induced by megahertz-repetition femtosecond laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we have proposed a concept for the generation of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured metal alloys of immiscible materials induced by megahertz-frequency ultrafast laser pulses. A mixture of two microparticle materials (aluminum and nickel oxide) and nickel oxide microparticles coated onto an aluminum foil have been used in this study. After laser irradiation, three different types of nanostructure composites have been observed: aluminum embedded in nickel nuclei, agglomerated chain of aluminum and nickel nanoparticles, and finally, aluminum nanoparticles grown on nickel microparticles. In comparison with current nanofabrication methods which are used only for one-dimensional nanofabrication, this technique enables us to fabricate 3D nanostructured metal alloys of two or more nanoparticle materials with varied composite concentrations under various predetermined conditions. This technique can lead to promising solutions for the fabrication of 3D nanostructured metal alloys in applications such as fuel-cell energy generation and development of custom-designed, functionally graded biomaterials and biocomposites. PMID:22999219

  7. Nanostructured nickel-free austenitic stainless steel/hydroxyapatite composites.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Tulinski M; Jurczyk M

    2012-11-01

    In this work Ni-free austenitic stainless steels with nanostructure and their nanocomposites with hydroxyapatite are presented and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and optical profiling. The samples were synthesized by mechanical alloying, heat treatment and nitriding of elemental microcrystalline powders with addition of hydroxyapatite (HA). In our work we wanted to introduce into stainless steel hydroxyapatite ceramics that have been intensively studied for bone repair and replacement applications. Such applications were chosen because of their high biocompatibility and ability to bond to bone. Since nickel-free austenitic stainless steels seem to have better mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility compared to 316L stainless steels, it is possible that composite made of this steel and HA could improve properties, as well. Mechanical alloying and nitriding are very effective technologies to improve the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. Similar process in case of nanocomposites of stainless steel with hydroxyapatite helps achieve even better mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Hence nanocrystalline nickel-free stainless steels and nickel-free stainless steel/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites could be promising bionanomaterials for use as a hard tissue replacement implants, e.g., orthopedic implants. In such application, the surface roughness and more specifically the surface topography influences the proliferation of cells (e.g., osteoblasts).

  8. Nanostructured nickel-free austenitic stainless steel/hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Tulinski, Maciej; Jurczyk, Mieczyslaw

    2012-11-01

    In this work Ni-free austenitic stainless steels with nanostructure and their nanocomposites with hydroxyapatite are presented and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and optical profiling. The samples were synthesized by mechanical alloying, heat treatment and nitriding of elemental microcrystalline powders with addition of hydroxyapatite (HA). In our work we wanted to introduce into stainless steel hydroxyapatite ceramics that have been intensively studied for bone repair and replacement applications. Such applications were chosen because of their high biocompatibility and ability to bond to bone. Since nickel-free austenitic stainless steels seem to have better mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility compared to 316L stainless steels, it is possible that composite made of this steel and HA could improve properties, as well. Mechanical alloying and nitriding are very effective technologies to improve the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. Similar process in case of nanocomposites of stainless steel with hydroxyapatite helps achieve even better mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Hence nanocrystalline nickel-free stainless steels and nickel-free stainless steel/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites could be promising bionanomaterials for use as a hard tissue replacement implants, e.g., orthopedic implants. In such application, the surface roughness and more specifically the surface topography influences the proliferation of cells (e.g., osteoblasts). PMID:23421285

  9. Joining of polymer composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Magness, F.H.

    1990-11-01

    Under ideal conditions load bearing structures would be designed without joints, thus eliminating a source of added weight, complexity and weakness. In reality the need for accessibility, repair, and inspectability, added to the size limitations imposed by the manufacturing process and transportation/assembly requirements mean that some minimum number of joints will be required in most structures. The designer generally has two methods for joining fiber composite materials, adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening. As the use of thermoplastic materials increases, a third joining technique -- welding -- will become more common. It is the purpose of this document to provide a review of the available sources pertinent to the design of joints in fiber composites. The primary emphasis is given to adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening with information coming from documentary sources as old as 1961 and as recent as 1989. A third, shorter section on composite welding is included in order to provide a relatively comprehensive treatment of the subject.

  10. Composite Materials: An Educational Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saliba, Tony E.; Snide, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is the need to incorporate the concepts and applications of advanced composite materials into existing chemical engineering programs. Discussed are the justification for, and implementation of topics including transport phenomena, kinetics and reactor design, unit operations, and product and process design. (CW)

  11. Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

  12. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    Continuous downscaling of Si complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology and progress in high-power electronics demand more efficient heat removal techniques to handle the increasing power density and rising temperature of hot spots. For this reason, it is important to investigate thermal properties of materials at nanometer scale and identify materials with the extremely large or extremely low thermal conductivity for applications as heat spreaders or heat insulators in the next generation of integrated circuits. The thin films used in microelectronic and photonic devices need to have high thermal conductivity in order to transfer the dissipated power to heat sinks more effectively. On the other hand, thermoelectric devices call for materials or structures with low thermal conductivity because the performance of thermoelectric devices is determined by the figure of merit Z=S2sigma/K, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, K and sigma are the thermal and electrical conductivity, respectively. Nanostructured superlattices can have drastically reduced thermal conductivity as compared to their bulk counterparts making them promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials. Other applications calling for thin films with low thermal conductivity value are high-temperature coatings for engines. Thus, materials with both high thermal conductivity and low thermal conductivity are technologically important. The increasing temperature of the hot spots in state-of-the-art chips stimulates the search for innovative methods for heat removal. One promising approach is to incorporate materials, which have high thermal conductivity into the chip design. Two suitable candidates for such applications are diamond and graphene. Another approach is to integrate the high-efficiency thermoelectric elements for on-spot cooling. In addition, there is strong motivation for improved thermal interface materials (TIMs) for heat transfer from the heat-generating chip to heat-sinking units. This dissertation presents results of the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of thermal transport in the advanced engineered materials, which include thin films for thermal management of nanoscale devices, nanostructured superlattices as promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, and improved TIMs with graphene and metal particles as fillers providing enhanced thermal conductivity. The advanced engineered materials studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films on Si substrates, directly integrated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on GaN, free-standing polycrystalline graphene (PCG) films, graphene oxide (GOx) films, and "pseudo-superlattices" of the mechanically exfoliated Bi2Te3 topological insulator films, and thermal interface materials (TIMs) with graphene fillers.

  13. Composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures for high electrochromic activity.

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, Karla Rosa; Stephens, Zachary Dan.; Robinson, David B.

    2013-05-01

    A composite material consisting of TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) with WO3 electrodeposited homogeneously on its surface has been fabricated, detached from its substrate, and attached to a fluorine-doped tin oxide film on glass for application to electrochromic (EC) reactions. A paste of TiO2 made from commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles creates an interface for the TiO2 NT film to attach to the FTO glass, which is conductive and does not cause solution-phase ions in an electrolyte to bind irreversibly with the material. The effect of NT length on the current density and the EC contrast of the material were studied. The EC redox reaction seen in this material is diffusion- limited, having relatively fast reaction rates at the electrode surface. The composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures showed higher ion storage capacity, better stability, enhanced EC contrast and longer memory time compared with the pure WO3 and TiO2.

  14. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  15. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-01-23

    A high performance capacitor is described which is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200--300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The ``notepad`` capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  16. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1995-05-09

    A high performance capacitor is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The notepad capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  17. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  18. Nanostructured photovoltaic materials using conjugated block copolymer assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroianni, Sarah E.; Epps, Thomas H., III

    2011-03-01

    Block copolymers containing a conjugated block offer attractive possibilities for creating nanostructured organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Current OPV materials suffer from efficiency losses primarily due to a size-scale discrepancy between exciton diffusion length and domain sizes; excitons that do not reach the interface between electron and hole-conducting materials recombine, preventing charge carrier separation. The inherent nature of block-copolymers to self-assemble into well-defined nanoscale structures with domain spacings on the order of exciton diffusion length offers a potential solution for reducing exciton recombination. In this work, allyl-terminated poly(3-hexyl thiophene) or poly(3-decyl thiophene) acting as electron donors are incorporated into the block copolymer chain via a coupling reaction with poly(styrene) or poly(isoprene- b -styrene) derivatives synthesized by anionic polymerization. The resulting block copolymer morphologies are characterized by small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy.

  19. Hybrid nanostructures for SERS: materials development and chemical detection.

    PubMed

    Fateixa, Sara; Nogueira, Helena I S; Trindade, Tito

    2015-09-01

    This review focuses on recent developments in hybrid and nanostructured substrates for SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering) studies. Thus substrates composed of at least two distinct types of materials, in which one is a SERS active metal, are considered here aiming at their use as platforms for chemical detection in a variety of contexts. Fundamental aspects related to the SERS effect and plasmonic behaviour of nanometals are briefly introduced. The materials described include polymer nanocomposites containing metal nanoparticles and coupled inorganic nanophases. Chemical approaches to tailor the morphological features of these substrates in order to get high SERS activity are reviewed. Finally, some perspectives for practical applications in the context of chemical detection of analytes using such hybrid platforms are presented. PMID:25960180

  20. Vanadium-based nanostructure materials for secondary lithium battery applications.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui Teng; Rui, Xianhong; Sun, Wenping; Yan, Qingyu; Lim, Tuti Mariana

    2015-09-21

    Vanadium-based materials, such as V2O5, LiV3O8, VO2(B) and Li3V2(PO4)3 are compounds that share the characteristic of intercalation chemistry. Their layered or open frameworks allow facile ion movement through the interspaces, making them promising cathodes for LIB applications. To bypass bottlenecks occurring in the electrochemical performances of vanadium-based cathodes that derive from their intrinsic low electrical conductivity and ion diffusion coefficients, nano-engineering strategies have been implemented to "create" newly emerging properties that are unattainable at the bulk solid level. Integrating this concept into vanadium-based cathodes represents a promising way to circumvent the aforementioned problems as nanostructuring offers potential improvements in electrochemical performances by providing shorter mass transport distances, higher electrode/electrolyte contact interfaces, and better accommodation of strain upon lithium uptake/release. The significance of nanoscopic architectures has been exemplified in the literature, showing that the idea of developing vanadium-based nanostructures is an exciting prospect to be explored. In this review, we will be casting light on the recent advances in the synthesis of nanostructured vanadium-based cathodes. Furthermore, efficient strategies such as hybridization with foreign matrices and elemental doping are introduced as a possible way to boost their electrochemical performances (e.g., rate capability, cycling stability) to a higher level. Finally, some suggestions relating to the perspectives for the future developments of vanadium-based cathodes are made to provide insight into their commercialization. PMID:26270235

  1. Nanostructured Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries (Final Technical Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Meilin Liu, James Gole

    2006-12-14

    The objective of this study was to explore new ways to create nanostructured electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Of particular interests are unique nanostructures created by electrochemical deposition, etching and combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). Three-dimensional nanoporous Cu6Sn5 alloy has been successfully prepared using an electrochemical co-deposition process. The walls of the foam structure are highly-porous and consist of numerous small grains. This represents a novel way of creating porous structures that allow not only fast transport of gas and liquid but also rapid electrochemical reactions due to high surface area. The Cu6Sn5 samples display a reversible capacity of {approx}400 mAhg-1. Furthermore, these materials exhibit superior rate capability. At a current drain of 10 mA/cm2(20C rate), the obtainable capacity was more than 50% of the capacity at 0.5 mA/cm2 (1C rate). Highly open and porous SnO2 thin films with columnar structure were obtained on Si/SiO2/Au substrates by CCVD. The thickness was readily controlled by the deposition time, varying from 1 to 5 microns. The columnar grains were covered by nanoparticles less than 20 nm. These thin film electrodes exhibited substantially high specific capacity. The reversible specific capacity of {approx}3.3 mAH/cm2 was demonstrated for up to 80 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 0.3 mA/cm2. When discharged at 0.9 mA/cm2, the capacity was about 2.1 mAH/cm2. Tin dioxide box beams or tubes with square or rectangular cross sections were synthesized using CCVD. The cross-sectional width of the SnO2 tubules was tunable from 50 nm to sub-micrometer depending on synthesis temperature. The tubes are readily aligned in the direction perpendicular to the substrate surface to form tube arrays. Silicon wafers were electrochemically etched to produce porous silicon (PS) with honeycomb-type channels and nanoporous walls. The diameters of the channels are about 1 to 3 microns and the depth of the channels can be up to 100 microns. We have successfully used the PS as a matrix for Si-Li-based alloy. Other component(s) can be incorporated into the PS either by an electroless metallization or by kinetically controlled vapor deposition.

  2. Multifunctional Upconversion-Magnetic Hybrid Nanostructured Materials: Synthesis and Bioapplications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomin; Zhao, Dongyuan; Zhang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    The combination of nanotechnology and biology has developed into an emerging research area: nano-biotechnology. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have attracted a great deal of attention in bioapplications due to their high chemical stability, low toxicity, and high signal-to-noise ratio. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are also well-established nanomaterials that offer controlled size, ability to be manipulated externally, and enhancement of contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As a result, these nanoparticles could have many applications in biology and medicine, including protein purification, drug delivery, and medical imaging. Because of the potential benefits of multimodal functionality in biomedical applications, researchers would like to design and fabricate multifunctional upconversion-magnetic hybrid nanostructured materials. The hybrid nanostructures, which combine UCNPs with MNPs, exhibit upconversion fluorescence alongside superparamagnetism property. Such structures could provide a platform for enhanced bioimaging and controlled drug delivery. We expect that the combination of unique structural characteristics and integrated functions of multifunctional upconversion-magnetic nanoparticles will attract increasing research interest and could lead to new opportunities in nano-bioapplications. PMID:23650477

  3. Bioactivity and structural properties of nanostructured bulk composites containing Nb2O5 and natural hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonadio, T. G. M.; Sato, F.; Medina, A. N.; Weinand, W. R.; Baesso, M. L.; Lima, W. M.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we investigate the bioactivity and structural properties of nanostructured bulk composites that are composed of Nb2O5 and natural hydroxyapatite (HAp) and are produced by mechanical alloying and powder metallurgy. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy data showed that the milling process followed by a heat treatment at 1000 C induced chemical reactions along with the formation of the CaNb2O6, PNb9O25 and Ca3(PO4)2 phases. Rietveld refinement indicated significant changes in each phase weight fraction as a function of HAp concentration. These changes influenced the in vitro bioactivity of the material. XRD and FTIR analyses indicated that the composites exhibited bioactivity characteristics by forming a carbonated apatite layer when the composites were immersed in a simulated body fluid. The formed layers had a maximum thickness of 13 ?m, as measured by confocal Raman spectroscopy and as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results of this work suggest that the tested bulk composites are promising biomaterials for use in implants.

  4. New Composite Thermoelectric Materials for Macro-size Applications

    ScienceCinema

    Dresselhaus, Mildred [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2010-01-08

    A review will be given of several important recent advances in both thermoelectrics research and industrial thermoelectric applications, which have attracted much attention, increasing incentives for developing advanced materials appropriate for large-scale applications of thermoelectric devices. One promising strategy is the development of materials with a dense packing of random nanostructures as a route for the sacle-up of thermoelectrics applications. The concepts involved in designing composite materials containing nanostructures for thermoelectric applications will be discussed in general terms. Specific application is made to the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanocomposite system for use in power generation. Also emphasized are the scientific advantages of the nanocomposite approach for the simultaneous increase in the power factor and decrease of the thermal conductivity, along with the practical advantages of having bulk samples for property measurements and device applications. A straightforward path is identified for the scale-up of thermoelectric materials synthesis containing nanostructured constituents for use in thermoelectric applications. We end with some vision of where the field of thermoelectrics is now heading.

  5. Composition, nanostructure, and optical properties of silver and silver-copper lusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradell, Trinitat; Pavlov, Radostin S.; Carolina Gutirrez, Patricia; Climent-Font, Aurelio; Molera, Judit

    2012-09-01

    Lusters are composite thin layers of coinage metal nanoparticles in glass displaying peculiar optical properties and obtained by a process involving ionic exchange, diffusion, and crystallization. In particular, the origin of the high reflectance (golden-shine) shown by those layers has been subject of some discussion. It has been attributed to either the presence of larger particles, thinner multiple layers or higher volume fraction of nanoparticles. The object of this paper is to clarify this for which a set of laboratory designed lusters are analysed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Model calculations and numerical simulations using the finite difference time domain method were also performed to evaluate the optical properties. Finally, the correlation between synthesis conditions, nanostructure, and optical properties is obtained for these materials.

  6. Metal-ceramic/ceramic nanostructured layered composites for solid oxide fuel cells by spark plasma sintering.

    PubMed

    Bezdorozhev, Oleksii; Borodianska, Hanna; Sakka, Yoshio; Vasylkiv, Oleg

    2014-06-01

    In this work, bi-layered Fe-Ni-Co-YSZ/YSZ nanostructured composites for solid oxide fuel cells were obtained using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The microstructures of the anode and electrolyte were controlled by optimization of SPS consolidation parameters. The resulting bilayers have a full dense YSZ electrolyte and porous Fe-Ni-Co/YSZ anode as well as crack-free and well-bonded anode/electrolyte interface. On the other hand, SPS under non-optimized processing parameters cannot yield the desired results. The high resistance to thermal stresses of the fabricated half-cells was achieved with Fe-Ni-Co/YSZ anode. The developed anode showed higher thermal compatibility with YSZ electrolyte than usual Ni/YSZ cermet. Thus, with the successful combination of SPS parameters and anode material, we have obtained bi-layers for SOFCs with required microstructure and thermal compatibility. PMID:24738374

  7. Properties of nanostructured diamond-silicon carbide composites sintered by high pressure infiltration technique

    E-print Network

    Gubicza, Jen

    Properties of nanostructured diamond-silicon carbide composites sintered by high pressure, decreases composite hardness, and improves fracture toughness. I. INTRODUCTION Diamondsilicon carbide March 2004; accepted 4 June 2004) A high-pressure silicon infiltration technique was applied to sinter

  8. Asymmetric Dielectric Elastomer Composite Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Brian K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide a dielectric elastomer composite material comprising a plurality of elastomer-coated electrodes arranged in an assembly. Embodiments of the invention provide improved force output over prior DEs by producing thinner spacing between electrode surfaces. This is accomplished by coating electrodes directly with uncured elastomer in liquid form and then assembling a finished component (which may be termed an actuator) from coated electrode components.

  9. Efficient and versatile fibrous adsorbent based on magnetic amphiphilic composites of chrysotile/carbon nanostructures for the removal of ethynilestradiol.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Ana Paula C; Purceno, Aluir D; de Paula, Camila C A; da Silva, Julio Csar C; Ardisson, Jos D; Lago, Rochel M

    2013-03-15

    In this work, chrysotile was used as support to grow carbon nanotubes and nanofibers to produce fibrous amphiphilic magnetic nanostructured composites. Iron impregnated on the chrysotile surface at 1, 5 and 15 wt% was used as catalyst to grow carbon nanostructures by CVD (chemical vapor deposition) with ethanol at 800C. Raman, TG/DTA, Mssbauer, XRD, BET, SEM, TEM, elemental analyses and contact angle measurements suggested the formation of a complex amphiphilic material containing up to 21% of nanostructured hydrophobic carbon supported on hydrophilic Mg silicate fibers with magnetic Fe cores protected by carbon coating. Adsorption tests for the hormone ethynilestradiol (EE), a hazardous water contaminant, showed remarkable adsorption capacities even compared to high surface area activated carbon and multiwall carbon nanotubes. These results are discussed in terms of the hydrophobic surface of the carbon nanotubes and nanofibers completely exposed and accessible for the adsorption of the EE molecules combined with the hydrophilic Mg silicate surface which allows good dispersion in water. The composites are magnetic and after adsorption the dispersed particles can be removed by a simple magnetic process. Moreover, the fibrous composites can be conformed as threads, screens and pellets to produce different filtering media. PMID:23399907

  10. Emergence of magnetism in graphene materials and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazyev, Oleg V.

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic materials and nanostructures based on carbon offer unique opportunities for future technological applications such as spintronics. This paper reviews graphene-derived systems in which magnetic correlations emerge as a result of reduced dimensions, disorder and other possible scenarios. In particular, zero-dimensional graphene nanofragments, one-dimensional graphene nanoribbons and defect-induced magnetism in graphene and graphite are covered. Possible physical mechanisms of the emergence of magnetism in these systems are illustrated with the help of computational examples based on simple model Hamiltonians. In addition, this review covers spin-transport properties, proposed designs of graphene-based spintronic devices, magnetic ordering at finite temperatures as well as the most recent experimental achievements.

  11. Precursor Derived Nanostructured Si-C-X Materials for Nuclear Applications. Final Report, October 2010 - September 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Bordia, Rajendra; Tomar, Vikas; Henager, Chuck

    2015-04-08

    Polymer derived ceramic route is an attractive approach to make structural materials with unique nanostructures that have very desirable high temperature properties. Processing techniques to make a variety of needed shapes and forms (e.g. coatings, matrices for fiber reinforced composites, porous ceramics) have been developed. With appropriate high temperature processing, the precursors can be converted to nano-crystalline materials. In this collaborative project, we investigated the processing, stability and properties of nanostructured Si-C materials, derived from polymeric precursors, and their performance under conditions appropriate for nuclear energy applications. All the milestones of the project were accomplished. Some of the results are being currently analyzed and additional papers being prepared in which support from NEUP will be acknowledged. So far, eight peer-reviewed papers have been published and one invention disclosure made. In this report, we summarize the major findings of this project.

  12. Improved Silica Aerogel Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, Jong-Ah; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Jones, Steven

    2008-01-01

    A family of aerogel-matrix composite materials having thermal-stability and mechanical- integrity properties better than those of neat aerogels has been developed. Aerogels are known to be excellent thermal- and acoustic-insulation materials because of their molecular-scale porosity, but heretofore, the use of aerogels has been inhibited by two factors: (1) Their brittleness makes processing and handling difficult. (2) They shrink during production and shrink more when heated to high temperatures during use. The shrinkage and the consequent cracking make it difficult to use them to encapsulate objects in thermal-insulation materials. The underlying concept of aerogel-matrix composites is not new; the novelty of the present family of materials lies in formulations and processes that result in superior properties, which include (1) much less shrinkage during a supercritical-drying process employed in producing a typical aerogel, (2) much less shrinkage during exposure to high temperatures, and (3) as a result of the reduction in shrinkage, much less or even no cracking.

  13. Semiconductor nanocrystal composite materials and devices

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jinwook, 1966-

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and characterization of semiconductor nanocrystal (quantum dot, QD) embedded composite materials and possible device applications of the resulting luminescent materials. Chemically ...

  14. Nanostructured Composites: Effective Mechanical Property Determination of Nanotube Bundles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saether, E.; Pipes, R. B.; Frankland, S. J. V.

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes naturally tend to form crystals in the form of hexagonally packed bundles or ropes that should exhibit a transversely isotropic constitutive behavior. Although the intratube axial stiffness is on the order of 1 TPa due to a strong network of delocalized bonds, the intertube cohesive strength is orders of magnitude less controlled by weak, nonbonding van der Waals interactions. An accurate determination of the effective mechanical properties of nanotube bundles is important to assess potential structural applications such as reinforcement in future composite material systems. A direct method for calculating effective material constants is developed in the present study. The Lennard-Jones potential is used to model the nonbonding cohesive forces. A complete set of transverse moduli are obtained and compared with existing data.

  15. Nanostructured Materials in Different Dimensions for Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgen, Per; Drews, J.; Dhiman, Rajnish; Nielsen, Peter

    Future sensing elements should be more specific, more sensitive, more reversible, and faster than today's elements. These future sensing devices will either be integrated with suitable signal detection circuitry, typically based on Si microelectronics, or with optical signal detection, and finally interfaced to relevant state-of-the-art signal recognition hard- and software. Some of the more critical uses of sensors are in the dynamic surveillance of system parameters in complex machinery or in biological systems, such as our own bodies. Most of these demands are likely to be met by the continued rapid development of functional nanomaterials including bio-nanomaterials and biocompatible nanomaterials. A strong and increasing trend, also clear at this NATO-ASI, is the focus on using Au-dots deposited on various substrates for optical field enhancements and for other synergistic effects on electronic properties such as sheet conductivity, when deposited on polymer films or on metal oxide surfaces. Gas sensing with metal oxide surfaces is another very active area of development, where the high surface to volume ratio of thin films or nano-crystalline objects are in focus. In this report we demonstrate examples of the processing of silicon surfaces, aluminum surfaces and wooden saw dust powders to create nanostructured materials with interesting functional properties in novel types of self-limiting and self-organizing growths of one-, two- and three dimensional nano-template (i.e. nano-building block) systems, with a range of functionalities, as-formed, or after further integration. However, the focus in this report is on the growth processes and further treatments, as these are relatively new, and thus not widely known, but highly relevant for the functional properties of the resulting nanostructures, and for integration of the structures with silicon or in more complex systems.

  16. Nanostructured Graphene-Titanium Dioxide Composites Synthesized by a Single-Step Aerosol Process for Photoreduction of Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Ning; Jiang, Yi; Fortner, John D.; Biswas, Pratim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to hydrocarbons by using nanostructured materials activated by solar energy is a promising approach to recycling CO2 as a fuel feedstock. CO2 photoreduction, however, suffers from low efficiency mainly due to the inherent drawback of fast electron-hole recombination in photocatalysts. This work reports the synthesis of nanostructured composites of titania (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets via an aerosol approach. The role of synthesis temperature and TiO2/GO ratio in CO2 photoreduction was investigated. As-prepared nanocomposites demonstrated enhanced CO2 conversion performance as compared with that of pristine TiO2 NPs due to the strong electron trapping capability of the rGO nanosheets. PMID:25053879

  17. Enhancing thermoelectric properties of organic composites through hierarchical nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Shiren

    2013-01-01

    Organic thermoelectric (TE) materials are very attractive due to easy processing, material abundance, and environmentally-benign characteristics, but their potential is significantly restricted by the inferior thermoelectric properties. In this work, noncovalently functionalized graphene with fullerene by ?-? stacking in a liquid-liquid interface was integrated into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate). Graphene helps to improve electrical conductivity while fullerene enhances the Seebeck coefficient and hinders thermal conductivity, resulting in the synergistic effect on enhancing thermoelectric properties. With the integration of nanohybrids, the electrical conductivity increased from ~10,000 to ~70,000?S/m, the thermal conductivity changed from 0.2 to 2?WK(-1)m(-1) while the Seebeck coefficient was enhanced by around 4-fold. As a result, nanohybrids-based polymer composites demonstrated the figure of merit (ZT) as high as 6.7 10(-2), indicating an enhancement of more than one order of magnitude in comparison to single-phase filler-based polymer composites with ZT at the level of 10(-3). PMID:24336319

  18. Enhancing thermoelectric properties of organic composites through hierarchical nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Shiren

    2013-01-01

    Organic thermoelectric (TE) materials are very attractive due to easy processing, material abundance, and environmentally-benign characteristics, but their potential is significantly restricted by the inferior thermoelectric properties. In this work, noncovalently functionalized graphene with fullerene by ?-? stacking in a liquid-liquid interface was integrated into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate). Graphene helps to improve electrical conductivity while fullerene enhances the Seebeck coefficient and hinders thermal conductivity, resulting in the synergistic effect on enhancing thermoelectric properties. With the integration of nanohybrids, the electrical conductivity increased from ~10000 to ~70000?S/m, the thermal conductivity changed from 0.2 to 2?WK?1m?1 while the Seebeck coefficient was enhanced by around 4-fold. As a result, nanohybrids-based polymer composites demonstrated the figure of merit (ZT) as high as 6.7 10?2, indicating an enhancement of more than one order of magnitude in comparison to single-phase filler-based polymer composites with ZT at the level of 10?3. PMID:24336319

  19. Covalent functionalization of metal oxide and carbon nanostructures with polyoctasilsesquioxane (POSS) and their incorporation in polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Gomathi, A.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2010-12-15

    Polyoctasilsesquioxane (POSS) has been employed to covalently functionalize nanostructures of TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well as carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond and graphene to enable their dispersion in polar solvents. Covalent functionalization of these nanostructures with POSS has been established by electron microscopy, EDAX analysis and infrared spectroscopy. On heating the POSS-functionalized nanostructures, silica-coated nanostructures are obtained. POSS-functionalized nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and graphite were utilized to prepare polymer-nanostructure composites based on PVA and nylon-6,6.

  20. Nanostructured materials with biomimetic recognition abilities for chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Sadia Zafar; Mustafa, Ghulam; Samardzic, Renata; Wangchareansak, Thipvaree; Lieberzeit, Peter A.

    2012-06-01

    Binding features found in biological systems can be implemented into man-made materials to design nanostructured artificial receptor matrices which are suitable, e.g., for chemical sensing applications. A range of different non-covalent interactions can be utilized based on the chemical properties of the respective analyte. One example is the formation of coordinative bonds between a polymerizable ligand (e.g., N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and a metal ion (e.g., Cu(II)). Optimized molecularly imprinted sensor layers lead to selectivity factors of at least 2 compared to other bivalent ions. In the same way, H-bonds can be utilized for such sensing purposes, as shown in the case of Escherichia coli. The respective molecularly imprinted polymer leads to the selectivity factor of more than 5 between the W and B strains, respectively. Furthermore, nanoparticles with optimized Pearson hardness allow for designing sensors to detect organic thiols in air. The `harder' MoS2 yields only about 40% of the signals towards octane thiol as compared to the `softer' Cu2S. However, both materials strongly prefer molecules with -SH functionality over others, such as hydrocarbon chains. Finally, selectivity studies with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reveal that artificial receptors yield selectivities between WGA and bovine serum albumin that are only about a factor of 2 which is smaller than natural ligands.

  1. UPDATED GOODMAN DIAGRAMS FOR FIBERGLASS COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    E-print Network

    UPDATED GOODMAN DIAGRAMS FOR FIBERGLASS COMPOSITE MATERIALS USING THE DOE/MSU FATIGUE DATABASE for the fiberglass composite materials typically used in wind turbine blades are relatively sparse with material presented a detailed Goodman diagram for these fiberglass materials. Their formulation uses the MSU

  2. Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerald M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-03-22

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  3. Morphology and composition controlled synthesis of flower-like silver nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ning; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren

    2014-06-01

    Flower-like silver nanostructures with controlled morphology and composition were prepared through wet-chemical synthesis. The reaction rate is simply manipulated by the amount of catalyzing agent ammonia added which is the key point to determine the ratio of hexagonal close-packed (HCP) to face-centered cubic (FCC) phase in silver nanostructures. The existence of formic acid that is the oxidation product of aldehyde group is demonstrated to play a crucial role in achieving the metastable HCP crystal structures by replacing ionic surfactants with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Utilizing flower-like silver nanostructures as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates, Raman signal of Rhodamine 6G, or 4-aminothiophenol with concentration as low as 10-7 M was detected. Moreover, it is demonstrated that phase composition has no direct relation to the SERS enhancing factor which is mainly determined by the amount of hot spots.

  4. Ionic self-assembly for functional hierarchical nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Faul, Charl F J

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: The challenge of constructing soft functional materials over multiple length scales can be addressed by a number of different routes based on the principles of self-assembly, with the judicious use of various noncovalent interactions providing the tools to control such self-assembly processes. It is within the context of this challenge that we have extensively explored the use of an important approach for materials construction over the past decade: exploiting electrostatic interactions in our ionic self-assembly (ISA) method. In this approach, cooperative assembly of carefully chosen charged surfactants and oppositely charged building blocks (or tectons) provides a facile noncovalent route for the rational design and production of functional nanostructured materials. Generally, our research efforts have developed with an initial focus on establishing rules for the construction of novel noncovalent liquid-crystalline (LC) materials. We found that the use of double-tailed surfactant species (especially branched double-tailed surfactants) led to the facile formation of thermotropic (and, in certain cases, lyotropic) phases, as demonstrated by extensive temperature-dependent X-ray and light microscopy investigations. From this core area of activity, research expanded to cover issues beyond simple construction of anisotropic materials, turning to the challenge of inclusion and exploitation of switchable functionality. The use of photoactive azobenzene-containing ISA materials afforded opportunities to exploit both photo-orientation and surface relief grating formation. The preparation of these anisotropic LC materials was of interest, as the aim was the facile production of disposable and low-cost optical components for display applications and data storage. However, the prohibitive cost of the photo-orientation processes hampered further exploitation of these materials. We also expanded our activities to explore ISA of biologically relevant tectons, specifically deoxyguanosine monophosphate. This approach proved, in combination with block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly, very fruitful for the construction of complex and hierarchical functional materials across multiple length scales. Molecular frustration and incommensurability, which played a major role in structure formation in combination with nucleotide assembly, have now become important tools to tune supramolecular structure formation. These concepts, that is, the use of BCP assembly and incommensurability, in combination with metal-containing polymeric materials, have provided access to novel supramolecular morphologies and, more importantly, design rules to prepare such constructs. These design rules are now also being applied to the assembly of electroactive oligo(aniline)-based materials for the preparation of highly ordered functional soft materials, and present an opportunity for materials development for applications in energy storage. In this Account, we therefore discuss investigations into (i) the inclusion and preparation of supramolecular photoactive and electroactive materials; (ii) the exploitation and control over multiple noncovalent interactions to fine-tune function, internal structure, and long-range order and (iii) exploration of construction over multiple length scales by combination of ISA with well-known BCP self-assembly. Combination of ISA with tuning of volume fractions, mutual compatibility, and molecular frustration now provides a versatile tool kit to construct complex and hierarchical functional materials in a facile noncovalent way. A direct challenge for future ISA activities would certainly be the construction of functional mesoscale objects. However, within a broader scientific context, the challenge would be to exploit this powerful assembly tool for application in areas of research with societal impact, for example, energy storage and generation. The hope is that this Account will provide a platform for such future research activities and opportunities. PMID:25191750

  5. Tuning the composition and nanostructure of Pt/Ir films via anodized aluminum oxide templated atomic layer deposition.

    SciTech Connect

    Comstock, D. J.; Christensen, S. T.; Elam, J. W.; Pellin, M. J.; Hersam, M. C.; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-09-23

    Nanostructured metal films have been widely studied for their roles in sensing, catalysis, and energy storage. In this work, the synthesis of compositionally controlled and nanostructured Pt/Ir films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) into porous anodized aluminum oxide templates is demonstrated. Templated ALD provides advantages over alternative synthesis techniques, including improved film uniformity and conformality as well as atomic-scale control over morphology and composition. Nanostructured Pt ALD films are demonstrated with morphological control provided by the Pt precursor exposure time and the number of ALD cycles. With these approaches, Pt films with enhanced surface areas, as characterized by roughness factors as large as 310, are reproducibly synthesized. Additionally, nanostructured Ptlr alloy films of controlled composition and morphology are demonstrated by templated ALD, with compositions varying systematically from pure Pt to pure Ir. Lastly, the application of nanostructured Pt films to electrochemical sensing applications is demonstrated by the non-enzymatic sensing of glucose.

  6. SPECTRAL MEASURE COMPUTATIONS FOR COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    E-print Network

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    SPECTRAL MEASURE COMPUTATIONS FOR COMPOSITE MATERIALS N. B. MURPHY, E. CHERKAEV, C. HOHENEGGER of mathematical techniques have been developed that reduce the analysis of complex composite materials for the effective parameters of composite media. These representations involve the spectral measures of self

  7. Space processing of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.; Kaye, S.

    1975-01-01

    Materials and processes for the testing of aluminum-base fiber and particle composites, and of metal foams under extended-time low-g conditions were investigated. A wetting and dispersion technique was developed, based on the theory that under the absence of a gas phase all solids are wetted by liquids. The process is characterized by a high vacuum environment and a high temperature cycle. Successful wetting and dispersion experiments were carried out with sapphire fibers, whiskers and particles, and with fibers of silicon carbide, pyrolytic graphite and tungsten. The developed process and facilities permit the preparation of a precomposite which serves as sample material for flight experiments. Low-g processing consists then merely in the uniform redistribution of the reinforcements during a melting cycle. For the preparation of metal foams, gas generation by means of a thermally decomposing compound was found most adaptable to flight experiments. For flight experiments, the use of compacted mixture of the component materials limits low-g processing to a simple melt cycle.

  8. Chemically vapor deposited diamond-tipped one-dimensional nanostructures and nanodiamondsilicananotube composites

    E-print Network

    Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

    Chemically vapor deposited diamond-tipped one-dimensional nanostructures and nanodiamond vapor deposition Composite thin films of nanodiamond and silica nanotubes were synthesized by means of microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) on silica nanotube matrix that was seeded

  9. Nanostructured metal-polyaniline composites and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; Li, Wenguang; Bailey, James A.; Gao, Yuan

    2012-10-02

    Metal-polyaniline (PANI) composites are provided together with a process of preparing such composites by an electrodeless process. The metal of the composite can have nanoscale structural features and the composites can be used in applications such as catalysis for hydrogenation reactions and for analytical detection methods employing SERS.

  10. Mechanics of Interfacial Composite Materials

    E-print Network

    Anand Bala Subramaniam; Manouk Abkarian; L. Mahadevan; Howard A. Stone

    2006-05-25

    Recent experiments and simulations have demonstrated that particle-covered interfaces can exist in stable non-spherical shapes as a result of the steric jamming of the interfacially trapped particles, which confers the interface with solid-like properties. We provide an experimental and theoretical characterization of the mechanical properties of these armored objects, with attention given to the two-dimensional granular state of the interface. Small inhomogeneous stresses produce a plastic response while homogeneous stresses produce a weak elastic response. Shear-driven particle-scale rearrangements explain the basic threshold needed to obtain the near-perfect plastic deformation that is observed. Furthermore, the inhomogeneous stress state of the interface is exhibited experimentally by using surfactants to destabilize the particles on the surface. Since the interfacially trapped particles retain their individual characteristics, armored interfaces can be recognized as a kind of composite material with distinct chemical, structural and mechanical properties.

  11. Nanostructured carbon materials based electrothermal air pump actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing; Liu, Luqi; Kuang, Jun; Dai, Zhaohe; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid films as heating elements to transfer electrical stimulus into thermal energy, and finally convert it into mechanical energy. Both the actuation displacement and working temperature of the actuator films show the monotonically increasing trend with increasing driving voltage within the actuation process. Compared with common polymer nanocomposites based electrothermal actuators, our actuators exhibited better actuation performances with a low driving voltage (<10 V), large generated stress (tens of MPa), high gravimetric density (tens of J kg-1), and short response time (few hundreds of milliseconds). Besides that, the pump actuators exhibited excellent stability under cyclic actuation tests. Among these actuators, a relatively larger actuation strain was obtained for the r-GO film actuator due to the intrinsic gas-impermeability nature of graphene platelets. In addition, the high modulus of the r-GO and GO/SWCNT films also guaranteed the large generated stress and high work density. Specifically, the generated stress and gravimetric work density of the GO/SWCNT hybrid film actuator could reach up to more than 50 MPa and 30 J kg-1, respectively, under a driving voltage of 10 V. The resulting stress value is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of natural muscles (~0.4 MPa).Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid films as heating elements to transfer electrical stimulus into thermal energy, and finally convert it into mechanical energy. Both the actuation displacement and working temperature of the actuator films show the monotonically increasing trend with increasing driving voltage within the actuation process. Compared with common polymer nanocomposites based electrothermal actuators, our actuators exhibited better actuation performances with a low driving voltage (<10 V), large generated stress (tens of MPa), high gravimetric density (tens of J kg-1), and short response time (few hundreds of milliseconds). Besides that, the pump actuators exhibited excellent stability under cyclic actuation tests. Among these actuators, a relatively larger actuation strain was obtained for the r-GO film actuator due to the intrinsic gas-impermeability nature of graphene platelets. In addition, the high modulus of the r-GO and GO/SWCNT films also guaranteed the large generated stress and high work density. Specifically, the generated stress and gravimetric work density of the GO/SWCNT hybrid film actuator could reach up to more than 50 MPa and 30 J kg-1, respectively, under a driving voltage of 10 V. The resulting stress value is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of natural muscles (~0.4 MPa). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A movie showing the weight-lifting actuation process of the GO/SWCNT actuator. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00536h

  12. Composite material and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Samuels, William D.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2004-04-20

    The composite material and methods of making the present invention rely upon a fully dense monolayer of molecules attached to an oxygenated surface at one end, and an organic terminal group at the other end, which is in turn bonded to a polymer. Thus, the composite material is a second material chemically bonded to a polymer with fully dense monolayer there between.

  13. Tuning energy transport in solar thermal systems using nanostructured materials

    E-print Network

    Lenert, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Solar thermal energy conversion can harness the entire solar spectrum and theoretically achieve very high efficiencies while interfacing with thermal storage or back-up systems for dispatchable power generation. Nanostructured ...

  14. Delamination growth in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, J. W., Jr.; Carlsson, L. A.; Pipes, R. B.; Rothschilds, R.; Trethewey, B.; Smiley, A.

    1986-01-01

    The Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and the End Notched Flexure (ENF) specimens are employed to characterize MODE I and MODE II interlaminar fracture resistance of graphite/epoxy (CYCOM 982) and graphite/PEEK (APC2) composites. Sizing of test specimen geometries to achieve crack growth in the linear elastic regime is presented. Data reduction schemes based upon beam theory are derived for the ENF specimen and include the effects of shear deformation and friction between crack surfaces on compliance, C, and strain energy release rate, G sub II. Finite element (FE) analyses of the ENF geometry including the contact problem with friction are presented to assess the accuracy of beam theory expressions for C and G sub II. Virtual crack closure techniques verify that the ENF specimen is a pure Mode II test. Beam theory expressions are shown to be conservative by 20 to 40 percent for typical unidirectional test specimen geometries. A FE parametric study investigating the influence of delamination length and depth, span, thickness and material properties on G sub II is presented. Mode I and II interlaminar fracture test results are presented. Important experimental parameters are isolated, such as precracking techniques, rate effects, and nonlinear load-deflection response. It is found that subcritical crack growth and inelastic materials behavior, responsible for the observed nonlinearities, are highly rate-dependent phenomena with high rates generally leading to linear elastic response.

  15. Thin film dielectric composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Gibbons, Brady J. (Los Alamos, NM); Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Park, Bae Ho (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  16. Shape dependence of nonlinear optical behaviors of nanostructured silver and their silica gel glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Chan; Du Yuhong; Feng Miao; Zhan Hongbing

    2008-10-06

    Nanostructured Ag in shapes of nanoplate, nanowire, and nanoparticle, as well as their silica gel glass composites have been prepared and characterized. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were measured at 532 and 1064 nm using open aperture z-scan technique and studied from the view of shape effect. NLO behaviors of the nanostructured Ag are found to be shape dependent in suspensions at both the investigated wavelengths, although they originate differently. Comparing to the mother suspensions, the Ag/silica gel glass nanocomposites present rather dissimilar NLO behaviors, which is quite interesting for further studies.

  17. Synthesis and applications of bioinspired inorganic nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, David C.

    2011-12-01

    Although the study of biominerals may be traced back many centuries, it is only recently that biological principles have been applied to synthetic systems in processes termed "biomimetic" and "bioinspired" to yield materials syntheses that are otherwise not possible and may also reduce the expenditure of energy and/or eliminate toxic byproducts. Many investigators have taken inspiration from interesting and unusual minerals formed by organisms, in a process termed biomineralisation, to tailor the nanostructure of inorganic materials not necessarily found biogenically. However, the fields of nanoparticle synthesis and biomineralisation remain largely separate, and this thesis is an attempt to apply new studies on biomineralisation to nanomaterials science. Principally among the proteins that influence biomineralisation is a group comprised largely of negatively charged aspartic acid residues present in serum. This study is an investigation determining the ability of these serum proteins and other anolagous biomolecules to stabilise biologically relevant amorphous minerals and influence the formation of a variety of materials at the nanoscale. Three different materials were chosen to demonstrate this effect; gold was templated into nanosized single crystals by the action of bioorganic molecules, and the utility of these nanoparticles as a biosensor was explored. The influence of bioorganic molecules on the phase selection and crystal size restriction of titanium dioxide, an important semiconductor with many applications, was explored. The use of bioorganically derived nanoparticles of titanium dioxide was then demonstrated as a highly efficient photocatalyst. Finally, calcium carbonate, a prevalent biomineral was shown to form highly ordered structures over a variety of length scales and different crystalline polymorphs under the influence of a templating protein. In addition, an alternative route to producing calcium phosphate nanoparticle dispersions by mechanical filtration was explored and use as a transfection vector was optimised in two cell lines. Several significant achievements are presented: (i) the assessment of the relative ability of serum, serum derived proteins and their analogues to stabilize the amorphous state, (ii) the formation of single crystalline gold templated by an antibody, (iii) the formation of highly photocatalytically active nanoparticulate anatase by a phosphorylated cyclic esther, (iv) the formation of conical structures at the air liquid interface by the templating ability of a protein and (v) the optimisation of calcium phosphate nanoparticle mediated transfection in two cell lines by mechanical filtration.

  18. Composite structural materials. [fiber reinforced composites for aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberly, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    Physical properties of fiber reinforced composites; structural concepts and analysis; manufacturing; reliability; and life prediction are subjects of research conducted to determine the long term integrity of composite aircraft structures under conditions pertinent to service use. Progress is reported in (1) characterizing homogeneity in composite materials; (2) developing methods for analyzing composite materials; (3) studying fatigue in composite materials; (4) determining the temperature and moisture effects on the mechanical properties of laminates; (5) numerically analyzing moisture effects; (6) numerically analyzing the micromechanics of composite fracture; (7) constructing the 727 elevator attachment rib; (8) developing the L-1011 engine drag strut (CAPCOMP 2 program); (9) analyzing mechanical joints in composites; (10) developing computer software; and (11) processing science and technology, with emphasis on the sailplane project.

  19. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H. (Richland, WA); Hirth, John P. (Viola, ID)

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  20. NASA technology utilization survey on composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leeds, M. A.; Schwartz, S.; Holm, G. J.; Krainess, A. M.; Wykes, D. M.; Delzell, M. T.; Veazie, W. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    NASA and NASA-funded contractor contributions to the field of composite materials are surveyed. Existing and potential non-aerospace applications of the newer composite materials are emphasized. Economic factors for selection of a composite for a particular application are weight savings, performance (high strength, high elastic modulus, low coefficient of expansion, heat resistance, corrosion resistance,), longer service life, and reduced maintenance. Applications for composites in agriculture, chemical and petrochemical industries, construction, consumer goods, machinery, power generation and distribution, transportation, biomedicine, and safety are presented. With the continuing trend toward further cost reductions, composites warrant consideration in a wide range of non-aerospace applications. Composite materials discussed include filamentary reinforced materials, laminates, multiphase alloys, solid multiphase lubricants, and multiphase ceramics. New processes developed to aid in fabrication of composites are given.

  1. Self-Assembly and Headgroup Effect in Nanostructured Organogels via Cationic Amphiphile-Graphene Oxide Composites

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Tifeng; Wang, Yujin; Zhang, Qingrui; Yan, Xuehai; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Jingxin; Gao, Faming

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembly of hierarchical graphene oxide (GO)-based nanomaterials with novel functions has received a great deal of attentions. In this study, nanostructured organogels based on cationic amphiphile-GO composites were prepared. The gelation behaviors of amphiphile-GO composites in organic solvents can be regulated by changing the headgroups of amphiphiles. Ammonium substituted headgroup in molecular structures in present self-assembled composites is more favorable for the gelation in comparison to pyridinium headgroup. A possible mechanism for headgroup effects on self-assembly and as-prepared nanostructures is proposed. It is believed that the present amphiphile-GO self-assembled system will provide an alternative platform for the design of new GO nanomaterials and soft matters. PMID:24983466

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of 7075 aluminum alloy nanostructured composites processed by mechanical milling and indirect hot extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Campos, R.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Miki-Yoshida, M.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.; Herrera-Ramirez, J.M.

    2012-01-15

    Nanostructured composites of 7075 aluminum alloy and carbon coated silver nanoparticles were produced by mechanical milling and indirect hot extrusion. The milling products were obtained in a high energy SPEX ball mill, and then were compacted by uniaxial load and pressure-less sintered under argon atmosphere. Finally, the sintered product was hot extruded. Carbon coated silver nanoparticles were well distributed in the matrix of the extruded material. Tensile tests were carried out to corroborate the hypothesis that second phase particles, well dispersed in the matrix, improve the strength of the material. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was employed to locate and make sure that the silver nanoparticles were homogeneously and finely dispersed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7075 Al nanostructured composites can be produced by mechanical milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon coated silver nanoparticles are well dispersed into aluminum matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ductile Ag-C NP's improve the mechanical properties of the 7075 Al-alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-C NP's content has an important effect in the particle and crystallite size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-C NP's keep their morphology after milling and conformation processes.

  3. Synthesis of nanostructured materials for biosensor and fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Maria Paula

    Nanotechnology has attracted the attention of many different fields due to the new and exiting possibilities it entails. However, the future of nanotechnology depends on (i) the successful understanding and discovery of material properties at the nanoscale, (ii) efficient manufacture of nanoscale materials, and (iii) most importantly, incorporation of nanomaterials into real world applications and devices. The purpose of this research is to synthesize macroscale materials for applications such as fuel cell membranes or biosensors by assembly or modification at the nanoscale. This research is concentrated in two main projects. The first project focuses on the direct synthesis of a PEEK fuel cell membrane from sulfonated monomers with nanoscale features. S-PEEK membranes were evaluated for possible fuel cell applications by determining the degree of sulfonation, water swelling, proton conductivity, methanol diffusivity and thermal stability. As synthesized S-PEEK membranes exhibit conductivities (25C) from 0.02--0.07 S/cm, water swelling from 13--54%, ion-exchange capacities (IEC) from 0.7--1.5 mmol/g and methanol diffusion coefficients from 3 x 10-7 --5 x 10-8 cm2/s at 25C. These diffusion coefficients are much lower than that of NafionRTM (2 x 10-6 cm2/s), making S-PEEK membranes a good alternative to reduce problems associated with high methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cells. The second project consists of synthesizing (2D) or (3D) nanowire thin film Pt electrodes for applications as glucose sensors. Although platinum nanowires have shown to have unique properties, it is still challenging to fabricate nanowire devices such as sensors. This research reports the fabrication of platinum nanowires into continuous thin film electrodes and the application as biosensors. The electrodes were synthesized by the following steps: (1) construction of a nanostructured mesoporous thin film template by self-assembly of surfactant and silicate species, (2) electrodeposition of platinum within the pores of the silica template, (3) removal of the silica template, and (4) immobilization of the enzyme on the platinum electrodes. SEM, TEM, chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the electrodes. The sensor sensitivity was determined amperometrically. The sensors show improved sensitivities and stabilities, providing a promising approach to integrate nanowires into useful devices.

  4. Quantum Simulations of Materials and Nanostructures (Q-SIMAN). Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Giulia; Bai, Zhaojun; Ceperley, David; Cai, Wei; Gygi, Francois; Marzari, Nicola; Pickett, Warren; Spaldin, Nicola; Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Schwegler, Eric

    2015-09-16

    The focus of this SciDAC SAP (Scientific Application) is the development and use of quantum simulations techniques to understand materials and nanostructures at the microscopic level, predict their physical and chemical properties, and eventually design integrated materials with targeted properties. (Here the word materials is used in a broad sense and it encompasses different thermodynamic states of matter, including solid, liquids and nanostructures.) Therefore our overarching goal is to enable scientific discoveries in the field of condensed matter and advanced materials through high performance computing.

  5. Nanostructural materials formation by mechanical alloying: Morphologic analysis based on transmission and scanning electron microscopic observations

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffet, E.; Tachikart, M.; El Kedim, O.; Rahouadj, R.

    1996-04-01

    The development of nanostructured materials offers new scientific and technological perspectives due to the specific interesting physical properties of these materials. These properties derive either from their reduced grain size or from the structure and properties of the grain boundaries, which constitute a significant volume fraction. Mechanical alloying, widely used to produce dispersion-strengthened and amorphous alloys, has been employed in recent years to synthesize nanocrystalline metallic, semiconductors, and covalent component-based materials. Based on statistical analysis of transmission and scanning electron microscopic images, the distribution and spatial repartition of the nanostructural material prepared by mechanical alloying and/or attrition are presented for some specific cases.

  6. Effect of Interface Structure on Mechanical Properties of Advanced Composite Materials

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Yong X.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of interface structures on the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced composite materials. First, the background of research, development and applications on hybrid composite materials is introduced. Second, metal/polymer composite bonded structures are discussed. Then, the rationale is given for nanostructuring the interface in composite materials and structures by introducing nanoscale features such as nanopores and nanofibers. The effects of modifying matrices and nano-architecturing interfaces on the mechanical properties of nanocomposite materials are examined. A nonlinear damage model for characterizing the deformation behavior of polymeric nanocomposites is presented and the application of this model to carbon nanotube-reinforced and reactive graphite nanotube-reinforced epoxy composite materials is shown. PMID:20054466

  7. Reliable contact fabrication on nanostructured Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shien-Ping; Chang, Ya-Huei; Yang, Jian; Poudel, Bed; Yu, Bo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2013-05-14

    A cost-effective and reliable Ni-Au contact on nanostructured Bi2Te3-based alloys for a solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) is reported. The use of MPS SAMs creates a strong covalent binding and more nucleation sites with even distribution for electroplating contact electrodes on nanostructured thermoelectric materials. A reliable high-performance flat-panel STEG can be obtained by using this new method. PMID:23531997

  8. Reduction of thermal conductivity of bulk nanostructured bismuth telluride composites embedded with silicon nano-inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyala, Nikhil; Tahmasbi Rad, Armin; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Tayebi, Lobat; Vashaee, Daryoosh

    2014-01-01

    Bulk nanostructured bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) composite with silicon nano-crystallite inclusions was synthesized via sintering approach. The effect of the composite structure formed by the addition of miniscule quantity (5 at. %) of silicon on the thermoelectric properties of bulk nanostructured Bi2Te3 is shown via a 50% drop in thermal conductivity accompanied with a simultaneous enhancement in the Seebeck coefficient. We demonstrate that the addition of silicon nano-inclusions to the nanostructured compound combined with a systematic thermal treatment beneficially reduces the thermal conductivity to less than 1.0 W/mK over the entire temperature range of 300 K to 525 K. It is shown that the combinatorial techniques of nanostructuring, nano-inclusions, and annealing are effective in reducing thermal conductivity by a significant magnitude. This low thermal conductivity is comparable to that of Bi2Te3 based superlattices and significantly lower than that of bulk Bi2Te3. The technique is extendable to (Bi,Se)2(Sb,Te)3 based thermoelectric alloys for enhancing the figure-of-merit.

  9. Clues for biomimetics from natural composite materials

    PubMed Central

    Lapidot, Shaul; Meirovitch, Sigal; Sharon, Sigal; Heyman, Arnon; Kaplan, David L; Shoseyov, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Bio-inspired material systems are derived from different living organisms such as plants, arthropods, mammals and marine organisms. These biomaterial systems from nature are always present in the form of composites, with molecular-scale interactions optimized to direct functional features. With interest in replacing synthetic materials with natural materials due to biocompatibility, sustainability and green chemistry issues, it is important to understand the molecular structure and chemistry of the raw component materials to also learn from their natural engineering, interfaces and interactions leading to durable and highly functional material architectures. This review will focus on applications of biomaterials in single material forms, as well as biomimetic composites inspired by natural organizational features. Examples of different natural composite systems will be described, followed by implementation of the principles underlying their composite organization into artificial bio-inspired systems for materials with new functional features for future medicine. PMID:22994958

  10. Composite materials and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Kevin L [Kennewick, WA; Wood, Geoffrey M [North Saanich, CA

    2011-05-17

    A method for forming improved composite materials using a thermosetting polyester urethane hybrid resin, a closed cavity mold having an internal heat transfer mechanism used in this method, and the composite materials formed by this method having a hybrid of a carbon fiber layer and a fiberglass layer.

  11. Effects of antibacterial nanostructured composite films on vascular stents: hemodynamic behaviors, microstructural characteristics, and biomechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Han-Yi; Hsiao, Wen-Tien; Lin, Li-Hsiang; Hsu, Ya-Ju; Sinrang, Andi Wardihan; Ou, Keng-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate stresses resulting from different thicknesses and compositions of hydrogenated Cu-incorporated diamond-like carbon (a-C:H/Cu) films at the interface between vascular stent and the artery using three-dimensional reversed finite element models (FEMs). Blood flow velocity variation in vessels with plaques was examined by angiography, and the a-C:H/Cu films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy to analyze surface morphology. FEMs were constructed using a computer-aided reverse design system, and the effects of antibacterial nanostructured composite films in the stress field were investigated. The maximum stress in the vascular stent occurred at the intersections of net-like structures. Data analysis indicated that the stress decreased by 15% in vascular stents with antibacterial nanostructured composite films compared to the control group, and the stress decreased with increasing film thickness. The present results confirmed that antibacterial nanostructured composite films improve the biomechanical properties of vascular stents and release abnormal stress to prevent restenosis. The results of the present study offer the clinical benefit of inducing superior biomechanical behavior in vascular stents. PMID:24648307

  12. Composite Dielectric Materials for Electrical Switching

    SciTech Connect

    Modine, F.A.

    1999-04-25

    Composites that consist of a dielectric host containing a particulate conductor as a second phase are of interest for electrical switching applications. Such composites are "smart" materials that can function as either voltage or current limiters, and the difference in fimction depends largely upon whether the dielectric is filled to below or above the percolation threshold. It also is possible to combine current and voltage limiting in a single composite to make a "super-smart" material.

  13. Wear behavior of light-cured resin composites with bimodal silica nanostructures as fillers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruili; Bao, Shuang; Liu, Fengwei; Jiang, Xiaoze; Zhang, Qinghong; Sun, Bin; Zhu, Meifang

    2013-12-01

    To enhance wear behavior of resin composites, bimodal silica nanostructures including silica nanoparticles and silica nanoclusters were prepared and proposed as fillers. The silica nanoclusters, a combination of individually dispersed silica nanoparticles and their agglomerations, with size distribution of 0.07-2.70 ?m, were fabricated by the coupling reaction between amino and epoxy functionalized silica nanoparticles, which were obtained by the surface modification of silica nanoparticles (~70 nm) using 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPS) as coupling agents, respectively. Silica nanoparticles and nanoclusters were then silanized with 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (?-MPS) to prepare composites by mixing with bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and tri (ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). Experimental composites with various filler compositions were prepared and their wear behaviors were assessed in this work. The results suggested that composites with increasing addition of silica nanoparticles in co-fillers possessed lower wear volume and smoother worn surface. Particularly, the composite 53:17 with the optimum weight ratio of silica nanoparticles and silica nanoclusters presented the excellent wear behavior with respect to that of the commercial Esthet-X, although the smallest wear volume was achieved by Z350 XT. The introduction of bimodal silica nanostructures as fillers might provide a new sight for the design of resin composites with significantly improved wear resistance. PMID:24094185

  14. Composites and blends from biobased materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, S.S.

    1995-05-01

    The program is focused on the development of composites and blends from biobased materials to use as membranes, high value plastics, and lightweight composites. Biobased materials include: cellulose derivative microporous materials, cellulose derivative copolymers, and cellulose derivative blends. This year`s research focused on developing an improved understanding of the molecular features that cellulose based materials with improved properties for gas separation applications. Novel cellulose ester membrane composites have been developed and are being evaluated under a collaborative research agreement with Dow Chemicals Company.

  15. Open Journal of Composite Materials Open Journal of Composite Materials

    E-print Network

    Villa, Marco; Hale, Richard D.; Ewing, Mark Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Prior static studies of three-dimensionally woven carbon/epoxy textile composites show that large interlaminar normal and shear strains occur as a result of layer waviness under static compression loading. This study addresses the dynamic response...

  16. Short courses in Composite Materials

    E-print Network

    Davies, John N.

    duty composite components. Martyn Jones MRaeS Experience in manufacturing and design of aircraft in designing and manufacturing small or large scale components can provide huge benefits for many industries and future engineers on how composites have revolutionised the engineering world and how new and improved

  17. ZnO nanostructures for optoelectronics: Material properties and device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djurii?, A. B.; Ng, A. M. C.; Chen, X. Y.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in ZnO nanostructures due to their variety of morphologies and availability of simple and low cost processing. While there are still unanswered questions concerning fundamental properties of this material, in particular those related to defects and visible luminescence lines, great progress has been made in synthesis methods and device applications of ZnO nanostructures. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of synthesis methods of ZnO nanostructures, with particular focus on the growth of perpendicular arrays of nanorods/nanowires which are of interest for optoelectronic device applications. Then, we will provide an overview of material properties of ZnO nanostructures, issues related to doping with various elements to achieve either p- or n-type conductivity. Doping to alter optical or magnetic properties will also be discussed. Then, issues related to practical problems in achieving good electrical contacts to nanostructures will be presented. Finally, we will provide an overview of applications of ZnO nanostructures to light-emitting devices, photodetectors and solar cells.

  18. Wear and fatigue behavior of nano-structured dental resin composites.

    PubMed

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Ferracane, Jack L; Ferracane, Lucas L

    2006-07-01

    Theoretically, nano-structured dental resin composites are purported to have increased wear and fatigue resistance compared with microfill composites and may favor the achievement of restoratives with better long-term performance. This study sought to assess the behavior of nano-structured composites resulting from either abrasion and fatigue loading. Ten specimens (12 x 5 x 2.5 mm) were prepared from each of five composites: Ceram-X mono, Filtek Supreme, Grandio, Premise, and Heliomolar (serving as the microfill control). A surface profile was recorded using a three-dimensional profiling system, and the specimens were subjected to 10(5) cycles of three-body abrasion in the new OHSU oral wear simulator. A second profile was generated and the before and after profiles were fit and analyzed. The volume loss and maximum depth of the wear facet on each specimen were calculated. Another 30 specimens (25 x 2 x 2 mm) were tested for flexural fatigue limit (FFL) in four-point bending via the staircase method. The test was carried out until 10(4) cycles were completed or until fracturing the specimen. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test demonstrated greater volumetric loss for Grandio and Ceram-X than that observed for the remaining composites. Kruskal-Wallis and the least significant difference test ascertained that Heliomolar, Grandio, and Supreme showed significantly higher FFL than Ceram-X and Premise. In terms of wear and fatigue resistance, nano-structured composites may perform either similarly or comparatively worse than a microfilled composite. PMID:16447169

  19. Polymer Matrix Composite Material Oxygen Compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Tom

    2001-01-01

    Carbon fiber/polymer matrix composite materials look promising as a material to construct liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks. Based on mechanical impact tests the risk will be greater than aluminum, however, the risk can probably be managed to an acceptable level. Proper tank design and operation can minimize risk. A risk assessment (hazard analysis) will be used to determine the overall acceptability for using polymer matrix composite materials.

  20. New textile composite materials development, production, application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhailov, Petr Y.

    1993-01-01

    New textile composite materials development, production, and application are discussed. Topics covered include: super-high-strength, super-high-modulus fibers, filaments, and materials manufactured on their basis; heat-resistant and nonflammable fibers, filaments, and textile fabrics; fibers and textile fabrics based on fluorocarbon poylmers; antifriction textile fabrics based on polyfen filaments; development of new types of textile combines and composite materials; and carbon filament-based fabrics.

  1. Simulation of electromagnetic radiation passing through liquid-containing nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbun, Natallia V.; Borbotko, Timophey V.; Kazeka, Alexandr A.; Proudnik, Alexander M.; Lynkou, Leanid M.

    2008-07-01

    A process of electromagnetic radiation traveling through liquid-containing nanostructured heterogeneous materials was simulated. Mobile phone antenna pattern is calculated and its change when applying protective shield made of said materials is studied. Transmission/reflection characteristics of antenna are calculated.

  2. Transformational, Large Area Fabrication of Nanostructured Materials Using Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study that will address critical additional steps over large areas of as-synthesized nanostructured materials, such as annealing, phase transformation, or activation of dopants, dramatically reducing the processing costs of the solid-state lighting and photovoltaic materials.

  3. Switching of the natural nanostructure in Bi2Te3 materials by ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Aabdin, Zainul; Peranio, Nicola; Eibl, Oliver

    2012-09-01

    In Bi(2)Te(3) materials the natural nanostructure (nns) with a wavelength of 10 nm can be reproducibly switched ON and OFF by Ar(+) ion irradiation at 1.5 and 1 keV. Controlled formation of the nns in Bi(2)Te(3) materials has potential for reducing its thermal conductivity and could increase the thermoelectric figure of merit. PMID:22718358

  4. Two-dimensional optimization of material composition of functionally graded materials using meshless analyses

    E-print Network

    Vel, Senthil

    Two-dimensional optimization of material composition of functionally graded materials using to optimize the material composition for two model problems. In the first problem, we minimize the peak reserved. Keywords: Heterogeneous solid; FGM; Inhomogeneous composite material; Local composition control

  5. Modeling of composite materials and multilayered structures

    SciTech Connect

    Touratier, M.

    1993-12-31

    The aim of this paper is to present efficient tools for predicting mechanical properties of most of the usual composite materials, and the response to the loading for multilayered structures. The essence of these tools is such that they are especially appropriate to the design of composite constructions. Three types of composite materials have been considered: composite materials with a matrix reinforced by long parallel fibers; composite materials with a matrix reinforced by randomly distributed short fibers; and last, two-dimensional woven fabric composites. For all these composite materials homogenized elastic properties are given and some indications are provided for hygrothermal properties. Experimental techniques in statics and in dynamics by ultrasonic wave propagation have allowed us to validate the above homogenization models. In order to provide a complete set of tools for the composite designer, a multilayered, doubly curved shallow shell model has been designed. This model is based on a new type of kinematics which has a three-dimensional essence and allows us to take into account a proper transverse shear deformation distribution and avoid transverse shear correction factors. Finally, contact conditions at interfaces between layers of the laminate have been taken into account both for displacements and for transverse shear stresses, the latter satisfying the free boundary conditions upon the top and bottom surfaces of the multilayered structures. Thus this model allows for instance, analyzing interface stresses useful to the design of composite structures in order to prevent delamination. The analysis may use analytical and/or finite element computations.

  6. Method of making nanopatterns and nanostructures and nanopatterned functional oxide materials

    DOEpatents

    Dravid, Vinayak P; Donthu, Suresh K; Pan, Zixiao

    2014-02-11

    Method for nanopatterning of inorganic materials, such as ceramic (e.g. metal oxide) materials, and organic materials, such as polymer materials, on a variety of substrates to form nanopatterns and/or nanostructures with control of dimensions and location, all without the need for etching the materials and without the need for re-alignment between multiple patterning steps in forming nanostructures, such as heterostructures comprising multiple materials. The method involves patterning a resist-coated substrate using electron beam lithography, removing a portion of the resist to provide a patterned resist-coated substrate, and spin coating the patterned resist-coated substrate with a liquid precursor, such as a sol precursor, of the inorganic or organic material. The remaining resist is removed and the spin coated substrate is heated at an elevated temperature to crystallize the deposited precursor material.

  7. Material properties and laser cutting of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Chieh; Cheng, Wing

    Laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) has been used successfully for many material cutting, drilling, metal welding and heat treating applications. However, laser cutting of polymer composites were attempted with varying degrees of success. Because composites are heterogeneous, the energy applied by laser could result in severe resin degradation before fibers were cut. In this study, cutting of glass, Kevlar, and graphite composites were evaluated based on their material properties and laser cutting parameters. A transient heat transfer analysis was used to determine the relative heat affected zones of these composites. Kevlar composites can be cut very well while graphite composites are difficult to cut. Though the cutting process is much more complicated in reality, the analysis provides a semi-quantitative perspective on the characteristics and limitations of laser cutting of different composites.

  8. Flame-retardant composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of eight different graphite composite panels fabricated using four different resin matrices and two types of graphite reinforcement are described. The resin matrices included: VPSP/BMI, a blend of vinylpolystyryl pyridine and bismaleimide; BMI, a bismaleimide; and phenolic and PSP, a polystyryl pyridine. The graphite fiber used was AS-4 in the form of either tape or fabric. The properties of these composites were compared with epoxy composites. It was determined that VPSP/BMI with the graphite tape was the optimum design giving the lowest heat release rate.

  9. Advanced thermopower wave in novel ZnO nanostructures/fuel composite.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Yeol; Hwang, Hayoung; Choi, Wonjoon

    2014-09-10

    Thermopower wave is a new concept of energy conversion from chemical to thermal to electrical energy, produced from the chemical reaction in well-designed hybrid structures between nanomaterials and combustible fuels. The enhancement and optimization of energy generation is essential to make it useful for future applications. In this study, we demonstrate that simple solution-based synthesized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures, such as nanorods and nanoparticles are capable of generating high output voltage from thermopower waves. In particular, an astonishing improvement in the output voltage (up to 3 V; average 2.3 V) was achieved in a ZnO nanorods-based composite film with a solid fuel (collodion, 5% nitrocellulose), which generated an exothermic chemical reaction. Detailed analyses of thermopower waves in ZnO nanorods- and cube-like nanoparticles-based hybrid composites have been reported in which nanostructures, output voltage profile, wave propagation velocities, and surface temperature have been characterized. The average combustion velocities for a ZnO nanorods/fuel and a ZnO cube-like nanoparticles/fuel composites were 40.3 and 30.0 mm/s, while the average output voltages for these composites were 2.3 and 1.73 V. The high output voltage was attributed to the amplified temperature in intermixed composite of ZnO nanostructures and fuel due to the confined diffusive heat transfer in nanostructures. Moreover, the extended interfacial areas between ZnO nanorods and fuel induced large amplification in the dynamic change of the chemical potential, and it resulted in the enhanced output voltage. The differences of reaction velocity and the output voltage between ZnO nanorods- and ZnO cube-like nanoparticles-based composites were attributed to variations in electron mobility and grain boundary, as well as thermal conductivities of ZnO nanorods and particles. Understanding this astonishing increase and the variation of the output voltage and reaction velocity, precise ZnO nanostructures, will help in formulating specific strategies for obtaining enhanced energy generation from thermopower waves. PMID:25133980

  10. Integration of mechanical alloying and equal channel angular extrusion for production of nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaculi, Xhemal

    The main objective of this study is to develop the technology to produce nanostructured materials with superior mechanical and chemical behavior. The focus of this research is mainly on two issues: (1) Use of mechanical alloying (MA) to produce nanostructured titanium silicide (Ti5Si 3) in powder form. (2) Use of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) for consolidation of mechanically alloyed powder in bulk form by preserving the fine scale structure. Nanostructured materials are a special group of materials with grain size less than 100 nanometers (nm), with a high percentage of atoms located at their grain boundaries. Due to the special structural arrangement of atoms, nanostructured materials are capable of developing much higher strength and stronger resistance to chemical attack, as compared to materials with conventional structure (grain size ranging from micrometers to millimeters). Because of their extraordinary mechanical and chemical properties, nanostructured materials have attracted a lot of attention in industry today. However, progress made to date in the production of these materials is limited to laboratory quantities and thin layers for surface coatings. In order that engineered nanostructured materials exhibit such superior properties, the essential requirement is that these materials should be in the bulk-processed condition and in larger quantities, suitable for industrial applications. This research achieves this by integrating the mechanical alloying process for production of nanostructured powders, and equal channel angular extrusion process to consolidate these powders and preserve their fine structure in bulk form. MA is a high-energy ball milling process used to produce nanocrystalline and amorphous materials in powder form. The design of experiments statistical method (23 factorial design) is applied to optimize this process to produce nanostructured titanium silicide (Ti5Si3) in powder form. ECAE is a process that produces intense and uniform plastic deformation caused by simple shear of the material. This process has proven to be an effective method for forming nanocrystalline materials in bulk form. A 4 x 2factorial design was used to optimize the ECAE process. Finite element analysis and other modeling studies are presented to support the experimental work performed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the grain size of the material in powder form and the final product. Vickers method is used to measure the microhardness. The main interest was on the production of nanostructured titanium silicide, a material with many applications in aerospace, transportation, oil industry etc. The titanium silicide material in powder form with grain size of 1 mum (micrometer) was subjected to a mechanical alloying process, which resulted in a nanostructured powder with a grain size of less than nm. To avoid the high temperature involvement used in traditional powder consolidation methods, which in turn causes the coarsening of grains, the nanostructured powder was consolidated using the ECAE process. The final product possessed a Vickers microhardness as high as 1500, and a grain size of less than 10 nm.

  11. Nanostructured multilayered thin film barriers for Mg{sub 2}Si thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Battiston, S.; Boldrini, S.; Fiameni, S.; Agresti, F.; Famengo, A.; Fabrizio, M.; Barison, S.

    2012-06-26

    The Mg{sub 2}Si-based alloys are promising candidates for thermoelectric energy conversion in the middle-high temperature range in order to replace lead compounds. The main advantages of silicide-based thermoelectrics are the nontoxicity and the abundance of their constituent elements in the earth crust. The drawback of such kind of materials is their oxygen sensitivity at high temperature that entails their use under vacuum or inert atmosphere. In order to limit the corrosion phenomena, nanostructured multilayered molybdenum silicide-based materials were deposited via RF magnetron sputtering onto stainless steel, alumina and silicon (100) to set up the deposition process and then onto Mg{sub 2}Si pellets. XRD, EDS, FE-SEM and electrical measurements at high temperature were carried out in order to obtain, respectively, the structural, compositional, morphological and electrical characterization of the deposited coatings. At the end, the mechanical behavior of the system thin film/Mg{sub 2}Si-substrate as a function of temperature and the barrier properties for oxygen protection after thermal treatment in air at high temperature were qualitatively evaluated by FE-SEM.

  12. Nanostructured multilayered thin film barriers for Mg2Si thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, S.; Boldrini, S.; Fiameni, S.; Agresti, F.; Famengo, A.; Fabrizio, M.; Barison, S.

    2012-06-01

    The Mg2Si-based alloys are promising candidates for thermoelectric energy conversion in the middle-high temperature range in order to replace lead compounds. The main advantages of silicide-based thermoelectrics are the nontoxicity and the abundance of their constituent elements in the earth crust. The drawback of such kind of materials is their oxygen sensitivity at high temperature that entails their use under vacuum or inert atmosphere. In order to limit the corrosion phenomena, nanostructured multilayered molybdenum silicide-based materials were deposited via RF magnetron sputtering onto stainless steel, alumina and silicon (100) to set up the deposition process and then onto Mg2Si pellets. XRD, EDS, FE-SEM and electrical measurements at high temperature were carried out in order to obtain, respectively, the structural, compositional, morphological and electrical characterization of the deposited coatings. At the end, the mechanical behavior of the system thin film/Mg2Si-substrate as a function of temperature and the barrier properties for oxygen protection after thermal treatment in air at high temperature were qualitatively evaluated by FE-SEM.

  13. Combinatorial synthesis of inorganic or composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Goldwasser, Isy (Palo Alto, CA); Ross, Debra A. (Mountain Ranch, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Danville, CA); Briceno, Gabriel (Baldwin Park, CA); Sun, Xian-Dong (Fremont, CA); Wang, Kai-An (Cupertino, CA)

    2010-08-03

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials or, alternatively, allowing the components to interact to form at least two different materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, nonbiological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  14. Dispersive transport of charge carriers in disordered nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibatov, R. T.; Uchaikin, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    Dispersive transport of charge carriers in disordered nanostructured semiconductors is described in terms of integral diffusion equations nonlocal in time. Transient photocurrent kinetics is analyzed for different situations. Relation to the fractional differential approach is demonstrated. Using this relation provides specifications in interpretation of the time-of-flight data. Joint influence of morphology and energy distribution of localized states is described in frames of the trap-limited advection-diffusion on a comb structure modeling a percolation cluster.

  15. Mechanical Pressure Induced Capacitance Changes of Polyisoprene/Nanostructured Carbon Black Composite Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozols, K.; Knite, M.

    2015-03-01

    Polyisoprene/nanostructured carbon black (PNCB) composite samples with different amount of carbon black (CB) filler were prepared. Investigations of mechanical pressure induced relative capacitance changes (RCC) depending on frequency (20 Hz - 2 MHz) were conducted. It was found that PNCB samples show pronounced and rather complex RCC effect, which depends on frequency, amount of filler (1 - 10 phr of CB) and pressure (from 0 to 234 kPa). At a certain frequency and a certain filler amount RCC effect changes its sign. Pressure induced capacitance changes at least for low CB filler concentrations are caused by piezopermittivity property of the PNCB composite.

  16. Synthesis and Electron Field-Emission of 1-D Carbon-Related Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Han C.

    2002-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes, a new stable form of carbon that was first identified in 1991 [1], are fullerene-related structures which consist of graphitic cylinders closed at either end with caps containing pentagonal rings. Although carbon nanotube structures are closely related to graphite, the curvature, symmetry and small size induce marked deviations from the graphitic behavior. Various methods have been used to produce carbon nanotubes, e.g., arc-discharge, laser-vaporization, catalytic chemical vapor deposition, but too many impurities also be produced, such as fullerenes, carbon nanoparticles and amorphous carbons. The microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) system has been used to grow carbon nanotubes in this work and other 1-D carbon-related nanostructured materials was synthesized by the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system. Plasma is generated by microwave excitation at 2.45 GHz by a magnetron passes through a waveguide and fed perpendicularly through a quartz dome into an 875 G magnetic field generated by the coils surrounding the resonance volume that creates the ECR condition. The deposition chamber was pumped down to the base pressure of 6.7X10-4 Pa (5X10-6 Torr) with a turbomolecular pump for ECR-plasma and subatmospheric pressures for MPECVD by a rotary mechanical pump. Well-aligned carbon-related nanostructures have been synthesized in nanoporous alumina or silicon with a uniform diameter of 30-100 nm by microwave excited plasma of CH_4, C_2H_2, N_2, H2 and Ar precursors. Nickel nanowires not only serve as catalysts to decompose hydrocarbons to form nanostructures but also function as an electrical conductor for other advanced applications. A negative dc bias is always applied to the substrate to promote the flow of ion fluxes through the nanochannels of the template materials that facilitate the physical adsorption and subsequent chemical absorption in the formation of carbon- and carbon-nitride nanotubes[2]. The electron field emission characteristics of the 1-D carbon-related nanostructures were measured by the conventional diode method at an ambient pressure of 1.3X10-3 Pa (10-5 Torr). The films (1X1-cm^2) were separated from the anode by ITO (indium tin oxide) coated glass, where a glass fiber spacer was maintained at 150 ?m from the cathode. The current density and electric field characteristics were measured using a Keithley 237 electrometer. A range of onset electron emission field from 3.5 to 1.5 V/?m and an emission current density up to 1 mA/cm^2 at 3V/?m have been achieved in this study, apparently superior to other carbon-based electron field emitters[3]. The results were reproducible over a period of weeks and the nanotubes did not degrade physically when exposing to a humid air of RH 90using the Fowler-Nordheim model, I=aV^2 exp (-b?_e^3/2/V) , where a and b are constants. The turn-on voltage was estimated as the voltage deviating from ln(I/V^2)-1/V curve. The effective work function (?_e=?/?) of the arrayed carbon nanotubes was calculated from the slope of the Fowler-Nordheim plot, where the value of ?, the field enhancement factor, was found to be 1517. This value increased to 3357 when nitrogen was doped, but decreased to 974 when boron was doped. The incorporation of nitrogen or boron into the carbon network apparently changes the original nanostructure and the chemical bonding. The structural and compositional modification by the incorporation of nitrogen, boron, or hydrogen into the 1-D carbon-related nanostructured materials were analyzed by FTIR , XPS , Raman spectroscopy , and FE-SEM . Various forms in connection with 1-D nanostructured materials applicable to the NEMS , e.g. , nanowelding of nanotubes[4], tubes on tube , open-end nanotubes and coils of nanofiber and nanotubes have been produced in this research depending on the plasma chemistry, catalytic effect and the design of template. [1]. S. Iijima, Nature 354, 56 (1991). [2]. S. L. Sung, S. H. Tsai, C. H. Tseng, X. W. Liu, and H. C. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 197 (1999). [3]. S. H. Tsai,

  17. Nanostructured materials detect epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase and carcinoembryonic antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Comnea-Stancu, Ionela Raluca; Surdu-Bob, Carmen Cristina; Badulescu, Marius

    2015-09-01

    New nanostructured materials based on thin films of Cu and Ni deposited on textile material (veil), as well as gold nanostructured microspheres were used for the design of new stochastic sensors. The stochastic sensors were able to detect simultaneously a panel of biomarkers comprising epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase, and carcinoembryonic antigen from whole blood samples with high reliabilities - recovery tests higher than 97.00%, with a RSD (%) lower than 0.1%. The stochastic sensors had shown high sensitivities and low determination levels for the detection of the proposed panel of biomarkers making early detection of lung cancer possible by fast screening of whole blood.

  18. Nanostructured materials detect epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase and carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Comnea-Stancu, Ionela Raluca; Surdu-Bob, Carmen Cristina; Badulescu, Marius

    2015-10-14

    New nanostructured materials based on thin films of Cu and Ni deposited on textile material (veil), as well as gold nanostructured microspheres were used for the design of new stochastic sensors. The stochastic sensors were able to detect simultaneously a panel of biomarkers comprising epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase, and carcinoembryonic antigen from whole blood samples with high reliabilities - recovery tests higher than 97.00%, with a RSD (%) lower than 0.1%. The stochastic sensors had shown high sensitivities and low determination levels for the detection of the proposed panel of biomarkers making early detection of lung cancer possible by fast screening of whole blood. PMID:26350155

  19. Materials research at Stanford University. [composite materials, crystal structure, acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Research activity related to the science of materials is described. The following areas are included: elastic and thermal properties of composite materials, acoustic waves and devices, amorphous materials, crystal structure, synthesis of metal-metal bonds, interactions of solids with solutions, electrochemistry, fatigue damage, superconductivity and molecular physics and phase transition kinetics.

  20. Nanostructured TiOx as a catalyst support material for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Richard S.

    Recent interest in the development of new catalyst support materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) has stimulated research into the viability of TiO2-based support structures. Specifically, substoichiometric TiO2 (TiOx) has been reported to exhibit a combination of high conductivity, stability, and corrosion resistance. These properties make TiOx-based support materials a promising prospect when considering the inferior corrosion resistance of traditional carbon-based supports. This document presents an investigation into the formation of conductive and stable TiOx thin films employing atomic layer deposition (ALD) and a post deposition oxygen reducing anneal (PDORA). Techniques for manufacturing TiOx-based catalyst support nanostructures by means of ALD in conjunction with carbon black (CB), anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) will also be presented. The composition and thickness of resulting TiOx thin films was determined with the aid of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Film crystal structure was determined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Film conductivity was calculated using four-point probe (4-PP) and film thickness measurement data. Resulting thin films show a significant decrease of oxygen in ALD TiOx films corresponding with a great increase in conductivity following the PDORA. The effectiveness of the PDORA was also found to be highly dependent on ALD process parameters. TiOx-based nanostructures were coated with platinum using one of three Pt deposition techniques. First, liquid phase deposition (LPD), which was performed at room temperature, provided equal access to catalyst support material surfaces which were suspended in solution. Second, plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), which was performed at 450C, provided good Pt particle dispersion and particle size controllability. Third, physical vapor deposition (PVD), which was also performed at room temperature, was used as a low temperature vapor-phase deposition technique for comparison with PEALD Pt coated materials. The temperature of the Pt deposition technique is an important parameter to consider due to the potential adverse effects of the strong metal support interaction (SMSI) which may take place at temperatures above 200C. Platinum coated nanostructures were analyzed electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE) and accelerated stress tests (ASTs). CV and RDE results generally show that platinum activity values are initially not as high as those typically observed for platinum on carbon; however, AST results indicate that TiO x-based materials are much more stable long-term and hence their level of activity is likely to overtake traditional platinum on carbon materials in a PEMFC system.

  1. Nanostructured Tungsten Oxide Composite for High-Performance Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siyuan Feng; Aldalbahi, Ali; Feng, Peter Xianping

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of composite tungsten oxide nanowires-based gas sensors. The morphologic surface, crystallographic structures, and chemical compositions of the obtained nanowires have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman scattering, respectively. The experimental measurements reveal that each wire consists of crystalline nanoparticles with an average diameter of less than 250 nm. By using the synthesized nanowires, highly sensitive prototypic gas sensors have been designed and fabricated. The dependence of the sensitivity of tungsten oxide nanowires to the methane and hydrogen gases as a function of time has been obtained. Various sensing parameters such as sensitivity, response time, stability, and repeatability were investigated in order to reveal the sensing ability. PMID:26512670

  2. Nanostructured Tungsten Oxide Composite for High-Performance Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Feng-Chen, Siyuan; Aldalbahi, Ali; Feng, Peter Xianping

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of composite tungsten oxide nanowires-based gas sensors. The morphologic surface, crystallographic structures, and chemical compositions of the obtained nanowires have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman scattering, respectively. The experimental measurements reveal that each wire consists of crystalline nanoparticles with an average diameter of less than 250 nm. By using the synthesized nanowires, highly sensitive prototypic gas sensors have been designed and fabricated. The dependence of the sensitivity of tungsten oxide nanowires to the methane and hydrogen gases as a function of time has been obtained. Various sensing parameters such as sensitivity, response time, stability, and repeatability were investigated in order to reveal the sensing ability. PMID:26512670

  3. Advanced composite materials for precision segmented reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Bland A.; Bowles, David E.

    1988-01-01

    The objective in the NASA Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) project is to develop new composite material concepts for highly stable and durable reflectors with precision surfaces. The project focuses on alternate material concepts such as the development of new low coefficient of thermal expansion resins as matrices for graphite fiber reinforced composites, quartz fiber reinforced epoxies, and graphite reinforced glass. Low residual stress fabrication methods will be developed. When coupon specimens of these new material concepts have demonstrated the required surface accuracies and resistance to thermal distortion and microcracking, reflector panels will be fabricated and tested in simulated space environments. An important part of the program is the analytical modeling of environmental stability of these new composite materials concepts through constitutive equation development, modeling of microdamage in the composite matrix, and prediction of long term stability (including viscoelasticity). These analyses include both closed form and finite element solutions at the micro and macro levels.

  4. Composite materials inspection. [ultrasonic vibration holographic NDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erf, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the application requirements, advantages, and limitations of nondestructive testing by a technique of ultrasonic-vibration holographic-interferometry readout used in a production control facility for the inspection of a single product such as composite compressor blades. It is shown that, for the detection and characterization of disbonds in composite material structures, this technique may represent the most inclusive test method.

  5. Thermoelectric study of INSB secondary phase based nano composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Song

    In the past several decades there has been an intensive study in the field of thermoelectric study that is basically materials driven. As the simplest technology applicable in direct heat-electricity energy conversion, thermoelectricity utilizes the Seebeck effect to generate electricity from heat or conversely achieve the solid-state cooling via the Peltier effect. With many technical merits, thermoelectric devices can be used as spot-size generators or distributed refrigerators, however, their applications are restricted by the energy conversion efficiency, which is mainly determined by the figure of merit ZT of the thermoelectric materials that these devices are made of. A higher ZT (ZT=alpha2*sigma/kappa) entails a larger Seebeck coefficient (alpha), a higher electrical conductivity (sigma) and a lower thermal conductivity (kappa). However, it is challenging to simultaneously optimize these three material parameters because they are adversely correlated. To this end, a promising approach to answer this challenge is nano-compositing or microstructuring at multiple length scales. The numerous grain boundaries in nano-composite allow for significant reduction of lattice thermal conductivity via strong phonon scattering and as well an enhanced Seebeck coefficient via, carrier energy filtering effect. As the same grain boundaries also scatter carriers, a coherent interface between grains is needed to minimize the degradation of carrier mobilities. To this end,in-situ, instead of ex-situ, formation of nano-composite is preferred. It is noteworthy that electrical conductivity can be further enhanced by the injection of high-mobility carriers introduced by the secondary nano-phase. In view of the prevalent use of Antimony (Sb) in thermoelectric materials, Indium Antimonide (InSb) naturally becomes one of the most promising nano-inclusions since it possesses one of the largest carrier mobilities (7.8 m 2/V-s) in any semiconductors, while at the same time possesses a reasonably narrow band gap (0.17 eV at 300 K). In this dissertation, I experimentally investigate whether InSb could be a "good" nano-secondary phase in two thermoelectric bulk matrix materials, FeSb2 and half-Heusler compounds. In these in situ formed nano-composites, three mechanisms are utilized to decouple the otherwise adversely correlated Seebeck coefficient (alpha), electrical conductivity (sigma), and thermal conductivity (kappa). First, low energy carriers will be filtered out via the carrier energy filtering effect, enhancing the Seebeck coefficient without degrading the power factor (PF= alpha 2sigma). Second, high mobility carriers from the InSb nano-inclusions will be injected to the system to increase the electrical conductivity. Last, the numerous grain boundaries present in nano-composites allow for strong phonon scattering so as to reduce the thermal conductivity. After the initial in situ synthesis of nano-composites with the optimized composition, further nano-structuring processes are applied in the samples of FeSb2 with 0.5% atomic ratio of InSb. The results indicate that not all nano-structures are thermoelectrically favorable, multi-scale microstructures with the length scale comparable with the phonon mean free path are needed to effectively scatter phonons over a wide range of wavelength. In summary, the successful combination of the carrier energy filtering effect, high mobility carrier injection effect, and strong phonon scattering effect in the in situ synthesized FeSb2-InSb and half-Heusler-InSb nano-composites leads to a significantly enhanced ZT. This approach of in situ formation of nano-composites based on InSb secondary nano-phase may also be applied to other thermoelectric materials.

  6. Composite Material Application to Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judd, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The substitution of reinforced plastic composite (RPC) materials for metal was studied. The major objectives were to: (1) determine the extent to which composite materials can be beneficially used in liquid rocket engines; (2) identify additional technology requirements; and (3) determine those areas which have the greatest potential for return. Weight savings, fabrication costs, performance, life, and maintainability factors were considered. Two baseline designs, representative of Earth to orbit and orbit to orbit engine systems, were selected. Weight savings are found to be possible for selected components with the substitution of materials for metal. Various technology needs are identified before RPC material can be used in rocket engine applications.

  7. Synthesis and microwave absorption properties of graphene/nickel composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Baoqin; Dong, Lifeng

    2015-03-01

    Graphene/nickel composite materials were successfully prepared via a one-step in situ reduction from nickel chloride, graphene oxide, and hydrazine at 80 C for 3 h. Face-centered cubic Ni nanostructures with uniform size and high dispersion assembled on graphene sheets. Through the measurement of complex relative permittivity and permeability, their microwave absorption properties were evaluated. In comparison with pure Ni nanoparticles and graphene, the composite materials demonstrated much better characteristics of microwave absorption. The lowest reflection loss value of the composites with a thickness of 3 mm can reach -23.3 dB at 7.5 GHz. Our research reveals that graphene/Ni composites are promising microwave absorption materials with desirable absorption properties and reduced material weight.

  8. Ceramic composites: Enabling aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites (CMC) have the potential for significant impact on the performance of aerospace propulsion and power systems. In this paper, the potential benefits are discussed in broad qualitative terms and are illustrated by some specific application case studies. The key issues in need of resolution for the potential of ceramics to be realized are discussed.

  9. Composite materials with improved phyllosilicate dispersion

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-09-14

    The present invention provides phyllosilicates edge modified with anionic surfactants, composite materials made from the edge modified phyllosilicates, and methods for making the same. In various embodiments the phyllosilicates are also surface-modified with hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) modifying agents, polymeric hydrotropes, and antioxidants. The invention also provides blends of edge modified phyllosilicates and semicrystalline waxes. The composite materials are made by dispersing the edge modified phyllosilicates with polymers, particularly polyolefins and elastomers.

  10. Composite, ordered material having sharp surface features

    DOEpatents

    D'Urso, Brian R.; Simpson, John T.

    2006-12-19

    A composite material having sharp surface features includes a recessive phase and a protrusive phase, the recessive phase having a higher susceptibility to a preselected etchant than the protrusive phase, the composite material having an etched surface wherein the protrusive phase protrudes from the surface to form a sharp surface feature. The sharp surface features can be coated to make the surface super-hydrophobic.

  11. Method of making a composite refractory material

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, Marvin S. (Kingston, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A composite refractory material is prepared by combining boron carbide with furan resin to form a mixture containing about 8 wt. % furan resin. The mixture is formed into a pellet which is placed into a grit pack comprising an oxide of an element such as yttrium to form a sinterable body. The sinterable body is sintered under vacuum with microwave energy at a temperature no greater than 2000.degree. C. to form a composite refractory material.

  12. Method to fabricate layered material compositions

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of processes suited to the fabrication of layered material compositions is disclosed. Layered material compositions are typically three-dimensional structures which can be decomposed into a stack of structured layers. The best known examples are the photonic lattices. The present invention combines the characteristic features of photolithography and chemical-mechanical polishing to permit the direct and facile fabrication of, e.g., photonic lattices having photonic bandgaps in the 0.1-20.mu. spectral range.

  13. Method of making a composite refractory material

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, M.S.; Holcombe, C.E.

    1995-09-26

    A composite refractory material is prepared by combining boron carbide with furan resin to form a mixture containing about 8 wt. % furan resin. The mixture is formed into a pellet which is placed into a grit pack comprising an oxide of an element such as yttrium to form a sinterable body. The sinterable body is sintered under vacuum with microwave energy at a temperature no greater than 2000 C to form a composite refractory material.

  14. Graphene-based Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Mohammad Ali

    We investigated the mechanical properties, such as fracture toughness (KIc), fracture energy (GIc), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), Youngs modulus (E), and fatigue crack propagation rate (FCPR) of epoxy-matrix composites with different weight fractions of carbon-based fillers, including graphene platelets (GPL), graphene nanoribbons (GNR), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), and fullerenes (C60). Only 0.125 wt.% GPL was found to increase the KIc of the pure epoxy by 65% and the GIc by 115%. To get similar improvement, CNT and nanoparticle epoxy composites required one to two orders of magnitude greater weight fraction of nanofillers. Moreover, 0.125% wt.% GPL also decreased the fatigue crack propagation rate in the epoxy by 30-fold. The E value of 0.1 wt.% GPL/epoxy nanocomposite was 31% larger than the pure epoxy while there was only an increase of 3% for the SWNT composites. The UTS of the pristine epoxy was improved by 40% with GPLs in comparison with 14% enhancement for the MWNTs. The KIc of the GPL nanocomposite enhanced by 53% over the pristine epoxy compared to a 20% increase for the MWNT-reinforced composites. The results of the FCPR tests for the GPL nanocomposites showed a different trend. While the CNT nanocomposites were not effective enough to suppress the crack growth at high values of the stress intensity factor (DeltaK), the reverse behavior is observed for the GPL nanocomposites. The advantage of the GPLs over CNTs in terms of mechanical properties enhancement is due to their enormous specific surface area, enhanced adhesion at filler/epoxy interface (because of the wrinkled surfaces of GPLs), as well as the planar structure of the GPLs. We also show that unzipping of MWNTs into graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) enhances the load transfer effectiveness in epoxy nanocomposites. For instance, at 0.3 wt.% of fillers, the Young's modulus (E) of the epoxy nanocomposite with GNRs increased by 30% compared to their MWNTs counterpart. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) for 0.3 wt.% GNR composites showed 22% enhancement compared to the MWNT composites at the same loading fraction of fillers (at 0.3 wt.%). Our results show that unzipping effect can be used to transform carbon nanotubes into graphene nanoribbons, which are far more effective than the baseline nanotube as a nanofiller in nanocomposites. The mechanical properties of fullerence (C60) epoxy nanocomposites at different loading fractions (wt.%) of fullerene fillers in the pristine epoxy was also studied. Fullerene (C60) fillers demonstrated good potential to improve the mechanical properties of epoxy composites. However the required C60 loading fractions were 1% which are still an order of magnitude higher than that for graphene platelets (0.1%). This again illustrates the superiority of graphene as a structural reinforcement additive for epoxy polymers at low nanofiller loadings. While the main focus of this work has been on epoxy polymers, initial results with ceramic matrix and metal (aluminum) matrix composites were also generated. These results demonstrate that GPL are highly effective in enahncing the fracture properties of silicon nitride ceramics. The fracture toughness of the baseline silicon nitride matrix increased by 235% (from 2.8 to 6.6 MPa.m1/2) at 1.5% GPL volume fraction. However the results were disappointing for aluminim matrix composites. Compared to the pure aluminum, the graphene-aluminum composites showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler. These results indicate that Graphene Platelets (GPL) show strong potential as a nanofiller for epoxy nanocomposites and can provide a performance comparable to other forms of nanofillers at a significantly lower nanofiller loading fraction.

  15. Properties and fabrication of nanostructured 2Cr-Al?O? composite for prosthetic bearing replacements.

    PubMed

    Park, Na-Ra; Shon, In-Jin

    2014-12-01

    Cr2O3 and Al powder were used as raw powders, and were milled by the high energy ball milling method. The nanostructured 2Cr-Al2O3 composite from the milled powder was both synthesized and densificated within a short time, by the pulsed current activated sintering (PCAS) apparatus. The relative density of the sintered 2Cr-Al2O3 composite was 99%. The hardness and the fracture toughness of the specimen were 1630 kg/mm(2), and 9.3 MPam(1/2), respectively. The weight loss of the composite was measured by a pin-on-disk type apparatus, without a lubricant. Lastly, the 2Cr-Al2O3 composite has a very good cell viability. PMID:25491856

  16. Fiber composite materials with integrated piezoceramic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajenski, Volker; Mook, Gerhard; Wierach, Peter; Hanselka, Holger

    2000-08-01

    In contrast to conventional lightweight material like aluminum or titanium, fiber composites offer the possibility to integrate functional elements directly into the material. Thus, multifunctional materials are developed which have the ability to serve more than the load-carrying function. As there is extensive work on the field of integration of thin piezoceramic platse and foils into carbon fiber reinforced polymeres, this will be focused on in this paper. First, the design of an active carbon fiber composite with integrated piezoceramic is shown. Different fiber layups and connecting methods to supply the piezoceramic are discussed. A sophisticated processing technology for active composite materials, the so-called DP-RTM (Differential Pressure - Resin Transfer Moulding), is presented. Various damage mechanisms may reduce or even destroy the sensing and actuaing capabilities of the piezoceramic material. Therefore the capability of high resolution non-destructive methods to evaluate manufacturing defects as well as defects resulting from mechanical overload is presented. Finally two applications are discussed in more detail to demonstrate the potential of the active composite material. Representing static applications an active composite plate is shown which has an infinite bending stiffness up to a certain load. A second active composite plate is used for active noise control.

  17. Aerosol Route Synthesis and Applications of Doped Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Manoranjan

    Nanotechnology presents an attractive opportunity to address various challenges in air and water purification, energy, and other environment issues. Thus, the development of new nanoscale materials in low-cost scalable synthesis processes is important. Furthermore, the ability to independently manipulate the material properties as well as characterize the material at different steps along the synthesis route will aide in product optimization. In addition, to ensure safe and sustainable development of nanotechnology applications, potential impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, nanomaterial synthesis in a single-step gas phase reactor to continuously produce doped metal oxides was demonstrated. Copper-doped TiO2 nanomaterial properties (composition, size, and crystal phase) were independently controlled based on nanoparticle formation and growth mechanisms dictated by process control parameters. Copper dopant found to significantly affect TiO2 properties such as particle size, crystal phase, stability in the suspension, and absorption spectrum (shift from UV to visible light absorption). The in-situ charge distribution characterization of the synthesized nanomaterials was carried out by integrating a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) set up with the flame reactor synthesis system. Both singly- and doubly- charged nanoparticles were measured, with the charged fractions dependent on particle mobility and dopant concentration. A theoretical calculation was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of the two charging mechanisms, diffusion and thermo-ionization, in the flame. Nanoparticle exposure characterization was conducted during synthesis as a function of operating condition, product recovery and handling technique, and during maintenance of the reactors. Strategies were then indentified to minimize the exposure risk. The nanoparticle exposure potential varied depending on the operating conditions such as precursor feed rate, working conditions of the fume hood, ventilation system, and distance from the reactors. Nanoparticle exposure varied during product recovery and handling depending on the quantity of nanomaterial handled. Most nanomaterial applications require nanomaterials to be in solution. Thus, the role of nanomaterial physio-chemical properties (size, crystal phase, dopant types and concentrations) on dispersion properties was investigated based on hydrodynamic size and surface charge. Dopant type and concentration were found to significantly affect iso-electric point (IEP)-shifting the IEP to a high or lower pH value compared to pristine TiO2 based on the oxidation state of the dopant. The microbial inactivation effectiveness of as-synthesized nanomaterials was investigated under different light irradiation conditions. Microbial inactivation was found to strongly depend on the light irradiation condition as well as on material properties such chemical composition, crystal phase, and particle size. The potential interaction mechanisms of copper-doped TiO2 nanomaterial with microbes were also explored. The studies conducted as part of this dissertation addressed issues in nanomaterial synthesis, characterization and their potential environmental applications.

  18. Engineering, Modeling and Testing of Composite Absorbing Materials for

    E-print Network

    Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    13 Engineering, Modeling and Testing of Composite Absorbing Materials for EMC Applications Marina, including applications of magneto-dielectric composite materials for electromagnetic shielding purposes application, they may be shaped as needed. Frequency characteristics of composite absorbing materials may

  19. Characterisation and tribological investigation on thermally processed nanostructured Fe-based and Cu-based cermet materials.

    PubMed

    Basak, A K; Eddine, W Zein; Celis, J P; Matteazzi, P

    2010-02-01

    The feasibility of achieving a nanostructured material after different thermal processing of nanosized powders is presented. The thermal processing was done by either atmospheric plasma spraying, laser sintering, or extrusion followed by hot isostatic pressing. The structural characterisation of such thermally processed nanostructured Fe-based and Cu-based metallic or Al2O3 reinforced cermets, confirmed the retention of a nanostructure after each of these thermal processes. Hardness measurements confirmed an increased hardness as expected in the case that nanostructuring is achieved. The role of grain boundaries and second phase particles on the retention of the nanostructure after thermal processing is discussed. Finally, the possible benefit of nanostructuring on the friction and wear behaviour of materials in sliding tests against corundum in ambient air is reported and discussed. PMID:20352775

  20. High-performance, nanostructure LiMnPO4/C composites synthesized via one-step solid state reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jugong; Ni, Liang; Lu, Yanwen; Qin, Cancan; Liu, Panxing; Wu, Tongfu; Tang, Yuefeng; Chen, Yanfeng

    2015-05-01

    LiMnPO4 is proposed as more promising cathode material as LiFePO4, while poor electronic conductivity and Jahn-Teller effects during charge/discharge processes hinder the electrochemical performance. To overcome these problems, one-step solid state reaction method is developed to synthesize LiMnPO4/C composites, which is with nanostructure, high crystallinity and good carbon coating. Manganese oxide sources and calcination temperature are investigated as factors for preparing high-performance LiMnPO4/C for Li-ion batteries. The results show that the LiMnPO4/C composites prepared with mixed manganese oxide deliver a superior initial capacity of 153 mAh g-1 at 0.05 C and high rate performance with discharge capacities of 123 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 103 mAh g-1 at 2 C. And the LiMnPO4/C composites synthesized at 600 C can retain 94% of the initial capacity after 200 cycles at 1 C, revealing a stable cycling stability. Therefore, one-step solid state reaction brings to light the synthesis of high performance LiMnPO4/C cathode materials and is suitable for large scale production.

  1. Green energy storage materials: advanced nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Alok Mani; Chandrasekar, M. S.; Mitra, Sagar

    2011-06-01

    The projected doubling of world energy consumption in the next fifty years requires certain measures to meet this demand. The ideal energy provider is reliable, efficient, with low emissions source - wind, solar, etc. The low carbon footprint of renewables is an added benefit, which makes them especially attractive during this era of environmental consciousness. Unfortunately, the intermittent nature of energy from these renewables is not suitable for the commercial and residential grid application, unless the power delivery is 24/7, with minimum fluctuation. This requires intervention of efficient electrical energy storage technology to make power generation from renewable practical. The progress to higher energy and power density especially for battery technology will push material to the edge of stability and yet these materials must be rendered safe, stable and with reliable operation throughout their long life. A major challenge for chemical energy storage is developing the ability to store more energy while maintaining stable electrode-electrolyte interface. A structural transformation occurs during charge-discharge cycle, accompanied by a volume change, degrading the microstructure over-time. The need to mitigate this volume and structural change accompanying charge-discharge cycle necessitates going to nanostructured and multifunctional materials that have the potential of dramatically enhancing the energy density and power density.

  2. Offgassing test methodology for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheer, Dale A.

    1994-01-01

    A significant increase in the use of composite materials has occurred during the past 20 years. Associated with this increased use is the potential for employees to be exposed to offgassing components from composite systems. Various components in composite systems, particularly residual solvents, offgas under various conditions. The potential for offgassing to occur increases as a composite material is heated either during cure or during lay-up operations. Various techniques can be employed to evaluate the offgassing characteristics of a composite system. A joint effort between AIA and SACMA resulted in the drafting of a proposed test method for evaluating the offgassing potential of composite materials. The purpose of testing composite materials for offgassing is to provide the industrial hygienist with information which can be used to assess the safety of the workplace. This paper outlines the proposed test method and presents round robin testing data associated with the test method. Also in this presentation is a discussion of classes of compounds which require specialized sampling techniques.

  3. The Interaction of Bacteria with Engineered Nanostructured Polymeric Materials: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Armentano, Ilaria; Arciola, Carla Renata; Fortunati, Elena; Ferrari, Davide; Mattioli, Samantha; Amoroso, Concetta Floriana; Rizzo, Jessica; Kenny, Jose M.; Imbriani, Marcello; Visai, Livia

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In spite of great advances in biomaterials research and development, a significant proportion of medical devices undergo bacterial colonization and become the target of an implant-related infection. We present a review of the two major classes of antibacterial nanostructured materials: polymeric nanocomposites and surface-engineered materials. The paper describes antibacterial effects due to the induced material properties, along with the principles of bacterial adhesion and the biofilm formation process. Methods for antimicrobial modifications of polymers using a nanocomposite approach as well as surface modification procedures are surveyed and discussed, followed by a concise examination of techniques used in estimating bacteria/material interactions. Finally, we present an outline of future sceneries and perspectives on antibacterial applications of nanostructured materials to resist or counteract implant infections. PMID:25025086

  4. Comparison of the structural and chemical composition of two unique micro/nanostructures produced by femtosecond laser interactions on nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Zuhlke, Craig A.; Anderson, Troy P.; Alexander, Dennis R.

    2013-09-16

    The structural and chemical composition of two unique microstructures formed on nickel, with nanoscale features, produced using femtosecond laser surface processing (FLSP) techniques is reported in this paper. These two surface morphologies, termed mounds and nanoparticle-covered pyramids, are part of a larger class of self-organized micro/nanostructured surfaces formed using FLSP. Cross-sections of the structures produced using focused ion beam milling techniques were analyzed with a transmission electron microscope. Both morphologies have a solid core with a layer of nanoparticles on the surface. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy by scanning transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the nanoparticles are a nickel oxide, while the core material is pure nickel.

  5. Nanostructured inorganic materials: Synthesis and associated electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Shali Zhu

    Synthetic strategy for preparing potential battery materials at low temperature was developed. Magnetite (Fe3O4), silver hollandnite (AgxMn8O16), magnesium manganese oxide (MgxMnO 2?yH2O), and silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (Ag 2VO2PO4) were studied. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was prepared by coprecipitation induced by triethylamine from aqueous iron(II) and iron(III) chloride solutions of varying concentrations. Variation of the iron(II) and iron(III) concentrations results in crystallite size control of the Fe3O4 products. Materials characterization of the Fe3O4 samples is reported, including Brunauer-Emmitt-Teller (BET) surface area, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size, and saturation magnetization results. A strong correlation between discharge capacity and voltage recovery behavior versus crystallite size was observed when tested as an electrode material in lithium electrochemical cells. Silver hollandite (AgxMn8O16) was successfully synthesized through a low temperature reflux reaction. The crystallite size and silver content of AgxMn8O16 by varying the reactant ratio of silver permanganate (AgMnO4) and manganese sulfate monohydrate (MnSO4?H2O). Silver hollandite was characterized by Brunauer-Emmitt-Teller (BET) surface area, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP-OES) spectrometry, helium pycnometry, simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The crystallite size showed a strong correlation with silver content, BET surface area, and particle sizes. The silver hollandite cathode showed good discharge capacity retention in 30 cycles of discharge-charge. There were a good relationship between crystallite size and rate capability and pulse ability. Magnesium manganese oxide (MgxMnO2?yH 2O) was made by redox reaction by mixing sodium hydroxide (NaOH), manganese sulfate monohydrate (MnSO4?HO2), and potassium persulfate (K2S2O8). The solid samples were characterized by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP-OES) spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The solid had a plate-like morphology. The preliminary electrochemical results showed that MgxMnO2?yH2O had a very good cycliability and the capacity retention in 20 discharge-charge cycles. When the sample was dried at 100C after collection, the discharge capacity would increase from 80 mAh/g to 155 mAh/g in the first discharge process in cycling test. Silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (SVPO, Ag2VO2PO 4) was prepared in various reaction temperatures. It was the first time that Ag2VO2PO4 was synthesized successfully at room temperature. The solid was characterized by Brunauer-Emmitt-Teller surface area (BET), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP-OES) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), magnetic susceptibility measurement, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Ag2VO2PO4 crystallite sizes showed a strong linear correlation with reaction temperature. The BET surface area was decreased as the crystallite size increased linearly. In addition, the acicular morphology started to develop at 50C. The impact of silver deposition loading on the silver-polypyrrole composite electrode was studied using cyclic voltammetry. The minimum Ag loading of 0.08 mg/cm2 was determined to maximize the oxygen reduction activity for the Ag/Ppy composite catalyst. In addition, the Ag/Ppy coated carbon electrode showed higher oxygen reduction activities in both air and oxygen compared to the uncoated carbon electrode.

  6. Ultrasonic stress wave characterization of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    The work reported covers three simultaneous projects. The first project was concerned with: (1) establishing the sensitivity of the acousto-ultrasonic method for evaluating subtle forms of damage development in cyclically loaded composite materials, (2) establishing the ability of the acousto-ultrasonic method for detecting initial material imperfections that lead to localized damage growth and final specimen failure, and (3) characteristics of the NBS/Proctor sensor/receiver for acousto-ultrasonic evaluation of laminated composite materials. The second project was concerned with examining the nature of the wave propagation that occurs during acoustic-ultrasonic evaluation of composite laminates and demonstrating the role of Lamb or plate wave modes and their utilization for characterizing composite laminates. The third project was concerned with the replacement of contact-type receiving piezotransducers with noncontacting laser-optical sensors for acousto-ultrasonic signal acquisition.

  7. 3-D textile reinforcements in composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Miravete, A.

    1999-11-01

    Laminated composite materials have been used in structural applications since the 1960s. However, their high cost and inability to accommodate fibers in the laminate`s thickness direction greatly reduce their damage tolerance and impact resistance. The second generation of materials--3-D textile reinforced composites--offers significant cost reduction, and by incorporating reinforcement in the thickness direction, dramatically increases damage tolerance and impact resistance. However, methods for predicting mechanical properties of 3-D textile reinforced composite materials tend to be more complex. These materials also have disadvantages--particularly in regard to crimps in the yarns--that require more research. Textile preforms, micro- and macromechanical modeling, manufacturing processes, and characterization all need further development. As researchers overcome these problems, this new generation of composites will emerge as a highly competitive family of materials. This book provides a state-of-the-art account of this promising technology. In it, top experts describe the manufacturing processes, highlight the advantages, identify the main applications, analyze methods for predicting mechanical properties, and detail various reinforcement strategies, including grid structure, knitted fabric composites, and the braiding technique. Armed with the information in this book, readers will be prepared to better exploit the advantages of 3-D textile reinforced composites, overcome its disadvantages, and contribute to the further development of the technology.

  8. Oxygen Compatibility Testing of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, Neil A.; Hudgins, Richard J.; McBain, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of polymer composite liquid oxygen LO2 tanks is a critical step in creating the next generation of launch vehicles. Future launch vehicles need to minimize the gross liftoff weight (GLOW), which is possible due to the 25%-40% reduction in weight that composite materials could provide over current aluminum technology. Although a composite LO2 tank makes these weight savings feasible, composite materials have not historically been viewed as "LO2 compatible." To be considered LO2 compatible, materials must be selected that will resist any type of detrimental, combustible reaction when exposed to usage environments. This is traditionally evaluated using a standard set of tests. However, materials that do not pass the standard tests can be shown to be safe for a particular application. This paper documents the approach and results of a joint NASA/Lockheed Martin program to select and verify LO2 compatible composite materials for liquid oxygen fuel tanks. The test approach developed included tests such as mechanical impact, particle impact, puncture, electrostatic discharge, friction, and pyrotechnic shock. These tests showed that composite liquid oxygen tanks are indeed feasible for future launch vehicles.

  9. Dental applications of nanostructured bioactive glass and its composites

    PubMed Central

    Polini, Alessandro; Bai, Hao; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2013-01-01

    To improve treatments for bone or dental trauma, and for diseases such as osteoporosis, cancer, and infections, scientists who perform basic research are collaborating with clinicians to design and test new biomaterials for the regeneration of lost or injured tissue. Developed some 40 years ago, bioactive glass (BG) has recently become one of the most promising biomaterials, a consequence of discoveries that its unusual properties elicit specific biological responses inside the body. Among these important properties are the capability of BG to form strong interfaces with both hard and soft tissues, and its release of ions upon dissolution. Recent developments in nanotechnology have introduced opportunities for materials sciences to advance dental and bone therapies. For example, the applications for BG expand as it becomes possible to finely control structures and physicochemical properties of materials at the molecular level. Here we review how the properties of these materials have been enhanced by the advent of nanotechnology; and how these developments are producing promising results in hard-tissue regeneration and development of innovative BG-based drug-delivery systems. PMID:23606653

  10. Gradient composite materials for artificial intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Migacz, Katarzyna; Ch?opek, Jan; Morawska-Choch?, Anna; Ambroziak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Composites with the gradient of Young's modulus constitute a new group of biomimetic materials which affect the proper distribution of stresses between the implant and the bone. The aim of this article was to examine the mechanical properties of gradient materials based on carbon fibre-polysulfone composite, and to compare them to the properties of a natural intervertebral disc. Gradient properties were provided by different orientation or volume fraction of carbon fibres in particular layers of composites. The results obtained during in vitro tests displayed a good durability of the gradient materials put under long-term static load. However, the configuration based on a change in the volume fraction of the fibres seems more advantageous than the one based on a change of the fibres' orientation. The materials under study were designed to replace the intervertebral disc. The effect of Young's modulus of the material layers on the stress distribution between the tissue and the implant was analyzed and the biomimetic character of the gradient composites was stated. Unlike gradient materials, the pure polysulfone and the non-gradient composite resulted in the stress concentration in the region of nucleus pulposus, which is highly disadvantageous and does not occur in the stress distribution of natural intervertebral discs. PMID:25306938

  11. Self-assembly of nanostructured materials through irreversible covalent bond formation.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kangkyun; Hwang, Ilha; Roy, Indranil; Shetty, Dinesh; Kim, Kimoon

    2015-08-18

    Over the past decades, numerous efforts have been devoted to synthesizing nanostructured materials with specific morphology because their size and shape play an important role in determining their functions. Self-assembly using weak and reversible interactions or bonds has provided synthetic routes toward various nanostructures because it allows a "self-checking" and "self-error-correcting" process under thermodynamic control. By contrast, the use of irreversible covalent bonds, despite the potential to generate more robust structures, has been disfavored in the synthesis of well-defined nanomaterials largely due to the lack of such self-error-correcting mechanisms. To date, the use of irreversible bonds is largely limited to covalent fixation of preorganized building blocks on a template, which, though capable of producing shape-persistent and robust nanostructured materials, often requires a laborious and time-consuming multistep processes. Constructing well-defined nanostructures by self-assembly using irreversible covalent bonds without help of templates or preorganization of components remains a challenge. This Account describes our recent discoveries and progress in self-assembly of nanostructured materials through strong, practically irreversible covalent bond formation and their applications in various areas including drug delivery, anticancer therapy, and heterogeneous catalysis. The key to the success of this approach is the use of rationally designed building blocks possessing multiple in-plane reactive groups at the periphery. These blocks can then successfully grow into flat oligomeric patches through irreversible covalent bond formation without the aid of preorganization or templates. Further growth of the patches with or without curvature generation drives the system to the formation of polymer nanocapsules, two-dimensional (2D) polymer films, and toroidal nanotubular microrings. Remarkably, the final morphology can be specified by a few simple parameters: the reaction medium, bending rigidity of the system, and orientation of the reactive groups. Theoretical studies support the spontaneous formation of such nanostructured materials in terms of energetics and successfully predict or explain their size distributions. Although the lack of self-error-correcting mechanisms results in defect sites in these nanostructures, the high efficiency and relative simplicity of our novel approach demonstrates the potential power of using irreversible covalent bonds to generate a diverse range of shape-persistent and robust nanostructures that is likely to enrich the repertoire of self-assembled nanomaterials. PMID:25884270

  12. Failure and fatigue mechanisms in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, B. W.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Mclaughlin, P. V., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A phenomenological description of microfailure under monotonic and cyclic loading is presented, emphasizing the significance of material inhomogeneity for the analysis. Failure in unnotched unidirectional laminates is reviewed for the cases of tension, compression, shear, transverse normal, and combined loads. The failure of notched composite laminates is then studied, with particular attention paid to the effect of material heterogeneity on load concentration factors in circular holes in such laminates, and a 'materials engineering' shear-lay type model is presented. The fatigue of notched composites is discussed with the application of 'mechanistic wearout' model for determining crack propagation as a function of the number of fatigue cycles.-

  13. Magnetic porous composite material: Synthesis and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretyat'ko, P. I.; Kulikov, L. A.; Melikhov, I. V.; Perfil'ev, Yu. D.; Pal', A. F.; Timofeev, M. A.; Gudoshnikov, S. A.; Usov, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    A new method of obtaining magnetic porous composite materials is described, which is based on the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) in the form of solid-phase combustion. The SHS process involves transformation of the nonmagnetic ?-Fe2O3 particles (contained in the initial mixture) into magnetic Fe3O4 particles. The synthesized material comprises a porous carbonaceous matrix with immobilized Fe3O4 particles. The obtained composite has been characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Mssbauer spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. The sorption capacity of the porous material has been studied.

  14. Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures as cathode materials for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.H.; Ren, H.M.; Huang, Y.Y.; Chang, F.H.; Zhang, P.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} composites as a high-performance cathode material for flexible lithium-ion batteries have been prepared by using a co-precipitation method to synthesize graphene/LiFePO4 powders as precursors and then followed by a solvent evaporation process. - Highlights: Flexible LiFePO{sub 4}/graphene films were prepared first time by a solvent evaporation process. The flexible electrode exhibited a high discharge capacity without conductive additives. Graphene network offers the electrode adequate strength to withstand repeated flexing. - Abstract: Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures for flexible lithium-ion batteries were successfully prepared by solvent evaporation method. Structural characteristics of flexible electrodes were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical performance of graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} was examined by a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures showed high electrochemical properties and significant flexibility. The composites with low graphene content exhibited a high capacity of 163.7 mAh g{sup ?1} at 0.1 C and 114 mAh g{sup ?1} at 5 C without further incorporation of conductive agents.

  15. Thermal evaporation furnace with improved configuration for growing nanostructured inorganic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joanni, E.; Savu, R.; Valadares, L.; Cilense, M.; Zaghete, M. A.

    2011-06-01

    A tubular furnace specifically designed for growing nanostructured materials is presented in this work. The configuration allows an accurate control of evaporation temperature, substrate temperature, total pressure, oxygen partial pressure, volumetric flow and source-substrate distance, with the possibility of performing both downstream and upstream depositions. In order to illustrate the versatility of the equipment, the furnace was used for growing semiconducting oxide nanostructures under different deposition conditions. Highly crystalline indium oxide nanowires with different morphologies were synthesized by evaporating mixtures of indium oxide and graphite powders with different mass ratios at temperatures between 900 C and 1050 C. The nanostructured layers were deposited onto oxidized silicon substrates with patterned gold catalyst in the temperature range from 600 C to 900 C. Gas sensors based on these nanowires exhibited enhanced sensitivity towards oxygen, with good response and recovery times.

  16. Thermal evaporation furnace with improved configuration for growing nanostructured inorganic materials.

    PubMed

    Joanni, E; Savu, R; Valadares, L; Cilense, M; Zaghete, M A

    2011-06-01

    A tubular furnace specifically designed for growing nanostructured materials is presented in this work. The configuration allows an accurate control of evaporation temperature, substrate temperature, total pressure, oxygen partial pressure, volumetric flow and source-substrate distance, with the possibility of performing both downstream and upstream depositions. In order to illustrate the versatility of the equipment, the furnace was used for growing semiconducting oxide nanostructures under different deposition conditions. Highly crystalline indium oxide nanowires with different morphologies were synthesized by evaporating mixtures of indium oxide and graphite powders with different mass ratios at temperatures between 900 C and 1050 C. The nanostructured layers were deposited onto oxidized silicon substrates with patterned gold catalyst in the temperature range from 600 C to 900 C. Gas sensors based on these nanowires exhibited enhanced sensitivity towards oxygen, with good response and recovery times. PMID:21721724

  17. Materials analysis by ultrasonics: Metals, ceramics, composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex (editor)

    1987-01-01

    Research results in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing structural materials from metals and ceramics to composites are presented. General topics covered by the conference included: status and advances in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing material microstructures and mechanical properties; status and prospects for ultrasonic measurements of microdamage, degradation, and underlying morphological factors; status and problems in precision measurements of frequency-dependent velocity and attenuation for materials analysis; procedures and requirements for automated, digital signal acquisition, processing, analysis, and interpretation; incentives for analytical ultrasonics in materials research and materials processing, testing, and inspection; and examples of progress in ultrasonics for interrelating microstructure, mechanical properties, and dynamic response.

  18. A review of nanostructured lithium ion battery materials via low temperature synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiajun

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured materials afford us new opportunities to improve the current technology for synthesizing Li ion batteries. Generating nanomaterials with new properties via an inexpensive approach offers a tremendous potential for realizing high performance Li-ion batteries. In this review, I mainly summarize some of the recent progress made, and describe the patents awarded on synthesizing nanostructured cathode materials for these batteries via low temperature wet- chemistry methods. From an economical view, such syntheses, especially hydrothermal synthesis, may offer the opportunities for significantly lowering the cost of manufacturing battery materials, while conferring distinct environmental advantages. Recent advances in in-situ (real time) X-ray diffraction for studying hydrothermal synthesis have great potential for bettering the rational design of advanced lithium-electrode materials. The development of this technique also will be discussed. PMID:22747718

  19. Advanced composite materials for optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2013-09-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) have been well established in optomechanical systems for several decades. The other three classes of composites; metal matrix composites (MMCs), ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), and carbon matrix composites (CAMCs) are making significant inroads. The latter include carbon/carbon (C/C) composites (CCCs). The success of composites has resulted in increasing use in consumer, industrial, scientific, and aerospace/defense optomechanical applications. Composites offer significant advantages over traditional materials, including high stiffnesses and strengths, near-zero and tailorable coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs), tailorable thermal conductivities (from very low to over twice that of copper), and low densities. In addition, they lack beryllium's toxicity problems. Some manufacturing processes allow parts consolidation, reducing machining and joining operations. At present, PMCs are the most widely used composites. Optomechanical applications date from the 1970s. The second High Energy Astrophysical Observatory spacecraft, placed in orbit in 1978, had an ultrahigh-modulus carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy (carbon/epoxy) optical bench metering structure. Since then, fibers and matrix materials have advanced significantly, and use of carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs) has increased steadily. Space system examples include the Hubble Space Telescope metering truss and instrument benches, Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), James Webb Space Telescope and many others. Use has spread to airborne applications, such as SOFIA. Perhaps the most impressive CFRP applications are the fifty-four 12m and twelve 7m moveable ground-based ALMA antennas. The other three classes of composites have a number of significant advantages over PMCs, including no moisture absorption or outgassing of organic compounds. CCC and CMC components have flown on a variety of spacecraft. MMCs have been used in space, aircraft, military and industrial applications. In this paper, we review key PMC, MMC, CCC, and CMC optomechanical system materials, including properties, advantages, disadvantages, applications and future developments. These topics are covered in more detail in SPIE short courses SC218 and SC1078.

  20. Novel applications exploiting the thermal properties of nanostructured materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, J. A.

    1998-11-20

    A new class of heat transfer fluids, termed nanofluids, has been developed by suspending nanocrystalline particles in liquids. Due to the orders-of-magnitude larger thermal conductivities of solids compared to those of liquids such as water, significantly enhanced thermal properties are obtained with nanofluids. The use of nanofluids could impact many industrial sectors, including transportation, energy supply and production, electronics, textiles, and paper production by, for example, decreasing pumping power needs or reducing heat exchanger sizes. In contrast to the enhancement in effective thermal transport rates that is obtained when nanoparticles are suspended in fluids, nanocrystalline coatings are expected to exhibit reduced thermal conductivities compared to coarse-grained coatings. Reduced thermal conductivities are predicted to arise because of a reduction in the mean free path of phonons due to presence of grain boundaries. This behavior, combined with improved mechanical properties, makes nanostructured zirconia coatings excellent candidates for future applications as thermal barriers.

  1. Multifunctional iron-based metal oxide nanostructured materials: Synthesis, characterization, and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Tae-Jin

    Iron-based metal oxides, such as iron oxides, iron-containing perovskites, and iron-containing perovskite composites or solid solutions, are promising materials for the design and synthesis of technologically important multifunctional materials. They are noteworthy for their unique and diverse properties including electronic, magnetic, and elastic ones. Stimulated by interest in the bulk properties of these materials as well as scientific potential and applications at the nanoscale, iron-based metal oxide nanostructured (FeMONS) materials are being considered as an interesting model system to investigate fundamental properties and for a host of potential applications as diverse as additives, catalysts, electronic devices, magnetic recording media, information storage, spintronics, and sensors. Recent research on a multiferroic system, such as BiFeO3, reveals that there are unique couplings among the independent physical properties including ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, and ferroelasticity. Developing approaches to designing as well as investigating properties of new synthetic formulations of these transition metal oxide nanomaterials has been the recent focus of much of our efforts in this group. Multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO 3) nanoparticles have been synthesized employing a facile sol-gel method and their size-dependent magnetic properties have been studied and correlated with: (i) increased suppression of the known spiral spin structure (period length of 62 nm) with decreasing nanoparticle size and (ii) uncompensated spins and strain anisotropies at the surface. Moreover, BiFeO 3 nanotubes have been generated using a modified template methodology and extensively characterized. Furthermore, solid solutions of BiFeO 3 and typical perovskites, such as BaTiO3 and SrTiO 3, have been prepared employing a molten salt method and the study has been extended to properties associated with their inherent compositions. Single-crystalline Bi2Fe4O9 nanocubes have been fabricated utilizing a molten salt method and the role of various experimental parameters has been examined towards predictive control of shape and size. Single-crystalline iron oxide (a-Fe2O3) rhombohedra have been generated using environmentally friendly protocols and transformed into aggregates of magnetic nanocomposites of Fe and Fe3O4.

  2. Effective load transfer by a chromium carbide nanostructure in a multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper matrix composite.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seungchan; Kikuchi, Keiko; Kawasaki, Akira; Kwon, Hansang; Kim, Yangdo

    2012-08-10

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced copper (Cu) matrix composites, which exhibit chromium (Cr) carbide nanostructures at the MWCNT/Cu interface, were prepared through a carbide formation using CuCr alloy powder. The fully densified and oriented MWCNTs dispersed throughout the composites were prepared using spark plasma sintering (SPS) followed by hot extrusion. The tensile strengths of the MWCNT/CuCr composites increased with increasing MWCNTs content, while the tensile strength of MWCNT/Cu composite decreased from that of monolithic Cu. The enhanced tensile strength of the MWCNT/CuCr composites is a result of possible load-transfer mechanisms of the interfacial Cr carbide nanostructures. The multi-wall failure of MWCNTs observed in the fracture surface of the MWCNT/CuCr composites indicates an improvement in the load-bearing capacity of the MWCNTs. This result shows that the Cr carbide nanostructures effectively transferred the tensile load to the MWCNTs during fracture through carbide nanostructure formation in the MWCNT/Cu composite. PMID:22797555

  3. Surface-hardened nanostructured Ti- and Zr-matrix composites for medical and engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Kukareko, V. A.; Legostaeva, E. V.; Byeli, A. V.

    2011-03-01

    Combined studies have been conducted on the structural-phase state and physical-mechanical and tribological properties of nanostructured titanium and zirconium subjected to ion-beam implantation or microplasma oxidation. Low-temperature ion-beam nitriding of the materials examined is shown to provide a 25-35-fold increase in the wear resistance of their surface layers and a 40% decrease in the friction coefficient for tribological interaction with contact surfaces. Microplasma oxidation of titanium in aqueous solution of phosphoric acid, hydroxylapatite and calcium carbonate powders enables calcium-phosphate coatings with high physical-mechanical properties to be produced. Tribological tests in a dry friction regime and in isotonic solution of sodium chloride have revealed that a nanostructured titanium substrate-calcium phosphate coating biocomposite exhibits a fairly high friction coefficient (0.4-1.0) in tribological interactions with ultrahigh molecular-weight polyethylene or bone tissue. A substantial improvement in the tribotechnical properties of nanostructured titanium and zirconium with modified surface layers makes them very promising materials for medical and engineering applications.

  4. Nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries: Surface conductivity vs. bulk

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Dominic

    Nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries: Surface conductivity vs. bulk ion cathode materials for high capacity lithium-ion batteries. Owing to their inherently low electronic-ion batteries. Lithium transition metal phosphates such as LiFePO4,1 LiMnPO4,2 Li3V2(PO4)3 3 and LiVPO4F4 have

  5. Ceramic Aerogel Composite Materials and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Aerogels a.k.a "Solid Smoke" are gels with the liquid phase replaced by gas, leaving behind a highly porous material with a nanoscale framework. Due to the porous, nanoscale structure, aerogels have the lowest known density and conductivity of solids. Aerogels have the potential for being a breakthrough material because of their extremely light weight and unique properties. In this paper, we address overcoming their most profound weaknesses: mechanical fragility and very high surface activity, which leads to a lowered sintering temperature. A matrix of ceramic aerogel composite materials was produced to investigate their properties and functionality. Mechanical property measurements and Scanning Electron Micrographs are used to identify trends and structure of these ceramic composite materials. Thermal cycling was used to identify the sintering points of the materials.

  6. Tensile failure criteria for fiber composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, B. W.; Zweben, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    The analysis provides insight into the failure mechanics of these materials and defines criteria which serve as tools for preliminary design material selection and for material reliability assessment. The model incorporates both dispersed and propagation type failures and includes the influence of material heterogeneity. The important effects of localized matrix damage and post-failure matrix shear stress transfer are included in the treatment. The model is used to evaluate the influence of key parameters on the failure of several commonly used fiber-matrix systems. Analyses of three possible failure modes were developed. These modes are the fiber break propagation mode, the cumulative group fracture mode, and the weakest link mode. Application of the new model to composite material systems has indicated several results which require attention in the development of reliable structural composites. Prominent among these are the size effect and the influence of fiber strength variability.

  7. Properties of five toughened matrix composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Dow, Marvin B.

    1992-01-01

    The use of toughened matrix composite materials offers an attractive solution to the problem of poor damage tolerance associated with advanced composite materials. In this study, the unidirectional laminate strengths and moduli, notched (open-hole) and unnotched tension and compression properties of quasi-isotropic laminates, and compression-after-impact strengths of five carbon fiber/toughened matrix composites, IM7/E7T1-2, IM7/X1845, G40-800X/5255-3, IM7/5255-3, and IM7/5260 have been evaluated. The compression-after-impact (CAI) strengths were determined primarily by impacting quasi-isotropic laminates with the NASA Langley air gun. A few CAI tests were also made with a drop-weight impactor. For a given impact energy, compression after impact strengths were determined to be dependent on impactor velocity. Properties and strengths for the five materials tested are compared with NASA data on other toughened matrix materials (IM7/8551-7, IM6/1808I, IM7/F655, and T800/F3900). This investigation found that all five materials were stronger and more impact damage tolerant than more brittle carbon/epoxy composite materials currently used in aircraft structures.

  8. Impact testing of textile composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portanova, Marc

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this report were to evaluate the impact damage resistance and damage tolerance of a variety of textile composite materials. Static indentation and impact tests were performed on the stitched and unstitched uniweave composites constructed from AS4/3501-6 Carbon/Epoxy with a fiberglass yarn woven in to hold the fibers together while being stitched. Compression and tension were measured after the tests to determine the damage resistance, residual strength and the damage tolerance of the specimens.

  9. Redox preparation of mixed-valence cobalt manganese oxide nanostructured materials: highly efficient noble metal-free electrocatalysts for sensing hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Cheng-Chi; Lan, Wen-Jie; Chen, Chun-Hu

    2013-12-01

    High-performance hydrogen peroxide sensors provide valuable signals of biological interactions, disorders, and developing of diseases. Low-cost metal oxides are promising alternatives but suffer from low conductivity and sensing activity. Multi-component metal oxides are excellent candidates to accomplish these challenges, but the composition inhomogeneity is difficult to manage with conventional material preparation. We demonstrated redox preparation strategies to successfully synthesize highly homogeneous, noble metal-free H2O2 sensors of spinel nanostructured cobalt manganese oxides with enhanced conductivity, multiple mixed-valence features, and efficient H2O2 sensing activities. The designed redox reactions accompanied with material nucleation/formation are the key factors for compositional homogeneity. High conductivity (1.5 10-2 S cm-1) and H2O2 sensing activity (12 times higher than commercial Co3O4) were achieved due to the homogeneous multiple mixed-valence systems of Co(ii)/(iii) and Mn(iii)/(iv). A wide linear detection range (from 0.1 to 25 mM) with a detection limit of 15 ?M was observed. Manganese species assist the formation of large surface area nanostructures, enhancing the H2O2 reduction activities, and inhibit the sensing interference. The material controls of hierarchical nanostructures, elemental compositions, porosity, and electrochemical performances are highly associated with the reaction temperatures. The temperature-dependent properties and nanostructure formation mechanisms based on a reaction rate competition are proposed.High-performance hydrogen peroxide sensors provide valuable signals of biological interactions, disorders, and developing of diseases. Low-cost metal oxides are promising alternatives but suffer from low conductivity and sensing activity. Multi-component metal oxides are excellent candidates to accomplish these challenges, but the composition inhomogeneity is difficult to manage with conventional material preparation. We demonstrated redox preparation strategies to successfully synthesize highly homogeneous, noble metal-free H2O2 sensors of spinel nanostructured cobalt manganese oxides with enhanced conductivity, multiple mixed-valence features, and efficient H2O2 sensing activities. The designed redox reactions accompanied with material nucleation/formation are the key factors for compositional homogeneity. High conductivity (1.5 10-2 S cm-1) and H2O2 sensing activity (12 times higher than commercial Co3O4) were achieved due to the homogeneous multiple mixed-valence systems of Co(ii)/(iii) and Mn(iii)/(iv). A wide linear detection range (from 0.1 to 25 mM) with a detection limit of 15 ?M was observed. Manganese species assist the formation of large surface area nanostructures, enhancing the H2O2 reduction activities, and inhibit the sensing interference. The material controls of hierarchical nanostructures, elemental compositions, porosity, and electrochemical performances are highly associated with the reaction temperatures. The temperature-dependent properties and nanostructure formation mechanisms based on a reaction rate competition are proposed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03791f

  10. Health monitoring method for composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Jr., Kenneth S. (Dahlonega, GA); Morris, Shelby J. (Hampton, VA)

    2011-04-12

    An in-situ method for monitoring the health of a composite component utilizes a condition sensor made of electrically conductive particles dispersed in a polymeric matrix. The sensor is bonded or otherwise formed on the matrix surface of the composite material. Age-related shrinkage of the sensor matrix results in a decrease in the resistivity of the condition sensor. Correlation of measured sensor resistivity with data from aged specimens allows indirect determination of mechanical damage and remaining age of the composite component.

  11. Computational modeling of composite material fires.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Alexander L.; Erickson, Kenneth L.; Hubbard, Joshua Allen; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2010-10-01

    Composite materials behave differently from conventional fuel sources and have the potential to smolder and burn for extended time periods. As the amount of composite materials on modern aircraft continues to increase, understanding the response of composites in fire environments becomes increasingly important. An effort is ongoing to enhance the capability to simulate composite material response in fires including the decomposition of the composite and the interaction with a fire. To adequately model composite material in a fire, two physical model development tasks are necessary; first, the decomposition model for the composite material and second, the interaction with a fire. A porous media approach for the decomposition model including a time dependent formulation with the effects of heat, mass, species, and momentum transfer of the porous solid and gas phase is being implemented in an engineering code, ARIA. ARIA is a Sandia National Laboratories multiphysics code including a range of capabilities such as incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, energy transport equations, species transport equations, non-Newtonian fluid rheology, linear elastic solid mechanics, and electro-statics. To simulate the fire, FUEGO, also a Sandia National Laboratories code, is coupled to ARIA. FUEGO represents the turbulent, buoyantly driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and combustion. FUEGO and ARIA are uniquely able to solve this problem because they were designed using a common architecture (SIERRA) that enhances multiphysics coupling and both codes are capable of massively parallel calculations, enhancing performance. The decomposition reaction model is developed from small scale experimental data including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in both nitrogen and air for a range of heating rates and from available data in the literature. The response of the composite material subject to a radiant heat flux boundary condition is examined to study the propagation of decomposition fronts of the epoxy and carbon fiber and their dependence on the ambient conditions such as oxygen concentration, surface flow velocity, and radiant heat flux. In addition to the computational effort, small scaled experimental efforts to attain adequate data used to validate model predictions is ongoing. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the progress of the capability for a typical composite material and emphasize the path forward.

  12. [The application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, M V; Akimov, A V; Bagautdinov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to estimate the effectiveness of the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum. A total of 80 patients were recruited for the study. Half of them underwent plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material. Forty patients were treated using no biotransplants. The functional state of nasal cavity mucosa was evaluated before and after surgery. It is concluded that the nanostructured bioplastic material used in the present study ensures efficacious reconstruction of nasal septum integrity after plastic correction of septal perforations. PMID:25588475

  13. Composite materials and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Uribe, Francisco A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Garzon, Fernando H. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2009-09-15

    A method of depositing noble metals on a metal hexaboride support. The hexaboride support is sufficiently electropositive to allow noble metals to deposit spontaneously from solutions containing ionic species of such metals onto the support. The method permits the deposition of metallic films of controlled thickness and particle size at room temperature without using separate reducing agents. Composite materials comprising noble metal films deposited on such metal hexaborides are also described. Such composite materials may be used as catalysts, thermionic emitters, electrical contacts, electrodes, adhesion layers, and optical coatings.

  14. Challenges in Applying Surface Analysis Methods to Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Gaspar, Dan J.; Matson, Dean W.; Pecher, Klaus H.; Williams, Josh R.; Wang, Chong M.

    2005-03-01

    Nanostructured materials of various types and forms are formulated in a variety of novel ways and increasingly subject to many types of chemical and physical analysis. Since nanomaterial systems contain a relatively large amount of surface or interface area, it should be natural to characterize them using tools designed to analyze surfaces and interfaces. We have found that nanoparticles and other nanostructured materials present a variety of challenges. This paper reviews environmental effects on measurements of Ce-oxide nanoparticles and nanoporous silica films and focuses on efforts to quantify the ion damage and sputter rates for the Fe-oxide nanoparticles. We have found that nanoparticles appear more readily damaged and to have sputter rates that exceed bulk materials. To verify such effects, we need to know many details about size, size distribution, density, and shape that are not always easily obtained.

  15. Data-mined similarity function between material compositions

    E-print Network

    Yang, Lusann

    A new method for assessing the similarity of material compositions is described. A similarity measure is important for the classification and clustering of compositions. The similarity of the material compositions is ...

  16. Statistical Analysis of Particle Distributions in Composite Materials

    E-print Network

    Wichert, Sofia

    Statistical Analysis of Particle Distributions in Composite Materials by Sofia Mucharreira de Distributions in Composite Materials Sofia Mucharreira de Azeredo Lopes Summary Particulate composite materials distributions is of prime importance for a better control of the production of particulate composite materials

  17. Synthesis and analysis of nanostructured composite particles from gas-saturated solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil'mutdinov, I. I.; Gil'mutdinov, I. M.; Kuznetsova, I. V.; Sabirzyanov, A. N.

    2015-05-01

    Ibuprofen/polyethylene glycol 4000 and methylparaben/polyethylene glycol 4000 nanostructured composite particles are synthesized from gas-saturated solutions (PGSS, particles from gas saturated solution). The dependences of the mean size of composite particles on pressure, temperature, and the expansion channel diameter are revealed. The studies are conducted in the pressure range of 10 to 30 MPa, at temperatures ranging from 40 to 80C, and for expansion channel diameters in the range of 200 to 500 ?m. The physicochemical properties of the composite particles are investigated using a differential scanning calorimeter and phase analysis is performed by means of X-ray diffraction. The composition of composite particles is determined via mass spectrometric analysis. Chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electronic ionization is used for the quantitative analysis of ibuprofen, while mass spectrometry of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is used in the analysis of polyethylene glycol 4000. The dependence of the concentration of components in composite particles on pressure is obtained.

  18. The energetics of adhesion in composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Philip Hiram

    Composite materials are used throughout modern society, and often the most important parameter in determining their properties is the adhesion at material interfaces within the composite. A broad investigation is completed, the global objective of which is to develop understanding of the role of adhesion in composite materials. The scope of this study ranges from macroscopic effects of adhesion on filled polymer composites to microscopic adhesion measurements with engineered interfaces. The surface of a filler material is systematically modified and surface characterization techniques are used to quantify the influence of the surface treatments on surface energetics and wetting properties. Filled polymer composites are prepared and composite mechanical properties determined with beam deflection tests. Filler surface treatments significantly alter the composite yield stress for composites which fail interfacially and are observed to increase or decrease mechanical strength, depending on the chemical nature of the modification. Thermodynamic adhesion mechanisms active at the filler-matrix interfaces are then explored by making direct interfacial strength measurements whereby a single spherical particle is introduced into the polymeric matrix. Interfacial strength is determined by submitting the single-particle composite (SPC) to uni-axial tension and relating the macroscopic stress at interfacial failure to that experienced at the interface. The technique provides a measurement of interfacial strength between two elastic materials, one unaffected by frictional forces, viscoelasticity, and thermal stresses. The SPC measurements are used to verify proposed adhesion mechanisms at the various filler-polymer interfaces and establish the role of adhesion in the filled polymer composites. The SPC technique is then used to investigate the adhesion promotion mechanism of organofunctional silanes, which are shown to be controlled by the compatibility and penetration of the silane organofunctional group. The effects of thermal residual stresses on interfacial strength are also investigated using the SPC technique. Processing conditions, i.e., time-temperature profiles, are used to systematically vary the thermal residual stresses within the polymeric matrix. The interfaces studied are deleteriously affected by increases in thermal residual stresses.

  19. Ground exposure of composite materials for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Residual strength results are presented on four composite material systems that were exposed for three years at locations on the North American Continent. The exposure locations are near the areas where Bell Model 206L Helicopters, that are in a NSA/U.S. Army sponsored flight service program, are flying in daily commercial service. The composite systems are: (1) Kevlar-49 fabric/F-185 epoxy; (2) Kevlar-49 fabric/LRF-277 epoxy; (3) Kevlar-49 fabric/CE-306 epoxy; and (4) T-300 Graphite/E-788 epoxy. All material systems exhibited good strength retention in compression and short beam shear. The Kevlar-49/LRF-277 epoxy retained 88 to 93 percent of the baseline strength while the other material systems exceeded 95 percent of baseline strength. Residual tensile strength of all materials did not show a significant reduction. The available moisture absorption data is also presented.

  20. Frictional Ignition Testing of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta, Steve; Rosales, Keisa; Robinson, Michael J.; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The space flight community has been investigating lightweight composite materials for use in propellant tanks for both liquid and gaseous oxygen for space flight vehicles. The use of these materials presents some risks pertaining to ignition and burning hazards in the presence of oxygen. Through hazard analysis process, some ignition mechanisms have been identified as being potentially credible. One of the ignition mechanisms was reciprocal friction; however, test data do not exist that could be used to clear or fail these types of materials as "oxygen compatible" for the reciprocal friction ignition mechanism. Therefore, testing was performed at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to provide data to evaluate this ignition mechanism. This paper presents the test system, approach, data results, and findings of the reciprocal friction testing performed on composite sample materials being considered for propellant tanks.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic nanostructured materials for advanced energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jin

    The performance of advanced energy storage devices is intimately connected to the designs of electrodes. To enable significant developments in this research field, we need detailed information and knowledge about how the functions and performances of the electrodes depend on their chemical compositions, dimensions, morphologies, and surface properties. This thesis presents my successes in synthesizing and characterizing electrode materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage devices, with much attention given to understanding the operation and fading mechanism of battery electrodes, as well as methods to improve their performances and stabilities. This dissertation is presented within the framework of two energy storage technologies: lithium ion batteries and lithium oxygen batteries. The energy density of lithium ion batteries is determined by the density of electrode materials and their lithium storage capabilities. To improve the overall energy densities of lithium ion batteries, silicon has been proposed to replace lithium intercalation compounds in the battery anodes. However, with a ~400% volume expansion upon fully lithiation, silicon-based anodes face serious capacity degradation in battery operation. To overcome this challenge, heteronanostructure-based Si/TiSi2 were designed and synthesized as anode materials for lithium ion batteries with long cycling life. The performance and morphology relationship was also carefully studied through comparing one-dimensional and two-dimensional heteronanostructure-based silicon anodes. Lithium oxygen batteries, on the other hand, are devices based on lithium conversion chemistries and they offer higher energy densities compared to lithium ion batteries. However, existing carbon based electrodes in lithium oxygen batteries only allow for battery operation with limited capacity, poor stability and low round-trip efficiency. The degradation of electrolytes and carbon electrodes have been found to both contribute to the challenges. The understanding of the synergistic effect between electrolyte decomposition and electrode decomposition, nevertheless, is conspicuously lacking. To better understand the reaction chemistries in lithium oxygen batteries, I designed, synthesized, and studied heteronanostructure-based carbon-free inorganic electrodes, as well as carbon electrodes whose surfaces protected by metal oxide thin films. The new types of electrodes prove to be highly effective in minimizing parasitic reactions, reducing operation overpotentials and boosting battery lifetimes. The improved stability and well-defined electrode morphology also enabled detailed studies on the formation and decomposition of Li2O 2. To summarize, this dissertation presented the synthesis and characterization of inorganic nanostructured materials for advanced energy storage. On a practical level, the new types of materials allow for the immediate advancement of the energy storage technology. On a fundamental level, it helped to better understand reaction chemistries and fading mechanisms of battery electrodes.

  2. Method of making carbon nanotube composite materials

    DOEpatents

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2014-05-20

    The present invention is a method of making a composite polymeric material by dissolving a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes and optionally additives in a solvent to make a solution and removing at least a portion of the solvent after casting onto a substrate to make thin films. The material has enhanced conductivity properties due to the blending of the un-functionalized and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes.

  3. Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chaokun

    Smart materials have been widely investigated to explore new functionalities unavailable to traditional materials or to mimic the multifunctionality of biological systems. Synthetic polymers are particularly attractive as they already possess some of the attributes required for smart materials, and there are vast room to further enhance the existing properties or impart new properties by polymer synthesis or composite formulation. In this work, three types of smart polymer and composites have been investigated with important new applications: (1) healable polymer composites for structural application and healable composite conductor for electronic device application; (2) conducting polymer polypyrrole actuator for implantable medical device application; and (3) ferroelectric polymer and ceramic nanoparticles composites for electrocaloric effect based solid state refrigeration application. These application entail highly challenging materials innovation, and my work has led to significant progress in all three areas. For the healable polymer composites, well known intrinsically healable polymer 2MEP4F (a Diels-Alder crosslinked polymer formed from a monomer with four furan groups and another monomer with two maleimide groups) was first chosen as the matrix reinforced with fiber. Glass fibers were successfully functionalized with maleimide functional groups on their surface. Composites from functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F healable polymer were made to compare with composites made from commercial carbon fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. Dramatically improved short beam shear strength was obtained from composite of functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. The high cost of 2MEP4F polymer can potentially limit the large-scale application of the developed healable composite, we further developed a new healable polymer with much lower cost. This new polymer was formed through the Diels-Alder crosslinking of poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) and 1,1'-(Methylenedi-4,1-phenylene)bismaleimide (MDPB). It showed the same healing ability as 2MEP4F while all starting materials are cheaper and commercially available. To further improve the mechanical strength of the PFA-MDPB healable polymer, epoxy as a strengthening component was mixed with PFA-MDPB healable polymer. The PFA, MDPB and epoxy composite polymers were further reinforced by carbon fiber as done with 2MEP4F matrix and the final composites were proved to have higher short beam shear strength than 2MEP4F while exhibiting a similar healing efficiency. Healable polymer MDPB (a two maleimide groups monomer) -- FGEEDR (a four furan groups monomer) was also designed and synthesized for transparent healable polymer. The MDPB-FGEEDR healable polymer was composited with silver nanowires (AgNWs) to afford healable transparent composite conductor. Razer blade cuts in the composite conductor could heal upon heating to recover the mechanical strength and electrical conductivity of the composite. The healing could be repeated for multiple times on the same cut location. The healing process was as fast as 3 minutes for conductivity to recover 97% of the original value. For electroactive polymer polypyrrole, the fast volume change upon electrical field change due to electrochemical oxidization or reduction was studied for actuation targeting toward a robotic application. The flexibility of polypyrrole was improved via copolymerization with pyrrole derivatives. Actuator devices are fabricated that more suitable for implantable medical device application than pyrrole homopolymer. The change of dipole re-orientation and thus dielectric constant of ferroelectric polymers and ceramics upon electrical field may be exploited for electrocaloric effect (ECE) and solid state refrigeration. For ferroelectric ceramics, we synthesized a series of Ba1-xSrxTiO3 nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 8-12 nm and characterized their dielectric and ferroelectric properties through hysteresis measurement. It was found that 8 nm BaTiO3 nanocrystals are stable at cubic crystal structure without ferroelectric

  4. Wetting, superhydrophobicity, and icephobicity in biomimetic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, Vahid

    Recent developments in nano- and bio-technology require new materials. Among these new classes of materials which have emerged in the recent years are biomimetic materials, which mimic structure and properties of materials found in living nature. There are a large number of biological objects including bacteria, animals and plants with properties of interest for engineers. Among these properties is the ability of the lotus leaf and other natural materials to repel water, which has inspired researchers to prepare similar surfaces. The Lotus effect involving roughness-induced superhydrophobicity is a way to design nonwetting, self-cleaning, omniphobic, icephobic, and antifouling surfaces. The range of actual and potential applications of superhydrophobic surfaces is diverse including optical, building and architecture, textiles, solar panels, lab-on-a-chip, microfluidic devices, and applications requiring antifouling from biological and organic contaminants. In this thesis, in chapter one, we introduce the general concepts and definitions regarding the wetting properties of the surfaces. In chapter two, we develop novel models and conduct experiments on wetting of composite materials. To design sustainable superhydrophobic metal matrix composite (MMC) surfaces, we suggest using hydrophobic reinforcement in the bulk of the material, rather than only at its surface. We experimentally study the wetting properties of graphite-reinforced Al- and Cu-based composites and conclude that the Cu-based MMCs have the potential to be used in the future for the applications where the wear-resistant superhydrophobicity is required. In chapter three, we introduce hydrophobic coating at the surface of concrete materials making them waterproof to prevent material failure, because concretes and ceramics cannot stop water from seeping through them and forming cracks. We create water-repellant concretes with CA close to 160o using superhydrophobic coating. In chapter four, experimental data are collected in terms of oleophobicity especially when underwater applications are of interest. We develop models for four-phase rough interface of underwater oleophobicity and develop a novel approach to predict the CA of organic liquid on the rough surfaces immersed in water. We investigate wetting transition on a patterned surface in underwater systems, using a phase field model. We demonstrated that roughening on an immersed solid surface can drive the transition from Wenzel to Cassie-Baxter state. This discovery improves our understanding of underwater systems and their surface interactions during the wetting phenomenon and can be applied for the development of underwater oil-repellent materials which are of interest for various applications in the water industry, and marine devices. In chapter five, we experimentally and theoretically investigate the icephobicity of composite materials. A novel comprehensive definition of icephobicity, broad enough to cover a variety of situations including low adhesion strength, delayed ice crystallization, and bouncing is determined. Wetting behavior and ice adhesion properties of various samples are theoretically and experimentally compared. We conclude superhydrophobic surfaces are not necessarily icephobic. The models are tested against the experimental data to verify the good agreement between them. The models can be used for the design of novel superhydrophobic, oleophobic, omniphobic and icephobic composite materials. Finally we conclude that creating surface micro/nanostructures using mechanical abrasion or chemical etching as well as applying low energy materials are the most simple, inexpensive, and durable techniques to create superhydrophobic, oleophobic, and icephobic materials.

  5. Method of producing catalytic materials for fabricating nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-02-19

    Methods of fabricating nano-catalysts are described. In some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a powder-based substrate material and is some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a solid-based substrate material. In some embodiments the substrate material may include metal, ceramic, or silicon or another metalloid. The nano-catalysts typically have metal nanoparticles disposed adjacent the surface of the substrate material. The methods typically include functionalizing the surface of the substrate material with a chelating agent, such as a chemical having dissociated carboxyl functional groups (--COO), that provides an enhanced affinity for metal ions. The functionalized substrate surface may then be exposed to a chemical solution that contains metal ions. The metal ions are then bound to the substrate material and may then be reduced, such as by a stream of gas that includes hydrogen, to form metal nanoparticles adjacent the surface of the substrate.

  6. Melamine/Stearic Acid Composite Nanowires and Vesicles with an Intercalated Nanostructure Prepared through NCCM Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Juan; Chen, Dao-yong

    2012-12-01

    A solvent-non-solvent method invented in our laboratory for preparing non-covalently connected micelles (NCCM) was used to intercalate melamine (MA) molecules into stearic acid (SA) bilayers to form the composite nanoparticles with an intercalated nanostructure in which a melamine bilayer is sandwiched between two stearic acid bilayers, NCCM method helps to sufficiently mix the two components in nanospace and meanwhile inhibits the strong tendency of self-crystallization of MA, leading to the intercalation. Although the nanoparticles have a regular inner structure, the primary MA/SA nanoparticles have an irregular morphology. Regular nanoparticles were obtained through annealing the suspension of the primary nanoparticles. Through annealing at different temperatures, the MA/SA composite nanowires and vesicles with an intercalated structure were prepared respectively. It is proposed that the morphological change results from the change in the intercalated structure.

  7. High capacitive performance of nanostructured Mn-Ni-Co oxide composites for supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Jianmin; Gao Bo; Zhang Xiaogang

    2008-05-06

    Nanostructured Mn-Ni-Co oxide composites (MNCO) were prepared by thermal decomposition of the precursor obtained by chemical co-precipitation of Mn, Ni and Co salts. The chemical composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical capacitance of MNCO electrode was examined by cyclic voltammetry, impedance and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The results showed that MNCO electrode exhibited the good electrochemical characteristics. A maximum capacitance value of 1260 F g{sup -1} could be obtained within the potential range of -0.1 to 0.4 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE) in 6 mol L{sup -1} KOH electrolyte.

  8. Composite materials for rail transit systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Guerdal, Zafer; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    The potential is explored for using composite materials in urban mass transit systems. The emphasis was to identify specific advantages of composite materials in order to determine their actual and potential usage for carbody and guideway structure applications. The literature was reviewed, contacts were made with major domestic system operators, designers, and builders, and an analysis was made of potential composite application to railcar construction. Composites were found to be in use throughout the transit industry, usually in secondary or auxiliary applications such as car interior and nonstructural exterior panels. More recently, considerable activity has been initiated in the area of using composites in the load bearing elements of civil engineering structures such as highway bridges. It is believed that new and improved manufacturing refinements in pultrusion and filament winding will permit the production of beam sections which can be used in guideway structures. The inherent corrosion resistance and low maintenance characteristics of composites should result in lowered maintenance costs over a prolonged life of the structure.

  9. n-Type nanostructured thermoelectric materials prepared from chemically synthesized ultrathin Bi2Te3 nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Son, Jae Sung; Choi, Moon Kee; Han, Mi-Kyung; Park, Kunsu; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Lim, Seong Joon; Oh, Myunghwan; Kuk, Young; Park, Chan; Kim, Sung-Jin; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2012-02-01

    We herein report on the large-scale synthesis of ultrathin Bi(2)Te(3) nanoplates and subsequent spark plasma sintering to fabricate n-type nanostructured bulk thermoelectric materials. Bi(2)Te(3) nanoplates were synthesized by the reaction between bismuth thiolate and tri-n-octylphosphine telluride in oleylamine. The thickness of the nanoplates was ~1 nm, which corresponds to a single layer in Bi(2)Te(3) crystals. Bi(2)Te(3) nanostructured bulk materials were prepared by sintering of surfactant-removed Bi(2)Te(3) nanoplates using spark plasma sintering. We found that the grain size and density were strongly dependent on the sintering temperature, and we investigated the effect of the sintering temperature on the thermoelectric properties of the Bi(2)Te(3) nanostructured bulk materials. The electrical conductivities increased with an increase in the sintering temperature, owing to the decreased interface density arising from the grain growth and densification. The Seebeck coefficients roughly decreased with an increase in the sintering temperature. Interestingly, the electron concentrations and mobilities strongly depended on the sintering temperature, suggesting the potential barrier scattering at interfaces and the doping effect of defects and organic residues. The thermal conductivities also increased with an increase in the sintering temperature because of grain growth and densification. The maximum thermoelectric figure-of-merit, ZT, is 0.62 at 400 K, which is one of the highest among the reported values of n-type nanostructured materials based on chemically synthesized nanoparticles. This increase in ZT shows the possibility of the preparation of highly efficient thermoelectric materials by chemical synthesis. PMID:22268842

  10. Thermoplastic Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casula, G.; Lenzi, F.; Vitiello, C.

    2008-08-01

    Mechanical and thermo-physical properties of composites materials with thermoplastic matrix (PEEK/IM7, TPI/IM7 and PPS/IM7) used for aerospace applications have been analyzed as function of two different process techniques: compression molding and fiber placement process "hot gas assisted."

  11. Composite materials for the extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrera, Enrique V.; Tello, Hector M.

    1992-01-01

    The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), commonly known as the astronaut space suit assembly (SSA) and primary life support system (PLSS), has evolved through the years to incorporate new and innovative materials in order to meet the demands of the space environment. The space shuttle program which is seeing an increasing level of extravehicular activity (EVA), also called space walks, along with interest in an EMU for Lunar-Mars missions means even more demanding conditions are being placed on the suit and PLSS. The project for this NASA-ASEE Summer Program was to investigate new materials for these applications. The focus was to emphasize the use of composite materials for every component of the EMU to enhance the properties while reducing the total weight of the EMU. To accomplish this, development of new materials called fullerene reinforced materials (FRM's) was initiated. Fullerenes are carbon molecules which when added to a material significantly reduce the weight of that material. The Faculty Fellow worked directly on the development of the fullerene reinforced materials. A chamber for fullerene production was designed and assembled and first generation samples were processed. He also supervised with the JSC Colleague, a study of composite materials for the EMU conducted by the student participant in the NASA-ASEE Program, Hector Tello a Rice University graduate student, and by a NASA Aerospace Technologist (Materials Engineer) Evelyne Orndoff, in the Systems Engineering Analysis Office (EC7), also a Rice University graduate student. Hector Tello conducted a study on beryllium and Be alloys and initiated a study of carbon and glass reinforced composites for space applications. Evelyne Orndoff compiled an inventory of the materials on the SSA. Ms. Orndoff also reviewed SSA material requirements and cited aspects of the SSA design where composite materials might be further considered. Hector Tello spent part of his time investigating the solar radiation sensitivity of anodic coatings. This project was directed toward the effects of ultra-violet radiation on high emissivity anodic coatings. The work of both Evelyne Orndoff and Hector Tello is of interest to the Engineering Directorate at NASA/JSC and is also directed toward their research as Rice University graduate students.

  12. Research High-temperature Consolidation of Nanostructured Bimodal Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedova, E.; Aleksandrova, E.; Grigoryev, E.; Olevsky, E.

    In this paper the high-temperature consolidation of bimodal powder mixtures was investigated by using technology spark-plasma sintering (SPS). Nano- and micropowders of pure copper have been used as the initial material mixture. As result, it was studied influence of sintering parameters on the final density, microstructure and mechanical properties of bulk compact bimodal materials.

  13. Antireflection effects at nanostructured material interfaces and the suppression of thin-film interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiaoyin; Zhang, Xu A.; Bagal, Abhijeet; Guo, Wei; Chang, Chih-Hao

    2013-06-01

    Thin-film interference is a well-known effect, and it is commonly observed in the colored appearance of many natural phenomena. Caused by the interference of light reflected from the interfaces of thin material layers, such interference effects can lead to wavelength and angle-selective behavior in thin-film devices. In this work, we describe the use of interfacial nanostructures to eliminate interference effects in thin films. Using the same principle inspired by moth-eye structures, this approach creates an effective medium where the index is gradually varying between the neighboring materials. We present the fabrication process for such nanostructures at a polymer-silicon interface, and experimentally demonstrate its effectiveness in suppressing thin-film interference. The principle demonstrated in this work can lead to enhanced efficiency and reduce wavelength/angle sensitivity in multilayer optoelectronic devices.

  14. Antireflection effects at nanostructured material interfaces and the suppression of thin-film interference.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiaoyin; Zhang, Xu A; Bagal, Abhijeet; Guo, Wei; Chang, Chih-Hao

    2013-06-14

    Thin-film interference is a well-known effect, and it is commonly observed in the colored appearance of many natural phenomena. Caused by the interference of light reflected from the interfaces of thin material layers, such interference effects can lead to wavelength and angle-selective behavior in thin-film devices. In this work, we describe the use of interfacial nanostructures to eliminate interference effects in thin films. Using the same principle inspired by moth-eye structures, this approach creates an effective medium where the index is gradually varying between the neighboring materials. We present the fabrication process for such nanostructures at a polymer-silicon interface, and experimentally demonstrate its effectiveness in suppressing thin-film interference. The principle demonstrated in this work can lead to enhanced efficiency and reduce wavelength/angle sensitivity in multilayer optoelectronic devices. PMID:23676429

  15. ACEE Composite Structures Technology: Review of selected NASA research on composite materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Composite Primary Aircraft Structures Program was designed to develop technology for advanced composites in commercial aircraft. Research on composite materials, aircraft structures, and aircraft design is presented herein. The following parameters of composite materials were addressed: residual strength, damage tolerance, toughness, tensile strength, impact resistance, buckling, and noise transmission within composite materials structures.

  16. High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof

    DOEpatents

    Graetz, Jason A. (Upton, NY); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Ahn, Channing (Pasadena, CA); Yazami, Rachid (Los Angeles, CA)

    2010-08-24

    Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0

  17. Using High Magnetic Fields to Study the Electronic Properties of Semiconductor Materials and Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patan, A.; Eaves, L.

    This chapter examines the physics of electron motion in the presence of a magnetic field, with particular reference to recent applications in which high magnetic fields have been used to elucidate the electronic and quantum properties of some novel semiconductor materials, heterostructures, and nanostructures. We describe how magneto-tunneling spectroscopy can be used to measure the band structure of semiconductors and to investigate and manipulate the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of electrons confined in low-dimensional systems.

  18. CRYOGENIC ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES OVER NANO-STRUCTURED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, S.; Heung, L.

    2010-10-07

    Porous materials such as zeolites, activated carbon, silica gels, alumina and a number of industrial catalysts are compared and ranked for hydrogen and deuterium adsorption at liquid nitrogen temperature. All samples show higher D{sub 2} adsorption than that of H{sub 2}, in which a HY sample has the greatest isotopic effect while 13X has the highest hydrogen uptake capacity. Material's moisture content has significant impact to its hydrogen uptake. A material without adequate drying could result in complete loss of its adsorption capacity. Even though some materials present higher H{sub 2} adsorption capacity at full pressure, their adsorption at low vapor pressure may not be as good as others. Adsorption capacity in a dynamic system is much less than in a static system. A sharp desorption is also expected in case of temperature upset.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of novel nanostructured thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Burda, Clemens

    2005-08-01

    Having been hibernated for almost 50 years, research in thermoelectric materials is beginning to regain activity because of the recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Thermoelectric is an old topic, which was discovered as early as 1821 by Thomas Johann Seebeck. During the following 120 years, great advances in both the theories and experiments were achieved. Since the 1950s, studies in thermoelectric have developed very little, because of the painful difficulties in elevating the efficiency of these kinds of materials. The efficiency of thermoelectric materials is determined by a dimensionless parameter--figure of merit (ZT), given by ZT = S2?T/? where T is the temperature, S is the thermoelectric power (or Seebeck coefficient), ? is the electrical conductivity, and ? is the thermal conductivity. The best commercially available thermoelectric materials nowadays have a ZT around 1.0, which can be only used in some special cases. To be competitive to the kitchen refrigerators or air-conditioners, a ZT >= 3 at room temperature is required. Recently, some exciting results indicated that higher ZT values can be realized by nanoengineering of these materials. Both theoretical calculations and experimental modulations have shown the promising potentials in the elevation of the efficiency of thermoelectric materials.

  20. Surface Anchoring of Nematic Phase on Carbon Nanotubes: Nanostructure of Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ogale, Amod A

    2012-04-27

    Nuclear energy is a dependable and economical source of electricity. Because fuel supply sources are available domestically, nuclear energy can be a strong domestic industry that can reduce dependence on foreign energy sources. Commercial nuclear power plants have extensive security measures to protect the facility from intruders [1]. However, additional research efforts are needed to increase the inherent process safety of nuclear energy plants to protect the public in the event of a reactor malfunction. The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) is envisioned to utilize a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design with an operating temperature of 650-1000?°C [2]. One of the most important safety design requirements for this reactor is that it must be inherently safe, i.e., the reactor must shut down safely in the event that the coolant flow is interrupted [2]. This next-generation Gen IV reactor must operate in an inherently safe mode where the off-normal temperatures may reach 1500?°C due to coolant-flow interruption. Metallic alloys used currently in reactor internals will melt at such temperatures. Structural materials that will not melt at such ultra-high temperatures are carbon/graphtic fibers and carbon-matrix composites. Graphite does not have a measurable melting point; it is known to sublime starting about 3300?°C. However, neutron radiation-damage effects on carbon fibers are poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this project is to obtain a fundamental understanding of the role of nanotexture on the properties of resulting carbon fibers and their neutron-damage characteristics. Although polygranular graphite has been used in nuclear environment for almost fifty years, it is not suitable for structural applications because it do not possess adequate strength, stiffness, or toughness that is required of structural components such as reaction control-rods, upper plenum shroud, and lower core-support plate [2,3]. For structural purposes, composites consisting of strong carbon fibers embedded in a carbon matrix are needed. Such carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have been used in aerospace industry to produce missile nose cones, space shuttle leading edge, and aircraft brake-pads. However, radiation-tolerance of such materials is not adequately known because only limited radiation studies have been performed on C/C composites, which suggest that pitch-based carbon fibers have better dimensional stability than that of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based fibers [4]. The thermodynamically-stable state of graphitic crystalline packing of carbon atoms derived from mesophase pitch leads to a greater stability during neutron irradiation [5]. The specific objectives of this project were: (i) to generating novel carbonaceous nanostructures, (ii) measure extent of graphitic crystallinity and the extent of anisotropy, and (iii) collaborate with the Carbon Materials group at Oak Ridge National Lab to have neutron irradiation studies and post-irradiation examinations conducted on the carbon fibers produced in this research project.

  1. Conductor-polymer composite electrode materials

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, D.S.; Kurtz, S.R.; Smyrl, W.H.; Zeigler, J.M.

    1984-06-13

    A conductive composite material useful as an electrode, comprises a conductor and an organic polymer which is reversibly electrochemically dopable to change its electrical conductivity. Said polymer continuously surrounds the conductor in intimate electrical contact therewith and is prepared by electrochemical growth on said conductor or by reaction of its corresponding monomer(s) on said conductor which has been pre-impregnated or pre-coated with an activator for said polymerization. Amount of the conductor is sufficient to render the resultant composite electrically conductive even when the polymer is in an undoped insulating state.

  2. Processing and nanostructure influences on mechanical properties of thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Robert David

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials are materials that can generate an electric current from a thermal gradient, with possible service in recovery of waste heat such as engine exhaust. Significant progress has been made in improving TE conversion efficiency, typically reported according to the figure of merit, ZT, with several recent papers publishing ZT values above 2. Furthermore, cost reductions may be made by the use of lower cost elements such as Mg, Si, Sn, Pb, Se and S in TE materials, while achieving ZT values between 1.3 and 1.8. To be used in a device, the thermoelectric material must be able to withstand the applied thermal and mechanical forces without failure. However, these materials are brittle, with low fracture toughness typically less than 1.5 MPa-m1/2, and often less than 0.5 MPa-m1/2. For comparison, window glass is approximately 0.75 MPa-m1/2. They have been optimized with nanoprecipitates, nanoparticles, doping, alterations in stoichiometry, powder processing and other techniques, all of which may alter the mechanical properties. In this study, the effect of SiC nanoparticle additions in Mg2Si, SnTe and Ag nanoparticle additions in the skutterudite Ba0.3Co 4Sb12 on the elastic moduli, hardness and fracture toughness are measured. Large changes (20%) in the elastic moduli in SnTe 1+x as a function of x at 0 and 0.016 are shown. The effect on mechanical properties of doping and precipitates of CdS or ZnS in a PbS or PbSe matrix have been reported. Changes in sintering behavior of the skutterudite with the Ag nanoparticle additions were explored. Possible liquid phase sintering, with associated benefits in lower processing temperature, faster densification and lower cost, has been shown. A technique has been proposed for determining additional liquid phase sintering aids in other TE materials. The effects of porosity, grain size, powder processing method, and sintering method were explored with YbAl3 and Ba0.3Co4Sb 12, with the porosity dependence of the elastic moduli reported. Only one other TE material has the porosity dependence of the elastic moduli previously reported in the literature, lead-antimony-silver-tellurium (LAST), and the effect of different powder processing and sintering methods has never been reported previously on TE materials.

  3. Bioactive composite materials for tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Boccaccini, Aldo R; Blaker, Jonny J

    2005-05-01

    Synthetic bioactive and bioresorbable composite materials are becoming increasingly important as scaffolds for tissue engineering. Next-generation biomaterials should combine bioactive and bioresorbable properties to activate in vivo mechanisms of tissue regeneration, stimulating the body to heal itself and leading to replacement of the scaffold by the regenerating tissue. Certain bioactive ceramics such as tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite as well as bioactive glasses, such as 45S5 Bioglass, react with physiologic fluids to form tenacious bonds with hard (and in some cases soft) tissue. However, these bioactive materials are relatively stiff, brittle and difficult to form into complex shapes. Conversely, synthetic bioresorbable polymers are easily fabricated into complex structures, yet they are too weak to meet the demands of surgery and the in vivo physiologic environment. Composites of tailored physical, biologic and mechanical properties as well as predictable degradation behavior can be produced combining bioresorbable polymers and bioactive inorganic phases. This review covers recent international research presenting the state-of-the-art development of these composite systems in terms of material constituents, fabrication technologies, structural and bioactive properties, as well as in vitro and in vivo characteristics for applications in tissue engineering and tissue regeneration. These materials may represent the effective optimal solution for tailored tissue engineering scaffolds, making tissue engineering a realistic clinical alternative in the near future. PMID:16288594

  4. Meso-scale imaging of composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Grandin, R.; Gray, J.

    2015-03-31

    The performance of composite materials is controlled by the interaction between the individual components as well as the mechanical characteristics of the components themselves. Geometric structure on the meso-scale, where the length-scales are of the same order as the material granularity, plays a key role in controlling material performance and having a quantitative means of characterizing this structure is crucial in developing our understanding of NDE technique signatures of early damage states. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) provides an imaging capability which can resolve these structures for many composite materials. Coupling HRCT with three-dimensional physics-based image processing enables quantitative characterization of the meso-scale structure. Taking sequences of these damage states provides a means to structurally observe the damages evolution. We will discuss the limits of present 3DCT capability and challenges for improving this means to rapidly generate structural information of a composite and of the damage. In this presentation we will demonstrate the imaging capability of HRCT.

  5. Compression Testing of Textile Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.

    1996-01-01

    The applicability of existing test methods, which were developed primarily for laminates made of unidirectional prepreg tape, to textile composites is an area of concern. The issue is whether the values measured for the 2-D and 3-D braided, woven, stitched, and knit materials are accurate representations of the true material response. This report provides a review of efforts to establish a compression test method for textile reinforced composite materials. Experimental data have been gathered from several sources and evaluated to assess the effectiveness of a variety of test methods. The effectiveness of the individual test methods to measure the material's modulus and strength is determined. Data are presented for 2-D triaxial braided, 3-D woven, and stitched graphite/epoxy material. However, the determination of a recommended test method and specimen dimensions is based, primarily, on experimental results obtained by the Boeing Defense and Space Group for 2-D triaxially braided materials. They evaluated seven test methods: NASA Short Block, Modified IITRI, Boeing Open Hole Compression, Zabora Compression, Boeing Compression after Impact, NASA ST-4, and a Sandwich Column Test.

  6. NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIAL DESIGN FOR HG, AS, AND SE CAPTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this research project is to identify potential materials that can be used as multipollutant sorbents using a hierarchy of computational modeling approaches. Palladium (Pd) and gold (Au) alloys were investigated and the results show that the addition of a small amou...

  7. Shape, size, and atomic composition analysis of nanostructures in 3D by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolnai, Zsolt

    2013-09-01

    The emergence of novel micro- and nanofabrication tools lead to the targeted research of highly ordered three-dimensional nanosystems, constructed from regular building blocks like spheres, cylinders, bricks, pyramids, which can be used in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the exploration of the potential and limits of efficient analytical techniques to characterize structured nanosystems became a significant task. In this work the scope of conventional Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) analysis is extended to investigate highly ordered periodic nanostructures in three dimensions. Hexagonally arranged spherical and ellipsoidal silica particles, rectangular gold nano-arrays, and embedded structures in Si substrates and silica particles are analyzed. It is shown that the shape of the measured spectra can be correlated with the shape of individual nano-objects through geometrical considerations. The evaluation of the recorded data for different sample tilt angles can be carried out with the Monte-Carlo type 3D simulation model cell concept considering the details of the applied measurement geometry. It is demonstrated that macrobeam 3D-RBS can provide valuable information on the shape, size, spacing, and atomic composition of nanostructured samples as well as on nanoscale atomic transport processes and consequently, it can be utilized as a highly precise, non-destructive characterization tool for nanotechnology.

  8. Core-shell nanostructured hybrid composites for volatile organic compound detection

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Tran Thanh; Losic, Dusan; Park, Seung Jun; Feller, Jean-Francois; Kim, TaeYoung

    2015-01-01

    We report a high-performance chemiresistive sensor for detection of volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors based on core-shell hybridized nanostructures of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-conducting polymers. The MNPs were prepared using microwave-assisted synthesis in the presence of polymerized ionic liquids (PILs), which were used as a linker to couple the MNP and PEDOT. The resulting PEDOTPIL-modified Fe3O4 hybrids were then explored as a sensing channel material for a chemiresistive sensor to detect VOC vapors. The PEDOTPIL-modified Fe3O4 sensor exhibited a tunable response, with high sensitivity (down to a concentration of 1 ppm) and low noise level, to VOCs; these VOCs include acetone vapor, which is present in the exhaled breath of potential lung cancer patients. The present sensor, based on the hybrid nanostructured sensing materials, exhibited a 38.8% higher sensitivity and an 11% lower noise level than its PEDOTPIL-only counterpart. This approach of embedding MNPs in conducting polymers could lead to the development of new electronic noses, which have significant potential for the use in the early diagnosis of lung cancer via the detection of VOC biomarkers. PMID:26357471

  9. Titanium composite materials for transportation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garca de Cortazar, M.; Agote, I.; Silveira, E.; Egizabal, P.; Coleto, J.; Le Petitcorps, Y.

    2008-11-01

    Discontinuously reinforced titanium alloys containing in-situ formed TiB needles are emerging as candidate materials for advanced applications. This new family of titanium composites presents technical advantages, and it can be less expensive and easily amenable for net-shape manufacturing relative to titanium metal-matrix composites developed to date. The production of a master compound by a novel and cost-effective process called self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) has been studied. This master compound could be subsequently used in an investment casting process to obtain TiB-reinforced net-shape titanium-matrix composites. The SHS technique and its features were investigated in depth before a suitable master compound was defined and produced. Cast samples obtained from the addition of the master compound have been produced and the most important issues concerning the processing, microstructure, and mechanical properties are highlighted in this paper.

  10. Nanostructured carbon materials for adsorption of methane and other gases

    DOEpatents

    Stadie, Nicholas P.; Fultz, Brent T.; Ahn, Channing; Murialdo, Maxwell

    2015-06-30

    Provided are methods for storing gases on porous adsorbents, methods for optimizing the storage of gases on porous adsorbents, methods of making porous adsorbents, and methods of gas storage of optimized compositions, as in systems containing porous adsorbents and gas adsorbed on the surface of the porous adsorbent. The disclosed methods and systems feature a constant or increasing isosteric enthalpy of adsorption as a function of uptake of the gas onto the exposed surface of a porous adsorbent. Adsorbents with a porous geometry and surface dimensions suited to a particular adsorbate are exposed to the gas at elevated pressures in the specific regime where n/V (density) is larger than predicted by the ideal gas law by more than several percent.

  11. Using Composite Materials in a Cryogenic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batton, William D.; Dillard, James E.; Rottmund, Matthew E.; Tupper, Michael L.; Mallick, Kaushik; Francis, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Several modifications have been made to the design and operation of an extended-shaft cryogenic pump to increase the efficiency of pumping. In general, the efficiency of pumping a cryogenic fluid is limited by thermal losses which is itself caused by pump inefficiency and leakage of heat through the pump structure. A typical cryogenic pump includes a drive shaft and two main concentric static components (an outer pressure containment tube and an intermediate static support tube) made from stainless steel. The modifications made include replacement of the stainless-steel drive shaft and the concentric static stainless-steel components with components made of a glass/epoxy composite. The leakage of heat is thus reduced because the thermal conductivity of the composite is an order of magnitude below that of stainless steel. Taking advantage of the margin afforded by the decrease in thermal conductivity, the drive shaft could be shortened to increase its effective stiffness, thereby increasing the rotordynamic critical speeds, thereby further making it possible to operate the pump at a higher speed to increase pumping efficiency. During the modification effort, an analysis revealed that substitution of the shorter glass/epoxy shaft for the longer stainless-steel shaft was not, by itself, sufficient to satisfy the rotordynamic requirements at the desired increased speed. Hence, it became necessary to increase the stiffness of the composite shaft. This stiffening was accomplished by means of a carbon-fiber-composite overwrap along most of the length of the shaft. Concomitantly with the modifications described thus far, it was necessary to provide for joining the composite-material components with metallic components required by different aspects of the pump design. An adhesive material formulated specially to bond the composite and metal components was chosen as a means to satisfy these requirements.

  12. Nanostructured solar irradiation control materials for solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Marshall, Iseley A.; Torrico, Mattew N.; Taylor, Chase R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel; Sauti, Godfrey; Gibbons, Luke J.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Park, Cheol; Lowther, Sharon E.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2012-10-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (?s) and thermal emissivity (?T) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The ?s and ?T were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the ?s and ?T by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  13. Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Lillehei, P. T.; Bryant, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  14. Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.

  15. A risk forecasting process for nanostructured materials, and nanomanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Mark R.; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2011-09-01

    Nanomaterials exhibit novel properties that enable new applications ranging from molecular electronics to energy production. Proactive consideration of the potential impacts on human health and the environment resulting from nanomaterial production and use requires methods for forecasting risk associated with of these novel materials. However, the potential variety of nanomaterials is virtually infinite and a case-by-case analysis of the risks these materials may pose is not possible. The challenge of forecasting risk for a broad number of materials is further complicated by large degrees of uncertainty concerning production amounts, the characteristics and uses of these materials, exposure pathways, and a scarcity of data concerning the relationship between nanomaterial characteristics and their effects on organisms and ecosystems. A traditional risk assessment on nanomaterials is therefore not possible at this time. In its place, an evolving process is needed for analyzing the risks associated with emerging nanomaterials-related industries. In this communication, we propose that such a process should include the following six key features: (1) the ability to generate forecasts and associated levels of uncertainty for questions of immediate concern; (2) a consideration of all pertinent sources of nanomaterials; (3) an inclusive consideration of the impacts of activities stemming from nanomaterial use and production that extends beyond the boundaries of toxicology and include full life cycle impacts; (4) the ability to adapt and update risk forecasts as new information becomes available; (5) feedback to improve information gathering; and (6) feedback to improve nanomaterial design. Feature #6 implies that the potential risks of nanomaterials must ultimately be determined as a function of fundamental, quantifiable properties of nanomaterials, so that when these properties are observed in a new material, they can be recognized as indicators of risk. Thus, the required risk assessment process for nanomaterials addresses needs that span from urgent, short-term questions dealing with nanomaterials currently in commerce, to longer-term issues that will require basic research and advances in theory. In the following sections we outline issues surrounding each of these six features and discuss.

  16. New generation photoelectric converter structure optimization using nano-structured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dronov, A.; Gavrilin, I.; Zheleznyakova, A.

    2014-12-01

    In present work the influence of anodizing process parameters on PAOT geometric parameters for optimizing and increasing ETA-cell efficiency was studied. During the calculations optimal geometrical parameters were obtained. Parameters such as anodizing current density, electrolyte composition and temperature, as well as the anodic oxidation process time were selected for this investigation. Using the optimized TiO2 photoelectrode layer with 3,6 ?m porous layer thickness and pore diameter more than 80 nm the ETA-cell efficiency has been increased by 3 times comparing to not nanostructured TiO2 photoelectrode.

  17. Alkali metal protective garment and composite material

    DOEpatents

    Ballif, III, John L. (Salt Lake City, UT); Yuan, Wei W. (Seattle, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A protective garment and composite material providing satisfactory heat resistance and physical protection for articles and personnel exposed to hot molten alkali metals, such as sodium. Physical protection is provided by a continuous layer of nickel foil. Heat resistance is provided by an underlying backing layer of thermal insulation. Overlying outer layers of fireproof woven ceramic fibers are used to protect the foil during storage and handling.

  18. Mechanics Methodology for Textile Preform Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, Clarence C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    NASA and its contractors have completed a program to develop a basic mechanics underpinning for textile composites. Three major deliverables were produced by the program: 1. A set of test methods for measuring material properties and design allowables; 2. Mechanics models to predict the effects of the fiber preform architecture and constituent properties on engineering moduli, strength, damage resistance, and fatigue life; and 3. An electronic data base of coupon type test data. This report describes these three deliverables.

  19. MATERIALS, FABRICATION, AND MANUFACTURING OF MICRO/NANOSTRUCTURED SURFACES FOR PHASE-CHANGE HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M; Gerasopoulos, K; Maroo, SC; Hart, AJ

    2014-07-23

    This article describes the most prominent materials, fabrication methods, and manufacturing schemes for micro- and nanostructured surfaces that can be employed to enhance phase-change heat transfer phenomena. The numerous processes include traditional microfabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, lithography, and etching, as well as template-assisted and template-free nanofabrication techniques. The creation of complex, hierarchical, and heterogeneous surface structures using advanced techniques is also reviewed. Additionally, research needs in the field and future directions necessary to translate these approaches from the laboratory to high-performance applications are identified. Particular focus is placed on the extension of these techniques to the design of micro/nanostructures for increased performance, manufacturability, and reliability. The current research needs and goals are detailed, and potential pathways forward are suggested.

  20. Multifunctional ZnO nanostructures: from material growth to novel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xudong; Shi, Jian

    2011-02-01

    ZnO is a superior multifunctional material with broad applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and piezoelectric transducers. The nanowire (NW) morphology is an ideal system for studying transport process in one-dimensionally (1D) confined objects and developing new generation nanodevices with high performance. This paper will review we will review the self-catalyzed growth of ZnO nanostructures. An interesting cluster drifting phenomenon was discovered, which evidenced this growth mechanism and provide a control toward the morphology. In addition, a strainversus- dislocation (SVD) model will be discussed to explain the growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanostructures on heterogeneous substrates. Finally, a novel application of using the piezoelectric ZnO NWs for converting nano-scale mechanical energy into electric energy is presented.

  1. Impact of solids on composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronson, Arturo; Maldonado, Jerry; Chern, Tzong; Martinez, Francisco; Mccord-Medrano, Johnnie; Roschke, Paul N.

    1987-01-01

    The failure modes of composite materials as a result of low velocity impact were investigated by simulating the impact with a finite element analysis. An important facet of the project is the modeling of the impact of a solid onto cylindrical shells composed of composite materials. The model under development will simulate the delamination sustained when a composite material encounters impact from another rigid body. The computer equipment was installed, the computer network tested, and a finite element method model was developed to compare results with known experimental data. The model simulated the impact of a steel rod onto a rotating shaft. Pre-processing programs (GMESH and TANVEL) were developed to generate node and element data for the input into the three dimensional, dynamic finite element analysis code (DYNA3D). The finite element mesh was configured with a fine mesh near the impact zone and a coarser mesh for the impacting rod and the regions surrounding the impacting zone. For the computer simulation, five impacting loads were used to determine the time history of the stresses, the scribed surface areas, and the amount of ridging. The processing time of the computer codes amounted from 1 to 4 days. The calculated surface area were within 6-12 percent, relative error when compated to the actual scratch area.

  2. Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials Used for Tankage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Christy

    2005-01-01

    The Nonmetallic Materials and Processes Group is presently working on several projects to optimize cost while providing effect materials for the space program. One factor that must be considered is that these materials must meet certain weight requirements. Composites contribute greatly to this effort. Through the use of composites the cost of launching payloads into orbit will be reduced to one-tenth of the current cost. This research project involved composites used for aluminum pressure vessels. These tanks are used to store cryogenic liquids during flight. The tanks need some type of reinforcement. Steel was considered, but added too much weight. As a result, fiber was chosen. Presently, only carbon fibers with epoxy resin are wrapped around the vessels as a primary source of reinforcement. Carbon fibers are lightweight, yet high strength. The carbon fibers are wet wound onto the pressure vessels. This was done using the ENTEC Filament Winding Machine. It was thought that an additional layer of fiber would aid in reinforcement as well as containment and impact reduction. Kevlar was selected because it is light weight, but five times stronger that steel. This is the same fiber that is used to make bullet-proof vests trampolines, and tennis rackets.

  3. Flexible Composite-Material Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Glen; Haggard, Roy; Harris, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed lightweight pressure vessel would be made of a composite of high-tenacity continuous fibers and a flexible matrix material. The flexibility of this pressure vessel would render it (1) compactly stowable for transport and (2) more able to withstand impacts, relative to lightweight pressure vessels made of rigid composite materials. The vessel would be designed as a structural shell wherein the fibers would be predominantly bias-oriented, the orientations being optimized to make the fibers bear the tensile loads in the structure. Such efficient use of tension-bearing fibers would minimize or eliminate the need for stitching and fill (weft) fibers for strength. The vessel could be fabricated by techniques adapted from filament winding of prior composite-material vessels, perhaps in conjunction with the use of dry film adhesives. In addition to the high-bias main-body substructure described above, the vessel would include a low-bias end substructure to complete coverage and react peak loads. Axial elements would be overlaid to contain damage and to control fiber orientation around side openings. Fiber ring structures would be used as interfaces for connection to ancillary hardware.

  4. Nanostructured nickel-free austenitic stainless steel composites with different content of hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulinski, Maciej; Jurczyk, Mieczyslaw

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work is to show that Ni-free austenitic stainless steels with nanostructure and their nanocomposites with hydroxyapatite can be synthesized by mechanical alloying, heat treatment and nitriding of elemental microcrystalline powders with addition of hydroxyapatite (HA). Hydroxyapatite was introduced into stainless steel because it is intensively studied for bone repair and replacement applications. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels seem to have better mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility compared to 316L stainless steels. Therefore it's combination with hydroxyapatite that has high biocompatibility and ability to bond to bone could have improved properties, as well. To confirm nanocrystalline structure of obtained material and reveal topographical features of the surface, small-angle X-ray analysis (SAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used. Results are consistent and the mean grain size of the obtained materials do not exceed 100 nm.

  5. Conversion of cellulose materials into nanostructured ceramics by biomineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Yongsoon; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    2007-06-01

    Synthesis of hierarchically ordered silica materials having ordered wood cellular structures has been demonstrated through in-situ mineralization of wood by means of surfactant-directed mineralization in solutions of different pH. At low pH, silicic acid penetrates the buried interfaces of the wood cellular structure without clogging the pores to subsequently molecularly paint the interfaces thereby forming a positive replica following calcinations. At high pH, the hydrolyzed silica rapidly condenses to fill the open cells and pits within the structure resulting in a negative replica of the structure. Surfactant-templated mineralization in acid solutions leads to the formation of micelles that hexagonally pack at the wood interfaces preserving structural integrity while integrating hexagonally ordered nanoporosity into the structure of the cell walls following thermal treatment in air. The carbothermal reduction of mineralized wood with silica at high temperature produces biomorphic silicon carbide (SiC) materials, which are typical aggregations of ?-SiC nanoparticles. To understand the roles of each component (lignin, crystalline cellulose, amorphous cellulose) comprising the natural biotemplates in the transformation to SiC rods, three different cellulose precursors including unbleached and bleached pulp, and cellulose nanocrystals have been utilized. Lignin in unbleached pulp blocked homogeneous penetration of silica into the pores between cellulose fibers resulting in non-uniform SiC fibers containing thick silica layers. Bleached pulp produced uniform SiC rods with camelback structures (80nm in diameter; ~50?m in length), indicating that more silica infiltrates into the amorphous constituent of cellulose to form chunky rather than straight rod structures. The cellulose nanocrystal (CNXL) material produced clean and uniform SiC nanowires (70nm in diameter; >100?m in length) without the camelback structure.

  6. Rational Design of Molecular Ferroelectric Materials and Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ducharme, Stephen

    2012-09-25

    The purpose of this project was to gain insight into the properties of molecular ferroelectrics through the detailed study of oligomer analogs of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). By focusing on interactions at both the molecular level and the nanoscale level, we expect to gain improved understanding about the fundamental mechanism of ferroelectricity and its key properties. The research consisted of three complementary components: 1) Rational synthesis of VDF oligomers by Prof. Takacs???¢???????? group; 2) Detailed structural and electrical studies of thin by Prof. Ducharme???¢????????s Group; and 3) First-principles computational studies by DOE Lab Partner Dr. Serge Nakhman-son at Argonne National Laboratory. The main results of the work was a detailed understanding of the relationships between the molecular interactions and macroscopic phenomenology of fer-roelectricity VDF oligomers. This is valuable information supporting the development of im-proved electromechanical materials for, e.g., sonar, ultrasonic imaging, artificial muscles, and compliant actuators. Other potential applications include nonvolatile ferroelectric memories, heat-sensing imaging arrays, photovoltaic devices, and functional biomimetic materials. The pro-ject contributed to the training and professional development of undergraduate students and graduate students, post-doctoral assistants, and a high-school teacher. Project personnel took part in several outreach and education activities each year.

  7. Nano-structured carbon materials for improved biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razumiene, J.; Sakinyte, I.; Barkauskas, J.; Baronas, R.

    2015-04-01

    A set of oxidized graphite samples have been newly synthesized using different protocols. Atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis revealed the changes in structure and functionalities of obtained graphite oxidation products (GOPs) compared to pristine graphite. The substances have been tested as electrode materials applicable for bioelectrocatalytic systems using pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH). The application of GOPs allowed achieving the direct electron transfer (DET) from active site of PQQ-GDH to the electrode surface. Needless of additional electron transfer (ET) mediating compounds highly improved features of the biosensors. The efficiency of the biosensors has been evaluated for all types of biosensors varied from 32 ?A/cm2 to 64 ?A/cm2 using as electrode materials GOP1 and thermally reduced graphite oxide (TRGO), respectively. TRGO containing function groups (according TGA, ?6% of the weight loss) and smallest particles (average diameter was ?11 nm and the average height was ?0.5 nm) exhibited the higher efficiency for ET acceleration in the biosensor acting on principle of DET.

  8. Industry to Education Technical Transfer Program & Composite Materials. Composite Materials Course. Fabrication I Course. Fabrication II Course. Composite Materials Testing Course. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massuda, Rachel

    These four reports provide details of projects to design and implement courses to be offered as requirements for the associate degree program in composites and reinforced plastics technology. The reports describe project activities that led to development of curricula for four courses: composite materials, composite materials fabrication I,

  9. Phase evolution in carbide dispersion strengthened nanostructured copper composite by high energy ball milling

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Zuhailawati; Nur Hawadah, M. S.

    2012-09-06

    In this study, high-energy ball milling was applied to synthesis in situ nanostructured copper based composite reinforced with metal carbides. Cu, M (M=W or Ti) and graphite powder mixture were mechanically alloyed for various milling time in a planetary ball mill with composition of Cu-20vol%WC and Cu-20vol%TiC. Then the as-milled powder were compacted at 200 to 400 MPa and sintered in a vacuum furnace at 900 Degree-Sign C. The results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that formation of tungsten carbides (W{sub 2}C and WC phases) was observed after sintering of Cu-W-C mixture while TiC precipitated in as-milled powder of Cu-Ti-C composite after 5 h and become amorphous with longer milling. Mechanism of MA explained the cold welding and fracturing event during milling. Cu-W-C system shows fracturing event is more dominant at early stage of milling and W particle still existed after milling up to 60 h. While in Cu-Ti-C system, cold welding is more dominant and all Ti particles dissolved into Cu matrix.

  10. The helical nanofilament phase as a host for creation of aligned, nanostructured composites (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walba, David M.; Callahan, Rebecca A.; Korblova, Eva D.; Chen, Dong; Shen, Yongqiang; Tuchband, Michael; Carlson, Eric; Kim, Hanim; Rumbles, Garry; Shaheen, Sean E.; Yoon, Dong Ki; Clark, Noel A.

    2015-10-01

    The helical nanofilament (HNF) liquid crystal phase is a member of an unusual class of thermotropic phases with lamellar structures dominated by a tendency towards developing negative Gaussian curvature of the layers. Members of this family are sometimes termed "dark conglomerates," due to their behavior in polarized light microscopy. These include a fluid phases - the high temperature dark conglomerate phase, which is a kind of sponge phase, and the low temperature dark conglomerate phase, also seemingly a sponge phase with structural details currently under investigation. The HNF phase, also a "dark conglomerate," seems to be unique in the family, since slow conformational dynamics indicate a quasi-crystalline structure within layers, but no long range positional correlations across layers. We have been exploring possible applications of the HNF phase, which is highly porous, as a host for the formation of alignable composites for photovoltaics and other organic semiconductor applications. Recent results regarding the structure of these composites, including data suggesting a remarkably elegant nanostructure for HNF-chiral nematic composites, will be discussed.

  11. Band Gap Narrowing and Widening of ZnO Nanostructures and Doped Materials.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, Norlida; Kasim, Muhd Firdaus; Rusdi, Roshidah

    2015-12-01

    Band gap change in doped ZnO is an observed phenomenon that is very interesting from the fundamental point of view. This work is focused on the preparation of pure and single phase nanostructured ZnO and Cu as well as Mn-doped ZnO for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms of band gap narrowing in the materials. ZnO, Zn0.99Cu0.01O and Zn0.99Mn0.01O materials were prepared using a wet chemistry method, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all samples were pure and single phase. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that materials in the nanostructured state exhibit band gap widening with respect to their micron state while for the doped compounds exhibited band gap narrowing both in the nano and micron states with respect to the pure ZnO materials. The degree of band gap change was dependent on the doped elements and crystallite size. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that there were shifts in the valence bands. From both UV-visible and XPS spectroscopy, it was found that the mechanism for band gap narrowing was due to the shifting of the valance band maximum and conduction band minimum of the materials. The mechanisms were different for different samples depending on the type of dopant and dimensional length scales of the crystallites. PMID:26319225

  12. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  13. Nanostructure multilayer dielectric materials for capacitors and insulators

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-04-21

    A capacitor is formed of at least two metal conductors having a multilayer dielectric and opposite dielectric-conductor interface layers in between. The multilayer dielectric includes many alternating layers of amorphous zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2) and alumina (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3). The dielectric-conductor interface layers are engineered for increased voltage breakdown and extended service life. The local interfacial work function is increased to reduce charge injection and thus increase breakdown voltage. Proper material choices can prevent electrochemical reactions and diffusion between the conductor and dielectric. Physical vapor deposition is used to deposit the zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2) and alumina (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3) in alternating layers to form a nano-laminate.

  14. Nanostructure multilayer dielectric materials for capacitors and insulators

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

    1998-04-21

    A capacitor is formed of at least two metal conductors having a multilayer dielectric and opposite dielectric-conductor interface layers in between. The multilayer dielectric includes many alternating layers of amorphous zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The dielectric-conductor interface layers are engineered for increased voltage breakdown and extended service life. The local interfacial work function is increased to reduce charge injection and thus increase breakdown voltage. Proper material choices can prevent electrochemical reactions and diffusion between the conductor and dielectric. Physical vapor deposition is used to deposit the zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in alternating layers to form a nano-laminate. 1 fig.

  15. Use of advanced composite materials for innovative building design solutions/

    E-print Network

    Lau, Tak-bun, Denvid

    2009-01-01

    Advanced composite materials become popular in construction industry for the innovative building design solutions including strengthening and retrofitting of existing structures. The interface between different materials ...

  16. Composite material systems for hydrogen management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pangborn, R. N.; Queeney, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    The task of managing hydrogen entry into elevated temperature structural materials employed in turbomachinery is a critical engineering area for propulsion systems employing hydrogen or decomposable hydrocarbons as fuel. Extant structural materials, such as the Inconel series, are embrittled by the ingress of hydrogen in service, leading to a loss of endurance and general deterioration of load-bearing dependability. Although the development of hydrogen-insensitive material systems is an obvious engineering option, to date insensitive systems cannot meet the time-temperature-loading service extremes encountered. A short-term approach that is both feasible and technologically sound is the development and employment of hydrogen barrier coatings. The present project is concerned with developing, analyzing, and physically testing laminate composite hydrogen barrier systems, employing Inconel 718 as the structural material to be protected. Barrier systems will include all metallic, metallic-to-ceramic, and, eventually, metallic/ceramic composites as the lamellae. Since space propulsion implies repetitive engine firings without earth-based inspection and repair, coating durability will be closely examined, and testing regimes will include repetitive thermal cycling to simulate damage accumulation. The target accomplishments include: generation of actual hydrogen permeation data for metallic, ceramic-metallic, and hybrid metallic/ceramic composition barrier systems, practically none of which is currently extant; definition of physical damage modes imported to barrier systems due to thermal cycling, both transient temperature profiles and steady-state thermal mismatch stress states being examined as sources of damage; and computational models that incorporate general laminate schemes as described above, including manufacturing realities such as porosity, and whatever defects are introduced through service and characterized during the experimental programs.

  17. Polymer-composite materials for radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Shruti; Yeow, John T W

    2012-11-01

    Unwanted exposures to high-energy or ionizing radiation can be hazardous to health. Prolonged or accumulated radiation dosage from either particle-emissions such as alpha/beta, proton, electron, neutron emissions, or high-energy electromagnetic waves such as X-rays/? rays, may result in carcinogenesis, cell mutations, organ failure, etc. To avoid occupational hazards from these kinds of exposures, researchers have traditionally used heavy metals or their composites to attenuate the radiation. However, protective gear made of heavy metals are not only cumbersome but also are capable of producing more penetrative secondary radiations which requires additional shielding, increasing the cost and the weight factor. Consequently, significant research efforts have been focused toward designing efficient, lightweight, cost-effective, and flexible shielding materials for protection against radiation encountered in various industries (aerospace, hospitals, and nuclear reactors). In this regard, polymer composites have become attractive candidates for developing materials that can be designed to effectively attenuate photon or particle radiation. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art of polymer composites reinforced with micro/nanomaterials, for their use as radiation shields. PMID:23009182

  18. Composite materials for thermal energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Burrows, Richard W. (Conifer, CO); Shinton, Yvonne D. (Northglenn, CO)

    1986-01-01

    The present invention discloses composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These phase change materials do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions, such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

  19. Development of collagen-hydroxyapatite nanostructured composites via a calcium phosphate precursor mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, Sang Soo

    Bone is an interpenetrating inorganic/organic composite that consists of mineralized collagen fibrils, which is hierarchically organized into various structures. The structure of mineralized collagen fibril, in which nano-crystals of hydroxyapatite are embedded within the collagen fibrils, provides remarkable mechanical and bio-resorptive properties. Therefore, there have been many attempts to produce collagen-hydroxyapatite composites having a bone-like structure. However, duplication of even the most fundamental level of bone structure has not been easily achieved by conventional nucleation and growth techniques, which are based on the most widely accepted hypothesis of bone mineralization. In nature, the collagen fibril is mineralized via intrafibrillar mineralization, which produces preferentially oriented hydroxyapatite nano-crystals occupying the interstices in collagen fibrils. Our group has demonstrated that intrafibrillar mineralization can be achieved by using a new method based on the Polymer-Induced Liquid-Precursor (PILP) mineralization process. In the PILP process, a poly-anionic additive can produce an amorphous calcium phosphate precursor which enables us to achieve intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen. It is thought that the precursor is pulled into the interstices of the collagen fibrils via capillary forces, and upon solidification and crystallization of the precursor produces an interpenetrating composite with the nanostructured architecture of bone. In this dissertation, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PILP process on the intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen fibril, various collagen scaffolds, such as turkey tendon, bovine tendon and synthetic collagen sponge, were mineralized by the PILP process. Various poly-aspartates with different molecular weight were also used for the optimization of the PILP process for the mineralization of the collagen scaffolds. With the systematic researches, we discovered that the molecular weight of poly-aspartic acid affects the degree of intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen scaffolds. High molecular weight poly-aspartic acid could produce a stable and dispersed amorphous precursor, leading to a high degree of intrafibrillar mineralization. The mineral content of the collagen sponge mineralized using high molecular weight poly-aspartic acid was equivalent to the mineral content of bone. According to X-ray diffraction analysis of the mineralized collagen, the size and composition of the intrafibrillar hydroxyapatite produced by the PILP process were almost identical to carbonated hydroxyapatite in bone. The selective area electron diffraction patterns indicated that the [001] direction of hydroxyapatite is roughly aligned along the c-axis of collagen fibril, leading to the formation 002 arcs. Using dark field imaging, it was possible to visualize the preferentially oriented hydroxyapatite in TEM. Thermal analysis of mineralized collagen also showed a reduction in the thermal stability of collagen, which is similar to that observed in the collagen in bone, due to the presence of intrafibrillar hydroxyapatite. Now, we confidently suggest that the PILP process can provide a new way to develop synthetic bone-like composites whose nano-structure is very close to the nano-structure of natural bone. Moreover, we hope that our successful intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen via the precursor mechanism revives discussion of hypothesis of bone mineralization via the amorphous calcium phosphate phase.

  20. Localized Programmable Gas Phase Electrodeposition Yielding Functional Nanostructured Materials and Molecular Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, En-Chiang

    This thesis focuses on nanomanufacturing processes for the heterogeneous integration of nanomaterials and molecules. We demonstrate and discovered a novel gas phase method to control material flux at specific points on a surface which is based on the interplay of high mobility gas ions and lower mobility nanoparticles and molecules in the presence of a patterned substrate. The thesis is divided into two parts describing applications of the discovered process for the localized deposition of (A) metallic and semiconducting particles producing functional nanostructured deposits including multimaterial sensor arrays and nanostructured electrodes for photovoltaic applications and, (B) molecules for gas sensor application demonstrating improved collection efficiencies and sensitivity over previously methods. Section (A) begins with the description of an arc discharge based method to produce a flux of charged nanoparticles (<5nm particles Au, Ag, Pt, W, TiO2, ZnO and Ge) which are characterized using various methods. It then describes a process to locally deposit the charged particles into extended two and three dimensional metallic and semiconducting nanostructured deposits. The thesis describes the use externally-biased electrodes to achieve an electronic shutter to turn ON/OFF the deposition in selected domains. Subsequently it explores and describes the use of patterned dielectrics whereby the patterned dielectrics are charged to define arrays of electrodynamic lenses. Incorporation of these lensing structures was found to enable nanostructured deposits with sub 100nm lateral resolution. The utility of the discovered processes are demonstrated in two areas. For the first application, semiconducting nanomaterial are sequentially deposited on the same substrate to fabricate a multi-material/multi-functional sensor array on a single substrate in a single deposition process. The process eliminates critical alignment and masking steps and has a higher material efficiency when compared with traditional vapor deposition methods. In the second application, we demonstrate the fabrication of 3D nanostructured electrodes for photovoltaic application. The second application adjusts the material flux in selected domains to identify nanostructures and device metrics in a combinatorial way. Section (B) applies the process to the localized collection of airborne molecules. The goal was to determine if the process can be scaled to particles with molecular dimensions. This turned out to be the case. As an application we demonstrate enhanced collection efficiencies of molecular species in gas sensor applications. The research recognizes that various nanostructured sensor designs currently aim to achieve or claim single molecular detection by a reduction of the active sensor size. However, a reduction of the sensor size has the negative effect of reducing the capture probability considering the diffusion based analyte transport commonly used. Specifically, we applied the discovered localized programmable electrodynamic precipitation concept to collect, spot, and detect airborne species in an active-matrix array-like fashion. The method is tested using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The process can produce hybrid molecular arrays on a single chip over a broad range of molecular weights including small molecules or large macromolecules. From a gas sensor system point of view it was possible to improved collection efficiencies and sensitivity over previously method.

  1. Immobilization of lipase and keratinase on functionalized SBA-15 nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Hy G.; Vu, Tuan A.; Tran, Hoa T. K.; Dang, Phuong T.

    2013-12-01

    SBA-15 nanostructured materials were synthesized via hydrothermal treatment and were functionalized with 3- aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The obtained samples were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, BET, TEM, IR and DTA. After functionalization, it showed that these nanostrucrured materials still maintained the hexagonal pore structure of the parent SBA-15. The model enzyms chosen in this study were lipase and keratinase. Lipase was a biocatalyst for hydrolyzation of long chain triglycerides or methyl esters of long chain alcohols and fatty acids; keratinase is a proteolytic enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of keratin. The functionalized SBA-15 materials were used to immobilize lipase and keratinase, exhibiting higher activity than that of the unfunctionalized pure silica SBA-15 ones. This might be due to the enhancing of surface hydrophobicity upon functionalization. The surface functionalization of the nanostructured silicas with organic groups can favor the interaction between enzyme and the supports and consequently increasing the operational stability of the immobilized enzymes. The loading of lipase on functionalized SBA-15 materials was higher than that of keratinase. This might be rationalized by the difference in size of enzyms.

  2. An Optimization Approach to the Computer Simulation of Composite Materials

    E-print Network

    North Texas, University of

    An Optimization Approach to the Computer Simulation of Composite Materials JAIME HORTA-RANGEL,2 design of a beam made of a composite material was developed. The two components considered the first frequency within a specified range of values. KEY WORDS: composite material, optimal design, modal

  3. Tailoring The Microwave Permittivity And Permeability Of Composite Materials

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    1 Tailoring The Microwave Permittivity And Permeability Of Composite Materials Kenneth M. Bober/Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 ABSTRACT The microwave permittivity( r ) and permeability( r ) of composite materials the permittivity of a composite material has not been established. The MG theory presented in 1904 by J. C. Maxwell

  4. Dielectric breakdown model for composite materials F. Peruani,1

    E-print Network

    Peruani, Fernando

    Dielectric breakdown model for composite materials F. Peruani,1 G. Solovey,1 I. M. Irurzun,1,2 E. E 30 June 2003 This paper addresses the problem of dielectric breakdown in composite materials the problem of dielectric breakdown in composite materials. Breakdown phenomena in conductor

  5. Composite materials flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Pete E.; Dursch, Harry W.; Pippin, H. Gary

    1995-01-01

    Organic composite test specimens were flown on several LDEF experiments. Both bare and coated composites were flown. Atomic oxygen eroded bare composite material, with the resins being recessed at a greater rate than the fibers. Selected coating techniques protected the composite substrate in each case. Tensile and optical properties are reported for numerous specimens. Fiberglass and metal matrix composites were also flown.

  6. Glasses, ceramics, and composites from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, George H.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of useful silicate materials can be synthesized from lunar rocks and soils. The simplest to manufacture are glasses and glass-ceramics. Glass fibers can be drawn from a variety of basaltic glasses. Glass articles formed from titania-rich basalts are capable of fine-grained internal crystallization, with resulting strength and abrasion resistance allowing their wide application in construction. Specialty glass-ceramics and fiber-reinforced composites would rely on chemical separation of magnesium silicates and aluminosilicates as well as oxides titania and alumina. Polycrystalline enstatite with induced lamellar twinning has high fracture toughness, while cordierite glass-ceramics combine excellent thermal shock resistance with high flexural strengths. If sapphire or rutile whiskers can be made, composites of even better mechanical properties are envisioned.

  7. Combustion synthesis of advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Self-propagating high temperature (combustion) synthesis (SHS), has been investigated as a means of producing both dense and expanded (foamed) ceramic and ceramic-metal composites, ceramic powders and whiskers. Several model exothermic combustion synthesis reactions were used to establish the importance of certain reaction parameters, e.g., stoichiometry, green density, combustion mode, particle size, etc. on the control of the synthesis reaction, product morphology and properties. The use of an in situ liquid infiltration technique and the effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e., solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g., volatility and thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized composite materials is discussed. Conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment to take advantage of the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport is also examined.

  8. Plasma-based ion implantation: a valuable technology for the elaboration of innovative materials and nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vempaire, D.; Pelletier, J.; Lacoste, A.; Bchu, S.; Sirou, J.; Miraglia, S.; Fruchart, D.

    2005-05-01

    Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII), invented in 1987, can now be considered as a mature technology for thin film modification. After a brief recapitulation of the principle and physics of PBII, its advantages and disadvantages, as compared to conventional ion beam implantation, are listed and discussed. The elaboration of thin films and the modification of their functional properties by PBII have already been achieved in many fields, such as microelectronics (plasma doping/PLAD), biomaterials (surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible materials), plastics (grafting, surface adhesion) and metallurgy (hard coatings, tribology), to name a few. The major advantages of PBII processing lie, on the one hand, in its flexibility in terms of ion implantation energy (from 0 to 100 keV) and operating conditions (plasma density, collisional or non-collisional ion sheath), and, on the other hand, in the easy transferrability of processes from the laboratory to industry. The possibility of modifying the composition and physical nature of the films, or of drastically changing their physical properties over several orders of magnitude makes this technology very attractive for the elaboration of innovative materials, including metastable materials, and the realization of micro- or nanostructures. A review of the state of the art in these domains is presented and illustrated through a few selected examples. The perspectives opened up by PBII processing, as well as its limitations, are discussed.

  9. Reactive Ballistic Deposition of Nanostructured Model Materials for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, David W.; Hahn, Nathan T.; May, Robert A.; Berglund, Sean P.; Lin, Yong-Mao; Stevenson, Keith J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kay, Bruce D.; Mullins, C. Buddie

    2012-03-20

    Finely structured, supported thin films offer a host of opportunities for fundamental and applied research. Nanostructured materials often exhibit physical properties which differ from their bulk counterparts due to the increased importance of the surface in determining the thermodynamics and behavior of the system. Thus, control of the characteristic size, porosity, morphology, and surface area presents opportunities to tailor new materials which are useful platforms for elucidating the fundamental processes related to energy conversion and storage. The ability to produce high purity materials with direct control of relevant film parameters such as porosity, film thickness, and film morphology is of immediate interest in the fields of electrochemistry, photocatalysis, and thermal catalysis. Studies of various photoactive materials have introduced questions concerning the effects of film architecture and surface structure on the performance of the materials, while recent work has demonstrated that nanostructured, mesoporous, or disordered materials often deform plastically, making them robust in applications where volumetric expansion and phase transformations occur, such as in materials for lithium-ion batteries. Moreover, renewed emphasis has been placed on the formation of semi-conductive electrodes with controlled pore-size and large surface areas for the study and application of pseudo-capacitance and cation insertion processes for electrical energy storage. Understanding how the performance of such materials depends on morphology, porosity, and surface structure and area requires a synthesis technique which provides for incremental variations in structure and facilitates assessment of the performance with the appropriate analytical tools, preferably those that provide both structural information and kinetic insight into photoelectrochemical processes.

  10. Composite materials for thermal energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.; Shinton, Y.D.

    1985-01-04

    A composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These PCM's do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

  11. Electrospray neutralization process and apparatus for generation of nano-aerosol and nano-structured materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Charles L.; Morozov, Victor; Vsevolodov, Nikolai N.

    2010-08-17

    The claimed invention describes methods and apparatuses for manufacturing nano-aerosols and nano-structured materials based on the neutralization of charged electrosprayed products with oppositely charged electrosprayed products. Electrosprayed products include molecular ions, nano-clusters and nano-fibers. Nano-aerosols can be generated when neutralization occurs in the gas phase. Neutralization of electrospan nano-fibers with molecular ions and charged nano-clusters may result in the formation of fibrous aerosols or free nano-mats. Nano-mats can also be produced on a suitable substrate, forming efficient nano-filters.

  12. Nanostructures, systems, and methods for photocatalysis

    DOEpatents

    Reece, Steven Y.; Jarvi, Thomas D.

    2015-12-08

    The present invention generally relates to nanostructures and compositions comprising nanostructures, methods of making and using the nanostructures, and related systems. In some embodiments, a nanostructure comprises a first region and a second region, wherein a first photocatalytic reaction (e.g., an oxidation reaction) can be carried out at the first region and a second photocatalytic reaction (e.g., a reduction reaction) can be carried out at the second region. In some cases, the first photocatalytic reaction is the formation of oxygen gas from water and the second photocatalytic reaction is the formation of hydrogen gas from water. In some embodiments, a nanostructure comprises at least one semiconductor material, and, in some cases, at least one catalytic material and/or at least one photosensitizing agent.

  13. NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS-PROCESSING, STRUCTURES, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS Characteristics of face-centered cubic metals processed

    E-print Network

    Gubicza, Jen

    is the stress exponent and A is a dimensionless constant. On the basis of this constitutive law by the composition and the crystalline grain size of the investigated materials. More than 50 years ago material r0 is the friction stress and K is a positive material constant associated with the stress required

  14. Reinforcing masonry walls with composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jai, John Chia-Han

    1999-10-01

    In this investigation, a procedure is developed for determining the effectiveness of composite materials in retrofitting masonry buildings to reduce seismic damage. The reinforcement considered is a thin layer of fiber-reinforced composite applied to the wall in a wallpaper-like fashion. Models were developed which predicts the behavior of masonry walls reinforced in such a fashion and subjected to static, in-plane normal and shear loads. Solid walls, as well as walls with openings (such as windows and doors), were considered. The models estimate the load-deflection characteristic of the wall, the load set at which the wall fails, and the deflection of the wall at the instant of failure. The models were verified by tests performed with walls constructed of clay bricks and mortar, and with walls made of wood bricks. In these tests, the load versus deflection, the failure load, and the failure deflection were measured. Reasonable agreements were found between the values calculated by the models and the data. Parametric studies were also performed. The results of these studies indicate that composite reinforcement applied in a wallpaper-like fashion may increase substantially the load carrying capacities of masonry walls.

  15. Nanodentistry: combining nanostructured materials and stem cells for dental tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A; Woloszyk, Anna; Jimnez-Rojo, Lucia

    2012-11-01

    Regenerative dentistry represents an attractive multidisciplinary therapeutic approach that complements traditional restorative/surgery techniques and benefits from recent advances in stem cell biology, molecular biology, genomics and proteomics. Materials science is important in such advances to move regenerative dentistry from the laboratory to the clinic. The design of novel nanostructured materials, such as biomimetic matrices and scaffolds for controlling cell fate and differentiation, and nanoparticles for diagnostics, imaging and targeted treatment, is needed. The combination of nanotechnology, which allows the creation of sophisticated materials with exquisite fine structural detail, and stem cell biology turns out to be increasingly useful in regenerative medicine. The administration to patients of dynamic biological agents comprising stem cells, bioactive scaffolds and/or nanoparticles will certainly increase the regenerative impact of dental pathological tissues. This overview briefly describes some of the actual benefits and future possibilities of nanomaterials in the emerging field of stem cell-based regenerative dentistry. PMID:23210714

  16. Bottom-up nanostructured bulk silicon: a practical high-efficiency thermoelectric material.

    PubMed

    Yusufu, Aikebaier; Kurosaki, Ken; Miyazaki, Yoshinobu; Ishimaru, Manabu; Kosuga, Atsuko; Ohishi, Yuji; Muta, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2014-11-21

    The effectiveness of thermoelectric (TE) materials is quantified by the dimensionless figure of merit (zT). An ideal way to enhance zT is by scattering phonons without scattering electrons. Here we show that, using a simple bottom-up method, we can prepare bulk nanostructured Si that exhibits an exceptionally high zT of 0.6 at 1050 K, at least three times higher than that of the optimized bulk Si. The nanoscale precipitates in this material connected coherently or semi-coherently with the Si matrix, effectively scattering heat-carrying phonons without significantly influencing the material's electron transport properties, leading to the high zT. PMID:25311105

  17. Application of Traditional and Nanostructure Materials for Medical Electron Beams Collimation: Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloichikova, I. A.; Stuchebrov, S. G.; Zhaksybayeva, G. K.; Wagner, A. R.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the commercial application of the electron accelerators grows in the industry, in the research investigations, in the medical diagnosis and treatment. In this regard, the electron beam profile modification in accordance with specific purposes is an actual task. In this paper the model of the TPU microtron extracted electron beam developed in the program Computer Laboratory (PCLab) is described. The internal beam divergence influence for the electron beam profile and depth dose distribution in the air is considered. The possibility of using the nanostructure materials for the electron beam formation was analyzed. The simulation data of the electron beam shape collimated by different materials (lead, corund- zirconia nanoceramic, gypsum) are shown. The collimator material influence for the electron beam profile and shape are analyzed.

  18. Piezoelectric Nanoparticle-Polymer Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, William Ray

    Herein we demonstrate that efficient piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials can be synthesized and fabricated into complex microstructures using sugar-templating methods or optical printing techniques. Stretchable foams with excellent tunable piezoelectric properties are created by incorporating sugar grains directly into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixtures containing barium titanate (BaTiO3 -- BTO) nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by removal of the sugar after polymer curing. Porosities and elasticity are tuned by simply adjusting the sugar/polymer mass ratio and the electrical performance of the foams showed a direct relationship between porosity and the piezoelectric outputs. User defined 2D and 3D optically printed piezoelectric microstructures are also fabricated by incorporating BTO nanoparticles into photoliable polymer solutions such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and exposing to digital optical masks that can be dynamically altered. Mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the optically printed composite is enhanced by chemically altering the surface of the BTO nanoparticles with acrylate groups which form direct covalent linkages with the polymer matrix under light exposure. Both of these novel materials should find exciting uses in a variety of applications including energy scavenging platforms, nano- and microelectromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS), sensors, and acoustic actuators.

  19. Dielectric composite materials and method for preparing

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Collins, Jack L.; Felten, John J.

    2003-07-29

    The invention allows the fabrication of small, dense beads of dielectric materials with selected compositions, which are incorporated into a polymeric matrix for use in capacitors, filters, and the like. A porous, generally spherical bead of hydrous metal oxide containing titanium or zirconium is made by a sol-gel process to form a substantially rigid bead having a generally fine crystallite size and correspondingly finely distributed internal porosity. The resulting gel bead may be washed and hydrothermally reacted with a soluble alkaline earth salt (typically Ba or Sr) at elevated temperature and pressure to convert the bead into a mixed hydrous titanium- or zirconium-alkaline earth oxide while retaining the generally spherical shape. Alternatively, the gel bead may be made by coprecipitation. This mixed oxide bead is then washed, dried and calcined to produce the desired (BaTiO.sub.3, PbTiO.sub.3, SrZrO.sub.3) structure. The sintered beads are incorporated into a selected polymer matrix. The resulting dielectric composite material may be electrically "poled" if desired.

  20. Method for preparing dielectric composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Collins, Jack L.; Felten, John J.

    2004-11-23

    The invention allows the fabrication of small, dense beads of dielectric materials with selected compositions, which are incorporated into a polymeric matrix for use in capacitors, filters, and the like. A porous, generally spherical bead of hydrous metal oxide containing titanium or zirconium is made by a sol-gel process to form a substantially rigid bead having a generally fine crystallite size and correspondingly finely distributed internal porosity. The resulting gel bead may be washed and hydrothermally reacted with a soluble alkaline earth salt (typically Ba or Sr) at elevated temperature and pressure to convert the bead into a mixed hydrous titanium- or zirconium-alkaline earth oxide while retaining the generally spherical shape. Alternatively, the gel bead may be made by coprecipitation. This mixed oxide bead is then washed, dried and calcined to produce the desired (BaTiO.sub.3, PbTiO.sub.3, SrZrO.sub.3) structure. The sintered beads are incorporated into a selected polymer matrix. The resulting dielectric composite material may be electrically "poled" if desired.

  1. Viscoelastic behavior of fiber-reinforced composite materials undergoing cure

    E-print Network

    Wang, Kai

    1999-01-01

    A viscoelastic material model has been proposed to characterize the curing and thermal effects on the viscoelastic material properties of both the matrix material and the composite lamina. Micromechanics simulations are used to generate...

  2. In vivo and in vitro investigations of a nanostructured coating material a preclinical study

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Martin; Ganz, Cornelia; Xu, Weiguo; Sarajian, Hamid-Reza; Gtz, Werner; Gerber, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Immediate loading of dental implants is only possible if a firm bone-implant anchorage at early stages is developed. This implies early and high bone apposition onto the implant surface. A nanostructured coating material based on an osseoinductive bone grafting is investigated in relation to the osseointegration at early stages. The goal is to transmit the structure (silica matrix with embedded hydroxyapatite) and the properties of the bone grafting into a coating material. The bone grafting substitute offers an osseoinductive potential caused by an exchange of the silica matrix in vivo accompanied by vascularization. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis show that the coating material consists of a high porous silica matrix with embedded nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with the same morphology as human hydroxyapatite. An in vitro investigation shows the early interaction between coating and human blood. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis showed that the silica matrix was replaced by an organic matrix within a few minutes. Uncoated and coated titanium implants were inserted into the femora of New Zealand White rabbits. The bone-to-implant contact (BIC) was measured after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The BIC of the coated implants was increased significantly at 2 and 4 weeks. After 6 weeks, the BIC was decreased to the level of the control group. A histological analysis revealed high bone apposition on the coated implant surface after 2 and 4 weeks. Osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities on the coating material indicated that the coating participates in the bone-remodeling process. The nanostructure of the coating material led to an exchange of the silica matrix by an autologous, organic matrix without delamination of the coating. This is the key issue in understanding initial bone formation on a coated surface. PMID:24627631

  3. Composite materials: Tomorrow for the day after tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condom, P.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the history of the use of composite materials in the aerospace industry. Research programs underway to obtain exact data on the behavior of composite materials over time are discussed. It is concluded that metal composites have not yet replaced metals, but that that this may be a future possibility.

  4. Composition of estuarine colloidal material: organic components

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigleo, A.C.; Hoering, T.C.; Helz, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    Colloidal material in the size range 1.2 nm to 0.4 ??m was isolated by ultrafiltration from Chesapeake Bay and Patuxent River waters (U.S.A.). Temperature controlled, stepwise pyrolysis of the freeze-dried material, followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses of the volatile products indicates that the primary organic components of this polymer are carbohydrates and peptides. The major pyrolysis products at the 450??C step are acetic acid, furaldehydes, furoic acid, furanmethanol, diones and lactones characteristic of carbohydrate thermal decomposition. Pyrroles, pyridines, amides and indole (protein derivatives) become more prevalent and dominate the product yield at the 600??C pyrolysis step. Olefins and saturated hydrocarbons, originating from fatty acids, are present only in minor amounts. These results are consistent with the composition of Chesapeake phytoplankton (approximately 50% protein, 30% carbohydrate, 10% lipid and 10% nucleotides by dry weight). The pyrolysis of a cultured phytoplankton and natural particulate samples produced similar oxygen and nitrogencontaining compounds, although the proportions of some components differ relative to the colloidal fraction. There were no lignin derivatives indicative of terrestrial plant detritus in any of these samples. The data suggest that aquatic microorganisms, rather than terrestrial plants, are the dominant source of colloidal organic material in these river and estuarine surface waters. ?? 1982.

  5. Composition of estuarine colloidal material: organic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigleo, Anne C.; Hoering, Thomas C.; Helz, George R.

    1982-09-01

    Colloidal material in the size range 1.2 nm to 0.4 ?m was isolated by ultrafiltration from Chesapeake Bay and Patuxent River waters (U.S.A.). Temperature controlled, stepwise pyrolysis of the freeze-dried material, followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses of the volatile products indicates that the primary organic components of this polymer are carbohydrates and peptides. The major pyrolysis products at the 450C step are acetic acid, furaldehydes, furoic acid, furanmethanol, diones and lactones characteristic of carbohydrate thermal decomposition. Pyrroles, pyridines, amides and indole (protein derivatives) become more prevalent and dominate the product yield at the 600C pyrolysis step. Olefins and saturated hydrocarbons, originating from fatty acids, are present only in minor amounts. These results are consistent with the composition of Chesapeake phytoplankton (approximately 50% protein, 30% carbohydrate, 10% lipid and 10% nucleotides by dry weight). The pyrolysis of a cultured phytoplankton and natural particulate samples produced similar oxygen and nitrogencontaining compounds, although the proportions of some components differ relative to the colloidal fraction. There were no lignin derivatives indicative of terrestrial plant detritus in any of these samples. The data suggest that aquatic microorganisms, rather than terrestrial plants, are the dominant source of colloidal organic material in these river and estuarine surface waters.

  6. Method for preparing polyolefin composites containing a phase change material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1990-01-01

    A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyolefin matrix having a phase change material such as a crystalline alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein. The composite is useful in forming pellets, sheets or fibers having thermal energy storage characteristics; methods for forming the composite are also disclosed.

  7. Center for Fundamental and Applied Research in Nanostructured and Lightweight Materials. Final Technical Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, Michael; Rogers, Tony; King, Julia; Keith, Jason; Cornilsen, Bahne; Allen, Jeffrey; Gilbert, Ryan; Holles, Joseph

    2010-09-28

    The core projects for this DOE-sponsored Center at Michigan Tech have focused on several of the materials problems identified by the NAS. These include: new electrode materials, enhanced PEM materials, lighter and more effective bipolar plates, and improvement of the carbon used as a current carrier. This project involved fundamental and applied research in the development and testing of lightweight and nanostructured materials to be used in fuel cell applications and for chemical synthesis. The advent of new classes of materials engineered at the nanometer level can produce materials that are lightweight and have unique physical and chemical properties. The grant was used to obtain and improve the equipment infrastructure to support this research and also served to fund seven research projects. These included: 1. Development of lightweight, thermally conductive bipolar plates for improved thermal management in fuel cells; 2. Exploration of pseudomorphic nanoscale overlayer bimetallic catalysts for fuel cells; 3. Development of hybrid inorganic/organic polymer nanocomposites with improved ionic and electronic properties; 4. Development of oriented polymeric materials for membrane applications; 5. Preparation of a graphitic carbon foam current collectors; 6. The development of lightweight carbon electrodes using graphitic carbon foams for battery and fuel cell applications; and 7. Movement of water in fuel cell electrodes.

  8. Multi-scale Modeling for Piezoelectric Composite Materials

    E-print Network

    Qian Zhang; Xingye Yue

    2014-02-17

    In this paper, we focus on multi-scale modeling and simulation of piezoelectric composite materials. A multi-scale model for piezoelectric composite materials under the framework of Heterogeneous Multi-scale Method(HMM) is proposed. For materials with periodic microstructure, macroscopic model is derived from microscopic model of piezoelectric composite material by asymptotic expansion. Convergence analysis under the framework of homogenization theory is carried out. Moreover, error estimate between HMM solutions and homogenization solutions is derived. A 3-D numerical example of 1-3 type piezoelectric composite materials is employed to verify the error estimate.

  9. Method of preparing corrosion resistant composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D. (320 Willow St., New Lenox, IL 60451)

    1993-01-01

    Method of manufacture of ceramic materials which require stability in severely-corrosive environment having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These surfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  10. Electromagnetic Shielding Efficiency Measurement of Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D?novsk, J.; Kejk, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of the shielding efficiency measurements of construction composite materials. This contribution describes an alternative test method of these measurements by using the measurement circular flange. The measured results and parameters of coaxial test flange are also discussed. The measurement circular flange is described by measured scattering parameters in the frequency range from 9 kHz up to 1 GHz. The accuracy of the used shielding efficiency measurement method was checked by brass calibration ring. The suitability of the coaxial test setup was also checked by measurements on the EMC test chamber. This data was compared with the measured data on the real EMC chamber. The whole measurement of shielding efficiency was controlled by the program which runs on a personal computer. This program was created in the VEE Pro environment produced by Agilent Technology.

  11. Surface composite nanostructures of AZ91 magnesium alloy induced by high current pulsed electron beam treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. C.; Hao, S. Z.; Wen, H.; Huang, R. F.

    2014-06-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) treatment was conducted on an AZ91 cast magnesium alloy with accelerating voltage 27 kV, energy density 3 J/cm2 and pulse duration 2.5 ?s. The surface microstructure was characterized by optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The surface corrosion property was tested with electrochemical method in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. It is found that after 1 pulse of HCPEB treatment, the initial eutectic ? phase and Mg17Al12 particles started to dissolve in the surface modified layer of depth 15 ?m. When using 15 HCPEB pulses, the Al content in surface layer increased noticeably, and the phase structure was modified as composite nanostructures consisted of nano-grained Mg3.1Al0.9 domains surrounded by network of Mg17Al12 phase. The HCPEB treated samples showed an improved corrosion resistance with cathodic current density decreased by two orders of magnitude as compared to the initial AZ91 alloy.

  12. Observations of unusual temperature dependent photoluminescence anti-quenching in two-dimensional nanosheets of ZnS/ZnO composites and polarization dependent photoluminescence enhancement in fungi-like ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kole, A. K.; Kumbhakar, P.; Ganguly, T.

    2014-06-01

    Hybrid semiconductor nanostructures which integrate the favourable characteristics of both the component materials are found recently to be attractive candidate materials for research investigations having interesting optical properties. Considering the fact that the temperature of the materials used in photo-luminescent devices may vary while using them in a real device, it is essential to study the performances of such materials at variable temperatures. But the photoluminescence (PL) emission capabilities of such materials above room temperatures have not been well investigated, yet. However, in this work we have reported temperature dependent unusual PL emission characteristics of 2D nanosheets of ZnS/ZnO composite in the temperature range of 273-333 K. The composite sample has been produced by annealing the organic-inorganic ZnS(ethylenediamine)0.5 nanosheets, which are obtained by solvothermal technique. The as-synthesized nanosheets and another thermally annealed product of ZnO nanostructures showed usual thermally quenched PL emissions, whereas luminescence temperature anti-quenching (LTAQ) effect has been found in the ZnS/ZnO composite nanosheets. The PL emission intensity has been enhanced up to 242% with a small temperature variation of 60 K. The LTAQ effect has been explained by using the Berthelot-type model. It has been found that the diffused oxygen present in the composite nanostructures is acting as trap centre and played the major role in LTAQ effect. The analyses of time resolved PL emission spectroscopy data also confirmed the presence of oxygen trap level within the band gap of the material. Further, enhanced PL emission from the synthesized fungi-like ZnO samples has also been reported under the excitation of polarised ultraviolet light.

  13. Nanostructured pseudocapacitive materials decorated 3D graphene foam electrodes for next generation supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Umakant; Lee, Su Chan; Kulkarni, Sachin; Sohn, Ji Soo; Nam, Min Sik; Han, Suhyun; Jun, Seong Chan

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, advancement in performance of proficient multifarious electrode materials lies conclusively at the core of research concerning energy storage devices. To accomplish superior capacitance performance the requirements of high capacity, better cyclic stability and good rate capability can be expected from integration of electrochemical double layer capacitor based carbonaceous materials (high power density) and pseudocapacitive based metal hydroxides/oxides or conducting polymers (high energy density). The envisioned three dimensional (3D) graphene foams are predominantly advantageous to extend potential applicability by offering a large active surface area and a highly conductive continuous porous network for fast charge transfer with decoration of nanosized pseudocapacitive materials. In this article, we review the latest methodologies and performance evaluation for several 3D graphene based metal oxides/hydroxides and conducting polymer electrodes with improved electrochemical properties for next-generation supercapacitors. The most recent research advancements of our and other groups in the field of 3D graphene based electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. To assess the studied materials fully, a careful interpretation and rigorous scrutiny of their electrochemical characteristics is essential. Auspiciously, both nano-structuration as well as confinement of metal hydroxides/oxides and conducting polymers onto a conducting porous 3D graphene matrix play a great role in improving the performance of electrodes mainly due to: (i) active material access over large surface area with fast charge transportation; (ii) synergetic effect of electric double layer and pseudocapacitive based charge storing.

  14. Development of Micro and Nanostructured Materials for Interfacial Self-Healing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaiszik, Benjamin James

    2009-01-01

    Damage in polymeric coatings, adhesives, microelectronic components, and composites spans many length scales. For small scale damage, autonomic self-healing can repair multiple damage modes without manual intervention. In autonomic self-healing materials, a healing response is triggered by damage to the material. Size scale considerations, such as

  15. Laminated thermoplastic composite material from recycled high density polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a materials-science, educational experiment is presented. The student should understand the fundamentals of polymer processing and mechanical property testing of materials. The ability to use American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards is also necessary for designing material test specimens and testing procedures. The objectives of the experiment are (1) to understand the concept of laminated composite materials, processing, testing, and quality assurance of thermoplastic composites and (2) to observe an application example of recycled plastics.

  16. Platelet adhesion studies on nanostructured poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid)-carbon nanotube composite.

    PubMed

    Koh, Li Buay; Rodriguez, Isabel; Zhou, Jijie

    2008-08-01

    Design of blood-compatible surfaces is required to minimize platelet-surface interactions and increase the thromboresistance of foreign surfaces. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid)-carbon nanotube (PLGA-CNT) composite is studied as a building material to fabricate artificial blood prostheses. This nanocomposite-based biomaterial is prepared by an electrostatic Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition technique, in which layers of CNTs are adsorbed onto a PLGA film. Before incubation in nonstimulated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for platelet studies, fibrinogen is immobilized on PLGA-CNT composite. Interactions between the plasma proteins, e.g. fibrinogen and PRP, are investigated on the prepared PLGA-CNT composite. Contact angle measurements on the PLGA-CNT composite displayed a good resistance of platelets adhesion on a hydrophilic surface with an angle of 64.94 degrees as compared to pristine PLGA control with an angle of 93.43 degrees . A significant reduction of adhesion is observed on the PLGA-CNT composite, as well as the absence of platelet activation. On the contrary, both platelet adhesion and activation are observed on control samples. We inferred this suppression in secretion of granule contents in the platelet by the presence of the CNTs that resulted in the absence of platelet activation and its subsequent inhibition in the release of adhesive membrane receptors on the PLGA-CNT composite. PMID:17969028

  17. Millimeter-wave imaging of composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Dieckman, S.L.; Raptis, A.C.; Lepper, M.J.

    1993-09-01

    This work addresses the application and evaluates the potential of mm-wave imaging in the W-band (75-110 GHz) using samples of low-loss dielectric and composite materials with artificial defects. The initial focus is on the measurement of amplitude changes in the back scattered and forward-scattered fields. The c-scan system employs a focused beam antenna to provide spatial resolution of about one wavelength. A plane-wave model is used to calculate the effective reflection (or transmission) coefficient of multilayer test sample geometry. Theoretical analysis is used to optimize the measurement frequency for higher image contrast and to interpret the experimental results. Both reflection and transmission images, based on back scattered and forward-scattered powers, were made with Plexiglas and Kevlar/epoxy samples containing artificially introduced defects such as subsurface voids and disbonds. The results clearly indicate that mm-wave imaging has high potential for non-contact interrogation of low-loss materials.

  18. Nano-Structured Bio-Inorganic Hybrid Material for High Performing Oxygen Reduction Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rongzhong; Tran, Dat T; McClure, Joshua P; Chu, Deryn

    2015-08-26

    In this study, we demonstrate a non-Pt nanostructured bioinorganic hybrid (BIH) catalyst for catalytic oxygen reduction in alkaline media. This catalyst was synthesized through biomaterial hemin, nanostructured Ag-Co alloy, and graphene nano platelets (GNP) by heat-treatment and ultrasonically processing. This hybrid catalyst has the advantages of the combined features of these bio and inorganic materials. A 10-fold improvement in catalytic activity (at 0.8 V vs RHE) is achieved in comparison of pure Ag nanoparticles (20-40 nm). The hybrid catalyst reaches 80% activity (at 0.8 V vs RHE) of the state-of-the-art catalyst (containing 40% Pt and 60% active carbon). Comparable catalytic stability for the hybrid catalyst with the Pt catalyst is observed by chronoamperometric experiment. The hybrid catalyst catalyzes 4-electron oxygen reduction to produce water with fast kinetic rate. The rate constant obtained from the hybrid catalyst (at 0.6 V vs RHE) is 4 times higher than that of pure Ag/GNP catalyst. A catalytic model is proposed to explain the oxygen reduction reaction at the BIH catalyst. PMID:26280984

  19. Nanostructured materials show significant enhancement in the thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) due to quantum confinement effects. Improving the efficiency of thermoelectric devices allows for the

    E-print Network

    Nanostructured materials show significant enhancement in the thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) due to quantum confinement effects. Improving the efficiency of thermoelectric devices allows of thermoelectric materials. These systems must possess the capability of accurately measuring the thermal

  20. First Principles Investigations of Technologically and Environmentally Important Nano-structured Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sujata

    In the course of my PhD I have worked on a broad range of problems using simulations from first principles: from catalysis and chemical reactions at surfaces and on nanostructures, characterization of carbon-based systems and devices, and surface and interface physics. My research activities focused on the application of ab-initio electronic structure techniques to the theoretical study of important aspects of the physics and chemistry of materials for energy and environmental applications and nano-electronic devices. A common theme of my research is the computational study of chemical reactions of environmentally important molecules (CO, CO2) using high performance simulations. In particular, my principal aim was to design novel nano-structured functional catalytic surfaces and interfaces for environmentally relevant remediation and recycling reactions, with particular attention to the management of carbon dioxide. We have studied the carbon-mediated partial sequestration and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO), both in the presence and absence of hydrogen, on graphitic edges. Using first-principles calculations we have studied several reactions of CO with carbon nanostructures, where the active sites can be regenerated by the deposition of carbon decomposed from the reactant (CO) to make the reactions self-sustained. Using statistical mechanics, we have also studied the conditions under which the conversion of CO to graphene and carbon dioxide is thermodynamically favorable, both in the presence and in the absence of hydrogen. These results are a first step toward the development of processes for the carbon-mediated partial sequestration and selective oxidation of CO in a hydrogen atmosphere. We have elucidated the atomic scale mechanisms of activation and reduction of carbon dioxide on specifically designed catalytic surfaces via the rational manipulation of the surface properties that can be achieved by combining transition metal thin films on oxide substrates. We have analyzed the mechanisms of the molecular reactions on the class of catalytic surfaces so designed in an effort to optimize materials parameters in the search of optimal catalytic materials. All these studies are likely to bring new perspectives and substantial advancement in the field of high-performance simulations in catalysis and the characterization of nanostructures for energy and environmental applications. Moving to novel materials for electronics applications, I have studied the structural and vibrational properties of mono and bi-layer graphene. I have characterized the lattice thermal conductivity of ideal monolayer and bi-layer graphene, demonstrating that their behavior is similar to that observed in graphite and indicating that the intra-layer coupling does not affect significantly the thermal conductance. I have also calculated the electron-phonon interaction in monolayer graphene and obtained electron scattering rates associated with all phonon modes and the intrinsic resistivity/mobility of monolayer graphene is estimated as a function of temperature. On another project, I have worked on ab initio molecular dynamic studies of novel Phase Change Materials (PCM) for memory and 3D-integration. We characterized high-temperature, sodium | nickel chloride, rechargeable batteries. These batteries are under consideration for hybrid drive systems in transportation applications. As part of our activities to improve performance and reliability of these batteries, we developed an engineering transport model of the component electrochemical cell. To support that model, we have proposed a reaction kinetics expression for the REDOX (reduction-oxidation) reaction at the porous positive electrode. We validate the kinetics expression with electrochemical measurements. A methodology based on the transistor body effect is used to estimate inversion oxide thicknesses (Tinv) in high-kappa/metal gate, undoped, ultra-thin body SOI FINFETs. The extracted Tinvs are compared to independent capacitance voltage (CV) measurements.

  1. Co-evaporation of transition metal salt and SiO powder toward copper(or nickel)/silicon-contained composite nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Gang; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Cao, Yang; He, Junhui

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Copper(or nickel)/silicon-contained composite nanostructures were successfully synthesized by co-evaporating SiO powder and corresponding transition metal salts (nickel formate and copper sulfate). Display Omitted Highlights: ? Novel nanostructures were synthesized by co-evaporating SiO and metal salts. ? A pre-sintering process was used in the synthesis of copper/silicon nanocomposites. ? A Ni{sub 31}Si{sub 12}/Si/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite was obtained. ? Peapod-like copper/silicon-contained nanocomposites were obtained. ? On the basis of experimental results, the formation mechanism was discussed. -- Abstract: We demonstrate that several novel copper(or nickel)/silicon-contained composite nanostructures were successfully synthesized by co-evaporating SiO powder and corresponding transition metal salts (transition metal organic salt and transition metal inorganic salt), including nickel formate, cobalt acetate, and copper sulfate. The morphologies, compositions, and crystal structures of products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results indicate that the morphology and composition of formed copper(or nickel)/silicon-contained composite nanostructures are dramatically influenced by the distance between SiO powder and transition metal salts, or by the pre-sintering temperature of the reactants. The possible formation mechanisms of these composite nanostructures were discussed on the basis of experimental observations.

  2. Broadband negative optical constants in composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, S.; Rostami, A.; Rostami, G.; Dolatyari, M.

    2015-04-01

    Capability of flexible composite substrates, consisting of randomly distributed nanoparticles in polymeric host medium, to illustrate negative effective permittivity and permeability in the mid infrared wavelengths (3-5 ?m) is investigated. To produce negative permittivity in the desired wavelength range, we proposed a structure in which plasmonic nanoparticles (doped semiconductors or metallic nanoparticles) are inserted inside polytetrafluoroethylene as the low refractive index polymeric medium. Also, the optical properties of the structures including core/shell nanoparticles in polytetrafluoroethylene host (with polytetrafluoroethylene as core material and dielectric shells possessing higher refractive index compared to refractive index of the host medium) are investigated. It is shown that, high refractive index dielectric shells result in negative ?eff in these structures. As a basic idea, to obtain negative optical constants in broad wavelength range, superposition of the mentioned nanoparticles in the polymeric host is examined. The advantages and limitations of the proposed structure are carefully investigated. Moreover, based on the simulation results, we will introduce flexible media that simultaneously display negative permittivity and permeability in the wavelength range of interest. Capability of two types of composites (the first one contains mixture of plasmonic nanoparticles with polymer-dielectric core-shell nanoparticles and the second one includes metal-dielectric core-shell nanoparticles in the polymeric host) to produce both negative effective parameters in the desired wavelength range are investigated and compared together. Finally a polymeric medium with random distribution of core-shell (metal-dielectric) nanoparticles and plasmonic nanoparticles is introduced as an optimal medium to illustrate negative optical constants in mid infrared wavelengths. Clausius-Mossotti formula is used to calculate the effective parameters.

  3. A Nanostructured Composites Thermal Switch Controls Internal and External Short Circuit in Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert C.; VanBlarcom, Shelly L.; Kwasnik, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses a thin layer of composite material, made from nano scale particles of nickel and Teflon, placed within a battery cell as a layer within the anode and/or the cathode. There it conducts electrons at room temperature, then switches to an insulator at an elevated temperature to prevent thermal runaway caused by internal short circuits. The material layer controls excess currents from metal-to-metal or metal-to-carbon shorts that might result from cell crush or a manufacturing defect

  4. Prevention of microbial biofilms - the contribution of micro and nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chifiriuc, Carmen Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Microbial biofilms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance to most of the antimicrobial agents and with frequent treatment failures, generating the search for novel strategies which can eradicate infections by preventing the persistent colonization of the hospital environment, medical devices or human tissues. Some of the current approaches for fighting biofilms are represented by the development of novel biomaterials with increased resistance to microbial colonization and by the improvement of the current therapeutic solutions with the aid of nano (bio)technology. This special issues includes papers describing the applications of nanotechnology and biomaterials science for the development of improved drug delivery systems and nanostructured surfaces for the prevention and treatment of medical biofilms. Nanomaterials display unique and well-defined physical and chemical properties making them useful for biomedical applications, such as: very high surface area to volume ratio, biocompatibility, biodegradation, safety for human ingestion, capacity to support surface modification and therefore, to be combined with other bioactive molecules or substrata and more importantly being seemingly not attracting antimicrobial resistance. The use of biomaterials is significantly contributing to the reduction of the excessive use of antibiotics, and consequently to the decrease of the emergence rate of resistant microorganisms, as well as of the associated toxic effects. Various biomaterials with intrinsic antimicrobial activity (inorganic nanoparticles, polymers, composites), medical devices for drug delivery, as well as factors influencing their antimicrobial properties are presented. One of the presented papers reviews the recent literature on the use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP)-based nanomaterials in antimicrobial applications for biomedicine, focusing on the growth inhibition and killing of bacteria and fungi, and, on viral inactivation. The anti-pathogenic activity of the most common types of metallic/metal oxide nanoparticles, as well as the photocontrolled targeted drug-delivery system and the development of traditional Chinese herbs nanoparticles are some of the highlights of another paper of this issue. The applications of synthetic, biodegradable polymers for the improvement of antiinfective therapeutic and prophylactic agents (i.e., antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents and vaccines) activity, as well as for the design of biomaterials with increased biocompatibility and resistance to microbial colonization are also discussed, as well as one of the most recent paradigms of the pharmaceutical field and nanobiotechnology, represented by the design of smart multifunctional polymeric nanocarriers for controlled drug delivery. These systems are responding to physico-chemical changes and as a result, they can release the active substances in a controlled and targeted manner. The advantages and limitations of the main routes of polymerization by which these nanovehicles are obtained, as well as the practical appllications in the field of drug nanocarriers are presented. The authors describe the therapeutic applications of dendrimers, which are unimolecular, monodisperse nanocarriers with unique branched tree-like globular structure. The applications of nanotechnology for the stabilization and improved release of anti-pathogenic natural or synthetic compounds, which do not interfere with the microbial growth, but inhibit different features of microbial pathogenicity are also highlighted. We expect this special issue would offer a comprehensive update and give new directions for the design of micro/nano engineered materials to inhibit microbial colonization on the surfaces or to potentiate the efficiency of the current/ novel/alternative antimicrobial agents by improving their bioavailability and pharmacokinetic features. PMID:24606506

  5. Attosecond nanotechnology: NEMS of energy storage and nanostructural transformations in materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznosyuk, Sergey A.; Zhukovsky, Mark S.; Maslova, Olga A.

    2015-10-01

    The attosecond technology of the nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) energy storage as active center fast transformation of nanostructures in materials is considered. The self-organizing relaxation of the NEMS active center containing nanocube of 256-atoms limited by planes (100) in the FCC lattice matrix of 4d-transition metals (Ru, Rh, Pd) is described by the quantum NEMS-kinetics (NK) method. Typical for these metals change of the NEMS active center physicochemical characteristics during the time of relaxation is presented. There are three types of intermediate quasistationary states of the NEMS active center. Their forms are plainly distinguishable. The full relaxed NEMS active centers (Ru256, Rh256, Pd256) accumulate next storage energies: ERu = 2.27 eV/at, ERh = 1.67 eV/at, EPd = 3.02 eV/at.

  6. Ternary eutectic growth of nanostructured thermoelectric Ag-Pb-Te materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hsin-jay; Chen, Sinn-wen; Foo, Wei-jian; Jeffrey Snyder, G.

    2012-07-09

    Nanostructured Ag-Pb-Te thermoelectric materials were fabricated by unidirectionally solidifying the ternary Ag-Pb-Te eutectic and near-eutectic alloys using the Bridgeman method. Specially, the Bridgman-grown eutectic alloy exhibited a partially aligned lamellar microstructure, which consisted of Ag{sub 5}Te{sub 3} and Te phases, with additional 200-600 nm size particles of PbTe. The self-assembled interfaces altered the thermal and electronic transport properties in the bulk Ag-Pb-Te eutectic alloy. Presumably due to phonon scattering from the nanoscale microstructure, a low thermal conductivity ({kappa} = 0.3 W/mK) was achieved of the eutectic alloy, leading to a zT peak of 0.41 at 400 K.

  7. Nanostructured AgPb(m)SbTe(m+2) system bulk materials with enhanced thermoelectric performance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Li, Jing-Feng; Kita, Takuji

    2008-04-01

    Nanostructured Ag0.8Pbm+xSbTem+2 (m = 18, x = 4.5) system thermoelectric materials have been fabricated by combining mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) methods followed by annealing for several days to investigate the effect on microstructure and thermoelectric performance. It was found that appropriate annealing treatment could reduce both the electrical resistivity and the thermal conductivity at the same time, consequently greatly enhancing the thermoelectric performance. A low electrical resistivity of 2 x 10-3 Ohm-cm and low thermal conductivity of 0.89 W m-1 K-1 were obtained for the sample annealed for 30 days at 700 K. The very low thermal conductivity is supposed to be due to the nanoscopic Ag/Sb-rich regions embedded in the matrix. A high ZT value of 1.5 at 700 K has been achieved for the sample annealed for 30 days. PMID:18327945

  8. Versatile, high sensitivity, and automatized angular dependent vectorial Kerr magnetometer for the analysis of nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, J M; Lusche, R; Ventura, J; Fermento, R; Carpinteiro, F; Araujo, J P; Sousa, J B; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

    2011-04-01

    Magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) magnetometry is an indispensable, reliable, and one of the most widely used techniques for the characterization of nanostructured magnetic materials. Information, such as the magnitude of coercive fields or anisotropy strengths, can be readily obtained from MOKE measurements. We present a description of our state-of-the-art vectorial MOKE magnetometer, being an extremely versatile, accurate, and sensitivity unit with a low cost and comparatively simple setup. The unit includes focusing lenses and an automatized stepper motor stage for angular dependent measurements. The performance of the magnetometer is demonstrated by hysteresis loops of Co thin films displaying uniaxial anisotropy induced on growth, MnIr/CoFe structures exhibiting the so called exchange bias effect, spin valves, and microfabricated flux guides produced by optical lithography. PMID:21529020

  9. Surface composites: A new class of engineered materials

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.; Fitz-Gerald, J.

    1997-03-01

    To integrate irreconcilable material properties into a single component, a new class of engineered materials termed {open_quotes}surface composites{close_quotes} has been developed. In this engineered material, the second phase is spatially distributed in the near surface regions, such that the phase composition is linearly graded as a function of distance from the surface. Surface composites are different from existing engineered materials such as {open_quotes}bulk composites{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}functionally graded materials{close_quotes} (FGM). Unlike bulk composites, the surface phase in surface composites is present only at the near surface regions. In contrast to FGM, the graded properties of surface composites are achieved by unique morphological surface modification of the bulk phase. To fabricate surface composites, the initial surface of the bulk material is transformed using a novel multiple pulse irradiation technique into truncated cone-like structures. The laser induced micro-rough structures (LIMS) possess surface areas which are up to an order of magnitude higher than the original surface. The second phase is deposited on the surface using thin or thick film deposition methods. A key characteristic of surface composites is the formation of a three dimensional, compositionally and thermally graded interface, which gives rise to improved adhesion of the surface phase. Examples of various types of surface composites such as W/Mo, silica/SiC and diamond/steel, etc. are presented in this paper. The unique properties of surface composites make them ideal engineered materials for applications involving adherent thick film coatings of thermally mismatched materials, compositional surface modification for controlled catalytic activity, and creating adherent metal-ceramic and ceramic-polymeric joints. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  10. Chemically modified and nanostructured porous silicon as a drug delivery material and device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglin, Emily Jessica

    This thesis describes the fabrication, chemical modification, drug release, and toxicity studies of nanostructured porous silicon for the purposes of developing a smart drug delivery device. The first chapter is an introductory chapter, presenting the chemical and physical properties of porous silicon, the concepts and issues of current drug delivery devices and materials, and how porous silicon can address the issues regarding localized and controlled drug therapies. The second chapter discusses chemical modifications of nanostructured porous Si for stabilizing the material in biologically relevant media while providing an extended release of a therapeutic in vitro. This chapter also demonstrates the utility of the porous silicon optical signatures for effectively monitoring drug release from the system and its applications for development of a self-reporting drug delivery device. In chapter three, the concept of providing a triggered release of a therapeutic from porous silicon microparticles through initiation by an external stimulus is demonstrated. The microparticles are chemically modified, and the release is enhanced by a short application of ultrasound to the particulate system. The effect of ultrasound on the drug release and particle size is discussed. Chapter four presents a new method for sustaining the release of a monoclonal antibody from the porous matrix of porous SiO2. The therapeutic is incorporated into the films through electrostatic adsorption and a slow release is observed in vitro. A new method of quantifying the extent of drug loading is monitored with interferometry. The last chapter of the thesis provides a basic in vivo toxicity study of various porous Si microparticles for intraocular applications. Three types of porous Si particles are fabricated and studied in a rabbit eye model. The toxicity studies were conducted by collaborators at the Shiley Eye Center, La Jolla, CA. This work, demonstrates the feasibility of developing a self-reporting, extended release drug delivery system using porous Si microparticles for intraocular applications.

  11. Oxygen isotope composition of trinitite postdetonation materials.

    PubMed

    Koeman, Elizabeth C; Simonetti, Antonio; Chen, Wei; Burns, Peter C

    2013-12-17

    Trinitite is the melt glass produced subsequent the first nuclear bomb test conducted on July 16, 1945, at White Sands Range (Alamagordo, NM). The geological background of the latter consists of arkosic sand that was fused with radioactive debris and anthropogenic materials at ground zero subsequent detonation of the device. Postdetonation materials from historic nuclear weapon test sites provide ideal samples for development of novel forensic methods for attribution and studying the chemical/isotopic effects of the explosion on the natural geological environment. In particular, the latter effects can be evaluated relative to their spatial distribution from ground zero. We report here ?(18)O() values for nonmelted, precursor minerals phases (quartz, feldspar, calcite), "feldspathic-rich" glass, "average" melt glass, and bulk (natural) unmelted sand from the Trinity site. Prior to oxygen isotope analysis, grains/crystals were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to determine their corresponding major element composition. ?(18)O values for bulk trinitite samples exhibit a large range (11.2-15.5) and do not correlate with activity levels for activation product (152)Eu; the latter levels are a function of their spatial distribution relative to ground zero. Therefore, the slow neutron flux associated with the nuclear explosion did not perturb the (18)O/(16)O isotope systematics. The oxygen isotope values do correlate with the abundances of major elements derived from precursor minerals present within the arkosic sand. Hence, the O isotope ratios documented here for trinitite melt glass can be attributed to a mixture of the respective signatures for precursor minerals at the Trinity site prior to the nuclear explosion. PMID:24304329

  12. Dendrimers as building blocks for nanostructured materials: Micro- and mesoporosity in dendrimer-based xerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Kriesel, J.W.; Tilley, T.D.

    1999-05-01

    Recently the authors have been exploring the use of dendrimeric building blocks in the construction of new types of nanostructured materials. In principle, this may be accomplished with use of various chemical interactions for linking the dendrimers together. For example, highly charged dendrimers of opposite charge might assemble via electrostatic forces into superlattice structures. Another approach involves the covalent assembly of dendrimer building blocks into network structures using coupling reactions between functional end groups on the dendrimer surface. Spherically shaped dendrimers may be expected to pack into networks possessing interstitial spaces whose size is influenced by the radius of the dendrimer building block. With this approach, it should be possible to generate new classes of porous materials with tunable pore sizes and inclusion properties. For such materials, one might expect that pore diameters would increase, and surface areas decrease, with higher dendrimer generations. In summary, this work has produced dendrimer-based xerogels that exhibit high surface areas, and an interesting observation with respect to the relationship between generation number and surface area has been made. Future work will address the influence of various synthetic conditions on the structures of the gels. Also, the authors intend to investigate the properties of these new materials as molecular sieves, porous membranes, and catalyst supports.

  13. Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

    2013-09-01

    The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

  14. Effects of heating on composition, degree of darkness, and stacking nanostructure of soil humic acids.

    PubMed

    Katsumi, Naoya; Yonebayashi, Koyo; Okazaki, Masanori

    2016-01-15

    Wildfires and prescribed burning can affect both the quality and the quantity of organic matter in soils. In this study, we investigated qualitative and quantitative changes of soil humic substances in two different soils (an Entisol from a paddy field and an Inceptisol from a cedar forest) under several controlled heating conditions. Soil samples were heated in a muffle furnace at 200, 250, or 300C for 1, 3, 5, or 12h. The humic acid and fulvic acid contents of the soil samples prior to and after heating were determined. The degree of darkness, elemental composition, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and X-ray diffraction patterns of humic acids extracted from the soils before and after heating were measured. The proportion of humic acids in total carbon decreased with increasing heating time at high temperature (300C), but increased with increasing heating time at ?250C. The degree of darkness of the humic acids increased with increasing heating time and temperature. During darkening, the H/C atomic ratios, the proportion of aromatic C, and the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios increased, whereas the proportions of alkyl C and O-alkyl C decreased. X-ray diffraction analysis verified that a stacking nanostructure developed by heating. Changes in the chemical structure of the humic acids from the heated soils depended on the type of soil. The major structural components of the humic acids from the heated Entisol were aromatic C and carboxylic C, whereas aliphatic C, aromatic C, and carboxylic C structural components were found in the humic acids from the heated Inceptisol. These results suggest that the heat-induced changes in the chemical structure of the humic acids depended on the source plant. PMID:26398447

  15. Active Nano-Structured Composite Coatings for Corrosion and Wear Protection of Steel

    E-print Network

    Kim, Yoo Sung

    2013-08-06

    In order to obtain sustainable engineering systems, this research investigates surface and interface properties of metals and active nanostructured coatings. The goal is to develop new approaches in order to improve the corrosion resistance...

  16. Multi-material Preforming of Structural Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Robert E.; Eberle, Cliff C.; Pastore, Christopher M.; Sudbury, Thomas Z.; Xiong, Fue; Hartman, David

    2015-05-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites offer significant weight reduction potential, with glass fiber composites already widely adopted. Carbon fiber composites deliver the greatest performance benefits, but their high cost has inhibited widespread adoption. This project demonstrates that hybrid carbon-glass solutions can realize most of the benefits of carbon fiber composites at much lower cost. ORNL and Owens Corning Reinforcements along with program participants at the ORISE collaborated to demonstrate methods for produce hybrid composites along with techniques to predict performance and economic tradeoffs. These predictions were then verified in testing coupons and more complex demonstration articles.

  17. Improved Damage Resistant Composite Materials Incorporating Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Jeffrey S. N.; Rogers, Craig A.

    1996-01-01

    Metallic shape memory alloys (SMA) such as nitinol have unique shape recovery behavior and mechanical properties associated with a material phase change that have been used in a variety of sensing and actuation applications. Recent studies have shown that integrating nitinol-SMA actuators into composite materials increases the composite material's functionality. Hybrid composites of conventional graphite/epoxy or glass/epoxy and nitinol-SMA elements can perform functions in applications where monolithic composites perform inadequately. One such application is the use of hybrid composites to function both in load bearing and armor capacities. While monolithic composites with high strength-to-weight ratios function efficiently as loadbearing structures, because of their brittle nature, impact loading can cause significant catastrophic damage. Initial composite failure modes such as delamination and matrix cracking dissipate some impact energy, but when stress exceeds the composite's ultimate strength, fiber fracture and material perforation become dominant. One of the few methods that has been developed to reduce material perforation is hybridizing polymer matrix composites with tough kevlar or high modulus polyethynylene plies. The tough fibers increase the impact resistance and the stiffer and stronger graphite fibers carry the majority of the load. Similarly, by adding nitinol-SMA elements that absorb impact energy through the stress-induced martensitic phase transformation, the composites' impact perforation resistance can be greatly enhanced. The results of drop-weight and high velocity gas-gun impact testing of various composite materials will be presented. The results demonstrate that hybridizing composites with nitinol-SMA elements significantly increases perforation resistance compared to other traditional toughening elements. Inspection of the composite specimens at various stages of perforation by optical microscope illustrates the mechanisms by which perforation is initiated. Results suggest that the out-of-plane transverse shear properties of the composite and nitinol elements have a significant effect on the perforation resistance. Applications that can utilize the hybrid composites effectively will also be presented with the experimental studies.

  18. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  19. Cellulose, Chitosan, and Keratin Composite Materials. Controlled Drug Release

    E-print Network

    Reid, Scott A.

    Cellulose, Chitosan, and Keratin Composite Materials. Controlled Drug Release Chieu D. Tran) and/or chitosan (CS) were added to keratin (KER) to enable [CEL/CS+KER] composites to have better intact in the composites. Tensile strength results expectedly show that adding CEL or CS into KER

  20. Controlled intermittent interfacial bond concept for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, T. U.; Atkins, A. G.

    1975-01-01

    Concept will enhance fracture resistance of high-strength filamentary composite without degrading its tensile strength or elastic modulus. Concept provides more economical composite systems, tailored for specific applications, and composite materials with mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, fracture strain, and fracture toughness, that can be optimized.

  1. Evaluation of Composite Materials for Use on Launch Complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finchum, A.; Welch, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    Commercially available composite structural shapes were evaluated for use. These composites, fiberglass-reinforced polyester and vinylester resin materials are being used extensively in the fabrication and construction of low maintenance, corrosion resistant structures. The evaluation found that in many applications these composite materials can be successfully used at the space center. These composite materials should not be used where they will be exposed to the hot exhaust plume/cloud of the launch vehicle during the liftoff, and caution should be taken in their use in areas where electrostatic discharge and hypergolic propellant compatibility are primary concerns.

  2. Process for fabricating composite material having high thermal conductivity

    DOEpatents

    Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, Howard L. (San Carlos, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  3. Cured composite materials for reactive metal battery electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Peterson, Eric S.

    2006-03-07

    A solid molecular composite polymer-based electrolyte is made for batteries, wherein silicate compositing produces a electrolytic polymer with a semi-rigid silicate condensate framework, and then mechanical-stabilization by radiation of the outer surface of the composited material is done to form a durable and non-tacky texture on the electrolyte. The preferred ultraviolet radiation produces this desirable outer surface by creating a thin, shallow skin of crosslinked polymer on the composite material. Preferably, a short-duration of low-medium range ultraviolet radiation is used to crosslink the polymers only a short distance into the polymer, so that the properties of the bulk of the polymer and the bulk of the molecular composite material remain unchanged, but the tough and stable skin formed on the outer surface lends durability and processability to the entire composite material product.

  4. Advanced organic composite materials for aircraft structures: Future program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Revolutionary advances in structural materials have been responsible for revolutionary changes in all fields of engineering. These advances have had and are still having a significant impact on aircraft design and performance. Composites are engineered materials. Their properties are tailored through the use of a mix or blend of different constituents to maximize selected properties of strength and/or stiffness at reduced weights. More than 20 years have passed since the potentials of filamentary composite materials were identified. During the 1970s much lower cost carbon filaments became a reality and gradually designers turned from boron to carbon composites. Despite progress in this field, filamentary composites still have significant unfulfilled potential for increasing aircraft productivity; the rendering of advanced organic composite materials into production aircraft structures was disappointingly slow. Why this is and research and technology development actions that will assist in accelerating the application of advanced organic composites to production aircraft is discussed.

  5. Industry technology assessment of graphite-polymide composite materials. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An assessment of the current state of the art and the future prospects for graphite polyimide composite material technology is presented. Presentations and discussions given at a minisymposium of major issues on the present and future use, availability, processing, manufacturing, and testing of graphite polyimide composite materials are summarized.

  6. Development of Nano-structured Electrode Materials for High Performance Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhendong

    Systematic studies have been done to develop a low cost, environmental-friendly facile fabrication process for the preparation of high performance nanostructured electrode materials and to fully understand the influence factors on the electrochemical performance in the application of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) or supercapacitors. For LIBs, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) with a 1D porous structure has been developed as cathode material. The tube-like 1D structure consists of inter-linked, multi-facet nanoparticles of approximately 100-500nm in diameter. The microscopically porous structure originates from the honeycomb-shaped precursor foaming gel, which serves as self-template during the stepwise calcination process. The 1D NCM presents specific capacities of 153, 140, 130 and 118mAhg-1 at current densities of 0.1C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C, respectively. Subsequently, a novel stepwise crystallization process consisting of a higher crystallization temperature and longer period for grain growth is employed to prepare single crystal NCM nanoparticles. The modified sol-gel process followed by optimized crystallization process results in significant improvements in chemical and physical characteristics of the NCM particles. They include a fully-developed single crystal NCM with uniform composition and a porous NCM architecture with a reduced degree of fusion and a large specific surface area. The NCM cathode material with these structural modifications in turn presents significantly enhanced specific capacities of 173.9, 166.9, 158.3 and 142.3mAhg -1 at 0.1C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C, respectively. Carbon nanotube (CNT) is used to improve the relative low power capability and poor cyclic stability of NCM caused by its poor electrical conductivity. The NCM/CNT nanocomposites cathodes are prepared through simply mixing of the two component materials followed by a thermal treatment. The CNTs were functionalized to obtain uniformly-dispersed MWCNTs in the NCM matrix. The electrochemical tests found reduced inner electron resistance and improved rate capability of the nanocomposite cathodes compared to the neat NCM, which were attributed to the 3D spatial conductive network formed by MWCNTs and Super p carbon black in the nanocomposites. The capacity retention ratios after 100 cycles of Li/NCM-CNTs cell were about 81%, much higher than that of Li/NCM cell (72%). As for supercapacitor, the annealed GO/CNT films or papers the binder-free electrodes are prepared and use for high performance supercapacitors. The amphiphilic nature of graphene oxide (GO) sheets allows adsorption of CNTs onto their surface in water, capable of forming highly stable dispersion. Thus, the GO/CNT hybrid films or papers are self-assembled via simple casting or vacuum filtration of aqueous dispersion. The hybrid thin film electrode with a moderate CNT content, typically 12.5wt%, give rise to remarkable electrochemical performance with extremely high specific capacitances of 428 and 145 Fg -1 at current densities of 0.5 and 100 Ag-1, respectively, as well as a remarkable retention rate 98% of the initial value after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The same as film type electrode, the rGO/CNT sandwich papers gives rise to an excellent specific capacitance of 151 Fg-1 at a current density of 0.5 Ag -1, as well as a remarkable retention ratio of 86 % of the initial value after 6,000 charge/discharge cycles at 5 Ag-1. These improvements arise from the synergistic effects of the increased electronic conductivity and effective surface area associated with large electrochemical active sites. The synergistic effects arising from i) the enlarged surface area of electrodes due to the intercalation of CNTs between the stacked GO sheets with associated large electrochemical active sites and ii) the improved conductivity through the formation of 3D network aided by CNTs, are mainly responsible for these findings. The effects of reduction process are also studied on the supercapacitive behavior of electrodes made from flexible graphene oxide (GO) papers. It is found that the s

  7. One-Dimensional Oxide Nanostructures as Gas-Sensing Materials: Review and Issues

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung Jin; Jang, Ho Won

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we review gas sensor application of one-dimensional (1D) metal-oxide nanostructures with major emphases on the types of device structure and issues for realizing practical sensors. One of the most important steps in fabricating 1D-nanostructure devices is manipulation and making electrical contacts of the nanostructures. Gas sensors based on individual 1D nanostructure, which were usually fabricated using electron-beam lithography, have been a platform technology for fundamental research. Recently, gas sensors with practical applicability were proposed, which were fabricated with an array of 1D nanostructures using scalable micro-fabrication tools. In the second part of the paper, some critical issues are pointed out including long-term stability, gas selectivity, and room-temperature operation of 1D-nanostructure-based metal-oxide gas sensors. PMID:22319343

  8. Nanostructured materials and their role as heterogeneous catalysts in the conversion of biomass to biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadigan, Chris

    Prior to the discovery of inexpensive and readily available fossil fuels, the world relied heavily on biomass to provide its energy needs. Due to a worldwide growth in demand for fossil fuels coupled with the shrinkage of petroleum resources, and mounting economic, political, and environmental concerns, it has become more pressing to develop sustainable fuels and chemicals from biomass. The present dissertation studies multiple nanostructured catalysts investigated in various processes related to gasification of biomass into synthesis gas, and further upgrading to biofuels and value added chemicals. These reactions include: syngas conditioning, alcohol synthesis from carbon monoxide hydrogenation, and steam reforming ethanol to form higher hydrocarbons. Nanomaterials were synthesized, characterized, studied in given reactions, and then further characterized post-reaction. Overall goals were aimed at determining catalytic activities towards desired products and determining which material properties were most desirable based on experimental results. Strategies to improve material design for second-generation materials are suggested based on promising reaction results coupled with pre and post reaction characterization analysis.

  9. Environmental effects on composite materials. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present collection of papers, each of which has previously been abstracted in International Aerospace Abstracts, discusses the accelerated environmental testing of composites, moisture solubility and diffusion in epoxy and epoxy-glass composites, the influence of internal and external factors affecting moisture absorption in polymer composites, long-tern moisture absorption in graphite/epoxy angle-ply laminates, the effect of UV light on Kevlar 49-reinforced composites, and temperature and moisture induced deformation in composite sandwich panels. Also discussed are the orthotropic thermoelastic problem of uniform heat flow distributed by a central crack, the effect of microcracks on composite laminate thermal expansion, the stress analysis of wooden structures exposed to elevated temperatures, and the deflection of plastic beams at elevated temperatures.

  10. Orthotic devices using lightweight composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, E., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Potential applications of high strength, lightweight composite technology in the orthotic field were studied. Several devices were designed and fabricated using graphite-epoxy composite technology. Devices included shoe plates, assistive walker devices, and a Simes prosthesis reinforcement. Several other projects having medical application were investigated and evaluations were made of the potential for use of composite technology. A seat assembly was fabricated using sandwich construction techniques for the Total Wheelchair Project.

  11. Overview of bacterial cellulose composites: a multipurpose advanced material.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nasrullah; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Park, Joong Kon

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has received substantial interest owing to its unique structural features and impressive physico-mechanical properties. BC has a variety of applications in biomedical fields, including use as biomaterial for artificial skin, artificial blood vessels, vascular grafts, scaffolds for tissue engineering, and wound dressing. However, pristine BC lacks certain properties, which limits its applications in various fields; therefore, synthesis of BC composites has been conducted to address these limitations. A variety of BC composite synthetic strategies have been developed based on the nature and relevant applications of the combined materials. BC composites are primarily synthesized through in situ addition of reinforcement materials to BC synthetic media or the ex situ penetration of such materials into BC microfibrils. Polymer blending and solution mixing are less frequently used synthetic approaches. BC composites have been synthesized using numerous materials ranging from organic polymers to inorganic nanoparticles. In medical fields, these composites are used for tissue regeneration, healing of deep wounds, enzyme immobilization, and synthesis of medical devices that could replace cardiovascular and other connective tissues. Various electrical products, including biosensors, biocatalysts, E-papers, display devices, electrical instruments, and optoelectronic devices, are prepared from BC composites with conductive materials. In this review, we compiled various synthetic approaches for BC composite synthesis, classes of BC composites, and applications of BC composites. This study will increase interest in BC composites and the development of new ideas in this field. PMID:24053844

  12. Study of composites as substrate materials in large space telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, A. V.

    1979-01-01

    Nonmetallic composites such as the graphite/epoxy system were investigated as possible substrates for the primary mirror of the large space telescope. The possible use of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites was reviewed in the literature. Problems arising out of the use of composites as substrate materials such as grinding, polishing, adherence of reflective coatings, rigidity of substrate, hygrospcopici tendency of the composites, thermal and temporal stability and other related problems were examined.

  13. Composite materials: Fatigue and fracture. Vol. 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. K.

    1991-11-01

    The present volume discusses topics in the fields of matrix cracking and delamination, interlaminar fracture toughness, delamination analysis, strength and impact characteristics, and fatigue and fracture behavior. Attention is given to cooling rate effects in carbon-reinforced PEEK, the effect of porosity on flange-web corner strength, mode II delamination in toughened composites, the combined effect of matrix cracking and free edge delamination, and a 3D stress analysis of plain weave composites. Also discussed are the compression behavior of composites, damage-based notched-strength modeling, fatigue failure processes in aligned carbon-epoxy laminates, and the thermomechanical fatigue of a quasi-isotropic metal-matrix composite.

  14. Composite materials: Fatigue and fracture. Vol. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, T. K. (editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present volume discusses topics in the fields of matrix cracking and delamination, interlaminar fracture toughness, delamination analysis, strength and impact characteristics, and fatigue and fracture behavior. Attention is given to cooling rate effects in carbon-reinforced PEEK, the effect of porosity on flange-web corner strength, mode II delamination in toughened composites, the combined effect of matrix cracking and free edge delamination, and a 3D stress analysis of plain weave composites. Also discussed are the compression behavior of composites, damage-based notched-strength modeling, fatigue failure processes in aligned carbon-epoxy laminates, and the thermomechanical fatigue of a quasi-isotropic metal-matrix composite.

  15. Corrosion inhibiting composition for treating asbestos containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, Judithann Ruth (Columbia, MD)

    1998-04-21

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, optionally a source of fluoride ions, and a corrosion inhibiting amount of thiourea, a lower alkylthiourea, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkylpyridinium halide or mixtures thereof. A method of transforming an asbestos-containing building material, while part of a building structure, into a non-asbestos material by using the present composition also is disclosed.

  16. Corrosion inhibiting composition for treating asbestos containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, J.R.

    1998-04-21

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, optionally a source of fluoride ions, and a corrosion inhibiting amount of thiourea, a lower alkylthiourea, a C{sub 8}{single_bond}C{sub 15} alkylpyridinium halide or mixtures. A method of transforming an asbestos-containing building material, while part of a building structure, into a non-asbestos material by using the present composition also is disclosed.

  17. Nondestructive evaluation of composite materials - A design philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.; Reifsnider, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Efficient and reliable structural design utilizing fiber reinforced composite materials may only be accomplished if the materials used may be nondestructively evaluated. There are two major reasons for this requirement: (1) composite materials are formed at the time the structure is fabricated and (2) at practical strain levels damage, changes in the condition of the material, that influence the structure's mechanical performance is present. The fundamental basis of such a nondestructive evaluation capability is presented. A discussion of means of assessing nondestructively the material condition as well as a damage mechanics theory that interprets the material condition in terms of its influence on the mechanical response, stiffness, strength and life is provided.

  18. Multi-shelled hollow micro-/nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jian; Lai, Xiaoyong; Wang, Jiangyan; Tang, Hongjie; Ren, Hao; Yang, Yu; Jin, Quan; Zhang, Lijuan; Yu, Ranbo; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo; Zhao, Huijun; Wang, Dan

    2015-10-01

    Great progress has been made in the preparation and application of multi-shelled hollow micro-/nanostructures during the past decade. However, the synthetic methodologies and potential applications of these novel and interesting materials have not been reviewed comprehensively in the literature. In the current review we first describe different synthetic methodologies for multi-shelled hollow micro-/nanostructures as well as their compositional and geometric manipulation and then review their applications in energy conversion and storage, sensors, photocatalysis, and drug delivery. The correlation between the geometric properties of multi-shelled hollow micro-/nanostructures and their specific performance in relevant applications are highlighted. These results demonstrate that the geometry has a direct impact on the properties and potential applications of such materials. Finally, the emerging challenges and future development of multi-shelled hollow micro-/nanostructures are further discussed. PMID:26135708

  19. [The emergency plastic reconstruction of the tympanic membrane defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic etiology with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material].

    PubMed

    Zabirov, R A; Kar'kaeva, S M; Shchetinin, V N; Akimov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the effectiveness of the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic etiology. The authors report the results of the emergency plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic nature with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material (giamatrix). The analysis of the results of the study prfovidd definitive evidence of the effectiveness of plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material. PMID:25588474

  20. Optical Properties of Nanostructured Optical Materials Russell J. Gehr* and Robert W. Boyd

    E-print Network

    Boyd, Robert W.

    of a composite must be determined. The former problem is being actively addressed by materials scientists its characteristic coloring. In an effort to explain this phenomenon, Maxwell Garnett1 developed one of the resonance in the visible part of the spectrum. The task of determining the effective linear and nonlinear

  1. Predictive rendering of composite materials: a multi-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, T.; Callet, P.; da Graa, F.; Paljic, A.; Porral, P.; Hoarau, R.

    2015-03-01

    Predictive rendering of material appearance means going deep into the understanding of the physical interaction between light and matter and how these interactions are perceived by the human brain. In this paper we describe our approach to predict the appearance of composite materials by relying on the multi-scale nature of the involved phenomena. Using recent works on physical modeling of complex materials, we show how to predict the aspect of a composite material based on its composition and its morphology. Specifically, we focus on the materials whose morphological structures are defined at several embedded scales. We rely on the assumption that when the inclusions in a composite material are smaller than the considered wavelength, the optical constants of the corresponding effective media can be computed by a homogenization process (or analytically for special cases) to be used into the Fresnel formulas.

  2. Swell Gels to Dumbbell Micelles: Construction of Materials and Nanostructure with Self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochan, Darrin

    2007-03-01

    Bionanotechnology, the emerging field of using biomolecular and biotechnological tools for nanostructure or nanotecnology development, provides exceptional opportunity in the design of new materials. Self-assembly of molecules is an attractive materials construction strategy due to its simplicity in application. By considering peptidic or charged synthetic polymer molecules in the bottom-up materials self-assembly design process, one can take advantage of inherently biomolecular attributes; intramolecular folding events, secondary structure, and electrostatic interactions; in addition to more traditional self-assembling molecular attributes such as amphiphilicty, to define hierarchical material structure and consequent properties. Several molecular systems will be discussed. Synthetic block copolymers with charged corona blocks can be assembled in dilute solution containing multivalent organic counterions to produce micelle structures such as toroids. These ring-like micelles are similar to the toroidal bundling of charged semiflexible biopolymers like DNA in the presence of multivalent counterions. Micelle structure can be tuned between toroids, cylinders, and disks simply by using different concentrations or molecular volumes of organic counterion. In addition, these charged blocks can consist of amino acids as monomers producing block copolypeptides. In addition to the above attributes, block copolypeptides provide the control of block secondary structure to further control self-assembly. Design strategies based on small (less than 24 amino acids) beta-hairpin peptides will be discussed. Self-assembly of the peptides is predicated on an intramolecular folding event caused by desired solution properties. Importantly, the intramolecular folding event impart a molecular-level mechanism for environmental responsiveness at the material level (e.g. infinite change in viscosity of a solution to a gel with changes in pH, ionic strength, temperature).

  3. Flexible hydrogel-based functional composite materials

    DOEpatents

    2013-10-08

    A composite having a flexible hydrogel polymer formed by mixing an organic phase with an inorganic composition, the organic phase selected from the group consisting of a hydrogel monomer, a crosslinker, a radical initiator, and/or a solvent. A polymerization mixture is formed and polymerized into a desired shape and size.

  4. Multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling of a person employs an evaporative cooling liquid that changes phase from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The evaporative cooling liquid is absorbed into a superabsorbent material enclosed within the multilayer composite material. The multilayer composite material has a high percentage of the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix. The cooling effect can be sustained for an extended period of time because of the high percentage of phase change liquid that can be absorbed into the superabsorbent. Such a composite can be used for cooling febrile patients by evaporative cooling as the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix changes from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The composite can be made with a perforated barrier material around the outside to regulate the evaporation rate of the phase change liquid. Alternatively, the composite can be made with an imperveous barrier material or semipermeable membrane on one side to prevent the liquid from contacting the person's skin. The evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix can be recharged by soaking the material in the liquid. The multilayer composite material can be fashioned into blankets, garments and other articles.

  5. Optoacoustic Microscopy for Investigation of Material Nanostructures-Embracing the Ultrasmall, Ultrafast, and the Invisible

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmikko, Arto; Humphrey, Maris

    2014-07-10

    The goal of this grant was the development of a new type of scanning acoustic microscope for nanometer resolution ultrasound imaging, based on ultrafast optoacoustics (>GHz). In the microscope, subpicosecond laser pulses was used to generate and detect very high frequency ultrasound with nanometer wavelengths. We report here on the outcome of the 3-year DOE/BES grant which involved the design, multifaceted construction, and proof-of-concept demonstration of an instrument that can be used for quantitative imaging of nanoscale material features including features that may be buried so as to be inaccessible to conventional lightwave or electron microscopies. The research program has produced a prototype scanning optoacoustic microscope which, in combination with advanced computational modeling, is a system-level new technology (two patents issues) which offer novel means for precision metrology of material nanostructures, particularly those that are of contemporary interest to the frontline micro- and optoelectronics device industry. For accomplishing the ambitious technical goals, the research roadmap was designed and implemented in two phases. In Phase I, we constructed a non-focusing optoacoustic microscope instrument (POAM), with nanometer vertical (z-) resolution, while limited to approximately 10 micrometer scale lateral recolution. The Phase I version of the instrument which was guided by extensive acoustic and optical numerical modeling of the basic underlying acoustic and optical physics, featured nanometer scale close loop positioning between the optoacoustic transducer element and a nanostructured material sample under investigation. In phase II, we implemented and demonstrated a scanning version of the instrument (SOAM) where incident acoustic energy is focused, and scanned on lateral (x-y) spatial scale in the 100 nm range as per the goals of the project. In so doing we developed advanced numerical simulations to provide computational models of the focusing of multi-GHz acoustic waves to the nanometer scale and innovated a series fabrication approaches for a new type of broadband high-frequency acoustic focusing microscope objective by applying methods on nanoimprinting and focused-ion beam techniques. In the following, the Phase I and Phase II instrument development is reported as Section II. The first segment of this section describes the POAM instrument and its development, while including much of the underlying ultrafast acoustic physics which is common to all of our work for this grant. Then, the science and engineering of the SOAM instrument is described, including the methods of fabricating new types of acoustic microlenses. The results section is followed by reports on publications (Section III), Participants (Section IV), and statement of full use of the allocated grant funds (Section V).

  6. Wear resistance of composite materials. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wear resistance of composite materials. References discuss polymer, ceramic and metal composites. Tribological testing and failure analyses are included. (Contains a minimum of 200 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Fundamental investigation of the tribological and mechanical responses of materials and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucholz, Eric W.

    In the field of tribology, the ability to predict, and ultimately control, frictional performance is of critical importance for the optimization of tribological systems. As such, understanding the specific mechanisms involved in the lubrication processes for different materials is a fundamental step in tribological system design. In this work, a combination of computational and experimental methods that include classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments, and multivariate statistical analyses provides fundamental insight into the tribological and mechanical properties of carbon-based and inorganic nanostructures, lamellar materials, and inorganic ceramic compounds. One class of materials of modern interest for tribological applications is nanoparticles, which can be employed either as solid lubricating films or as lubricant additives. In experimental systems, however, it is often challenging to attain the in situ observation of tribological interfaces necessary to identify the atomic-level mechanisms involved during lubrication and response to mechanical deformation. Here, classical MD simulations establish the mechanisms occurring during the friction and compression of several types of nanoparticles including carbon nano-onions, amorphous carbon nanoparticles, and inorganic fullerene-like MoS2 nanoparticles. Specifically, the effect of a nanoparticle's structural properties on the lubrication mechanisms of rolling, sliding, and lamellar exfoliation is indicated; the findings quantify the relative impact of each mechanism on the tribological and mechanical properties of these nanoparticles. Beyond identifying the lubrication mechanisms of known lubricating materials, the continual advancement of modern technology necessitates the identification of new candidate materials for use in tribological applications. To this effect, atomic-scale AFM friction experiments on the aluminosilicate mineral pyrophyllite demonstrate that pyrophyllite provides a low friction coefficient and low shear stresses as well as a high threshold to interfacial wear; this suggests the potential for use of pyrophyllite as a lubricious material under specific conditions. Also, a robust and accurate model for estimating the friction coefficients of inorganic ceramic materials that is based on the fundamental relationships between material properties is presented, which was developed using multivariate data mining algorithms. These findings provide the tribological community with a new means of quickly identifying candidate materials that may provide specific frictional properties for desired applications.

  8. Nanostructured Bi(2-x)Cu(x)S3 bulk materials with enhanced thermoelectric performance.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Bo-Ping; Liu, Yong; Li, Jing-Feng

    2012-04-01

    Nanostructured Bi(2-x)Cu(x)S(3) (x = 0, 0.002, 0.005, 0.007, 0.01, 0.03) thermoelectric polycrystals were fabricated by combining mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) methods. The effect of Cu content on the microstructure and thermoelectric property of Bi(2-x)Cu(x)S(3) bulk samples was investigated. It was found that the subtle tailoring of Cu content could reduce both the electrical resistivity and the thermal conductivity at the same time, and consequently enhancing the thermoelectric property. A low electrical resistivity of 1.34 10(-4)? m(-1) and a low thermal conductivity of 0.52 W m(-1) K(-1) were obtained for the Bi(1.995)Cu(0.005)S(3) sample at 573 K. The low thermal conductivity is supposed to be due to the nanoscopic Cu-rich regions embedded in the host matrix. A peak ZT value of 0.34 at 573 K was achieved for the Bi(1.995)Cu(0.005)S(3) composition, which is the highest value in the Bi(2)S(3) system reported so far. PMID:22366871

  9. Facile synthesis of metastable Ni-P nanostructured materials by a novel bottom-up strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousnina, M. A.; Schoenstein, F.; Smiri, L. S.; Jouini, N.

    2015-02-01

    A novel bottom-up strategy combining chimie douce and non-conventional consolidation process to elaborate Ni-P metastable alloy is described here. The chimie douce method consists on the polyol process, modified by the addition of hypophosphite (strong reducing agent). It allows elaborating Ni-P nanopowder. The consolidation of the as-obtained nanoparticles is carried out by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The microstructure of the powder and nanostructured dense sample was studied and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and FTIR spectroscopy. The nanopowder is formed of the metastable Ni-P alloy, with a composition of about 3.44% in phosphorus. Unlike Ni-P alloys prepared by electroless or electrodeposition, the nanoparticles developed show good crystallinity. They have spherical morphologies with a size of about 100 nm and are formed by aggregation of crystallites about 8 nm in diameter. Various analysis techniques showed that SPS treatment induced the transformation of the metastable Ni-P alloy in a two phases: almost pure nickel and a new phase with chemical formula Ni3P. This latter is in form of spherical particles with about 130 nm in diameter, while the nickel grains have a polygonal shape with 330 nm in diameter.

  10. Flexible composite material with phase change thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The composite material can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The composite may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the PCM composite also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, ,gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  11. Flexible composite material with phase change thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The composite material can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The composite may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the PCM composite also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  12. Nano composite phase change materials microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qingwen

    MicroPCMs with nano composite structures (NC-MicroPCMs) have been systematically studied. NC-MicroPCMs were fabricated by the in situ polymerization and addition of silver NPs into core-shell structures. A full factorial experiment was designed, including three factors of core/shell, molar ratio of formaldehyde/melamine and NPs addition. 12 MicroPCMs samples were prepared. The encapsulated efficiency is approximately 80% to 90%. The structural/morphological features of the NC-MicroPCMs were evaluated. The size was in a range of 3.4 mu m to 4.0 mu m. The coarse appearance is attributed to NPs and NPs are distributed on the surface, within the shell and core. The NC-MicroPCMs contain new chemical components and molecular groups, due to the formation of chemical bonds after the pretreatment of NPs. Extra X-ray diffraction peaks of silver were found indicating silver nano-particles were formed into an integral structure with the core/shell structure by means of chemical bonds and physical linkages. Extra functionalities were found, including: (1) enhancement of IR radiation properties; (2) depression of super-cooling, and (3) increase of thermal stabilities. The effects of SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy) arising from the silver nano-particles were observed. The Raman scattering intensity was magnified more than 100 times. These effects were also exhibited in macroscopic level in the fabric coatings as enhanced IR radiation properties were detected by the "Fabric Infrared Radiation Management Tester" (FRMT). "Degree of Crystallinity" (DOC) was measured and found the three factors have a strong influence on it. DOC is closely related to thermal stability and MicroPCMs with a higher DOC show better temperature resistance. The thermal regulating effects of the MicroPCMs coatings were studied. A "plateau regions" was detected around the temperature of phase change, showing the function of PCMs. Addition of silver nano-particles to the MicroPCMs has a positive influence on it. NC-MicroPCMs with introducing silver nano particles into the MicroPCMs structure, have shown excellent multifunctional thermal properties and thermal stabilities that are far beyond those of the conventional MicroPCMs. The novel NC-MicroPCMs can be used to develop advanced smart materials and products with prosperous and promising applications in a number of industries.

  13. Composite material application for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heubner, S. W.

    1982-01-01

    With increasing emphasis on improving engine thrust-to-weight ratios to provide improved payload capabilities, weight reductions achievable by the use of composites have become attractive. Of primary significance is the weight reduction offered by composites, although high temperature properties and cost reduction were also considered. The potential for application of composites to components of Earth-to-orbit hydrocarbon engines and orbit-to-orbit LOX/H2 engines was assessed. The components most likely to benefit from the application of composites were identified, as were the critical technology areas where developed would be required. Recommendations were made and a program outlined for the design, fabrication, and demonstration of specific engine components.

  14. Preparation of composite materials in space. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.; Kaye, S.

    1973-01-01

    A study to define promising materials, significant processing criteria, and the related processing techniques and apparatus for the preparation of composite materials in space was conducted. The study also established a program for zero gravity experiments and the required developmental efforts. The following composite types were considered: (1) metal-base fiber and particle composites, including cemented compacts, (2) controlled density metals, comprising plain and reinforced metal foams, and (3) unidirectionally solidified eutectic alloys. A program of suborbital and orbital experiments for the 1972 to 1978 time period was established to identify materials, processes, and required experiment equipment.

  15. Energy bursts in fiber bundle models of composite materials

    E-print Network

    Srutarshi Pradhan; Per C. Hemmer

    2008-01-30

    As a model of composite materials, a bundle of many fibers with stochastically distributed breaking thresholds for the individual fibers is considered. The bundle is loaded until complete failure to capture the failure scenario of composite materials under external load. The fibers are assumed to share the load equally, and to obey Hookean elasticity right up to the breaking point. We determine the distribution of bursts in which an amount of energy $E$ is released. The energy distribution follows asymptotically a universal power law $E^{-5/2}$, for any statistical distribution of fiber strengths. A similar power law dependence is found in some experimental acoustic emission studies of loaded composite materials.

  16. Advanced composites: Fabrication processes for selected resin matrix materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welhart, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    This design note is based on present state of the art for epoxy and polyimide matrix composite fabrication technology. Boron/epoxy and polyimide and graphite/epoxy and polyimide structural parts can be successfully fabricated. Fabrication cycles for polyimide matrix composites have been shortened to near epoxy cycle times. Nondestructive testing has proven useful in detecting defects and anomalies in composite structure elements. Fabrication methods and tooling materials are discussed along with the advantages and disadvantages of different tooling materials. Types of honeycomb core, material costs and fabrication methods are shown in table form for comparison. Fabrication limits based on tooling size, pressure capabilities and various machining operations are also discussed.

  17. Civil aircraft. [composite materials for airframes and engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    This study deals with aircraft material and structural requirements, advantages of composites, airframe and engine applications, design procedures, problem areas, and future trends in civil aircraft. The selection of materials and design of structure for any given component or part must be made not only on the basis of the mechanical and structural functions, but must also consider the operational and cost parameters for civil aircraft. Composites have caused the orientation to shift from a metal-based philosophy for design, where only incremental improvements could be anticipated, to one where substantial changes in design approaches are possible. Future designs are likely to include a combination of new approaches and composite materials.

  18. New advantages and challenges for laser-induced nanostructured cluster materials: functional capability for experimental verification of macroscopic quantum phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, D. V.; Antipov, A. A.; Arakelian, S. M.; Khor'kov, K. S.; Kucherik, A. O.; Kutrovskaya, S. V.; Prokoshev, V. G.

    2014-07-01

    The main goal of our work is the laser fabrication of nanostructured materials including the nano- and microclusters for control of electrical, optical and other properties of obtained structures. First, we took an opportunity to select nanoparticles in various sizes and weights and also in topology distribution for some materials (carbon, Ni, PbTe, etc). Second, for a deposited extended array of nanoparticles we used a method of laser-induced nanoparticle fabrication in colloid and deposition metal (and/or oxide) nanoparticles from colloidal systems (LDPCS) to obtain the multilayered nanostructures with controlled topology, including the fractal cluster structures (for Ni, Pb Te et al). Electrophysical properties are analyzed for such nanocluster systems as well. A brief analogy of the obtained nanocluster structures with a quantum correlated state evidence is carried out.

  19. A low temperature Co-fired ceramic-based dielectrophoretic device for manipulating micro and nanostructure materials.

    PubMed

    Seon, Ji-Yun; Yoon, Young Joon; Choi, Jaekyoung; Kim, Hyo Tae; Kim, Chang-Yeoul; Kim, Jong-Hee; Baik, Hong Koo

    2013-11-01

    A dielectophoretic (DEP) device fabricated by a conventional low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) process, for manipulating micro and nanostructure materials, such as spherical polystyrene microspheres, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, and silver (Ag) nanowires, is described. To generate a non-uniform electric field, a castellated electrode configuration was applied to the LTCC-based DEP device using a screen printing method. The actual motions of the micro and nanostructure materials under both a positive and a negative DEP force were observed in detail and the findings compared with numerical simulation data for the electric field distribution. The performance of the LTCC-based DEP device for separating and trapping was evaluated and potential applications are discussed. PMID:24245288

  20. Microbiological destruction of composite polymeric materials in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legonkova, O. A.; Selitskaya, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    Representatives of the same species of microscopic fungi developed on composite materials with similar polymeric matrices independently from the type of soils, in which the incubation was performed. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Clonostachys solani were isolated from the samples of polyurethane. Fusarium solani, Clonostachys rosea, and Trichoderma harzianum predominated on the surface of ultrathene samples. Ulocladium botrytis, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Fusarium solani predominated in the variants with polyamide. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Acremonium strictum were isolated from Lentex-based composite materials. Mucor circinelloides, Trichoderma harzianum, and Penicillium auranthiogriseum were isolated from composite materials based on polyvinyl alcohol. Electron microscopy demonstrated changes in the structure of polymer surface (loosening and an increase in porosity) under the impact of fungi. The physicochemical properties of polymers, including their strength, also changed. The following substances were identified as primary products of the destruction of composite materials: stearic acid for polyurethane-based materials; imide of dithiocarbonic acid and 1-nonadecen in variants with ultrathene; and tetraaminopyrimidine and isocyanatodecan in variants with polyamide. N,N-dimethyldodecan amide, 2-methyloximundecanon and 2-nonacosane were identified for composites on the base of Lentex A4-1. Allyl methyl sulfide and imide of dithiocarbonic acid were found in variants with the samples of composites based on polyvinyl alcohol. The identified primary products of the destruction of composite materials belong to nontoxic compounds.

  1. Composite-hydroxide-mediated approach as a general methodology for synthesizing nanostructures

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    in chemical reactions at $200 C for the synthesis of a wide range of nanostructures. This review focuses of this synthesis method is introduced, and the key factors that affect the morphology and size are studied. The advantages of its low synthesis temperature, low pressure and low cost are illustrated through the synthesis

  2. Magnetic studies of mesoporous nanostructured iron oxide materials synthesized by one-step soft-templating.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Hines, William A; Kuo, Chung-Hao; Perry, David M; Poyraz, Altug S; Xia, Yan; Zaidi, Taha; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Suib, Steven L

    2015-07-14

    A combined magnetization and (57)Fe spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study has been carried out on mesoporous nanostructured materials consisting of the magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (?-Fe2O3) phases. Two series of samples were synthesized using a recently developed one-step soft-templating approach with systematic variations in calcination temperature and reaction atmosphere. Nuclear magnetic resonance has been shown to be a valuable tool for distinguishing between the two magnetic iron oxide spinel phases, Fe3O4 and ?-Fe2O3, on the nanoscale as well as monitoring phase transformation resulting from oxidation. For the Fe3O4 and ?-Fe2O3 phases, peaks in the NMR spectra are attributed to Fe in the tetrahedral (A) sites and octahedral (B) sites. The magnetic field dependence of the peaks was observed and confirmed the site assignments. Fe3O4 on a nanoscale readily oxidizes to form ?-Fe2O3 and this was clearly evident in the NMR spectra. As evidenced by transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, the porous mesostructure for the iron oxide materials is formed by a random close-packed aggregation of nanoparticles; correspondingly, superparamagnetic behavior was observed in the magnetic measurements. Although X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows the spinel structure for the Fe3O4 and ?-Fe2O3 phases, unlike NMR, it is difficult to distinguish between the two phases with XRD. Nitrogen sorption isotherms characterize the mesoporous structures of the materials, and yield BET surface area values and limited BJH pore size distribution curves. PMID:26067028

  3. Converting environmentally hazardous materials into clean energy using a novel nanostructured photoelectrochemical fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Yong X.; Gan, Bo J.; Clark, Evan; Su, Lusheng; Zhang, Lihua

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ? A photoelectrochemical fuel cell has been made from TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. ? The fuel cell decomposes environmentally hazardous materials to produce electricity. ? Doping the anode with a transition metal oxide increases the visible light sensitivity. ? Loading the anode with a conducting polymer enhances the visible light absorption. -- Abstract: In this work, a novel photoelectrochemical fuel cell consisting of a titanium dioxide nanotube array photosensitive anode and a platinum cathode was made for decomposing environmentally hazardous materials to produce electricity and clean fuel. Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO{sub 2} NTs) were prepared via electrochemical oxidation of pure Ti in an ammonium fluoride and glycerol-containing solution. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the morphology of the nanotubes. The average diameter, wall thickness and length of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} NTs were determined. The photosensitive anode made from the highly ordered TiO{sub 2} NTs has good photo-catalytic property, as proven by the decomposition tests on urea, ammonia, sodium sulfide and automobile engine coolant under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To improve the efficiency of the fuel cell, doping the TiO{sub 2} NTs with a transition metal oxide, NiO, was performed and the photosensitivity of the doped anode was tested under visible light irradiation. It is found that the NiO-doped anode is sensitive to visible light. Also found is that polyaniline-doped photosensitive anode can harvest photon energy in the visible light spectrum range much more efficiently than the NiO-doped one. It is concluded that the nanostructured photoelectrochemical fuel cell can generate electricity and clean fuel by decomposing hazardous materials under sunlight.

  4. Structure-function Investigation of Operando Nanostructured Materials Using Coherent X-ray Diffractive Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvestad, Andrew

    Nanostructured devices promise to help solve grand challenges of our time, including renewable energy generation, storage, and mitigating climate change. Their power lies in the particular influence of the surface on the total free energy when dimensions approach the nanoscale and it is well known that different sizes, shapes, and defects can drastically alter material properties. However, this strength represents a considerable challenge for imaging techniques that can be limited in terms of sample environments, average over large ensembles of particles, and/or lack adequate spatiotemporal resolution for studying the relevant physical processes. The focus of this thesis is the development of in situ coherent X-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) and its application in imaging strain evolution in battery cathode nanoparticles. Using in situ CXDI, the compressive/tensile strain field in the pristine state is revealed, and found to be linked to a particular concentration of strain inducing Jahn-Teller ions. The evolution of strain during the first charge/discharge cycle shows that the cathode nanoparticle exhibits phase separation. Using the 3D strain field, the strain field energy is calculated and shows interesting hysteresis between charge and discharge. Strain evolution during a disconnection event, in which the cathode nanoparticle is no longer able to exchange electrons and ions with its environment, reveals the formation of a poorly conducting interphase layer. Finally, strain fields were used to study dislocation dynamics in battery nanoparticles. Using the full 3D information, the dislocation line structure is mapped and shown to move in response to charge transfer. The dislocation is used as a way to probe the local material properties and it is discovered that the material enters an ``auxetic", or negative Poisson's ratio, regime.

  5. Electrical Characterizations of Lightning Strike Protection Techniques for Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, George N.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Mielnik, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The growing application of composite materials in commercial aircraft manufacturing has significantly increased the risk of aircraft damage from lightning strikes. Composite aircraft designs require new mitigation strategies and engineering practices to maintain the same level of safety and protection as achieved by conductive aluminum skinned aircraft. Researchers working under the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project are investigating lightning damage on composite materials to support the development of new mitigation, diagnosis & prognosis techniques to overcome the increased challenges associated with lightning protection on composite aircraft. This paper provides an overview of the electrical characterizations being performed to support IVHM lightning damage diagnosis research on composite materials at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  6. Computer Code for Nanostructure Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Due to their small size, nanostructures can have stress and thermal gradients that are larger than any macroscopic analogue. These gradients can lead to specific regions that are susceptible to failure via processes such as plastic deformation by dislocation emission, chemical debonding, and interfacial alloying. A program has been developed that rigorously simulates and predicts optoelectronic properties of nanostructures of virtually any geometrical complexity and material composition. It can be used in simulations of energy level structure, wave functions, density of states of spatially configured phonon-coupled electrons, excitons in quantum dots, quantum rings, quantum ring complexes, and more. The code can be used to calculate stress distributions and thermal transport properties for a variety of nanostructures and interfaces, transport and scattering at nanoscale interfaces and surfaces under various stress states, and alloy compositional gradients. The code allows users to perform modeling of charge transport processes through quantum-dot (QD) arrays as functions of inter-dot distance, array order versus disorder, QD orientation, shape, size, and chemical composition for applications in photovoltaics and physical properties of QD-based biochemical sensors. The code can be used to study the hot exciton formation/relation dynamics in arrays of QDs of different shapes and sizes at different temperatures. It also can be used to understand the relation among the deposition parameters and inherent stresses, strain deformation, heat flow, and failure of nanostructures.

  7. Nano-structural characteristics of carbon nanotube-polymer composite films for high-amplitude optoacoustic generation.

    PubMed

    Baac, Hyoung Won; Ok, Jong G; Lee, Taehwa; Guo, L Jay

    2015-09-14

    We demonstrate nano-structural characteristics of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite films that can be used as highly efficient and robust ultrasound transmitters for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. An inherent architecture of the nano-composite provides unique thermal, optical, and mechanical properties that are accommodated not just for efficient energy conversion but also for extraordinary robustness against pulsed laser ablation. First, we explain a thermoacoustic transfer mechanism within the nano-composite. CNT morphologies are examined to determine a suitable arrangement for heat transfer to the surrounding PDMS. Next, we introduce an approach to enhance optical extinction of the composite films, which uses shadowed deposition of a thin Au layer through an as-grown CNT network. Finally, the transmitter robustness is quantified in terms of laser-induced damage threshold. This reveals that the CNT-PDMS films can withstand an order-of-magnitude higher optical fluence (and extinction) than a Cr film used as a reference. Such robustness is crucial to increase the maximum-available optical energy for optoacoustic excitation and pressure generation. All of these structure-originated characteristics manifest the CNT-PDMS composite films as excellent optoacoustic transmitters for high-amplitude and high-frequency ultrasound generation. PMID:26255948

  8. Nano-structural characteristics of carbon nanotube-polymer composite films for high-amplitude optoacoustic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baac, Hyoung Won; Ok, Jong G.; Lee, Taehwa; Jay Guo, L.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate nano-structural characteristics of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite films that can be used as highly efficient and robust ultrasound transmitters for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. An inherent architecture of the nano-composite provides unique thermal, optical, and mechanical properties that are accommodated not just for efficient energy conversion but also for extraordinary robustness against pulsed laser ablation. First, we explain a thermoacoustic transfer mechanism within the nano-composite. CNT morphologies are examined to determine a suitable arrangement for heat transfer to the surrounding PDMS. Next, we introduce an approach to enhance optical extinction of the composite films, which uses shadowed deposition of a thin Au layer through an as-grown CNT network. Finally, the transmitter robustness is quantified in terms of laser-induced damage threshold. This reveals that the CNT-PDMS films can withstand an order-of-magnitude higher optical fluence (and extinction) than a Cr film used as a reference. Such robustness is crucial to increase the maximum-available optical energy for optoacoustic excitation and pressure generation. All of these structure-originated characteristics manifest the CNT-PDMS composite films as excellent optoacoustic transmitters for high-amplitude and high-frequency ultrasound generation.

  9. Using Virtual Testing for Characterization of Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph

    Composite materials are finally providing uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems applications -- airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. They have high strength-to-weight ratios, are durable and resistant to environmental effects, have high impact strength, and can be manufactured in a variety of shapes. Generalized constitutive models are being developed to accurately model composite systems so they can be used in implicit and explicit finite element analysis. These models require extensive characterization of the composite material as input. The particular constitutive model of interest for this research is a three-dimensional orthotropic elasto-plastic composite material model that requires a total of 12 experimental stress-strain curves, yield stresses, and Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio in the material directions as input. Sometimes it is not possible to carry out reliable experimental tests needed to characterize the composite material. One solution is using virtual testing to fill the gaps in available experimental data. A Virtual Testing Software System (VTSS) has been developed to address the need for a less restrictive method to characterize a three-dimensional orthotropic composite material. The system takes in the material properties of the constituents and completes all 12 of the necessary characterization tests using finite element (FE) models. Verification and validation test cases demonstrate the capabilities of the VTSS.

  10. Layer-by-layer assembly of nanostructured composites: Mechanics and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podsiadlo, Paul

    The development of efficient methods for preparation of nanometer-sized materials and our evolving ability to manipulate the nanoscale objects have brought about a scientific and technological revolution called: nanotechnology. This revolution has been especially driven by discovery of unique nanoscale properties of the nanomaterials which are governed by their inherent size. Today, the total societal impact of nanotechnology is expected to be greater than the combined influences that the silicon integrated circuit, medical imaging, computer-aided engineering, and man-made polymers have had in the last century. Many nanomaterials were also found to possess exceptional mechanical properties. This led to tremendous interest into developing composite materials by exploiting the mechanical properties of these building blocks. In spite of a tremendous volume of work done in the field, preparation of such nanocomposites (NCs) has proven to be elusive due to inability of traditional "top-down" fabrication approaches to effectively harness properties of the nano-scale building blocks. This thesis focuses on preparation of organic/inorganic and solely organic NCs via a bottom-up nano-manufacturing approach called the layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly. Two natural and inexpensive nanoscale building blocks are explored: nanosheets of Na+-montmorillonite clay (MTM) and rod-shaped nanocrystals of cellulose (CNRs). In the first part of the thesis, we present results from systematic study of mechanics of MTM-based NCs. Different compositions are explored with a goal of understanding the nanoscale mechanics. Ultimately, development of a transparent composite with record-high strength and stiffness is presented. In the second part, we present results from LBL assembly of the CNRs. We demonstrate feasibility of assembly and mechanical properties of the resulting films. We also demonstrate preparation of LBL films with anti- reflective properties from tunicate (a sea animal) CNRs. In the final part, we show preparation of high toughness and hierarchically organized NCs using two concepts: "exponential" LBL (e-LBL) assembly and charged polyurethanes. We show preparation of novel e-LBL structures and highly flexible LBL multilayers. We also demonstrate preparation of macro-scale composites from hierarchical, post-assembly consolidation of LBL sheets. This last result represents a potential paradigm change in the practice of LBL assembly by enabling transformation of the thin-films into macro-scale structures.

  11. Composite Materials for Thermal Energy Storage: Enhancing Performance through Microstructures

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhiwei; Ye, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are investigated. The ceramic supporting material is essential for preventing salt leakage and hence provides a solution to the chemical incompatibility issue. The use of graphite gives a significant enhancement on the thermal conductivity of the composite. Analyses suggest that the experimentally observed microstructural development of the composite is associated with the wettability of the salt on the ceramic substrate and that on the thermal conduction enhancer. PMID:24591286

  12. Nondestructive testing of polymer composite materials using THz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, Egor V.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Fokina, Irina N.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2014-03-01

    This paper shows an ability to find internal defects in construction of polymer composite material using THz imaging. Using THz vision system resulted in an example of finding internal non-impregnated area in fiberglass.

  13. Health, safety and environmental requirements for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazer, Kathleen A.

    1994-01-01

    The health, safety and environmental requirements for the production of composite materials are discussed. The areas covered include: (1) chemical identification for each chemical; (2) toxicology; (3) industrial hygiene; (4) fire and safety; (5) environmental aspects; and (6) medical concerns.

  14. Controlling Performance of Laminated Composites Using Piezoelectric Materials

    E-print Network

    Hasan, Zeaid

    2012-02-14

    Composite materials are increasingly used in aerospace, underwater, and automotive structures. Their use in structural applications is dictated by the outstanding strength and stiffness while being lightweight in addition to their flexibility...

  15. Ordered Nanostructured Amphiphile Self-Assembly Materials from Endogenous Nonionic Unsaturated Monoethanolamide Lipids in Water

    SciTech Connect

    Sagnella, Sharon M.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Krodkiewska, Irena; Moghaddam, Minoo; Seddon, John M.; Drummond, Calum J.

    2010-08-23

    The self-assembly, solid state and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior of a series of endogenous n-acylethanolamides (NAEs) with differing degrees of unsaturation, viz., oleoyl monoethanolamide, linoleoyl monoethanolamide, and linolenoyl monoethanolamide, have been examined. The studied molecules are known to possess inherent biological function. Both the monoethanolamide headgroup and the unsaturated hydrophobe are found to be important in dictating the self-assembly behavior of these molecules. In addition, all three molecules form lyotropic liquid crystalline phases in water, including the inverse bicontinuous cubic diamond (Q{sub II}{sup D}) and gyroid (Q{sub II}{sup G}) phases. The ability of the NAE's to form inverse cubic phases and to be dispersed into ordered nanostructured colloidal particles, cubosomes, in excess water, combined with their endogenous nature and natural medicinal properties, makes this new class of soft mesoporous amphiphile self-assembly materials suitable candidates for investigation in a variety of advanced multifunctional applications, including encapsulation and controlled release of therapeutic agents and incorporation of medical imaging agents.

  16. Metal-Organic Framework Nanocrystals as Sacrificial Templates for Hollow and Exceptionally Porous Titania and Composite Materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Kruger, Paul E; Telfer, Shane G

    2015-10-01

    We report a strategy that employs metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals in two roles for the fabrication of hollow nanomaterials. In the first role the MOF crystals provide a template on which a shell of material can be deposited. Etching of the MOF produces a hollow structure with a predetermined size and morphology. In combination with this strategy, the MOF crystals, including guest molecules in their pores, can provide the components of a secondary material that is deposited inside the initially formed shell. We used this approach to develop a straightforward and reproducible method for constructing well-defined, nonspherical hollow and exceptionally porous titania and titania-based composite nanomaterials. Uniform hollow nanostructures of amorphous titania, which assume the cubic or polyhedral shape of the original template, are delivered using nano- and microsized ZIF-8 and ZIF-67 crystal templates. These materials exhibit outstanding textural properties including hierarchical pore structures and BET surface areas of up to 800 m(2)/g. As a proof of principle, we further demonstrate that metal nanoparticles such as Pt nanoparticles, can be encapsulated into the TiO2 shell during the digestion process and used for subsequent heterogeneous catalysis. In addition, we show that the core components of the ZIF nanocrystals, along with their adsorbed guests, can be used as precursors for the formation of secondary materials, following their thermal decomposition, to produce hollow and porous metal sulfide/titania or metal oxide/titania composite nanostructures. PMID:26365676

  17. Space Radiation Effects in Inflatable and Composite Habitat Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Rojdev, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This Year 2 project provides much needed risk reduction data to assess solar particle event (SPE) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) space radiation damage in existing and emerging materials used in manned low-earth orbit, lunar, interplanetary, and Martian surface missions. More specifically, long duration (up to 50 years) space radiation damage is quantified for materials used in inflatable structures (1st priority), and habitable composite structures and space suits materials (2nd priority). The data collected has relevance for nonmetallic materials (polymers and composites) used in NASA missions where long duration reliability is needed in continuous or intermittent radiation fluxes.

  18. LIGNOCELLULOSIC-PLASTIC COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waste wood, waste paper, and waste plastics are major components of MSW and offer great opportunities as recycled ingredients in wood-fiber plastic composites. USEPA and the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) are collaborating on a research project to investigate the processin...

  19. Low-Cost Composite Materials and Structures for Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deo, Ravi B.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Holzwarth, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of current applications of composite materials and structures in military, transport and General Aviation aircraft is presented to assess the maturity of composites technology, and the payoffs realized. The results of the survey show that performance requirements and the potential to reduce life cycle costs for military aircraft and direct operating costs for transport aircraft are the main reasons for the selection of composite materials for current aircraft applications. Initial acquisition costs of composite airframe components are affected by high material costs and complex certification tests which appear to discourage the widespread use of composite materials for aircraft applications. Material suppliers have performed very well to date in developing resin matrix and fiber systems for improved mechanical, durability and damage tolerance performance. The next challenge for material suppliers is to reduce material costs and to develop materials that are suitable for simplified and inexpensive manufacturing processes. The focus of airframe manufacturers should be on the development of structural designs that reduce assembly costs by the use of large-scale integration of airframe components with unitized structures and manufacturing processes that minimize excessive manual labor.

  20. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This