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1

Nanostructured composite reinforced material  

DOEpatents

A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2012-07-31

2

Birefringent nanostructured composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a very efficient recursive method to calculate the effective optical response of materials made up of arbitrarily shaped dielectric inclusions arranged in periodic 2D arrays within a metal matrix with a lattice constant much smaller than the wavelength of the incident light, so that we may neglect retardation. The starting point of the calculation is a digitized image of the system. The geometrical shape of the inclusions and their orientation in the 2D array induce a birefringent optical response of the whole metamaterial that can be tailored to specific needs.

Mendoza, Bernardo S.; Mochán, W. Luis

2012-03-01

3

Mechanical Spectroscopy of Nanostructured Composite Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermo-mechanical behavior of different nano-structured composite materials, which were processed within the SAPHIR European Integrated Project, has been characterized by mechanical spectroscopy. The obtained results show clearly that creep resistance of fine grain ceramics such as zirconia can be improved by carbon nano-tube (CNT) reinforcements. On the other hand the elastic modulus and the damping capacity of aluminum matrix

Daniele Mari; Robert Schaller; Mehdi Mazaheri

2011-01-01

4

Mechanical Spectroscopy of Nanostructured Composite Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermo-mechanical behavior of different nano-structured composite materials, which were processed within the SAPHIR European Integrated Project, has been characterized by mechanical spectroscopy. The obtained results show clearly that creep resistance of fine grain ceramics such as zirconia can be improved by carbon nano-tube (CNT) reinforcements. On the other hand the elastic modulus and the damping capacity of aluminum matrix composites were increased by SiC nano-particle additions. It has also been observed that CNT additions are responsible for a better thermal stability of polymer such as ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) used in automotive industry.

Mari, Daniele; Schaller, Robert; Mazaheri, Mehdi

2011-07-01

5

Nanostructured Composite Materials for High Temperature Thermoelectric Energy Conversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals of this project were to synthesize, characterize and model bulk nanostructured composite materials for thermoelectric energy conversion applications. The objective was to produce materials which demonstrate an increase in intrinsic thermoelectri...

C. J. O'Connor

2012-01-01

6

Nanostructured polymer-metal composite for thermal interface material applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued miniaturization in combination with increased performance of microelectronics has generated an urgent need for improved thermal management techniques in order to maintain reliability of systems and devices. Development of advanced thermal interface materials has been identified as crucial, absorbing a portion of the advancements necessary within packaging technology. In this paper we introduce a novel nanostructured polymer-metal composite for

Björn Carlberg; Teng Wang; Yifeng Fu; Johan Liu; Dongkai Shangguan

2008-01-01

7

Nanostructured materials  

SciTech Connect

The recently developed ability to synthesize materials from atomic precursors under controlled conditions on a nanometer size scale (below 100 nm) has the potential for revolutionizing materials science and engineering. Such nanostructured materials can now be synthesized with modulation dimensionalities form zero (clusters) to three (nanophase materials), each with their own particular advantages. These advantages stem from such diverse effects as for example quantum confinement elastic strain accommodation, and grain size limitations. The general principles of nanostructured materials are considered and the particular opportunities for producing bulk nanophase materials with engineered properties, via the synthesis of metal and ceramic atom clusters followed by their in-situ assembly under controlled conditions, are presented as an example.

Siegel, R.W.

1992-09-01

8

Nanostructured composite materials of cerium oxide and barium cerate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosized powders with a composition of (1- x)Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-?- xBace0.8Sm0.2O3-? ( x = 0, 0.3, and 1) were obtained by self-ignition combustion synthesis (SICS) from the appropriate nitrates and various organic fuels (glycine, glycerol, citric acid, and a mixture of citric acid and ethylene glycol). The most finely dispersed powders formed when the concentration of the perovskite phase in the system decreased or when glycerol or citric acid-enthyleneglycol mixture was used as a fuel during SICS. A procedure for the preparation of powders and nanostructured ceramics was developed and their electric properties were studied.

Medvedev, D. A.; Pikalova, E. Yu.; Demin, A. K.; Khrustov, V. R.; Nikolaenko, I. V.; Nikonov, A. V.; Malkov, V. B.; Antonov, B. D.

2013-02-01

9

Nanostructured composite materials for electromagnetic interference shielding applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave shielding and absorbing structures are proposed using composite materials consisting in epoxy-resin and carbon nanopowders fillers up to 10% weight concentration. Characterization in terms of dielectric parameters is performed and discussed and such data are used to optimize the modeling of multilayer electromagnetic absorber by means of in-house built Winning particle optimization algorithm. Experimental validation of mathematical simulations is then performed.

Micheli, Davide; Apollo, Carmelo; Pastore, Roberto; Bueno Morles, Ramon; Laurenzi, Susanna; Marchetti, Mario

2011-11-01

10

Nano-particulate dispersion and reinforcement of nanostructured composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigated the feasibility of reinforcing polymer composites using 30 nm SiC nanoparticles in a vinyl ester resin. The SiC nanoparticles were examined using transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Gamma-methacryloxy propyl trimethoxy silane (MPS) was chosen as the coupling agent. Both mixing procedures with (1) the nanoparticles pretreated with a dilute MPS solution in an acid 5% (v/v) water-ethanol mixture and (2) the MPS sonicated as an integral blend with the filled vinyl ester, were attempted. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study the silanol condensation between MPS and the SiC nanoparticles. The results show that ultrasonic mixing did not fully disperse the particles. Hence the composite strength did not improve although the modulus increased. The use of MPS improved the dispersion quality and hence the composite strength. The rheological behavior of SiC nanoparticle-filled vinyl ester resin systems was evaluated in terms of the Bingham, power law, Herschel-Bulkley, and Casson models. Even when the particle loading was less then 4% by weight, the viscosity of the nanoparticle suspension was found to increase much more than that of a microparticle suspension. This phenomenon may be the result of association between nanoparticles and polymer molecules, effectively making the nanoparticles larger. The resulting reduction in the mobility of polymer molecules also led to delayed curing. The maximum particle loading corresponding to infinite viscosity was determined as 0.1 volume fraction using the (1 - eta r-1/2) - ? dependence. The experimental optimum fractional weight per cent of the dispersants (wt. % dispersant/wt. % SiC) was found to be around 40% for 30 nm SiC nanoparticles, which is in close agreement with the theoretically calculated monolayer coverage dosage of 67%.

Yong, Virginia Hiu-Hung

2005-12-01

11

Nanostructured Organic/Inorganic Composites as Transparent Materials for Optical Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been found that nanostructured organic/inorganic composites, in which nanometer-sized inorganic inclusions are uniformly dispersed in and fixed to a matrix polymer, can modify the property of the matrix polymer while suppressing Rayleigh scattering to exhibit preferable transparency. Rather, when compared with the transparency of a matrix polymer alone, the composite could exhibit better transparency as the content of inorganic inclusions increases. Furthermore, because the refractive index of the composite agrees well with the Maxwell-Garnett model, it is suggested that synergetic effects obtained by the bulk properties of both the matrix polymer and inorganic inclusions can be exhibited. Such a potential has been verified by applying the composites to optical waveguides and optically athermal materials.

Mataki, Hiroshi; Yamaki, Shigeru; Fukui, Toshimi

2004-08-01

12

Temperature, atomic oxygen and outgassing effects on dielectric parameters and electrical properties of nanostructured composite carbon-based materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with the dielectric properties of carbon-based nanostructured polymeric composite materials. A commercial epoxy matrix is currently filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes in different percentages, and final composite material characterized in terms of microwave behavior by means of the waveguide method. By following the guidelines of previous studies, the attention is focused on the changes induced by hard environmental conditions (high temperature in ultra-high vacuum system) on the above mentioned properties. The results obtained in this preliminary research have outlined the intriguing properties of carbon nanostructures, establishing themselves as very promising materials for the future aerospace composite technology.

Micheli, Davide; Apollo, Carmelo; Pastore, Roberto; Bueno Morles, Ramon; Coluzzi, Plinio; Marchetti, Mario

2012-07-01

13

The Process of Nanostructuring of Metal (Iron) Matrix in Composite Materials for Directional Control of the Mechanical Properties  

PubMed Central

We justified theoretical and experimental bases of synthesis of new class of highly nanostructured composite nanomaterials based on metal matrix with titanium carbide nanowires as dispersed phase. A new combined method for obtaining of metal iron-based composite materials comprising the powder metallurgy processes and the surface design of the dispersed phase is considered. The following stages of material synthesis are investigated: (1) preparation of porous metal matrix; (2) surface structuring of the porous metal matrix by TiC nanowires; (3) pressing and sintering to give solid metal composite nanostructured materials based on iron with TiC nanostructures with size 1–50?nm. This material can be represented as the material type “frame in the frame” that represents iron metal frame reinforcing the frame of different chemical compositions based on TiC. Study of material functional properties showed that the mechanical properties of composite materials based on iron with TiC dispersed phase despite the presence of residual porosity are comparable to the properties of the best grades of steel containing expensive dopants and obtained by molding. This will solve the problem of developing a new generation of nanostructured metal (iron-based) materials with improved mechanical properties for the different areas of technology.

Zemtsova, Elena

2014-01-01

14

Synthesis and magnetic properties of CoPt-poly(methylmethacrylate) nanostructured composite material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have prepared nanometer-sized CoPt particles dispersed in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix, as a novel nanostructured magnetic plastic, through a soft chemical processing route. In this work, CoPt nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from a solution phase reduction system in the presence of capping ligands and stabilizing agents at high temperature. The CoPt nanoparticles were annealed at 400 °C for 3 h, and were subsequently re-dispersed in methylmethacrylate (monomer). The polymerization was induced by a UV source and the hardness of final product was adjusted by varying the amount of monomeric cross-link agent. Annealed bare CoPt nanoparticles as a ``core'' material and CoPt-PMMA composite material were characterized by using energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction, indicating that we are able to prepare CoPt nanoparticles with <10 nm in diameter (after annealing) by employing this high temperature colloidal processing method. Magnetic investigation of this CoPt-PMMA material indicates an intrinsic coercivity of 300 Oe at 300 K and 1665 Oe at 5 K.

Fang, Jiye; Tung, L. D.; Stokes, Kevin L.; He, Jibao; Caruntu, Daniela; Zhou, Weilie L.; O'Connor, Charles J.

2002-05-01

15

Nanostructured LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni) - carbon composites as cathode materials for Li-ion battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured materials are considered to be strong candidates for fundamental advances in efficient storage and/or conversion. In nanostructured materials transport kinetics and surface processes play determining roles. This work describes recent developments in the synthesis and characterization of composites which consist of lithium metal phosphates (LiMPO4, M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni) coated on nanostructured carbon supports (unordered nanofibers, foams). The composites have been prepared by coating the carbon structures in aqueous (or polyols) solutions containing lithium, metal ions and phosphates. After drying out, the composites have been thermally treated at different temperatures (between 600-780°C) for 5-12 hours under nitrogen. The formation of the olivine structured phase was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction analysis on powders prepared under very similar conditions. The surface investigation revealed the formation of an homogeneous coating of the olivine phase on the carbon structures. The electrochemical performance on the composites showed a dramatic improvement of the discharge specific capacity (measured at a discharge rate of C/25 and room temperature) compared to the prepared powders. The delivered values were 105 mAhg-1 for M = Fe, 100 mAhg-1 for M = Co, 70 mAhg-1 for M = Mn and 30 mAhg-1 for M = Ni respectively.

Dimesso, L.; Spanheimer, C.; Nguyen, T. T. D.; Hausbrand, R.; Jaegermann, W.

2012-10-01

16

Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage  

DOEpatents

A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

Williamson, Andrew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Reboredo, Fernando A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2007-12-04

17

Curved nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphite is a layered material that is very flexible, in which each layer is able to curve in order to form cages, nanotubes, nanocoils, nanocones, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that various synthetic routes are capable of producing graphite-like nanomaterials with fascinating electronic and mechanical properties. There are other layered systems, which could curl and bend, thus generating novel nanostructures with positive and negative Gaussian curvature. In this context, we will also demonstrate that hexagonal boron nitride, tungsten disulfide (WS2), molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and rhenium disulfide (ReS2) are also able to create nanocages, nanotubes and nano-arrangements exhibiting novel physico-chemical properties that could revolutionize materials science in the 21st century.

Terrones, Humberto; Terrones, Mauricio

2003-10-01

18

Nanostructured Materials for Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of both inorganic and organic nanostructured materials in producing high efficiency photovoltaics is discussed in this paper. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of semiconductor quantum dots in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell. In addition, it has also recently been demonstrated that quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. A similar improvement in these types of cells has also been observed by employing single wall carbon nanotubes. This relatively new carbon allotrope may assist both in the disassociation of excitons as well as carrier transport through the composite material. This paper reviews the efforts that are currently underway to produce and characterize these nanoscale materials and to exploit their unique properties.

Bailey, Sheila; Raffaelle, Ryne; Castro, Stephanie; Fahey, S.; Gennett, T.; Tin, P.

2003-01-01

19

Hierarchically nanostructured materials for sustainable environmental applications  

PubMed Central

This review presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions, and multiple functionalities toward water remediation, biosensing, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing, and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

Ren, Zheng; Guo, Yanbing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Gao, Pu-Xian

2013-01-01

20

Nanostructured Li?S-C composites as cathode material for high-energy lithium/sulfur batteries.  

PubMed

With a theoretical capacity of 1166 mA·h·g(-1), lithium sulfide (Li(2)S) has received much attention as a promising cathode material for high specific energy lithium/sulfur cells. However, the insulating nature of Li(2)S prevents the achievement of high utilization (or high capacity) and good rate capability. Various efforts have been made to ameliorate this problem by improving the contact between Li(2)S and electronic conductors. In the literature, however, a relatively high capacity was only obtained with the Li(2)S content below 50 wt %; therefore, the estimated cell specific energy values are often below 350 W·h·kg(-1), which is insufficient to meet the ever-increasing requirements of newly emerging technologies. Here, we report a cost-effective way of preparing nanostructured Li(2)S-carbon composite cathodes by high-energy dry ball milling of commercially available micrometer-sized Li(2)S powder together with carbon additives. A simple but effective electrochemical activation process was used to dramatically improve the utilization and reversibility of the Li(2)S-C electrodes, which was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We further improved the cycling stability of the Li(2)S-C electrodes by adding multiwalled carbon nanotubes to the nanocomposites. With a very high specific capacity of 1144 mA·h·g(-1) (98% of the theoretical value) obtained at a high Li(2)S content (67.5 wt %), the estimated specific energy of our cell was ?610 W·h·kg(-1), which is the highest demonstrated so far for the Li/Li(2)S cells. The cells also maintained good rate capability and improved cycle life. With further improvement in capacity retention, nanostructured Li(2)S-C composite cathodes may offer a significant opportunity for the development of rechargeable cells with a much higher specific energy. PMID:23190038

Cai, Kunpeng; Song, Min-Kyu; Cairns, Elton J; Zhang, Yuegang

2012-12-12

21

Nanostructure Titania Reinforced Conducting Polymer Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composites of polyaniline with synthesized nanostructured titania (TiO2) and polyaniline with commercial TiO2 have been in situ synthesized by oxidative chemical polymerization method. Sulfuric acid was used as dopant during the polymerization process. Sol-gel precipitates of nanostructured titania were synthesized by hydrolyzing the mixture of titanium chloride (TiCl3) and colloidal transparent solution of starch. Composite materials were subjected for comparison to spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction analysis. Strong coupling/interaction of titania with the imine nitrogen in polyaniline confirmed by FTIR spectral analysis. XRD shows the composite of synthesized titania with polyaniline have broaden peak as compared to that of commercial titania with polyaniline indicating particle size in the range of nanometer scale which is supported by 40 nm particle size of the synthesized titania from TEM picture. Increase in conductivity with increasing temperature was observed in both the composite materials.

Kondawar, S. B.; Thakare, S. R.; Khati, V.; Bompilwar, S.

22

Nanostructured Zr- and Ti-based composite materials with high strength and enhanced plasticity  

SciTech Connect

Multicomponent composite materials with the compositions Zr{sub 66}Nb{sub 13}Cu{sub 8}Ni{sub 6.8}Al{sub 6.2} and Ti{sub 66}Nb{sub 13}Cu{sub 8}Ni{sub 6.8}Al{sub 6.2} were produced by copper mold casting, and their microstructure and their room-temperature mechanical properties were investigated. The specific alloys were developed to circumvent the limited ductility of Zr- and Ti-based bulk metallic glasses by the formation of a heterogeneous microstructure consisting of a nanocrystalline matrix and ductile dendritic bcc precipitates. Comparing the microstructure of both alloys, two significant differences were observed. The volume fraction of the dendritic bcc phase is higher for the Ti-based alloy and the formed interdendritic matrix phase(s) have a different structure. The two alloys show an excellent combination of strength and plastic strain. Especially the Ti-based alloy exhibits exceptional mechanical properties, such as high fracture stress of more than 2000 MPa and a plastic elongation to failure of almost 30%.

Kuehn, U.; Mattern, N.; Gebert, A.; Kusy, M.; Bostroem, M.; Siegel, U.; Schultz, L. [Leibniz-Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, P.O. Box 270016, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Leibniz-Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, P.O. Box 270016, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

2005-09-01

23

Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of a novel nanostructure ZnO composite film derived sol-gel process using organic binder materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel sol-gel-derived zinc oxide nanostructure has been prepared by spin-coating and investigated for the purpose of producing films. ZnO films were spin-coated on microscope glass slides via methylcellulose (MC) aided sol-gel route using zinc acetate-acetic acid-EtOH as starting materials and heat treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations showed that relatively dense, crack-free and transparent ZnO composite films, as well

Mojtaba Nasr-Esfahani; Ali Khakifiroz; Nahid Tavakoli; Mohammad Hassan Soleimani

2010-01-01

24

Nanostructured Energetic Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reports synthesis of metastable intermolecular composite (MIC) containing CuO nanorods, nanowires combined with aluminum nanoparticles. These composites were prepared using ultrasonic mixing and self-assembly approach. The combustion wave speed...

K. Gangopadhyay R. V. Shende S. Apperson S. Hasan S. Subramanian

2006-01-01

25

Investigation on High Temperature Behavior of Laminate and Nanostructured Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel high-strain-rate and high temperature experimental set-up was developed to investigate failure of advanced materials. Experiments were performed on preheated Ti-6Al-4V specimens, at temperatures in the range 25-550 deg C, to determine the role of ...

H. D. Espinosa

2001-01-01

26

Nanostructured Multifunctional Materials by Cure-Driven Phase Separation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was conducted into the development of a self-healing fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite based on a nanostructured epoxy matrix resin, recently developed by EIC Laboratories. This novel material comprises a blend of epoxy and amphiph...

M. D. Gilbert S. F. Cogan J. C. Hines

2003-01-01

27

Prediction of Material Properties of Nanostructured Polymer Composites Using Atomistic Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atomistic models of epoxy polymers were built in order to assess the effect of structure at the nanometer scale on the resulting bulk properties such as elastic modulus and thermal conductivity. Atomistic models of both bulk polymer and carbon nanotube polymer composites were built. For the bulk models, the effect of moisture content and temperature on the resulting elastic constants was calculated. A relatively consistent decrease in modulus was seen with increasing temperature. The dependence of modulus on moisture content was less consistent. This behavior was seen for two different epoxy systems, one containing a difunctional epoxy molecule and the other a tetrafunctional epoxy molecule. Both epoxy structures were crosslinked with diamine curing agents. Multifunctional properties were calculated with the nanocomposite models. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to estimate the interfacial thermal (Kapitza) resistance between the carbon nanotube and the surrounding epoxy matrix. These estimated values were used in a multiscale model in order to predict the thermal conductivity of a nanocomposite as a function of the nanometer scaled molecular structure.

Hinkley, J.A.; Clancy, T.C.; Frankland, S.J.V.

2009-01-01

28

Synthesis, characterization, and properties of low-dimensional nanostructured materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanometer scale structures represent an exciting and rapidly expanding area of research. Studies on new physical\\/chemical properties and applications of nanomaterials and nanostructures are possible only when nanostructured materials are made available with desired size, morphology, crystal and microstructure, and composition. Thus, controlled synthesis of nanomaterials is the essential aspect of nanotechnology. This thesis describes the development of simple and

Xianluo Hu

2007-01-01

29

Energy Storage in Nanostructured Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewably produced energy by solar and wind technologies should be stored properly for practical use because of their intermittent generation of electricity. The energy can be stored in materials in forms of chemical, electrical, or thermal energies. The current energy-storage materials technologies, however, suffer from their inevitable low energy densities, compared to liquid fuels such as gasoline and ethanol, and thus end up to high cost due to material limitation. In order to overcome the fundamental limit, many scientists and researchers have studied nanostructured materials with more surface areas, tunable storage mechanisms, and better kinetic processes. Because electronic and mechanical properties of nanostructured materials are simply not a miniature of their bulk counterparts, a careful material design is required based on microscopic understanding of the energy storing process. In this talk, I will discuss our recent theoretical efforts and development to understand energy storage mechanisms in nanostructured materials for hydrogen, battery, and electrochemical capacitor applications. We have pioneered dihydrogen adsorption in nanostructured materials with the Kubas coordination [1-3] and lately developed efficient van der Waals potentials within the density functional theory approach [4]. Also very recently we have unraveled reversible lithium intercalation mechanisms in MoO3 nanoparticles for Li-ion battery electrodes [5], and been developing a microscopic theory of electrochemical and capacitive energy storage. [4pt] [1] Y. Zhao et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 155504 (2005) [0pt] [2] Y.-H. Kim et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 016102 (2006) [0pt] [3] Y. Y. Sun, Y.-H. Kim, and S. B. Zhang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 12606 (2007) [0pt] [4] Y. Y. Sun, Y.-H. Kim, K. Lee, and S. B. Zhang, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 154102 (2008) [0pt] [5] S.-H. Lee et al., Adv. Mater. 20, 3627 (2008)

Kim, Yong-Hyun

2009-03-01

30

Nanostructured materials for water desalination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desalination of seawater and brackish water is becoming an increasingly important means to address the scarcity of fresh water resources in the world. Decreasing the energy requirements and infrastructure costs of existing desalination technologies remains a challenge. By enabling the manipulation of matter and control of transport at nanometer length scales, the emergence of nanotechnology offers new opportunities to advance water desalination technologies. This review focuses on nanostructured materials that are directly involved in the separation of water from salt as opposed to mitigating issues such as fouling. We discuss separation mechanisms and novel transport phenomena in materials including zeolites, carbon nanotubes, and graphene with potential applications to reverse osmosis, capacitive deionization, and multi-stage flash, among others. Such nanostructured materials can potentially enable the development of next-generation desalination systems with increased efficiency and capacity.

Humplik, T.; Lee, J.; O'Hern, S. C.; Fellman, B. A.; Baig, M. A.; Hassan, S. F.; Atieh, M. A.; Rahman, F.; Laoui, T.; Karnik, R.; Wang, E. N.

2011-07-01

31

Nanoprobes, nanostructured materials and solid state materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel templates have been developed to prepare nanostructured porous materials through nonsurfactant templated pathway. And new applications of these materials, such as drug delivery and molecular imprinting, have been explored. The relationship between template content and pore structure has been investigated. The composition and pore structures were studied in detail using IR, TGA, SEM, TEM, BET and XRD. The obtained mesoporous materials have tunable diameters in the range of 2--12 nm. Due to the many advantages of this nonsurfactant templated pathway, such as environment friendly and biocompatibility, controlled release of antibiotics in the nanoporous materials were studied. The in vitro release properties were found to depend on the silica structures which were well tuned by varying the template content. A controlled long-term release pattern of vancomycin was achieved when the template content was 30 wt% or lower. Nanoscale electrochemical probes with dimensions as small as 50 nm in diameter and 1--2 mum in length were fabricated using electron beam deposition on the apex of conventional micron size electrodes. The electroactive region was limited to the extreme tip of the nanoprobe by coating with an insulating polymer and re-opening of the coating at the extreme tip. The novel nanoelectrodes thus prepared were employed to probe neurons in mouse brain slice and the results suggest that the nanoprobes were capable of recording neuronal excitatory postsynaptic potential signals. Interesting solid state chemistry was found in oxygenated iron phthalocyanine. Their Mossbauer spectra show the formation of four oxygenated species apart from the unoxygenated parent compound. The oxygen-bridged compounds formed in the solid matrix bear no resemblance to the one formed by solution chemistry. Tentative assignment of species has been made with the help of Mossbauer and IR spectroscopy. An effort to modify aniline trimer for potential nanoelectronics applications and to investigate the formation of "nano-pancake" shape aggregation was also reported.

Yin, Houping

32

Mechanosynthesis of Nanostructured Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In Lilliput, Gulliver noted that “there are some laws and customs in this Empire very peculiar” [1], an observation which might be appropriate for nanophased materials too. Nanophased materials behave indeed differently\\u000a from their macroscopic counterparts because their characteristic sizes are smaller than the characteristic length scales of\\u000a physical phenomena occurring in bulk materials. Hereafter, we shall focus on consolidated

G. LE CAER; S. Begin-Colin; P. Delcroix

33

Nanostructured materials for photon detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of photons underpins imaging, spectroscopy, fibre-optic communications and time-gated distance measurements. Nanostructured materials are attractive for detection applications because they can be integrated with conventional silicon electronics and flexible, large-area substrates, and can be processed from the solution phase using established techniques such as spin casting, spray coating and layer-by-layer deposition. In addition, their performance has improved rapidly

Gerasimos Konstantatos; Edward H. Sargent

2010-01-01

34

Composite material  

DOEpatents

A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

Hutchens, Stacy A. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Solihull, GB); Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN); O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-02-07

35

Application opportunities for nanostructured materials and coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured materials have the potential to change materials science as we know it today significantly, as well as to provide a new generation of materials with a quantum improvement in properties. While many interesting properties have been generated in the laboratory, there is still much work to be done before there are production applications for nanostructured materials and coatings in

Maurice Gell

1995-01-01

36

Electron emission from nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, standardized methods for measuring electron emission (EE) from nanostructured materials are established. Design of an emitter array platform, synthesis and nanomanipulation of different types of are successfully conducted. Preexisting as well as novel nanostructures are examined for possible use as electron point sources. Three main categories of emitters are under evaluation: oxide nanowires, metallic nanowires and carbon based nanomaterials (CBNs). Tungsten oxides nanowires have low work function, then metallic nanowires have high electrical conductivity and abundant number of free electrons at and below their Fermi level and lastly, CBNs have superior electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal properties. This evaluation is designed to compare and choose among the nanoemitters that are suitable for EE. Simulation through theoretical modeling is provided to optimize the parameters directly or indirectly affecting EE properties. The models are to enhance the emitter's performance through increase the packing density, reduce the field screening effect, lower the turn-on and the threshold electric fields and increase the emission current densities. The current estimations and the modeling of the validity regions where EE types theoretically exist, help to select and fabricate optimum emitters. An assembly consisting of sample substrate, electrical feedthroughs, electrodes, nano/micro-manipulator and insulators are mounted within a vacuum chamber. An ion vacuum pump and a turbo pump are used to reach a vacuum pressure of 10-7 Torr. Two systems are used for EE characterization of nanostructures: bulk and In-situ configurations. The bulk investigation is realized by designing a vacuum chamber and different sample holders that can resist harsh environment as well as high temperature for both FE and TE experiments. In-situ experiments are conducted in the chamber of the scanning electron microscope (SEM), it consists of designing special sample holders plus modifications of the SEM chamber for the ease of EE characterization. Samples with different materials, densities, radii of curvatures, and lengths ranging respectively from 107--109 emitter/cm2, 5--300 nm, and 3*103--10 7 nm, are produced. The CBNs used are characterized by different structures and shapes that are defined by the monolayer carbon sheet takes. Cylindrical sheets are equivalent to nanotubes while graphene are flat sheets. Emitter's structures are varied by altering the critical growth parameters such as temperature, pressure and constituent materials. Enhancement of the FE properties, the design of an optimum emitter density and reduction of the field screening effect is possible by selecting appropriate materials, synthesizing nanostructures with small radius (10 nm), high aspect ratio (greater than 1000), the ideal density where the inter-emitter distance is comparable to the emitter height, the cathodes' uniformity, the treatment of the emitting surface, and integrating triode arrangement. Initially, the thermionic Emission (TE) investigations of these nanostructures produce emission at an onset temperature of 500 °C, current densities of 160 mA/cm2 at temperatures of 700--1200 °C and predict the work function of the emitting materials. In addition, nanostructures can enhance the local electric field and increase the packing density to produce better EE properties. Then, FE investigations from different nanostructures showed that the small tip's diameter, high aspect ratio and tapered structures enhance emission through low turn-on fields (< 0.8 V/microm), low threshold fields (< 3 V/microm) and high current densities (520 mA/cm2). CCNTs having inter-emitters distance comparable to their average height contribute to the reduction of the field screening effect through large field enhancement factor beta (> 7000) and enhancement of the EE properties. EE experimental data along with its analysis demonstrate that CBNs have lower turn-on electric field, lower threshold fields, higher current density and higher field enhance

Safir, Abdelilah

37

Composite Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity (located on page 3 of PDF) about composites, materials made of 2 or more different components. Learners will be challenged to build the best mud bricks, one of the earliest examples of composites. From a supply of various building components, which the learners will examine for their different properties, they will build mud bricks, then dry them and put them through several tests. *Bricks must bake in the sun for 2-3 days prior to testing. Resource contains information about how this activity relates to carbon nanotubes and links to video, DragonflyTV Nano: Hockey Sticks.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

38

Electrical breakdown characteristic of nanostructured W?Cu contacts materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured (NS) W?Cu composite powder was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA), and nanostructured bulk of W?Cu contact\\u000a material was fabricated by hot press sintering in an electrical vacuum furnace. The microstructure, electric conductivity,\\u000a hardness and break down voltage of NS W?Cu alloys were measured and compared to those of conventional W?Cu alloys prepared\\u000a by powder metallurgy. The experimental results show

Wang Junbo; Chen Wen'ge; Ding Binjun

2006-01-01

39

Computational Materials: Modeling and Simulation of Nanostructured Materials and Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper provides details on the structure and implementation of the Computational Materials program at the NASA Langley Research Center. Examples are given that illustrate the suggested approaches to predicting the behavior and influencing the design of nanostructured materials such as high-performance polymers, composites, and nanotube-reinforced polymers. Primary simulation and measurement methods applicable to multi-scale modeling are outlined. Key challenges including verification and validation of models are highlighted and discussed within the context of NASA's broad mission objectives.

Gates, Thomas S.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

2003-01-01

40

Nanostructures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Foothill-De Anza Community College provides a list of nanostructures. For each structure, its properties, structure, process, and application are detailed. Additionally, most pages include a picture, video, and references. The structures include aerogels, biomolecules, carbon, composite materials, ferrofluids, and many others.

2012-11-06

41

Using flowerlike polymer-copper nanostructure composite and novel organic-inorganic hybrid material to construct an amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

A new type of amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated by entrapping horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the organic-inorganic hybrid material composed of zirconia-chitosan sol-gel and Au nanoparticles (ZrO2-CS-AuNPs). The sensitivity of the biosensor was enhanced by a flowerlike polymer-copper nanostructure composite (pPA-FCu) which was prepared from co-electrodeposition of CuSO4 solution and 2,6-pyridinediamine solution. Several techniques, including UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to characterize the assembly process and performance of the biosensor. The results showed that this pPA-FCu nanostructure not only had excellent redox electrochemical activity, but also had good catalytic efficiency for hydrogen peroxide. Also the ZrO2-CS-AuNPs had good film forming ability, high stability and good retention of bioactivity of the immobilized enzyme. The resulting biosensors showed a linear range from 7.80 x 10(-7) to 3.7 x 10(-3) mol L(-1), with a detection limit of 3.2 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) (S/N=3) under optimized experimental conditions. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant was determined to be 0.32 mM, showing good affinity. In addition, the biosensor which exhibits good analytical performance, acceptable stability and good selectivity, has potential for practical applications. PMID:19836213

Wang, Jinfen; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Li, Wenjuan; Fu, Ping; Min, Ligen

2010-02-01

42

Nanostructured Materials Development for Space Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There have been many recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for space power applications. In particular, the use of high purity single wall nanotubes holds promise for a variety of generation and storage devices including: thin film lithiu...

R. P. Raffaelle B. J. Landi J. B. Elich T. Gennett S. L. Castro S. G. Bailey A. F. Hepp

2002-01-01

43

Nanostructured Materials: Symthesis in Supercritical Fluids  

SciTech Connect

This chapter summarizes the recent developent of synthesis and characterization of nanostructured materials synthesized in supercritical fluids. Nanocomposite catalysts such as Pt and Pd on carbon nanotube support have been synthesized and used for fuel cell applications.

Lin, Yuehe; Ye, Xiangrong; Wai, Chien M.

2009-03-24

44

Nanostructured hybrid materials from aqueous polymer dispersions.  

PubMed

Organic-inorganic (O-I) hybrids with well-defined morphology and structure controlled at the nanometric scale represent a very interesting class of materials both for their use as biomimetic composites and because of their potential use in a wide range of technologically advanced as well as more conventional application fields. Their unique features can be exploited or their role envisaged as components of electronic and optoelectronic devices, in controlled release and bioencapsulation, as active substrates for chromatographic separation and catalysis, as nanofillers for composite films in packaging and coating, in nanowriting and nanolithography, etc. A synergistic combination or totally new properties with respect to the two components of the hybrid can arise from nanostructuration, achieved by surface modification of nanostructures, self-assembling or simply heterophase dispersion. In fact, owing to the extremely large total surface area associated with the resulting morphologies, the interfacial interactions can deeply modify the bulk properties of each component. A wide range of starting materials and of production processes have been studied in recent years for the controlled synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures, from nanoparticle or lamellar dispersions to mesoporous materials obtained from templating nanoparticle dispersions in a continuous, e.g. ceramic precursor, matrix. This review is aimed at giving some basic definitions of what is intended as a hybrid (O-I) material and what are the main synthetic routes available. The various methods for preparing hybrid nanostructures and, among them, inorganic-organic or O-I core-shell nanoparticles, are critically analyzed and classified based on the reaction medium (aqueous, non-aqueous), and on the role it plays in directing the final morphology. Particular attention is devoted to aqueous systems and water-borne dispersions which, in addition to being environmentally more acceptable or even a mandatory choice for any future development of large output applications (e.g. in paint, ink and coating industry), can provide the thermodynamic drive for self-assembling of amphiphilics, adsorption onto colloidal particles or partitioning of the hybrid's precursors between dispersed nanosized reaction loci, as in emulsion or miniemulsion free-radical polymerization. While nanoencapsulation and self-assembling processes are already exploited as commercially viable fabrication methods, a newly developed technique based on two-stage sol-gel and free-radical emulsion polymerization is described, which can grant a versatile synthetic approach to hybrid O-I nanoparticles with tailor-made composition of both the organic core and the silica or organosilica shell, and good control on morphology, size and heterophase structure in the 50-500 nm range. Styrene or acrylate homo- and copolymer core latex particles need to be modified with a reactive comonomer, such as trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate, to achieve efficient interfacial coupling with the inorganic shell. Accurate control over pH and process conditions is required to avoid latex coagulation or, in case of organic particles with uniform composition, incipient intraparticle crosslinking. PMID:15072940

Castelvetro, Valter; De Vita, Cinzia

2004-05-20

45

Supramolecular Materials: Self Organized Nanostructures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have discovered systems of molecules with the architecture of miniaturized triblock copolymers that self assemble into nanostructures highly regular in size and shape. In the system described here, a mushroom-shaped supramolecular structure of about 20...

S. I. Stupp V. LeBonheur K. E. Walker L. S. Li K. E. Huggins

1996-01-01

46

Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(?-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

2008-02-01

47

Nanostructured materials for electrodes in lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercially available lithium-ion cells, which are the most advanced among the rechargeable battery systems available so far, employ polycrystalline microsized powder as the electrode materials, which functions as the Li-ion insertion hosts. With the advancement of nanotechnology, there is an interest in the replacement of conventional materials by nanostructured materials. The use of nanoparticles in composite electrodes for Li-ion

See How Ng

2007-01-01

48

Synthesis and processing of nanostructured materials  

SciTech Connect

Significant and growing interest is being exhibited in the novel and enhanced properties of nanostructured materials. These materials, with their constituent phase or grain structures modulated on a length scale less than 100 nm, are artificially synthesized by a wide variety of physical, chemical, and mechanical methods. In this NATO Advanced Study Institute, where mechanical behavior is emphasized, nanostructured materials with modulation dimensionalities from one (multilayers) to three (nanophase materials) are mainly considered. No attempt is made in this review to cover in detail all of the diverse methods available for the synthesis of nanostructured materials. Rather, the basic principles involved in their synthesis are discussed in terms of the special properties sought using examples of particular synthesis and processing methodologies. Some examples of the property changes that can result from one of these methods, cluster assembly of nanophase materials, are presented.

Siegel, R.W.

1992-12-01

49

Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composites are lighter and stronger than metals. Aramid fibers like Kevlar and Nomex were developed by DuPont Corporation and can be combined in a honeycomb structure which can give an airplane a light, tough structure. Composites can be molded into many aerodynamic shapes eliminating rivets and fasteners. Langley Research Center has tested composites for both aerospace and non-aerospace applications. They are also used in boat hulls, military shelters, etc.

1985-01-01

50

Nanostructured metal-polyaniline composites  

DOEpatents

Metal-polyaniline (PANI) composites are provided together with a process of preparing such composites by an electrodeless process. The metal of the composite can have nanoscale structural features and the composites can be used in applications such as catalysis for hydrogenation reactions and for analytical detection methods employing SERS.

Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Li, Wenguang (Elgin, IL); Bailey, James A. (Los Alamos, NM); Gao, Yuan (Brewer, ME)

2010-08-31

51

Engineering hybrid nanostructures of active materials: Applications as electrode materials in lithium ion rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming to significantly improve the electrochemical properties of electroactive materials for lithium ion batteries, three novel hybrid nanostructures were developed in this thesis. These include nanostructure A: V2O 5 coated on polymer electrolyte-grafted carbon black, nanostructure B: electrode materials incorporated into an electronically conductive carbon web, and nanostructure C: electrode materials dispersed in a conductive porous carbon matrix. Nanocomposites possessing nanostructure A are fast electronic and ionic transport materials. The improved kinetic properties are due to the incorporated carbon core and the grafted polymer electrolyte in the unique structure. The V2O5 xerogel coated polymer electrolyte-grafted carbon blacks, or V2O5/C-PEG, can reach a capacity as high as 320 mAh/g, and exhibit outstanding rate sustainability (e.g. 190 mAh/g at 14C). This class of nanostructured composites is promising for high power/current applications. Nanostructure B was extremely successful when applied to very poorly conductive active materials, such as LiFePO4 and Li3V 2(PO4)3. In this nanostructure, the web-like carbon framework not only supplies a facile electron transport path, but also provides excellent electronic contact between carbon and the insulating active materials. At room temperature, the LiFePO4/C nanocomposite successfully reaches almost full capacity, along with greatly improved rate sustainability and excellent cycling stability. At elevated temperatures (e.g. 40°C and 60°C), the full capacity is readily accessible over a wide rate range, even at a very fast rate of 2C or 5C. The Li3V2(PO4) 3/C nanocomposite can extract all three lithium in the formula at a rate of 1C, resulting in a high capacity of 200 mAh/g. Therefore, through designing hybrid nanostructures with nanostructure B, we can make insulating active materials into good cathode materials. Nanostructure C was employed for Sn-based anode materials, in order to improve their cycling stability by hindering the tin from aggregation, and also to reduce their capacity loss by the enhancement of electronic contact. The Sn2P2O7/C nanocomposite shows much improved stability with Q50/Q2 = 71%, compared to 27% for bulk amorphous Sn2P2O7. Furthermore, this nanostructured composite leads to much better rate capability. As the rate increases by 20 fold (from C/10 to 2C), close to 90% of the total capacity is still accessible. Similar improvement of the stability is also observed for some SnO-B 2O3-P2O5/C nanocomposites.

Huang, Huan

52

Applications: Catalysis by Nanostructured Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The 1999 Nanotechnology Research Directions report included nanoscale catalysis as one aspect of applications of nanotechnology to the energy and chemicals industries\\u000a [1]. The vision centered on the recognition that “new properties intrinsic to nanostructures” could lead to breakthroughs\\u000a in catalysis with high selectivity at high yield. An example cited in that report was the observation that, while bulk gold

Evelyn L. Hu; S. Mark Davis; Robert Davis; Erik Scher

53

Supercritical carbon dioxide approach to nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supercritical fluid technology is a novel and emerging strategy to generate nanomaterials in small areas, within high-aspect-ratio structures, on complicated surfaces and poor wettable substrates with high uniformity, high homogeneity and minimum environmental problems. In this dissertation, several strategies were developed for thin film deposition and nanocomposite fabrication. In developing supercritical fluid immersion deposition (SFID), supercritical or near supercritical CO2 was used as a new solvent for immersion deposition, a galvanic displacement process traditionally carried out in aqueous HF solutions containing metal ions, to selectively develop Pd, Cu, Ag and other metal films on featured and non-featured Si substrates. Annealing of thin palladium films deposited by SFID can lead to the formation of palladium silicide in small features on Si substrates. Deposition of metal films on germanium substrates was also achieved through SFID. Through hydrogen reduction of metal-beta-diketone complexes in supercritical CO2, a rapid, convenient and environmentally benign approach has been developed to synthesize a variety of nanostructured materials: (1) Metal (Pd, Ni and Cu) nanowires and nanorods sheathed within multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) templates; (2) nanoparticles of palladium, rhodium and ruthenium decorated onto functionalized MWCNTs. These highly dispersed nanoparticles are expected to exhibit promising catalytic properties for a variety of chemical or electrochemical reactions; (3) Cu, Pd or Cu-Pd alloy nanocrystals deposited onto SiO2 nanowires (NWs), SiO2 microfibers, or SiC NWs. Different types of nanostructures were achieved, including nanocrystal-NW, spherical aggregation-NW, shell-NW composites and "mesoporous" metals supported by the framework of NWs.

Ye, Xiang-Rong

54

Soft materials with graphitic nanostructures.  

PubMed

This review article focuses on our recent studies on novel soft materials consisting of carbon nanotubes. Single-walled carbon nanotubes, when suspended in imidazolium ion-based ionic liquids and ground in an agate mortar, form physical gels (bucky gels), where heavily entangled bundles of carbon nanotubes are exfoliated to give highly dispersed, much finer bundles. By using bucky gels, the first printable actuators that operate in air for a long time without any external electrolyte are developed. Furthermore, the use of polymerizable ionic liquids as the gelling media results in the formation of electroconductive polymer/nanotube composites with enhanced mechanical properties. The article also highlights a new family of nanotubular graphite, via self-assembly of amphiphilic hexabenzocoronene (HBC) derivatives. The nanotubes consist of a graphitic wall composed of a great number of pi-stacked HBC units and are electroconductive upon oxidation. The use of amphiphilic HBCs with functional groups results in the formation of nanotubes with various interesting properties. PMID:17428763

Aida, Takuzo; Fukushima, Takanori

2007-06-15

55

Chemical sensors based on nanostructured materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a comprehensive review of current research activities that concentrate on chemical sensors based on nanotubes, nanorods, nanobelts, and nanowires. We devote the most attention on the experimental principle, design of sensing devices, sensing mechanism, and some important conclusions. We elaborate on development of chemical sensors based on nanostructured materials in the following four sections: (1) nanotube sensors;

Xing-Jiu Huang; Yang-Kyu Choi

2007-01-01

56

Interfacially formed organized planar inorganic, polymeric and composite nanostructures.  

PubMed

This paper discusses synthetic strategies for fabrication of new organized planar inorganic, polymeric, composite and bio-inorganic nanostructures by methods based on chemical reactions and physical interactions at the gas-liquid interface, Langmuir monolayer technique, interfacial ligand exchange and substitution reactions, self-assembling and self-organization processes, DNA templating and scaffolding. Stable reproducible planar assemblies of ligand-stabilized molecular nanoclusters containing definite number of atoms have been formed on solid substrate surfaces via preparation and deposition of mixed Langmuir monolayers composed by nanocluster and surfactant molecules. A novel approach to synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles and to formation of self-organized planar inorganic nanostructures has been introduced. In that approach, nanoparticles and nanostructures are fabricated via decomposition of insoluble metal-organic precursor compounds in a layer at the gas-liquid interface. The ultimately thin and anisotropic dynamic monomolecular reaction system was realized in that approach with quasi-two-dimensional growth and organization of nanoparticles and nanostructures in the plain of Langmuir monolayer. Photochemical and redox reactions were used to initiate processes of interfacial nucleation and growth of inorganic phase. It has been demonstrated that morphology of resulting inorganic nanostructures can be controlled efficiently by variations of growth conditions via changes in state and composition of interfacial planar reaction media, and by variations of composition of adjacent bulk phases. Planar arrays and chains of iron oxide and ultrasmall noble metal (Au and Pd) nanoparticles, nanowires and new organized planar disk, ring, net-like, labyrinth and very high-surface area nanostructures were obtained by methods based on that approach. Highly organized monomolecular polymeric films on solid substrates were obtained via deposition of Langmuir monolayer formed by water-insoluble amphiphilic polycation molecules. Corresponding nanoscale-ordered planar polymeric nanocomposite films with incorporated ligand-stabilized molecular metallic nanoclusters and interfacially grown nanoparticles were fabricated successfully. Novel planar DNA complexes with amphiphilic polycation monolayer were formed at the gas-aqueous phase interface and then deposited on solid substrates. Toroidal and new net-like conformations were discovered in those complexes. Nanoscale supramolecular organization of the complexes was dependent on cationic amphiphile monolayer state during the DNA binding. These monolayer and multilayer DNA/amphiphilic polycation complex Langmuir-Blodgett films were used as templates and nanoreactors for generation of inorganic nanostructures via metal cation binding with DNA and following inorganic phase growth reactions. As a result, ultrathin polymeric nanocomposite films with integrated DNA building blocks and organized inorganic semiconductor (CdS) and iron oxide quasi-linear nanostructures were formed. It has been demonstrated that interaction of deposited planar DNA/amphiphilic polycation complexes with bulk phase colloid inorganic cationic ligands (CdSe nano-rods) can result in formation of new highly organized hybrid bio-inorganic nanostructures via interfacial ligand exchange and self-organization processes. The methods developed can be useful for investigation of fundamental mechanisms of nanoscale structural organization and transformation processes in various inorganic and molecular systems including bio-molecular and bio-inorganic nanostructures. Also, those methods are relatively simple, environmentally safe and thus could prove to be efficient practical instruments of molecular nanotechnology with potential of design and cost-effective fabrication of new controlled-morphology organized planar inorganic and composite nanostructured materials. Possible applications of obtained nanostructures and future developments are also discussed. PMID:15571664

Khomutov, Gennady B

2004-11-29

57

Effect of compositional inhomgenities on decay of nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of composition on the evolution of nanostructures was studied using diffuse interface model in strained alloy films made of AB binary system. In this work we study the effect of stresses arising due to misfit and stresses formed because of difference in composition on the morphological changes arising due to Asaro-Tiller-Grinfield (ATG) instability. We model the alloy system using a ternary phase field model with a rich ? phase as the film, B rich ? phase as the substrate and a vapour phase. Depending on the intermixing or unmixing characteristics of the free energy, the growth as well as decay of the nanostructures can be addressed. Here we have attempted to characterize the evolution as a function of kinetic parameters such as surface and bulk diffusion coefficients of different species, material parameters such as elastic properties and operational parameters like deposition rate.

Hariharaputran, Ramanarayan; Shenoy, Vivek

2004-03-01

58

Engineering hybrid nanostructures of active materials: Applications as electrode materials in lithium ion rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming to significantly improve the electrochemical properties of electroactive materials for lithium ion batteries, three novel hybrid nanostructures were developed in this thesis. These include nanostructure A: V2O 5 coated on polymer electrolyte-grafted carbon black, nanostructure B: electrode materials incorporated into an electronically conductive carbon web, and nanostructure C: electrode materials dispersed in a conductive porous carbon matrix. Nanocomposites possessing

Huan Huang

2003-01-01

59

Composite Materials Handbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the US Army Research Laboratory, Materials Sciences Corporation, and University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials, the Composite Materials Handbook provides the "information and guidance necessary to design and fabricate end items from composite materials." Along with current information on the material properties of these composite materials, the handbook also includes data development and usage guidelines. The information has been divided into three areas: polymer, metal, and ceramic matrix composites. The Polymer Matrix Composites Handbook (three volumes including Guidelines for Characterization of Structural Materials; Material Properties; and Materials Usage, Design, and Analysis) and the Metal Matrix Composites Handbook (one volume, .pdf) are available here. The Ceramic Matrix Composites Handbook has yet to be completed. Users may also download Quick Composites Data in spreadsheet format.

60

Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof  

DOEpatents

Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Jeon, Sea Ho (Dracut, MA); Mack, Nathan H. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-08-02

61

Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof  

DOEpatents

Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Jeon, Sea Ho (Dracut, MA); Mack, Nathan H. (Los Alamos, NM)

2012-04-03

62

Aerogel Derived Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials  

SciTech Connect

America’s dependence on foreign sources for fuel represents a economic and security threat for the country. These non renewable resources are depleting, and the effects of pollutants from fuels such as oil are reaching a problematic that affects the global community. Solar concentration power (SCP) production systems offer the opportunity to harness one of the United States’ most under utilized natural resources; sunlight. While commercialization of this technology is increasing, in order to become a significant source of electricity production in the United States the costs of deploying and operating SCP plants must be further reduced. Parabolic Trough SCP technologies are close to meeting energy production cost levels that would raise interest in the technology and help accelerate its adoption as a method to produce a significant portion of the Country’s electric power needs. During this program, Aspen Aerogels will develop a transparent aerogel insulation that can replace the costly vacuum insulation systems that are currently used in parabolic trough designs. During the Phase I program, Aspen Aerogels will optimize the optical and thermal properties of aerogel to meet the needs of this application. These properties will be tested, and the results will be used to model the performance of a parabolic trough HCE system which uses this novel material in place of vacuum. During the Phase II program, Aspen Aerogels will scale up this technology. Together with industry partners, Aspen Aerogels will build and test a prototype Heat Collection Element that is insulated with the novel transparent aerogel material. This new device will find use in parabolic trough SCP applications.

Wendell E Rhine, PI; Dong, Wenting; Greg Caggiano, PM

2010-10-08

63

Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solution-phase processing presents an attractive avenue for building unique architectures from a wide variety of materials that exhibit functional properties, making them ideal candidates for various energy applications. The most basic building block or precursor in solution-based syntheses is a soluble species that can either self-assemble, or coassemble with a structure directing agent or template, to create a unique architecture. Soluble inorganic-based building blocks ranging from atomic-scale charged molecular complexes to nanometer-scale preformed nanocrystals are utilized to construct functional inorganic materials. These nanostructured materials are excellent candidates for integrating into electronic and energy-storage devices, including photovoltaics and pseudocapacitors. The goal of this work is to create inorganic nanostructured materials from solution-based methods. This work is divided into two parts: the first involves the synthesis of inorganic semiconductor-based nanostructured materials; the second focuses on developing porous metal oxide-based pseudocapacitors. The first part describes three distinct synthetic approaches to nanostructured semiconductors: the synthesis of complex metal chalcogenide semiconductors produced from highly soluble hydrazinium-based precursors using a porous template; low-temperature melt processing of an organic-inorganic hybrid semiconductor into porous templates to produce vertically-aligned arrays with a concentric multilayered structure; and solution-phase assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals of CdSe into nanoporous architectures via polymer templating. These nanostructured semiconductors are electrically interconnected through intimate contact between the molecular or nanoscale precursors achieved during solution-phase synthesis, making them suitable for a range of applications. In the second part, porous metal-oxide based materials are constructed by the assembly of nanosized building blocks into 3D porous architectures via polymer templating. Two main approaches are described: first, a general route for templating both redox-active oxides (Mn3O4, MnFe2O4) and conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystals is described; second, nanocrystal-based porous architectures of a ITO are coated with redox-active V2O5 via atomic layer deposition to produce nanoporous composites. The porous architectures exhibit high surface areas, providing ample redox active sites, and an interconnected open porosity, facilitating solvent/ion diffusion to those sites. In the ITO-V2O 5 composites, the electron-transfer reactions are facilitated by the increased conductivity leading to high pseudocapacitive contributions to charge storage that are accompanied by fast charging/discharging rates.

Rauda, Iris Ester

64

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various topics relating to composite structural materials for use in aircraft structures are discussed. The mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers, carbon fiber-epoxy interface bonds, composite fractures, residual stress in high modulus and high strength carbon fibers, fatigue in composite materials, and the mechanical properties of polymeric matrix composite laminates are among the topics discussed.

Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

1985-01-01

65

Composite structural materials  

SciTech Connect

Various topics relating to composite structural materials for use in aircraft structures are discussed. The mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers, carbon fiber-epoxy interface bonds, composite fractures, residual stress in high modulus and high strength carbon fibers, fatigue in composite materials, and the mechanical properties of polymeric matrix composite laminates are among the topics discussed.

Loewy, R.G.; Wiberley, S.E.

1985-08-01

66

Nanostructured Materials Development for Space Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There have been many recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for space power applications. In particular, the use of high purity single wall nanotubes holds promise for a variety of generation and storage devices including: thin film lithium ion batteries, microelectronic proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, polymeric thin film solar cells, and thermionic power supplies is presented. Semiconducting quantum dots alone and in conjunction with carbon nanotubes are also being investigated for possible use in high efficiency photovoltaic solar cells. This paper will review some of the work being done at RIT in conjunction with the NASA Glenn Research Center to utilize nanomaterials in space power devices.

Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, B. J.; Elich, J. B.; Gennett, T.; Castro, S. L.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

2003-01-01

67

Mechanical properties of nanostructure of biological materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural biological materials such as bone, teeth and nacre are nanocomposites of protein and mineral with superior strength. It is quite a marvel that nature produces hard and tough materials out of protein as soft as human skin and mineral as brittle as classroom chalk. What are the secrets of nature? Can we learn from this to produce bio-inspired materials in the laboratory? These questions have motivated us to investigate the mechanics of protein-mineral nanocomposite structure. Large aspect ratios and a staggered alignment of mineral platelets are found to be the key factors contributing to the large stiffness of biomaterials. A tension-shear chain (TSC) model of biological nanostructure reveals that the strength of biomaterials hinges upon optimizing the tensile strength of the mineral crystals. As the size of the mineral crystals is reduced to nanoscale, they become insensitive to flaws with strength approaching the theoretical strength of atomic bonds. The optimized tensile strength of mineral crystals thus allows a large amount of fracture energy to be dissipated in protein via shear deformation and consequently enhances the fracture toughness of biocomposites. We derive viscoelastic properties of the protein-mineral nanostructure and show that the toughness of biocomposite can be further enhanced by the viscoelastic properties of protein.

Ji, Baohua; Gao, Huajian

2004-09-01

68

Controlled thermal sintering of a metal-metal oxide-carbon ternary composite with a multi-scale hollow nanostructure for use as an anode material in Li-ion batteries.  

PubMed

We report a synthetic scheme for preparing a SnO2-Sn-carbon triad inverse opal porous material using the controlled sintering of Sn precursor-infiltrated polystyrene (PS) nanobead films. Because the uniform PS nanobead film, which can be converted into carbon via a sintering step, uptakes the precursor solution, the carbon can be uniformly distributed throughout the Sn-based anode material. Moreover, the partial carbonization of the PS nanobeads under a controlled Ar/oxygen environment not only produces a composite material with an inverse opal-like porous nanostructure but also converts the Sn precursor/PS into a SnO2-Sn-C triad electrode. PMID:24463739

Kim, Hwan Jin; Zhang, Kan; Choi, Jae-Man; Song, Min Sang; Park, Jong Hyeok

2014-03-11

69

Electrochemical synthesis of nanostructured materials for electrochemical energy conversion and storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical synthesis represents a highly efficient method for the fabrication of nanostructured energy materials, and various nanostructures, such as nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, nanosheets, dendritic nanostructures, and composite nanostructures, can be easily fabricated with advantages of low cost, low synthetic temperature, high purity, simplicity, and environmental friendliness. The electrochemical synthesis, characterization, and application of electrochemical energy nanomaterials have advanced greatly in the past few decades, allowing an increasing understanding of nanostructure-property-performance relationships. Herein, we highlight some recent progress in the electrochemical synthesis of electrochemical energy materials with the assistance of additives and templates in solution or grafted onto metal or conductive polymer supports, with special attention to the effects on surface morphologies, structures and, more importantly, electrochemical performance. The methodology for preparing novel electrochemical energy nanomaterials and their potential applications has been summarized. Finally, we outline our personal perspectives on the electrochemical synthesis and applications of electrochemical energy nanomaterials.

Li, Gao-Ren; Xu, Han; Lu, Xue-Feng; Feng, Jin-Xian; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Su, Cheng-Yong

2013-05-01

70

Benzoxazine resin/carbon nanotube nanostructured composite's degradation kinetic.  

PubMed

In the last decades a new class of thermoset phenolic resin is emerging as a substitute of the traditional epoxy and phenolic resins in the aircraft industry. This new class is called polybenzoxazines and its associates the epoxy resin's mechanical properties and phenolic resin's thermal and flame retardant properties, resulting in a resin with superior properties when analyzed with the others singly. The introduction of carbon nanotubes in low concentration into polymeric matrices can produce nanostructured materials with good properties. Thus, in this study, nanostructured composites of benzoxazine resin were processed with different concentration of carbon nanotubes (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% w/w). In order to evaluate the thermostability of the benzoxazine resin and its nanostructured composites, it was performed a degradation kinetic study using the thermogravimetric technique. For that, the analysis have been done with the temperature ranging from 25 degrees C to 1000 degrees C at nitrogen atmosphere (100 mL x min(-1)) and in different heating rates (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 20 degrees C x min(-1)), in order to obtain the kinetic parameters (activation energy, E(a), and pre-exponential factor, A), based on Ozawa-Wall-Flynn model. The results showed excellent agreement between the thermogravimetric curves obtained and the Ozawa-Wall-Flynn method. The degradation kinetic study showed that the introduction of carbon nanotubes in the benzoxazine matrix does not change the thermostability of the resin, so that it does not have a significant influence in the shelf life of the material. PMID:24757993

Untem, Flávia O; Botelho, Edson C; Rezende, Mirabel C; Costa, Michelle Leali

2014-07-01

71

Novel Ti-base nanostructure-dendrite composite with enhanced plasticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-phase nanocrystalline materials undergo inhomogeneous plastic deformation under loading at room temperature, which results in a very limited plastic strain (smaller than 0-3%). The materials therefore display low ductility, leading to catastrophic failure, which severely restricts their application. Here, we present a new in situ-formed nanostructured matrix/ductile dendritic phase composite microstructure for Ti-base alloys, which exhibits up to 14.5% compressive plastic strain at room temperature. The new composite microstructure was synthesized on the basis of the appropriate choice of composition, and by using well-controlled solidification conditions. Deformation occurs partially through dislocation movement in dendrites, and partially through a shear-banding mechanism in the nanostructured matrix. The dendrites act as obstacles restricting the excessive deformation by isolating the highly localized shear bands in small, discrete inter-dendritic regions, and contribute to the plasticity. We suggest that microscale ductile crystalline phases might therefore be used to toughen nanostructured materials.

He, Guo; Eckert, Jürgen; Löser, Wolfgang; Schultz, Ludwig

2003-01-01

72

Supramolecular materials: Self-organized nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

Miniaturized triblock copolymers have been found to self-assemble into nanostructures that are highly regular in size and shape. Mushroom-shaped supramolecular structures of about 200 kilodaltons form by crystallization of the chemically identical blocks and self-organize into films containing 100 or more layers stacked in a polar arrangement. The polar supramolecular material exhibits spontaneous second-harmonic generation from infrared to green photons and has an adhesive tape-like character with nonadhesive-hydrophobic and hydrophilic-sticky opposite surfaces. The films also have reasonable shear strength and adhere tenaciously to glass surfaces on one side only. The regular and finite size of the supramolecular units is believed to be mediated by repulsive forces among some of the segments in the triblock molecules. A large diversity of multifunctional materials could be formed from regular supramolecular units weighing hundreds of kilodaltons. 21 refs., 10 figs.

Stupp, S.I.; LeBonheur, V.; Walker, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); and others

1997-04-18

73

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology utilization of fiber reinforced composite materials is discussed in the areas of physical properties, and life prediction. Programs related to the Composite Aircraft Program are described in detail.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

1979-01-01

74

Tough Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers and working group summaries are presented which address composite material behavior and performance improvement. Topic areas include composite fracture toughness and impact characterization, constituent properties and interrelationships, and matrix synthesis and characterization.

Vosteen, L. F. (compiler); Johnson, N. J. (compiler); Teichman, L. A. (compiler)

1984-01-01

75

nanostructured alloys. Metal matrix composites. Quasicrystal. Dental Implant. Laser Processing. Mg alloy. PLD. TCLP. nanostructured alloys. Metal matrix composites. Quasicrystal. Dental Implant. Laser Processing. Mg alloy. PLD. TCLP.  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: nanostructured alloys. Metal matrix composites. Quasicrystal. Dental Implant. Laser Processing. Mg alloy. PLD. TCLP. nanostructured alloys. Metal matrix composites. Quasicrystal. Dental Implant. Laser Processing. Mg alloy. PLD. TCLP. ?

76

nanostructured alloys. Metal matrix composites. Quasicrystal. Dental Implant. Laser Processing. Mg alloy. PLD. TCLP. nanostructured alloys. Metal matrix composites. Quasicrystal. Dental Implant. Laser Processing. Mg alloy. PLD. TCLP.  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean nanostructured alloys. Metal matrix composites. Quasicrystal. Dental Implant. Laser Processing. Mg alloy. PLD. TCLP. nanostructured alloys. Metal matrix composites. Quasicrystal. Dental Implant. Laser Processing. Mg alloy. PLD. TCLP. ?

77

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multifaceted program is described in which aeronautical, mechanical, and materials engineers interact to develop composite aircraft structures. Topics covered include: (1) the design of an advanced composite elevator and a proposed spar and rib assembly; (2) optimizing fiber orientation in the vicinity of heavily loaded joints; (3) failure mechanisms and delamination; (4) the construction of an ultralight sailplane; (5) computer-aided design; finite element analysis programs, preprocessor development, and array preprocessor for SPAR; (6) advanced analysis methods for composite structures; (7) ultrasonic nondestructive testing; (8) physical properties of epoxy resins and composites; (9) fatigue in composite materials, and (10) transverse thermal expansion of carbon/epoxy composites.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

1979-01-01

78

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in studies of constituent materials composite materials, generic structural elements, processing science technology, and maintaining long-term structural integrity. Topics discussed include: mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers; fatigue in composite materials; experimental and theoretical studies of moisture and temperature effects on the mechanical properties of graphite-epoxy laminates and neat resins; numerical investigations of the micromechanics of composite fracture; delamination failures of composite laminates; effect of notch size on composite laminates; improved beam theory for anisotropic materials; variation of resin properties through the thickness of cured samples; numerical analysis composite processing; heat treatment of metal matrix composites, and the RP-1 and RP2 gliders of the sailplane project.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

1984-01-01

79

Quantitative Electron Tomography for Nanostructured Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controlled assembly of materials on the nanoscale has been a major focus of research across many scientific disciplines. In the nanometer size range, materials characteristics can be tuned not only by composition but more importantly by size and shape of constituent phases, giving rise to exceptional optical, magnetic, electric, mechanical and catalytic properties. To gain insight into the relation

H. Friedrich

2009-01-01

80

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the RPI composites program is to develop advanced technology in the areas of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, reliability and life prediction. Concommitant goals are to educate engineers to design and use composite materials as normal or conventional materials. A multifaceted program was instituted to achieve these objectives.

Ansell, G. S.; Wiberley, S. E.

1978-01-01

81

Nanostructured materials production by hypersonic plasma particle deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a new process for producing nanostructured materials, hypersonic plasma particle deposition (HPPD), wherein a thermal plasma seeded with vapor-phase precursors is supersonically expanded through a nozzle to nucleate ultrafine particles, which are then deposited by hypersonic impaction onto a temperature-controlled substrate. Results from preliminary experiments aimed at synthesizing nanostructured silicon are presented.

N. P. Rao; H. J. Lee; M. Kelkar; D. J. Hansen; J. V. R. Heberlein; P. H. McMurry; S. L. Girshick

1997-01-01

82

Wear corrosion properties of nano-structured SiC–nickel composite coatings obtained by electroplating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in materials performance often require the development of composite systems. Coated materials could be one form to use. The abrasion and corrosion resistance of components can be greatly increased by protective coatings and this is a growing industry of considerable economic importance. These paper aims with a comparative wear corrosion study of pure nickel and Ni–SiC nano-structured composite coating.

Lidia Benea; Pier Luigi Bonora; Alberto Borello; Stefano Martelli

2001-01-01

83

Inorganic nanostructured materials for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical supercapacitors (ES) are a well-known energy storage system that has high power density, long life-cycle and fast charge-discharge kinetics. Nanostructured materials are a new generation of electrode materials with large surface area and short transport/diffusion path for ions and electrons to achieve high specific capacitance in ES. This mini review highlights recent developments of inorganic nanostructure materials, including carbon nanomaterials, metal oxide nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanowires/nanotubes, for high performance ES applications.

Liu, Sheng; Sun, Shouheng; You, Xiao-Zeng

2014-01-01

84

Bulk Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials: Preparation, Structure and Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk nanostructured materials have recently emerged as a new paradigm for improving the performance of existing thermoelectric\\u000a materials. Here, we fabricated two kinds of bulk nanostructured thermoelectric materials by a bottom-up strategy and an in\\u000a situ precipitation method, respectively. Binary PbTe was fabricated by a combination of chemical synthesis and hot pressing.\\u000a The grain sizes of the hot pressed bulk

Tie-Jun Zhu; Yi-Qi Cao; Qian Zhang; Xin-Bing Zhao

2010-01-01

85

Growth of Carbon Nanostructure Materials Using Laser Vaporization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the potential applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT) was discovered in many fields, such as non-structure electronics, lightweight composite structure, and drug delivery, CNT has been grown by many techniques in which high yield single wall CNT has been produced by physical processes including arc vaporization and laser vaporization. In this presentation, the growth mechanism of the carbon nanostructure materials by laser vaporization is to be discussed. Carbon nanoparticles and nanotubes have been synthesized using pulsed laser vaporization on Si substrates in various temperatures and pressures. Two kinds of targets were used to grow the nanostructure materials. One was a pure graphite target and the other one contained Ni and Co catalysts. The growth temperatures were 600-1000 C and the pressures varied from several torr to 500 torr. Carbon nanoparticles were observed when a graphite target was used, although catalysts were deposited on substrates before growing carbon films. When the target contains catalysts, carbon nanotubes (CNT) are obtained. The CNT were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, optical absorption and transmission, and Raman spectroscopy. The temperature-and pressure-dependencies of carbon nanotubes' growth rate and size were investigated.

Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehozeky, S.

2000-01-01

86

PROPERTIES AND NANOSTRUCTURES OF MATERIALS PROCESSED BY SPD TECHNIQUES  

SciTech Connect

Metallic materials usually exhibit higher strength but lower ductility after being plastically deformed by conventional techniques such as rolling, drawing and extrusion. In contrast, nanostructured metals and alloys processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) have demonstrated both high strength and high ductility. This extraordinary mechanical behavior is attributed to the unique nanostructures generated by SPD processing. It demonstrates the possibility of tailoring the microstructures of metals and alloys by SPD to obtain superior mechanical properties. The SPD-generated nanostructures have many features related to deformation, including high dislocation densities, and high- and low-angle grain boundaries in equilibrium or non-equilibrium states. This paper reviews the mechanical properties and the defect structures of SPD-processed nanostructured materials. Keywords: strength, ductility, nanostructures, SPD, non-equilibrium grain boundary

Liao, Xiaoshan; Huang, J. (Jianyu); Zhu, Y. T. (Yuntian Theodore)

2001-01-01

87

Nanostructured materials for rechargeable batteries: synthesis, fundamental understanding and limitations  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured materials have emerged as very attrcative electrode materials for energy storage due to their small sizes and structure/morphology related properties. The purpose of this article to discuss the opportunities and challenges of nanostructured materials for advanced energy storage devices. Nanostructured silicon (Si) anodes together with other cathode and anode materials are used as examples to illustrate the different methods available for synthesis and the range of materials that can be produced to improve the storage capacity and stability. Recent progresses in using well-defined nanostructures to gain new fundamental understanding of the complex electrochemical reactions and charge-discharge processes are also discussed. Finally, the paper addresses some key problems that are yet to be solved and the need to optimize the microstructures and control the high level architectures beyond nanoscale.

Zhan, Hui; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

2013-05-30

88

Electrically conductive composite material  

DOEpatents

An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

1989-05-23

89

Electrically conductive composite material  

DOEpatents

An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

1988-06-20

90

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and application of filamentary composite materials, is considered. Such interest is based on the possibility of using relatively brittle materials with high modulus, high strength, but low density in composites with good durability and high tolerance to damage. Fiber reinforced composite materials of this kind offer substantially improved performance and potentially lower costs for aerospace hardware. Much progress has been made since the initial developments in the mid 1960's. There were only limited applied to the primary structure of operational vehicles, mainly as aircrafts.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberly, S. E.

1984-01-01

91

Electrically conductive composite material  

DOEpatents

An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

92

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overall emphasis is on basic long-term research in the following categories: constituent materials, composite materials, generic structural elements, processing science technology; and maintaining long-term structural integrity. Research in basic composition, characteristics, and processing science of composite materials and their constituents is balanced against the mechanics, conceptual design, fabrication, and testing of generic structural elements typical of aerospace vehicles so as to encourage the discovery of unusual solutions to present and future problems. Detailed descriptions of the progress achieved in the various component parts of this comprehensive program are presented.

Loewy, R.; Wiberley, S. E.

1986-01-01

93

Waterproofing Nanostructured Aerogel-Ceramic Fiber Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerogels are nanoporous materials which can be used to enhance the transport properties of ceramic fiber materials, to exploit their unique properties such as high porosity, large surface area, low density and low thermal conductivity. Numerous applications have been investigated. major obstacle to commercialization is that the structure of aerogels collapses due to the adsorption of water. simple and relatively cheap process has been developed to waterproof silica, alumina and alumina-silica and carbon aerogels and composites incorporating them. Previous waterproofing methods are short lived or expensive and time consuming.

White, Susan; Hsu, Ming Ta; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

94

Tree initiation phenomena in nanostructured epoxy composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree initiation time was evaluated by a pulse detection system to detect a small PD (partial discharge) signal that might take place at first just after a tree was formed. Six kinds of materials were prepared for evaluation, i.e. base epoxy resin, microcomposite, two kinds of nanocomposites, and two kinds of nano-micro-mixed-composites. Lengths of trees detected were around 100 ?m

Yu Chen; Takahiro Imai; Yoshimichi Ohki; Toshikatsu Tanaka

2010-01-01

95

Fabrication and geometrical characterization of metal and metal-dielectric composite periodic nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic metal and metal-dielectric composite nanostructures have been of interest from the field of plasmonics and metamaterial fabrication. In order to exploit the behavior of these unique materials in the visible region of the optical spectrum, these structures need to be significantly shorter than the wavelength of response, and hence fabrication of these have posed unique challenges. One of the

Siddhartha Bhowmik

2009-01-01

96

The investigation of sensing mechanism of ethanol vapour in polymer-nanostructured carbon composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer-nanostructured carbon composites (PNCC) using three different polymers as composite matrix materials (polyvinylacetate (PVAc), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer (EVA)) have been developed. High structure carbon black Printex XE2 (Degussa AG) was used as a composites filler. Ethanol vapour sensor-effect of composites was determined as a change of electrical resistance as the composite was held in ethanol vapour for 30 seconds. Reversibility of electrical resistance of PNCC, response stability and repeatability have been measured and compared. The electrical resistance response of EVA-nanostructured carbon composite (EVA-NCC) to ethanol vapour as a function of vinylacetate content in the copolymer has been evaluated. Promising ethanol vapour sensor-effect has been observed for PEG-NCC followed by PVAc-NCC and EVA-NCC.

Sakale, Gita; Knite, Maris; Teteris, Valdis; Tupureina, Velta; Stepina, Santa; Liepa, Elina

2011-04-01

97

Modified carbon nanostructures as materials for hydrogen storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of ab initio simulation, a number of modifications of well-known carbon nanostructures are proposed, which could form the basis for designing materials with high adsorptivity for molecular hydrogen.

Avdeenkov, A. V.; Bibikov, A. V.; Bodrenko, I. V.; Nikolaev, A. V.; Taran, M. D.; Tkalya, E. V.

2009-11-01

98

Miltimillion Atom Reactive Simulations of Nanostructured Energetic Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For large-scale atomistic simulations involving chemical reactions to study nanostructured energetic materials, we have designed linear-scaling molecular dynamics algorithms: (1) first-principles-based fast reactive force field molecular dynamics, and (2)...

A. Nakano B. E. Homan K. L. McNesby P. Vashishta R. K. Kalia

2007-01-01

99

Composite Material Switches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

2001-01-01

100

Composite Material Switches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

2002-01-01

101

Mechanics of Composite Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical behavior of composites is traditionally evaluated on both microscopic and macroscopic scale to take into account inhomogeneity. Micromechanics attempts to quantify the interactions of fiber and matrix (reinforcement and resin) on a microscopic scale on par with the diameter of a single fiber. Macromechanics treats composites as homogeneous materials, with mechanical properties representative of the laminate as a

Robert M. Jones

1999-01-01

102

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research in the basic composition, characteristics, and processng science of composite materials and their constituents is balanced against the mechanics, conceptual design, fabrication, and testing of generic structural elements typical of aerospace vehicles so as to encourage the discovery of unusual solutions to problems. Detailed descriptions of the progress achieved in the various component parts of his program are presented.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

1982-01-01

103

High volume production of nanostructured materials  

DOEpatents

A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2009-10-13

104

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and application of composite materials to aerospace vehicle structures which began in the mid 1960's has now progressed to the point where what can be considered entire airframes are being designed and built using composites. Issues related to the fabrication of non-resin matrix composites and the micro, mezzo and macromechanics of thermoplastic and metal matrix composites are emphasized. Several research efforts are presented. They are entitled: (1) The effects of chemical vapor deposition and thermal treatments on the properties of pitch-based carbon fiber; (2) Inelastic deformation of metal matrix laminates; (3) Analysis of fatigue damage in fibrous MMC laminates; (4) Delamination fracture toughness in thermoplastic matrix composites; (5) Numerical investigation of the microhardness of composite fracture; and (6) General beam theory for composite structures.

Loewy, Robert G.; Wiberley, Stephen E.

1987-01-01

105

Development of Nanostructured Materials with Improved Radiation Tolerance for Advanced Nuclear Systems  

SciTech Connect

This project will explore the fundamental mechanisms through which interfaces in nanolayered structures and grain boundaries of bulk nanomaterials are able to attract and rapidly eliminate point defects and unwanted foreign species. Candidate materials that will be studied include both nanostructured multilayer composites synthesized by magnetron sputtering and structural bulk nanomaterials produced by severed plastic deformation, equal channel angular extrusion.

Zinghang Zhang; K. Ted Hartwig

2009-08-12

106

Novel nanostructured rare-earth-free magnetic materials with high energy products.  

PubMed

Novel nanostructured Zr2 Co11 -based magnetic materials are fabricated in a single step process using cluster-deposition method. The composition, atomic ordering, and spin structure are precisely controlled to achieve a substantial magnetic remanence and coercivity, as well as the highest energy product for non-rare-earth and Pt-free permanent-magnet alloys. PMID:24038456

Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Das, Bhaskar; Skomski, Ralph; Zhang, Wenyong Y; Sellmyer, David J

2013-11-13

107

Nanostructured Materials Developed for Solar Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There has been considerable investigation recently regarding the potential for the use of nanomaterials and nanostructures to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. Efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center have involved the development and use ...

S. G. Bailey S. L. Castro R. P. Raffaelle S. D. Fahey T. Gennett P. Tin

2004-01-01

108

Polyaniline nanostructures expedient as working electrode materials in supercapacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Granular type polyaniline (PANi), PANi nanofibers (NFs), and PANi nanotubes (NTs) expedient as working electrode materials for supercapacitors are synthesized. The synthesis procedure used in this work facilitates not only the synthesis of solid powders of the PANi nanostructures, but also thin films constituted by the same PANi nanostructures in the same experiment. PANi NFs are found to exhibit faster electrode kinetics and better capacitance when compared to PANi NTs and granular PANi. Specific capacitance and energy storage per unit mass of PANi NFs are 239.47 Fg-1 (at 0.5 Ag-1) and 43.2 Wh kg-1, respectively. Electrical conductivity of PANi NFs is also better when compared to the other two nanostructures. Properties of the three PANi nanostructures are explicated in correlation with crystallinity, intrinsic oxidation state, doping degree, BET surface area, and ordered mesoporosity pertaining to the nanostructures.

Gedela, Venkata Ramana; Srikanth, Vadali Venkata Satya Siva

2014-04-01

109

Nanostructured hybrid materials from aqueous polymer dispersions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic–inorganic (O–I) hybrids with well-defined morphology and structure controlled at the nanometric scale represent a very interesting class of materials both for their use as biomimetic composites and because of their potential use in a wide range of technologically advanced as well as more conventional application fields. Their unique features can be exploited or their role envisaged as components of

Valter Castelvetro; Cinzia De Vita

2004-01-01

110

Resin composite restorative materials.  

PubMed

This paper surveys the most important developments in resin-based dental composites and focuses on the deficits (e.g. polymerization shrinkage) and strengths of the materials and their clinical implications. Moreover, differences between composite categories, such as hybrid, nanohybrid, microfilled, packable, ormocer-based, silorane-based, polyacid-modified composites (compomers) and flowable composites are highlighted, especially in view of their mechanical behaviour. In addition to the classical dimethacrylate-based composites, special attention is given to alternative monomers, such as siloranes, ormocers or high-molecular-weight dimethacrylate monomers (e.g. dimer acid-based dimethacrylates and tricyclodecane (TCD)-urethane), analysing their advantages, behaviour and abilities. Finally, the paper attempts to establish the needs and wishes of clinicians for further development of resin-based composites. PMID:21564116

Ilie, N; Hickel, R

2011-06-01

111

Hollow Nanostructured Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hollow nanostructured anode materials lie at the heart of research relating to Li-ion batteries, which require high capacity, high rate capability, and high safety. The higher capacity and higher rate capability for hollow nanostructured anode materials than that for the bulk counterparts can be attributed to their higher surface area, shorter path length for Li+ transport, and more freedom for volume change, which can reduce the overpotential and allow better reaction kinetics at the electrode surface. In this article, we review recent research activities on hollow nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries, including carbon materials, metals, metal oxides, and their hybrid materials. The major goal of this review is to highlight some recent progresses in using these hollow nanomaterials as anode materials to develop Li-ion batteries with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.

Liu, Jun; Xue, Dongfeng

2010-10-01

112

Hollow Nanostructured Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

PubMed Central

Hollow nanostructured anode materials lie at the heart of research relating to Li-ion batteries, which require high capacity, high rate capability, and high safety. The higher capacity and higher rate capability for hollow nanostructured anode materials than that for the bulk counterparts can be attributed to their higher surface area, shorter path length for Li+ transport, and more freedom for volume change, which can reduce the overpotential and allow better reaction kinetics at the electrode surface. In this article, we review recent research activities on hollow nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries, including carbon materials, metals, metal oxides, and their hybrid materials. The major goal of this review is to highlight some recent progresses in using these hollow nanomaterials as anode materials to develop Li-ion batteries with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.

2010-01-01

113

Nanostructured Materials Integrated in Microfabricated Optical Devices  

SciTech Connect

This project combined nanocomposite materials with microfabricated optical device structures for the development of microsensor arrays. For the nanocomposite materials we have designed, developed, and characterized self-assembling, organic/inorganic hybrid optical sensor materials that offer highly selective, sensitive, and reversible sensing capability with unique hierarchical nanoarchitecture. Lipid bilayers and micellar polydiacetylene provided selective optical response towards metal ions (Pb(II), Hg(II)), a lectin protein (Concanavalin A), temperature, and organic solvent vapor. These materials formed as composites in silica sol-gels to impart physical protection of the self-assembled structures, provide a means for thin film surface coatings, and allow facile transport of analytes. The microoptical devices were designed and prepared with two- and four-level diffraction gratings coupled with conformal gold coatings on fused silica. The structure created a number of light reflections that illuminated multiple spots along the silica surface. These points of illumination would act as the excitation light for the fluorescence response of the sensor materials. Finally, we demonstrate an integrated device using the two-level diffraction grating coupled with the polydiacetylene/silica material.

SASAKI, DARRYL Y.; LAST, JULIE A.; BONDURANT, BRUCE; WAGGONER, TINA A.; BRINKER, C. JEFFREY; KEMME, SHANALYN A.; WENDT, JOEL R.; CARTER, TONY; SAMORA, SALLY; WARREN, MIAL E.; SINCLAIR, MICHAEL B.; YANG, YI

2002-12-01

114

Modified Composite Materials Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reduction or elimination of the hazard which results from accidental release of graphite fibers from composite materials was studied at a workshop. At the workshop, groups were organized to consider six topics: epoxy modifications, epoxy replacement, fiber modifications, fiber coatings and new fibers, hybrids, and fiber release testing. Because of the time required to develop a new material and acquire a design data base, most of the workers concluded that a modified composite material would require about four to five years of development and testing before it could be applied to aircraft structures. The hybrid working group considered that some hybrid composites which reduce the risk of accidental fiber release might be put into service over the near term. The fiber release testing working group recommended a coordinated effort to define a suitable laboratory test.

Dicus, D. L. (compiler)

1978-01-01

115

Transmission electron microscopy characterization of composite nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Angle Annular Dark Field (HAADF) and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) were investigated as characterization tools for chemical element localization in novel nanostructures. The studied nanostructures were Pt-Au core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles and semiconductor doped layers. Pt-Au bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized by the polyol method and characterized with the techniques previously mentioned. EDS results confirmed the bimetallic nature of the synthesized nanoparticles. HAADF was determinant in the identification of core-shell nanoparticles. This was possible due to the presence of strain fields in the interface between the core and the shell elements produced by the difference in their lattice parameter. The presence of these strain fields produced an anomalous contrast on the HAADF images, which enabled the identification of this interface, and hence of the core-shell nanostructures. UV-Visible absorption spectra (experimental and simulated) in combination with EXAFS results allowed the identification of Au on the shell of the nanoparticles and Pt in the core. HAADF was proved to be a useful technique for core-shell nanoparticles identification. Several doped semiconductor nanostructures were also studied; B doped Si FinFET nanostructures, As doped Si samples and Ge1-xCx thin layers. For the case of the B doped Si FinFET nanostructures strain fields produced by the implantation of B atoms into the Si lattice allowed a qualitative determination of the 2-dimensional B dopant profile with the use of HAADF, just as in the case of the core-shell nanoparticles. In the As doped Si samples, EELS is proposed as a quantitative characterization tool for the determination of dopant concentrations based on the relationship described in the free-electron gas model between the characteristic plasmon peak energy and the electron density. Promising results obtained in the present study indicate the feasibility of using EELS as a quantitative tool for dopant concentration studies. Finally, a proper analysis of the EELS results allowed the observation of preferential segregation of C atoms to the interface between the Ge 1-xCx thin layers and the Si substrate where these layers were grown. We interpret this result as a mechanism of strain relaxation in Ge1-xCx layers grown directly on Si substrates.

Garcia Gutierrez, Domingo Ixcoatl

116

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress and plans are reported for investigations of: (1) the mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers; (2) fatigue in composite materials; (3) moisture and temperature effects on the mechanical properties of graphite-epoxy laminates; (4) the theory of inhomogeneous swelling in epoxy resin; (5) numerical studies of the micromechanics of composite fracture; (6) free edge failures of composite laminates; (7) analysis of unbalanced laminates; (8) compact lug design; (9) quantification of Saint-Venant's principles for a general prismatic member; (10) variation of resin properties through the thickness of cured samples; and (11) the wing fuselage ensemble of the RP-1 and RP-2 sailplanes.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

1983-01-01

117

Nanostructured polyamic acid membranes as novel electrode materials.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new approach for the preparation of polyamic acid (PAA) composites containing Ag and Au nanoparticles. The composite film of PAA and metal particles were obtained upon electrodeposition of a PAA solution containing gold or silver salts with subsequent thermal treatment, while imidization to polyimide is prevented. The structural characterization of the films is provided by 1H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while the presence of metallic nanoparticles within the polymeric matrix was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This approach utilizes the unique reactivity of PAA by preventing the cyclization of the reactive soluble intermediate into polyimides at low temperature to design polymer-assisted nanostructured materials. The ability to prevent the cyclization process should enable the design of a new class of electrode materials by use of thermal reduction and/or electrodeposition. PMID:16008401

Andreescu, Daniel; Wanekaya, Adam K; Sadik, Omowunmi A; Wang, Joseph

2005-07-19

118

Nanostructured Composite Layers With Quasi-Zero Refractive Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured composite transparent layers based on an acrylic copolymer and silver nanoparticles and synthesized by a technology developed by us are found to have quasi-zero refractive index over a wide range of wavelengths (450-1000 nm) according to an analysis and interpretation of experimental reflection and transmission spectra.

Gadomsky, O. N.; Stepin, S. N.; Katnov, V. E.; Zubkov, E. G.

2013-11-01

119

Nanostructured electrode materials for lithium ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis discusses two aspects of nanograined electrode materials for lithium batteries. Firstly the size and surface effects in nanosized lithium intercalation materials is explored. Nanosized intercalation materials are modelled using Monte Carlo simulations of finite sized lattice gases. This study shows that finite size intercalation materials can have marked differences in their voltage-composition behaviour compared to their bulk counterparts. The finite size of the lattices tends to cause a rounding-off of voltage plateaus, while surface effects cause extra plateaus to appear in voltage curves and can also cause phase transitions to occur at different voltages than they do in the bulk. Attempts at making real nanosized intercalation materials proved difficult by standard laboratory methods. A nanograined lithium manganese oxide was prepared in aqueous solution, however. This material has an interesting microstructure, being composed of 7 nm grains which self-assemble into 50 nm squares and rectangles. The voltage behaviour of this material is similar to that of lithium rich LiMn2O4 spinel, but has capacity between 3.3 V and 3.8 V, where no capacity exists in bulk LiMn2O 4. The voltage plateaus of this material are also sloped and rounded off. It is unclear if these effects are caused by surface and size effects or by lattice defects in the structure. The second focus of the thesis explores the mechanism and applications of displacement electrodes for secondary lithium cells. Such electrodes do not intercalate lithium, but undergo a reversible displacement reaction during cycling. It was found that non-intercalating transition metal oxide electrodes are displaced by lithium on the first discharge to form a nanocomposite of lithia and reduced transition metal. During charge lithium is removed from this composite, while concurrently the transition metal enters the oxygen lattice of the lithia. This process is thought to resemble an ion-exchange mechanism. It is also shown that a nanocomposite of lithia and transition metal made by ball-milling contains electrochemically active lithium. Such materials have a huge capacity (˜500 mAh/g) compared to conventional intercalation cathodes. These composites might find application in lithium batteries as high capacity cathode materials or as an additive to provide a source of lithium for conventional anodes which suffer from irreversible capacity or for cathodes that can uptake more lithium than they contain as made. Finally, the ion-exchange mechanism discussed for displacement type electrodes was attempted outside of the cell by reacting Li2O with transition metal ions in nonaqueous solvents. Although a reaction occurred, it was difficult to tell if an ion exchange type reaction took place or if a water impurity was the cause of the reaction. Nevertheless such a reaction was shown to take place very slowly in solution, if it occurs at all. Because of this, binary lithium compounds other than Li2O in which the reaction does take place more quickly, such as Li2S, are suggested as better candidates for electrochemical displacement type electrodes.

Obrovac, Mark Nikolas

2001-08-01

120

Nanoporous and Nanostructured Materials for Energy Storage and Sensor Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major objective of this work is to design nanostructured and nanoporous materials targeting the special needs of the energy storage and sensing fields. Nanostructured and nanoporous materials are increasingly finding applications in many fields, including electrical energy storage and explosive sensing. The advancement of energy storage devices is important to the development of three fields that have strong effects on human society: renewable energy, transportation, and portable devices. More sensitive explosive sensors will help to prevent terrorism activities and boost national security. Hierarchically porous LiFePO4 (LFP)/C composites were prepared using a surfactant and colloidal crystals as dual templates. The surfactant serves as the template for mesopores and polymeric colloidal spheres serve as the template for macropores. The confinement of the surfactant-LFP-carbon precursor in the colloidal templates is crucial to suppress the fast crystallization of LFP and helps to maintain the ordered structure. The obtained composites with high surface areas and ordered porous structure showed excellent rate performance when used as cathode materials for LIBs, which will allow them to be used as a power source for EVs and HEVs. The synthesis of LiFePO 4 in three dimensionally confined spaces within the colloidal template resulted in the formation of spherical particles. Densely packed LiFePO 4 spheres in a carbon matrix were obtained by spin-casting the LFP-carbon precursor on a quartz substrate and then pyrolyzing it. The product showed high capacity and could be charged /discharged with very little capacity fading over many cycles. Three-dimensionally ordered mesoporous carbons were prepared from nano-sized silica sphere colloidal crystal templates. These materials with very high surface areas and ordered porous structure showed high capacitance and excellent rate capability when used as electrodes for supercapacitors. Mesoporous silica thin films of different morphologies, including disordered (wormlike), 2D-hexagonal, 3D-hexagonal, and cubic structure, were prepared. The films were then doped or bridged with fluorescence compounds and used as sensors for nitroaromatic compounds. The sensor performance depended on both the film structure and the mode of fluorophore attachment. The best films showed high quenching rates and were stable during long time storage. The films can potentially be incorporated in portable sensing devices.

Vu, Anh D.

121

Orthopedic Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program was designed as a pilot project to establish new techniques for making orthopedic prosthetic materials. The basic idea was to make metal supported ceramic composites, so that the metal provided strength (and an element of ductility) and the re...

B. J. Shaw

1972-01-01

122

Introduction to Advanced Composite Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation provides an introduction to composite materials and curriculum guidelines. Topics include applications of composites, advantages and disadvantages, and advice for developing a curriculum on advanced composite materials. This document is available for download as a PDF.

Stuart, Joe

2012-10-15

123

Engineering of nanostructured carbon materials with electron or ion beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiating solids with energetic particles is usually thought to introduce disorder, normally an undesirable phenomenon. But recent experiments on electron or ion irradiation of various nanostructures demonstrate that it can have beneficial effects and that electron or ion beams may be used to tailor the structure and properties of nanosystems with high precision. Moreover, in many cases irradiation can lead to self-organization or self-assembly in nanostructures. In this review we survey recent advances in the rapidly evolving area of irradiation effects in nanostructured materials, with particular emphasis on carbon systems because of their technological importance and the unique ability of graphitic networks to reconstruct under irradiation. We dwell not only on the physics behind irradiation of nanostructures but also on the technical applicability of irradiation for nanoengineering of carbon and other systems.

Krasheninnikov, A. V.; Banhart, F.

2007-10-01

124

Synthesis and chemical modification of carbon nanostructures for materials applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the structure, chemical reactivities, electromagnetic response, and materials properties of various carbon nanostructures, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphite, and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Efficient production and modification of these unique structures, each with their own distinct properties, will make them more accessible for applications in electronics, materials, and biology. A method is reported

Amanda Lynn Higginbotham

2009-01-01

125

Nanostructure materials for biosensing and bioimaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of the thesis our work on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor will be presented. It will begin with understanding the working principle of SPR sensing technology and the basic concept of SPR biosensing. In SPR technology, there are different coupling schemes to excite surface plasmons such as prism coupler, grating coupler and waveguide coupler. Our setup will be based on the attenuated total reflection (ATR) prism coupling configuration. A gold sensing film is attached to one face of the prism. The samples are flowing over the gold surface and the light source is directed to the prism side. The reflected beam containing SPR information is collected and analyzed. SPR biosensors have become powerful tools in biological and chemical sensing application because of their capability of real-time monitoring and label-free sensing. Quantitative measurements such as the binding kinetics and the binding affinity between two biomolecules can be readily calculated from the SPR sensorgram. In our design, SPR phase will be monitored using photoelastic modulation (PEM) technique. The PEM is used to produce a modulation signal so that the phase quantity can be extracted by measuring the relative amplitudes of the harmonic signals. Since this system contains no moving component and only single beam and single detector are used, precise component alignment, which may be troublesome in making the setup compact and robust, can be eliminated. In order to demonstrate the operation of the proposed approach, two experiments were performed. The first one was to measure the refractive index change caused by varying the concentration of glycerin-water mixtures. The second one was to monitor the binding reactions between biotin and streptavidin--BSA complex at the sensor surface. Recently, the use of metallic nanoparticle on SPR platform has received great attention due to the capability of sensitivity enhancement. Although the mechanism of the enhancement is still not fully understand, three possible factors are concluded after systematic researches: (i) an increase of the absolute mass in each binding event, (ii) an increase in the bulk refractive index of the analyte, and (iii) coupling between the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metallic nanoparticles and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the sensing film. Indeed, the role of plasmonic coupling in sensitivity enhancement is still an open question. In order to obtain a better understanding of this phenomenon, at the end of part I, extended studies were performed to investigate how the LSPR properties of metallic nanoparticle labels correlate with the enhancement factor. For this purpose, gold nanorods (Au-NRs) were chosen as the amplification labels because of the easy tunability of LSPR peak of Au-NR. After reading the "Result and Discussion" section, the readers will have better understanding of "plasmonic coupling" between the sensing film and the metallic labels with suitable operating laser source. In the second part of the thesis, the bioimaging part, the application of nanostructure materials in live cancer cell imaging and small animal imaging were demonstrated. There are different types of imaging technique available in laboratories and clinics: optical imaging, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), thermography and ultrasound imaging. Although such imaging techniques have been well developed and used over a decade, improving the sensitivity, enhancing the contrast, decreasing the acquisition time and reducing the toxicity of the contrast agent are highly desirable. For optical imaging, the scientists discovered that the use of near infrared fluorescence materials can assist the surgeon to locate the tumor, the nerve and the lymph node more accurately. For CT scan, the use of Au-NR as the contrast agent can improve the sensitivity. Iron oxide nanoparticle or gadolinium ion containing nanoparticle can greatly enhance the contrast of MRI. On the one hand, concrete effort

Law, Wing Cheung

126

Nanostructured Silicon as an Active Optoelectronic Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This review paper charts the progress made over the last decade in realising a variety of optoelectronic devices using nanostructured\\u000a porous silicon. Although waveguides, modulators and detectors are covered, emphasis is given to visible light-emitting diodes\\u000a whose efficiency is now 1%. Although their performance is still inadequate for optical interconnect applications, two promising\\u000a approaches for further major advances are concluded

L. T. Canham

127

Preparation and properties on hollow nano-structured smoke material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the weapon systems of laser guidance and infrared (IR) imaging guidance have been widely used in modern warfare because of their high precision and strong anti-interference. Notwithstanding, military smoke, as a rapid and effective passive jamming means, can effectively counteract the attack of enemy precision-guided weapons by scattering and absorbability. Conventional smoke has good attenuation capability only to visible light (0.4-0.76 ?m), but hardly any effect to other electromagnetic wave band. The weapon systems of laser guidance and IR imaging guidance usually work in broad band, including near IR (1-3 ?m), middle IR (3-5 ?m), far IR (8-14 ?m), and so on. Accordingly, exploiting and using new efficient obscurant materials, which is one of the important factors that develop smoke technology, have become a focus and attracted more interests around the world. Then nano-structured materials that are developing very quickly have turned into our new choice. Hollow nano-structured materials (HNSM) have many special properties because of their nano-size wall-thickness and sub-micron grain-size. After a lot of HNSM were synthesized in this paper, their physical and chemical properties, including grain size, phase composition, microstructure, optical properties and resistivity were tested and analysed. Then the experimental results of the optical properties showed that HNSM exhibit excellent wave-absorbing ability in ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions. On the basis of the physicochemmical properties, HNSM are firstly applied in smoke technology field. And the obscuration performance of HNSM smoke was tested in smoke chamber. The testing waveband included 1.06?m and 10.6?m laser, 3-5?m and 8-14?m IR radiation. Then the main parameters were obtained, including the attenuation rate, the transmission rate, the mass extinction coefficient, the efficiency obscuring time, and the sedimentation rate, etc. The main parameters of HNSM smoke were contrasted in detail with graphite powder smoke agent. The results showed that HNSM smoke possesses better obscuration capability compared with the smoke performance of conventional materials (such as HC, RP, oil, carbon black, and graphite powder). Therefore, they are new smoke obscurant materials which can effectively interfere with broadband electromagnetic radiation, including 1.06 ?m and 10.6 ?m laser, 3-5 ?m and 8-14 ?m IR waveband.

Liu, Xiang-cui; Dai, Meng-yan; Fang, Guo-feng; Shi, Wei-dong; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Hai-feng; Zhang, Tong

2013-09-01

128

New composite thermoelectric materials for energy harvesting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of using nanostructured composite materials to enhance the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT relative to that for their counterpart homogeneous alloyed bulk crystalline materials of similar chemical composition is presented in general terms. Specific applications are made to the Si-Ge and Bi2--xSbxTe3 systems for use in high-temperature power generation and cooling applications. The scientific advantages of the nanocomposite approach for the simultaneous increase in the power factor and decrease in the thermal conductivity are emphasized insofar as their simultaneous occurrence is enabled by the independent control of these physical properties through the special properties of their nanostructures. Also emphasized are the practical advantages of using such bulk samples both for thermoelectric property measurements and for providing a straightforward path to scaling up the materials synthesis and integration of such nanostructured materials into practical thermoelectric powergeneration and cooling modules and devices.

Dresselhaus, M. S.; Chen, G.; Ren, Z. F.; Dresselhaus, G.; Henry, A.; Fleurial, J.-P.

2009-04-01

129

Universal method for creating optically active nanostructures on layered materials.  

PubMed

The ability to form patterned surface nanostructures has revolutionized the miniaturization of electronics and led to the discovery of emergent behaviors unseen in macroscopic systems. However, the creation of such nanostructures typically requires multiple processing steps, a high level of technical expertise, and highly sophisticated equipment. In this work, we have discovered a simple method to create nanostructures with control size and positioning in a single processing step using a standard scanning electron microscope. The technique can be applied to a wide range of systems and was successful in every layered material tested. Patterned nanostructures were formed on graphite, topological insulators, novel superconductors, and layered transition metal dichalcogenides. The nanostructures were formed via the incorporation of carbon nanoparticles into the samples in a novel form of intercalation. It appears that the electron beam interacts with residual organic molecules available on the sample surface, making it possible for them to intercalate between the layers in their crystal structure and break down into carbon. These carbon nanoparticles have strong broad-wavelength interactions in the visible light range, making these nanostructures easily detectable in an optical microscope and of interest for a range of nanoscale electro-optical devices. PMID:24793140

Kidd, Timothy E; O'Shea, Aaron; Beck, Benjamin; He, Rui; Delaney, Conor; Shand, Paul M; Strauss, Laura H; Stollenwerk, Andrew; Hurley, Noah; Spurgeon, Kyle; Gu, Genda

2014-05-27

130

Synthesis of nanostructured materials in inverse miniemulsions and their applications.  

PubMed

Polymeric nanogels, inorganic nanoparticles, and organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles can be prepared via the inverse miniemulsion technique. Hydrophilic functional cargos, such as proteins, DNA, and macromolecular fluoresceins, may be conveniently encapsulated in these nanostructured materials. In this review, the progress of inverse miniemulsions since 2000 is summarized on the basis of the types of reactions carried out in inverse miniemulsions, including conventional free radical polymerization, controlled/living radical polymerization, polycondensation, polyaddition, anionic polymerization, catalytic oxidation reaction, sol-gel process, and precipitation reaction of inorganic precursors. In addition, the applications of the nanostructured materials synthesized in inverse miniemulsions are also reviewed. PMID:24056795

Cao, Zhihai; Ziener, Ulrich

2013-11-01

131

Spark Plasma Sintering for Nanostructured Smart Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This AFOSR core program on Active composites is aimed to study analytically and experimentally new types of active composites, ferromagnetic shape memory alloy(FSMA) composite, shape memory alloy(SMA) fiber/shape memory polymer(SMP) composite, and piezoel...

M. Taya O. C. Namli T. Howie

2009-01-01

132

Erosion of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for describing the response of uncoated and coated fiber reinforced composites subjected to repeated impingements of liquid (rain) droplets is presented. The model is based on the concept that fatigue is the dominant factor in the erosion process. Algebraic expressions are provided which give the incubation period, the rate of mass loss past the incubation period, and the total mass loss of the material during rain impact. The influence of material properties on erosion damage and the protection offered by different coatings are discussed and the use of the model in the design in the design of structures and components is illustrated.

Springer, G. S.

1980-01-01

133

Scaling laws for van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials.  

PubMed

Van der Waals interactions have a fundamental role in biology, physics and chemistry, in particular in the self-assembly and the ensuing function of nanostructured materials. Here we utilize an efficient microscopic method to demonstrate that van der Waals interactions in nanomaterials act at distances greater than typically assumed, and can be characterized by different scaling laws depending on the dimensionality and size of the system. Specifically, we study the behaviour of van der Waals interactions in single-layer and multilayer graphene, fullerenes of varying size, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. As a function of nanostructure size, the van der Waals coefficients follow unusual trends for all of the considered systems, and deviate significantly from the conventionally employed pairwise-additive picture. We propose that the peculiar van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials could be exploited to control their self-assembly. PMID:23955481

Gobre, Vivekanand V; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

2013-01-01

134

Scaling laws for van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials  

PubMed Central

Van der Waals interactions have a fundamental role in biology, physics and chemistry, in particular in the self-assembly and the ensuing function of nanostructured materials. Here we utilize an efficient microscopic method to demonstrate that van der Waals interactions in nanomaterials act at distances greater than typically assumed, and can be characterized by different scaling laws depending on the dimensionality and size of the system. Specifically, we study the behaviour of van der Waals interactions in single-layer and multilayer graphene, fullerenes of varying size, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. As a function of nanostructure size, the van der Waals coefficients follow unusual trends for all of the considered systems, and deviate significantly from the conventionally employed pairwise-additive picture. We propose that the peculiar van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials could be exploited to control their self-assembly.

Gobre, Vivekanand V.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

2013-01-01

135

Fabrication and Material Properties of Nanostructured Polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High molecular weight polymers can be formed into nanostructures that are of the same scale as the molecule itself. Our goal is to design an easy fabrication method for polymer nanopillars, and test their mechanical properties to determine the effects of polymer molecular confinement. We developed an ALD- assisted molding technique utilizing a sacrificial alumina layer that can be used to fabricate polystyrene nanopillars without damage during demolding. Pillars made with this technique were tested using a QCR- enhanced AFM device, but more research is needed to determine the effects of molecular confinement in the pillars.

Schauer, Evan

136

Nanostructured thermoelectric materials and optical method for thermal conductivity measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A good thermoelectric material has large electrical conductivity, large Seebeck coefficient, and small thermal conductivity. Among the different techniques to achieve small thermal conductivity is the nanostructuring method. In a nanostructured material the thermal conductivity decreases due to the increased interfacial scattering of phonons. In most thermoelectric materials, due to the larger mean free path of phonons compared with electrons, the effect of interfaces on phonon scatterings is more than on carrier scattering. Therefore, reduction of the thermal conductivity becomes possible with almost no or small change in the electrical conductivity via nanostructuring. The materials that have shown large power factor but have small efficiency due to their large thermal conductivity are good candidates for nanostructuring. For high temperature applications, several transition metal silicides have shown high power factor while they have large thermal conductivity. While silicides have been investigated in crystalline and polycrystalline form in the past, their nanostructuring had not been pursued extensively at the time that this research started. In this PhD dissertation, we have developed several nanostructured materials based on transition metal silicides. In the path to develop high temperature thermoelectric materials, synthesis, structural characterizations, thermoelectric properties measurements, and analysis of the nanostructured bulk Si1-xGex, Higher Manganese Silicide (HMS), Si0.8Ge0.2 structures with CrSi2 nanocrystallite inclusions, and nanocomposites of SiGe-FeSi2 were completed. The synthesis process parameters including powder processing and sintering parameters were derived for each material system. Model calculations for electron and phonon transport were performed in detail to explain the measured data and direct the experiments. Boron precipitation effect on thermoelectric properties of Si0.8Ge0.2 was also studied by analyzing the experimental data and through theoretical calculations. At the device level, in order to find the optimum metal contact for HMS, an extensive study was performed to find the best electrical contact for HMS thermoelectric devices. Along with thermoelectric material development, a novel ultrafast optical characterization method for thermal properties measurement and ultrafast carrier dynamics study was also developed. The designed optical system is a new pump-probe arrangement to perform both thermal properties measurement and ultrafast carrier dynamics study in one set up. The existing radial heat flow analysis for thermal properties measurement was extended to three-dimensional heat flow, which is applicable for distinguishing the xyz thermal conductivity of the anisotropic material.

Zamanipour, Zahra

137

Hybrid silicon-carbon nanostructured composites as superior anodes for lithium ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have successfully fabricated a hybrid silicon-carbon nanostructured composite with large area (about 25.5 in2) in a simple fashion using a conventional sputtering system. When used as the anode in lithium ion batteries, the uniformly\\u000a deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si) works as the active material to store electrical energy, and the pre-coated carbon nanofibers\\u000a (CNFs) serve as both the electron conducting

Po-Chiang Chen; Jing Xu; Haitian Chen; Chongwu Zhou

2011-01-01

138

Nano-structured Oxides: A Materials Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work in the author's laboratory has led to the development of surface modification techniques for the fabrication of nanostructures that are inexpensive, highly scalable and do not require use of lithography. One such process creates nanofiber arrays of single crystal TiO2 by hydrogen containing gas phase reaction. On the other hand, on Au-catalyzed (001) surface of TiO2, oriented nano-fibers can be grown with <001> and <110> alignments using H2/N2 heat treatment. H2/N2 heat treatment was also used to grow nanofibers on polycrystalline SnO2 in regions of the sample coated with gold, showing directional growth on grains with crystal facets. We developed yet another process to create nanofibers of TiO2 on Ti metal and Ti alloys via oxidation under a limited supply of oxygen. Finally, this article describes another unique nano-structure created during thermal annealing of an oxide on top of another oxide substrate that self-assembles along a preferred direction of the substrate.

Akbar, Sheikh Ali

2011-10-01

139

Advanced composite materials and processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

Baucom, Robert M.

1991-01-01

140

Synthesis and chemical modification of carbon nanostructures for materials applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores the structure, chemical reactivities, electromagnetic response, and materials properties of various carbon nanostructures, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphite, and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Efficient production and modification of these unique structures, each with their own distinct properties, will make them more accessible for applications in electronics, materials, and biology. A method is reported for controlling the permittivity from 1--1000 MHz of SWCNT-polymer composites (0.5 wt%) for radio frequency applications including passive RF antenna structures and EMI shielding. The magnitude of the real permittivity varied between 20 and 3.3, decreasing as higher fractions of functionalized-SWCNTs were added. The microwave absorbing properties and subsequent heating of carbon nanotubes were used to rapidly cure ceramic composites. With less than 1 wt% carbon nanotube additives and 30--40 W of directed microwave power (2.45 GHz), bulk composite samples reached temperatures above 500°C within 1 min. Graphite oxide (GO) polymer nanocomposites were developed at 1, 5, and 10 wt% for the purpose of evaluating the flammability reduction and materials properties of the resulting systems. Microscale oxygen consumption calorimetry revealed that addition of GO reduced the total heat release in all systems, and GO-polycarbonate composites demonstrated very fast self-extinguishing times in vertical open flame tests. A simple solution-based oxidative process using potassium permanganate in sulfuric acid was developed for producing nearly 100% yield of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) by lengthwise cutting and unraveling of MWCNT sidewalls. Subsequent chemical reduction of the GNRs resulted in restoration of electrical conductivity. The GNR synthetic conditions were investigated in further depth, and an improved method which utilized a two-acid reaction medium was found to produce GNRs with fewer defects and/or holes on the basal plane and higher aspect ratio. Two different covalent functionalization methods for GNRs based on diazonium chemistry were developed. The resulting functionalized GNRs (f-GNRs) are readily soluble in organic solvents which increase their solution processability. The f-GNRs were also found to be in a reduced state, with minimal sp2 carbon disruption, while also keeping the ribbon shape.

Higginbotham, Amanda Lynn

141

Arc Plasma Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials: Techniques and Innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arc plasma aided synthesis of nanostructured materials has the potential of producing complex nano phase structures in bulk quantities. Successful implementation of this potential capability to industrial scale nano generation needs establishment of a plasma parameter control regime in terms of plasma gas, flow pattern, pressure, local temperature and the plasma fields to obtain the desired nano phase structures. However,

A. K. Das; S. V. Bhoraskar; M. Kakati; Soumen Karmakar

2008-01-01

142

Intense high-order harmonics from nanostructured material  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate highly efficient, multi-muJ high-order harmonic generation from plasma containing an abundance of nano-structured material, such as nanoparticles and fullerenes. We attribute this effect to harmonic generation from neutral atoms in such particles.

T. Ozaki; L. B. Elouga Bom; R. A. Ganeev; J. Abdul-Hadi; F. Vidal

2009-01-01

143

CMOS Chemical and Biochemical Sensors using Nanostructured Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the recent progress in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) biological and chemical optical sensors using nanostructured materials is presented. Fabrication details of a xerogel based glucose sensor and a photonic bandgap based chemical vapor sensor are also demonstrated.

Sung Jin Kim; Vamsy P. Chodavarapu; A. H. Titus; Frank V. Bright; Venu Govindaraju; A. N. Cartwright

2007-01-01

144

Liquid Helium Composite Regenerator Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cryogenic composite material designed for application to gap regenerators in cyclic cryocoolers operating below 10 K is investigated. The material is a composite of helium self-loaded into a metallic extended surface structure whose dispersion form is s...

T. R. Knowles

1987-01-01

145

Multifunctional Autonomically Healing Composite Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A composite material, contains a polymer, a polymerizer, a corresponding catalyst for the polymerizer, and a plurality of capsules. The polymerizer is in the capsules. The composite material is self-healing.

J. S. Moore N. R. Sottos P. H. Geubelle S. R. Sriram S. R. White

2005-01-01

146

Nanostructured Materials Developed for Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been considerable investigation recently regarding the potential for the use of nanomaterials and nanostructures to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. Efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center have involved the development and use of quantum dots and carbon nanotubes to enhance inorganic and organic cell efficiencies. Theoretical results have shown that a photovoltaic device with a single intermediate band of states resulting from the introduction of quantum dots offers a potential efficiency of 63.2 percent. A recent publication extended the intermediate band theory to two intermediate bands and calculated a limiting efficiency of 71.7 percent. The enhanced efficiency results from converting photons of energy less than the band gap of the cell by an intermediate band. The intermediate band provides a mechanism for low-energy photons to excite carriers across the energy gap by a two-step process.

Bailey, Sheila G.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Fahey, Stephen D.; Gennett, Thomas; Tin, Padetha

2004-01-01

147

Nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering*  

PubMed Central

Research in the areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering has witnessed tremendous progress in recent years due to their unlimited potential to improve human health. Meanwhile, the development of nanotechnology provides opportunities to characterize, manipulate and organize matter systematically at the nanometer scale. Biomaterials with nano-scale organizations have been used as controlled release reservoirs for drug delivery and artificial matrices for tissue engineering. Drug-delivery systems can be synthesized with controlled composition, shape, size and morphology. Their surface properties can be manipulated to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. The limitations of current drug delivery systems include suboptimal bioavailability, limited effective targeting and potential cytotoxicity. Promising and versatile nano-scale drug-delivery systems include nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanotubes, nanogels and dendrimers. They can be used to deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of biomacromolecules, such as peptides, proteins, plasmid DNA and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. Whereas traditional tissue-engineering scaffolds were based on hydrolytically degradable macroporous materials, current approaches emphasize the control over cell behaviors and tissue formation by nano-scale topography that closely mimics the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). The understanding that the natural ECM is a multifunctional nanocomposite motivated researchers to develop nanofibrous scaffolds through electrospinning or self-assembly. Nanocomposites containing nanocrystals have been shown to elicit active bone growth. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely related fields. In fact, tissue engineering can be viewed as a special case of drug delivery where the goal is to accomplish controlled delivery of mammalian cells. Controlled release of therapeutic factors in turn will enhance the efficacy of tissue engineering. From a materials point of view, both the drug-delivery vehicles and tissue-engineering scaffolds need to be biocompatible and biodegradable. The biological functions of encapsulated drugs and cells can be dramatically enhanced by designing biomaterials with controlled organizations at the nanometer scale. This review summarizes the most recent development in utilizing nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

GOLDBERG, MICHAEL; LANGER, ROBERT; JIA, XINQIAO

2010-01-01

148

Current status of nanostructured tungsten-based materials development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured tungsten (W)-based materials offer many advantages for use as plasma facing materials and components exposed to heavy thermal loads combined with irradiation with high-energy neutron and low-energy ion. This paper first presents the recent progress in nanostructured toughened, fine grained, recrystallized W materials. Thermal desorption spectrometry apparatus equipped with an ion gun has been installed in the radiation controlled area in our Center at Tohoku University to systematically investigate the effects of displacement damage due to high-energy neutron irradiation on hydrogen isotope retention in connection with the nano- or micro-structures in W-based materials. In this paper, the effects of high-energy heavy ion irradiation on deuterium retention in W with different microstructures are described as a preliminary work with the prospective view of neutron irradiation effects.

Kurishita, H.; Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H.; Sakamoto, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K.; Okano, H.; Watanabe, H.; Yoshida, N.; Torikai, Y.; Hatano, Y.; Takida, T.; Kato, M.; Ikegaya, A.; Ueda, Y.; Hatakeyama, M.; Shikama, T.

2014-04-01

149

Nanostructured functional materials prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is the most extensively studied controlled\\/living radical polymerization (CRP) method, with the interest originating primarily in its simplicity and broad applicability, and in the ability to prepare previously inaccessible well-defined nanostructured polymeric materials. This review illustrates the range of well-defined advanced functional materials that can be prepared by ATRP. We detail the precise synthesis of

Krzysztof Matyjaszewski; Nicolay V. Tsarevsky

2009-01-01

150

New nano-structured and interactive supported composite electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution with partially replaced platinum loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is concerned with preparation and characterization of nano-structured composite electrocatalytic material for hydrogen evolution based on CoPt hyper d-metallic phase and anatase (TiO2) hypo d-phase, both deposited on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a carbon substrate. The main goal is partially or completely to replace Pt as the electrocatalytic material. Four electrocatalytic systems were prepared with common composition

Perica Paunovi?; Ivan Radev; Aleksandar T. Dimitrov; Orce Popovski; Elefteria Lefterova; Evelina Slavcheva; Svetomir Hadži Jordanov

2009-01-01

151

Novel thermal properties of nanostructured materials.  

SciTech Connect

A new class of heat transfer fluids, termed nanofluids, has been developed by suspending nanocrystalline particles in liquids. Due to the orders-of-magnitude larger thermal conductivities of solids compared to those of liquids such as water, significantly enhanced thermal properties are obtained with nanofluids. For example, an approximately 20% improvement in effective thermal conductivity is observed when 5 vol.% CuO nanoparticles are added to water. Even more importantly, the heat transfer coefficient of water under dynamic flow conditions is increased more than 15% with the addition of less than 1 vol.% CuO particles. The use of nanofluids could impact many industrial sectors, including transportation, energy supply and production, electronics, textiles, and paper production by, for example, decreasing pumping power needs or reducing heat exchanger sizes. In contrast to the enhancement in effective thermal transport rates that is obtained when nanoparticles are suspended in fluids, nanocrystalline coatings are expected to exhibit reduced thermal conductivities compared to coarse-grained coatings. Reduced thermal conductivities are predicted to arise because of a reduction in the mean free path of phonons due to presence of grain boundaries. This behavior, combined with improved mechanical properties, makes nanostructured zirconia coatings excellent candidates for future applications as thermal barriers. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films are being produced by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques. Preliminary results have indicated that the thermal conductivity is reduced by approximately a factor-of-two at room temperature in 10 nm grain-sized YSZ compared to coarse-grained or single crystal YSZ.

Eastman, J. A.

1999-01-13

152

Applications of ultrasound to the synthesis of nanostructured materials.  

PubMed

Recent advances in nanostructured materials have been led by the development of new synthetic methods that provide control over size, morphology, and nano/microstructure. The utilization of high intensity ultrasound offers a facile, versatile synthetic tool for nanostructured materials that are often unavailable by conventional methods. The primary physical phenomena associated with ultrasound that are relevant to materials synthesis are cavitation and nebulization. Acoustic cavitation (the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of bubbles in a liquid) creates extreme conditions inside the collapsing bubble and serves as the origin of most sonochemical phenomena in liquids or liquid-solid slurries. Nebulization (the creation of mist from ultrasound passing through a liquid and impinging on a liquid-gas interface) is the basis for ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) with subsequent reactions occurring in the heated droplets of the mist. In both cases, we have examples of phase-separated attoliter microreactors: for sonochemistry, it is a hot gas inside bubbles isolated from one another in a liquid, while for USP it is hot droplets isolated from one another in a gas. Cavitation-induced sonochemistry provides a unique interaction between energy and matter, with hot spots inside the bubbles of approximately 5000 K, pressures of approximately 1000 bar, heating and cooling rates of >10(10) K s(-1); these extraordinary conditions permit access to a range of chemical reaction space normally not accessible, which allows for the synthesis of a wide variety of unusual nanostructured materials. Complementary to cavitational chemistry, the microdroplet reactors created by USP facilitate the formation of a wide range of nanocomposites. In this review, we summarize the fundamental principles of both synthetic methods and recent development in the applications of ultrasound in nanostructured materials synthesis. PMID:20401929

Bang, Jin Ho; Suslick, Kenneth S

2010-03-12

153

Bioapplicable, nanostructured and nanocomposite materials for catalytic and biosensor applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel, nanostructured porous nanocomposites and bioapplicable materials have been successfully developed for catalytic, sensor and reinforcement applications. For the first time, porous silver nanoparticle/silica composites were synthesized using a simple method of silver nitrate reduction. The glucose template present inside the mesoporous silica material reduces silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles. The particles thus formed are lodged inside the porous silica matrix. Organic/inorganic hybrid nanofiber mats were fabricated for the first time using the electrospinning technology. The fiber mats have high surface area and good mechanical properties. These fibers mats are then used in reinforcement applications, by utilizing them as fillers in dental materials. The mechanical properties of dental materials thus produced are seen to improve dramatically with the addition of just a small amount of fiber sample. An in-situ method was used to produce silver and gold nanoparticles inside porous silica nanofibers via electrospinning. Metal salts used to produce the nanoparticles are mixed with silica and polymer precursors and spun into fibers. The fibers are then heat-treated to reduce the metal salt into metal nanoparticles. The factors affecting the size and distribution of the nanoparticles inside the porous fibers were studied. The fibers thus produced were then tested for catalytic activity. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme was also encapsulated in porous silica nanofibers via electrospinning. The fibers showed significant enhancement in enzyme activity, which was three orders of magnitude greater than that of the non-templated, conventional microporous silica materials. The factors affecting the enzyme activity, like pH, temperature, etc., was also studied. The response time of the encapsulated enzymes to the external reagents was ˜ 2 to 3 seconds, showing high efficiency of the fibers to sensor applications. Finally, the encapsulation and alignment of quantum dots in silica nanofibers for sensor and telecommunication applications was attempted. MnO2 and several enzymes encapsulated porous silica samples were also synthesized for universities and companies as part of the ongoing collaborative research work for various catalytic applications. All the above-mentioned products were then characterized in detail.

Patel, Alpa C.

154

Nanostructured materials and sensors for environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses two challenges related to the reactivity of bimetallic nanostructures and the selectivity of electrochemical ion sensors. It describes the synthesis of a new class of bimetallic nanotubes based on Pd/Fe and demonstrates their efficacy in the dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls. The as-prepared Pd/Fe bimetallic nanotubes demonstrate higher efficiency of dechlorination of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) than Pd/Fe nanoparticles. Further, the effect of various conditions, such as the pH of the reaction solution, temperature, and palladium loading on the efficiency of the dechlorination of PCBs was studied. Macrocyclic ionophores with preorganized central cavity have demonstrated high selectivity to their target ions. Halide-selective electrodes were developed based on triazolophanes, a new class of macrocyclic host molecules with a preorganized central cavity that interacts through hydrogen bonding with spherical anions, such as chloride, bromide, and iodide. Specifically, a phenylene-based triazolophane that interacts through CH hydrogen bonding with halides was used to prepare an ion sensor with enhanced selectivity to chloride. Further, the triazolophane-based sensor showed anti-Hofmeister selectivity to bromide with a submicromolar detection limit. Moreover, a highly selective and robust iodide sensor was prepared based on a pyridyl-containing triazolophane. Introducing two pyridyl moieties into the cavity of the triazolophane adds a dipole-promoted driving force that combines with hydrogen bonding to favor the formation of 2:1 sandwich complexes around halides. The new triazolophane-based electrode showed anti-Hofmeister selectivity toward iodide with a sub-micromolar detection limit. The stoichiometry of complexation and the stability constants with different halides were evaluated using a segmented sandwich membranes method. Finally, a new approach was explored to fine-tune the selectivity of ISEs based on the effect of temperature on selectivity coefficients. This effect was quantified for ion-exchangers as well as neutral carrier ionophores. Monensin acid showed an enhancement of the selectivity with increasing the temperature from 20 to 50 °C, while monensin decyl ester and monensin methyl ester showed an insignificant change in the same temperature range. Keywords: Palladium/Iron Nanotubes, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Dechlorination, Electrochemical sensors, Macrocyclic Ionophores

Zahran, Elsayed Mohamed Elsayed

155

Equivalent-Continuum Modeling of Nano-Structured Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been developed for modeling structure-property relationships of nano-structured materials. This method serves as a link between computational chemistry and solid mechanics by substituting discrete molecular structures with an equivalent-continuum model. It has been shown that this substitution may be accomplished by equating the vibrational potential energy of a nano-structured material with the strain energy of representative truss and continuum models. As an important example with direct application to the development and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes, the model has been applied to determine the effective continuum geometry of a graphene sheet. A representative volume element of the equivalent-continuum model has been developed with an effective thickness. This effective thickness has been shown to be similar to, but slightly smaller than, the interatomic spacing of graphite.

Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Thomas S.; Nicholson, Lee M.; Wise, Kristopher E.

2001-01-01

156

Nanostructured electrocatalyst for fuel cells : silica templated synthesis of Pt/C composites.  

SciTech Connect

Platinum-based electrocatalysts are currently required for state-of-the-art fuel cells and represent a significant portion of the overall fuel cell cost. If fuel cell technology is to become competitive with other energy conversion technologies, improve the utilization of precious metal catalysts is essential. A primary focus of this work is on creating enhanced nanostructured materials which improve precious-metal utilization. The goal is to engineer superior electrocatalytic materials through the synthesis, development and investigation of novel templated open frame structures synthesized in an aerosol-based approach. Bulk templating methods for both Pt/C and Pt-Ru composites are evaluated in this study and are found to be limited due to the fact that the nanostructure is not maintained throughout the entire sample. Therefore, an accurate examination of structural effects was previously impossible. An aerosol-based templating method of synthesizing nanostructured Pt-Ru electrocatalysts has been developed wherein the effects of structure can be related to electrocatalytic performance. The aerosol-based templating method developed in this work is extremely versatile as it can be conveniently modified to synthesize alternative materials for other systems. The synthesis method was able to be extended to nanostructured Pt-Sn for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. Nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were evaluated in a unique approach tailored to electrocatalytic studies in alkaline media. At low temperatures, nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were found to have significantly higher ethanol oxidation activity than a comparable nanostructured Pt catalyst. At higher temperatures, the oxygen-containing species contribution likely provided by Sn is insignificant due to a more oxidized Pt surface. The importance of the surface coverage of oxygen-containing species in the reaction mechanism is established in these studies. The investigations in this work present original studies of anion exchange ionomers as entrapment materials for rotating disc electrode (RDE) studies in alkaline media. Their significance is linked to the development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with the same ionomer for a KOH-free alkaline fuel cell (AFC).

Stechel, Ellen Beth; Switzer, Elise E.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov; Cornelius, Christopher James; Hibbs, Michael R.

2007-09-01

157

Giant field enhancement and resonant wavelength shift through a composite nanostructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a kind of nanostructure composed of a metallic nanosphere pair and a rectangle nanoaperture, which can dramatically enhance the localized optical near-field up to 2100 times larger than the incident optical field. The FEM calculation method was used to investigate the enhancement factors and the coupling effects of different nanostructures. When the composite nanostructures are periodically arranged, the resonance peak can be varied from 560 nm to 760 nm and the electric field enhancement is about 37 percent larger than that of single composite nanostructure. We attribute these phenomena to two-step confinement of the optical electric field and the coupling effect of the composite nanostructures. Both enhancement factors of single and periodic composite nanostructures are sufficient for single molecule detection.

Chen, Qingquan; Zuo, Yiping; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Pan, Leiting; Yao, Jianghong; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Jingjun

2014-06-01

158

Equivalent-Continuum Modeling of Nano-Structured Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for modeling structure-property relationships of nano-stmcturedmaterials. This method serves as a link between computational chemistry and solid mechanicsby substituting discrete molecular structures with an equivalent-continuum model. It has beenshown that this substitution may be accomplished by equating the vibrational potential energy ofa nano-structured material with the strain energy of representative truss and continuum models.As an

Gregory M. Odegard; Thomas S. Gates; Lee M. Nicholson

2001-01-01

159

Nanostructured cathode materials for alkaline and lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

US Nanocorp, Inc. is pioneering the synthesis of nanostructured active battery materials by a novel aqueous solution reaction (ASR) process that is inherently low cost and scalable to volume production. Strategies for the production of high energy content battery electrodes are discussed. Focus areas include Ni(OH)2, both pure and Al-doped and ?-MnO2 for rechargeable alkaline batteries as well as the

D. E. Reisner; Jinxiang Daib; Rongde Gea; Meidong Wanga; Hui Yea; D. Xiao; A. J. Salkind

1999-01-01

160

Gas-mediated charged particle beam processing of nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas mediated processing under a charged particle (electron or ion) beam enables direct-write, high resolution surface functionalization, chemical dry etching and chemical vapor deposition of a wide range of materials including catalytic metals, optoelectronic grade semiconductors and oxides. Here we highlight three recent developments of particular interest to the optical materials and nanofabrication communities: fabrication of self-supporting, three dimensional, fluorescent diamond nanostructures, electron beam induced deposition (EBID) of high purity materials via activated chemisorption, and post-growth purification of nanocrystalline EBID-grown platinum suitable for catalysis applications.

Lobo, C. J.; Martin, A. A.; Elbadawi, C.; Bishop, J.; Aharonovich, I.; Toth, M.

2014-03-01

161

Composite material and method for production of improved composite material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laminated composite material with improved interlaminar strength and damage tolerance having short rods distributed evenly throughout the composite material perpendicular to the laminae. Each rod is shorter than the thickness of the finished laminate, but several times as long as the thickness of each lamina. The laminate is made by inserting short rods in layers of prepreg material, and then stacking and curing prepreg material with rods inserted therethrough.

Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

162

Electron Field Emission from Nanostructured Carbon Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fabricating small structures has almost become fashionable and the rationale is that reducing one or more dimensions below some critical length changes the systems' physical properties drastically, where nanocrystalline diamond (n-D) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the class of advanced carbon materials serve model examples. Emission of electrons at room temperature - cold electron emitters - are of vital importance

Sanju Gupta

2005-01-01

163

Bulk Materials with Micro- and Nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cost-efficient method has been developed based on the combination of hydrothermal exfoliation and spark plasma sintering (SPS) to fabricate Bi0.48Sb1.52Te3 bulk material with multiscale microstructures composed of micro- and nanosized microstructures. The thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of the bulk material with multiscale microstructures were measured along the directions parallel (||) and perpendicular (?) to the SPS pressing direction. It is confirmed that the anisotropy of the electrical conductivity ( ?) and thermal conductivity ( ?) was decreased by the transformation of the microstructure from a single microscale structure to multiscale microstructures. As compared with Bi0.48Sb1.52Te3 bulk material with single microscale microstructures, the ? value of the Bi0.48Sb1.52Te3 bulk material with multiscale microstructures was significantly reduced, the ? value was slightly decreased, while the ? value was slightly increased. Thus, a maximum ZT value of 1.1 was achieved at 350 K along the direction perpendicular to the pressing direction, increased by 20%. The enhanced ZT value was mainly attributed to the significant decrease in ? induced by the multiscale microstructures. This work offers a new approach to improve TE performance by multiscale microstructural engineering.

Zhu, Wan-Ting; Zhao, Wen-Yu; Zhou, Hong-Yu; Yu, Jian; Tang, Ding-Guo; Liu, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Qing-Jie

2014-06-01

164

Application of bulk nanostructured materials in medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium alloys have been the mostly used materials of choice for medical implants. They are generally considered chemically inert, biocompatible with human tissue and resistant to corrosion by human body fluids. However the small percentages of vanadium and aluminum atoms (main alloying elements) contained in the alloy are potentially toxic. Normal wear can lead to deterioration of the implant and

V. Latysh; Gy. Krallics; I. Alexandrov; A. Fodor

2006-01-01

165

Electron Field Emission from Nanostructured Carbon Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabricating small structures has almost become fashionable and the rationale is that reducing one or more dimensions below some critical length changes the systems' physical properties drastically, where nanocrystalline diamond (n-D) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the class of advanced carbon materials serve model examples. Emission of electrons at room temperature - cold electron emitters - are of vital importance for a variety of vacuum microelectronic devices - electron microscopes, photo multipliers, X-ray generators, lamps, and flat panel displays and microwave cathodes. Electron emitters may lead to otherwise difficult to obtain advantages in performance and/or design. This is the driving force to investigate the carbon-related materials as cold cathodes. In this talk, the performance of various forms of carbon in thin film form including diamond, n-D, and vertically aligned CNTs as cold cathodes for their potential use in field emission displays (FEDs) in terms of I-V characteristics and corresponding spatial imaging will be presented. Physics based models such as, NEA, surface modification, geometric enhancement, and microstructure alteration due to particle bombardment, and doping, will be described to support the experimental observations of electron field enhancement (low turn-on voltage, high current and emission site density) and its reliability from the abovementioned carbon-related materials. Other vacuum device applications such as thermionic power generators will be mentioned briefly.

Gupta, Sanju

2005-03-01

166

Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials Determined Through Molecular Modeling Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for gains in material properties over conventional materials has motivated an effort to develop novel nanostructured materials for aerospace applications. These novel materials typically consist of a polymer matrix reinforced with particles on the nanometer length scale. In this study, molecular modeling is used to construct fully atomistic models of a carbon nanotube embedded in an epoxy polymer matrix. Functionalization of the nanotube which consists of the introduction of direct chemical bonding between the polymer matrix and the nanotube, hence providing a load transfer mechanism, is systematically varied. The relative effectiveness of functionalization in a nanostructured material may depend on a variety of factors related to the details of the chemical bonding and the polymer structure at the nanotube-polymer interface. The objective of this modeling is to determine what influence the details of functionalization of the carbon nanotube with the polymer matrix has on the resulting mechanical properties. By considering a range of degree of functionalization, the structure-property relationships of these materials is examined and mechanical properties of these models are calculated using standard techniques.

Clancy, Thomas C.; Gates, Thomas S.

2005-01-01

167

High-strength, thermally-stable nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of two technologically important precipitation-treatable alloys - Al 6061 and Inconel 718, that are deformed to large plastic strains at room temperature by machining, are presented. The strong effect of prior density of precipitates on the consequent microstructure refinement during chip formation was determined by deforming Al 6061 of different tempers to varying levels of strain, by varying the tool rake angle. Chips cut from peak-aged 6061, consisting of a fine dispersion of precipitates, produced the finest microstructure and are composed of sub-100 nm grains. On the other hand, coarser precipitate distributions in over-aged 6061 and an absence of precipitates in solution-treated 6061 resulted in much coarser microstructures. Thermal stability of such nanostructured chips with different levels of strain and precipitate distributions is analyzed by studying evolution of Vickers micro-hardness and microstructure after different heat treatments. Chips produced from the peak-aged temper and over-aged temper soften following heat treatment while those from the solution-treated state first, gain strength before softening. The results are rationalized based on prior studies of the characteristics and kinetics of precipitation and coarsening in Al-Mg-Si systems. It is then demonstrated that precipitate-stabilized nanostructured materials synthesized from a prototypical alloy system - Inconel 718, are extremely stable even after prolonged heat treatment for 240 hours at temperatures as high as one-half of the melting point. This extraordinary thermal stability is traced to the retention of a fine dispersion of precipitates in a nanostructured matrix even after extended heat treatment. It is anticipated that general design principles garnered from understanding of the causal phenomena determining strengthening and thermal stability, can lead to the development of alloy systems for the manufacture of high-strength, thermally-stable nanostructured materials.

Shankar, Ravi

168

Hierarchical Assembly of Multifunctional Oxide-based Composite Nanostructures for Energy and Environmental Applications  

PubMed Central

Composite nanoarchitectures represent a class of nanostructured entities that integrates various dissimilar nanoscale building blocks including nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanofilms toward realizing multifunctional characteristics. A broad array of composite nanoarchitectures can be designed and fabricated, involving generic materials such as metal, ceramics, and polymers in nanoscale form. In this review, we will highlight the latest progress on composite nanostructures in our research group, particularly on various metal oxides including binary semiconductors, ABO3-type perovskites, A2BO4 spinels and quaternary dielectric hydroxyl metal oxides (AB(OH)6) with diverse application potential. Through a generic template strategy in conjunction with various synthetic approaches— such as hydrothermal decomposition, colloidal deposition, physical sputtering, thermal decomposition and thermal oxidation, semiconductor oxide alloy nanowires, metal oxide/perovskite (spinel) composite nanowires, stannate based nanocompostes, as well as semiconductor heterojunction—arrays and networks have been self-assembled in large scale and are being developed as promising classes of composite nanoarchitectures, which may open a new array of advanced nanotechnologies in solid state lighting, solar absorption, photocatalysis and battery, auto-emission control, and chemical sensing.

Gao, Pu-Xian; Shimpi, Paresh; Gao, Haiyong; Liu, Caihong; Guo, Yanbing; Cai, Wenjie; Liao, Kuo-Ting; Wrobel, Gregory; Zhang, Zhonghua; Ren, Zheng; Lin, Hui-Jan

2012-01-01

169

Thermal properties of graphene and nanostructured carbon materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a rapid growth of interest by the scientific and engineering communities in the thermal properties of materials. Heat removal has become a crucial issue for continuing progress in the electronic industry, and thermal conduction in low-dimensional structures has revealed truly intriguing features. Carbon allotropes and their derivatives occupy a unique place in terms of their ability to conduct heat. The room-temperature thermal conductivity of carbon materials span an extraordinary large range -- of over five orders of magnitude -- from the lowest in amorphous carbons to the highest in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Here, I review the thermal properties of carbon materials focusing on recent results for graphene, carbon nanotubes and nanostructured carbon materials with different degrees of disorder. Special attention is given to the unusual size dependence of heat conduction in two-dimensional crystals and, specifically, in graphene. I also describe the prospects of applications of graphene and carbon materials for thermal management of electronics.

Balandin, Alexander A.

2011-08-01

170

A new approach for modeling composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing use of composite materials is due to their ability to tailor materials for special purposes, with applications evolving day by day. This is why predicting the properties of these systems from their constituents, or phases, has become so important. However, assigning macroscopical optical properties for these materials from the bulk properties of their constituents is not a straightforward task. In this research, we present a spectral analysis of three-dimensional random composite typical nanostructures using an Extension of the Discrete Dipole Approximation (E-DDA code), comparing different approaches and emphasizing the influences of optical properties of constituents and their concentration. In particular, we hypothesize a new approach that preserves the individual nature of the constituents introducing at the same time a variation in the optical properties of each discrete element that is driven by the surrounding medium. The results obtained with this new approach compare more favorably with the experiment than previous ones. We have also applied it to a non-conventional material composed of a metamaterial embedded in a dielectric matrix. Our version of the Discrete Dipole Approximation code, the EDDA code, has been formulated specifically to tackle this kind of problem, including materials with either magnetic and tensor properties.

Alcaraz de la Osa, R.; Moreno, F.; Saiz, J. M.

2013-03-01

171

A new approach to the fabrication of ``smart`` near-surface nanostructure composites  

SciTech Connect

A new method for the formation of smart near-surface nanoscale composites has been developed. In this approach, small precipitates of active phases are embedded in the near-surface region of the material that is to be modified by a combination of ion implantation and thermal processing. The dispersion, concentration, and microstructure of the nanocrystals formed in the substrate material can be tailored through a careful choice of processing parameters - making this approach well suited to high value added, high technology applications. The applicability of this approach to forming smart surfaces on otherwise inactive materials was established in the case of VO{sup 2} precipitates which were embedded in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals to create a medium suitable for optical applications--including optical data storage. Most recently, this concept has been extended to the fabrication of magnetic field sensitive nanostructured surfaces by forming magnetostrictive precipitates of materials such as Ni or RFe{sub 2} (with R = Tm, Tb, Sm) that are embedded in various single crystal oxide hosts. These nanostructured, active surface composites have been characterized using XRD, RBS, TEM, and magneto-optical techniques.

Gea, L.; Honda, S.; Boatner, L.A.; Haynes, T.E.; Sales, B.C.; Modine, F.A.; Meldrum, A.; Budai, J.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.; Beckers, L. [Forshungzentrum Juelich (Germany)

1998-01-01

172

Nanostructured metal-nanocarbon composites: Production and studying of structural and mechanical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past two decades, the design methods of nanostructured composites with hierarchical structure consisting of metal-matrix composed nanoparticles and various binding between them - so-called metal-matrix nanocomposites (MNCs) - have intensively develop. At manufacturing MNCs, numerous combinations of matrixes and additives are used. Fabrication methods are an important part of the design process for MNCs, as well. It is anticipated that bulk materials with nanocarbon constituents could have high mechanical properties due to peculiarities of the nanostructure and special properties of its nano-building blocks, such as nanodiamond, fullerenes and nanotubes. In this work we report the design and properties of bulk MNCs containing nanocarbon in metal nanocrystals, and nanocarbon also serves as a binding medium filling interfaces. These works were conducted within 2007÷2012 in TISNCM. We manufactured MNCs by mechanical alloying (high energy ball milling) of the parent materials, such as metals (Fe, Steels, Al, Al-alloys, Cu, W) and refractory carbides (WC, ZrC, TaC, TiC), with nanocarbon followed by high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) treatment. Nanocarbon (C, soot, graphite and nanodiamond) was used as an additive. New nanostructured and modified by nanocarbon bulk samples has been sintered from appropriate nanoclusters.

Prokhorov, V. M.; Blank, V. D.; Bagramov, R. H.; Perfilov, S. A.; Pivovarov, G. I.

2013-12-01

173

Fabrication of bioinspired nanostructured materials via colloidal self-assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through millions of years of evolution, nature creates unique structures and materials that exhibit remarkable performance on mechanicals, opticals, and physical properties. For instance, nacre (mother of pearl), bone and tooth show excellent combination of strong minerals and elastic proteins as reinforced materials. Structured butterfly's wing and moth's eye can selectively reflect light or absorb light without dyes. Lotus leaf and cicada's wing are superhydrophobic to prevent water accumulation. The principles of particular biological capabilities, attributed to the highly sophisticated structures with complex hierarchical designs, have been extensively studied. Recently, a large variety of novel materials have been enabled by natural-inspired designs and nanotechnologies. These advanced materials will have huge impact on practical applications. We have utilized bottom-up approaches to fabricate nacre-like nanocomposites with "brick and mortar" structures. First, we used self-assembly processes, including convective self-assembly, dip-coating, and electrophoretic deposition to form well oriented layer structure of synthesized gibbsite (aluminum hydroxide) nanoplatelets. Low viscous monomer was permeated into layered nanoplatelets and followed by photo-curing. Gibbsite-polymer composite displays 2 times higher tensile strength and 3 times higher modulus when compared with pure polymer. More improvement occurred when surface-modified gibbsite platelets were cross-linked with the polymer matrix. We observed ˜4 times higher strength and nearly 1 order of magnitude higher modulus than pure polymer. To further improve the mechanical strength and toughness of inorganicorganic nanocomposites, we exploited ultrastrong graphene oxide (GO), a single atom thick hexagonal carbon sheet with pendant oxidation groups. GO nanocomposite is made by co-filtrating GO/polyvinyl alcohol suspension on 0.2 im pore-sized membrane. It shows ˜2 times higher strength and ˜15 times higher ultimate strains than nacre and pure GO paper (also synthesized by filtration). Specifically, it exhibits ˜30 times higher fracture energy than filtrated graphene paper and nacre, ˜100 times tougher than filtrated GO paper. Besides reinforced nanocomposites, we further explored the self-assembly of spherical colloids and the templating nanofabrication of moth-eye-inspired broadband antireflection coatings. Binary crystalline structures can be easily accomplished by spin-coating double-layer nonclose-packed colloidal crystals as templates, followed by colloidal templating. The polymer matrix between self-assembled colloidal crystal has been used as a sacrificial template to define the resulting periodic binary nanostructures, including intercalated arrays of silica spheres and polymer posts, gold nanohole arrays with binary sizes, and dimple-nipple antireflection coatings. The binary-structured antireflection coatings exhibit better antireflective properties than unitary coatings. Natural optical structures and nanocomposites teach us a great deal on how to create high performance artificial materials. The bottom-up technologies developed in this thesis are scalable and compatible with standard industrial processes, promising for manufacturing high-performance materials for the benefits of human beings.

Huang, Wei-Han

174

Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) for Nanostructured Smart Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This DURIP project is aimed at establishing a new Spark Plasma Sintering(SPS) equipment by which we will be able to process a new set of nano- structured smart materials and composites; shape memory alloy(SMA) composites, ferromagnetic SMA composites, pie...

M. Taya

2006-01-01

175

Composite structural materials. [aircraft structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of filamentary composite materials in the design and construction of primary aircraft structures is considered with emphasis on efforts to develop advanced technology in the areas of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, and reliability and life prediction. The redesign of a main spar/rib region on the Boeing 727 elevator near its actuator attachment point is discussed. A composite fabrication and test facility is described as well as the use of minicomputers for computer aided design. Other topics covered include (1) advanced structural analysis methids for composites; (2) ultrasonic nondestructive testing of composite structures; (3) optimum combination of hardeners in the cure of epoxy; (4) fatigue in composite materials; (5) resin matrix characterization and properties; (6) postbuckling analysis of curved laminate composite panels; and (7) acoustic emission testing of composite tensile specimens.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

1980-01-01

176

Vibrational damping of composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to develop new methods of vibrational damping in polymeric composite materials along with expanding the knowledge of currently used vibrational damping methods. A new barrier layer technique that dramatically increased damping in viscoelastic damping materials that interacted with the composite resin was created. A method for testing the shear strength of damping materials cocured in composites was developed. Directional damping materials, where the loss factor and modulus could be tailored by changing the angle, were produced and investigated. The addition of particles between composite prepreg layers to increase damping was studied. Electroviscoelastic materials that drastically changed properties such as loss factor and modulus with an applied voltage were manufactured and tested.

Biggerstaff, Janet M.

177

Evaluation of different conductive nanostructured particles as filler in smart piezoresistive composites  

PubMed Central

This work presents a comparison between three piezoresistive composite materials based on nanostructured conductive fillers in a polydimethylsiloxane insulating elastomeric matrix for sensing applications. Without any mechanical deformation upon an applied bias, the prepared composites present an insulating electric behavior, while, when subjected to mechanical load, the electric resistance is reduced exponentially. Three different metal fillers were tested: commercial nickel and copper spiky-particles and synthesized highly-pointed gold nanostars. These particles were chosen because of their high electrical conductivity and especially for the presence of nanosized sharp tips on their surface. These features generate an enhancement of the local electric field increasing the tunneling probability between the particles. Different figures of merit concerning the morphology of the fillers were evaluated and correlated with the corresponding functional response of the composite.

2012-01-01

178

Evaluation of different conductive nanostructured particles as filler in smart piezoresistive composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a comparison between three piezoresistive composite materials based on nanostructured conductive fillers in a polydimethylsiloxane insulating elastomeric matrix for sensing applications. Without any mechanical deformation upon an applied bias, the prepared composites present an insulating electric behavior, while, when subjected to mechanical load, the electric resistance is reduced exponentially. Three different metal fillers were tested: commercial nickel and copper spiky-particles and synthesized highly-pointed gold nanostars. These particles were chosen because of their high electrical conductivity and especially for the presence of nanosized sharp tips on their surface. These features generate an enhancement of the local electric field increasing the tunneling probability between the particles. Different figures of merit concerning the morphology of the fillers were evaluated and correlated with the corresponding functional response of the composite.

Stassi, Stefano; Canavese, Giancarlo; Cauda, Valentina; Marasso, Simone L.; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio

2012-06-01

179

The use of nanostructured materials and nanotechnologies for the elaboration of hollow structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of fabricating nanostructured bulk and sheet materials by the methods of multiple isothermal forging and warm\\u000a rolling are formulated. The first method, which is based on dynamic recrystallization, allows one to obtain bulk materials\\u000a with a uniform nanostructure. The second method makes it possible to transform the latter into a sheet semi-product re taining\\u000a this nanostructure. Using the

O. R. Valiakhmetov; R. M. Galeyev; V. A. Ivan’ko; R. M. Imayev; A. A. Inozemtsev; N. L. Koksharov; A. A. Kruglov; R. Ya. Lutfullin; R. R. Mulyukov; A. A. Nazarov; R. V. Safiullin; S. A. Kharin

2010-01-01

180

Invariant Properties of Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Invariant properties of the elastic coefficient matrices of laminated composite plates are presented. The use of these invariants in materials evaluation and design optimization is discussed. Simple formulas, based upon micromechanics results, are derived...

N. J. Pagano S. W. Tsai

1968-01-01

181

Hierarchical oxide-based composite nanostructures for energy, environmental, and sensing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-assembled composite nanostructures integrate various basic nano-elements such as nanoparticles, nanofilms and nanowires toward realizing multifunctional characteristics, which promises an important route with potentially high reward for the fast evolving nanoscience and nanotechnology. A broad array of hierarchical metal oxide based nanostructures have been designed and fabricated in our research group, involving semiconductor metal oxides, ternary functional oxides such as

Pu-Xian Gao; Paresh Shimpi; Wenjie Cai; Haiyong Gao; Dunliang Jian; Gregory Wrobel

2011-01-01

182

Nanostructured diamond-TiC composites with high fracture toughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the preparation of nanostructured diamond-TiC composites with high fracture toughness and high hardness starting from a ball-milled mixture of nano-sized Ti3SiC2 and submicron-sized diamond by simultaneously tuning the pressure-temperature conditions. The phase segregation of Ti3SiC2 at pressure of 5.5 GPa were investigated by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, we found that the Ti3SiC2 could decompose into nanosized TiC and amorphous Ti-Si at 600-700 °C. The subsequent reaction between diamond and Ti-Si led to an amorphous Ti-Si-C matrix in which diamond and TiC crystals are embedded. With a loading force of 98 N, the measured fracture toughness KIC and Vicker's hardness HV of the synthesized composites reach up to 14 MPa m1/2 and 45.5 GPa, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the nanocrystalline/amorphous bonding matrix could largely enhance the toughness of the brittle composites.

Wang, Haikuo; He, Duanwei; Xu, Chao; Tang, Mingjun; Li, Yu; Dong, Haini; Meng, Chuanmin; Wang, Zhigang; Zhu, Wenjun

2013-01-01

183

Novel hybrid nanostructured materials of magnetite nanoparticles and pectin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel hybrid nanostructured material comprising superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and pectin was synthesized by crosslinking with Ca 2+ ions to form spherical calcium pectinate nanostructures, referred as MCPs, which were typically found to be 100-150 nm in size in dried condition, confirmed from transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The uniform size distribution was revealed from dynamic light scattering measurement. In aqueous medium the MCPs showed swelling behavior with an average size of 400 nm. A mechanism of formation of spherical MCPs is outlined constituting a MNP-pectin interface encapsulated by calcium pectinate at the periphery, by using an array of characterization techniques like zeta potential, thermogravimetry, Fourier transformed infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MCPs were stable in simulated gastrointestinal fluid and ensured minimal loss of magnetic material. They exhibited superparamagnetic behavior, confirmed from zero field cooled and field cooled profiles and showed high saturation magnetization ( Ms) of 46.21 emu/g at 2.5 T and 300 K. Ms decreased with increasing precursor pectin concentrations, attributed to quenching of magnetic moments by formation of a magnetic dead layer on the MNPs.

Sahu, Saurabh; Dutta, Raj Kumar

2011-04-01

184

Graphene-based semiconductor and metallic nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exciting periods of scientific research are often associated with discoveries of novel materials. Such period was brought about by the successful preparation of graphene which is a 2D allotrope of carbon with remarkable electronic, optical and mechanical properties. Functional graphene-based nanocomposites have great promise for applications in various fields such as energy conversion, opteoelectronics, solar cells, sensing, catalysis and biomedicine. Herein, microwave and laser-assisted synthetic approaches were developed for decorating graphene with various semiconductor, metallic or magnetic nanostructures of controlled size and shape. We developed a scalable microwave irradiation method for the synthesis of graphene decorated with CdSe nanocrystals of controlled size, shape and crystalline structure. The efficient quenching of photoluminescence from the CdSe nanocrystals by graphene has been explored. The results provide a new approach for exploring the size-tunable optical properties of CdSe nanocrystals supported on graphene which could have important implications for energy conversion applications. We also extended this approach to the synthesis of Au-ceria-graphene nanocomposites. The synthesis is facilely conducted at mild conditions using ethylenediamine as a solvent. Results reveal significant CO conversion percentages between 60-70% at ambient temperatures. Au nanostructures have received significant attention because of the feasibility to tune their optical properties by changing size or shape. The coupling of the photothermal effects of these Au nanostructures of controlled size and shape with GO nanosheets dispersed in water is demonstrated. Our results indicate that the enhanced photothermal energy conversion of the Au-GO suspensions could to lead to a remarkable increase in the heating efficiency of the laser-induced melting and size reduction of Au nanostructures. The Au-graphene nanocomposites are potential materials for photothermolysis, thermochemical and thermomechanical applications. We developed a facile method for decorating graphene with magnetite nanocrystals of various shapes (namely, spheres, cubes and prisms) by the microwave-assisted-reduction of iron acetylacetonate in benzyl ether. The shape control was achieved by tuning the mole ratio between the oleic acid and the oleyamine. The structural, morphological and physical properties of graphene-based nanocomposites described herein were studied using standard characterization tools such as TEM, SEM, UV-Vis and PL spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, XPS and Raman spectroscopy.

Zedan, Abdallah F.

185

Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous downscaling of Si complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology and progress in high-power electronics demand more efficient heat removal techniques to handle the increasing power density and rising temperature of hot spots. For this reason, it is important to investigate thermal properties of materials at nanometer scale and identify materials with the extremely large or extremely low thermal conductivity for applications as heat spreaders or heat insulators in the next generation of integrated circuits. The thin films used in microelectronic and photonic devices need to have high thermal conductivity in order to transfer the dissipated power to heat sinks more effectively. On the other hand, thermoelectric devices call for materials or structures with low thermal conductivity because the performance of thermoelectric devices is determined by the figure of merit Z=S2sigma/K, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, K and sigma are the thermal and electrical conductivity, respectively. Nanostructured superlattices can have drastically reduced thermal conductivity as compared to their bulk counterparts making them promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials. Other applications calling for thin films with low thermal conductivity value are high-temperature coatings for engines. Thus, materials with both high thermal conductivity and low thermal conductivity are technologically important. The increasing temperature of the hot spots in state-of-the-art chips stimulates the search for innovative methods for heat removal. One promising approach is to incorporate materials, which have high thermal conductivity into the chip design. Two suitable candidates for such applications are diamond and graphene. Another approach is to integrate the high-efficiency thermoelectric elements for on-spot cooling. In addition, there is strong motivation for improved thermal interface materials (TIMs) for heat transfer from the heat-generating chip to heat-sinking units. This dissertation presents results of the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of thermal transport in the advanced engineered materials, which include thin films for thermal management of nanoscale devices, nanostructured superlattices as promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, and improved TIMs with graphene and metal particles as fillers providing enhanced thermal conductivity. The advanced engineered materials studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films on Si substrates, directly integrated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on GaN, free-standing polycrystalline graphene (PCG) films, graphene oxide (GOx) films, and "pseudo-superlattices" of the mechanically exfoliated Bi2Te3 topological insulator films, and thermal interface materials (TIMs) with graphene fillers.

Goyal, Vivek Kumar

186

Tuning the Composition and Nanostructure of Pt/Ir Films via Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templated Atomic Layer Deposition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nanostructured metal films have been widely studied for their roles in sensing, catalysis, and energy storage. In this work, we demonstrate the synthesis of compositionally controlled and nanostructured Pt/Ir films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) into po...

D. J. Comstock J. W. Elam M. C. Hersam M. J. Pellin S. T. Christensen

2010-01-01

187

High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication  

DOEpatents

A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

188

High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication  

DOEpatents

A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01

189

High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication  

DOEpatents

A high performance capacitor is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The notepad capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

1995-05-09

190

High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication  

DOEpatents

A high performance capacitor is described which is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200--300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The ``notepad`` capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

1996-01-23

191

Left Handed Materials Using Magnetic Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A left-handed composite material which includes a mixture of a ferromagnetic material and a dielectric material. The direction of magnetization of the ferromagnetic material, and its volume fraction are controlled such that the composite material exhibits...

J. Q. Xiao S. T. Chui

2003-01-01

192

Tunable nanostructured composite with built-in metallic wire-grid electrode  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors report an experimental demonstration of microwave reflection tuning in carbon nanostructure-based composites by means of an external voltage supplied to the material. DC bias voltages are imparted through a metal wire-grid. The magnitude of the reflection coefficient is measured upon oblique plane-wave incidence. Increasing the bias from 13 to 700 V results in a lowering of ?20 dB, and a “blueshift” of ?600 MHz of the material absorption resonance. Observed phenomena are ascribed to a change of the dielectric response of the carbon material. Inherently, the physical role of tunneling between nanofillers (carbon nanotubes) is discussed. Achievements aim at the realization of a tunable absorber. There are similar studies in literature that focus on tunable metamaterials operating at either optical or THz wavelengths.

Micheli, Davide, E-mail: davide.micheli@uniroma1.it; Pastore, Roberto; Marchetti, Mario [Department of Astronautics, Electrical and Energy Engineering, University of Rome Sapienza Via Eudossiana, 18, 00184 – Rome (Italy)] [Department of Astronautics, Electrical and Energy Engineering, University of Rome Sapienza Via Eudossiana, 18, 00184 – Rome (Italy); Gradoni, Gabriele [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Paint Branch Drive, MD-20740 (United States)] [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Paint Branch Drive, MD-20740 (United States)

2013-11-15

193

Tunable nanostructured composite with built-in metallic wire-grid electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the authors report an experimental demonstration of microwave reflection tuning in carbon nanostructure-based composites by means of an external voltage supplied to the material. DC bias voltages are imparted through a metal wire-grid. The magnitude of the reflection coefficient is measured upon oblique plane-wave incidence. Increasing the bias from 13 to 700 V results in a lowering of ˜20 dB, and a "blueshift" of ˜600 MHz of the material absorption resonance. Observed phenomena are ascribed to a change of the dielectric response of the carbon material. Inherently, the physical role of tunneling between nanofillers (carbon nanotubes) is discussed. Achievements aim at the realization of a tunable absorber. There are similar studies in literature that focus on tunable metamaterials operating at either optical or THz wavelengths.

Micheli, Davide; Pastore, Roberto; Gradoni, Gabriele; Marchetti, Mario

2013-11-01

194

Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

195

Synthesis of 3D nanostructured metal alloy of immiscible materials induced by megahertz-repetition femtosecond laser pulses  

PubMed Central

In this work, we have proposed a concept for the generation of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured metal alloys of immiscible materials induced by megahertz-frequency ultrafast laser pulses. A mixture of two microparticle materials (aluminum and nickel oxide) and nickel oxide microparticles coated onto an aluminum foil have been used in this study. After laser irradiation, three different types of nanostructure composites have been observed: aluminum embedded in nickel nuclei, agglomerated chain of aluminum and nickel nanoparticles, and finally, aluminum nanoparticles grown on nickel microparticles. In comparison with current nanofabrication methods which are used only for one-dimensional nanofabrication, this technique enables us to fabricate 3D nanostructured metal alloys of two or more nanoparticle materials with varied composite concentrations under various predetermined conditions. This technique can lead to promising solutions for the fabrication of 3D nanostructured metal alloys in applications such as fuel-cell energy generation and development of custom-designed, functionally graded biomaterials and biocomposites.

2012-01-01

196

Synthesis of 3D nanostructured metal alloy of immiscible materials induced by megahertz-repetition femtosecond laser pulses.  

PubMed

: In this work, we have proposed a concept for the generation of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured metal alloys of immiscible materials induced by megahertz-frequency ultrafast laser pulses. A mixture of two microparticle materials (aluminum and nickel oxide) and nickel oxide microparticles coated onto an aluminum foil have been used in this study. After laser irradiation, three different types of nanostructure composites have been observed: aluminum embedded in nickel nuclei, agglomerated chain of aluminum and nickel nanoparticles, and finally, aluminum nanoparticles grown on nickel microparticles. In comparison with current nanofabrication methods which are used only for one-dimensional nanofabrication, this technique enables us to fabricate 3D nanostructured metal alloys of two or more nanoparticle materials with varied composite concentrations under various predetermined conditions. This technique can lead to promising solutions for the fabrication of 3D nanostructured metal alloys in applications such as fuel-cell energy generation and development of custom-designed, functionally graded biomaterials and biocomposites. PMID:22999219

Kiani, Amirkianoosh; Waraich, Palneet Singh; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

2012-01-01

197

Hybrid materials based on Pd nanoparticles on carbon nanostructures for environmentally benign CC coupling chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of different nanomaterials such as metallic nanoparticles and carbon nanostructures in a new hybrid material should give rise to interesting properties that combine the advantages of each of the nanocomponents. This review highlights the latest advances in the synthetic design of these hybrid materials where carbon nanostructures act as supports as well as stabilizing agents for very reactive

Javier Guerra; María Antonia Herrero

2010-01-01

198

Ski Technology And Composite Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. Students will learn the basic engineering issues related to ski design. They will learn about composite materials and polymer materials. Also, students will create and test a composite material.

2010-01-01

199

Inelastic light scattering: a multiscale characterization approach to vibrational, structural and thermo-mechanical properties of nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inelastic light scattering is a powerful technique for the characterization of nanostructured materials, at different length scales. Raman scattering is a well established tool for materials characterization (structure, bonding and composition), through the measurement of vibrational properties. Due to phonon confinement, the Raman spectra of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials are substantially different from the spectra of the corresponding bulk, and provide useful information relative to the size and the dynamical behavior of the building blocks. In situ measurements permit the investigation of phenomena such as cluster deposition, film growth, thermal and chemical stability of nanostructures. Brillouin spectroscopy measures acoustic phonons and elastic properties of thin films and bulk materials at a mesocopic scale (hundreds of nanometers). The observation of acoustic damping and localization in nanostructured materials gives access to information such as interaction between nanoscale constituents, phase transitions, self-similar properties and meso-structure dynamical behavior. We provide a wide range of examples: characterization of the elastic properties of cluster-assembled films and ultrathin protective layers; in situ Raman spectroscopy of metastable linear carbon aggregates (carbynes) produced by cluster beams; measurement of acoustic modes in carbon nanotubes; detection of surface melting of metallic nanoparticles, by detection of confined vibrational modes.

Li Bassi, A.; Bottani, C. E.; Casari, C.; Beghi, M.

2004-03-01

200

Multifunctional upconversion-magnetic hybrid nanostructured materials: synthesis and bioapplications.  

PubMed

The combination of nanotechnology and biology has developed into an emerging research area: nano-biotechnology. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have attracted a great deal of attention in bioapplications due to their high chemical stability, low toxicity, and high signal-to-noise ratio. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are also well-established nanomaterials that offer controlled size, ability to be manipulated externally, and enhancement of contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As a result, these nanoparticles could have many applications in biology and medicine, including protein purification, drug delivery, and medical imaging. Because of the potential benefits of multimodal functionality in biomedical applications, researchers would like to design and fabricate multifunctional upconversion-magnetic hybrid nanostructured materials. The hybrid nanostructures, which combine UCNPs with MNPs, exhibit upconversion fluorescence alongside superparamagnetism property. Such structures could provide a platform for enhanced bioimaging and controlled drug delivery. We expect that the combination of unique structural characteristics and integrated functions of multifunctional upconversion-magnetic nanoparticles will attract increasing research interest and could lead to new opportunities in nano-bioapplications. PMID:23650477

Li, Xiaomin; Zhao, Dongyuan; Zhang, Fan

2013-01-01

201

Multifunctional Upconversion-Magnetic Hybrid Nanostructured Materials: Synthesis and Bioapplications  

PubMed Central

The combination of nanotechnology and biology has developed into an emerging research area: nano-biotechnology. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have attracted a great deal of attention in bioapplications due to their high chemical stability, low toxicity, and high signal-to-noise ratio. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are also well-established nanomaterials that offer controlled size, ability to be manipulated externally, and enhancement of contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As a result, these nanoparticles could have many applications in biology and medicine, including protein purification, drug delivery, and medical imaging. Because of the potential benefits of multimodal functionality in biomedical applications, researchers would like to design and fabricate multifunctional upconversion-magnetic hybrid nanostructured materials. The hybrid nanostructures, which combine UCNPs with MNPs, exhibit upconversion fluorescence alongside superparamagnetism property. Such structures could provide a platform for enhanced bioimaging and controlled drug delivery. We expect that the combination of unique structural characteristics and integrated functions of multifunctional upconversion-magnetic nanoparticles will attract increasing research interest and could lead to new opportunities in nano-bioapplications.

Li, Xiaomin; Zhao, Dongyuan; Zhang, Fan

2013-01-01

202

Nanophase and Composite Optical Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk will focus on accomplishments, current developments, and future directions of our work on composite optical materials for microgravity science and space exploration. This research spans the order parameter from quasi-fractal structures such as sol-gels and other aggregated or porous media, to statistically random cluster media such as metal colloids, to highly ordered materials such as layered media and photonic bandgap materials. The common focus is on flexible materials that can be used to produce composite or artificial materials with superior optical properties that could not be achieved with homogeneous materials. Applications of this work to NASA exploration goals such as terraforming, biosensors, solar sails, solar cells, and vehicle health monitoring, will be discussed.

2003-01-01

203

Method for making composite material  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for fabricating a composite material includes providing a free-standing carbon nanotube structure having a plurality of carbon nanotubes, introducing at least two reacting materials into the carbon nanotube structure to form a reacting layer, activating the reacting materials to grow a plurality of nanoparticles, wherein the nanoparticles are spaced from each other and coated on a surface of each of the carbon nanotubes of the carbon nanotube structure.

2012-10-30

204

Nanostructured electrode materials for Li-ion battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured materials have triggered a great excitement in recent times due to both fundamental interest as well as technological impact relevant for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Size reduction in nanocrystals leads to a variety of unexpected exciting phenomena due to enhanced surface-to-volume ratio and reduced transport length. We will consider a few examples of nanostructured electrode materials in the context of lithium batteries for achieving high storage and high rate performances: 1) LiFePO4 nanoplates synthesized using solvothermal method could store Li-ions comparable to its theoretical capacity at C/10, while at 30C, they exhibit storage capacity up to 45 mAh/g. Size reduction (~30 nm) at the b-axis favors the fast Li-ion diffusion. In addition to this, uniform ~5 nm carbon coating throughout the plates provides excellent electronically conducting path for electrons. This nano architecture enables fast insertion/extraction of both Li-ions as well as electrons; 2) Mesporous-TiO2 with high surface area (135m2/g) synthesized using soft-template method exhibits high volumetric density compared to commercial nanopowder (P25), with excellent Li-storage behavior. C16 meso-TiO2 synthesized from CTAB exhibits reversible storage capacity of 288mAh/g at 0.2C and 109 mAh/g at 30C; 3) Zero strain Li4Ti5O12 anode material has been synthesized using several wet chemical routes. The best condition has been optimized to achieve storage capability close to theoretical limit of 175mAh/g at C/10. At 10C, we could retain lithium storage up to 88 mAh/g; 4) We report our recent results on ?-Fe2O3 and ?-Fe2O3 using conversion reaction, providing insight for a better storage capability in ?-phase than the ?-phase at 2C resulting solely from the nanocrystallinity.

Balaya, Palani; Saravanan, Kuppan; Hariharan, Srirama

2010-04-01

205

Composite material impregnation unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This memorandum presents an introduction to the NASA multi-purpose prepregging unit which is now installed and fully operational at the Langley Research Center in the Polymeric Materials Branch. A description of the various impregnation methods that are available to the prepregger are presented. Machine operating details and protocol are provided for its various modes of operation. These include, where appropriate, the related equations for predicting the desired prepreg specifications. Also, as the prepregger is modular in its construction, each individual section is described and discussed. Safety concerns are an important factor and a chapter has been included that highlights the major safety features. Initial experiences and observations for fiber impregnation are described. These first observations have given great insight into the areas of future work that need to be addressed. Future memorandums will focus on these individual processes and their related problems.

Wilkinson, S. P.; Marchello, J. M.; Johnston, N. J.

1993-01-01

206

The synthesis of rutile nano-structured TiO2 composite under low temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, in order to improve the photocatalytic application of TiO2, the low-density material such as Ps and TiCl4 is proposed to be the raw carrier, and the nana-structured TiO2 composite is obtained by combining the sol-gel technology and layer-by-layer self-assembly methods; The pure rutile nano-structured TiO2 whose diameter is about 0.25mm are prepared under different conditions at low temperature. By being calcined under 450 ? the hollow sphere TiO2 is prepared and its composition, size, structure analysis and characterization are studied by using X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (DSC-TG) respectively.

Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Yibo; Dong, Mofei; Li, Simian

2012-11-01

207

Multiwavelength anomalous diffraction and diffraction anomalous fine structure to study composition and strain of semiconductor nanostructures. MAD and DAFS for studying Semiconductor Nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to illustrate the use of Multi-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure (DAFS) spectroscopy for the study of structural properties of semiconductor nanostructures. We give a brief introduction on the basic principles of these techniques providing a detailed bibliography. Then we focus on the data reduction and analysis and we give specific examples of their application on three different kinds of semiconductor nanostructures: Ge/Si nanoislands, AlN capped GaN/AlN Quantum Dots and AlGaN/AlN Nanowires. We show that the combination of MAD and DAFS is a very powerful tool to solve the structural problem of these materials of high technological impact. In particular, the effects of composition and strain on diffraction are disentangled and composition can be determined in a reliable way, even at the interface between nanostructure and substrate. We show the great possibilities of this method and give the reader the basic tools to undertake its use.

Favre-Nicolin, V.; Proietti, M. G.; Leclere, C.; Katcho, N. A.; Richard, M.-I.; Renevier, H.

2012-06-01

208

Multi-walled carbon nanotube\\/nanostructured zirconia composites: Outstanding mechanical properties in a wide range of temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)\\/nanostructured zirconia composites with a homogenous distribution of different MWCNT quantities (ranging within 0.5–5wt.%) were developed. By using Spark Plasma Sintering we succeeded in preserving the MWCNTs firmly attached to zirconia grains and in obtaining fully dense materials. Moreover, MWCNTs reduce grain growth and keep a nanosize structure. A significant improvement in room temperature fracture toughness and

Mehdi Mazaheri; Daniele Mari; Zohreh Razavi Hesabi; Robert Schaller; Gilbert Fantozzi

2011-01-01

209

Template synthesis and characterization of nanostructured lithium insertion electrodes and nanogold\\/porous aluminum oxide composite membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane-based template synthesis method was used to prepare nanostructured Li-ion battery electrodes and nanogold\\/porous aluminum oxide composite membranes. Membrane-based template synthesis is a general method for the preparation of nanomaterials which entails deposition of the material of interest, or a suitable precursor, within the nanometer-diameter pores in a porous template membrane. This method allows for control of nanoparticle size

Charles John Patrissi

2000-01-01

210

Synthesis and mechanical properties of two phase nanostructured aluminum based composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured materials (<100 nm) exhibit novel and superior mechanical properties in comparison to their coarse grained counterparts. However the associated deformation mechanisms are poorly understood. Synthesizing bulk nanocrystalline materials to measure the meaningful/reasonable mechanical properties is still a grand challenge. Although there exist several experimental/theoretical studies on mechanical behavior of single phase materials, studies on the effect of a second phase (soft/hard) on the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline materials are very limited. Therefore, the thrust of the current work is to synthesize bulk nanostructured two phase materials and to establish the influence of a second phase (soft/hard) on the mechanical properties of two phase materials benchmarked against the corresponding single phase material and to identify the governing mechanics of plasticity at the nano scale. Nanocrystalline aluminum was synthesized using ball milling at room temperature. The resultant powder material was consolidated to the bulk form using warm compaction and argon atmosphere and consolidation using high pressure torsion. The samples after high pressure torsion exhibited high end mechanical properties. The hardness of the nanostructured aluminum (of grain size 32 nm) was as high as 1200 MPa which is 6 times harder than its coarse grained counterpart. Nanocrystalline Al-W composites with varying compositions were synthesized. With the increased addition of W, the hardness of these nanocomposites was increased. This hardness trend followed the behavior predicted by the rule of mixtures based on the volume fractions of Al and W. With the addition of 4 atomic % of W, the strength of the nanocrystalline aluminum was elevated by 70%. Nanocrystalline Al-Pb composites were synthesized by two routes. In the first route, the room temperature ball milled samples were compacted at 573 K in an argon atmosphere. In the second route, the alloys were consolidated in situ during ball milling using a combination of milling at cryogenic temperature and milling at room temperature. Irrespective of the processing sequence employed in the current study, the minute additions of Pb to the nanocrystalline aluminum decreased its strength drastically beyond the projections made by the rule of mixtures. The Pb segregated to the grain boundaries of nanocrystalline aluminum appeared to be making the difference. In situ consolidated nanocrystalline Al-0.7%Pb composite was subjected to high pressure torsion at room temperature. Interestingly, the additional straining caused by the high pressure torsion further weakened the material by 25%. The mean grain size of the nanocrystalline aluminum was the same before and after the HPT. The mechanism for this abnormal behavior is yet to be known. The creep properties of nanostructured aluminum, synthesized using the sequential combination of ball milling at room temperature and high pressure torsion, were evaluated using the impression creep testing. The measured stress exponent values do not correspond to the Coble creep mechanism. However the activation energy measured was that of grain boundary diffusion in aluminum.

Rajulapati, Koteswararao Venkata

211

Enzyme Stabilization in Nanostructured Materials, for Use in Organophosphorus Nerve Agent Detoxification and Prophylaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Enzyme immobilization and encapsulation in various nanostructures has drawn great interest as it offers both increased stability\\u000a and reusability without significant loss in activity. Although we are still at the beginning of exploring the use of these\\u000a materials for biocatalysis, by now several nanostructures have been tested as hosts for enzyme immobilization. The beneficial\\u000a application of enzyme stabilization in nanostructured

R. J. Kernchen

212

Energy Absorption of Composite Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of a study on the energy absorption characteristics of selected composite material systems and compares the results with aluminum. Com posite compression tube specimens were fabricated with both tape and woven fabric prepreg using graphite\\/epoxy (Gr\\/E), Kevlar® epoxy (K\\/E) and glass\\/epoxy (Gl\\/E). Chamfering and notching one end of the composite tube specimen reduced the peak load

Gary L. Farley

1983-01-01

213

Dense, finely, grained composite materials  

DOEpatents

Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.

Dunmead, Stephen D. (Davis, CA); Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA); Kingman, Donald D. (Danville, CA); Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA)

1990-01-01

214

Multifunctional, flexible electronic systems based on engineered nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of flexible electronic systems has been extensively researched in recent years, with the goal of expanding the potential scope and market of modern electronic devices in the areas of computation, communications, displays, sensing and energy. Uniquely, the use of soft polymeric substrates enables the incorporation of advanced features beyond mechanical bendability and stretchability. In this paper, we describe several functionalities which can be achieved using engineered nanostructured materials. In particular, reversible binding, self-cleaning, antireflective and shape-reconfigurable properties are introduced for the realization of multifunctional, flexible electronic devices. Examples of flexible systems capable of spatial mapping and/or responding to external stimuli are also presented as a new class of user-interactive devices.

Ko, Hyunhyub; Kapadia, Rehan; Takei, Kuniharu; Takahashi, Toshitake; Zhang, Xiaobo; Javey, Ali

2012-08-01

215

Characterization of nanostructured material images using fractal descriptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a methodology to the morphology analysis and characterization of nanostructured material images acquired from FEG-SEM (Field Emission Gun-Scanning Electron Microscopy) technique. The metrics were extracted from the image texture (mathematical surface) by the volumetric fractal descriptors, a methodology based on the Bouligand-Minkowski fractal dimension, which considers the properties of the Minkowski dilation of the surface points. An experiment with galvanostatic anodic titanium oxide samples prepared in oxalyc acid solution using different conditions of applied current, oxalyc acid concentration and solution temperature was performed. The results demonstrate that the approach is capable of characterizing complex morphology characteristics such as those present in the anodic titanium oxide.

Florindo, João B.; Sikora, Mariana S.; Pereira, Ernesto C.; Bruno, Odemir M.

2013-04-01

216

Novel Nanostructured Materials and Properties by Pulsed Laser Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed laser deposition has been used to create novel nanostructured materials either as layered or nanodot structure. By controlling thin-film growth kinetics during island growth, we are able to create three-dimensional self-assembled nanodot structures of Ni and ordered L10 FePt in a given matrix. Epitaxial growth and Integration of Ni and FePt on Si(100) substrate was achieved via domain matching epitaxy which facilitated epitaxial growth across the misfit scale. Magnetic properties can be varied by controlling the orientation and coercivity higher than 1.2 Tesla achieved. These results on ordered L10 FePt will be compared with those Ni with practical implications of information storage (1,2). (1) H. Zhou, D. Kumar, A. Kvit, A. Tiwari, J. Narayan, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4841 (2003). (2) G.R. Trichy, D. Chakraborti, J. Narayan, J. T. Prater, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys 40, 7273 (2007).

Narayan, Jagdish; Trichy, Gopinath

2008-03-01

217

Electroactive and Photoactive Nanostructured Materials From Self-Assembling Coil-Rod-Coil Triblock Copolymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nanoscale materials, devices and systems are currently of wide interest in science and technology. We report a novel approach for preparing functional, electroactive and photoactive nanostructured polymeric materials which uses the inherent phase separati...

X. L. Chen S. A. Jenekhe

1996-01-01

218

Fracture problems in composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of fracture problems in composite materials are identified, their methods of solution are briefly discussed, and some sample results are presented. The main problem of interest is the determination of the stress state in the neighborhood of localized imperfections such as cracks and inclusions which may exist in the composite. Particular emphasis is placed on the evaluation of quantities such as the stress intensity factors, the power of the stress singularity, and the strain energy release rate, which may be used directly or indirectly in connection with an appropriate fracture criterion for the prediction of fracture initiation and propagation load levels. The topics discussed include a crack in layered composites, a crack terminating at and going through a bi-material interface, a penny-shaped crack in a filament-reinforced elastic matrix, and inclusion problems in bonded materials.

Erdogan, F.

1972-01-01

219

A nanostructured composite based on polyaniline and gold nanoparticles: synthesis and gas sensing properties.  

PubMed

Nanostructured composite materials based on polyaniline (PANI) and gold nanoparticles have been prepared by means of an osmosis based method. Several morphologies have been obtained for the pristine nanoPANI and for nanoPANI-Au composite, ranging from amorphous to sponge-like and spherical shapes. On the basis of this morphological investigation, different materials with high surface area have been selected and tested as chemical interactive materials for room temperature gas and vapor sensing. The resistive sensor devices have been exposed to different vapor organic compounds (VOCs) of interest in the fields of environmental monitoring and biomedical applications, such as toluene, acetic acid, ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile, water, ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The effect of doping with H2SO4 has been studied for both nanoPANI and nanoPANI-Au samples. In particular, nanoPANI-Au showed sensitivity to ammonia (up to 10 ppm) higher than that to other VOCs or interfering analytes. The facile preparation method and the improved properties achieved for the polyaniline-gold composite materials are significant in the nanomaterials field and have promise for applications in ammonia vapor monitoring. PMID:23518508

Venditti, Iole; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Russo, Maria Vittoria; Bearzotti, Andrea

2013-04-19

220

A nanostructured composite based on polyaniline and gold nanoparticles: synthesis and gas sensing properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured composite materials based on polyaniline (PANI) and gold nanoparticles have been prepared by means of an osmosis based method. Several morphologies have been obtained for the pristine nanoPANI and for nanoPANI-Au composite, ranging from amorphous to sponge-like and spherical shapes. On the basis of this morphological investigation, different materials with high surface area have been selected and tested as chemical interactive materials for room temperature gas and vapor sensing. The resistive sensor devices have been exposed to different vapor organic compounds (VOCs) of interest in the fields of environmental monitoring and biomedical applications, such as toluene, acetic acid, ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile, water, ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The effect of doping with H2SO4 has been studied for both nanoPANI and nanoPANI-Au samples. In particular, nanoPANI-Au showed sensitivity to ammonia (up to 10 ppm) higher than that to other VOCs or interfering analytes. The facile preparation method and the improved properties achieved for the polyaniline-gold composite materials are significant in the nanomaterials field and have promise for applications in ammonia vapor monitoring.

Venditti, Iole; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Vittoria Russo, Maria; Bearzotti, Andrea

2013-04-01

221

Nanostructured metal oxide-based materials as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

The search for new electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands for better performance with higher energy/power densities, improved safety and longer cycle life. Nanostructured metal oxides exhibit good electrochemical properties, and they are regarded as promising anode materials for high-performance LIBs. In this feature article, we will focus on three different categories of metal oxides with distinct lithium storage mechanisms: tin dioxide (SnO(2)), which utilizes alloying/dealloying processes to reversibly store/release lithium ions during charge/discharge; titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), where lithium ions are inserted/deinserted into/out of the TiO(2) crystal framework; and transition metal oxides including iron oxide and cobalt oxide, which react with lithium ions via an unusual conversion reaction. For all three systems, we will emphasize that creating nanomaterials with unique structures could effectively improve the lithium storage properties of these metal oxides. We will also highlight that the lithium storage capability can be further enhanced through designing advanced nanocomposite materials containing metal oxides and other carbonaceous supports. By providing such a rather systematic survey, we aim to stress the importance of proper nanostructuring and advanced compositing that would result in improved physicochemical properties of metal oxides, thus making them promising negative electrodes for next-generation LIBs. PMID:22460594

Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lou, Xiong Wen David

2012-04-21

222

Nanostructured metal oxide-based materials as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for new electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands for better performance with higher energy/power densities, improved safety and longer cycle life. Nanostructured metal oxides exhibit good electrochemical properties, and they are regarded as promising anode materials for high-performance LIBs. In this feature article, we will focus on three different categories of metal oxides with distinct lithium storage mechanisms: tin dioxide (SnO2), which utilizes alloying/dealloying processes to reversibly store/release lithium ions during charge/discharge; titanium dioxide (TiO2), where lithium ions are inserted/deinserted into/out of the TiO2 crystal framework; and transition metal oxides including iron oxide and cobalt oxide, which react with lithium ions via an unusual conversion reaction. For all three systems, we will emphasize that creating nanomaterials with unique structures could effectively improve the lithium storage properties of these metal oxides. We will also highlight that the lithium storage capability can be further enhanced through designing advanced nanocomposite materials containing metal oxides and other carbonaceous supports. By providing such a rather systematic survey, we aim to stress the importance of proper nanostructuring and advanced compositing that would result in improved physicochemical properties of metal oxides, thus making them promising negative electrodes for next-generation LIBs.

Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Hng, Huey Hoon; Wen (David) Lou, Xiong

2012-03-01

223

Impact response of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite materials composed of carbon fibers and resin matrices offer great promise in reducing the weight of aerospace structures. However they remain extremely vulnerable to out of plane impact loads, which lead to severe losses in strength and stiffness. The results of an experimental program, undertaken to investigate the low velocity impact damage tolerance of composite materials is presented. The objectives were to identify key neat resin/composite properties that lead to enhancement of composite impact damage tolerance and to find a small scale test that predicts compression after impact properties of panels. Five materials were selected for evaluation. These systems represented different classes of material behavior such as brittle epoxy, modified epoxies, and amorphous and semicrystalling thermoplastics. The influence of fiber properties on the impact performance was also studied in one material, i.e., in polyether ether ketone (PEEK). Several 24 and 48 ply quasi-isotropic and 24 ply orthotropic laminates were examined using an instrumented drop weight impactor. Correlations with post impact compression behavior were made.

Tiwari, S. N.; Srinivasan, K.

1991-01-01

224

Delamination growth in composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research related to growth of an imbedded through-width delamination (ITWD) in a compression loaded composite structural element is presented. Composites with widely different interlaminar fracture resistance were examined, viz., graphite/epoxy (CYCOM 982) and graphite/PEEK (APC-2). The initial part of the program consisted of characterizing the material in tension, compression and shear mainly to obtain consistent material properties for analysis, but also as a check of the processing method developed for the thermoplastic APC-2 material. The characterization of the delamination growth in the ITWD specimen, which for the unidirectional case is essentially a mixed Mode 1 and 2 geometry, requires verified mixed-mode growth criteria for the two materials involved. For this purpose the main emphasis during this part of the investigation was on Mode 1 and 2 fracture specimens, namely the Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and End Notched Flexure (ENF) specimens.

Gillespie, J. W., Jr.; Carlson, L. A.; Pipes, R. B.; Rothschilds, R.; Trethewey, B.; Smiley, A.

1985-01-01

225

Welds in thermoplastic composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welding methods are reviewed that can be effectively used for joining of thermoplastic composites and continuous-fiber thermoplastics. Attention is given to the use of ultrasonic, vibration, hot-plate, resistance, and induction welding techniques. The welding techniques are shown to provide complementary weld qualities for the range of thermoplastic materials that are of interest to industrial and technological applications.

N. S. Taylor

1990-01-01

226

Welds in thermoplastic composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Welding methods are reviewed that can be effectively used for joining of thermoplastic composites and continuous-fiber thermoplastics. Attention is given to the use of ultrasonic, vibration, hot-plate, resistance, and induction welding techniques. The welding techniques are shown to provide complementary weld qualities for the range of thermoplastic materials that are of interest to industrial and technological applications.

Taylor, N. S.

227

Durability of polymer composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to examine structural durability of advanced composite materials under critical loading conditions, e.g., combined thermal and mechanical loading and shear fatigue loading. A thermal buckling model of a burnt column, either axially restrained or under an axial applied force was developed. It was predicted that for a column exposed to the high heat flux

Liu Liu

2006-01-01

228

Predicting Properties Of Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micromechanical Combined Stress Analysis (MICSTRAN) computer code provides materials engineers with easy-to-use personal-computer-based software tool to calculate overall properties of composite, given properties of fibers and matrix. Computes overall thermoelastic parameters and stresses by micromechanical analysis. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Naik, Rajiv A.

1994-01-01

229

Composite Materials: An Educational Need.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the need to incorporate the concepts and applications of advanced composite materials into existing chemical engineering programs. Discussed are the justification for, and implementation of topics including transport phenomena, kinetics and reactor design, unit operations, and product and process design. (CW)

Saliba, Tony E.; Snide, James A.

1990-01-01

230

Nanostructured Materials in Different Dimensions for Sensing Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future sensing elements should be more specific, more sensitive, more reversible, and faster than today's elements. These future sensing devices will either be integrated with suitable signal detection circuitry, typically based on Si microelectronics, or with optical signal detection, and finally interfaced to relevant state-of-the-art signal recognition hard- and software. Some of the more critical uses of sensors are in the dynamic surveillance of system parameters in complex machinery or in biological systems, such as our own bodies. Most of these demands are likely to be met by the continued rapid development of functional nanomaterials including bio-nanomaterials and biocompatible nanomaterials. A strong and increasing trend, also clear at this NATO-ASI, is the focus on using Au-dots deposited on various substrates for optical field enhancements and for other synergistic effects on electronic properties such as sheet conductivity, when deposited on polymer films or on metal oxide surfaces. Gas sensing with metal oxide surfaces is another very active area of development, where the high surface to volume ratio of thin films or nano-crystalline objects are in focus. In this report we demonstrate examples of the processing of silicon surfaces, aluminum surfaces and wooden saw dust powders to create nanostructured materials with interesting functional properties in novel types of self-limiting and self-organizing growths of one-, two- and three dimensional nano-template (i.e. nano-building block) systems, with a range of functionalities, as-formed, or after further integration. However, the focus in this report is on the growth processes and further treatments, as these are relatively new, and thus not widely known, but highly relevant for the functional properties of the resulting nanostructures, and for integration of the structures with silicon or in more complex systems.

Morgen, Per; Drews, J.; Dhiman, Rajnish; Nielsen, Peter

231

Preparation of nano-structured Pt-YSZ composite and its application in oxygen potentiometric sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-structured Platinum-Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) composites for oxygen potentiometric sensors were directly prepared with carbon black and the precursors such as chloroplatinic acid, zirconyl nitrate and yttrium nitrate. The as-prepared Pt-YSZ composite consisted of cubic crystalline YSZ and Pt particles, and the particle sizes of Pt catalyst and YSZ electrolyte were about 25-35 and 5-10 nm, respectively. The Pt-YSZ composite electrodes exhibited excellent electrochemical performances when evaluated by EIS measurements. The introduction of the nano-structured Pt-YSZ composite into the oxygen potentiometric sensor can reduce sensor's operating temperature to be about 380 °C, and also can reduce sensor's response time to be about 5 s at 400 °C. The oxygen potentiometric sensors incorporating nano-structured Pt-YSZ composites exhibited longer lifetime than those employing pure Pt as the sensing electrodes.

ChaoYang, Xia; XuChen, Lu; Yan, Yan; TiZhuang, Wang; ZhiMin, Zhang; SuPing, Yang

2011-07-01

232

Survey of materials for nanoskiving and influence of the cutting process on the nanostructures produced.  

PubMed

This paper examines the factors that influence the quality of nanostructures fabricated by sectioning thin films with an ultramicrotome ("nanoskiving"). It surveys different materials (metals, ceramics, semiconductors, and conjugated polymers), deposition techniques (evaporation, sputter deposition, electroless deposition, chemical-vapor deposition, solution-phase synthesis, and spin-coating), and geometries (nanowires or two-dimensional arrays of rings and crescents). It then correlates the extent of fragmentation of the nanostructures with the composition of the thin films, the methods used to deposit them, and the parameters used for sectioning. There are four major conclusions. (i) Films of soft and compliant metals (those that have bulk values of hardness less than or equal to those of palladium, or ?500 MPa) tend to remain intact upon sectioning, whereas hard and stiff metals (those that have values of hardness greater than or equal to those of platinum, or ?500 MPa) tend to fragment. (ii) All conjugated polymers tested form intact nanostructures. (iii) The extent of fragmentation is lowest when the direction of cutting is perpendicular to the exposed edge of the embedded film. (iv) The speed of cutting-from 0.1 to 8 mm/s-has no effect on the frequency of defects. Defects generated during sectioning include scoring from defects in the knife, delamination of the film from the matrix, and compression of the matrix. The materials tested were: aluminum, titanium, nickel, copper, palladium, silver, platinum, gold, lead, bismuth, germanium, silicon dioxide (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), lead sulfide nanocrystals, the semiconducting polymers poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV), poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline ladder) (BBL), and the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). PMID:20815347

Lipomi, Darren J; Martinez, Ramses V; Rioux, Robert M; Cademartiri, Ludovico; Reus, William F; Whitesides, George M

2010-09-01

233

Energy absorption of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a study on the energy absorption characteristics of selected composite material systems are presented and the results compared with aluminum. Composite compression tube specimens were fabricated with both tape and woven fabric prepreg using graphite/epoxy (Gr/E), Kevlar (TM)/epoxy (K/E) and glass/epoxy (Gl/E). Chamfering and notching one end of the composite tube specimen reduced the peak load at initial failure without altering the sustained crushing load, and prevented catastrophic failure. Static compression and vertical impact tests were performed on 128 tubes. The results varied significantly as a function of material type and ply orientation. In general, the Gr/E tubes absorbed more energy than the Gl/E or K/E tubes for the same ply orientation. The 0/ + or - 15 Gr/E tubes absorbed more energy than the aluminum tubes. Gr/E and Gl/E tubes failed in a brittle mode and had negligible post crushing integrity, whereas the K/E tubes failed in an accordian buckling mode similar to the aluminum tubes. The energy absorption and post crushing integrity of hybrid composite tubes were not significantly better than that of the single material tubes.

Farley, G. L.

1983-01-01

234

Composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures for high electrochromic activity.  

SciTech Connect

A composite material consisting of TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) with WO3 electrodeposited homogeneously on its surface has been fabricated, detached from its substrate, and attached to a fluorine-doped tin oxide film on glass for application to electrochromic (EC) reactions. A paste of TiO2 made from commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles creates an interface for the TiO2 NT film to attach to the FTO glass, which is conductive and does not cause solution-phase ions in an electrolyte to bind irreversibly with the material. The effect of NT length on the current density and the EC contrast of the material were studied. The EC redox reaction seen in this material is diffusion- limited, having relatively fast reaction rates at the electrode surface. The composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures showed higher ion storage capacity, better stability, enhanced EC contrast and longer memory time compared with the pure WO3 and TiO2.

Reyes, Karla Rosa; Stephens, Zachary Dan.; Robinson, David B.

2013-05-01

235

Nanostructured Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries (Final Technical Report)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to explore new ways to create nanostructured electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Of particular interests are unique nanostructures created by electrochemical deposition, etching and combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). Three-dimensional nanoporous Cu6Sn5 alloy has been successfully prepared using an electrochemical co-deposition process. The walls of the foam structure are highly-porous and consist of numerous small grains. This represents a novel way of creating porous structures that allow not only fast transport of gas and liquid but also rapid electrochemical reactions due to high surface area. The Cu6Sn5 samples display a reversible capacity of {approx}400 mAhg-1. Furthermore, these materials exhibit superior rate capability. At a current drain of 10 mA/cm2(20C rate), the obtainable capacity was more than 50% of the capacity at 0.5 mA/cm2 (1C rate). Highly open and porous SnO2 thin films with columnar structure were obtained on Si/SiO2/Au substrates by CCVD. The thickness was readily controlled by the deposition time, varying from 1 to 5 microns. The columnar grains were covered by nanoparticles less than 20 nm. These thin film electrodes exhibited substantially high specific capacity. The reversible specific capacity of {approx}3.3 mAH/cm2 was demonstrated for up to 80 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 0.3 mA/cm2. When discharged at 0.9 mA/cm2, the capacity was about 2.1 mAH/cm2. Tin dioxide box beams or tubes with square or rectangular cross sections were synthesized using CCVD. The cross-sectional width of the SnO2 tubules was tunable from 50 nm to sub-micrometer depending on synthesis temperature. The tubes are readily aligned in the direction perpendicular to the substrate surface to form tube arrays. Silicon wafers were electrochemically etched to produce porous silicon (PS) with honeycomb-type channels and nanoporous walls. The diameters of the channels are about 1 to 3 microns and the depth of the channels can be up to 100 microns. We have successfully used the PS as a matrix for Si-Li-based alloy. Other component(s) can be incorporated into the PS either by an electroless metallization or by kinetically controlled vapor deposition.

Meilin Liu, James Gole

2006-12-14

236

Adhesion protein adsorption and bone cell growth on carbon nanotube composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone growth on nano-structured materials is of paramount importance for designing better orthopedic prostheses. We have demonstrated here that surface energies and nano scale roughness are indeed important factors for determining adsorption of an important adhesion protein, fibronectin, and subsequent growth of bone forming cells, osteoblasts, on carbon nanotube composite materials. ^ For more meaningful and relevant quantification of surface

Dongwoo Khang

2006-01-01

237

Fabrication and optimization of nano-structured composites for energy storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is focused on the development and characterization of a novel class of solid-state nano-structured composites for hydrogen storage based on silica aerogel. It is organized sequentially around experiments conducted to fabricate, optimize and characterize silica aerogel and the composites for hydrogen storage. First, the basics of nano-structured media, silica aerogel technology and solid-state hydrogen storage are introduced. Next, the fabrication and optimization of silica aerogel for hydrogen storage is described in detail. The key result is that varying fabrication parameters can improve the physical properties of the resultant silica aerogel in the context of hydrogen storage. The fabrication of solid-state nano-structured composites using chemical vapor infiltration is then discussed. A series of experiments is used to parameterize the fabrication process, which results in a collection of parameters that minimize variation and structural damage in the composites. Silica aerogel and the composites are then physically characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and porosimetry in order to investigate their nano-structuring. An overview of hydrogen storage characterization and two innovations that improve the accuracy and efficiency of hydrogen storage characterization of low-bulk density media like silica aerogel and the composites are then presented. Finally, the innovations are applied to silica aerogel and the composites to characterize their hydrogen storage performance. Silica aerogel and the composites are found to outperform the most common benchmark in physisorption media, and one composite in particular shows unique hydrogen storage performance.

Carrington, Kenneth Russell

238

Mechanism behind the surface evolution and microstructure changes of laser fabricated nanostructured carbon composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have shown that amorphous carbon films with reduced internal stress, improved adhesion strength, and diversified material properties are obtainable through doping process, but the presence of dopants was reported to promote surface evolution and alter the microstructures of carbon matrix. By combining analyses from experimental results and theoretical estimations, this work examines the mechanism behind the surface evolution and microstructural changes in laser fabricated nanostructured copper-carbon composite. We showed that the presence of metal ions during laser deposition increased the heat dissipation on carbon matrix, which enhanced the formation of nanoislands but graphitized the carbon matrix. In addition, theoretical estimations and XPS hinted that the presence of energetic species may force the carbon ions to react with the substrate interface and form silicon carbide bonds, which contributed to the improved adhesion strength observed in copper doped carbon films, along with a reduction in internal stress owing to the presence of nanoclusters.

Foong, Y. M.; Koh, A. T. T.; Ng, H. Y.; Chua, D. H. C.

2011-09-01

239

Metal-ceramic/ceramic nanostructured layered composites for solid oxide fuel cells by spark plasma sintering.  

PubMed

In this work, bi-layered Fe-Ni-Co-YSZ/YSZ nanostructured composites for solid oxide fuel cells were obtained using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The microstructures of the anode and electrolyte were controlled by optimization of SPS consolidation parameters. The resulting bilayers have a full dense YSZ electrolyte and porous Fe-Ni-Co/YSZ anode as well as crack-free and well-bonded anode/electrolyte interface. On the other hand, SPS under non-optimized processing parameters cannot yield the desired results. The high resistance to thermal stresses of the fabricated half-cells was achieved with Fe-Ni-Co/YSZ anode. The developed anode showed higher thermal compatibility with YSZ electrolyte than usual Ni/YSZ cermet. Thus, with the successful combination of SPS parameters and anode material, we have obtained bi-layers for SOFCs with required microstructure and thermal compatibility. PMID:24738374

Bezdorozhev, Oleksii; Borodianska, Hanna; Sakka, Yoshio; Vasylkiv, Oleg

2014-06-01

240

Nanostructured composites obtained by ATRP sleeving of bacterial cellulose nanofibers with acrylate polymers.  

PubMed

Novel nanostructured composite materials based on bacterial cellulose membranes (BC) and acrylate polymers were prepared by in situ atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). BC membranes were functionalized with initiating sites, by reaction with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BiBBr), followed by atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and n-butyl acrylate (BA), catalyzed by copper(I) bromide and N,N,N',N?,N?-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA), using two distinct initiator amounts and monomer feeds. The living characteristic of the system was proven by the growth of PBA block from the BC-g-PMMA membrane. The BC nanofiber sleeving was clearly demonstrated by SEM imaging, and its extent can be tuned by controlling the amount of initiating sites and the monomer feed. The ensuing nanocomposites showed high hydrophobicity (contact angles with water up to 134°), good thermal stability (initial degradation temperature in the range 241-275 °C), and were more flexible that the unmodified BC membranes. PMID:23692287

Lacerda, Paula S S; Barros-Timmons, Ana M M V; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D; Neto, Carlos P

2013-06-10

241

Bioactivity and structural properties of nanostructured bulk composites containing Nb2O5 and natural hydroxyapatite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we investigate the bioactivity and structural properties of nanostructured bulk composites that are composed of Nb2O5 and natural hydroxyapatite (HAp) and are produced by mechanical alloying and powder metallurgy. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy data showed that the milling process followed by a heat treatment at 1000 °C induced chemical reactions along with the formation of the CaNb2O6, PNb9O25 and Ca3(PO4)2 phases. Rietveld refinement indicated significant changes in each phase weight fraction as a function of HAp concentration. These changes influenced the in vitro bioactivity of the material. XRD and FTIR analyses indicated that the composites exhibited bioactivity characteristics by forming a carbonated apatite layer when the composites were immersed in a simulated body fluid. The formed layers had a maximum thickness of 13 ?m, as measured by confocal Raman spectroscopy and as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results of this work suggest that the tested bulk composites are promising biomaterials for use in implants.

Bonadio, T. G. M.; Sato, F.; Medina, A. N.; Weinand, W. R.; Baesso, M. L.; Lima, W. M.

2013-06-01

242

Efficient and versatile fibrous adsorbent based on magnetic amphiphilic composites of chrysotile/carbon nanostructures for the removal of ethynilestradiol.  

PubMed

In this work, chrysotile was used as support to grow carbon nanotubes and nanofibers to produce fibrous amphiphilic magnetic nanostructured composites. Iron impregnated on the chrysotile surface at 1, 5 and 15 wt% was used as catalyst to grow carbon nanostructures by CVD (chemical vapor deposition) with ethanol at 800°C. Raman, TG/DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, BET, SEM, TEM, elemental analyses and contact angle measurements suggested the formation of a complex amphiphilic material containing up to 21% of nanostructured hydrophobic carbon supported on hydrophilic Mg silicate fibers with magnetic Fe cores protected by carbon coating. Adsorption tests for the hormone ethynilestradiol (EE), a hazardous water contaminant, showed remarkable adsorption capacities even compared to high surface area activated carbon and multiwall carbon nanotubes. These results are discussed in terms of the hydrophobic surface of the carbon nanotubes and nanofibers completely exposed and accessible for the adsorption of the EE molecules combined with the hydrophilic Mg silicate surface which allows good dispersion in water. The composites are magnetic and after adsorption the dispersed particles can be removed by a simple magnetic process. Moreover, the fibrous composites can be conformed as threads, screens and pellets to produce different filtering media. PMID:23399907

Teixeira, Ana Paula C; Purceno, Aluir D; de Paula, Camila C A; da Silva, Julio César C; Ardisson, José D; Lago, Rochel M

2013-03-15

243

A quantitative morphological analysis of nanostructured ceria-silica composite catalysts.  

PubMed

This study aims at examining the morphology of different catalysts, which are based on a dispersion of ceria nanoparticles embedded in a high surface area mesoporous silica framework. In order to fully describe the mesostructured composite material, we propose here a quantitative description of the microstructure based on a quantitative analysis of micrographs that were obtained via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. We have therefore developed an automatic image analysis process in order to automatically and efficiently extract all the components of the catalyst images. A statistical and a morphological analysis of the spatial arrangement of the components of the catalyst are also presented. The study shows clear differences between the materials analysed in terms of the spatial arrangement and the total surface area of the ceria phase emerging into the pores, parameters of prime importance for the catalytic properties. Thus, the silica-ceria nanostructured composite materials, displaying large surface area up to 300 m(2) g(-1) are shown to exhibit highly rugged surfaces resulting from ceria nanoparticles emerging in the pores. PMID:19017229

Moreaud, M; Jeulin, D; Thorel, A; Chane-Ching, J Y

2008-11-01

244

Hydrogen Storage in Novel Carbon-based Nanostructured Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the biggest challenges facing a future hydrogen economy is that of onboard vehicular hydrogen storage, for which novel carbon-based nanostructured materials have emerged as potential candidates. Towards this end, we present the synthesis and characterization of ``bucky dumbbell,'' a new organometallic compound comprised of two buckyballs complexed to a central iron atom. This new compound has been characterized using both ^13C solid-state NMR and Raman spectroscopy, and electron spin paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals the presence of Fe^3+. Temperature-programmed desorption has revealed a new hydrogen binding site via the appearance of a peak centered at approximately -50 C, indicating the hydrogen is stabilized at a temperature significantly above that expected for physisorption but still lower than that of C-H bond formation. Comparison with C60 under the same hydrogen exposure and heating conditions shows almost no hydrogen adsorption, and the exact binding energy (or desorption activation energy, Ed) for the bucky dumbbell shows an enhanced value of ˜6.2 kJ/mol. Initial volumetric analyses conducted at 77K and 3 bar show a storage capacity of ˜0.4 wt%. The synthesis and analysis of other novel fullerene-based organometallic hydrogen complexes will also be discussed.

Whitney, Erin; Curtis, Calvin; Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Davis, Mark; Jones, Kim; Parilla, Philip; Simpson, Lin; Dillon, Anne

2007-03-01

245

Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials  

DOEpatents

A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerald M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2011-03-22

246

Computer-aided design of nanostructured materials containing trisaza-bridged [60]fullerene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel fullerene-based building block for the synthesis of nanostructured materials has been designed with the aid of electronic structure theory calculations and molecular modeling. The building block consists of four trisaza-bridged C 60 fullerene molecules linked to a central cubane (C 8) unit. Each C 60 unit is located on the vertex of a tetrahedron with edge of 2.2 nm. One possible packing mode of the building blocks to yield the nanostructured material is suggested.

Pichierri, Fabio

2005-11-01

247

Production analysis of new machining-based deformation processes for nanostructured materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured materials, composed of sub-micron sized grains (crystals), show novel attributes not commonly found in their\\u000a microcrystalline counterparts. Furthermore, these attributes can be varied by changing the grain size. Nanostructured solids\\u000a have high hardness, strength and ductility; and interesting electrical and magnetic properties. Superplasticity has been observed\\u000a at relatively low temperatures in some of these materials [1]. Many new and

P. Iglesias; W. Moscoso; J. B. Mann; C. Saldana; M. R. Shankar; S. Chandrasekar; W. D. Compton; K. P. Trumble

2008-01-01

248

Nanostructured carbon materials based electrothermal air pump actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid films as heating elements to transfer electrical stimulus into thermal energy, and finally convert it into mechanical energy. Both the actuation displacement and working temperature of the actuator films show the monotonically increasing trend with increasing driving voltage within the actuation process. Compared with common polymer nanocomposites based electrothermal actuators, our actuators exhibited better actuation performances with a low driving voltage (<10 V), large generated stress (tens of MPa), high gravimetric density (tens of J kg-1), and short response time (few hundreds of milliseconds). Besides that, the pump actuators exhibited excellent stability under cyclic actuation tests. Among these actuators, a relatively larger actuation strain was obtained for the r-GO film actuator due to the intrinsic gas-impermeability nature of graphene platelets. In addition, the high modulus of the r-GO and GO/SWCNT films also guaranteed the large generated stress and high work density. Specifically, the generated stress and gravimetric work density of the GO/SWCNT hybrid film actuator could reach up to more than 50 MPa and 30 J kg-1, respectively, under a driving voltage of 10 V. The resulting stress value is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of natural muscles (~0.4 MPa).Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid films as heating elements to transfer electrical stimulus into thermal energy, and finally convert it into mechanical energy. Both the actuation displacement and working temperature of the actuator films show the monotonically increasing trend with increasing driving voltage within the actuation process. Compared with common polymer nanocomposites based electrothermal actuators, our actuators exhibited better actuation performances with a low driving voltage (<10 V), large generated stress (tens of MPa), high gravimetric density (tens of J kg-1), and short response time (few hundreds of milliseconds). Besides that, the pump actuators exhibited excellent stability under cyclic actuation tests. Among these actuators, a relatively larger actuation strain was obtained for the r-GO film actuator due to the intrinsic gas-impermeability nature of graphene platelets. In addition, the high modulus of the r-GO and GO/SWCNT films also guaranteed the large generated stress and high work density. Specifically, the generated stress and gravimetric work density of the GO/SWCNT hybrid film actuator could reach up to more than 50 MPa and 30 J kg-1, respectively, under a driving voltage of 10 V. The resulting stress value is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of natural muscles (~0.4 MPa). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A movie showing the weight-lifting actuation process of the GO/SWCNT actuator. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00536h

Liu, Qing; Liu, Luqi; Kuang, Jun; Dai, Zhaohe; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Zhong

2014-05-01

249

Investigation of the dynamics of radiolytic formation of ZnO nanostructured materials by pulse radiolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by radiolytic methods. A Cobalt-60 ?-source and a 7 MeV linear electron accelerator (LINAC) was used for the radiolysis experiments. Reducing agent like hydrated electron (e aq-), which is produced in radiolysis of water, was used to synthesize ZnO nanostructure materials from zinc salt. 1 M tert-butanol was used to quench the primary oxidizing radical like hydroxyl radical (OH rad ) radiolytic water solution. Doses of about 80-130 kGy were used to perform radiolysis experiments in the present investigation. Time-resolved pulse radiolysis has been used to monitor the transient species involved in the formation of ZnO nanostructures by monitoring at different wavelengths. A scheme for the formation of the ZnO nanostructured materials by the radiolytic method has been described. The formation of ZnO nanostructures was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements indicated that the size of the nanostructures is in the range of 6-8 nm, which is in agreement with that obtained from XRD. It is interesting to note that ZnO nanostructured materials, as prepared by the radiolytic method, exhibit strong room-temperature fluorescence.

Rath, M. C.; Sunitha, Y.; Ghosh, H. N.; Sarkar, S. K.; Mukherjee, T.

2009-02-01

250

Nanostructured carbon materials based electrothermal air pump actuators.  

PubMed

Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid films as heating elements to transfer electrical stimulus into thermal energy, and finally convert it into mechanical energy. Both the actuation displacement and working temperature of the actuator films show the monotonically increasing trend with increasing driving voltage within the actuation process. Compared with common polymer nanocomposites based electrothermal actuators, our actuators exhibited better actuation performances with a low driving voltage (<10 V), large generated stress (tens of MPa), high gravimetric density (tens of J kg(-1)), and short response time (few hundreds of milliseconds). Besides that, the pump actuators exhibited excellent stability under cyclic actuation tests. Among these actuators, a relatively larger actuation strain was obtained for the r-GO film actuator due to the intrinsic gas-impermeability nature of graphene platelets. In addition, the high modulus of the r-GO and GO/SWCNT films also guaranteed the large generated stress and high work density. Specifically, the generated stress and gravimetric work density of the GO/SWCNT hybrid film actuator could reach up to more than 50 MPa and 30 J kg(-1), respectively, under a driving voltage of 10 V. The resulting stress value is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of natural muscles (? 0.4 MPa). PMID:24839084

Liu, Qing; Liu, Luqi; Kuang, Jun; Dai, Zhaohe; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Zhong

2014-06-21

251

Composite materials based on carbon nanotubes for aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical and mechanical properties of composite materials based on Carbon Nanotubes are considered for aerospace applications. Nanostructured materials gained great importance in the past decade, owing to their wide ranging potential applications in many areas, e.g. mechanical, structural, sensor, biomedical, electronics. Of particular interest are carbon nanotubes, which can be used as a main constituent of composite materials with exceptional mechanical and electrical properties, very suitable for aerospace applications, also due to their light weight, mechanical strength and flexibility. We present results obtained recently in our laboratories concerning the electrical and mechanical properties (including resilience measurement, stress analysis, conductivity) of carbon nanotubes we synthesized by arc discharge and other techniques, embedded in a polymer matrix.

Bellucci, S.; Balasubramanian, C.; Mancia, F.; Marchetti, M.; Regi, M.; Tombolini, F.

2005-04-01

252

Offgassing Test Methodology for Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A significant increase in the use of composite materials has occurred during the past 20 years. Associated with this increased use is the potential for employees to be exposed to offgassing components from composite systems. Various components in composit...

D. A. Scheer

1994-01-01

253

Synthesis and mechanical properties of two phase nanostructured aluminum based composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured materials (<100 nm) exhibit novel and superior mechanical properties in comparison to their coarse grained counterparts. However the associated deformation mechanisms are poorly understood. Synthesizing bulk nanocrystalline materials to measure the meaningful\\/reasonable mechanical properties is still a grand challenge. Although there exist several experimental\\/theoretical studies on mechanical behavior of single phase materials, studies on the effect of a second

Koteswararao Venkata Rajulapati

2006-01-01

254

Covalent functionalization of metal oxide and carbon nanostructures with polyoctasilsesquioxane (POSS) and their incorporation in polymer composites  

SciTech Connect

Polyoctasilsesquioxane (POSS) has been employed to covalently functionalize nanostructures of TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well as carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond and graphene to enable their dispersion in polar solvents. Covalent functionalization of these nanostructures with POSS has been established by electron microscopy, EDAX analysis and infrared spectroscopy. On heating the POSS-functionalized nanostructures, silica-coated nanostructures are obtained. POSS-functionalized nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and graphite were utilized to prepare polymer-nanostructure composites based on PVA and nylon-6,6.

Gomathi, A.; Gopalakrishnan, K. [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, New Chemistry Unit and CSIR Centre of Excellence in Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560 064 (India)] [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, New Chemistry Unit and CSIR Centre of Excellence in Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560 064 (India); Rao, C.N.R., E-mail: cnrrao@jncasr.ac.in [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, New Chemistry Unit and CSIR Centre of Excellence in Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560 064 (India)] [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, New Chemistry Unit and CSIR Centre of Excellence in Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560 064 (India)

2010-12-15

255

Synthesis and applications of bioinspired inorganic nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the study of biominerals may be traced back many centuries, it is only recently that biological principles have been applied to synthetic systems in processes termed "biomimetic" and "bioinspired" to yield materials syntheses that are otherwise not possible and may also reduce the expenditure of energy and/or eliminate toxic byproducts. Many investigators have taken inspiration from interesting and unusual minerals formed by organisms, in a process termed biomineralisation, to tailor the nanostructure of inorganic materials not necessarily found biogenically. However, the fields of nanoparticle synthesis and biomineralisation remain largely separate, and this thesis is an attempt to apply new studies on biomineralisation to nanomaterials science. Principally among the proteins that influence biomineralisation is a group comprised largely of negatively charged aspartic acid residues present in serum. This study is an investigation determining the ability of these serum proteins and other anolagous biomolecules to stabilise biologically relevant amorphous minerals and influence the formation of a variety of materials at the nanoscale. Three different materials were chosen to demonstrate this effect; gold was templated into nanosized single crystals by the action of bioorganic molecules, and the utility of these nanoparticles as a biosensor was explored. The influence of bioorganic molecules on the phase selection and crystal size restriction of titanium dioxide, an important semiconductor with many applications, was explored. The use of bioorganically derived nanoparticles of titanium dioxide was then demonstrated as a highly efficient photocatalyst. Finally, calcium carbonate, a prevalent biomineral was shown to form highly ordered structures over a variety of length scales and different crystalline polymorphs under the influence of a templating protein. In addition, an alternative route to producing calcium phosphate nanoparticle dispersions by mechanical filtration was explored and use as a transfection vector was optimised in two cell lines. Several significant achievements are presented: (i) the assessment of the relative ability of serum, serum derived proteins and their analogues to stabilize the amorphous state, (ii) the formation of single crystalline gold templated by an antibody, (iii) the formation of highly photocatalytically active nanoparticulate anatase by a phosphorylated cyclic esther, (iv) the formation of conical structures at the air liquid interface by the templating ability of a protein and (v) the optimisation of calcium phosphate nanoparticle mediated transfection in two cell lines by mechanical filtration.

Bassett, David C.

256

Cycle oxidation behavior of nanostructured Ni60-TiB 2 composite coating sprayed by HVOF technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cycle oxidation resistance at 800 °C in static air was investigated for a nanostructured Ni60-TiB 2 composite coating sprayed by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF). For comparison, a Ni60-TiB 2 conventional composite coating was also studied. The results indicate that, the oxidation processes of both composite coatings are controlled by diffusion mechanism, and the nanostructured composite coating has better cycle oxidation resistance than that of the conventional composite coating. The reasons for this improvement can be attributed to the formation of the intact SiO 2 and Cr 2O 3 protective layer, and the enhanced adhesion between oxide film and nanostructure coating.

Wu, Y. S.; Qiu, W. Q.; Yu, H. Y.; Zhong, X. C.; Liu, Z. W.; Zeng, D. C.; Li, S. Z.

2011-09-01

257

[DNA complexes, formed on aqueous phase surfaces: new planar polymeric and composite nanostructures].  

PubMed

The formation of DNA complexes with Langmuir monolayers of the cationic lipid octadecylamine (ODA) and the new amphiphilic polycation poly-4-vinylpyridine with 16% of cetylpyridinium groups (PVP-16) on the surface of an aqueous solution of native DNA of low ionic strength was studied. Topographic images of Langmuir-Blodgett films of DNA/ODA and DNA/PVP-16 complexes applied to micaceous substrates were investigated by the method of atomic force microscopy. It was found that films of the amphiphilic polycation have an ordered planar polycrystalline structure. The morphology of planar DNA complexes with the amphiphilic cation substantially depended on the incubation time and the phase state of the monolayer on the surface of the aqueous DNA solution. Complex structures and individual DNA molecules were observed on the surface of the amphiphilic monolayer. Along with quasi-linear individual bound DNA molecules, characteristic extended net-like structures and quasi-circular toroidal condensed conformations of planar DNA complexes were detected. Mono- and multilayer films of DNA/PVP-16 complexes were used as templates and nanoreactors for the synthesis of inorganic nanostructures via the binding of metal cations from the solution and subsequent generation of the inorganic phase. As a result, ultrathin polymeric composite films with integrated DNA building blocks and quasi-linear arrays of inorganic semiconductor (CdS) and iron oxide nanoparticles and nanowires were obtained. The nanostructures obtained were characterized by scanning probe microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The methods developed are promising for investigating the mechanisms of structural organization and transformation in DNA and polyelectrolyte complexes at the gas-liquid interface and for the design of new extremely thin highly ordered planar polymeric and composite materials, films, and coatings with controlled ultrastructure for applications in nanoelectronics and nanobiotechnology. PMID:14714516

Antipina, M N; Ga?nutdinov, R V; Rakhnianskaia, A A; Sergeev-Cherenkov, A N; Tolstikhina, A L; Iurova, T V; Kislov, V V; Khomutov, G B

2003-01-01

258

Thermal Expansion Properties of Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal expansion data for several composite materials, including generic epoxy resins, various graphite, boron, and glass fibers, and unidirectional and woven fabric composites in an epoxy matrix, were compiled. A discussion of the design, material, envi...

R. R. Johnson M. H. Kural G. B. Mackey

1981-01-01

259

Nanostructured Nb reinforced NiTi shape memory alloy composite with high strength and narrow hysteresis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in-situ nanostructured Nb reinforced NiTi shape-memory alloy composite was fabricated by mechanical reduction of an as-cast Nb-NiTi eutectic alloy. The composite exhibits large elastic strain, high strength, narrow hysteresis, and high mechanical energy storage density and efficiency during tensile cycling. In situ synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction revealed that these superior properties were attributed to the strong coupling between nanostructured Nb and NiTi matrix during deformation. Furthermore, this study offers a good understanding of the deformation behavior of the nanoscale reinforcement embedded in the metal matrix deformed by stress-induced phase transformation.

Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Jiang, Daqiang; Yu, Cun; Jiang, Jiang; Shi, Xiaobin; Liu, Zhenyang; Wang, Shan; Wang, Yandong; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

2013-06-01

260

Thermal stability and proton conductivity of silane based nanostructured composite membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of silane based nanostructured composite membranes were synthesized from 3-glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane (GPTMS) and 2(3, 4 epoxy cyclohexyl) ethyl triethoxy silane (EHTES) with varying proportion of aqueous orthophosphoric acid, nanoclay (Cloisite® 30B) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by sol–gel method. Thermal stability of the composite membranes studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the composite membranes were

R. N. Jana; H. Bhunia

2008-01-01

261

Microwave absorption properties of carbon nanotubes and tetrapod-shaped ZnO nanostructures composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

CNTs\\/T-ZnO\\/EP composites were fabricated using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and tetrapod-shaped ZnO (T-ZnO) nanostructures as absorbents and epoxy resin (EP) as binder. The electromagnetic characteristics and microwave absorption properties of the composites were investigated in the frequency range of 2–18GHz. The influences of absorbents concentration and composite thickness on microwave absorption properties were studied. When the content of CNTs and T-ZnO

Huifeng Li; Jian Wang; Yunhua Huang; Xiaoqin Yan; Junjie Qi; Jing Liu; Yue Zhang

2010-01-01

262

Preparation and electrochemistry of one-dimensional nanostructured MnO 2/PPy composite for electrochemical capacitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-dimensional nanostructured manganese dioxide/polypyrrole (MnO 2/PPy) composite was prepared by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization of pyrrole in the host of inorganic matrix of MnO 2, using complex of methyl orange (MO)/FeCl 3 as a reactive self-degraded soft-template. The morphology and structure of the composite were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the MnO 2/PPy composite consists of ?-MnO 2 and PPy with nanotube-like structure. Electrochemical properties of the composite demonstrated the material showed good electrochemical reversibility after 500 charge-discharge cycles in the potential range of -0.4 to 0.6 V, the tube-like nanocomposite has the potential application in electrochemical capacitor.

Li, Juan; Cui, Li; Zhang, Xiaogang

2010-04-01

263

Nanostructured Composites: Effective Mechanical Property Determination of Nanotube Bundles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon nanotubes naturally tend to form crystals in the form of hexagonally packed bundles or ropes that should exhibit a transversely isotropic constitutive behavior. Although the intratube axial stiffness is on the order of 1 TPa due to a strong network of delocalized bonds, the intertube cohesive strength is orders of magnitude less controlled by weak, nonbonding van der Waals interactions. An accurate determination of the effective mechanical properties of nanotube bundles is important to assess potential structural applications such as reinforcement in future composite material systems. A direct method for calculating effective material constants is developed in the present study. The Lennard-Jones potential is used to model the nonbonding cohesive forces. A complete set of transverse moduli are obtained and compared with existing data.

Saether, E.; Pipes, R. B.; Frankland, S. J. V.

2002-01-01

264

Sorptive removal of trinitroglycerin (TNG) from water using nanostructured silica-based materials.  

PubMed

Trinitroglycerin (TNG), a nitrate ester, is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain) and by the military for the manufacturing of dynamite and propellants. Currently, TNG is considered as a key environmental contaminant due to the discharge of wastewater tainted with the chemical from various military and pharmaceutical industries. The present study describes the use of a nanostructured silica material (Mobil Composite Material no. 48 [MCM-48]) prepared by mixing tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to remove TNG from water. The sorption of TNG onto MCM-48 rapidly reached equilibrium within 1 h. Sorption kinetics were best described using a pseudo-second order model, whereas sorption isotherms were best interpreted using the Langmuir model. The latter gave a maximum sorption capacity of 55.2 mg g(-1) at 40 degrees C. The enthalpy and entropy of TNG sorption onto MCM-48 were 1.89 kJ mol(-1) and 79.0 J mol(-1).K(-1), indicating the endothermic nature of the TNG sorption onto MCM-48. When MCM-48 was heated at 540 degrees C for 5 h, the resulting calcined material (absence of the surfactant) did not sorb TNG, suggesting that the surfactant component of the nanomaterial was responsible for TNG sorption. Finally, we found that MCM-48 lost approximately 30% of its original sorption capacity after five sorption-desorption cycles. In conclusion, the nanostructured silica based sorbent, with high sorption capacity and remarkable reusability, should constitute the basis for the development of an effective technology for the removal of TNG from contaminated water. PMID:20176831

Saad, Rabih; Thibutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal

2010-01-01

265

Properties of composite materials for cryogenic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite materials are used in a wide variety of cryogenic applications because of their unique and highly tailorable properties. These cryogenic applications of composites may be, for the sake of discussion, classified as support structures, vessels, or electrical insulation. Examples of these applications are presented, with a brief discussion of the critical material properties associated with each application. Composite material

J. B Schutz

1998-01-01

266

Formation of Nanostructures in Brittle Materials with Transformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformation and fracture of metal matrix composites under various loading schemes are studied. It is shown that in conditions far from transformation the material is deformed by dislocation glide as an ordinary crystal. In this case, yield stress is inversely proportional to the carbide spacing; in alloys with high solid phase content it is not achieved up lo fracture. Fracture of the material is catastrophically brittle. Deformation tests of composites near the phase transition temperature show that there are different transformations induced by a highly non-uniform stress state of the binding phase. Under loading the transformation scheme B2-> B2+ B19->B2 + "quasi-amorphous state" is realized in the binding phase with the formation of a microcrystalline, highly misoriented structure with the characteristic size of crystallites less than 10 nm. This structure has high plasticity and strong hardening. It governs an efficient transfer of external load to solid particles, inducing dislocation glide even in typically brittle titanium carbide particles. The physical meaning of using binders with unstable structure in composites involves a decrease in the scale of the structural level of plastic deformation due to the formation of the microcrystalline structure of the binding phase during non-uniform loading.

Kulkov, S.

2013-12-01

267

Modeling and characterization of the elastic behavior of interfaces in nanostructured materials: From an atomistic description to a continuum approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steady technological progresses in all fields of nanoscale technology and probe technology have enabled the synthesis, the assembly, the development, the characterization and the improvement of nanostructured materials. The lack of understanding of their macroscopic behavior is a major roadblock for inserting these materials into engineering applications. Partially due to these rapid advances in nano-scale and nano-structured materials, there has been a resurgence of interest in surface elastic properties such as surface energy, surface stresses, and surface elastic stiffness. Because of the large surface-to-volume ratio in nano-materials, surface elastic properties become more prominent. They have strong influence on the overall thermo-mechanical behavior of the nano-materials. In this dissertation, an innovative approach combining continuum mechanics and atomistic simulations is exposed to develop a nanomechanics theory for modeling and predicting the macroscopic behavior of nanomaterials. This nanomechanics theory exhibits the simplicity of the continuum formulation while taking into account the discrete atomic structure and interaction near surfaces/interfaces. There are four primary objectives to this dissertation. First, theory of interfaces is revisited to better understand its behavior and effects on the overall behavior of nanostructures. Second, atomistic tools are provided in order to efficiently determine the properties of free surfaces and interfaces. Interface properties are reported in this work, with comparison to both theoretical and experimental characterizations of interfaces. Specifically, we report surface elastic properties of groups 10--11 transition metals as well as properties for low-CSL grain boundaries in copper. Third, we propose a continuum framework that casts the atomic level information into continuum quantities that can be used to analyze, model and simulate macroscopic behavior of nanostructured materials. In particular, we study the effects of surface free energy on the effective modulus of nano-particles, nano-wires and nano-films as well as nanostructured crystalline materials and propose a general framework valid for any shape of nanostructural elements/nano-inclusions (integral forms) that characterizes the size-dependency of the elastic properties. This approach bridges the gap between discrete systems (atomic level interactions) and continuum mechanics. Finally this continuum outline is used to understand the effects of surfaces on the overall behavior of nano-size structural elements (particles, films, fibers, etc.) and nanostructured materials. More specifically we will discuss the impact of surface relaxation, surface elasticity and non-linearity of the underlying bulk on the properties nanostructured materials. In terms of engineering applications, this approach proves to be a useful tool for multi-scale modeling of heterogeneous materials with nanometer scale microstructures and provides insights on surface properties for several material systems; these will be very useful in many fields including surface science, tribology, fracture mechanics, adhesion science and engineering, and more. It will accelerate the insertion of nano-size structural elements, nano-composite and nanocrystalline materials into engineering applications.

Dingreville, Remi

268

Enhancing thermoelectric properties of organic composites through hierarchical nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic thermoelectric (TE) materials are very attractive due to easy processing, material abundance, and environmentally-benign characteristics, but their potential is significantly restricted by the inferior thermoelectric properties. In this work, noncovalently functionalized graphene with fullerene by ?-? stacking in a liquid-liquid interface was integrated into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate). Graphene helps to improve electrical conductivity while fullerene enhances the Seebeck coefficient and hinders thermal conductivity, resulting in the synergistic effect on enhancing thermoelectric properties. With the integration of nanohybrids, the electrical conductivity increased from ~10000 to ~70000 S/m, the thermal conductivity changed from 0.2 to 2 W.K-1m-1 while the Seebeck coefficient was enhanced by around 4-fold. As a result, nanohybrids-based polymer composites demonstrated the figure of merit (ZT) as high as 6.7 × 10-2, indicating an enhancement of more than one order of magnitude in comparison to single-phase filler-based polymer composites with ZT at the level of 10-3.

Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Shiren

2013-12-01

269

Enhancing thermoelectric properties of organic composites through hierarchical nanostructures  

PubMed Central

Organic thermoelectric (TE) materials are very attractive due to easy processing, material abundance, and environmentally-benign characteristics, but their potential is significantly restricted by the inferior thermoelectric properties. In this work, noncovalently functionalized graphene with fullerene by ?-? stacking in a liquid-liquid interface was integrated into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate). Graphene helps to improve electrical conductivity while fullerene enhances the Seebeck coefficient and hinders thermal conductivity, resulting in the synergistic effect on enhancing thermoelectric properties. With the integration of nanohybrids, the electrical conductivity increased from ~10000 to ~70000?S/m, the thermal conductivity changed from 0.2 to 2?W·K?1m?1 while the Seebeck coefficient was enhanced by around 4-fold. As a result, nanohybrids-based polymer composites demonstrated the figure of merit (ZT) as high as 6.7 × 10?2, indicating an enhancement of more than one order of magnitude in comparison to single-phase filler-based polymer composites with ZT at the level of 10?3.

Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Shiren

2013-01-01

270

Composite materials for fusion applications  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic matrix composites, CMCs, are being considered for advanced first-wall and blanket structural applications because of their high-temperature properties, low neutron activation, low density and low coefficient of expansion coupled with good thermal conductivity and corrosion behavior. This paper presents a review and analysis of the hermetic, thermal conductivity, corrosion, crack growth and radiation damage properties of CMCs. It was concluded that the leak rates of a gaseous coolant into the plasma chamber or tritium out of the blanket could exceed design criteria if matrix microcracking causes existing porosity to become interconnected. Thermal conductivities of unirradiated SiC/SiC and C/SiC materials are about 1/2 to 2/3 that of Type 316 SS whereas the thermal conductivity for C/C composites is seven times larger. The thermal stress figure-of-merit value for CMCs exceeds that of Type 316 SS for a single thermal cycle. SiC/SiC composites are very resistant to corrosion and are expected to be compatible with He or Li coolants if the O{sub 2} concentrations are maintained at the appropriate levels. CMCs exhibit subcritical crack growth at elevated temperatures and the crack velocity is a function of the corrosion conditions. The radiation stability of CMCs will depend on the stability of the fiber, microcracking of the matrix, and the effects of gaseous transmutation products on properties. 23 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

Jones, R.H.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Hollenberg, G.W.

1991-10-01

271

Reliable contact fabrication on nanostructured Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric materials.  

PubMed

A cost-effective and reliable Ni-Au contact on nanostructured Bi2Te3-based alloys for a solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) is reported. The use of MPS SAMs creates a strong covalent binding and more nucleation sites with even distribution for electroplating contact electrodes on nanostructured thermoelectric materials. A reliable high-performance flat-panel STEG can be obtained by using this new method. PMID:23531997

Feng, Shien-Ping; Chang, Ya-Huei; Yang, Jian; Poudel, Bed; Yu, Bo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

2013-05-14

272

Morphology and composition controlled synthesis of flower-like silver nanostructures  

PubMed Central

Flower-like silver nanostructures with controlled morphology and composition were prepared through wet-chemical synthesis. The reaction rate is simply manipulated by the amount of catalyzing agent ammonia added which is the key point to determine the ratio of hexagonal close-packed (HCP) to face-centered cubic (FCC) phase in silver nanostructures. The existence of formic acid that is the oxidation product of aldehyde group is demonstrated to play a crucial role in achieving the metastable HCP crystal structures by replacing ionic surfactants with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Utilizing flower-like silver nanostructures as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates, Raman signal of Rhodamine 6G, or 4-aminothiophenol with concentration as low as 10?7 M was detected. Moreover, it is demonstrated that phase composition has no direct relation to the SERS enhancing factor which is mainly determined by the amount of hot spots.

2014-01-01

273

Metal-polymer composite with nanostructured filler particles and amplified physical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limits of conductivity of a novel elastomeric matrix-nanostructured nickel powder composite are reported. The conductivity falls by a factor of >=2×1014 for compression and by a similar amount in extension. Uncompressed and highly compressed composite displays ohmic behavior but between these limits the current-voltage characteristics are highly nonlinear. The matrix intimately coats the filler so that even above the expected percolation threshold the composite has a very low conductivity. The conductivity of the composite is increased under all mechanical deformations. These and other unusual properties are amplified versions of smaller effects seen in composites containing less highly structured fillers.

Bloor, D.; Graham, A.; Williams, E. J.; Laughlin, P. J.; Lussey, D.

2006-03-01

274

Tuning the composition and nanostructure of Pt/Ir films via anodized aluminum oxide templated atomic layer deposition.  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured metal films have been widely studied for their roles in sensing, catalysis, and energy storage. In this work, the synthesis of compositionally controlled and nanostructured Pt/Ir films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) into porous anodized aluminum oxide templates is demonstrated. Templated ALD provides advantages over alternative synthesis techniques, including improved film uniformity and conformality as well as atomic-scale control over morphology and composition. Nanostructured Pt ALD films are demonstrated with morphological control provided by the Pt precursor exposure time and the number of ALD cycles. With these approaches, Pt films with enhanced surface areas, as characterized by roughness factors as large as 310, are reproducibly synthesized. Additionally, nanostructured Ptlr alloy films of controlled composition and morphology are demonstrated by templated ALD, with compositions varying systematically from pure Pt to pure Ir. Lastly, the application of nanostructured Pt films to electrochemical sensing applications is demonstrated by the non-enzymatic sensing of glucose.

Comstock, D. J.; Christensen, S. T.; Elam, J. W.; Pellin, M. J.; Hersam, M. C.; Northwestern Univ.

2010-09-23

275

Space processing of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials and processes for the testing of aluminum-base fiber and particle composites, and of metal foams under extended-time low-g conditions were investigated. A wetting and dispersion technique was developed, based on the theory that under the absence of a gas phase all solids are wetted by liquids. The process is characterized by a high vacuum environment and a high temperature cycle. Successful wetting and dispersion experiments were carried out with sapphire fibers, whiskers and particles, and with fibers of silicon carbide, pyrolytic graphite and tungsten. The developed process and facilities permit the preparation of a precomposite which serves as sample material for flight experiments. Low-g processing consists then merely in the uniform redistribution of the reinforcements during a melting cycle. For the preparation of metal foams, gas generation by means of a thermally decomposing compound was found most adaptable to flight experiments. For flight experiments, the use of compacted mixture of the component materials limits low-g processing to a simple melt cycle.

Steurer, W. H.; Kaye, S.

1975-01-01

276

Formation of nanostructural materials induced by mechanical processings (overview)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical alloying (MA) was firstly developed to synthesize metallic matrix composite by mechanically incorporating preformed oxide and or carbide particles into a metallic matrix. A compaction process is then applied to obtain bulk materials. During MA, powders are repeatedly welded, fractured and rewelded in a high-energy mill leading to an intimate mixing on a nano/micro-scale with the possible formation of far-from-equilibrium phases. The versatility of MA is well-known; high-volume, low-energy mills can be used to commercially produce dispersion-strengthened Al, Ni and other transition metal alloys. An overview of the dynamics of the process is presented to help gain a full appreciation of the industrial potential of the technique for synthesizing materials.

Gaffet, E.; Abdellaoui, M.; Malhouroux-Gaffet, N.

1995-02-01

277

Nanostructure and optoelectronic phenomena in germanium-transparent conductive oxide (Ge:TCO) composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured composites are attracting intense interest for electronic and optoelectronic device applications, specifically as active elements in thin film photovoltaic (PV) device architectures. These systems implement fundamentally different concepts of enhancing energy conversion efficiencies compared to those seen in current commercial devices. This is possible through considerable flexibility in the manipulation of device-relevant properties through control of the interplay between the nanostructure and the optoelectronic response. In the present work, inorganic nanocomposites of semiconductor Ge embedded in transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) as well as Ge in zinc oxide (ZnO) were produced by a single step RF-magnetron sputter deposition process. It is shown that, by controlling the design of the nanocomposites as well as heat treatment conditions, decreases in the physical dimensions of Ge nanophase size provided an effective tuning of the optical absorption and charge transport properties. This effect of changes in the optical properties of nanophase semiconductors with respect to size is known as the quantum confinement effect. Variation in the embedding matrix material between ITO and ZnO with corresponding characterization of optoelectronic properties exhibit notable differences in the presence and evolution of an interfacial oxide within these composites. Further studies of interfacial structures were performed using depth-profiling XPS and Raman spectroscopy, while study of the corresponding electronic effects were performed using room temperature and temperature-dependent Hall Effect. Optical absorption was noted to shift to higher onset energies upon heat treatment with a decrease in the observed Ge domain size, indicating quantum confinement effects within these systems. This contrasts to previous investigations that have involved the introduction of nanoscale Ge into insulating, amorphous oxides. Comparison of these different matrix chemistries highlights the overarching role of interfacial structures on quantum-size characteristics. The opportunity to tune the spectral response of these PV materials, via control of semiconductor phase assembly in the nanocomposite, directly impacts the potential for the use of these materials as sensitizing elements for enhanced solar cell conversion efficiency.

Shih, Grace Hwei-Pyng

278

Accelerated Aging of Polymer Composite Bridge Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accelerated aging research on samples of composite material and candidate ultraviolet (UV) protective coatings is determining the effects of six environmental factors on material durability. Candidate fastener materials are being evaluated to determine co...

1999-01-01

279

Redox preparation of mixed-valence cobalt manganese oxide nanostructured materials: highly efficient noble metal-free electrocatalysts for sensing hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

High-performance hydrogen peroxide sensors provide valuable signals of biological interactions, disorders, and developing of diseases. Low-cost metal oxides are promising alternatives but suffer from low conductivity and sensing activity. Multi-component metal oxides are excellent candidates to accomplish these challenges, but the composition inhomogeneity is difficult to manage with conventional material preparation. We demonstrated redox preparation strategies to successfully synthesize highly homogeneous, noble metal-free H2O2 sensors of spinel nanostructured cobalt manganese oxides with enhanced conductivity, multiple mixed-valence features, and efficient H2O2 sensing activities. The designed redox reactions accompanied with material nucleation/formation are the key factors for compositional homogeneity. High conductivity (1.5 × 10(-2) S cm(-1)) and H2O2 sensing activity (12 times higher than commercial Co3O4) were achieved due to the homogeneous multiple mixed-valence systems of Co(ii)/(iii) and Mn(iii)/(iv). A wide linear detection range (from 0.1 to 25 mM) with a detection limit of 15 ?M was observed. Manganese species assist the formation of large surface area nanostructures, enhancing the H2O2 reduction activities, and inhibit the sensing interference. The material controls of hierarchical nanostructures, elemental compositions, porosity, and electrochemical performances are highly associated with the reaction temperatures. The temperature-dependent properties and nanostructure formation mechanisms based on a reaction rate competition are proposed. PMID:24196690

Kuo, Cheng-Chi; Lan, Wen-Jie; Chen, Chun-Hu

2014-01-01

280

Nanostructured carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes for supercapacitors: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a review of the research progress in the carbon-metal oxide composites for supercapacitor electrodes. In the past decade, various carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes have been developed by integrating metal oxides into different carbon nanostructures including zero-dimensional carbon nanoparticles, one-dimensional nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers), two-dimensional nanosheets (graphene and reduced graphene oxides) as well as three-dimensional porous carbon nano-architectures. This paper has described the constituent, the structure and the properties of the carbon-metal oxide composites. An emphasis is placed on the synergistic effects of the composite on the performance of supercapacitors in terms of specific capacitance, energy density, power density, rate capability and cyclic stability. This paper has also discussed the physico-chemical processes such as charge transport, ion diffusion and redox reactions involved in supercapacitors.

Zhi, Mingjia; Xiang, Chengcheng; Li, Jiangtian; Li, Ming; Wu, Nianqiang

2012-12-01

281

Modeling and characterization of the elastic behavior of interfaces in nanostructured materials: From an atomistic description to a continuum approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady technological progresses in all fields of nanoscale technology and probe technology have enabled the synthesis, the assembly, the development, the characterization and the improvement of nanostructured materials. The lack of understanding of their macroscopic behavior is a major roadblock for inserting these materials into engineering applications. Partially due to these rapid advances in nano-scale and nano-structured materials, there has

Remi Dingreville

2007-01-01

282

Nanostructured Ni–WC–Co composite coatings fabricated by electrophoretic deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was applied to the fabrication of nanostructured Ni–WC–Co composite coatings on nickel-plated stainless steel substrates. The micro-hardness and ball-on-disk sliding wear of the sintered composite coatings were tested for, and the results correlated to those of the microstructure analysis, which was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).Sintering after EPD on the substrates and

Y. Wang; Z. Xu

2006-01-01

283

Structural changes during synthesizing of nanostructured W–20 wt% Cu composite powder by mechanical alloying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured W–20wt% Cu composite powder was synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) in an Attritor ball mill. The morphological changes and structural evolution of the composite powder during MA was studied by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), laser particle size analyzer (LPS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometery (AAS), and the bulk

M. H. Maneshian; A. Simchi; Z. Razavi Hesabi

2007-01-01

284

Microbial growth on fiber reinforced composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms may be responsible for physical and chemical changes in composite materials. Inoculation of a fungal consortium to pre-sterilized coupons of five composites resulted in deep penetration into the interior of all materials at a temperature of approximately 22°C within 5 weeks. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the inoculated composites were etched by the microorganisms. None of the five

Ji-Dong Gu; T. Ford; K. Thorp; R. Mitchell

1996-01-01

285

Nanostructured metal-polyaniline composites and applications thereof  

DOEpatents

Metal-polyaniline (PANI) composites are provided together with a process of preparing such composites by an electrodeless process. The metal of the composite can have nanoscale structural features and the composites can be used in applications such as catalysis for hydrogenation reactions and for analytical detection methods employing SERS.

Wang, Hsing-Lin; Li, Wenguang; Bailey, James A.; Gao, Yuan

2012-10-02

286

Composite materials for space structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of advanced composites for space structures is reviewed. Barriers likely to limit further applications of composites are discussed and highlights of research to improve composites are presented. Developments in composites technology which could impact spacecraft systems are reviewed to identify technology needs and opportunities.

Tenney, D. R.; Sykes, G. F.; Bowles, D. E.

1985-01-01

287

Thin film dielectric composite materials  

DOEpatents

A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Gibbons, Brady J. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Park, Bae Ho (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

2002-01-01

288

Design, fabrication, and testing of nanostructured carbons and composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many applications, such as catalysis, sensing, separation and energy storage and conversion, will benefit from the miniaturization of materials to nanometer length scales. This dissertation details my study of nanocomposites based on three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) carbons and zirconia, and three-dimensionally ordered macroporous/mesoporous (3DOM/m) carbons. The macropores of these materials were produced using colloidal crystal templates while the mesopores were generated using surfactant templates. These solids are composed of close-packed and three-dimensionally interconnected spherical macropores surrounded by nanoscale solid or mesoporous wall skeletons. This unique architecture offers large surface areas, pore volumes, and good access into the bulk via a macroporous network. 3DOM carbons have been demonstrated as promising electrode materials for lithium ion batteries and sensors, but their electrochemical performance still needs to be improved. As a model system for the modification of the electrode, 3DOM C/TiO2 was synthesized by fabricating a conformal coating of TiO2 nanoparticles on the macropore walls of 3DOM C. My research further extended the micro-structural design of monolithic carbon from 3DOM to 3DOM/m. 3DOM/m C monoliths with high surface areas, controllable mesopore sizes, and mesopore ordering, were synthesized by three methods. One of the methods is simpler and more environment benign than previously reported methods. The mesopores in 3DOM/m C-based electrode provide room to accommodate secondary phases, such as graphitic carbon, SnO2 and Si which can improve the conductivity or lithium capacity of the electrode. Owing to this advantage, 3DOM/m C/C and 3DOM/m C/SnO2 exhibited significantly improved rate performance, lithium capacity and cycleability, compared with 3DOM C. To meet the demands of nano-sized functional materials in applications such as nano-device fabrication and drug delivery, mesoporous carbon nanoparticles with cubic, spherical and tetrapod shapes were also synthesized. In addition, new methods were developed to assemble nanocomposites of bifunctional catalyst components. These materials were designed for the potential direct conversion of synthesis gas to clean liquid fuels. Coatings of zeolite and cobalt nanoparticles were fabricated on 3DOM promoted zirconia. The 3DOM zirconia-based nanocomposites were characterized by a wide variety of techniques to illustrate their morphologies, internal structures, chemical compositions, porosity, and crystallographic phases.

Wang, Zhiyong

289

Design, fabrication, and modification of nanostructured semiconductor materials for environmental and energy applications.  

PubMed

Considerable effort has been made to design, fabricate, and manipulate nanostructured materials by innovative approaches. The precise control of nanoscale structures will pave the way not only for elucidating unique size/shape-dependent physicochemical properties but also for realizing new applications in science and technology. Nanotechnology offers unprecedented opportunities for improving our daily lives and the environment in which we live. This review mainly describes our recent progress in the design, fabrication, and modification of nanostructured semiconductor materials for environmental applications. Their potential applications in the field of energy are briefly introduced. The scope of this article covers a variety of semiconductor materials, focusing particularly on TiO(2)-based nanostructures (e.g., pure, doped, coupled, nanoporous, mesoporous, hierarchically porous, and ordered mesoporous TiO(2)). The preparation of nanoparticles, hierarchical nanoarchitectures, thin films, and single crystals by sol-gel, microemulsion, hydrothermal, sonochemical, microwave, photochemical, and nanocasting methods is discussed. PMID:19736984

Hu, Xianluo; Li, Guisheng; Yu, Jimmy C

2010-03-01

290

Optimized designs and materials for nanostructure based solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructure-based solar cells are attracting significant attention as possible candidates for drastic improvement in photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion efficiency. Although such solar cells are expected to be more expensive there is growing need for the efficient and light-weight solar cells in aero-space and related industries. In this dissertation I present results of the theoretical, computational and experimental investigation of novel

Qinghui Shao

2009-01-01

291

New Armour Materials: Metal Matrix Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ballistic properties of metal matrix composites are reviewed and discussed. All the data located treats aluminum-base composites reinforced with silicon carbide, boron carbide or aluminum oxide particles. Most of these materials have not been optimize...

S. J. Savage

1994-01-01

292

Nanostructures of nematic materials of laterally branched molecules.  

PubMed

The synthesis and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) characterization is reported for 20 laterally branched mesogenic molecules, which are derived from the common rod-shaped 2,5-bis([4-(octyloxy)phenyl]carbonyloxy) benzoic acid unit. These compounds have a varying degree of flexibility, in that their lateral branch is formed upon conversion of the acid to either an ester or an amide, and most laterally branched molecules exhibit relatively wide nematic liquid-crystal phases with a direct nematic-to-crystal transition at lower temperatures. SAXS studies reveal the presence of smectic-like nanostructures (clusters) with short-range order in the nematic phase, with characteristic correlation lengths from 3 to over 10 nm. The smectic layers that are contained in these clusters are tilted with respect to the nematic director by angles ranging from 0° (i.e. untilted) to 55°. In some compounds, the intensity of the SAXS peak corresponding to the smectic layer spacing depends strongly on temperature. The main features of the nanostructures can be understood based on the molecular structure; therefore, guiding future synthetic work towards more precisely controlled and technologically useful nanostructures in nematics. PMID:24039014

Breckon, Randall; Chakraborty, Saonti; Zhang, Cuiyu; Diorio, Nicholas; Gleeson, James T; Sprunt, Samuel; Twieg, Robert J; Jákli, Antal

2014-05-19

293

Material characterization of high dielectric constant polymer-ceramic composite for embedded capacitor to RF application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedded capacitor technology can improve electrical performance and reduce assembly cost compared with traditional discrete capacitor technology. Polymer-ceramic composites have been of great interest as embedded capacitor material because they combine the processability of polymers with the desired electrical properties of ceramics. A novel nano-structure polymer-ceramic composite with very high dielectric constant (?r~150, a new record for the highest reported

Yang Rao; Jireh Yue; C. P. Wong

2001-01-01

294

Degassing Behavior of Nanostructured Al and Its Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of bulk ultrafine-grained (UFG) and nanostructured Al via cryomilling can frequently require a degassing step prior to consolidation, partly due to the large surface area of the as-milled powders. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects associated with cryomilling with stearic acid additions (as a process-control agent) on the degassing behavior of Al powders. This objective was accomplished by completing select experiments with Al-7.5Mg, Al-6.4 wt pct Al85Ni10La5, and Al-14.3 wt pct B4C. The interaction between Al and stearic acid was determined using thermal analysis combined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The degassing experiments were carried out under high vacuum (10-4 to ~10-6 torr) in a range from room temperature to 400 °C, with the pressure of the released gases monitored using a digital vacuum gage. The results showed that the liberation of chemisorbed water was suppressed in cryomilled Al powders and both the chemisorbed water and stearic acid were primarily released in the form of hydrogen. It was also demonstrated that under certain conditions, a nanostructure (grain size ~100 nm) can be retained following the hot vacuum degassing of cryomilled Al.

Zhang, Zhihui; Dallek, Steven; Vogt, Rustin; Li, Ying; Topping, Troy D.; Zhou, Yizhang; Schoenung, Julie M.; Lavernia, Enrique J.

2010-02-01

295

Self-Assembly and Headgroup Effect in Nanostructured Organogels via Cationic Amphiphile-Graphene Oxide Composites.  

PubMed

Self-assembly of hierarchical graphene oxide (GO)-based nanomaterials with novel functions has received a great deal of attentions. In this study, nanostructured organogels based on cationic amphiphile-GO composites were prepared. The gelation behaviors of amphiphile-GO composites in organic solvents can be regulated by changing the headgroups of amphiphiles. Ammonium substituted headgroup in molecular structures in present self-assembled composites is more favorable for the gelation in comparison to pyridinium headgroup. A possible mechanism for headgroup effects on self-assembly and as-prepared nanostructures is proposed. It is believed that the present amphiphile-GO self-assembled system will provide an alternative platform for the design of new GO nanomaterials and soft matters. PMID:24983466

Jiao, Tifeng; Wang, Yujin; Zhang, Qingrui; Yan, Xuehai; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Jingxin; Gao, Faming

2014-01-01

296

Self-Assembly and Headgroup Effect in Nanostructured Organogels via Cationic Amphiphile-Graphene Oxide Composites  

PubMed Central

Self-assembly of hierarchical graphene oxide (GO)-based nanomaterials with novel functions has received a great deal of attentions. In this study, nanostructured organogels based on cationic amphiphile-GO composites were prepared. The gelation behaviors of amphiphile-GO composites in organic solvents can be regulated by changing the headgroups of amphiphiles. Ammonium substituted headgroup in molecular structures in present self-assembled composites is more favorable for the gelation in comparison to pyridinium headgroup. A possible mechanism for headgroup effects on self-assembly and as-prepared nanostructures is proposed. It is believed that the present amphiphile-GO self-assembled system will provide an alternative platform for the design of new GO nanomaterials and soft matters.

Jiao, Tifeng; Wang, Yujin; Zhang, Qingrui; Yan, Xuehai; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Jingxin; Gao, Faming

2014-01-01

297

PROPERTIES AND NANOSTRUCTURES OF NANO-MATERIALS PROCESSED BY SEVERE PLASTIC DEFORMATION (SPD).  

SciTech Connect

Metallic materials usually exhibit higher strength but lower ductility after being plastically deformed by conventional techniques such as rolling, drawing and extrusion. In contrast, nanostructured metals and alloys processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) have demonstrated both high strength and high ductility. This extraordinary mechanical behavior is attributed to the unique nanostructures generated by SPD processing. The combination of ultrafine grain size and high-density dislocations appears to enable deformation by new mechanisms not active in coarse-grained metals and alloys. These results demonstrate the possibility of tailoring the microstructures of metals and alloys by SPD to obtain superior mechanical properties. Nanostructured metals and alloys processed by SPD techniques have unique nanostructures not observed in nanomaterials synthesized by other techniques such as the consolidation of nanopowders. The SPD-generated nanostructures have many features related to deformation, including high dislocation densities, and high- and low-angle grain boundaries in equilibrium or nonequilibrium states. Future studies are needed to investigate the deformation mechanisms that relate the unique nanostructures with the superior mechanical properties exhibited by SPD-processed metals and alloys.

Zhu, Y. T. (Yuntian Theodore)

2001-01-01

298

Characterization of nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, nanostructured materials are examined for electrochemical energy storage devices with high energy and power densities. While previous research on nanostructured materials for energy storage has mostly focused on the effects of reduced dimensionality on diffusion distances, the research presented here demonstrates how nanostructuring can lead to new charge storage mechanisms. The first part of the dissertation describes the low-potential reactivity of V2O5 aerogels and how nanostructuring leads to significantly improved reversibility of the charge storage process. The second part details the rapid kinetic response of T-Nb 2O5 and in addition, how the combination of nanostructure and appropriate crystalline structure leads to a mechanism called intercalation pseudocapacitance. The third part examines how a 2D nanosheet morphology changes both the redox potentials and kinetics of lithium ion storage in TiO 2. These investigations underscore how reducing a material's dimensions and morphology leads to unique electrochemical behavior beyond simple decreasing of diffusion distances, and how such structures could lead to ultimately higher energy and power density electrochemical energy storage devices.

Augustyn, Veronica

299

Synthesis and Electron Field-Emission of 1-D Carbon-Related Nanostructured Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes, a new stable form of carbon that was first identified in 1991 [1], are fullerene-related structures which consist of graphitic cylinders closed at either end with caps containing pentagonal rings. Although carbon nanotube structures are closely related to graphite, the curvature, symmetry and small size induce marked deviations from the graphitic behavior. Various methods have been used to produce carbon nanotubes, e.g., arc-discharge, laser-vaporization, catalytic chemical vapor deposition, but too many impurities also be produced, such as fullerenes, carbon nanoparticles and amorphous carbons. The microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) system has been used to grow carbon nanotubes in this work and other 1-D carbon-related nanostructured materials was synthesized by the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system. Plasma is generated by microwave excitation at 2.45 GHz by a magnetron passes through a waveguide and fed perpendicularly through a quartz dome into an 875 G magnetic field generated by the coils surrounding the resonance volume that creates the ECR condition. The deposition chamber was pumped down to the base pressure of 6.7X10-4 Pa (5X10-6 Torr) with a turbomolecular pump for ECR-plasma and subatmospheric pressures for MPECVD by a rotary mechanical pump. Well-aligned carbon-related nanostructures have been synthesized in nanoporous alumina or silicon with a uniform diameter of 30-100 nm by microwave excited plasma of CH_4, C_2H_2, N_2, H2 and Ar precursors. Nickel nanowires not only serve as catalysts to decompose hydrocarbons to form nanostructures but also function as an electrical conductor for other advanced applications. A negative dc bias is always applied to the substrate to promote the flow of ion fluxes through the nanochannels of the template materials that facilitate the physical adsorption and subsequent chemical absorption in the formation of carbon- and carbon-nitride nanotubes[2]. The electron field emission characteristics of the 1-D carbon-related nanostructures were measured by the conventional diode method at an ambient pressure of 1.3X10-3 Pa (10-5 Torr). The films (1X1-cm^2) were separated from the anode by ITO (indium tin oxide) coated glass, where a glass fiber spacer was maintained at 150 ?m from the cathode. The current density and electric field characteristics were measured using a Keithley 237 electrometer. A range of onset electron emission field from 3.5 to 1.5 V/?m and an emission current density up to 1 mA/cm^2 at 3V/?m have been achieved in this study, apparently superior to other carbon-based electron field emitters[3]. The results were reproducible over a period of weeks and the nanotubes did not degrade physically when exposing to a humid air of RH 90using the Fowler-Nordheim model, I=aV^2 exp (-b?_e^3/2/V) , where a and b are constants. The turn-on voltage was estimated as the voltage deviating from ln(I/V^2)-1/V curve. The effective work function (?_e=?/?) of the arrayed carbon nanotubes was calculated from the slope of the Fowler-Nordheim plot, where the value of ?, the field enhancement factor, was found to be 1517. This value increased to 3357 when nitrogen was doped, but decreased to 974 when boron was doped. The incorporation of nitrogen or boron into the carbon network apparently changes the original nanostructure and the chemical bonding. The structural and compositional modification by the incorporation of nitrogen, boron, or hydrogen into the 1-D carbon-related nanostructured materials were analyzed by FTIR , XPS , Raman spectroscopy , and FE-SEM . Various forms in connection with 1-D nanostructured materials applicable to the NEMS , e.g. , nanowelding of nanotubes[4], tubes on tube , open-end nanotubes and coils of nanofiber and nanotubes have been produced in this research depending on the plasma chemistry, catalytic effect and the design of template. [1]. S. Iijima, Nature 354, 56 (1991). [2]. S. L. Sung, S. H. Tsai, C. H. Tseng, X. W. Liu, and H. C. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 197 (1999). [3]. S. H. Tsai,

Shih, Han C.

2002-10-01

300

Novel nanostructured electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology provides an effective and direct way to create novel properties and phenomena through the reduction in material sizes without changing the materials’ chemical composition. A number of routes to the preparation of novel nanostructured electrodes were investigated in this thesis. These involve the formation of nanoporous opaline electrodes, three dimensional nanofibrous networks and the synthesis of flexible nanoelectrodes based

Yong Liu

2007-01-01

301

Nanostructured multilayered thin film barriers for Mg2Si thermoelectric materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mg2Si-based alloys are promising candidates for thermoelectric energy conversion in the middle-high temperature range in order to replace lead compounds. The main advantages of silicide-based thermoelectrics are the nontoxicity and the abundance of their constituent elements in the earth crust. The drawback of such kind of materials is their oxygen sensitivity at high temperature that entails their use under vacuum or inert atmosphere. In order to limit the corrosion phenomena, nanostructured multilayered molybdenum silicide-based materials were deposited via RF magnetron sputtering onto stainless steel, alumina and silicon (100) to set up the deposition process and then onto Mg2Si pellets. XRD, EDS, FE-SEM and electrical measurements at high temperature were carried out in order to obtain, respectively, the structural, compositional, morphological and electrical characterization of the deposited coatings. At the end, the mechanical behavior of the system thin film/Mg2Si-substrate as a function of temperature and the barrier properties for oxygen protection after thermal treatment in air at high temperature were qualitatively evaluated by FE-SEM.

Battiston, S.; Boldrini, S.; Fiameni, S.; Agresti, F.; Famengo, A.; Fabrizio, M.; Barison, S.

2012-06-01

302

Morphology and microstructure of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight continuous carbon fiber based polymeric composites are currently enjoying increasing acceptance as structural materials capable of replacing metals and alloys in load bearing applications. As with most new materials, these composites are undergoing trials with several competing processing techniques aimed at cost effectively producing void free consolidations with good mechanical properties. As metallic materials have been in use for several centuries, a considerable database exists on their morphology - microstructure; and the interrelationships between structure and properties have been well documented. Numerous studies on composites have established the crucial relationship between microstructure - morphology and properties. The various microstructural and morphological features of composite materials, particularly those accompanying different processing routes, are documented.

Tiwari, S. N.; Srinivansan, K.

1991-01-01

303

NASA technology utilization survey on composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and NASA-funded contractor contributions to the field of composite materials are surveyed. Existing and potential non-aerospace applications of the newer composite materials are emphasized. Economic factors for selection of a composite for a particular application are weight savings, performance (high strength, high elastic modulus, low coefficient of expansion, heat resistance, corrosion resistance,), longer service life, and reduced maintenance. Applications for composites in agriculture, chemical and petrochemical industries, construction, consumer goods, machinery, power generation and distribution, transportation, biomedicine, and safety are presented. With the continuing trend toward further cost reductions, composites warrant consideration in a wide range of non-aerospace applications. Composite materials discussed include filamentary reinforced materials, laminates, multiphase alloys, solid multiphase lubricants, and multiphase ceramics. New processes developed to aid in fabrication of composites are given.

Leeds, M. A.; Schwartz, S.; Holm, G. J.; Krainess, A. M.; Wykes, D. M.; Delzell, M. T.; Veazie, W. H., Jr.

1972-01-01

304

Reduction of thermal conductivity of bulk nanostructured bismuth telluride composites embedded with silicon nano-inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk nanostructured bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) composite with silicon nano-crystallite inclusions was synthesized via sintering approach. The effect of the composite structure formed by the addition of miniscule quantity (5 at. %) of silicon on the thermoelectric properties of bulk nanostructured Bi2Te3 is shown via a 50% drop in thermal conductivity accompanied with a simultaneous enhancement in the Seebeck coefficient. We demonstrate that the addition of silicon nano-inclusions to the nanostructured compound combined with a systematic thermal treatment beneficially reduces the thermal conductivity to less than 1.0 W/mK over the entire temperature range of 300 K to 525 K. It is shown that the combinatorial techniques of nanostructuring, nano-inclusions, and annealing are effective in reducing thermal conductivity by a significant magnitude. This low thermal conductivity is comparable to that of Bi2Te3 based superlattices and significantly lower than that of bulk Bi2Te3. The technique is extendable to (Bi,Se)2(Sb,Te)3 based thermoelectric alloys for enhancing the figure-of-merit.

Satyala, Nikhil; Tahmasbi Rad, Armin; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Tayebi, Lobat; Vashaee, Daryoosh

2014-01-01

305

Composite structural materials. [fiber reinforced composites for aircraft structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical properties of fiber reinforced composites; structural concepts and analysis; manufacturing; reliability; and life prediction are subjects of research conducted to determine the long term integrity of composite aircraft structures under conditions pertinent to service use. Progress is reported in (1) characterizing homogeneity in composite materials; (2) developing methods for analyzing composite materials; (3) studying fatigue in composite materials; (4) determining the temperature and moisture effects on the mechanical properties of laminates; (5) numerically analyzing moisture effects; (6) numerically analyzing the micromechanics of composite fracture; (7) constructing the 727 elevator attachment rib; (8) developing the L-1011 engine drag strut (CAPCOMP 2 program); (9) analyzing mechanical joints in composites; (10) developing computer software; and (11) processing science and technology, with emphasis on the sailplane project.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberly, S. E.

1981-01-01

306

Advanced Composite Materials for Precision Segmented Reflectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective in the NASA Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) project is to develop new composite material concepts for highly stable and durable reflectors with precision surfaces. The project focuses on alternate material concepts such as the developmen...

B. A. Stein D. E. Bowles

1988-01-01

307

New Textile Composite Materials Development, Production, Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New textile composite materials development, production, and application are discussed. Topics covered include: super-high-strength, super-high-modulus fibers, filaments, and materials manufactured on their basis; heat-resistant and nonflammable fibers, f...

P. Y. Mikhailov

1993-01-01

308

Superior in vitro biological response and mechanical properties of an implantable nanostructured biomaterial: Nanohydroxyapatite-silicone rubber composite.  

PubMed

A potential approach to achieving the objective of favorably modulating the biological response of implantable biopolymers combined with good mechanical properties is to consider compounding the biopolymer with a bioactive nanocrystalline ceramic biomimetic material with high surface area. The processing of silicone rubber (SR)-nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) composite involved uniform dispersion of nHA via shear mixing and ultrasonication, followed by compounding at sub-ambient temperature, and high-pressure solidification when the final curing reaction occurs. The high-pressure solidification approach enabled the elastomer to retain the high elongation of SR even in the presence of the reinforcement material, nHA. The biological response of the nanostructured composite in terms of initial cell attachment, cell viability and proliferation was consistently greater on SR-5wt.% nHA composite surface compared to pure SR. Furthermore, in the nanocomposite, cell spreading, morphology and density were distinctly different from that of pure SR. Pre-osteoblasts grown on SR-nHA were well spread, flat, large in size with a rough cell surface, and appeared as a group. In contrast, these features were less pronounced in SR (e.g. smooth cell surface, not well spread). Interestingly, an immunofluorescence study illustrated distinct fibronectin expression level, and stronger vinculin focal adhesion contacts associated with abundant actin stress fibers in pre-osteoblasts grown on the nanocomposite compared to SR, implying enhanced cell-substrate interaction. This finding was consistent with the total protein content and SDS-PAGE analysis. The study leads us to believe that further increase in nHA content in the SR matrix beyond 5wt.% will encourage even greater cellular response. The integration of cellular and molecular biology with materials science and engineering described herein provides a direction for the development of a new generation of nanostructured materials. PMID:19435616

Thein-Han, W W; Shah, J; Misra, R D K

2009-09-01

309

Nanostructured composite layers of mussel adhesive protein and ceria nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Mussel adhesive proteins are known for their high affinity to a range of different surfaces, and they therefore appear as ideal candidates for producing thin inorganic-organic composite films with high robustness. In this work we explore the possibility of making cohesive films utilizing layer-by-layer deposition of the highly positively charged mussel adhesive protein, Mefp-1, and negatively charged ceria nanoparticles. This particular material combination was chosen due to recent findings that such films provide good corrosion protection. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) was used for following the film formation process in situ on silica surfaces. A close to linear growth of the film with number of deposited layers was found for up to 18 deposition steps, the highest number of depositions investigated in this work. The Mefp-1 concentration during film deposition affected the film properties, where a higher protein concentration resulted in a stiffer film. It was also found that the added mass could be amplified by using a Mefp-1 solution containing small aggregates. The surface nanomechanical properties of dried multilayer films were investigated using peak force QNM (quantitative nanomechanical mapping) in air. Homogeneous surface coverage was found under all conditions explored, and the Young's modulus of the outer region of the coating increased when a higher Mefp-1 concentration was used during film deposition. The nature of the outermost surface layer was found to significantly affect the surface nanomechanical properties. The abrasion resistance of the coating was measured by using controlled-force contact mode AFM. PMID:23815752

Krivosheeva, Olga; Sababi, Majid; Dedinaite, Andra; Claesson, Per M

2013-07-30

310

Aerosol Route Synthesis and Applications of Doped Nanostructured Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology presents an attractive opportunity to address various challenges in air and water purification, energy, and other environment issues. Thus, the development of new nanoscale materials in low-cost scalable synthesis processes is important. Furthermore, the ability to independently manipulate the material properties as well as characterize the material at different steps along the synthesis route will aide in product optimization. In addition, to ensure safe and sustainable development of nanotechnology applications, potential impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, nanomaterial synthesis in a single-step gas phase reactor to continuously produce doped metal oxides was demonstrated. Copper-doped TiO2 nanomaterial properties (composition, size, and crystal phase) were independently controlled based on nanoparticle formation and growth mechanisms dictated by process control parameters. Copper dopant found to significantly affect TiO2 properties such as particle size, crystal phase, stability in the suspension, and absorption spectrum (shift from UV to visible light absorption). The in-situ charge distribution characterization of the synthesized nanomaterials was carried out by integrating a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) set up with the flame reactor synthesis system. Both singly- and doubly- charged nanoparticles were measured, with the charged fractions dependent on particle mobility and dopant concentration. A theoretical calculation was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of the two charging mechanisms, diffusion and thermo-ionization, in the flame. Nanoparticle exposure characterization was conducted during synthesis as a function of operating condition, product recovery and handling technique, and during maintenance of the reactors. Strategies were then indentified to minimize the exposure risk. The nanoparticle exposure potential varied depending on the operating conditions such as precursor feed rate, working conditions of the fume hood, ventilation system, and distance from the reactors. Nanoparticle exposure varied during product recovery and handling depending on the quantity of nanomaterial handled. Most nanomaterial applications require nanomaterials to be in solution. Thus, the role of nanomaterial physio-chemical properties (size, crystal phase, dopant types and concentrations) on dispersion properties was investigated based on hydrodynamic size and surface charge. Dopant type and concentration were found to significantly affect iso-electric point (IEP)-shifting the IEP to a high or lower pH value compared to pristine TiO2 based on the oxidation state of the dopant. The microbial inactivation effectiveness of as-synthesized nanomaterials was investigated under different light irradiation conditions. Microbial inactivation was found to strongly depend on the light irradiation condition as well as on material properties such chemical composition, crystal phase, and particle size. The potential interaction mechanisms of copper-doped TiO2 nanomaterial with microbes were also explored. The studies conducted as part of this dissertation addressed issues in nanomaterial synthesis, characterization and their potential environmental applications.

Sahu, Manoranjan

311

Superhydrophobic ceramic coatings enabled by phase-separated nanostructured composite TiO2–Cu2O thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By exploiting phase-separation in oxide materials, we present a simple and potentially low-cost approach to create exceptional superhydrophobicity in thin-film based coatings. By selecting the TiO2–Cu2O system and depositing through magnetron sputtering onto single crystal and metal templates, we demonstrate growth of nanostructured, chemically phase-segregated composite films. These coatings, after appropriate chemical surface modification, demonstrate a robust, non-wetting Cassie–Baxter state and yield an exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles reaching to ?172° and sliding angles <1°. As an added benefit, despite the photo-active nature of TiO2, the chemically coated composite film surfaces display UV stability and retain superhydrophobic attributes even after exposure to UV (275 nm) radiation for an extended period of time. The present approach could benefit a variety of outdoor applications of superhydrophobic coatings, especially for those where exposure to extreme atmospheric conditions is required.

Aytug, Tolga; Bogorin, Daniela F.; Paranthaman, Parans M.; Mathis, John E.; Simpson, John T.; Christen, David K.

2014-06-01

312

Tough composite materials: Recent developments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present volume broadly considers topics in composite fracture toughness and impact behavior characterization, composite system constituent properties and their interrelationships, and matrix systems' synthesis and characterization. Attention is given to the characterization of interlaminar crack growth in composites by means of the double cantilever beam specimen, the characterization of delamination resistance in toughened resin composites, the effect of impact damage and open holes on the compressive strength of tough resin/high strain fiber laminates, the effect of matrix and fiber properties on compression failure mechanisms and impact resistance, the relation of toughened neat resin properties to advanced composite mechanical properties, and constituent and composite properties' relationships in thermosetting matrices. Also treated are the effect of cross-link density on the toughening mechanism of elastomer-modified epoxies, the chemistry of fiber/resin interfaces, novel carbon fibers and their properties, the development of a heterogeneous laminating resin, solvent-resistant thermoplastics, NASA Lewis research in advanced composites, and opportunities for the application of composites in commercial aircraft transport structures.

Vosteen, L. F. (editor); Johnston, N. J. (editor); Teichman, L. A. (editor); Blankenship, C. P. (editor)

1985-01-01

313

Fracture of laminated composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cracks occurring in conventional laminates, or artificially bonded composites, and slip bands appearing in lamellar alloys, or naturally bonded composites, are studied. In this analysis, a mixed mode plane crack is modeled by continuous distributions of both climb and glide dislocations. The requirement that the boundary conditions prescribed on the surfaces of this crack must be satisfied results in dual

Omoike

1984-01-01

314

Composite materials and method of making  

DOEpatents

A method for forming improved composite materials using a thermosetting polyester urethane hybrid resin, a closed cavity mold having an internal heat transfer mechanism used in this method, and the composite materials formed by this method having a hybrid of a carbon fiber layer and a fiberglass layer.

Simmons, Kevin L [Kennewick, WA; Wood, Geoffrey M [North Saanich, CA

2011-05-17

315

Comparative evaluation of biocompatibility of dense nanostructured and microstructured Hydroxyapatite/Titania composites.  

PubMed

This work deals with the biocompatibility of dense nano- and micro-structured Hydroxyapatite/Titania composites prepared by two step and conventional sintering, respectively. By application of two step sintering, it was shown that the final grain size of HA-15 wt.% TiO2 is maintained lower than 100 nm while by the application of conventional sintering it reaches higher than 100 nm. Biocompatibility of the dense bulks was evaluated by cell attachment and proliferation experiments. Cell morphology, and viability on each nano- and micro-structured Hydroxyapatite/Titania composites were examined at different time points. The nanostructured HA/Titania dense bulk exhibited higher cell viability than a microstructured one. In addition, the effects of ionic products from nano- and micro-structured bulk dissolution on osteoblasts were studied. The MTT test confirmed that the products from nanostructured HA/Titania dense bulk significantly promoted osteoblast proliferation within a certain concentration range. PMID:23498255

Farzin, A; Ahmadian, M; Fathi, M H

2013-05-01

316

Manipulation of nanoparticles in supersonic beams for the production of nanostructured materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and manipulation of nanoparticles in the gas phase is of primary importance for the synthesis of nanostructured materials and for the development of industrial processes based on nanotechnology. In this review we will present and discuss the approach based on the use of aerodynamic focusing methods coupled to supersonic expansions to obtain high intensity cluster beams with a control

P. Piseri; H. Vahedi Tafreshi; P. Milani

2004-01-01

317

Nanostructured inorganic materials: Synthesis and associated electrochemical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic strategy for preparing potential battery materials at low temperature was developed. Magnetite (Fe3O4), silver hollandnite (AgxMn8O16), magnesium manganese oxide (MgxMnO 2?yH2O), and silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (Ag 2VO2PO4) were studied. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was prepared by coprecipitation induced by triethylamine from aqueous iron(II) and iron(III) chloride solutions of varying concentrations. Variation of the iron(II) and iron(III) concentrations results in crystallite size control of the Fe3O4 products. Materials characterization of the Fe3O4 samples is reported, including Brunauer-Emmitt-Teller (BET) surface area, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size, and saturation magnetization results. A strong correlation between discharge capacity and voltage recovery behavior versus crystallite size was observed when tested as an electrode material in lithium electrochemical cells. Silver hollandite (AgxMn8O16) was successfully synthesized through a low temperature reflux reaction. The crystallite size and silver content of AgxMn8O16 by varying the reactant ratio of silver permanganate (AgMnO4) and manganese sulfate monohydrate (MnSO4?H2O). Silver hollandite was characterized by Brunauer-Emmitt-Teller (BET) surface area, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP-OES) spectrometry, helium pycnometry, simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The crystallite size showed a strong correlation with silver content, BET surface area, and particle sizes. The silver hollandite cathode showed good discharge capacity retention in 30 cycles of discharge-charge. There were a good relationship between crystallite size and rate capability and pulse ability. Magnesium manganese oxide (MgxMnO2?yH 2O) was made by redox reaction by mixing sodium hydroxide (NaOH), manganese sulfate monohydrate (MnSO4?HO2), and potassium persulfate (K2S2O8). The solid samples were characterized by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP-OES) spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The solid had a plate-like morphology. The preliminary electrochemical results showed that MgxMnO2?yH2O had a very good cycliability and the capacity retention in 20 discharge-charge cycles. When the sample was dried at 100°C after collection, the discharge capacity would increase from 80 mAh/g to 155 mAh/g in the first discharge process in cycling test. Silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (SVPO, Ag2VO2PO 4) was prepared in various reaction temperatures. It was the first time that Ag2VO2PO4 was synthesized successfully at room temperature. The solid was characterized by Brunauer-Emmitt-Teller surface area (BET), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP-OES) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), magnetic susceptibility measurement, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Ag2VO2PO4 crystallite sizes showed a strong linear correlation with reaction temperature. The BET surface area was decreased as the crystallite size increased linearly. In addition, the acicular morphology started to develop at 50°C. The impact of silver deposition loading on the silver-polypyrrole composite electrode was studied using cyclic voltammetry. The minimum Ag loading of 0.08 mg/cm2 was determined to maximize the oxygen reduction activity for the Ag/Ppy composite catalyst. In addition, the Ag/Ppy coated carbon electrode showed higher oxygen reduction activities in both air and oxygen compared to the uncoated carbon electrode.

Yau, Shali Zhu

318

The Interaction of Bacteria with Engineered Nanostructured Polymeric Materials: A Review  

PubMed Central

Bacterial infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In spite of great advances in biomaterials research and development, a significant proportion of medical devices undergo bacterial colonization and become the target of an implant-related infection. We present a review of the two major classes of antibacterial nanostructured materials: polymeric nanocomposites and surface-engineered materials. The paper describes antibacterial effects due to the induced material properties, along with the principles of bacterial adhesion and the biofilm formation process. Methods for antimicrobial modifications of polymers using a nanocomposite approach as well as surface modification procedures are surveyed and discussed, followed by a concise examination of techniques used in estimating bacteria/material interactions. Finally, we present an outline of future sceneries and perspectives on antibacterial applications of nanostructured materials to resist or counteract implant infections.

Armentano, Ilaria; Arciola, Carla Renata; Fortunati, Elena; Ferrari, Davide; Mattioli, Samantha; Amoroso, Concetta Floriana; Rizzo, Jessica; Kenny, Jose M.; Imbriani, Marcello; Visai, Livia

2014-01-01

319

Fabrication of superhydrophobic polyurethane\\/organoclay nano-structured composites from cyclomethicone-in-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-structured polyurethane\\/organoclay composite films were fabricated by dispersing moisture-curable polyurethanes and fatty amine\\/amino-silane surface modified montmorillonite clay (organoclay) in cyclomethicone-in-water emulsions. Cyclomethicone Pickering emulsions were made by emulsifying decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) and aminofunctional siloxane polymers with water using montmorillonite particles as emulsion stabilizers. Polyurethane and organoclay dispersed emulsions were spray coated on aluminum surfaces. Upon thermosetting, water repellent self-cleaning

I. S. Bayer; A. Steele; P. J. Martorana; E. Loth

2010-01-01

320

Flame-retardant composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The properties of eight different graphite composite panels fabricated using four different resin matrices and two types of graphite reinforcement are described. The resin matrices included: VPSP/BMI, a blend of vinylpolystyryl pyridine and bismaleimide; BMI, a bismaleimide; and phenolic and PSP, a polystyryl pyridine. The graphite fiber used was AS-4 in the form of either tape or fabric. The properties of these composites were compared with epoxy composites. It was determined that VPSP/BMI with the graphite tape was the optimum design giving the lowest heat release rate.

Kourtides, Demetrius A.

1991-01-01

321

Carbon nanostructured materials for applications in nano-medicine, cultural heritage, and electrochemical biosensors.  

PubMed

This review covers applications of pristine and functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in nano-medicine, cultural heritage, and biosensors. The physicochemical properties of these engineered nanoparticles are similar to those of ultrafine components of airborne pollution (UF) and might have similar adverse effects. UF may impair cardiovascular autonomic control (inducing a high-risk condition for adverse cardiovascular effects), cause mammalian embryo toxicity, and increase geno-cytotoxic risk. SWCNTs coated with a biopolymer, for example polyethylenimine (PEI), become extremely biocompatible, hence are useful for in-vivo and in-vitro drug delivery and gene transfection. It is also possible to successfully immobilize a human enteric virus on PEI/SWCNT composites, suggesting application as a carrier in non-permissive media. The effectiveness of carbon nanostructured materials in the cleaning, restoration, and consolidation of deteriorated historical surfaces has been widely shown by the use of carbon nanomicelles to remove black dendritic crust from stone surfaces. The nanomicelles, here, have the twofold role of delivery and controlled release of the cleaning agents. The high biocompatibility of functionalized SWCNTs with enzymes and proteins is a fundamental feature used in the assembly of electrochemical biosensors. In particular, a third-generation protoporphyrin IX-based biosensor has been assembled for amperometric detection of nitrite, an environmental pollutant involved in the biodeterioration and black encrustation of historical surfaces. PMID:23064705

Valentini, F; Carbone, M; Palleschi, G

2013-01-01

322

Novel applications exploiting the thermal properties of nanostructured materials.  

SciTech Connect

A new class of heat transfer fluids, termed nanofluids, has been developed by suspending nanocrystalline particles in liquids. Due to the orders-of-magnitude larger thermal conductivities of solids compared to those of liquids such as water, significantly enhanced thermal properties are obtained with nanofluids. The use of nanofluids could impact many industrial sectors, including transportation, energy supply and production, electronics, textiles, and paper production by, for example, decreasing pumping power needs or reducing heat exchanger sizes. In contrast to the enhancement in effective thermal transport rates that is obtained when nanoparticles are suspended in fluids, nanocrystalline coatings are expected to exhibit reduced thermal conductivities compared to coarse-grained coatings. Reduced thermal conductivities are predicted to arise because of a reduction in the mean free path of phonons due to presence of grain boundaries. This behavior, combined with improved mechanical properties, makes nanostructured zirconia coatings excellent candidates for future applications as thermal barriers.

Eastman, J. A.

1998-11-20

323

Thermal evaporation furnace with improved configuration for growing nanostructured inorganic materials.  

PubMed

A tubular furnace specifically designed for growing nanostructured materials is presented in this work. The configuration allows an accurate control of evaporation temperature, substrate temperature, total pressure, oxygen partial pressure, volumetric flow and source-substrate distance, with the possibility of performing both downstream and upstream depositions. In order to illustrate the versatility of the equipment, the furnace was used for growing semiconducting oxide nanostructures under different deposition conditions. Highly crystalline indium oxide nanowires with different morphologies were synthesized by evaporating mixtures of indium oxide and graphite powders with different mass ratios at temperatures between 900 °C and 1050 °C. The nanostructured layers were deposited onto oxidized silicon substrates with patterned gold catalyst in the temperature range from 600 °C to 900 °C. Gas sensors based on these nanowires exhibited enhanced sensitivity towards oxygen, with good response and recovery times. PMID:21721724

Joanni, E; Savu, R; Valadares, L; Cilense, M; Zaghete, M A

2011-06-01

324

Flame-Retardant Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The properties of eight different graphite composite panels fabricated using four different resin matrices and two types of graphite reinforcement are described. The resin matrices included: VPSP/BMI, a blend of vinylpolystyryl pyridine and bismaleimide; ...

D. A. Kourtides

1991-01-01

325

New textile composite materials development, production, application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New textile composite materials development, production, and application are discussed. Topics covered include: super-high-strength, super-high-modulus fibers, filaments, and materials manufactured on their basis; heat-resistant and nonflammable fibers, filaments, and textile fabrics; fibers and textile fabrics based on fluorocarbon poylmers; antifriction textile fabrics based on polyfen filaments; development of new types of textile combines and composite materials; and carbon filament-based fabrics.

Mikhailov, Petr Y.

1993-01-01

326

Carrier transport in layered semiconductor (p-GaSe)-ferroelectric (KNO{sub 3}) composite nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

The current-voltage characteristics and frequency dependences of the impedance of composite nanostructures fabricated on the basis of layered anisotropic semiconductor p-GaSe and ferroelectric KNO{sub 3} are studied. Multilayer nanostructures were obtained by introducing nanoscale pyramidal ferroelectric inclusions into a layered GaSe matrix. Hysteresis phenomena in current-voltage characteristics and abrupt changes in the conductance and capacitance in frequency dependences of the impedance are detected. These phenomena are associated with the collective effect of electric polarization switching in nanoscale 3D ferroelectric inclusions in the layered matrix, features of its local deformation, and polytype phase transitions in this matrix. X-ray, atomic-force microscopy, and impedance studies in a low (B < 400 mT) magnetic field show that the electrical characteristics of nanostructures are associated with the Maxwell-Wagner effect in nanostructures, the formation of quantum wells in GaSe during deformation of crystals in the region of nanoscale inclusion localization, and carrier tunneling in the structures.

Bakhtinov, A. P., E-mail: chimsp@ukrpost.ua; Vodopyanov, V. N.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Netyaga, V. V.; Konoplyanko, D. Yu. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Frantsevich Institute of Materials Science Problems, Chernivtsy Branch (Ukraine)

2011-03-15

327

NiO–silica based nanostructured materials obtained by microemulsion assisted sol–gel procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

NiO–silica based materials have been synthesized by microemulsion assisted sol–gel procedure. The versatility of these soft nanotechnology techniques has been exploited in order to obtain different types of nanostructures, such as NiO nanoparticles, NiO silica coated nanoparticles and NiO embedded in silica matrix. These materials have been characterized by adequate structural and morphology techniques: DLS, HR-TEM\\/SAED, BET, AFM. Optical and

M. Mihaly; A. F. Comanescu; A. E. Rogozea; E. Vasile; A. Meghea

2011-01-01

328

Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of nanostructured TiO2/gamma-Al2O3 composite membranes.  

PubMed

Nanostructured TiO2/gamma-Al2O3 composite membranes with various compositions were prepared by sol-gel method. The structural and textural properties of the composite membranes could be modified by the mixing ratio of boehmite sol and titania sol, and calcination temperature. The existence of alumina in the composite membranes retarded anatase-to-rutile phase transformation, resulting in stabilization of textural properties. Defect-free composite membranes were confirmed by gas permeation test. PMID:22103175

Kwon, Hyuk Taek; Kim, Jinsoo

2011-08-01

329

Effect of aspect ratio and water contamination on the electric properties of nanostructured insulating materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organically-modified nanofiller clays can have significantly different aspect ratios as well as accumulate a relatively large amount of water in the composite bulk due to the contribution of the filler itself and the interaction between filler and polymer matrix. This paper investigates the effect of water absorption in a nanostructured thermoplastic polymer, namely ethylene-vinyl-acetate (EVA), on electrical property modifications considering

Davide Fabiani; Gian Carlo Montanari; Luigi Testa

2010-01-01

330

Combinatorial synthesis of inorganic or composite materials  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials or, alternatively, allowing the components to interact to form at least two different materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, nonbiological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

Goldwasser, Isy (Palo Alto, CA); Ross, Debra A. (Mountain Ranch, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Danville, CA); Briceno, Gabriel (Baldwin Park, CA); Sun, Xian-Dong (Fremont, CA); Wang, Kai-An (Cupertino, CA)

2010-08-03

331

Spectral representation theory of graded composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In graded composite materials, the physical properties can vary continuously in space and it may give different physical phenomena when compared with homogeneous materials. The Bergman-Milton spectral representation is a rigorous mathematical formalism to express the effective dielectric constant of nongraded composite materials [1]. In this study, we consider a material (rather than microsture [2]) graded composites, and generalize the Bergman-Milton spectral representation to extract the spectral density function for the effective dielectric constant of this graded composite material in the frequency domain [3]. Analytic and numerical solution will be presented for graded films and graded spheres. [1] D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. B 14, 4304 (1976). [2] J. P. Huang, K. W. Yu, G. Q. Gu, M. Karttunen, Phys. Rev. E 67, 051405 (2003). [3] L. Gao, J. P. Huang, K.W. Yu, Eur. Phys. J. B 36, 475 (2003).

Chan, K. L.; Kwok, C. M.; Yu, K. W.

2008-03-01

332

Optical resonances in a composite asymmetric plasmonic nanostructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical properties of a composite metamaterial, composed of asymmetric split-ring resonators (SRR) inserted into the periodic circular holes, have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Transmission peaks and dip associated with the localized plasmon excitations have been found: the peaks originate from the resonances of the smaller or bigger SRR, and the dip stems from the strong coupling between

Wan-Xia Huang; Qian-Jin Wang; Xiao-Gang Yin; Cheng-Ping Huang; Huang Huang; Yu-Min Wang; Yong-Yuan Zhu

2011-01-01

333

Graphene-based Composite Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the mechanical properties, such as fracture toughness (KIc), fracture energy (GIc), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), Young¡¦s modulus (E), and fatigue crack propagation rate (FCPR) of epoxy-matrix composites with different weight fractions of carbon-based fillers, including graphene platelets (GPL), graphene nanoribbons (GNR), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), and fullerenes (C60). Only ˜0.125 wt.% GPL was found to increase the KIc of the pure epoxy by ˜65% and the GIc by ˜115%. To get similar improvement, CNT and nanoparticle epoxy composites required one to two orders of magnitude greater weight fraction of nanofillers. Moreover, ˜0.125% wt.% GPL also decreased the fatigue crack propagation rate in the epoxy by ˜30-fold. The E value of 0.1 wt.% GPL/epoxy nanocomposite was ˜31% larger than the pure epoxy while there was only an increase of ˜3% for the SWNT composites. The UTS of the pristine epoxy was improved by ˜40% with GPLs in comparison with ˜14% enhancement for the MWNTs. The KIc of the GPL nanocomposite enhanced by ˜53% over the pristine epoxy compared to a ˜20% increase for the MWNT-reinforced composites. The results of the FCPR tests for the GPL nanocomposites showed a different trend. While the CNT nanocomposites were not effective enough to suppress the crack growth at high values of the stress intensity factor (DeltaK), the reverse behavior is observed for the GPL nanocomposites. The advantage of the GPLs over CNTs in terms of mechanical properties enhancement is due to their enormous specific surface area, enhanced adhesion at filler/epoxy interface (because of the wrinkled surfaces of GPLs), as well as the planar structure of the GPLs. We also show that unzipping of MWNTs into graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) enhances the load transfer effectiveness in epoxy nanocomposites. For instance, at ˜0.3 wt.% of fillers, the Young's modulus (E) of the epoxy nanocomposite with GNRs increased by ˜30% compared to their MWNTs counterpart. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) for ˜0.3 wt.% GNR composites showed ˜22% enhancement compared to the MWNT composites at the same loading fraction of fillers (at ˜0.3 wt.%). Our results show that unzipping effect can be used to transform carbon nanotubes into graphene nanoribbons, which are far more effective than the baseline nanotube as a nanofiller in nanocomposites. The mechanical properties of fullerence (C60) epoxy nanocomposites at different loading fractions (wt.%) of fullerene fillers in the pristine epoxy was also studied. Fullerene (C60) fillers demonstrated good potential to improve the mechanical properties of epoxy composites. However the required C60 loading fractions were ˜1% which are still an order of magnitude higher than that for graphene platelets (˜0.1%). This again illustrates the superiority of graphene as a structural reinforcement additive for epoxy polymers at low nanofiller loadings. While the main focus of this work has been on epoxy polymers, initial results with ceramic matrix and metal (aluminum) matrix composites were also generated. These results demonstrate that GPL are highly effective in enahncing the fracture properties of silicon nitride ceramics. The fracture toughness of the baseline silicon nitride matrix increased by ˜235% (from ˜2.8 to ˜6.6 MPa.m1/2) at ˜1.5% GPL volume fraction. However the results were disappointing for aluminim matrix composites. Compared to the pure aluminum, the graphene-aluminum composites showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler. These results indicate that Graphene Platelets (GPL) show strong potential as a nanofiller for epoxy nanocomposites and can provide a performance comparable to other forms of nanofillers at a significantly lower nanofiller loading fraction.

Rafiee, Mohammad Ali

334

Realization of New and Enhanced Materials Properties Through Nanostructural Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research focuses on: (1) Organic electro-optic materials with the objective of realizing materials characterized by electro-optic coefficients greater than 300 pm/V at telecommunication wavelengths and which pass telecordial standards. New processing...

L. Dalton

2006-01-01

335

Realization of New and Enhanced Materials Properties through Nanostructural Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research focuses on:: (1) Organic electro-optic materials with the objective of realizing materials characterized by electro-optic coefficients greater than 100 pm/V at telecommunication wavelengths and which pass Telecordia standards. New processing...

C. Y. Lee L. Dalton

2003-01-01

336

Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for sola...

A. Z. Henderson C. Park C. R. Taylor G. Sauti I. A. Marshall J. Ely J. Kang J. W. Kim L. J. Gibbons M. N. Torrico P. T. Lillehei R. G. Bryant S. E. Lowther

2012-01-01

337

Multifunctional iron-based metal oxide nanostructured materials: Synthesis, characterization, and properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron-based metal oxides, such as iron oxides, iron-containing perovskites, and iron-containing perovskite composites or solid solutions, are promising materials for the design and synthesis of technologically important multifunctional materials. They are noteworthy for their unique and diverse properties including electronic, magnetic, and elastic ones. Stimulated by interest in the bulk properties of these materials as well as scientific potential and applications at the nanoscale, iron-based metal oxide nanostructured (FeMONS) materials are being considered as an interesting model system to investigate fundamental properties and for a host of potential applications as diverse as additives, catalysts, electronic devices, magnetic recording media, information storage, spintronics, and sensors. Recent research on a multiferroic system, such as BiFeO3, reveals that there are unique couplings among the independent physical properties including ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, and ferroelasticity. Developing approaches to designing as well as investigating properties of new synthetic formulations of these transition metal oxide nanomaterials has been the recent focus of much of our efforts in this group. Multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO 3) nanoparticles have been synthesized employing a facile sol-gel method and their size-dependent magnetic properties have been studied and correlated with: (i) increased suppression of the known spiral spin structure (period length of ˜62 nm) with decreasing nanoparticle size and (ii) uncompensated spins and strain anisotropies at the surface. Moreover, BiFeO 3 nanotubes have been generated using a modified template methodology and extensively characterized. Furthermore, solid solutions of BiFeO 3 and typical perovskites, such as BaTiO3 and SrTiO 3, have been prepared employing a molten salt method and the study has been extended to properties associated with their inherent compositions. Single-crystalline Bi2Fe4O9 nanocubes have been fabricated utilizing a molten salt method and the role of various experimental parameters has been examined towards predictive control of shape and size. Single-crystalline iron oxide (a-Fe2O3) rhombohedra have been generated using environmentally friendly protocols and transformed into aggregates of magnetic nanocomposites of Fe and Fe3O4.

Park, Tae-Jin

338

Thermal conduction phenomena in carbon nanotubes and related nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extremely high thermal conductivities of carbon nanotubes have motivated a wealth of research. Progress includes innovative conduction metrology based on microfabricated platforms and scanning thermal probes as well as simulations exploring phonon dispersion and scattering using both transport theory and molecular dynamics. This article highlights these advancements as part of a detailed review of heat conduction research on both individual carbon nanotubes and nanostructured films consisting of arrays of nanotubes or disordered nanotube mats. Nanotube length, diameter, and chirality strongly influence the thermal conductivities of individual nanotubes and the transition from primarily diffusive to ballistic heat transport with decreasing temperature. A key experimental challenge, for both individual nanotubes and aligned films, is the separation of intrinsic and contact resistances. Molecular dynamics simulations have studied the impacts of specific types of imperfections on the nanotube conductance and its variation with length and chirality. While the properties of aligned films fall short of predictions based on individual nanotube data, improvements in surface engagement and postfabrication nanotube quality are promising for a variety of applications including mechanically compliant thermal contacts.

Marconnet, Amy M.; Panzer, Matthew A.; Goodson, Kenneth E.

2013-07-01

339

Carbon nanotube nanostructured hybrid materials systems for renewable energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global energy demand is growing at an alarming and unsustainable rate, drawing mainly on the use of fossil fuels. These reserves are decreasing rapidly and becoming increasingly expensive. The associated emissions of greenhouse gases and other toxic pollutants are becoming environmentally unacceptable. Energy security has become a major issue as fossil fuels are confined to few areas in the world and their availability is controlled by political, economic, and ecological factors. A global coherent energy strategy that encompasses the entire energy life cycle is required in order to address all the forms of energy harvesting, storage, conversion, transmission, and distribution. Hybrid nanomaterial systems hold the key to fundamental advances in direct renewable energy and energy storage and conversion which are needed to enable renewable energy and meet the general energy challenges and associated environmental effects. This paper presents new approaches and methodologies used to design and develop carbon nanotube nanostructured hybrid nanomaterial systems incorporating structural and light-absorbing electron donor polymers, inorganic semiconductors, metallic and ceramic nanoparticles as energy harvesting and storage systems.

Marquis, Fernand D. S.

2011-01-01

340

Oxygen Compatibility Testing of Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite materials offer significant weight-saving potential for aerospace applications in propellant and oxidizer tanks. This application for oxygen tanks presents the challenge of being oxygen compatible in addition to complying with the other required material characteristics. This effort reports on the testing procedures and data obtained in examining and selecting potential composite materials for oxygen tank usage. Impact testing of composites has shown that most of these materials initiate a combustion event when impacted at 72 ft-lbf in the presence of liquid oxygen, though testing has also shown substantial variability in reaction sensitivities to impact. Data for screening of 14 potential composites using the Bruceton method is given herein and shows that the 50-percent reaction frequencies range from 17 to 67 ft-lbf. The pressure and temperature rises for several composite materials were recorded to compare the energy releases as functions of the combustion reactions with their respective reaction probabilities. The test data presented are primarily for a test pressure of 300 psia in liquid oxygen. The impact screening process is compared with oxygen index and autogenous ignition test data for both the composite and the basic resin. The usefulness of these supplemental tests in helping select the most oxygen compatible materials is explored. The propensity for mechanical impact ignition of the composite compared with the resin alone is also examined. Since an ignition-free composite material at the peak impact energy of 72 ft-lbf has not been identified, composite reactivity must be characterized over the impact energy level and operating pressure ranges to provide data for hazard analyses in selecting the best potential material for liquid tank usage.

Engel, Carl D.; Watkins, Casey N.

2006-01-01

341

Challenges in Applying Surface Analysis Methods to Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Materials  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured materials of various types and forms are formulated in a variety of novel ways and increasingly subject to many types of chemical and physical analysis. Since nanomaterial systems contain a relatively large amount of surface or interface area, it should be natural to characterize them using tools designed to analyze surfaces and interfaces. We have found that nanoparticles and other nanostructured materials present a variety of challenges. This paper reviews environmental effects on measurements of Ce-oxide nanoparticles and nanoporous silica films and focuses on efforts to quantify the ion damage and sputter rates for the Fe-oxide nanoparticles. We have found that nanoparticles appear more readily damaged and to have sputter rates that exceed “bulk” materials. To verify such effects, we need to know many details about size, size distribution, density, and shape that are not always easily obtained.

Baer, Donald R.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Gaspar, Dan J.; Matson, Dean W.; Pecher, Klaus H.; Williams, Josh R.; Wang, Chong M.

2005-03-01

342

Design, fabrication, and testing of nanostructured carbons and composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many applications, such as catalysis, sensing, separation and energy storage and conversion, will benefit from the miniaturization of materials to nanometer length scales. This dissertation details my study of nanocomposites based on three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) carbons and zirconia, and three-dimensionally ordered macroporous\\/mesoporous (3DOM\\/m) carbons. The macropores of these materials were produced using colloidal crystal templates while the mesopores were

Zhiyong Wang

2008-01-01

343

Acoustic Emission from Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two basic areas where the acoustic emission (AE) technique can be applied are materials research and the evaluation of structural reliability. This experimental method leads to a better understanding of fracture mechanisms and is an NDT technique part...

I. C. Visconti R. Teti

1979-01-01

344

Thermoelectric study of INSB secondary phase based nano composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past several decades there has been an intensive study in the field of thermoelectric study that is basically materials driven. As the simplest technology applicable in direct heat-electricity energy conversion, thermoelectricity utilizes the Seebeck effect to generate electricity from heat or conversely achieve the solid-state cooling via the Peltier effect. With many technical merits, thermoelectric devices can be used as spot-size generators or distributed refrigerators, however, their applications are restricted by the energy conversion efficiency, which is mainly determined by the figure of merit ZT of the thermoelectric materials that these devices are made of. A higher ZT (ZT=alpha2*sigma/kappa) entails a larger Seebeck coefficient (alpha), a higher electrical conductivity (sigma) and a lower thermal conductivity (kappa). However, it is challenging to simultaneously optimize these three material parameters because they are adversely correlated. To this end, a promising approach to answer this challenge is nano-compositing or microstructuring at multiple length scales. The numerous grain boundaries in nano-composite allow for significant reduction of lattice thermal conductivity via strong phonon scattering and as well an enhanced Seebeck coefficient via, carrier energy filtering effect. As the same grain boundaries also scatter carriers, a coherent interface between grains is needed to minimize the degradation of carrier mobilities. To this end,in-situ, instead of ex-situ, formation of nano-composite is preferred. It is noteworthy that electrical conductivity can be further enhanced by the injection of high-mobility carriers introduced by the secondary nano-phase. In view of the prevalent use of Antimony (Sb) in thermoelectric materials, Indium Antimonide (InSb) naturally becomes one of the most promising nano-inclusions since it possesses one of the largest carrier mobilities (˜7.8 m 2/V-s) in any semiconductors, while at the same time possesses a reasonably narrow band gap (˜0.17 eV at 300 K). In this dissertation, I experimentally investigate whether InSb could be a "good" nano-secondary phase in two thermoelectric bulk matrix materials, FeSb2 and half-Heusler compounds. In these in situ formed nano-composites, three mechanisms are utilized to decouple the otherwise adversely correlated Seebeck coefficient (alpha), electrical conductivity (sigma), and thermal conductivity (kappa). First, low energy carriers will be filtered out via the carrier energy filtering effect, enhancing the Seebeck coefficient without degrading the power factor (PF= alpha 2sigma). Second, high mobility carriers from the InSb nano-inclusions will be injected to the system to increase the electrical conductivity. Last, the numerous grain boundaries present in nano-composites allow for strong phonon scattering so as to reduce the thermal conductivity. After the initial in situ synthesis of nano-composites with the optimized composition, further nano-structuring processes are applied in the samples of FeSb2 with 0.5% atomic ratio of InSb. The results indicate that not all nano-structures are thermoelectrically favorable, multi-scale microstructures with the length scale comparable with the phonon mean free path are needed to effectively scatter phonons over a wide range of wavelength. In summary, the successful combination of the carrier energy filtering effect, high mobility carrier injection effect, and strong phonon scattering effect in the in situ synthesized FeSb2-InSb and half-Heusler-InSb nano-composites leads to a significantly enhanced ZT. This approach of in situ formation of nano-composites based on InSb secondary nano-phase may also be applied to other thermoelectric materials.

Zhu, Song

345

Synthesis of nanostructured organic and inorganic materials by self-assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigated the nanostructure, morphology of organic and inorganic materials grown in ordered organic matrices. The matrix is a binary system of water and the nonionic surfactant of oligo(ethylene oxide) n¯ oleyl ether. Initial studies were conducted on mineralization of a calcium phosphate mineral at the interface between ion doped hexagonal mesophases. Investigation of mesophase structure indicates that the binding of calcium and acetate ions to surfactant reduces the mesophase stability but phosphate ions, with low affinity to surfactant, do not affect the mesophase structure. SEM investigation of the mineral reveals plate-like crystals with a surface nanostructure resembling the orientational order of cylindrical assemblies in the mesophase. A similar surfactant system is considered for the organic synthesis by photopolymerization of a semi-polar monomer, carboxylated oligobutadiene, at the interfacial region of surfactant assemblies in non-lamellar mesophases. Investigation of mesophase structure in the presence of the oligomer n¯=6 indicates a transformation of hexagonal to lamellar structure at low oligomer contents. For a surfactant with longer hydrophile, this transformation takes place at higher oligomer concentrations. A similar phase transformation is observed with mesophases containing the oligomer ( n¯ = 12). Photopolymerization of hexagonal mesophases of either oligomer results in elongated objects with dimensions matching the dimension of cylindrical assemblies in the hexagonal mesophase. The isotropic texture of the polymer formed by the oligomer ( n¯ = 6) along with a larger effective diameter of the polymeric particles point to a highly interconnected structure of the elongated objects. This interconnection is reduced in the polymer formed by the oligomer ( n¯ = 12) as observed by the shorter effective diameter and the nematic-like optical texture. The replacement of water in the hexagonal mesophase of the oligomer ( n¯ = 12) with phosphoric acid results in a bicontinuous structure. Photopolymerization of this mesophase gives rise to nano-spherical particles with continuous hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains, which when mineralized, form a composite network of mineral and polymer with improved mechanical properties over the mineralized-nonpolymerized structure. Crosslinking seems to enhance the binding of mineral to organic matrix. This study introduces a new direction for the control of morphology via self assembly.

Eftekharzadeh, Shirin

346

Advanced composite materials for precision segmented reflectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective in the NASA Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) project is to develop new composite material concepts for highly stable and durable reflectors with precision surfaces. The project focuses on alternate material concepts such as the development of new low coefficient of thermal expansion resins as matrices for graphite fiber reinforced composites, quartz fiber reinforced epoxies, and graphite reinforced glass. Low residual stress fabrication methods will be developed. When coupon specimens of these new material concepts have demonstrated the required surface accuracies and resistance to thermal distortion and microcracking, reflector panels will be fabricated and tested in simulated space environments. An important part of the program is the analytical modeling of environmental stability of these new composite materials concepts through constitutive equation development, modeling of microdamage in the composite matrix, and prediction of long term stability (including viscoelasticity). These analyses include both closed form and finite element solutions at the micro and macro levels.

Stein, Bland A.; Bowles, David E.

1988-01-01

347

Instrumentation to Characterize Smart Materials and Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Instrumentation was purchased through this DURIP grant to carry out experiments on shape memory alloys and smart composite structures. The ultimate objective is to develop reliable constitutive models for these advanced materials. this will involve carefu...

J. A. Shaw A. M. Waas

1999-01-01

348

Mechanics of Composite Materials for Spacecraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During this seven month project efforts continued on the development of advanced analytical and numerical techniques which can be effectively combined to provide advanced thermomechanical modeling of composite materials with nonlinear constituents. The ar...

G. J. Dvorak M. S. Shephard

1992-01-01

349

Composite Material Application to Liquid Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The substitution of reinforced plastic composite (RPC) materials for metal was studied. The major objectives were to: (1) determine the extent to which composite materials can be beneficially used in liquid rocket engines; (2) identify additional technology requirements; and (3) determine those areas which have the greatest potential for return. Weight savings, fabrication costs, performance, life, and maintainability factors were considered. Two baseline designs, representative of Earth to orbit and orbit to orbit engine systems, were selected. Weight savings are found to be possible for selected components with the substitution of materials for metal. Various technology needs are identified before RPC material can be used in rocket engine applications.

Judd, D. C.

1982-01-01

350

Surface-hardened nanostructured Ti and Zr-matrix composites for medical and engineering applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined studies have been conducted on the structural-phase state and physical-mechanical and tribological properties of nanostructured titanium and zirconium subjected to ion-beam implantation or microplasma oxidation. Low-temperature ion-beam nitriding of the materials examined is shown to provide a 25-35-fold increase in the wear resistance of their surface layers and a 40% decrease in the friction coefficient for tribological interaction with

Yu. P. Sharkeev; V. A. Kukareko; E. V. Legostaeva; A. V. Byeli

2011-01-01

351

Composite materials for thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a composite material for thermal energy storage comprising a solid state phase change material selected from the group cnsisting of pentaerythritol, pentaglycerine, neopentyl glycol, tetramethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diaminopentaerythritol, tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, and mixtures thereof. The solid state phase cange material contacts materials selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof.

Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.; Shinton, Y.D.

1986-02-25

352

Acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The techniques of acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials is described. It is highly sensitive, quasi-nondestructive testing method that indicates the origin and behavior of flaws in such materials when submitted to different load exposures. With the use of sophisticated signal analysis methods it is possible the distinguish between different types of failure mechanisms, such as fiber fracture delamination or fiber pull-out. Imperfections can be detected while monitoring complex composite structures by acoustic emission measurements.

Bardenheier, R.

1981-01-01

353

Magnetic and magneto-transport properties in nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magneto-transport, magnetic and structural properties of three nanostructured systems: (1) single-crystal bismuth films with and without antidot arrays made by electrodeposition, (2) epitaxial half-metallic CrO2 films made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and (3) exchange-coupled Co/FeMn/permalloy trilayers prepared by magnetron sputtering are presented. Single-crystal Bi thin films have been made by electrodeposition followed by suitable annealing. X-ray diffraction verifies that the films are trigonal axis oriented single-crystal films. High resolution transmission electron microscope reveals the expected six-fold symmetry of the atomic structure of Bi(001) films. These films exhibit very large magnetoresistance (MR) at both low temperature and room temperature, as well as strong anisotropy among the perpendicular, transverse, and longitudinal geometries. At very low temperature, the MR of Bi films shows Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, further confirming the high quality of the films. Bi films with ordered antidot arrays patterned by optical lithography exhibit pronounced angular dependence in magnetoresistance, in agreement with theoretical calculations. X-ray diffraction studies of epitaxial CrO2 films, made by CVD on TiO2(100) substrates demonstrate single-crystal quality of the films. These films exhibit a strong uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy with a unique switching behavior, which can be described by a simple model. Critical behavior of the CrO2 films, determined by magnetometry with the magnetic field along the uniaxial anisotropy axis, indicates that CrO2 is a Heisenberg ferromagnet with long-range interaction. Trilayers of permalloy/FeMn/Co with various thicknesses t AF of the antiferromagnetic FeMn layer prepared by magnetron sputtering have been designed to reveal the spin structure within FeMn. A spiraling spin structure has been observed in such trilayers.

Yang, Fengyuan

2001-08-01

354

Comparison of the structural and chemical composition of two unique micro/nanostructures produced by femtosecond laser interactions on nickel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural and chemical composition of two unique microstructures formed on nickel, with nanoscale features, produced using femtosecond laser surface processing (FLSP) techniques is reported in this paper. These two surface morphologies, termed mounds and nanoparticle-covered pyramids, are part of a larger class of self-organized micro/nanostructured surfaces formed using FLSP. Cross-sections of the structures produced using focused ion beam milling techniques were analyzed with a transmission electron microscope. Both morphologies have a solid core with a layer of nanoparticles on the surface. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy by scanning transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the nanoparticles are a nickel oxide, while the core material is pure nickel.

Zuhlke, Craig A.; Anderson, Troy P.; Alexander, Dennis R.

2013-09-01

355

A Direct Route towards Assembly of Nanoparticle-Carbon Nanotube Composite Materials  

SciTech Connect

The exploration of nanoparticle-structured thin films as sensing materials desires maximum accessibility of analytes and effective mass transport within the nanostructure. This paper explores the viability of creating nanoparticle-carbon nanotube (CNTs) as composite interfacial materials to enhance such properties. We report findings of an investigation of the assembly of monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles on multi-walled CNTs. A simple and effective route has been demonstrated for assembling nanoparticles of 2-5 nm core sizes onto CNTs with controllable coverage and interparticle spatial properties. The composite nanomaterials can be dispersed in organic solvent and cast on interdigitated microelectrode surface. The skeleton-like nanocomposite materials have been examined for chemiresistor sensing of volatile organic compounds. The response profiles and sensitivities of the nanocomposites determined for the sorption of a series of vapors have been shown to exhibit different or enhanced sensing properties in comparison with similar but nanotube-free nanoparticle assemblies. The observation of these results can be attributed to a combination of three factors, the increased accessibility of analytes to the nanostructure, the enhanced mass transport characteristics, and the unique electronic properties of the nanocomposite materials. Implications of the findings to the design of nanostructured sensing materials are also discussed.

Han, Li; Wu, Wendy; Kirk, F.L.; Luo, Jin; Maye, Mathew M.; Kariuki, Nancy N.; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Chong M.; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

2004-07-06

356

Microstructure and tensile properties of bulk nanostructured Al5083\\/SiC p composites prepared by cryomilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop high-strength and lightweight MMCs, nanostructured composite powder consisting of an Al-5083 matrix reinforced with approximately 6.5vol.% nano-sized SiC particles (25nm in size) was synthesized via cryomilling. Two bulk composites made from 100% of the composite powder and a blend of the composite powder with 50wt.% conventional coarse-grained (unmilled) Al-5083 powder, respectively, were fabricated with HIP-consolidation and

Feng Tang; Masuo Hagiwara; Julie M. Schoenung

2005-01-01

357

Nanostructured phosphides as photoelectrode materials for artificial photosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we describe present experimental results for two related ternary phosphide materials, N-alloyed GaP and ZnGeP2. These materials represent two potential mid-bandgap photoelectrode materials for artificial photosynthetic systems for solar energy conversion/storage. For photoelectrochemical cells designed to generate energyrich chemical fuels under illumination, candidate photoelectrode materials should demonstrate the capacity to sustain large photovoltages and photocurrent densities under solar insolation. The results in this work show that the optical properties of these two materials should enable the possibilities for light collection out past 600 nm. For N-alloyed GaP nanowire films, diffuse reflectance spectra show the increase of light absorption at sub-bandgap wavelengths with increasing NH3(g) used during the annealing step. Corresponding photoelectrochemical data show that the quantum efficiency for light collection at sub-bandgap wavelengths does not follow the same monotonic trend. Separately, we report the first demonstration of ZnGeP2 nanowire films. The as-prepared materials show reflectance responses consistent with a mid-bandgap material featuring a pseudo-direct bandgap.

Wen, Wen; Collins, Sean M.; Maldonado, Stephen

2011-09-01

358

Comparison of physicochemical properties of three nanostructure composite TiO2 films and their photocatalytic properties.  

PubMed

Three type of photocatalytic composite films, MPC500SGF-MC, ANPSGF-MC and P25SGF-MC, have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel method using different particle size of TiO2 nanopowder MPC500, ANP and P25, respectively. Methyl cellulose (MC) was added as a template to the sol for stress reduction which improved not only the amount of crystalline material immobilized on the support, but also the nanosize of the films calcined at 500 degrees C. The physicochemical properties, including surface morphology, crystallinity, crystal size and adhesion on glass substrate, of the three types of films were investigated by SEM, XRD and the scratch test. The photocatalytic activities of the films were compared using methyl orange (MO) as a model organic contaminant in water. The results on photocatalytic degradation of MO showed that the increase in photocatalytic activity for P25SGF-MC, compared with that of MPC500SGF-MC and ANPSGF-MC composite films. The optimum degradation conditions of MO solution are determined. This study proves that particle size of starting TiO2 material is important for the preparation of nanostructured TiO2 composite film with enhanced photocatalytic activity and excellent adhesion on the glass substrate. PMID:20352772

Nasr-Esfahani, Mojtaba; Habibi, Mohammad Hossein

2010-02-01

359

Dental applications of nanostructured bioactive glass and its composites  

PubMed Central

To improve treatments for bone or dental trauma, and for diseases such as osteoporosis, cancer, and infections, scientists who perform basic research are collaborating with clinicians to design and test new biomaterials for the regeneration of lost or injured tissue. Developed some 40 years ago, bioactive glass (BG) has recently become one of the most promising biomaterials, a consequence of discoveries that its unusual properties elicit specific biological responses inside the body. Among these important properties are the capability of BG to form strong interfaces with both hard and soft tissues, and its release of ions upon dissolution. Recent developments in nanotechnology have introduced opportunities for materials sciences to advance dental and bone therapies. For example, the applications for BG expand as it becomes possible to finely control structures and physicochemical properties of materials at the molecular level. Here we review how the properties of these materials have been enhanced by the advent of nanotechnology; and how these developments are producing promising results in hard-tissue regeneration and development of innovative BG-based drug-delivery systems.

Polini, Alessandro; Bai, Hao; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2013-01-01

360

Stress waves in composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of cells (MOC) developed by Aboudi provides a powerful means for studying the propagation of waves through systems having complicated internal cell structure [

Wave Motion 9, 141 (1987)
]. Laminated materials are a common example. The method can handle harmonic waves and also transient waves arising from a finite duration impulse. The method is sufficiently robust to treat impact, as we show here. Both linear and nonlinear elastic-stress-strain relations can be included. The present work generalizes the method to include viscoelastic materials (such as polymers), systems with cell structure deviating from perfect periodicity (including random), and systems simulating actual impact experiments. We test the theory by comparing our results with measurements taken from a flat-plate impact experiment. The system investigated was a bilaminate composed of unit cells of epoxy and epoxy-graphite subcells. Using known and estimated material parameters, we find that the MOC gives a reasonable representation of the data. We then address some features of the experimental data that have not yet been explained by other theoretical methods. The importance of unit cell periodicity is tested by adding a random incremental width to each unit cell. Finally, the shortcomings of the MOC caused by using a truncated series expansion for the particle displacements, and neglecting plastic flow and nonadiabatic effects are discussed.

Clements, B. E.; Johnson, J. N.; Hixson, R. S.

1996-12-01

361

Oxygen Compatibility Testing of Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of polymer composite liquid oxygen LO2 tanks is a critical step in creating the next generation of launch vehicles. Future launch vehicles need to minimize the gross liftoff weight (GLOW), which is possible due to the 25%-40% reduction in weight that composite materials could provide over current aluminum technology. Although a composite LO2 tank makes these weight savings feasible, composite materials have not historically been viewed as "LO2 compatible." To be considered LO2 compatible, materials must be selected that will resist any type of detrimental, combustible reaction when exposed to usage environments. This is traditionally evaluated using a standard set of tests. However, materials that do not pass the standard tests can be shown to be safe for a particular application. This paper documents the approach and results of a joint NASA/Lockheed Martin program to select and verify LO2 compatible composite materials for liquid oxygen fuel tanks. The test approach developed included tests such as mechanical impact, particle impact, puncture, electrostatic discharge, friction, and pyrotechnic shock. These tests showed that composite liquid oxygen tanks are indeed feasible for future launch vehicles.

Graf, Neil A.; Hudgins, Richard J.; McBain, Michael

2000-01-01

362

3-D textile reinforcements in composite materials  

SciTech Connect

Laminated composite materials have been used in structural applications since the 1960s. However, their high cost and inability to accommodate fibers in the laminate`s thickness direction greatly reduce their damage tolerance and impact resistance. The second generation of materials--3-D textile reinforced composites--offers significant cost reduction, and by incorporating reinforcement in the thickness direction, dramatically increases damage tolerance and impact resistance. However, methods for predicting mechanical properties of 3-D textile reinforced composite materials tend to be more complex. These materials also have disadvantages--particularly in regard to crimps in the yarns--that require more research. Textile preforms, micro- and macromechanical modeling, manufacturing processes, and characterization all need further development. As researchers overcome these problems, this new generation of composites will emerge as a highly competitive family of materials. This book provides a state-of-the-art account of this promising technology. In it, top experts describe the manufacturing processes, highlight the advantages, identify the main applications, analyze methods for predicting mechanical properties, and detail various reinforcement strategies, including grid structure, knitted fabric composites, and the braiding technique. Armed with the information in this book, readers will be prepared to better exploit the advantages of 3-D textile reinforced composites, overcome its disadvantages, and contribute to the further development of the technology.

Miravete, A. [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)

1999-11-01

363

Ultrasonic stress wave characterization of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work reported covers three simultaneous projects. The first project was concerned with: (1) establishing the sensitivity of the acousto-ultrasonic method for evaluating subtle forms of damage development in cyclically loaded composite materials, (2) establishing the ability of the acousto-ultrasonic method for detecting initial material imperfections that lead to localized damage growth and final specimen failure, and (3) characteristics of the NBS/Proctor sensor/receiver for acousto-ultrasonic evaluation of laminated composite materials. The second project was concerned with examining the nature of the wave propagation that occurs during acoustic-ultrasonic evaluation of composite laminates and demonstrating the role of Lamb or plate wave modes and their utilization for characterizing composite laminates. The third project was concerned with the replacement of contact-type receiving piezotransducers with noncontacting laser-optical sensors for acousto-ultrasonic signal acquisition.

Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.

1986-01-01

364

Design of Geopolymeric Materials Based on Nanostructural Characterization and Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geopolymers, a class of largely X-ray amorphous aluminosilicate binder materials, have been studied extensively over the past several decades, but largely from an empirical standpoint. The primary aim of this investigation has been to apply a more science...

G. C. Lukey J. S. van Deventer J. L. Provis P. Duxson

2006-01-01

365

CRYOGENIC ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES OVER NANO-STRUCTURED MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Porous materials such as zeolites, activated carbon, silica gels, alumina and a number of industrial catalysts are compared and ranked for hydrogen and deuterium adsorption at liquid nitrogen temperature. All samples show higher D{sub 2} adsorption than that of H{sub 2}, in which a HY sample has the greatest isotopic effect while 13X has the highest hydrogen uptake capacity. Material's moisture content has significant impact to its hydrogen uptake. A material without adequate drying could result in complete loss of its adsorption capacity. Even though some materials present higher H{sub 2} adsorption capacity at full pressure, their adsorption at low vapor pressure may not be as good as others. Adsorption capacity in a dynamic system is much less than in a static system. A sharp desorption is also expected in case of temperature upset.

Xiao, S.; Heung, L.

2010-10-07

366

Techniques for in situ HVEM mechanical deformation of nanostructural materials  

SciTech Connect

We have developed two in-situ HVEM techniques which allow us to begin fundamental investigations into the mechanisms of deformation and fracture in nonstructured materials. A procedure for the observation of tensile deformation and failure in multilayers materials in cross-section is given and also the development of an in-situ HVEM nanoindentor of surfaces and films on surfaces in cross-section.

Wall, M.A.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Dahmen, U.

1995-08-07

367

Natural Cellulosic Substance Derived Nano-structured Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When versatile synthetic chemical processes meet natural biological assemblies, a promising shortcut for the design and fabrication\\u000a of functional materials with tailored structures and properties are lit up. By precisely replicating natural substrates with\\u000a guest matrices, artificial materials are endowed with the initial biological structures and morphologies. To achieve faithful\\u000a inorganic\\/organic replicas of the natural species for the corresponding finest

Yuanqing Gu; Jianguo Huang

368

Synthesis and characterization of novel nanostructured thermoelectric materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having been hibernated for almost 50 years, research in thermoelectric materials is beginning to regain activity because of the recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Thermoelectric is an old topic, which was discovered as early as 1821 by Thomas Johann Seebeck. During the following 120 years, great advances in both the theories and experiments were achieved. Since the 1950s, studies in thermoelectric have developed very little, because of the painful difficulties in elevating the efficiency of these kinds of materials. The efficiency of thermoelectric materials is determined by a dimensionless parameter--figure of merit (ZT), given by ZT = S2?T/? where T is the temperature, S is the thermoelectric power (or Seebeck coefficient), ? is the electrical conductivity, and ? is the thermal conductivity. The best commercially available thermoelectric materials nowadays have a ZT around 1.0, which can be only used in some special cases. To be competitive to the kitchen refrigerators or air-conditioners, a ZT >= 3 at room temperature is required. Recently, some exciting results indicated that higher ZT values can be realized by nanoengineering of these materials. Both theoretical calculations and experimental modulations have shown the promising potentials in the elevation of the efficiency of thermoelectric materials.

Qiu, Xiaofeng; Burda, Clemens

2005-08-01

369

New types of reinforced composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical properties of solids determine their usefulness as structural materials. Metals have some disadvantageous characteristics which reduce their effectiveness in critical engineering applications. These limitations can be overcome by the use of certain types of fibrous reinforced composites which have become available over the last few years. However, these materials in turn have their own inherent limitations, particularly in

J. G. Morley

1976-01-01

370

High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof  

DOEpatents

Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0

Graetz, Jason A. (Upton, NY) [Upton, NY; Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA) [Pasadena, CA; Ahn, Channing (Pasadena, CA) [Pasadena, CA; Yazami, Rachid (Los Angeles, CA) [Los Angeles, CA

2010-08-24

371

Nanostructured electrocatalytic Pt-carbon materials for fuel cells and CO 2 conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent growing possibilities for the preparation, in large quantities and at low cost, of a number of different types\\u000a of nanostructured carbons (carbon nanotubes, nanofibers, nano-and meso-porous materials, nanocoils and nanohorns, etc.) have\\u000a open new possibilities in a range of applications: H2 storage, electronic and field emission devices, advanced sensors, polymer reinforcement, and catalyst support. Nonetheless,\\u000a most authors consider

S. Perathoner; M. Gangeri; P. Lanzafame; G. Centi

2007-01-01

372

Nano-structured silicas and silicates––new materials and their applications in paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-structured silica with an open network structure has been produced by controlled precipitation from geothermal water. The material has a pore volume, as measured by the oil absorption capacity of about 200–250 g oil. 100 g?1 silica, and the surface area is about 50–60 m2g?1. It has been used as a filler in newsprint and the technology has been developed

James H Johnston; Andrew J McFarlane; Thomas Borrmann; John Moraes

2004-01-01

373

Synthesis of nano-structured materials by laser-ablation and their application to sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the synthesis of nano-structured materials of ZnO and Pd by laser ablation and their applications to sensors. The synthesis of ZnO nano-wires was performed by nano-particle assisted deposition (NPAD) where nano-crystals were grown with nano-particles generated by laser-ablating a ZnO sintered target in an Ar background gas. The synthesized ZnO nano-wires were characterized with a scanning electron microscopy

T. Okada; J. Suehiro

2007-01-01

374

Electrosynthesis of non conventional-polymer nanotubules: a new nanostructured material for analytical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of both electrolyte nature and concentration on the kinetics of electropolymerization of several monomers and on the resulting morphology of the produced nanotubules. The investigated monomers were: 1,2- and 1,4-diaminobenzene, 2,3- and 1,8-diaminonaphthalene, o-anisidine. Finally, the morphology and structure of the different template-synthesized nanostructured materials has been carefully analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman

A Curulli; F Valentini; S Orlanducci; M. L Terranova; Claudia Paoletti; G Palleschi

2004-01-01

375

Microwave-assisted Synthesis and Biomedical Applications of Inorganic Nanostructured Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic nanostrucured materials have attracted much attention owing to their unique features and important applications in biomedicine. This thesis describes the development of rapid and efficient approaches to synthesize inorganic nanostructures, and introduces some potential applications. Magnetic nanostructures, such as necklace-like FeNi3 magnetic nanochains and magnetite nanoclusters, were synthesized by an efficient microwave-hydrothermal process. They were used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Magnetic FeNi3 nanochains were synthesized by reducing iron(III) acetylacetonate and nickel(II) acetylacetonate with hydrazine in ethylene glycol solution without any template under microwave irradiation. This was a rapid and economical route based on an efficient microwave-hydrothermal process which significantly shortened the synthesis time to mins. The morphologies and size of the materials could be effectively controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions, such as, the reaction time, temperature and concentrations of reactants. The morphology and composition of the as-prepared products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The size of the aligned nanospheres in the magnetic FeNi 3 chains could be adjusted from 150nm to 550nm by increasing the amounts of the precursors. Magnetic measurements revealed that the FeNi3 nanochains showed enhanced coercivity and saturation magnetization. Toxicity tests by exposure of FeNi3 nanochains to the zebrafish larvae showed that the as-prepared nanochains were biocompatible. In vitro magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirms the effectiveness of the FeNi 3 nanochains as sensitive MRI probes. Magnetite nanoclusters were synthesized by reducing iron(III) acetylacetonate with hydrazine in ethylene glycol under microwave irradiation. The nanoclusters showed enhanced T2 relaxivity. In vitro and in vivo MRI confirmed the effectiveness of the magnetite nanoclusters as sensitive MRI probes. We also investigated the biodistribution of the nanoclusters in rat liver and spleen. Bifunctional mesoporous core/shell Ag FeNi3 nanospheres were synthesized by reducing iron(III) chloride, nickel(II) chloride and silver nitrate with hydrazine in ethylene glycol under microwave irradiation. The efficient microwave-hydrothermal process significantly shortened the synthesis time to one minute. The toxicity of Ag FeNi3 nanospheres were tested by exposing to zebrafish, they were less toxic than silver nanoparticles. In vitro MRI confirmed the effectiveness of the Ag FeNi3 nanospheres as sensitive MRI probes. The interaction of Rhodamine Band nanospheres showed greatly enhanced fluorescence over the FeNi3 nanoparticles. A series of interesting core/shell silver/phenol formaldehyde resin (PFR) nano/microstructures were also synthesized through an efficient microwave process by self-assembly growth. Various morphologies, including monodispersed nanospheres, nanocables, and microcages were obtained by changing the fundamental experimental parameters, such as the reaction time and the surfactants (Pluronic P123 or CTAB). The results indicated that the presence of triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 would result in hollow silver/PFR microcages, while CTAB would prefer the formation of ultralong silver/PFR coaxial nanocables. In the absence of surfactants, monodispersed core/shell silver/PFR nanospheres could be obtained. The size of the nanospheres can be controlled in the range of 110 to 450 nm by changing the molar ratio of reagents (phenol:hexamine). The morphology and composition of the as-prepared products were characterized. The formation mechanism of the products was discussed based on the obtained results. Finally, a series of ZnO microarchitectures including monodispersed spindles, branches, flowers, paddies, and sphere-like clusters were prepared by an efficient microwave-hydrothermal process. The ZnO mophologies could be effectively controlled

Jia, Juncai

376

Energy absorption of composite material and structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from a joint research program on helicopter crashworthiness conducted by the U.S. Army Aerostructures Directorate and NASA Langley. Through the ongoing research program an in-depth understanding has been developed on the cause/effect relationships between material and architectural variables and the energy-absorption capability of composite material and structure. Composite materials were found to be efficient energy absorbers. Graphite/epoxy subfloor structures were more efficient energy absorbers than comparable structures fabricated from Kevlar or aluminum. An accurate method of predicting the energy-absorption capability of beams was developed.

Farley, Gary L.

1987-01-01

377

Electrical, thermal, catalytic and magnetic properties of nano-structured materials and their applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology is a subject that studies the fabrication, properties, and applications of materials on the nanometer-scale. Top-down and bottom-up approaches are commonly used in nano-structure fabrication. The top-down approach is used to fabricate nano-structures from bulk materials by lithography, etching, and polishing etc. It is commonly used in mechanical, electronic, and photonic devices. Bottom-up approaches fabricate nano-structures from atoms or molecules by chemical synthesis, self-assembly, and deposition, such as sol-gel processing, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), focused ion beam (FIB) milling/deposition, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and electro-deposition etc. Nano-structures can have several different dimensionalities, including zero-dimensional nano-structures, such as fullerenes, nano-particles, quantum dots, nano-sized clusters; one-dimensional nano-structures, such as carbon nanotubes, metallic and semiconducting nanowires; two-dimensional nano-structures, such as graphene, super lattice, thin films; and three-dimensional nano-structures, such as photonic structures, anodic aluminum oxide, and molecular sieves. These nano-structured materials exhibit unique electrical, thermal, optical, mechanical, chemical, and magnetic properties in the quantum mechanical regime. Various techniques can be used to study these properties, such as scanning probe microscopy (SPM), scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), micro Raman spectroscopy, etc. These unique properties have important applications in modern technologies, such as random access memories, display, solar energy conversion, chemical sensing, and bio-medical devices. This thesis includes four main topics in the broad area of nanoscience: magnetic properties of ferro-magnetic cobalt nanowires, plasmonic properties of metallic nano-particles, photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide nanotubes, and electro-thermal-optical properties of carbon nanotubes. These materials and their properties are briefly reviewed in Chapter One, including the concepts of ferro-magnetism, plasmonics, photocatalysis, thermal emission, and Raman spectra of carbon nanotubes. In Chapter Two, we focus on the magnetic properties of ferro-magnetic cobalt nanowires with high crystalline quality synthesized via a low voltage electro-deposition method. The crystal structure of these Co nanowires is characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties of individual nanowires and nanowire arrays are investigated by magnetic force microscope (MFM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements. A theoretical model is developed to explain these experimental observations. In Chapter Three, we exploit the strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles. We also demonstrate a new method for patterning SERS (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy) aggregates of gold nanoparticles by using a focused laser beam to optically trap the nanoparticles in a water suspension. Raman spectroscopy is used to estimate the temperature in the laser spot during the in-situ aggregation, by measuring the Raman peak of the hydroxyl bond of water. In Chapter Four, we demonstrate plasmonic enhancement of photocatalytic water splitting under visible illumination by integrating strongly plasmonic Au nanoparticles with strongly catalytic TiO2. Electromagnetic simulations indicate that the near-field optical enhancement increases the electron-hole pair generation rate at the surface of the TiO2, thus increasing the amount of photo-generated charge contributing to catalysis. Our results suggest that enhancement factors many times larger than this are possible if this mechanism can be optimized. In Chapter Five, we study the Raman spectra and thermal emission spectra of individual suspended carbon nanotubes induced by electrical heating. Semiconducting and metallic devices exhibit different spectra, based on their distinctive band structures. Raman spectra and the blackbody emission background are used to fit the device temper

Liu, Zuwei

378

Structural and magnetic characterization of nanostructured iron composites formed in the presence of citrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of nanostructured iron composites have been prepared via the self-assembly of nanocrystalline iron particles formed in the presence of citrate ions. Through an appropriate choice of the ratio of citrate to iron ions, the self-assembled, nanostructured iron composites can be prepared so as to possess diminished coercivity, nearly the bulk magnetization of iron, and air-stability for many months, without resorting to air-free production techniques. The self-assembled particles do not agglomerate into the chains typically produced by chemical reduction, and were prepared with widely tunable sizes (75 -- 375 nm), grain sizes (18 -- 4 nm), or crystallinity (60 -- 0.5 %). Powder compacts prepared from these particles possess coercivities as low as 40 Oe and saturation magnetizations as high as 178 emu/g at room temperature. One powder with moderately high crystallinity and saturation magnetization was selected for a detailed structural and magnetic study and was consolidated into pellets at moderate pressure. TEM measurements reveal the presence of a 3.5 nm shell on these approximately 100 nm particles with an internal grain structure of approximately five nanometers. Magnetization measurements estimate that the core of this sample is essentially pure iron. The pellets were annealed under flow of forming gas in a differential scanning calorimeter by scanning to final temperatures between 300 and 600 °C, and two shallow exotherms centered at 350 and 575 °C are observed along with a deep exotherm centered at about 485 °C. The particles show no evidence of sintering until the onset of this latter peak, at which point the x-ray diffraction (XRD) determined grain size, coercivity and remanence show sharp increases. Higher anneals produce a porous network with increased particle size, and decreased porosity and coercivity. The coercivity changes nearly linearly with the grain size until the onset of sintering, as opposed to the D6 trend observed previously for nanocrystalline materials. The effective anisotropy of these samples is fit to a surface to volume relationship that indicates the particles possess a bulk anisotropy that comparable with previously established work and a negative surface anisotropy while a the estimated exchange length is minimal when approximately equal to the XRD determined grain size in accord without invoking a second magnetic phase. Zero-field cooled/field cooled magnetization measurements for samples annealed below 480 °C show behavior consistent with a high blocking temperature and broad blocking temperature distribution, while those annealed to higher temperatures show a decrease in the field-cooled magnetization with decreasing temperature consistent with spin-glass behavior. High-field measurements reveal a gradual increase in the spin stiffness and exchange stiffness constants from approximately half the bulk value through the bulk value as the annealing temperature increases, while the spin-spin interaction distance is approximately 30 percent larger than the bulk lattice constant.

Ekiert, Thomas F., Jr.

379

Biofabrication: using biological materials and biocatalysts to construct nanostructured assemblies.  

PubMed

Emerging opportunities are placing greater demands on device fabrication: next-generation microelectronics will need minimum features of less than 100 nm, high-throughput drug screening will require facile methods to incorporate sensitive biological components into microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and implantable devices will need to be built from biocompatible materials. Increasingly, these emerging demands are being addressed by combining traditional microfabrication methods with 'biofabrication': namely, the use of biologically derived materials and biocatalysts. Recent fabrication techniques are using biological construction materials as process aids or structural components, and enzymes are being considered for their potential to fabricate devices with high selectivity under mild conditions. If incompatibilities between biology and microfabrication can be eliminated, then biofabrication will be poised to emerge as the standard for nanoscale construction. PMID:15491804

Wu, Li-Qun; Payne, Gregory F

2004-11-01

380

Versatile nanostructured materials via direct reaction of functionalized catechols.  

PubMed

A facile one-step polymerization strategy is explored to achieve novel catechol-based materials. Depending on the functionality of the catechol, the as-prepared product can be used to modify at will the surface tension of nano and bulk structures, from oleo-/hydrophobic to highly hydrophilic. A hydrophobic catechol prepared thus polymerized shows the ability to self-assemble as solid nanoparticles with sticky properties in polar solvent media. Such a versatile concept is ideal for the development of catechol-based multifunctional materials. PMID:23418006

Saiz-Poseu, Javier; Sedó, Josep; García, Beatriz; Benaiges, Cristina; Parella, Teo; Alibés, Ramon; Hernando, Jordi; Busqué, Felix; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel

2013-04-11

381

Nanostructure and Composition of Tribo-Boundary Films Formed in Ionic Liquid Lubrication  

SciTech Connect

Since the idea of using ionic liquids (ILs) as lubricants was raised in 2001, many studies have been conducted in this area and results have demonstrated superior lubricating performance for a variety of ionic liquids. It is widely believed that tribochemical reactions occur between the metal surface and the IL during the wear process to form a protective tribo-boundary film on the contact area that reduces friction and wear. However, the study of this critical boundary film has been limited to top surface two-dimensional topography examination and chemical analysis in the literature. A more comprehensive characterization is needed to help understand the film formation process and the lubricating mechanism. This study demonstrated a multi-technique three-dimensional approach to characterize the IL-formed boundary films, including top surface morphology examination, cross section nanostructure characterization, and layered chemical analysis. Characterization was carried out on both ferrous and aluminum surfaces lubricated by an ammonium IL. The focused-ion-beam (FIB) technique enabled TEM/EDS examination on the cross section of the boundary film to provide direct measurement of the film thickness, visualization of the nanostructure, and analysis of composition. In addition, composition-depth profiles were generated using XPS aided by ion-sputtering to reveal the composition change at different levels of the boundary film to investigate the film formation process.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL

2011-01-01

382

Damping in aerospace composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results are presented on specimens of carbon and Kevlar fibers in epoxy resin, materials used in many aerospace structures (control surfaces and wings in aircraft, large antennas in spacecraft, etc.). Some experimental methods of estimating damping ratios are first reviewed, either in the time domain or in the frequency domain. Some damping factor estimates from experimental tests are then shown; in order to evaluate the effects of the aerospace environment, damping factors have been obtained in a typical range of temperature, namely between +120 C and -120 C, and in the pressure range from room pressure to 10 exp -6 torr. Finally, a theoretical approach for predicting the bounds of the damping coefficients is shown, and prediction data are compared with experimental results.

Agneni, A.; Balis Crema, L.; Castellani, A.

383

Electronic Properties of Novel Nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 19th Winterschool focused mainly on new nanostructured materials, with data presented on functionalized fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, filled and double-wall nanotubes, non-carbon nanotubes, such as BN and MoS2 tubes, and other nanostructures. The direction of nanoelectronics research was explored in depth, and advancements in composite technology and novel applications for nanotubes were discussed. Importantly, participants were updated on the

Hans Kuzmany; Jörg Fink; Michael Mehring; Siegmar Roth

2005-01-01

384

Effective load transfer by a chromium carbide nanostructure in a multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper matrix composite.  

PubMed

Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced copper (Cu) matrix composites, which exhibit chromium (Cr) carbide nanostructures at the MWCNT/Cu interface, were prepared through a carbide formation using CuCr alloy powder. The fully densified and oriented MWCNTs dispersed throughout the composites were prepared using spark plasma sintering (SPS) followed by hot extrusion. The tensile strengths of the MWCNT/CuCr composites increased with increasing MWCNTs content, while the tensile strength of MWCNT/Cu composite decreased from that of monolithic Cu. The enhanced tensile strength of the MWCNT/CuCr composites is a result of possible load-transfer mechanisms of the interfacial Cr carbide nanostructures. The multi-wall failure of MWCNTs observed in the fracture surface of the MWCNT/CuCr composites indicates an improvement in the load-bearing capacity of the MWCNTs. This result shows that the Cr carbide nanostructures effectively transferred the tensile load to the MWCNTs during fracture through carbide nanostructure formation in the MWCNT/Cu composite. PMID:22797555

Cho, Seungchan; Kikuchi, Keiko; Kawasaki, Akira; Kwon, Hansang; Kim, Yangdo

2012-08-10

385

Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through

Wolfgang M. Sigmund; Karran V. Woan; Nelson Simmons Bell

2010-01-01

386

Nanostructured materials in advanced membrane technology for separation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation by selective transport through membranes is a dynamic and rapidly growing field. However, the existing of polymeric and inorganic membrane materials are inadequate in terms of sustaining the membrane performance for long term operation under high pressure and high concentration of impurities to be separated. These are some of the key issues to be addressed by scientist and engineers

A. F. Ismail

2010-01-01

387

Using biological inspiration to engineer functional nanostructured materials.  

PubMed

Humans have always looked to nature for design inspiration, and material design on the molecular level is no different. Here we explore how this idea applies to nanoscale biomimicry, specifically examining both recent advances and our own work on engineering lipid and polymer membrane systems with cellular processes. PMID:17192981

Wendell, David W; Patti, Jordan; Montemagno, Carlo D

2006-11-01

388

NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIAL DESIGN FOR HG, AS, AND SE CAPTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this research project is to identify potential materials that can be used as multipollutant sorbents using a hierarchy of computational modeling approaches. Palladium (Pd) and gold (Au) alloys were investigated and the results show that the addition of a small amou...

389

Novel anti-cancer orthopedic materials: Nanostructured selenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic bone implants possess numerous problems limiting their efficacy, such as poor osseointegration, stress shielding, and corrosion in in vivo environments. In addition, these materials were not originally developed to simultaneously serve as an orthopedic implant and treat bone cancer (for which some patients require an orthopedic implant). This study is to investigate the potential use of selenium in bone

Phong Tran; Thomas J. Webster

2007-01-01

390

Composite Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy resources, of which wind energy is prominent, are part of the solution to the global energy problem. Wind turbine and the rotorblade concepts are reviewed, and loadings by wind and gravity as important factors for the fatigue performance of the materials are considered. Wood and composites are discussed as candidates for rotorblades. The fibers and matrices for composites are described, and their high stiffness, low density, and good fatigue performance are emphasized. Manufacturing technologies for composites are presented and evaluated with respect to advantages, problems, and industrial potential. The important technologies of today are prepreg (pre-impregnated) technology and resin infusion technology. The mechanical properties of fiber composite materials are discussed, with a focus on fatigue performance. Damage and materials degradation during fatigue are described. Testing procedures for documentation of properties are reviewed, and fatigue loading histories are discussed, together with methods for data handling and statistical analysis of (large) amounts of test data. Future challenges for materials in the field of wind turbines are presented, with a focus on thermoplastic composites, new structural materials concepts, new structural design aspects, structural health monitoring, and the coming trends and markets for wind energy.

Brøndsted, Povl; Lilholt, Hans; Lystrup, Aage

2005-08-01

391

Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Lillehei, P. T.; Bryant, R. G.

2012-01-01

392

Nanostructured high-energy cathode materials for advanced lithium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel-rich layered lithium transition-metal oxides, LiNi1-xMxO2 (M?=?transition metal), have been under intense investigation as high-energy cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries because of their high specific capacity and relatively low cost. However, the commercial deployment of nickel-rich oxides has been severely hindered by their intrinsic poor thermal stability at the fully charged state and insufficient cycle life, especially at elevated temperatures. Here, we report a nickel-rich lithium transition-metal oxide with a very high capacity (215?mA?h?g-1), where the nickel concentration decreases linearly whereas the manganese concentration increases linearly from the centre to the outer layer of each particle. Using this nano-functional full-gradient approach, we are able to harness the high energy density of the nickel-rich core and the high thermal stability and long life of the manganese-rich outer layers. Moreover, the micrometre-size secondary particles of this cathode material are composed of aligned needle-like nanosize primary particles, resulting in a high rate capability. The experimental results suggest that this nano-functional full-gradient cathode material is promising for applications that require high energy, long calendar life and excellent abuse tolerance such as electric vehicles.

Sun, Yang-Kook; Chen, Zonghai; Noh, Hyung-Joo; Lee, Dong-Ju; Jung, Hun-Gi; Ren, Yang; Wang, Steve; Yoon, Chong Seung; Myung, Seung-Taek; Amine, Khalil

2012-11-01

393

Tensile failure criteria for fiber composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis provides insight into the failure mechanics of these materials and defines criteria which serve as tools for preliminary design material selection and for material reliability assessment. The model incorporates both dispersed and propagation type failures and includes the influence of material heterogeneity. The important effects of localized matrix damage and post-failure matrix shear stress transfer are included in the treatment. The model is used to evaluate the influence of key parameters on the failure of several commonly used fiber-matrix systems. Analyses of three possible failure modes were developed. These modes are the fiber break propagation mode, the cumulative group fracture mode, and the weakest link mode. Application of the new model to composite material systems has indicated several results which require attention in the development of reliable structural composites. Prominent among these are the size effect and the influence of fiber strength variability.

Rosen, B. W.; Zweben, C. H.

1972-01-01

394

Indentation cracking of composite matrix materials.  

PubMed

Composite restorative materials wear by a fatigue mechanism in the occlusal contact area. Here, tooth cusps and food debris cyclically indent the restoration. Modeling this phenomenon requires an understanding of material response to indentation. The question in this study was whether material response depends on indenter size and geometry, and also, whether polymers used in restorative materials should be considered elastic and brittle, or plastic and ductile for modeling purposes. Three resins used as matrices in proprietary restorative composites were the experimental materials. To ascertain the influence of glass transition temperature, liquid sorption, and small amounts of filler on indentation response, we prepared materials with various degrees of cure; some samples were soaked in a 50/50 water/ethanol solution, and 3 vol% silica was added in some cases. Indentation experiments revealed that no cracking occurred in any material after indentation by Vickers pyramid or spherical indenters with diameters equal to or smaller than 0.254 mm. Larger spherical indenters induced subsurface median and surface radial and/or ring cracks. Critical loads causing subsurface cracks were measured. Indentation with suitably large spherical indenters provoked an elastoplastic response in polymers, and degree of cure and Tg had less influence on critical load than soaking in solution. Crack morphology was correlated with yield strain. Commonly held assumptions regarding the brittle elastic behavior of composite matrix materials may be incorrect. PMID:8083442

Baran, G; Shin, W; Abbas, A; Wunder, S

1994-08-01

395

Properties of five toughened matrix composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of toughened matrix composite materials offers an attractive solution to the problem of poor damage tolerance associated with advanced composite materials. In this study, the unidirectional laminate strengths and moduli, notched (open-hole) and unnotched tension and compression properties of quasi-isotropic laminates, and compression-after-impact strengths of five carbon fiber/toughened matrix composites, IM7/E7T1-2, IM7/X1845, G40-800X/5255-3, IM7/5255-3, and IM7/5260 have been evaluated. The compression-after-impact (CAI) strengths were determined primarily by impacting quasi-isotropic laminates with the NASA Langley air gun. A few CAI tests were also made with a drop-weight impactor. For a given impact energy, compression after impact strengths were determined to be dependent on impactor velocity. Properties and strengths for the five materials tested are compared with NASA data on other toughened matrix materials (IM7/8551-7, IM6/1808I, IM7/F655, and T800/F3900). This investigation found that all five materials were stronger and more impact damage tolerant than more brittle carbon/epoxy composite materials currently used in aircraft structures.

Cano, Roberto J.; Dow, Marvin B.

1992-01-01

396

Elementary damping properties in braided composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the damping level trends of three-dimensionally braided composites as a function of matrix material, fiber-matrix interface, fiber braid angle, fiber volume, and axial fiber tow size. With knowledge of such trends, designers may increase the structural damping in a 3-D braided composite component, thereby reducing component vibration, shock response, and fatigue. The logarithmic decrements of the fundamental

Bernard L. Dion; Robert Sadler; Larry Silverberg

1994-01-01

397

Impact testing of textile composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this report were to evaluate the impact damage resistance and damage tolerance of a variety of textile composite materials. Static indentation and impact tests were performed on the stitched and unstitched uniweave composites constructed from AS4/3501-6 Carbon/Epoxy with a fiberglass yarn woven in to hold the fibers together while being stitched. Compression and tension were measured after the tests to determine the damage resistance, residual strength and the damage tolerance of the specimens.

Portanova, Marc

1995-01-01

398

Orientation mapping of nanostructured materials using transmission Kikuchi diffraction in the scanning electron microscope.  

PubMed

In this study, the new technique of transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been applied for the first time to enable orientation mapping of bulk, nanostructured metals. The results show how the improved spatial resolution of SEM-TKD, compared to conventional EBSD, enables reliable mapping of truly nanostructured metals and alloys, with mean grain sizes in the 40-200 nm range. The spatial resolution of the technique is significantly below 10nm, and contrasting examples are shown from both dense (Ni) and lighter (Al-alloy) materials. Despite the burden of preparing thin, electron-transparent samples, orientation mapping using SEM-TKD is likely to become invaluable for routine characterisation of nanocrystalline and, potentially, highly deformed microstructures. PMID:22796555

Trimby, Patrick W

2012-09-01

399

Conversion of cellulose materials into nanostructured ceramics by biomineralization  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of hierarchically ordered silica materials having ordered wood cellular structures has been demonstrated through in-situ mineralization of wood by means of surfactant-directed mineralization in solutions of different pH. At low pH, silicic acid penetrates the buried interfaces of the wood cellular structure without clogging the pores to subsequently “molecularly paint” the interfaces thereby forming a positive replica following calcinations. At high pH, the hydrolyzed silica rapidly condenses to fill the open cells and pits within the structure resulting in a negative replica of the structure. Surfactant-templated mineralization in acid solutions leads to the formation of micelles that hexagonally pack at the wood interfaces preserving structural integrity while integrating hexagonally ordered nanoporosity into the structure of the cell walls following thermal treatment in air. The carbothermal reduction of mineralized wood with silica at high temperature produces biomorphic silicon carbide (SiC) materials, which are typical aggregations of ?-SiC nanoparticles. To understand the roles of each component (lignin, crystalline cellulose, amorphous cellulose) comprising the natural biotemplates in the transformation to SiC rods, three different cellulose precursors including unbleached and bleached pulp, and cellulose nanocrystals have been utilized. Lignin in unbleached pulp blocked homogeneous penetration of silica into the pores between cellulose fibers resulting in non-uniform SiC fibers containing thick silica layers. Bleached pulp produced uniform SiC rods with camelback structures (80nm in diameter; ~50?m in length), indicating that more silica infiltrates into the amorphous constituent of cellulose to form chunky rather than straight rod structures. The cellulose nanocrystal (CNXL) material produced clean and uniform SiC nanowires (70nm in diameter; >100?m in length) without the camelback structure.

Shin, Yongsoon; Exarhos, Gregory J.

2007-06-01

400

Electronic Properties of Novel Nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 19th Winterschool focused mainly on new nanostructured materials, with data presented on functionalized fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, filled and double-wall nanotubes, non-carbon nanotubes, such as BN and MoS2 tubes, and other nanostructures. The direction of nanoelectronics research was explored in depth, and advancements in composite technology and novel applications for nanotubes were discussed. Importantly, participants were updated on the theoretical and experimental determinations of structural and electronic properties as well as on characterization methods for molecular nanostructures.

Kuzmany, Hans; Fink, Jörg; Mehring, Michael; Roth, Siegmar

401

Frequency Response Engineering of Magnetic Composite Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ferromagnetic metals have attractive microwave magnetic properties, but because of their conductivity, they can not be used\\u000a under bulk form, and have to be made into composite materials. Ferromagnetic-based composites may be categorized into C2D,\\u000a C1D and COD depending on the number of macroscopic Conducting Dimensions they have. C2D and C1D composites are made from thin\\u000a films and thin wires

Olivier Acher; CEA Le Ripault

402

Computational modeling of composite material fires.  

SciTech Connect

Composite materials behave differently from conventional fuel sources and have the potential to smolder and burn for extended time periods. As the amount of composite materials on modern aircraft continues to increase, understanding the response of composites in fire environments becomes increasingly important. An effort is ongoing to enhance the capability to simulate composite material response in fires including the decomposition of the composite and the interaction with a fire. To adequately model composite material in a fire, two physical model development tasks are necessary; first, the decomposition model for the composite material and second, the interaction with a fire. A porous media approach for the decomposition model including a time dependent formulation with the effects of heat, mass, species, and momentum transfer of the porous solid and gas phase is being implemented in an engineering code, ARIA. ARIA is a Sandia National Laboratories multiphysics code including a range of capabilities such as incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, energy transport equations, species transport equations, non-Newtonian fluid rheology, linear elastic solid mechanics, and electro-statics. To simulate the fire, FUEGO, also a Sandia National Laboratories code, is coupled to ARIA. FUEGO represents the turbulent, buoyantly driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and combustion. FUEGO and ARIA are uniquely able to solve this problem because they were designed using a common architecture (SIERRA) that enhances multiphysics coupling and both codes are capable of massively parallel calculations, enhancing performance. The decomposition reaction model is developed from small scale experimental data including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in both nitrogen and air for a range of heating rates and from available data in the literature. The response of the composite material subject to a radiant heat flux boundary condition is examined to study the propagation of decomposition fronts of the epoxy and carbon fiber and their dependence on the ambient conditions such as oxygen concentration, surface flow velocity, and radiant heat flux. In addition to the computational effort, small scaled experimental efforts to attain adequate data used to validate model predictions is ongoing. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the progress of the capability for a typical composite material and emphasize the path forward.

Brown, Alexander L.; Erickson, Kenneth L.; Hubbard, Joshua Allen; Dodd, Amanda B.

2010-10-01

403

Material properties of living soft tissue composites.  

PubMed

Collagen sponges seeded with fibroblasts have been used as a soft tissue substitute in wound healing applications. This biomaterial is a good in vitro analog of a connective tissue. Therefore, analysis of the properties of this material may be useful for theoretically modeling soft tissues. Stress-strain curves for such cell-seeded collagen sponges were measured to determine composite stiffness and ultimate tensile strength. Theoretical modeling was done by defining a particle-reinforced matrix using the composite sphere model. A system of uniaxially oriented fibers was then introduced to this equivalent homogeneous media and material properties were determined using the composite cylinder model. Geometric averaging was performed to yield the stiffness and Poissons' ratio for a composite with randomly oriented fibers. Inputs to the model were constituent material properties, cell volume fraction, and fiber volume fraction. From theoretical results, material properties of soft tissues and their substitutes depend on fiber mechanical properties and volume fraction and not cellular mechanical properties and volume fraction. Therefore, the increase in experimentally observed composite stiffness with increased cell number was due to deposition of newly synthesized stiffer collagen fibers, and not due to the physical presence of cells themselves. PMID:3235466

Jain, M K; Chernomorsky, A; Silver, F H; Berg, R A

1988-12-01

404

Raman Studies of the Nanostructure of Sol-Gel Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four sol-gel systems (alumina, aluminum hydroxide, zirconia, and magnesia) were investigated, primarily by laser spectroscopy, on several series of materials prepared by systematically varying the synthesis procedures. Nanocrystalline boehmite, gamma -AlO(OH), was found to be the principal component in the sol-gel alumina system. Materials were prepared by the hot-water hydrolysis/condensation of rm Al(OC_4H_9)_3, the Yoldas process, as a function of process variables such as the time spent in the sol phase. Small but systematic changes, as a function of sol aging time, were discovered in the lineshape and position of the dominant boehmite Raman band observed in the alumina hydrogels. These spectral changes were interpreted in terms of nanocrystallinity-induced finite-size effects associated with the slow growth of AlO(OH) nanocrystals in the sol. X-ray diffraction experiments were used to determine nanocrystal sizes (as small as 3 nm for gels prepared from fresh sols) and to estimate growth kinetics from the Raman-lineshape results. These results appear to be among the first available for crystallite growth kinetics (ripening) in the near-atomic-scale nanocrystal regime. The trihydroxide polymorph system is closely related to the sol-gel alumina system. The processing temperature and the method of hydrolysis were varied, in order to determine their effect on the trihydroxide phase mix. The trihydroxide phase mix does not change with time; it depends only on the initial hydrolysis conditions. Bayerite is the primary phase present for materials processed at 25 C, while nordstrandite is the primary phase present for materials processed at 60 C. It is shown that the trihydroxide crystal nucleation kinetics are responsible for the Al(OH)_3 phase mix. Hydroxide/oxyhydroxide phase-mix kinetics were also studied; this ratio increases with time. The associated rate constant decreases with increasing temperature. Sol-gel zirconia was prepared by using atmospheric water to hydrolyze a mixture of zirconium propoxide, acetic acid, and n-propanol. This produces a clear gel. Hydrogen peroxide was found to chemically react with the gels. Clean Raman spectra reveal a broad-band structure (the full width at half maximum is 150 cm^{-1} ) centered at about 460 cm^{ -1}. Raman and luminescent spectra (both obtained on the Raman spectrometer) were used to monitor the conversion of magnesium-carbonate-based materials to magnesium oxide, as a function of temperature. This new phase-determination technique utilizes the krypton 674.1 nm laser line so that the carbonate symmetric-stretch band and the MgO:Cr ^{+++} luminescence band are readily observable on the same spectrum. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Doss, Calvin James

405

Composite materials and method of making  

DOEpatents

A method of depositing noble metals on a metal hexaboride support. The hexaboride support is sufficiently electropositive to allow noble metals to deposit spontaneously from solutions containing ionic species of such metals onto the support. The method permits the deposition of metallic films of controlled thickness and particle size at room temperature without using separate reducing agents. Composite materials comprising noble metal films deposited on such metal hexaborides are also described. Such composite materials may be used as catalysts, thermionic emitters, electrical contacts, electrodes, adhesion layers, and optical coatings.

Uribe, Francisco A. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Garzon, Fernando H. (Santa Fe, NM) [Santa Fe, NM

2009-09-15

406

Thermal expansion properties of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal expansion data for several composite materials, including generic epoxy resins, various graphite, boron, and glass fibers, and unidirectional and woven fabric composites in an epoxy matrix, were compiled. A discussion of the design, material, environmental, and fabrication properties affecting thermal expansion behavior is presented. Test methods and their accuracy are discussed. Analytical approaches to predict laminate coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) based on lamination theory and micromechanics are also included. A discussion is included of methods of tuning a laminate to obtain a near-zero CTE for space applications.

Johnson, R. R.; Kural, M. H.; Mackey, G. B.

1981-01-01

407

Poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanostructured materials for organic electronics applications.  

PubMed

Semiconducting polymers have been developed during the last few decades and are currently used in various organic electronics applications. Regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is the most employed semiconducting polymer for organic electronics applications. The development of living Grignard metathesis polymerization (GRIM) allowed the synthesis of P3HT with well-defined molecular weights and functional end groups. A large number of block copolymers containing P3HT have been reported, and their opto-electronic properties have been investigated. The performance of P3HT homopolymer and block copolymers in field-effect transistors and bulk heterojunction solar cells are discussed in this review. The morphology of the P3HT materials is also discussed. PMID:24749411

Bhatt, M P; Magurudeniya, H D; Rainbolt, E A; Huang, P; Dissanayake, D S; Biewer, M C; Stefan, M C

2014-02-01

408

Nanostructure multilayer dielectric materials for capacitors and insulators  

DOEpatents

A capacitor is formed of at least two metal conductors having a multilayer dielectric and opposite dielectric-conductor interface layers in between. The multilayer dielectric includes many alternating layers of amorphous zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The dielectric-conductor interface layers are engineered for increased voltage breakdown and extended service life. The local interfacial work function is increased to reduce charge injection and thus increase breakdown voltage. Proper material choices can prevent electrochemical reactions and diffusion between the conductor and dielectric. Physical vapor deposition is used to deposit the zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in alternating layers to form a nano-laminate. 1 fig.

Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

1998-04-21