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Sample records for nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces

  1. DROPLET EVAPORATION ON NANOSTRUCTURED SUPERHYDROPHOBIC SURFACES

    E-print Network

    Kim, Chang-Jin "CJ"

    DROPLET EVAPORATION ON NANOSTRUCTURED SUPERHYDROPHOBIC SURFACES Chang-Hwan Choi1 and Chang-Jin "CJ report the evaporative processes of droplets of pure water and a protein solution on superhydrophobic, Evaporation, Nanostructure, Superhydrophobic surface INTRODUCTION Droplet evaporation on solid surfaces

  2. Jumping-Droplet-Enhanced Condensation on Scalable Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    When droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump from the surface due to the release of excess surface energy. If designed properly, these superhydrophobic nanostructured ...

  3. Liquid Evaporation on Superhydrophobic and Superhydrophilic Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) images of water evaporation from superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces are presented. The nanostructured surfaces consiste of an array of equidistant ...

  4. Jumping Droplet Dynamics on Scalable Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and high speed images of coalescence-induced droplet jumping on a nanostructured superhydrophobic copper oxide (CuO) surface are presented. Nanostructured CuO films were ...

  5. Controlling ice formation on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupenkin, Tom; Mishchenko, Lidiya; Hatton, Benjamin; Taylor, J. Ashley; Bahadur, Vaibhav; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2010-03-01

    In this work we describe anti-icing properties of nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces with well-defined regular arrays of micron and submicron surface features. Both open-cell and closed-cell structures are investigated. Dependence of ice formation dynamics on the temperature, details of the surface topography, substrate material, and other factors are investigated. We find that ice formation on these surfaces can be substantially retarded, with some of the surfaces showing no ice accumulation at temperatures as low as -20 C. The experimental results are in good quantitative agreement with the simple theoretical model based on the classical heterogeneous nucleation theory and wetting dynamics. The results of the work can provide new insight into design and optimization of anti-icing structures and coatings.

  6. Electric-Field-Enhanced Condensation on Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    When condensed droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump due to the conversion of excess surface energy into kinetic energy. This phenomenon has been shown to enhance ...

  7. Superhydrophobic Behavior on Nano-structured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    Superhydrophobic behavior is observed in natural occurrences and has been thoroughly studied over the past few years. Water repellant properties on uniform arrays of vertically aligned nano-cones were investigated to determine the highest achievable contact angle (a measure of water drop repellency), which is measured from the reference plane on which the water drop sits to the tangent line of the point at which the drop makes contact with the reference plane. At low aspect ratios (height vs. width of the nano-cones), surface tension pulls the water into the nano-cone array, resulting in a wetted surface. Higher aspect ratios reverse the effect of the surface tension, resulting in a larger contact angle that causes water drops to roll off the surface. Fiber drawing, bundling, and redrawing are used to produce the structured array glass composite surface. Triple-drawn fibers are fused together, annealed, and sliced into thin wafers. The surface of the composite glass is etched to form nano-cones through a differential etching process and then coated with a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (SAM). Cone aspect ratios can be varied through changes in the chemistry and concentration of the etching acid solution. Superhydrophobic behavior occurs at contact angles >150 and it is predicted and measured that optimal behavior is achieved when the aspect ratio is 4:1, which displays contact angles >=175 .

  8. Effect of Droplet Morphology on Growth Dynamics and Heat Transfer during Condensation on Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    Condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces offers new opportunities for enhanced energy conversion, efficient water harvesting, and high performance thermal management. These surfaces are designed to be Cassie ...

  9. Jumping-Droplet-Enhanced Condensation on Scalable Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Miljkovic, N; Enright, R; Nam, Y; Lopez, K; Dou, N; Sack, J; Wang, E

    2013-01-09

    When droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump from the surface due to the release of excess surface energy. If designed properly, these superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces can not only allow for easy droplet removal at micrometric length scales during condensation but also promise to enhance heat transfer performance. However, the rationale for the design of an ideal nanostructured surface as well as heat transfer experiments demonstrating the advantage of this jumping behavior are lacking. Here, we show that silanized copper oxide surfaces created via a simple fabrication method can achieve highly efficient jumping-droplet condensation heat transfer. We experimentally demonstrated a 25% higher overall heat flux and 30% higher condensation heat transfer coefficient compared to state-of-the-art hydrophobic condensing surfaces at low supersaturations (<1.12). This work not only shows significant condensation heat transfer enhancement but also promises a low cost and scalable approach to increase efficiency for applications such as atmospheric water harvesting and dehumidification. Furthermore, the results offer insights and an avenue to achieve high flux superhydrophobic condensation.

  10. Electric-field-enhanced condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Miljkovic, Nenad; Preston, Daniel J; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N

    2013-12-23

    When condensed droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump due to the conversion of excess surface energy into kinetic energy. This phenomenon has been shown to enhance condensation heat transfer by up to 30% compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensing surfaces. However, after the droplets jump away from the surface, the existence of the vapor flow toward the condensing surface increases the drag on the jumping droplets, which can lead to complete droplet reversal and return to the surface. This effect limits the possible heat transfer enhancement because larger droplets form upon droplet return to the surface, which impedes heat transfer until they can be either removed by jumping again or finally shedding via gravity. By characterizing individual droplet trajectories during condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured copper oxide (CuO) surfaces, we show that this vapor flow entrainment dominates droplet motion for droplets smaller than R ? 30 ?m at moderate heat fluxes (q? > 2 W/cm(2)). Subsequently, we demonstrate electric-field-enhanced condensation, whereby an externally applied electric field prevents jumping droplet return. This concept leverages our recent insight that these droplets gain a net positive charge due to charge separation of the electric double layer at the hydrophobic coating. As a result, with scalable superhydrophobic CuO surfaces, we experimentally demonstrated a 50% higher overall condensation heat transfer coefficient compared to that on a jumping-droplet surface with no applied field for low supersaturations (<1.12). This work not only shows significant condensation heat transfer enhancement but also offers avenues for improving the performance of self-cleaning and anti-icing surfaces as well as thermal diodes. PMID:24261667

  11. Superhydrophobic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Evelyn N; McCarthy, Matthew; Enright, Ryan; Culver, James N; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-03-24

    Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.

  12. Fabrication and robustness testing of superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces for enhanced jumping condensation

    E-print Network

    Sack, Jean H. (Jean Hope)

    2015-01-01

    Increasing worldwide and domestic demands for power and clean water will require advanced heat transfer materials. Superhydrophobic micro- and nano-structured surfaces which promote a jumping droplet mode of condensation ...

  13. Condensation on superhydrophobic copper oxide nanostructures

    E-print Network

    Dou, Nicholas (Nicholas Gang)

    2012-01-01

    Condensation is an important process in many power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces have unique condensation properties that may enhance heat transfer through a ...

  14. Dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces: literature review and experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisetto, A.; Torresin, D.; Tiwari, M. K.; Del, D., Col; Poulikakos, D.

    2014-04-01

    It is well established that the dropwise condensation (DWC) mode can lead up to significant enhancement in heat transfer coefficients as compared to the filmwise mode (FWC). Typically, hydrophobic surfaces are expected to promote DWC, while hydrophilic ones induce FWC. To this end, superhydrophobic surfaces, where a combination of low surface energy and surface texturing is used to enhance the hydrophobicity, have recently been proposed as a promising approach to promote dropwise condensation. An attractive feature of using superhydrophobic surfaces is to facilitate easy roll-off of the droplets as they form during condensation, thus leading to a significant improvement in the heat transfer associated with the condensation process. High droplet mobility can be obtained acting on the surface chemistry, decreasing the surface energy, and on the surface structure, obtaining a micro- or nano- superficial roughness. The first part of this paper will present a literature review of the most relevant works about DWC on superhydrophobic nanotextured substrates, with particular attention on the fabrication processes. In the second part, experimental data about DWC on superhydrophobic nanotextured samples will be analyzed. Particular attention will be paid to the effect of vapour velocity on the heat transfer. Results clearly highlight the excellent potential of nanostructured surfaces for application in flow condensation applications. However, they highlight the need to perform flow condensation experiments at realistic high temperature and saturation conditions in order to evaluate the efficacy of superhydrophobic surfaces for practically relevant pure vapor condensation applications.

  15. Study of surface modification of tungsten nanostructures for superhydrophobic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alletru, Richard

    In this work, we studied the impact of the modification of the structure of tungsten surfaces through physical vapor deposition (magnetron sputtering), electrochemical (anodization and electropolishing), and thermal (annealing) processes on the wettability of the designed surfaces. We observed static contact angle values ranging from around 10° to above 150° showing the importance of the techniques used to produce the surfaces. We noticed that the annealing process tends to increase the wettability, transforming hydrophobic surfaces into hydrophilic surfaces. We also observed that electropolishing affects the wettability in such a way that the contact angles of pre-chemically treated tungsten foils tend to decrease after coating when the electrochemical process is judged efficient due to a shadowing effect during the glancing angle deposition. Finally, we introduce a novel technique to create a dual micro-/nano-structure, preferable for superhydrophobicity. This novel technique may have tremendous implications for anti-icing applications.

  16. Azidomethyl-EDOT as a Platform for Tunable Surfaces with Nanostructures and Superhydrophobic Properties.

    PubMed

    Godeau, Guilhem; N'Na, Jessica; Darmanin, Thierry; Guittard, Frédéric

    2015-06-01

    We report for the first time the use of click chemistry both to modify the surface morphology and to obtain superhydrophobic properties. Using click chemistry as a postfunctionalization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers bearing azido groups, we show that the nanostructures already present on the surface as well as the surface hydrophobicity are highly affected by the used alkyne. These results allow one to envisage widely varied strategies to modify nanostructured surfaces while introducing various functions, for example to produce biosensors or antibacterial surfaces. PMID:25974162

  17. Drop impact upon micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Peichun; Pirat, Christophe; Lefferts, Leon; Lohse, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally investigate drop impact dynamics onto different superhydrophobic surfaces, consisting of regular polymeric micropatterns and rough carbon nanofibers, with similar static contact angles. The main control parameters are the Weber number \\We and the roughness of the surface. At small \\We, i.e. small impact velocity, the impact evolutions are similar for both types of substrates, exhibiting Fakir state, complete bouncing, partial rebouncing, trapping of an air bubble, jetting, and sticky vibrating water balls. At large \\We, splashing impacts emerge forming several satellite droplets, which are more pronounced for the multiscale rough carbon nanofiber jungles. The results imply that the multiscale surface roughness at nanoscale plays a minor role in the impact events for small \\We~$\\apprle 120$ but an important one for large \\We~$\\apprge 120$. Finally, we find the effect of ambient air pressure to be negligible in the explored parameter regime \\We~$\\apprle 150$

  18. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films.

    PubMed

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T; Lupini, Andrew R; Trejo, Rosa M; Jellison, Gerald E; Ivanov, Ilia N; Pennycook, Stephen J; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Winter, Kyle O; Christen, David K; Hunter, Scott R; Haynes, J Allen

    2013-08-01

    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military. PMID:23857991

  19. Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that deals with the nanostructured superhydrophobic (SH) powders developed at ORNL. This project seeks to (1) improve powder quality; (2) identify binders for plastics, fiberglass, metal (steel being the first priority), wood, and other products such as rubber and shingles; (3) test the coated product for coating quality and durability under operating conditions; and (4) application testing and production of powders in quantity.

  20. Superhydrophobic (low adhesion) and parahydrophobic (high adhesion) surfaces with micro/nanostructures or nanofilaments.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Alioune; Darmanin, Thierry; Dieng, Samba Yandé; Guittard, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    Controlling the water adhesion is extremely important for various applications such as for water harvesting. Here, superhydrophobic (low adhesion) and parahydrophobic (high adhesion) substrates are both obtained from hydrophilic polymers. We show in the work that a judicious choice in the monomer structure used for electropolymerization can lead to these two properties. Using a phenyl group, parahydrophobic properties are reached due to the formation of nanofilaments. By contrast, using a naphthalene or a biphenyl group, superhydrophobic properties are obtained due the formation of both micro- and nanostructures. PMID:25965431

  1. Superhydrophobic Ag decorated ZnO nanostructured thin film as effective surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Sonia, S.; Poongodi, S.; Kumar, P. Suresh; Masuda, Yoshitake; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C.

    2015-11-01

    The present work is an attempt to overcome the challenges in the fabrication of super hydrophobic silver decorated zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure thin films via thermal evaporation process. The ZnO nanowire thin films are prepared without any surface modification and show super hydrophobic nature with a contact angle of 163°. Silver is further deposited onto the ZnO nanowire to obtain nanoworm morphology. Silver decorated ZnO (Ag@ZnO) thin films are used as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies. The formation of randomly arranged nanowire and silver decorated nanoworm structure is confirmed using FESEM, HR-TEM and AFM analysis. Crystallinity and existence of Ag on ZnO are confirmed using XRD and XPS studies. A detailed growth mechanism is discussed for the formation of the nanowires from nanobeads based on various deposition times. The prepared SERS substrate reveals a reproducible enhancement of 3.082 × 107 M for Rhodamine 6G dye (R6G) for 10-10 molar concentration per liter. A higher order of SERS spectra is obtained for a contact angle of 155°. Thus the obtained thin films show the superhydrophobic nature with a highly enhanced Raman spectrum and act as SERS substrates. The present nanoworm morphology shows a new pathway for the construction of semiconductor thin films for plasmonic studies and challenges the orderly arranged ZnO nanorods, wires and other nano structure substrates used in SERS studies.

  2. Condensation on Superhydrophobic Copper Oxide Nanostructures

    E-print Network

    Enright, Ryan

    Condensation is an important process in both emerging and traditional power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructures promise enhanced condensation heat transfer by reducing the ...

  3. Optically Transparent, Mechanically Durable, Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces Enabled by Spinodally Phase-Separated Glass Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Hunter, Scott Robert; Ivanov, Ilia N; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Lupini, Andrew R; Pennycook, Stephen J; Trejo, Rosa M; Winters, Kyle O.; Haynes, James A; Simpson, John T

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by highly non-wetting natural biological surfaces (e.g., lotus leaves and water strider legs), artificial superhydrophobic surfaces that exhibit water droplet contact angles exceeding 150o have previously been constructed by utilizing various synthesis strategies.[ , , ] Such bio-inspired, water-repellent surfaces offer significant potential for numerous uses ranging from marine applications (e.g., anti-biofouling, anti-corrosion), anti-condensation (e.g., anti-icing, anti-fogging), membranes for selective separation (e.g., oil-water, gas-liquid), microfluidic systems, surfaces requiring reduced maintenance and cleaning, to applications involving glasses and optical materials.[ ] In addition to superhydrophobic attributes, for integration into device systems that have extended operational limits and overall improved performance, surfaces that also possess multifunctional characteristics are desired, where the functionality should match to the application-specific requirements.

  4. Nanostructured metal surfaces and their passivation for superhydrophobic and anti-icing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaee, Alireza

    Many systems and infrastructures developed by human beings frequently encounter deficiencies, stop functioning or even fail during severe weather conditions due to ice accumulation. One of the common methods to prevent snow and ice accumulation on exposed surfaces is the use of chemicals such as freezing point depressants. They should be applied during storms or just before ice accumulation which is practically difficult. Also these chemicals adversely affect the environment. New environment-friendly methods are necessary to be developed. An ideal solution can be covering the structures with a coating capable of inhibiting or reducing the bonding between snow or ice and solid surfaces. A solid surface with a water contact angle greater than 150° is called superhydrophobic. Desiring superhydrophobicity, a surface should satisfy two criteria, nano/micrometer scale roughness as well as low surface energy. Many applications in industry and in everyday-life can be benefited from this extreme water-repellence if one can develop a durable, environment-friendly superhydrophobic coating. In the present study, the hydrophobicity of the surfaces with submicron roughness prepared by spin-coating of metallic nanoparticle colloids on aluminum and copper substrates was studied. Three colloids of silver nanoparticles and two colloids of copper nanoparticles with different size distributions were synthesized by chemical reduction methods. Silver particles were found to be stable enough to make the model surfaces but copper particles were unstable and not suitable for this application. Regardless of nanoparticle type, hydrophobic surfaces could not be achieved by making rough surfaces by only one layer of coating. By adding a second layer of coating, all three types of silver nanoparticles resulted in coatings with high degree of superhydrophobicity on metallic substrates. Due to the similar shapes of nanoparticles, the difference in observed contact angles could be related to the particles sizes. The particles with the average size of ˜263 nm had the highest contact angles whereas the particles with average size of ˜195 nm or ˜360 nm showed lower values. The anti-icing behaviour of these superhydrophobic films was studied under atmospheric icing conditions. On aluminum, two layer coating of 263 nm particles could reduce the ice adhesion up to 8.1 times. This value was equal to 4 on copper substrates with similar coating. The copper based samples could keep their ice adhesion reduction even after five ice removal test.

  5. Condensation on Hydrophilic, Hydrophobic, Nanostructured Superhydrophobic and Oil-Infused Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Nenad, Miljkovic

    Color images of steady state water vapor condensing on smooth and nanostructured hydrophobic surfaces are presented. Figure 1a shows a snapshot of classical filmwise condensation on hydrophilic copper. A thin liquid film ...

  6. Electrodeposition of Pt nanostructures with reproducible SERS activity and superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Suhee; Kweon, Suji; Kim, Jongwon

    2015-09-28

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity and water wettability are important characteristic properties of nanostructured surfaces with respect to their practical applications. In the present work, we report a simple one-step electrodeposition of nanostructured Pt surfaces. The tree-like Pt nanostructures exhibited reproducible SERS activity, and they also showed superhydrophobic natures after n-dodecanethiol modification. The growth process of Pt nanostructures as a function of deposition charge was monitored using a scanning electron microscope, from which the correlation between the structural variation of the Pt nanostructures and the SERS activity and wettability was investigated. The SERS activity was dependent on the presence of sharp edge sites, whereas the wettability was dependent on the apex structures. Well-defined Pt tree nanostructures exhibited high, reproducible, and electrochemically stable SERS activity. The straightforward fabrication of multi-functional Pt nanostructures presented in this work would allow new opportunities for the application of nanostructured metal surfaces. PMID:26299821

  7. Nanostructures in superhydrophobic Ti6Al4V hierarchical surfaces control wetting state transitions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yizhou; Tao, Jie; Tao, Haijun; Chen, Shanlong; Pan, Lei; Wang, Tao

    2015-05-21

    This paper mainly reports the wetting state of liquid droplets on a Ti6Al4V micro-nanoscale hierarchical structured hydrophobic surface. In this work, the detailed action mechanism of the secondary nanostructure in the hierarchical structure on the wetting-state transition (from the Wenzel state to the Cassie state) was revealed and discussed. The variation of micro-morphology of the sample surface was observed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Furthermore, the apparent contact angle and sliding angle of the droplets on the surfaces were measured via a contact angle measurement instrument. The theoretical and experimental results indicated that the one-dimensional nanowire structure, which was planted on the microstructure surface by the hydrothermal method, effectively changed the wetting state of liquid droplets on the surface from the Wenzel state to the Cassie state owing to its good size synergies with microscale structure. This process not only increased the apparent contact angle of liquid droplets on the solid surface (to 161°), but also decreased the sliding angle significantly (to 3°) and contact angle hysteresis (to ?2°), demonstrating the robust non-wetting property. PMID:25855128

  8. Nanowetting of rough superhydrophobic surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Lamb, R.N.; Cookson, D.J.

    2008-11-03

    Small angle x-ray scattering has been used to investigate the in situ immersive wetting of ultrarough surfaces which exhibit superhydrophobicity with extreme water contact angle ({theta}{sub A} = 169{sup o}). Reduced scattering contrast observed from rough surfaces when partially or totally wetted reveals significant physical differences between superhydrophobic surfaces not otherwise apparent from conventional contact angle measurements.

  9. Superhydrophobic hierarchical honeycomb surfaces.

    PubMed

    Brown, P S; Talbot, E L; Wood, T J; Bain, C D; Badyal, J P S

    2012-09-25

    Two-dimensional hexagonally ordered honeycomb surfaces have been created by solvent casting polybutadiene films under controlled humidity. Subsequent CF(4) plasmachemical fluorination introduces cross-linking and surface texturing, leading to hierarchical surfaces with roughness on both the 10 ?m (honeycomb) and micrometer (texturing) length scales. For microliter droplets, these display high water contact angle values (>170°) in combination with low contact angle hysteresis (i.e., superhydrophobicity) while displaying bouncing of picoliter water droplets. In the case of picoliter droplets, it is found that surfaces which exhibit similar static contact angles can give rise to different droplet impact dynamics, governed by the underlying surface topography. These studies are of relevance to technological processes such as rapid cooling, delayed freezing, crop spraying, and inkjet printing. PMID:22966860

  10. Nano-structured self-cleaning superhydrophobic glass

    E-print Network

    Kim, Jin Yeol

    2010-01-01

    aluminum oxide structure through pore-widening. Chapter 3 contains superhydrophobic glass made from dry andaluminum oxide pore structure through pore-widening. In chapter 3, superhydrophobic surfaces made from dry and

  11. Superhydrophobic behavior achieved from hydrophilic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiadao; Liu, Fengbin; Chen, Haosheng; Chen, Darong

    2009-08-01

    The superhydrophobic behavior of a surface can be generally attributed to the combination of its chemical composition and microscale texture. The surface can be both hydrophobic and rough, and the roughness enhances its hydrophobicity. For a natural or artificial surface, superhydrophobic behavior is generally induced by a structured hydrophobic surface. This paper proposes an alternative; that is the superhydrophobic behavior can be obtained from a structured hydrophilic surface. The superhydrophobic behavior of a T-shape micropillar surface coated with diamond-like carbon has been achieved, which experimentally proved the proposed hypothesis that superhydrophobicity can be created from a hydrophilic surface through surface microstructure modification.

  12. Thermocapillary Flow on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Baier, Tobias; Hardt, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    A liquid in Cassie-Baxter state above a structured superhydrophobic surface is ideally suited for surface driven transport due to its large free surface fraction in close contact to a solid. We investigate thermal Marangoni flow over a superhydrophobic array of fins oriented parallel or perpendicular to an applied temperature gradient. In the Stokes limit we derive an analytical expression for the bulk flow velocity above the surface and compare it with numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation. Even for moderate temperature gradients comparatively large flow velocities are induced, suggesting to utilize this principle for microfluidic pumping.

  13. RESEARCH ARTICLE Drag reduction using superhydrophobic sanded Teflon surfaces

    E-print Network

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Drag reduction using superhydrophobic sanded Teflon surfaces Dong Song · Robert J- phobic surfaces with random surface microstructure. These superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated was found to produce the largest pressure drop reduction. 1 Introduction Superhydrophobic surfaces can

  14. Flow Condensation on Copper-Based Nanotextured Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    Flow Condensation on Copper-Based Nanotextured Superhydrophobic Surfaces Daniele Torresin Information ABSTRACT: Superhydrophobic surfaces have shown excellent ability to promote dropwise condensation how superhydrophobic surfaces would perform under the stringent flow condensation conditions

  15. Anti-icing performance of superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, S.; Farzaneh, M.; Kulinich, S. A.

    2011-05-01

    This article studies the anti-ice performance of several micro/nano-rough hydrophobic coatings with different surface chemistry and topography. The coatings were prepared by spin-coating or dip coating and used organosilane, fluoropolymer or silicone rubber as a top layer. Artificially created glaze ice, similar to the naturally accreted one, was deposited on the nanostructured surfaces by spraying supercooled water microdroplets (average size ˜80 ?m) in a wind tunnel at subzero temperature (-10 °C). The ice adhesion strength was evaluated by spinning the samples in a centrifuge at constantly increasing speed until ice delamination occurred. The results show that the anti-icing properties of the tested materials deteriorate, as their surface asperities seem to be gradually broken during icing/de-icing cycles. Therefore, the durability of anti-icing properties appears to be an important point for further research. It is also shown that the anti-icing efficiency of the tested superhydrophobic surfaces is significantly lower in a humid atmosphere, as water condensation both on top and between surface asperities takes place, leading to high values of ice adhesion strength. This implies that superhydrophobic surfaces may not always be ice-phobic in the presence of humidity, which can limit their wide use as anti-icing materials.

  16. A facile approach to fabricate superhydrophobic and corrosion resistant surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guijuan; Wang, Zhaojie; Zhao, Xixia; Feng, Juan; Wang, Shutao; Zhang, Jun; An, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have fabricated superhydrophobic CuO nanostructured surfaces by a simple solution-immersion process and a subsequent chemical modification with various thiol groups. The morphology of the CuO nanostructures on the copper foil could be easily controlled by simply changing the reaction time. The influences of reaction time and the thiol groups on hydrophobic properties have been discussed in detail. It is shown that the chemically modified CuO nanostructured surfaces present remarkable superhydrophobic performance and non-sticking behaviour. Furthermore, a lower corrosion current density (icorr) and a higher corrosion potential (Ecorr) of the prepared superhydrophobic surface was observed in comparison with the bare Cu foil by immersing in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution, indicating a good corrosion resistance capability. Our work provides a general, facile and low-cost route towards the preparation of superhydrophobic surface, which has potential applications in the fields of self-cleaning, anti-corrosion, and oil-water separation.

  17. Micro Droplet Transfer between Superhydrophobic Surfaces via a High Adhesive Superhydrophobic Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Daisuke; Yabu, Hiroshi; Shimomura, Masatusgu

    Micro droplet handling is very important for micro and nano fluidic devices and an intelligent bio interface. Micro droplet transfer via a high adhesive superhydrophobic surface has been reported in recent years. We demonstrated water droplet adhesion controllable superhydrophobic metal-polymer surfaces. Moreover we achieved micro droplet transfer between superhydrophobic surfaces by using different droplet adhesion properties. Water micro droplets were transferred from a low-adhesive superhydrophobic surface to a midium-adhesive superhydrophobic surface via a high-adhesive superhydrophobic surface without any mass loss. After droplet transfer, water contact angle was about 150°. Droplet handlings on the adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces will be expected for fluidic bio devices with energy saving.

  18. Wettability Switching Techniques on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The wetting properties of superhydrophobic surfaces have generated worldwide research interest. A water drop on these surfaces forms a nearly perfect spherical pearl. Superhydrophobic materials hold considerable promise for potential applications ranging from self cleaning surfaces, completely water impermeable textiles to low cost energy displacement of liquids in lab-on-chip devices. However, the dynamic modification of the liquid droplets behavior and in particular of their wetting properties on these surfaces is still a challenging issue. In this review, after a brief overview on superhydrophobic states definition, the techniques leading to the modification of wettability behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces under specific conditions: optical, magnetic, mechanical, chemical, thermal are discussed. Finally, a focus on electrowetting is made from historical phenomenon pointed out some decades ago on classical planar hydrophobic surfaces to recent breakthrough obtained on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  19. Anisotropic Particle Synthesis Inside Droplet Templates on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Velev, Orlin D.

    Anisotropic Particle Synthesis Inside Droplet Templates on Superhydrophobic Surfaces Vinayak on superhydrophobic substrates can be used to fabricate both shape-anisotropic (``doughnut'') and composition anisotropic structures via droplet templates dispensed on superhydrophobic substrates. Hence, little is known

  20. Frost formation and ice adhesion on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Varanasi, Kripa K.

    We study frost formation and its impact on icephobic properties of superhydrophobic surfaces. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope, we show that frost nucleation occurs indiscriminately on superhydrophobic ...

  1. Spontaneous Recovery of Superhydrophobicity on Nanotextured Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Prakash, Suruchi; Patel, Amish J

    2015-01-01

    Rough or textured hydrophobic surfaces are dubbed superhydrophobic due to their numerous desirable properties, such as water repellency and interfacial slip. Superhydrophobicity stems from an aversion for water to wet the surface texture, so that a water droplet in the superhydrophobic "Cassie state", contacts only the tips of the rough hydrophobic surface. However, superhydrophobicity is remarkably fragile, and can break down due to the wetting of the surface texture to yield the "Wenzel state" under various conditions, such as elevated pressures or droplet impact. Moreover, due to large energetic barriers that impede the reverse (dewetting) transition, this breakdown in superhydrophobicity is widely believed to be irreversible. Using molecular simulations in conjunction with enhanced sampling techniques, here we show that on surfaces with nanoscale texture, water density fluctuations can lead to a reduction in the free energetic barriers to dewetting by circumventing the classical dewetting pathways. In par...

  2. Dynamic contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the dynamic advancing and receding contact angles of a series of aqueous solutions were measured on a number of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces using a modified Wilhelmy plate technique. Superhydrophobic surfaces are hydrophobic surfaces with micron or nanometer sized surface roughness. These surfaces have very large static advancing contact angles and little static contact angle hysteresis. In this study, the dynamic advancing and dynamic receding contact angles on superhydrophobic surfaces were measured as a function of plate velocity and capillary number. The dynamic contact angles measured on a smooth hydrophobic Teflon surface were found to obey the scaling with capillary number predicted by the Cox-Voinov-Tanner law, ?D3 ? Ca. The response of the dynamic contact angle on the superhydrophobic surfaces, however, did not follow the same scaling law. The advancing contact angle was found to remain constant at ?A = 160?, independent of capillary number. The dynamic receding contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces were found to decrease with increasing capillary number; however, the presence of slip on the superhydrophobic surface was found to result in a shift in the onset of dynamic contact angle variation to larger capillary numbers. In addition, a much weaker dependence of the dynamic contact angle on capillary number was observed for some of the superhydrophobic surfaces tested.

  3. Shear Flow on Super-Hydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challa, Sivakumar R.; Truesdell, Richard; Vorobieff, Peter; Mammoli, Andrea; van Swol, Frank

    2008-02-01

    Super-hydrophobic surfaces, which exhibit large contact angles, can give rise to slip flow of aqueous fluids. We present our work on shear flow of atomistic fluids over simple super-hydrophobic surfaces. Molecular dynamic simulations are employed to investigate the flow field of fluid between two parallel surfaces, one of which is moving. Exploring a range of fluid thermodynamic state points, we demonstrate the influence of fluid phase and structure near the surfaces on prevalence, and degree, of slip at the super-hydrophobic surface.

  4. Marangoni convection in droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Tam, Daniel

    We consider a small droplet of water sitting on top of a heated superhydrophobic surface. A toroidal convection pattern develops in which fluid is observed to rise along the surface of the spherical droplet and to accelerate ...

  5. Superhydrophobic Surfaces Boost Fibril Self-Assembly of Amyloid ? Peptides.

    PubMed

    Accardo, Angelo; Shalabaeva, Victoria; Di Cola, Emanuela; Burghammer, Manfred; Krahne, Roman; Riekel, Christian; Dante, Silvia

    2015-09-23

    Amyloid ? (A?) peptides are the main constituents of Alzheimer's amyloid plaques in the brain. Here we report how the unique microfluidic flows exerted by droplets sitting on superhydrophobic surfaces can influence the aggregation mechanisms of several A? fragments by boosting their fibril self-assembly. A?(25-35), A?(1-40), and A?(12-28) were dried both on flat hydrophilic surfaces (contact angle (CA) = 37.3°) and on nanostructured superhydrophobic ones (CA = 175.8°). By embedding nanoroughened surfaces on top of highly X-ray transparent Si3N4 membranes, it was possible to probe the solid residues by raster-scan synchrotron radiation X-ray microdiffraction (?XRD). As compared to residues obtained on flat Si3N4 membranes, a general enhancement of fibrillar material was detected for all A? fragments dried on superhydrophobic surfaces, with a particular emphasis on the shorter ones. Indeed, both A?(25-35) and A?(12-28) showed a marked crystalline cross-? phase with varying fiber textures. The homogeneous evaporation rate provided by these nanostructured supports, and the possibility to use transparent membranes, can open a wide range of in situ X-ray and spectroscopic characterizations of amyloidal peptides involved in neurodegenerative diseases and for the fabrication of amyloid-based nanodevices. PMID:26306595

  6. Mechanically durable superhydrophobic surfaces prepared by abrading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fajun; Yu, Shan; Ou, Junfei; Xue, Mingshan; Li, Wen

    2013-09-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with both excellent mechanical durability and easy reparability based on polytetrafluoroethylene/room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (PTFE/RTVSR) composites were prepared by a simple abrading method. The surface energy of RTVSR matrix decreased with the increasing volume fraction of PTFE particles, and the surface rough microstructures of the composites were created by abrading. A water droplet on the surface exhibited a contact angle of about 165° ± 3.4° and a sliding angle of about 7.3° ± 1.9°. Such superhydrophobic surfaces showed strong mechanical durability against sandpaper because the surfaces were prepared in the way of mechanical abrasion, and the fresh exposed surfaces were still superhydrophobic. In addition, the micro-structures on the elastic surface of the composite will be compressed by elastic deformation to avoid being broken during the friction cycles when cotton fabric was used as an abrasion surface. The deformation will rebound to renew the original surface structures when the load is withdrawn. Therefore, the elastic PTFE/RTVSR composites are of advantage to construct superhydrophobic surfaces with better abrasion resistance. More importantly, such superhydrophobicity can be repaired by a simple abrading regeneration process within a few minutes when the surface is damaged or polluted by organic contaminant.

  7. Functional superhydrophobic surfaces made of Janus micropillars

    PubMed Central

    Mammen, Lena; Bley, Karina; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Schellenberger, Frank; Encinas, Noemí; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Weiss, Clemens K.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces consisting of micropillars with hydrophobic sidewalls and hydrophilic tops, referred to as Janus micropillars. Therefore we first coat a micropillar array with a mono- or bilayer of polymeric particles, and merge the particles together to shield the top faces while hydrophobizing the walls. After removing the polymer film, the top faces of the micropillar arrays can be selectively chemically functionalised with hydrophilic groups. The Janus arrays remain superhydrophobic even after functionalisation as verified by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The robustness of the superhydrophobic behaviour proves that the stability of the entrapped air cushion is determined by the forces acting at the rim of the micropillars. This insight should stimulate a new way of designing super liquid-repellent surfaces with tunable liquid adhesion. In particular, combining superhydrophobicity with the functionalisation of the top faces of the protrusions with hydrophilic groups may have exciting new applications, including high-density microarrays for high-throughput screening of bioactive molecules, cells, or enzymes or efficient water condensation. However, so far chemical attachment of hydrophilic molecules has been accompanied with complete wetting of the surface underneath. The fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces where the top faces of the protrusions can be selectively chemically post-functionalised with hydrophilic molecules, while retaining their superhydrophobic properties, is both promising and challenging. PMID:25415839

  8. Self-propelled jumping drops on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chuan-Hua

    Self-propelled jumping drops on superhydrophobic surfaces Jonathan B. Boreyko and Chuan-Hua Chena-propelled jumping phenomenon for coa- lescing drops on superhydrophobic surfaces. The spontane- ous motion is powered by surface energy released upon coalescence.1,2 On a horizontal, chilled superhydrophobic surface

  9. Dynamics of Ferrofluidic Drops Impacting Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Bolleddula, D A; Alliseda, A; Bhosale, P; Berg, J C

    2010-01-01

    This is a fluid dynamics video illustrating the impact of ferrofluidic droplets on surfaces of variable wettability. Surfaces studied include mica, teflon, and superhydrophobic. A magnet is placed beneath each surface, which modifies the behavior of the ferrofluid by applying additional downward force apart from gravity resulting in reduced droplet size and increased droplet velocity. For the superhydrophobic droplet a jetting phenomena is shown which only occurs in a limited range of impact speeds, higher than observed before, followed by amplified oscillation due to magnetic field as the drop stabilizes on the surface.

  10. Reversible ultraviolet light-manipulated superhydrophobic-to-superhydrophilic transition on a tubular SiC nanostructure film

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, H.; Yang, G. Z.; Sun, Y.; Wang, C. X.

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate the ultraviolet (UV) light-induced, reversible wettability behavior for tubular SiC nanostructure film. The as-synthesized tubular SiC nanostructure film shows the superhydrophilic nature with the water contact angle 152.4 deg. and low sliding angle. Moreover, the surface transition between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity can be easily achieved by the alternation of UV irradiation and closed thermal heating. A possible mechanism is also proposed to explain the reversible wettability behavior.

  11. Nanostructured superhydrophobic films synthesized by electrodeposition of fluorinated polyindoles

    PubMed Central

    Ramos Chagas, Gabriela; Darmanin, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Summary Materials with bioinspired superhydrophobic properties are highly desirable for many potential applications. Here, nine novel monomers derived from indole are synthesized to obtain these properties by electropolymerization. These monomers differ by the length (C4F9, C6F13 and C8F17) and the position (4-, 5- and 6-position of indole) of the perfluorinated substituent. Polymeric films were obtained with C4F9 and C6F13 chains and differences in the surface morphology depend especially on the substituent position. The polyindoles exhibited hydrophobic and superhydrophobic properties even with a very low roughness. The best results are obtained with PIndole-6-F 6 for which superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic properties are obtained due to the presence of spherical nanoparticles and low surface energy compounds. PMID:26665079

  12. Drop dynamics on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    B. M. Mognetti; H. Kusumaatmaja; J. M. Yeomans

    2010-09-23

    We investigate the dynamics of micron-scale drops pushed across a hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surface. The velocity profile across the drop varies from quadratic to linear with increasing height, indicating a crossover from a sliding to a rolling motion. We identify a mesoscopic slip capillary number which depends only on the motion of the contact line and the shape of the drop, and show that the angular velocity of the rolling increases with increasing viscosity. For drops on superhydrophobic surfaces we argue that a tank treading advance from post to post replaces the diffusive relaxation that allows the contact line to move on smooth surfaces. Hence drops move on superhydrophobic surfaces more quickly than on smooth geometries.

  13. Anisotropic hysteresis on ratcheted superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    H. Kusumaatmaja; J. M. Yeomans

    2009-04-26

    We consider the equilibrium behaviour and dynamics of liquid drops on a superhydrophobic surface patterned with sawtooth ridges or posts. Due to the anisotropic geometry of the surface patterning, the contact line can preferentially depin from one side of the ratchets, leading to a novel, partially suspended, superhydrophobic state. In both this configuration, and the collapsed state, the drops show strong directional contact angle hysteresis as they are pushed across the surface. The easy direction is, however, different for the two states. This observation allows us to interpret recent experiments describing the motion of water drops on butterfly wings.

  14. Anisotropic hysteresis on ratcheted superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Kusumaatmaja, H

    2009-01-01

    We consider the equilibrium behaviour and dynamics of liquid drops on a superhydrophobic surface patterned with sawtooth ridges or posts. Due to the anisotropic geometry of the surface patterning, the contact line can preferentially depin from one side of the ratchets, leading to a novel, partially suspended, superhydrophobic state. In both this configuration, and the collapsed state, the drops show strong directional contact angle hysteresis as they are pushed across the surface. The easy direction is, however, different for the two states. This observation allows us to interpret recent experiments describing the motion of water drops on butterfly wings.

  15. Hierarchically nanotextured surfaces maintaining superhydrophobicity under severely adverse conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Tanmoy; Antonini, Carlo; Auf der Mauer, Matthias; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-07-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ~ 9-10), acidic (pH ~ 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s-1 as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests.Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ~ 9-10), acidic (pH ~ 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s-1 as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Contact angles on intermediate surfaces; changes in PDMS film thickness with n-hexane immersion; the chemical stability of surfaces with (C3) and without PDMS film (C2) and the impalement pressure balance. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01368a

  16. Investigating the Interface of Superhydrophobic Surfaces in Contact with Water

    E-print Network

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    Investigating the Interface of Superhydrophobic Surfaces in Contact with Water Dhaval A. Doshi, vapor interface of a porous superhydrophobic (SH) surface submerged in water. A low-temperature, low, allowing the contact angle with water to be continuously varied over the range of 160° (superhydrophobic

  17. Computer simulation of flow past superhydrophobic striped surfaces

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Jiajia

    Computer simulation of flow past superhydrophobic striped surfaces Jiajia Zhou1 , Aleksey V of superhydrophobic surfaces. 1 Introduction Fluid modeling from micrometer to nanometer scale not only that patterned superhydrophobic materials are important in context of fluid dynamics and their superlubricating

  18. Effective slip on textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogte, Salil; Vorobieff, Peter; Truesdell, Richard; Mammoli, Andrea; van Swol, Frank; Shah, Pratik; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2005-05-01

    We study fluid flow in the vicinity of textured and superhydrophobically coated surfaces with characteristic texture sizes on the order of 10?m. Both for droplets moving down an inclined surface and for an external flow near the surface (hydrofoil), there is evidence of appreciable drag reduction in the presence of surface texture combined with superhydrophobic coating. On textured inclined surfaces, the drops roll faster than on a coated untextured surface at the same angle. The highest drop velocities are achieved on surfaces with irregular textures with characteristic feature size ˜8?m. Application of the same texture and coating to the surface of a hydrofoil in a water tunnel results in drag reduction on the order of 10% or higher. This behavior is explained by the reduction of the contact area between the surface and the fluid, which can be interpreted in terms of changing the macroscopic boundary condition to allow nonzero slip velocity.

  19. Nanosystems and Structures Group The World's Most Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Nanosystems and Structures Group The World's Most Superhydrophobic Surfaces Researchers in muddy ponds and marshes, but the leaves emerge above water clean and dry due to their superhydrophobic, they also far outperform any other known superhydrophobic material. Researchers achieved this by creating

  20. Integrated three-dimensional photonic nanostructures for achieving near-unity solar absorption and superhydrophobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Ping; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Hsieh, Mei-Li

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded index antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar absorption. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average absorption of ?95% for ??=?400–620?nm over a wide angular acceptance of ??=?0°–60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average absorption of >95% for ??=?400–870?nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO{sub 2} nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle ?{sub CB}???153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar absorption and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.

  1. Integrated three-dimensional photonic nanostructures for achieving near-unity solar absorption and superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Ping; Hsieh, Mei-Li; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded index antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar absorption. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average absorption of ˜95% for ? = 400-620 nm over a wide angular acceptance of ? = 0°-60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average absorption of >95% for ? = 400-870 nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO2 nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle ?CB ˜ 153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar absorption and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.

  2. Composite, nanostructured, super-hydrophobic material

    DOEpatents

    D'Urso, Brian R. (Clinton, TN); Simpson, John T. (Clinton, TN)

    2007-08-21

    A hydrophobic disordered composite material having a protrusive surface feature includes a recessive phase and a protrusive phase, the recessive phase having a higher susceptibility to a preselected etchant than the protrusive phase, the composite material having an etched surface wherein the protrusive phase protrudes from the surface to form a protrusive surface feature, the protrusive feature being hydrophobic.

  3. Formation of superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic patterns by combination of nanostructure-imprinted perfluoropolymer and nanostructured silicon oxide for biological droplet generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Taizo; Shimizu, Kazunori; Kaizuma, Yoshihiro; Konishi, Satoshi

    2011-03-01

    In this letter, we report a technology for fabricating superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic patterns using a combination of a nanostructure-imprinted perfluoropolymer and nanostructured silicon oxide. In our previous study, we used a combination of hydrophobic and superhydrophilic materials. However, it was difficult to split low-surface-tension liquids such as biological liquids into droplets solely using hydrophobic/hydrophilic patterns. In this study, the contact angle of the hydrophobic region was enhanced from 109.3° to 155.6° by performing nanostructure imprinting on a damage-reduced perfluoropolymer. The developed superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic patterns allowed the splitting of even those media that contained fetal bovine serum into droplets of a desired shape.

  4. On the Nanoengineering of Superhydrophobic and Impalement Resistant Surface Textures below the Freezing Temperature

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    On the Nanoengineering of Superhydrophobic and Impalement Resistant Surface Textures below: The superhydrophobic behavior of nano- and microtextured surfaces leading to rebound of impacting droplets is of great morphology, superhydrophobicity, supercooling, anti-icing, drop impact Nanotextured surfaces in nature

  5. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with excellent mechanical abrasion and corrosion resistance on copper substrate by a novel method.

    PubMed

    Su, Fenghua; Yao, Kai

    2014-06-11

    A novel method for controllable fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of 162 ± 1° and a sliding angle of 3 ± 0.5° on copper substrate is reported in this Research Article. The facile and low-cost fabrication process is composed from the electrodeposition in traditional Watts bath and the heat-treatment in the presence of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) triethoxysilane (AC-FAS). The superhydrophobicity of the fabricated surface results from its pine-cone-like hierarchical micro-nanostructure and the assembly of low-surface-energy fluorinated components on it. The superhydrophobic surface exhibits high microhardness and excellent mechanical abrasion resistance because it maintains superhydrophobicity after mechanical abrasion against 800 grit SiC sandpaper for 1.0 m at the applied pressure of 4.80 kPa. Moreover, the superhydrophobic surface has good chemical stability in both acidic and alkaline environments. The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test shows that the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has excellent corrosion resistance that can provide effective protection for the bare Cu substrate. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has self-cleaning ability. It is believed that the facile and low-cost method offer an effective strategy and promising industrial applications for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on various metallic materials. PMID:24796223

  6. Single-step direct fabrication of pillar-on-pore hybrid nanostructures in anodizing aluminum for superior superhydrophobic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2012-02-01

    Conventional electrochemical anodizing processes of metals such as aluminum typically produce planar and homogeneous nanopore structures. If hydrophobically treated, such 2D planar and interconnected pore structures typically result in lower contact angle and larger contact angle hysteresis than 3D disconnected pillar structures and, hence, exhibit inferior superhydrophobic efficiency. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the anodizing parameters can be engineered to design novel pillar-on-pore (POP) hybrid nanostructures directly in a simple one-step fabrication process so that superior surface superhydrophobicity can also be realized effectively from the electrochemical anodization process. On the basis of the characteristic of forming a self-ordered porous morphology in a hexagonal array, the modulation of anodizing voltage and duration enabled the formulation of the hybrid-type nanostructures having controlled pillar morphology on top of a porous layer in both mild and hard anodization modes. The hybrid nanostructures of the anodized metal oxide layer initially enhanced the surface hydrophilicity significantly (i.e., superhydrophilic). However, after a hydrophobic monolayer coating, such hybrid nanostructures then showed superior superhydrophobic nonwetting properties not attainable by the plain nanoporous surfaces produced by conventional anodization conditions. The well-regulated anodization process suggests that electrochemical anodizing can expand its usefulness and efficacy to render various metallic substrates with great superhydrophilicity or -hydrophobicity by directly realizing pillar-like structures on top of a self-ordered nanoporous array through a simple one-step fabrication procedure. PMID:22201335

  7. Electrochemical fabrication of superhydrophobic Zn surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Fangdong; Song, Jinlong; Wang, Long; Qu, Qingsong; Lu, Yao; Parkin, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    A superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of 165.3° and a tilting angle of 2° was fabricated on a zinc substrate by electrochemical processing using a mixed electrolyte composed of NaCl and NaNO3, followed by overcoating with a fluorinated polymer. The fabrication process is based on the electrochemical processing of Zn under an applied electric field. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer system (XRD) were used to characterize surface morphology and crystal structures. Micrometer-scale pits, protrusions and numerous nanometer-scale dendrite structures were found on the surface. XRD results indicated that the new products formed on the treated surface. The anodic dissolution mechanism of Zn in the electrolyte was analyzed. The effects of processing time, processing current, electrolyte type and electrolyte concentration on surface micromorphology and superhydrophobicity of the samples were also investigated. The results show that the electrochemical processing does not require exacting processing parameters. This method is highly efficient and environmental friendly. The ideal processing conditions to create the optimum superhydrophobic surface are a processing time of 20 min, a current density of 0.2 A/cm2, and a mixed electrolyte of 0.1 mol/L NaNO3 and 0.05 mol/L NaCl.

  8. Drag Reduction On Multiscale Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenner, Elliot; Barbier, Charlotte; D'Urso, Brian

    2013-11-01

    Fluid drag reduction is of great interest in a variety of fields, including hull engineering, microfluidics, and drug delivery. We fabricated samples with multi-scale superhydrophobic surfaces, which consist of hexagonally self-ordered microscopic spikes grown via anodization on macroscopic grooves cut in aluminum. The hydrodynamic drag properties were studied with a cone-and-plate rheometer, showing significant drag reduction near 15% in turbulent flow and near 30% in laminar flow. In addition to these experiments, numerical simulations were performed in order to estimate the slip length at high speeds. Furthermore, we will report on the progress of experiments with a new type of surface combining superhydrophobic surfaces like those discussed above with Slippery Liquid Infused Porous Surfaces (SLIPS), which utilize an oil layer to create a hydrophobic self-repairing surface. These ``Super-SLIPS'' may combine the best properties of both superhydrophobic surfaces and SLIPS, by combining a drag reducing air-layer and an oil layer which may improve durability and biofouling resistance. This research was supported by the ORNL Seed Money Program. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  9. Drop impact on inclined superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    LeClear, Sani; LeClear, Johnathon; Abhijeet; Park, Kyoo-Chul; Choi, Wonjae

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the dynamic behavior of water drops impacting on inclined superhydrophobic surfaces. For a normal impact on a smooth hydrophobic surface, the spreading (or expansion) and retraction dynamics of an impacting drop varies from complete rebound to splashing depending on its Weber number, (Wed), calculated using the impact speed and diameter d of the drop. For a slanted impact, on the other hand, the impact dynamics depends on two distinct Weber numbers, based on the velocity components normal, (Wend), and tangential, (Wetd), to the surface. Impact on superhydrophobic surfaces is even more complicated as the surfaces are covered with micro- to nano-scale texture. Therefore, we develop an expression for an additional set of two Weber numbers, (Wena, Weta), which are counterparts to the first set but use the gap distance a between asperities on the textured surface as the characteristic length. We correlate the derived Weber numbers with the impact dynamics on tilted surfaces covered with three different types of texture: (i) posts, (ii) ridges aligned with and (iii) ridges perpendicular to the impact direction. Results suggest that the first two Weber numbers, (Wend, Wetd), affect the impact dynamics of a drop such as the degree of drop deformation as long as the superhydrophobicity remains intact. On the other hand, the Weber number Wena determines the transition from the superhydrophobic Cassie-Baxter regime to the fully-wetted Wenzel regime. Accuracy of our model becomes lower at a high tilting angle (75°), due to the change in the transition mechanism. PMID:26397917

  10. Drag Reduction on a Patterned Superhydrophobic Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truesdell, Richard; Mammoli, Andrea; Vorobieff, Peter; van Swol, Frank; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2006-07-01

    We present an experimental study of a low-Reynolds number shear flow between two surfaces, one of which has a regular grooved texture augmented with a superhydrophobic coating. The combination reduces the effective fluid-surface contact area, thereby appreciably decreasing the drag on the surface and effectively changing the macroscopic boundary condition on the surface from no slip to limited slip. We measure the force on the surface and the velocity field in the immediate vicinity on the surface (and thus the wall shear) simultaneously. The latter facilitates a direct assessment of the effective slip length associated with the drag reduction.

  11. Superhydrophobic nature of nanostructures on an indigenous Australian eucalyptus plant and its potential application

    PubMed Central

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Le, Xuan Thi; Fawcett, Derek

    2011-01-01

    In this preliminary study, the morphology and nanostructured features formed by the epicuticular waxes of the mottlecah (Eucalyptus macrocarpa) leaf were investigated and quantified. The surface features formed by the waxes give the leaf remarkable wetting and self-cleaning properties that enhance the plant’s survival in an arid climate. This paper also provides experimental evidence of the self-assembly properties of the epicuticular waxes. Analysis of the water contact angle measurements gave a mean static contact angle of 162.00 ± 6.10 degrees, which clearly indicated that the mottlecah’s leaf surface was superhydrophobic. Detailed field emission scanning electron microscopy examination revealed that the surface was covered by bumps approximately 20 ?m in diameter and regularly spaced at a distance of around 26 ?m. The bumps are capped by nanotubules/pillars with an average diameter of 280 nm at the tips. Self-cleaning experiments indicated that the mottlecah’s leaf could be effectively cleaned by a fine spray of water droplets that rolled over the surface picking up contaminants. Field emission scanning electron microscopy investigation of extracted epicuticular waxes revealed that the waxes were capable of self-reassembly and formed features similar to those of the original leaf surface. Furthermore, also reported is a simple technique for surface treating one side of a planar surface to produce a superhydrophobic surface that can be used as a planar floatation platform for microdevices. PMID:24198490

  12. Superhydrophobic and icephobic surfaces prepared by RF-sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, R.; Menini, R.; Farzaneh, M.

    2010-12-01

    A superhydrophobic and icephobic surface were investigated on aluminum alloy substrate. Anodizing was used first to create a micro-nanostructured aluminum oxide underlayer on the alloy substrate. In a second step, the rough surface was coated with RF-sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon ®). Scanning electron microscopy images showed a " bird's nest"-like structure on the anodized surface. The RF-sputtered PTFE coating exhibited a high static contact angle of ˜165° with a very low contact angle hysteresis of ˜3°. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed high quantities of CF 3 and CF 2 groups, which are responsible for the hydrophobic behavior of the coatings. The performance of this superhydrophobic film was studied under atmospheric icing conditions. These results showed that on superhydrophobic surfaces ice-adhesion strength was 3.5 times lower than on the polished aluminum substrate.

  13. Effect of Electro-Osmotic Flow on Energy Conversion on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Seshadri, Gowrishankar

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that superhydrophobic surfaces, due to the presence of a no-shear zone, can greatly enhance transport of surface charges, leading to a considerable increase in the streaming potential. This could find potential use in micro-energy harvesting devices. In this paper, we show using analytical and numerical methods, that when a streaming potential is generated in such superhydrophobic geometries, the reverse electro-osmotic flow and hence current generated by this, is significant. A decrease in streaming potential compared to what was earlier predicted is expected. We also show that, due to the electro-osmotic streaming-current, a saturation in both the power extracted and efficiency of energy conversion is achieved in such systems for large values of the free surface charge densities. Nevertheless, under realistic conditions, such microstructured devices with superhydrophobic surfaces have the potential to even reach energy conversion efficiencies only achieved in nanostructured devices so ...

  14. Effect of electro-osmotic flow on energy conversion on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Gowrishankar; Baier, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    It has been suggested that superhydrophobic surfaces, due to the presence of a no-shear zone, can greatly enhance transport of surface charges, leading to a considerable increase in the streaming potential. This could find potential use in micro-energy harvesting devices. In this paper, we show using analytical and numerical methods, that when a streaming potential is generated in such superhydrophobic geometries, the reverse electro-osmotic flow and hence current generated by this, is significant. A decrease in streaming potential compared to what was earlier predicted is expected. We also show that, due to the electro-osmotic streaming-current, a saturation in both the power extracted and efficiency of energy conversion is achieved in such systems for large values of the free surface charge densities. Nevertheless, under realistic conditions, such microstructured devices with superhydrophobic surfaces have the potential to even reach energy conversion efficiencies only achieved in nanostructured devices so far.

  15. Convection to Sessile Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynes, Daniel; Hays, Robb; Crockett, Julie

    2013-11-01

    We report results from an investigation of the thermal convection to liquid droplets on heated horizontal superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces. We consider the transient response to droplets, initially at ambient temperature, as they are placed on heated SH surfaces at constant temperature. For comparative purpose we also consider the same scenario with smooth hydrophobic surfaces. The temporally varying droplet and surface temperatures were measured with an IR camera and a thermocouple, respectively. The droplets were also imaged with two CCD cameras and the time for the droplet to completely evaporate was monitored. For surface temperatures greater than the saturation temperature, high-speed video of the droplets was also acquired. Experiments were conducted over a range of surface temperatures varying from 40 to 215 C. The results show radically different behavior in the convection for the surface types considered. At all temperatures the total droplet evaporation time on the SH surfaces was significantly greater than on the smooth hydrophobic surface. At temperatures elevated above the saturation temperature the droplets on the SH surfaces remained at bulk temperatures significantly lower than the saturation temperature. Further, the droplets on the SH surfaces exhibited Leidenfrost-like behavior at surface temperatures far below the typical Leidenfrost point. Analysis of the data reveals overall heat transfer coefficients that decrease as the degree of superhydrophobicity increases.

  16. Modeling receding contact lines on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mognetti, B M; Yeomans, J M

    2010-12-01

    We use mesoscale simulations to study the depinning of a receding contact line on a superhydrophobic surface patterned by a regular array of posts. For the simulations to be feasible, we introduce a novel geometry where a column of liquid dewets a capillary bounded by a superhydrophobic plane that faces a smooth hydrophilic wall of variable contact angle. We present results for the dependence of the depinning angle on the shape and spacing of the posts and discuss the form of the meniscus at depinning. We find, in agreement with ref 17 , that the local post concentration is a primary factor in controlling the depinning angle and show that the numerical results agree well with recent experiments. We also present two examples of metastable pinned configurations where the posts are partially wet. PMID:21067143

  17. Modelling receding contact lines on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    B. M. Mognetti; J. M. Yeomans

    2010-10-23

    We use mesoscale simulations to study the depinning of a receding contact line on a superhydrophobic surface patterned by a regular array of posts. In order that the simulations are feasible, we introduce a novel geometry where a column of liquid dewets a capillary bounded by a superhydrophobic plane which faces a smooth hydrophilic wall of variable contact angle. We present results for the dependence of the depinning angle on the shape and spacing of the posts, and discuss the form of the meniscus at depinning. We find, in agreement with [17], that the local post concentration is a primary factor in controlling the depinning angle, and show that the numerical results agree well with recent experiments. We also present two examples of metastable pinned configurations where the posts are partially wet.

  18. Topology optimization of robust superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    A. Cavalli; P. Bøggild; F. Okkels

    2013-02-27

    In this paper we apply topology optimization to micro-structured superhydrophobic surfaces for the first time. It has been experimentally observed that a droplet suspended on a brush of micrometric posts shows a high static contact angle and low roll-off angle. To keep the fluid from penetrating the space between the posts, we search for an optimal post cross section, that minimizes the vertical displacement of the liquid-air interface at the base of the drop when a pressure difference is applied. Topology optimisation proves effective in this framework, showing that posts with a branching cross-section are optimal, which is consistent with several biologic strategies to achieve superhydrophobicity. Through a filtering technique, we can also control the characteristic length scale of the optimal design, thus obtaining feasible geometries

  19. Dynamics of sliding drops on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    A. Dupuis; J. M. Yeomans

    2006-05-10

    We use a free energy lattice Boltzmann approach to investigate numerically the dynamics of drops moving across superhydrophobic surfaces. The surfaces comprise a regular array of posts small compared to the drop size. For drops suspended on the posts the velocity increases as the number of posts decreases. We show that this is because the velocity is primarily determined by the contact angle which, in turn, depends on the area covered by posts. Collapsed drops, which fill the interstices between the posts, behave in a very different way. The posts now impede the drop behaviour and the velocity falls as their density increases.

  20. Dynamic wetting on superhydrophobic surfaces: Droplet impact and wetting hysteresis

    E-print Network

    Smyth, Katherine M.

    We study the wetting energetics and wetting hysteresis of sessile and impacting water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of surface texture and surface energy. For sessile drops, we find three wetting ...

  1. Are superhydrophobic surfaces best for icephobicity?

    PubMed

    Jung, Stefan; Dorrestijn, Marko; Raps, Dominik; Das, Arindam; Megaridis, Constantine M; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2011-03-15

    Ice formation can have catastrophic consequences for human activity on the ground and in the air. Here we investigate water freezing delays on untreated and coated surfaces ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic and use these delays to evaluate icephobicity. Supercooled water microdroplets are inkjet-deposited and coalesce until spontaneous freezing of the accumulated mass occurs. Surfaces with nanometer-scale roughness and higher wettability display unexpectedly long freezing delays, at least 1 order of magnitude longer than typical superhydrophobic surfaces with larger hierarchical roughness and low wettability. Directly related to the main focus on heterogeneous nucleation and freezing delay of supercooled water droplets, the observed ensuing crystallization process consisted of two distinct phases: one very rapid recalescent partial solidification phase and a subsequent slower phase. Observations of the droplet collision process employed for the continuous liquid mass accumulation up to the point of ice formation reveal a previously unseen atmospheric-pressure, subfreezing-temperature regime for liquid-on-liquid bounce. On the basis of the entropy reduction of water near a solid surface, we formulate a modification to the classical heterogeneous nucleation theory, which predicts the observed freezing delay trends. Our results bring to question recent emphasis on super water-repellent surface formulations for ice formation retardation and suggest that anti-icing design must optimize the competing influences of both wettability and roughness. PMID:21319778

  2. Superhydrophobics

    ScienceCinema

    Schaeffer, Daniel; Winter, Kyle

    2014-05-23

    A water repellent developed by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory outperforms nature at its best and could open a floodgate of commercial possibilities. The super-water repellent (superhydrophobic) material, developed by John Simpson, is easy to fabricate and uses inexpensive base materials. The process could lead to the creation of a new class of water repellant products, including windshields, eyewear, clothing, building materials, road surfaces, ship hulls and self-cleaning coatings. The list of likely applications is virtually endless.

  3. Superhydrophobics

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeffer, Daniel; Winter, Kyle

    2013-05-02

    A water repellent developed by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory outperforms nature at its best and could open a floodgate of commercial possibilities. The super-water repellent (superhydrophobic) material, developed by John Simpson, is easy to fabricate and uses inexpensive base materials. The process could lead to the creation of a new class of water repellant products, including windshields, eyewear, clothing, building materials, road surfaces, ship hulls and self-cleaning coatings. The list of likely applications is virtually endless.

  4. Dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces with two-tier roughness

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chuan-Hua

    Dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces with two-tier roughness Chuan-Hua Chen,a Qingjun deposited on micromachined posts, a two-tier texture mimicking lotus leaves. On such micro on a two-tier texture which retains superhydrophobicity during and after condensation. The two-tier texture

  5. Theoretical explanation of the photoswitchable superhydrophobicity of diarylethene microcrystalline surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Naoki; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Nonomura, Yoshimune; Fujinaga, Noriko; Yokojima, Satoshi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Uchida, Kingo

    2014-09-01

    Two types of superhydrophobic surfaces which show lotus and petal effects were induced on photochromic diarylethene microcrystalline surfaces by UV and visible light irradiation and temperature control. On the surfaces showing the lotus effect, a low-adhesion superhydrophobic property is attributed to the surface structure being covered with densely standing needle-shaped crystals of the closed-ring isomer. On surfaces showing the petal effect, a high-adhesion superhydrophobic surface consists of fine needle-shaped crystals with high density together with a few rod-shaped crystals, where an invasion phenomenon occurs between these rod-shaped crystals. Furthermore, the different superhydrophobic properties of the surfaces are theoretically explained using multipillar surface models. PMID:25111681

  6. Anisotropic electro-osmotic flow over superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Patterned surfaces with large effective slip lengths, such as super-hydrophobic surfaces containing trapped gas bubbles, have the potential to greatly enhance electrokinetic phenomena. Existing theories assume either ...

  7. Three-tier rough superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuanzhi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-08-01

    A three-tier rough superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by growing hydrophobic modified (fluorinated silane) zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper oxide (CuO) hetero-hierarchical structures on silicon (Si) micro-pillar arrays. Compared with the other three control samples with a less rough tier, the three-tier surface exhibits the best water repellency with the largest contact angle 161° and the lowest sliding angle 0.5°. It also shows a robust Cassie state which enables the water to flow with a speed over 2 m s-1. In addition, it could prevent itself from being wetted by the droplet with low surface tension (mixed water and ethanol 1:1 in volume) which reveals a flow speed of 0.6 m s-1 (dropped from the height of 2 cm). All these features prove that adding another rough tier on a two-tier rough surface could futher improve its water-repellent properties.

  8. Three-tier rough superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuanzhi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-08-01

    A three-tier rough superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by growing hydrophobic modified (fluorinated silane) zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper oxide (CuO) hetero-hierarchical structures on silicon (Si) micro-pillar arrays. Compared with the other three control samples with a less rough tier, the three-tier surface exhibits the best water repellency with the largest contact angle 161° and the lowest sliding angle 0.5°. It also shows a robust Cassie state which enables the water to flow with a speed over 2 m s(-1). In addition, it could prevent itself from being wetted by the droplet with low surface tension (mixed water and ethanol 1:1 in volume) which reveals a flow speed of 0.6 m s(-1) (dropped from the height of 2 cm). All these features prove that adding another rough tier on a two-tier rough surface could futher improve its water-repellent properties. PMID:26184512

  9. Sessile droplet evaporation on superheated superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Hays, Robb C; Maynes, Daniel; Webb, Brent W

    2013-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video depicts the evaporation of sessile water droplets placed on heated superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces of varying cavity fraction, F_c, and surface temperature, T_s, above the saturation temperature, T_sat. Images were captured at 10,000 FPS and are played back at 30 FPS in this video. Teflon-coated silicon surfaces of F_c = 0, 0.5, 0.8, and 0.95 were used for these experiments. T_s ranging from 110{\\deg}C to 210{\\deg}C were studied. The video clips show how the boiling behavior of sessile droplets is altered with changes in surface microstructure. Quantitative results from heat transfer rate experiments conducted by the authors are briefly discussed near the end of the video.

  10. Preparation of polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces and analysis of their wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jian; Huang, Manling; Zhang, Yajun; Wu, Daming; Kuang, Tairong; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Xiaoxu

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we presented three simple, facile and low-cost manufacturing methods—template method, nanoparticle filling method and extrusion stamping forming method—to fabricate the polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces. The stainless steel wire mesh as the template and glass beads was investigated in this study for the first time and low-cost hollow glass beads were rarely used as particles for fabricating the superhydrophobic surface. The water contact angle measurement of polymeric surfaces was used to investigate the effect of mesh count, glass beads and PTFE on fabricating polymeric superhydrophobic surface. It was found that the mesh count significantly affected the hydrophobicity of polymer surface in template method. The addition of glass beads improved the hydrophobicity by nanoparticle filling method. The addition of PTFE was of importance to fabricate the superhydrophobic surface by extrusion stamping forming method. The surface microstructure was also observed by scanning electron microscope.

  11. Fabrication of "Roll-off" and "Sticky" Superhydrophobic Cellulose Surfaces via Plasma Processing

    E-print Network

    Breedveld, Victor

    Fabrication of "Roll-off" and "Sticky" Superhydrophobic Cellulose Surfaces via Plasma Processing. In Final Form: January 10, 2008 Most of the artificial superhydrophobic surfaces that have been fabricated, but it is not superhydrophobic. Superhydrophobicity on cellulose paper was obtained by domain- selective etching of amorphous

  12. The collapse transition on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    H. Kusumaatmaja; M. L. Blow; A. Dupuis; J. M. Yeomans

    2008-03-11

    We investigate the transition between the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel states of a slowly evaporating, micron-scale drop on a superhydrophobic surface. In two dimensions analytical results show that there are two collapse mechanisms. For long posts the drop collapses when it is able to overcome the free energy barrier presented by the hydrophobic posts. For short posts, as the drop loses volume, its curvature increases allowing it to touch the surface below the posts. We emphasise the importance of the contact line retreating across the surface as the drop becomes smaller: this often preempts the collapse. In a quasi-three dimensional simulation we find similar behaviour, with the additional feature that the drop can de-pin from all but the peripheral posts, so that its base resembles an inverted bowl.

  13. Fabrication of superhydrophobic copper surface with excellent corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Libang; Zhao, Libin; Qiang, Xiaohu; Liu, Yanhua; Sun, Zhiqiang; Wang, Bei

    2015-04-01

    This article presents an effective and facile method for preparing the superhydrophobic copper surface with excellent corrosion resistance. The superhydrophobic copper surfaces were fabricated by oxidizing, heat-treating, and alkyl chains' grafting. The resulting copper plates take on the binary structure which is composed of a great deal of nanosheets and needle-like/rod-like fibers. Just grounded on both the micro- and nanoscale hierarchical surface and the grafted long alkyl chains, the resulting copper plates are endued with the excellent water repellence, while the water contact angle and sliding angle can reach 157.3° and 5°, respectively. As a result, the superhydrophobic copper plates get the outstanding corrosion resistance.

  14. Fabrication of the micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by sulfuric acid anodizing and polypropylene coating.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Pan, Anqiang; Yu, Y; Tang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polypropylene (PP) coating was reported. Both the different anodizing process and different PP coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. By PP coating after anodizing, a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. After the aluminium-alloy was grinded with 600# sandpaper, pretreated by 73 g/L hydrochloric acid solution at 1 min, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 180 g/L, the concentration of oxalic acid was 5 g/L, the concentration of potassium dichromate was 10 g/L, the concentration of chloride sodium was 50 g/L and 63 g/L of glycerol, anodization time was 20 min, and anodization current was 1.2 A/dm2, anodization temperature was 30-35 degrees C, the best micro-nanostructure aluminum alloy films was obtained. On the other hand, the PP with different concentrations was used to the PP with different concentrations was used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was achieved by coating PP, and the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved by modifying the coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was surface with high concentration PP. The morphologies of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The material of PP with the low surface free energy combined with the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface. PMID:23755692

  15. Interaction between Air Bubbles and Superhydrophobic Surfaces in Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chen; Cui, Xin; Zhang, Xurui; Tchoukov, Plamen; Liu, Qingxia; Encinas, Noemi; Paven, Maxime; Geyer, Florian; Vollmer, Doris; Xu, Zhenghe; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-07-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are usually characterized by a high apparent contact angle of water drops in air. Here we analyze the inverse situation: Rather than focusing on water repellency in air, we measure the attractive interaction of air bubbles and superhydrophobic surfaces in water. Forces were measured between microbubbles with radii R of 40-90 ?m attached to an atomic force microscope cantilever and submerged superhydrophobic surfaces. In addition, forces between macroscopic bubbles (R = 1.2 mm) at the end of capillaries and superhydrophobic surfaces were measured. As superhydrophobic surfaces we applied soot-templated surfaces, nanofilament surfaces, micropillar arrays with flat top faces, and decorated micropillars. Depending on the specific structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces and the presence and amount of entrapped air, different interactions were observed. Soot-templated surfaces in the Cassie state showed superaerophilic behavior: Once the electrostatic double-layer force and a hydrodynamic repulsion were overcome, bubbles jumped onto the surface and fully merged with the entrapped air. On nanofilaments and micropillar arrays we observed in addition the formation of sessile bubbles with finite contact angles below 90° or the attachment of bubbles, which retained their spherical shape. PMID:26065326

  16. Delayed Frost Growth on Jumping-Drop Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Boreyko, Jonathan B; Collier, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Self-propelled jumping drops are continuously removed from a condensing superhydrophobic surface to enable a micrometric steady-state drop size. Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled superhydrophobic surface are able to repeatedly jump off the surface before heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs. Frost still forms on the superhydrophobic surface due to ice nucleation at neighboring edge defects, which eventually spreads over the entire surface via an inter-drop frost wave. The growth of this inter-drop frost front is shown to be up to three times slower on the superhydrophobic surface compared to a control hydrophobic surface, due to the jumping-drop effect dynamically minimizing the average drop size and surface coverage of the condensate. A simple scaling model is developed to relate the success and speed of inter-drop ice bridging to the drop size distribution. While other reports of condensation frosting on superhydrophobic surfaces have focused exclusively on liquid-solid ice nucleation for isolated drops, these findings reveal that the growth of frost is an inter-drop phenomenon that is strongly coupled to the wettability and drop size distribution of the surface. A jumping-drop superhydrophobic condenser was found to be superior to a conventional dropwise condenser in two respects: preventing heterogeneous ice nucleation by continuously removing subcooled condensate, and delaying frost growth by minimizing the success of interdrop ice bridge formation.

  17. Effects of Contact Angle Hysteresis on Ice Adhesion and Growth over Superhydrophobic Surfaces under Dynamic Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sarshar, Mohammad Amin; Swarctz, Christopher; Hunter, Scott Robert; Simpson, John T; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the iceophobic properties of superhydrophobic surfaces are investigated under dynamic flow conditions by using a closed loop low-temperature wind tunnel. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by coating the substrates of aluminum and steel plates with nano-structured hydrophobic particles. The superhydrophobic plates along with uncoated control ones were exposed to an air flow of 12 m/s and 20 F accompanying micron-sized water droplets in the icing wind tunnel and the ice formation and accretion were probed by high-resolution CCD cameras. Results show that the superhydrophobic coatings significantly delay the ice formation and accretion even under the dynamic flow condition of the highly energetic impingement of accelerated super-cooled water droplets. It is found that there is a time scale for this phenomenon (delay of the ice formation) which has a clear correlation with the contact angle hysteresis and the length scale of surface roughness of the superhydrophobic surface samples, being the highest for the plate with the lowest contact angle hysteresis and finer surface roughness. The results suggest that the key parameter for designing iceophobic surfaces is to retain a low contact angle hysteresis (dynamic property) and the non-wetting superhydrophobic state under the hydrodynamic pressure of impinging droplets, rather than to only have a high contact angle (static property), in order to result in efficient anti-icing properties under dynamic conditions such as forced flows.

  18. Spontaneous droplet trampolining on rigid superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schutzius, Thomas M; Jung, Stefan; Maitra, Tanmoy; Graeber, Gustav; Köhme, Moritz; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous removal of condensed matter from surfaces is exploited in nature and in a broad range of technologies to achieve self-cleaning, anti-icing and condensation control. But despite much progress, our understanding of the phenomena leading to such behaviour remains incomplete, which makes it challenging to rationally design surfaces that benefit from its manifestation. Here we show that water droplets resting on superhydrophobic textured surfaces in a low-pressure environment can self-remove through sudden spontaneous levitation and subsequent trampoline-like bouncing behaviour, in which sequential collisions with the surface accelerate the droplets. These collisions have restitution coefficients (ratios of relative speeds after and before collision) greater than unity despite complete rigidity of the surface, and thus seemingly violate the second law of thermodynamics. However, these restitution coefficients result from an overpressure beneath the droplet produced by fast droplet vaporization while substrate adhesion and surface texture restrict vapour flow. We also show that the high vaporization rates experienced by the droplets and the associated cooling can result in freezing from a supercooled state that triggers a sudden increase in vaporization, which in turn boosts the levitation process. This effect can spontaneously remove surface icing by lifting away icy drops the moment they freeze. Although these observations are relevant only to systems in a low-pressure environment, they show how surface texturing can produce droplet-surface interactions that prohibit liquid and freezing water-droplet retention on surfaces. PMID:26536959

  19. Spontaneous droplet trampolining on rigid superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutzius, Thomas M.; Jung, Stefan; Maitra, Tanmoy; Graeber, Gustav; Köhme, Moritz; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous removal of condensed matter from surfaces is exploited in nature and in a broad range of technologies to achieve self-cleaning, anti-icing and condensation control. But despite much progress, our understanding of the phenomena leading to such behaviour remains incomplete, which makes it challenging to rationally design surfaces that benefit from its manifestation. Here we show that water droplets resting on superhydrophobic textured surfaces in a low-pressure environment can self-remove through sudden spontaneous levitation and subsequent trampoline-like bouncing behaviour, in which sequential collisions with the surface accelerate the droplets. These collisions have restitution coefficients (ratios of relative speeds after and before collision) greater than unity despite complete rigidity of the surface, and thus seemingly violate the second law of thermodynamics. However, these restitution coefficients result from an overpressure beneath the droplet produced by fast droplet vaporization while substrate adhesion and surface texture restrict vapour flow. We also show that the high vaporization rates experienced by the droplets and the associated cooling can result in freezing from a supercooled state that triggers a sudden increase in vaporization, which in turn boosts the levitation process. This effect can spontaneously remove surface icing by lifting away icy drops the moment they freeze. Although these observations are relevant only to systems in a low-pressure environment, they show how surface texturing can produce droplet–surface interactions that prohibit liquid and freezing water-droplet retention on surfaces.

  20. Drag reduction in turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces Robert J. Daniello, Nicholas E. Waterhouse, and Jonathan P. Rothstein

    E-print Network

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    Drag reduction in turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces Robert J. Daniello, Nicholas E, micropatterned superhydrophobic surfaces, previously noted for their ability to provide laminar flow drag reduction, are capable of reducing drag in the turbulent flow regime. Superhydrophobic surfaces contain

  1. Effective Slip over Superhydrophobic Surfaces in Thin Channels

    E-print Network

    Feuillebois, Francois

    Superhydrophobic surfaces reduce drag by combining hydrophobicity and roughness to trap gas bubbles in a microscopic texture. Recent work has focused on specific cases, such as arrays of pillars or grooves, with limited ...

  2. Manufacturing of Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that will develop a technology that will enable nanoscale and microscale superhydrophobic (SHP) features to be imaged onto surfaces for the high-volume manufacturing of water-repellent components and coatings.

  3. Icephobicity and the effect of water condensation on the superhydrophobic low-density polyethylene surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqing; Wang, Menglei; Huang, Juan; Wang, Xian; Bin, Jiping; Peng, Chaoyi; Xing, Suli; Xiao, Jiayu; Zeng, Jingcheng; Xiao, Ximei; Fu, Xin; Gong, Huifang; Zhao, Dejian; Chen, Hong

    2015-06-01

    A superhydrophobic surface was obtained on a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) substrate using a facile method. The water contact angle and the sliding angle of the superhydrophobic LDPE surface were 155 ± 2° and 4°, respectively. The ice shear stress of the superhydrophobic LDPE surface was 2.08 times smaller than that of the flat LDPE surface. The superhydrophobic surface still showed excellent icephobicity and superhydrophobicity after undergoing a circulatory icing/deicing procedure five times. In addition, water condensation and its effect on the icephobicity of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface were also studied.

  4. Nano-engineering of superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces for anti-corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Chanyoung

    Metal corrosion is a serious problem, both economically and operationally, for engineering systems such as aircraft, automobiles, pipelines, and naval vessels. In such engineering systems, aluminum is one of the primary materials of construction due to its light weight compared to steel and good general corrosion resistance. However, because of aluminum's relatively lower resistance to corrosion in salt water environments, protective measures such as thick coatings, paints, or cathodic protection must be used for satisfactory service life. Unfortunately, such anti-corrosion methods can create other concerns, such as environmental contamination, protection durability, and negative impact on hydrodynamic efficiency. Recently, a novel approach to preventing metal corrosion has emerged, using superhydrophobic surfaces. Superhydrophobic surfaces create a composite interface to liquid by retaining air within the surface structures, thus minimizing the direct contact of the liquid environment to the metal surface. The result is a highly non-wetting and anti-adherent surface that can offer other benefits such as biofouling resistance and hydrodynamic low friction. Prior research with superhydrophobic surfaces for corrosion applications was based on irregular surface roughening and/or chemical coatings, which resulted in random surface features, mostly on the micrometer scale. Such microscale surface roughness with poor controllability of structural dimensions and shapes has been a critical limitation to deeper understanding of the anti-corrosive effectiveness and optimized application of this approach. The research reported here provides a novel approach to producing controlled superhydrophobic nanostructures on aluminum that allows a systematic investigation of the superhydrophobic surface parameters on the corrosion resistance and hence can provide a route to optimization of the surface. Electrochemical anodization is used to controllably modulate the oxide layer thickness and pore dimensions at the aluminum surface. The results show that thicker oxide layers with larger pore sizes allow the nanostructured surface to retain more gas (air) and hence provide a more effective barrier to corrosion. The anodizing techniques are further advanced to design and produce hierarchical three-dimensional nanostructures for better retention of the gaseous barrier layer at the surface.

  5. Superhydrophobic nanostructured coating for anti-icing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedir, Khedir R.

    In this work, anti-icing superhydrophobic (SHP) tungsten nanorod (WNR) surfaces were fabricated. The fabrication of WNR surfaces as rough surfaces was carried out using the Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) technique. Using the magnetron-sputtering deposition method, the deposition Ar pressure, Ar flow rate, and substrate tilting angle were varied to fabricate WNRs with different surface morphologies and porosities. The surface energy of the WNR films was lowered by coating them with a nano-layer (10-15nm) of Teflon AF2400 using an effusion cell. Static contact angle (SCA) measurements of the sessile water droplet gently dispensed on surfaces were used to characterize the static wetting properties of those surfaces. After surface treatment of the fabricated WNRs with different spacing, heights, and nanorod natural pyramidal tips, surfaces with tunable hydrophobic properties with SCAs ranging from 120° to 160° were obtained. The well-known classical Wenzel and Cassie models were used to predict the observed CAs. The proposed geometrically modified Cassie model showed consistent agreement with the observed high SCAs. The dynamic study of the wetting properties of the fabricated surfaces was carried out using water droplet evaporation on the surfaces. The kinetics of water droplet evaporation showed a significant influence of surface wetting properties, morphology, and porosity on the three modes of evaporation. Moreover, the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of the surfaces was measured by the dynamic approach of adding/withdrawing water to/from the surfaces, respectively. The SHP-WNR films maintained a relatively low CAH of 30 degrees. The CAHs obtained by both kinetics of evaporation and the dynamic approach were consistent. Finally, the ability of the supercooled SHP-WNRs, kept at a temperature of -10 °C, to repel supercooled water droplets with a subzero temperature as low as -10 °C was tested. The SHP-WNRs' surfaces were able to repel supercooled water droplets released from a height of 15 mm with an impact velocity of 0.54 m/s. Calculations of energy dissipation in the course of bouncing due to the water droplets' physical properties and the surface wetting properties were performed. In addition to surface CAH and water droplet vibration, a significant energy loss due to an increase in supercooled water droplet viscosity as a function of its temperature was observed.

  6. Topographical length scales of hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, P. K.; Brown, P. S.; Bain, C. D.; Badyal, J. P. S.; Sarkar, S.

    2014-10-01

    The morphology of hydrophobic CF4 plasma fluorinated polybutadiene surfaces has been characterised using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Judicious choice of the plasma power and exposure duration leads to formation of three different surface morphologies (Micro, Nano, and Micro + Nano). Scaling theory analysis shows that for all three surface topographies, there is an initial increase in roughness with length scale followed by a levelling-off to a saturation level. At length scales around 500 nm, it is found that the roughness is very similar for all three types of surfaces, and the saturation roughness value for the Micro + Nano morphology is found to be intermediate between those for the Micro and Nano surfaces. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis has shown that the Micro + Nano topography comprises a hierarchical superposition of Micro and Nano morphologies. Furthermore, the Micro + Nano surfaces display the highest local roughness (roughness exponent ? = 0.42 for length scales shorter than ?500 nm), which helps to explain their superhydrophobic behaviour (large water contact angle (>170°) and low hysteresis (<1°)).

  7. Low temperature self-cleaning properties of superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fajun; Shen, Taohua; Li, Changquan; Li, Wen; Yan, Guilong

    2014-10-01

    Outdoor surfaces are usually dirty surfaces. Ice accretion on outdoor surfaces could lead to serious accidents. In the present work, the superhydrophobic surface based on 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecanethiol (PFDT) modified Ag/PDMS composite was prepared to investigate the anti-icing property and self-cleaning property at temperatures below freezing point. The superhydrophobic surface was deliberately polluted with activated carbon before testing. It was observed that water droplet picked up dusts on the cold superhydrophobic surface and took it away without freezing at a measuring temperature of -10 °C. While on a smooth PFDT surface and a rough surface base on Ag/PDMS composite without PFDT modification, water droplets accumulated and then froze quickly at the same temperature. However, at even lower temperature of -12 °C, the superhydrophobic surface could not prevent the surface water from icing. In addition, it was observed that the frost layer condensed from the moisture pay an important role in determining the low temperature self-cleaning properties of a superhydrophobic surface.

  8. Boiling Heat Transfer on Superhydrophilic, Superhydrophobic, and Superbiphilic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Betz, Amy Rachel; Kim, Chang-Jin 'CJ'; Attinger, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    With recent advances in micro- and nanofabrication, superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces have been developed. The statics and dynamics of fluids on these surfaces have been well characterized. However, few investigations have been made into the potential of these surfaces to control and enhance other transport phenomena. In this article, we characterize pool boiling on surfaces with wettabilities varied from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic, and provide nucleation measurements. The most interesting result of our measurements is that the largest heat transfer coefficients are reached not on surfaces with spatially uniform wettability, but on biphilic surfaces, which juxtapose hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. We develop an analytical model that describes how biphilic surfaces effectively manage the vapor and liquid transport, delaying critical heat flux and maximizing the heat transfer coefficient. Finally, we manufacture and test the first superbiphilic surfaces (juxtaposing superhydrophobic ...

  9. Wetting of soap bubbles on hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Steve Arscott

    2013-03-26

    Wetting of sessile bubbles on solid and liquid surfaces has been studied. A model is presented for the contact angle of a sessile bubble based on a modified Young equation - the experimental results agree with the model. A hydrophilic surface results in a bubble contact angle of 90 deg whereas on a superhydrophobic surface one observes 134 deg. For hydrophilic surfaces, the bubble angle diminishes with bubble radius - whereas on a superhydrophobic surface, the bubble angle increases. The size of the Plateau borders governs the bubble contact angle - depending on the wetting of the surface.

  10. Wetting of soap bubbles on hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Arscott, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Wetting of sessile bubbles on solid and liquid surfaces has been studied. A model is presented for the contact angle of a sessile bubble based on a modified Young equation - the experimental results agree with the model. A hydrophilic surface results in a bubble contact angle of 90 deg whereas on a superhydrophobic surface one observes 134 deg. For hydrophilic surfaces, the bubble angle diminishes with bubble radius - whereas on a superhydrophobic surface, the bubble angle increases. The size of the Plateau borders governs the bubble contact angle - depending on the wetting of the surface.

  11. Impalement transitions in droplets impacting microstructured superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    J. Hyväluoma; J. Timonen

    2008-07-29

    Liquid droplets impacting a superhydrophobic surface decorated with micro-scale posts often bounce off the surface. However, by decreasing the impact velocity droplets may land on the surface in a fakir state, and by increasing it posts may impale droplets that are then stuck on the surface. We use a two-phase lattice-Boltzmann model to simulate droplet impact on superhydrophobic surfaces, and show that it may result in a fakir state also for reasonable high impact velocities. This happens more easily if the surface is made more hydrophobic or the post height is increased, thereby making the impaled state energetically less favourable.

  12. Superhydrophobic Friction Reduction Microtextured Surfaces Tae Jin KIM, Carlos H. HIDROVO

    E-print Network

    Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    Superhydrophobic Friction Reduction Microtextured Surfaces Tae Jin KIM, Carlos H. HIDROVO University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA ABSTRACT Superhydrophobic surfaces are surfaces with fluid contact angles larger than 150º. Superhydrophobicity can be achieved by chemically modifying the surface

  13. Spontaneous Jumping of Coalescing Drops on a Superhydrophobic Surface

    E-print Network

    Boreyko, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    When micrometric drops coalesce in-plane on a superhydrophobic surface, a surprising out-of-plane jumping motion was observed. Such jumping motion triggered by drop coalescence was reproduced on a Leidenfrost surface. High-speed imaging revealed that this jumping motion results from the elastic interaction of the bridged drops with the superhydrophobic/Leidenfrost surface. Experiments on both the superhydrophobic and Leidenfrost surfaces compare favorably to a simple scaling model relating the kinetic energy of the merged drop to the surface energy released upon coalescence. The spontaneous jumping motion on water repellent surfaces enables the autonomous removal of water condensate independently of gravity; this process is highly desirable for sustained dropwise condensation.

  14. Selectively splitting a droplet using superhydrophobic stripes on hydrophilic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong; Song, Baowei; Hu, Haibao; Du, Xiaosong; Zhou, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Superhydrophobic patterns were fabricated on hydrophilic surfaces by selective painting. The impinging process of water droplets on these hybrid surfaces was investigated. The droplet can be split by impinging on the hydrophilic surface with a single stripe at a high velocity. The time to split the droplet is independent of the impact velocity and it is smaller than the contact time of a droplet impinging on the fully superhydrophobic surface. The volume ratios of the split mini-droplets could be precisely controlled by adjusting the landing position of the original droplet. The droplet could be split uniformly into more mini-marbles by increasing the stripe numbers. PMID:25946666

  15. Self-Propelled Dropwise Condensate on Superhydrophobic Surfaces Jonathan B. Boreyko and Chuan-Hua Chen*

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chuan-Hua

    Self-Propelled Dropwise Condensate on Superhydrophobic Surfaces Jonathan B. Boreyko and Chuan. This Letter reports continuous dropwise condensa- tion spontaneously occurring on a superhydrophobic surface can be autonomously removed on a superhydrophobic surface without any external forces; we also show

  16. Self-cleaning of superhydrophobic surfaces by self-propelled jumping condensate

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chuan-Hua

    Self-cleaning of superhydrophobic surfaces by self-propelled jumping condensate Katrina M. Wisdoma 2, 2013 (received for review June 24, 2012) The self-cleaning function of superhydrophobic surfaces the superhydrophobic surface is powered by the sur- face energy released upon coalescence of the condensed water phase

  17. Effective Slip over Superhydrophobic Surfaces in Thin Channels Francois Feuillebois,1

    E-print Network

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Effective Slip over Superhydrophobic Surfaces in Thin Channels Franc¸ois Feuillebois,1 Martin Z; published 15 January 2009) Superhydrophobic surfaces reduce drag by combining hydrophobicity and roughness the effective slip. These results provide a framework for the rational design of superhydrophobic surfaces. DOI

  18. Fabrication of Robust and Antifouling Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Guo, Xiao-Jing; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Jia, Shun-Tian

    2015-04-22

    Superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of fluorinated methacrylates on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics. The hydrophobicity of the PET fabric was systematically tunable by controlling the polymerization time. The obtained superhydrophobic fabrics showed excellent chemical robustness even after exposure to different chemicals, such as acid, base, salt, acetone, and toluene. Importantly, the fabrics maintained superhydrophobicity after 2500 abrasion cycles, 100 laundering cycles, and long time exposure to UV irradiation. Also, the surface of the superhydrophobic fabrics showed excellent antifouling properties. PMID:25832484

  19. Drag Reduction on a Patterned Superhydrophobic Surface Richard Truesdell,1

    E-print Network

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    Drag Reduction on a Patterned Superhydrophobic Surface Richard Truesdell,1 Andrea Mammoli,1 Peter decreasing the drag on the surface and effectively changing the macroscopic boundary condition on the surface assessment of the effective slip length associated with the drag reduction. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97

  20. Reversible switching between superhydrophobic states on a hierarchically structured surface

    PubMed Central

    Verho, Tuukka; Korhonen, Juuso T.; Sainiemi, Lauri; Jokinen, Ville; Bower, Chris; Franze, Kristian; Franssila, Sami; Andrew, Piers; Ikkala, Olli; Ras, Robin H. A.

    2012-01-01

    Nature offers exciting examples for functional wetting properties based on superhydrophobicity, such as the self-cleaning surfaces on plant leaves and trapped air on immersed insect surfaces allowing underwater breathing. They inspire biomimetic approaches in science and technology. Superhydrophobicity relies on the Cassie wetting state where air is trapped within the surface topography. Pressure can trigger an irreversible transition from the Cassie state to the Wenzel state with no trapped air—this transition is usually detrimental for nonwetting functionality and is to be avoided. Here we present a new type of reversible, localized and instantaneous transition between two Cassie wetting states, enabled by two-level (dual-scale) topography of a superhydrophobic surface, that allows writing, erasing, rewriting and storing of optically displayed information in plastrons related to different length scales. PMID:22689952

  1. Controllable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces based on PDMS microwell arrays.

    PubMed

    Yong, Jiale; Chen, Feng; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Dongshi; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Si, Jinhai; Meng, Xiangwei; Hou, Xun

    2013-03-12

    This paper presents a one-step method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with extremely controllable adhesion based on PDMS microwell arrays. The microwell array structures are rapidly produced on PDMS films by a point-by-point femtosecond laser scanning process. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces show water controllable adhesion that ranges from ultrahigh to ultralow by adjusting the extent of overlap of the adjacent microwells, on which the sliding angle can be controlled from 180° (a water droplet can not slide down even when the as-prepared surface is turned upside down) to 3°. A "micro-airbag effect" is introduced to explain the adhesion transition phenomenon of the microwell array structures. This work provides a facile and promising strategy to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with controllable adhesion. PMID:23391207

  2. A simple immersion approach for fabricating superhydrophobic Mg alloy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jinlong; Lu, Yao; Huang, Shuai; Liu, Xin; Wu, Libo; Xu, Wenji

    2013-02-01

    A simple immersion approach for fabricating superhydrophobic Mg alloy surfaces is present here. Micro/nanometer-scale rough structures composed of micrometer-scale island-like rough structures and nanometer-scale sheets are generated on the Mg alloy surfaces after immersion in the aqueous CuSO4 solution. After ultrasonic cleaning, the micro/nanometer-scale rough structures are disappeared, whereas the lump-like rough structures appear on the Mg alloy surfaces. After modification with stearic acid, the as-prepared micro/nanometer-scale rough structures and the micrometer-scale lump-like rough structures all show superhydrophobicity. The contact angles of the water droplet on the aforementioned two structures are respectively 151.3° and 161.8°. The rolling angles are respectively 3° and 13°. The results indicate that the cooperation of suitable rough structures and stearic acid modification is responsible for the obtained superhydrophobicity on the Mg alloy surfaces.

  3. High contact angle hysteresis of superhydrophobic surfaces: Hydrophobic defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Feng-Ming; Hong, Siang-Jie; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2009-08-01

    A typical superhydrophobic surface is essentially nonadhesive and exhibits very low water contact angle (CA) hysteresis, so-called Lotus effect. However, leaves of some plants such as scallion and garlic with an advancing angle exceeding 150° show very serious CA hysteresis. Although surface roughness and epicuticular wax can explain the very high advancing CA, our analysis indicates that the unusual hydrophobic defect, diallyl disulfide, is the key element responsible for contact line pinning on allium leaves. After smearing diallyl disulfide on an extended polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film, which is originally absent of CA hysteresis, the surface remains superhydrophobic but becomes highly adhesive.

  4. A novel preparation of polystyrene film with a superhydrophobic surface using a template method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqing; Chen, Hong; Tang, Jianxin; Gong, Huifang; Liu, Yuejun; Wang, Zhengxiang; Shi, Pu; Zhang, Jide; Chen, Xin

    2007-06-01

    Inspired by the self-cleaning superhydrophobic taro leaf, a polystyrene (PS) film with superhydrophobic surface was obtained using a natural taro leaf as template. The water contact angle and the sliding angle of the superhydrophobic PS surface were 158° ± 1.6° and 3°, respectively. The PS surface was still superhydrophobic when contacting with black ink, fresh blood and even viscous glue water. SEM shows that the surface structure comprises many uniform papillae with the diameters ranging from 10 to 15 µm, which is similar to the surface structure of natural taro leaf. Such a special surface morphology may result in the superhydrophobic property.

  5. Electrosprayed superhydrophobic PTFE: a non-contaminating surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkarter, Ezequiel; Saul, Cyro K.; Thomazi, Fabiano; Cruz, Nilson C.; Zanata, Silvio M.; Roman, Lucimara S.; Schreiner, Wido H.

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports on the exposure of superhydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coatings to common aqueous solutions which are used in biology, biotechnology and chemical sensor applications. Advancing contact angles as high as 173° for aqueous solutions were measured on the PTFE surface. Water drop sliding angles at 2° show a very low contact angle hysteresis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements confirm that aqueous solutions can move or stay on the superhydrophobic surface without contamination. Owing to the chemical inertness of the polymer, these results indicate that superhydrophobic PTFE can be used in lab-on-a-chip and multi-sensor devices as well as in biological cultures, where aqueous solutions meet solid surfaces, without contaminating the interface.

  6. Controlled observation of nondegenerate cavity modes in a microdroplet on a superhydrophobic surface

    E-print Network

    Muradoglu, Metin

    Controlled observation of nondegenerate cavity modes in a microdroplet on a superhydrophobic (WGMs) of single glycerol­water microdroplets standing on a superhydrophobic surface by using a uniform recently demonstrated that the use of a superhydrophobic surface greatly facilitates such experiments

  7. pubs.acs.org/langmuir Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Pillars: A Superhydrophobic Surface

    E-print Network

    Resasco, Daniel

    pubs.acs.org/langmuir Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Pillars: A Superhydrophobic Surface Liang Zhang angle. The novel SWNT pillars exhibit superhydrophobicity (i.e., contact angle 160°). To quantify surface has been found necessary to achieve stable superhydrophobicity.14-17 A re- cent report18 indicates

  8. Design of Superhydrophobic Paper/Cellulose Surfaces via Plasma Enhanced Etching and Deposition

    E-print Network

    Breedveld, Victor

    Design of Superhydrophobic Paper/Cellulose Surfaces via Plasma Enhanced Etching and Deposition Superhydrophobicity has been achieved on different paper surfaces via plasma enhanced etching and film deposition. The effects of fiber types and paper making parameters on the superhydrophobic behavior were studied

  9. Modeling and Optimization of Superhydrophobic Condensation

    E-print Network

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    Superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured surfaces for dropwise condensation have recently received significant attention due to their potential to enhance heat transfer performance by shedding water droplets via coalescence-induced ...

  10. Free-standing, flexible, multifunctional, and environmentally stable superhydrophobic composite film made of self-assembled organic micro/super-nanostructures through solution process.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ting; Zhou, Yan; Hu, Diangang; Xiao, Peng; Wang, Qing; Wang, Jian; Pei, Jian; Cao, Yong

    2015-05-01

    A free-standing, flexible, transparent, and fluorescent superhydrophobic composite film is fabricated by drop-casting a layer of organic self-assembled flowerlike micro/super-nanostructures on top of a hydrophobic polyimide film. The solution process to grow the organic super-nanostructures, fabricate the composite film, and lift-off the film from the mother substrate, ensures the process simplicity, low-cost, and scalability. The water contact angle (CA) of the superhydrophobic composite films reaches as high as 159.6°, and the sliding angle (SA) is less than 2° without any further low surface energy treatment. The as-prepared film shows superhydrophobicity with a CA above 150° covering the entire pH range. Moreover, the composite film exhibits good environmental stability against both organic solvent treatment and being exposed to acidic and aqueous solutions. The fluorescence from the composite film extends the potential application of the film into the optoelectronic field. The results may open up an avenue to prepare smart and intelligent superhydrophobic films for application. PMID:25618240

  11. Designing robust alumina nanowires-on-nanopores structures: superhydrophobic surfaces with slippery or sticky water adhesion.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shan; Tian, Dong; Miao, Xinrui; Yang, Xiaojun; Deng, Wenli

    2013-11-01

    Hierarchical alumina surfaces with different morphologies were fabricated by a simple one-step anodization method. These alumina films were fabricated by a new raw material: silica gel plate (aluminum foil with a low purity of 97.17%). The modulation of anodizing time enabled the formation of nanowires-on-nanopores hybrid nanostructures having controllable nanowires topographies through a self-assembly process. The resultant structures were demonstrated to be able to achieve superhydrophobicity without any hydrophobic coating layer. More interestingly, it is found that the as-prepared superhydrophobic alumina surfaces exhibited high contrast water adhesion. Hierarchical alumina film with nanowire bunches-on-nanopores (WBOP) morphology presents extremely slippery property which can obtain a sliding angle (SA) as low as 1°, nanowire pyramids-on-nanopores (WPOP) structure shows strongly sticky water adhesion with the adhesive ability to support 15 ?L inverted water droplet at most. The obtained superhydrophobic alumina surfaces show remarkable mechanical durability even treated by crimping or pressing without impact on the water-repellent performance. Moreover, the created surfaces also show excellent resistivity to ice water, boiling water, high temperature, organic solvent and oil contamination, which could expand their usefulness and efficacy in harsh conditions. PMID:23981676

  12. Superhydrophobic Surface Coatings for Microfluidics and MEMs.

    SciTech Connect

    Branson, Eric D.; Singh, Seema; Houston, Jack E.; van Swol, Frank B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2006-11-01

    Low solid interfacial energy and fractally rough surface topography confer to Lotus plants superhydrophobic (SH) properties like high contact angles, rolling and bouncing of liquid droplets, and self-cleaning of particle contaminants. This project exploits the porous fractal structure of a novel, synthetic SH surface for aerosol collection, its self-cleaning properties for particle concentration, and its slippery nature 3 to enhance the performance of fluidic and MEMS devices. We propose to understand fundamentally the conditions needed to cause liquid droplets to roll rather than flow/slide on a surface and how this %22rolling transition%22 influences the boundary condition describing fluid flow in a pipe or micro-channel. Rolling of droplets is important for aerosol collection strategies because it allows trapped particles to be concentrated and transported in liquid droplets with no need for a pre-defined/micromachined fluidic architecture. The fluid/solid boundary condition is important because it governs flow resistance and rheology and establishes the fluid velocity profile. Although many research groups are exploring SH surfaces, our team is the first to unambiguously determine their effects on fluid flow and rheology. SH surfaces could impact all future SNL designs of collectors, fluidic devices, MEMS, and NEMS. Interfaced with inertial focusing aerosol collectors, SH surfaces would allow size-specific particle populations to be collected, concentrated, and transported to a fluidic interface without loss. In microfluidic systems, we expect to reduce the energy/power required to pump fluids and actuate MEMS. Plug-like (rather than parabolic) velocity profiles can greatly improve resolution of chip-based separations and enable unprecedented control of concentration profiles and residence times in fluidic-based micro-reactors. Patterned SH/hydrophilic channels could induce mixing in microchannels and enable development of microflow control elements. Acknowledgements This work was funded by Sandia National Laboratory's Laboratory Directed Research & Development program (LDRD). Some coating processes were conducted in the cleanroom facility located at the University of New Mexico's Center for High Technology Materials (CHTM). SEM images were performed at UNM's Center for Micro-Engineering on equipment funded by a NSF New Mexico EPSCoR grant. 4

  13. Dynamic Air Layer on Textured Superhydrophobic Surfaces Ivan U. Vakarelski,*,

    E-print Network

    Chan, Derek Y C

    Dynamic Air Layer on Textured Superhydrophobic Surfaces Ivan U. Vakarelski,*, Derek Y. C. Chan that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured super- hydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type

  14. Bacterial growth on a superhydrophobic surface containing silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, S.; Nikkanen, J.-P.; Laakso, J.; Raulio, M.; Priha, O.; Levänen, E.

    2013-12-01

    The antibacterial effect of silver can be exploited in the food and beverage industry and medicinal applications to reduce biofouling of surfaces. Very small amount of silver ions are enough to destructively affect the metabolism of bacteria. Moreover, superhydrophobic properties could reduce bacterial adhesion to the surface. In this study we fabricated superhydrophobic surfaces that contained nanosized silver particles. The superhydrophobic surfaces were manufactured onto stainless steel as combination of ceramic nanotopography and hydrophobication by fluorosilane. Silver nanoparticles were precipitated onto the surface by a chemical method. The dissolution of silver from the surface was tested in an aqueous environment under pH values of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13. The pH value was adjusted with nitric acid and ammonia. It was found that dissolution rate of silver increased as the pH of the solution altered from the pH of de-ionized water to lower and higher pH values but dissolution occurred also in de-ionized water. The antimicrobial potential of this coating was investigated using bacterial strains isolated from the brewery equipment surfaces. The results showed that the number of bacteria adhering onto steel surface was significantly reduced (88%) on the superhydrophobic silver containing coating.

  15. Influence of Liquid Viscosity on Droplet Impingement on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Pearson, John T; Webb, Brent W

    2010-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video describes droplet impingement experiments performed on superhydrophobic surfaces. When droplets of pure water are impinged upon superhydrophobic surfaces, a region of thin coherent jets are observed for Weber numbers between 5 and 15. Also, peripheral splashing is observed for Weber numbers above about 200. When the viscosity of the droplet is increased by mixing glycerol with the water, the thin jets are not observed and peripheral splashing is delayed somewhat. In the Weber number range where pure water droplets are observed to splash peripherally, the water/glycerol droplets are observed to have two-pronged jets.

  16. Droplet evaporation on heated hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Susmita; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-04-01

    The evaporation characteristics of sessile water droplets on smooth hydrophobic and structured superhydrophobic heated surfaces are experimentally investigated. Droplets placed on the hierarchical superhydrophobic surface subtend a very high contact angle (˜160°) and demonstrate low roll-off angle (˜1°), while the hydrophobic substrate supports corresponding values of 120° and ˜10°. The substrates are heated to different constant temperatures in the range of 40-60 °C, which causes the droplet to evaporate much faster than in the case of natural evaporation without heating. The geometric parameters of the droplet, such as contact angle, contact radius, and volume evolution over time, are experimentally tracked. The droplets are observed to evaporate primarily in a constant-contact-angle mode where the contact line slides along the surface. The measurements are compared with predictions from a model based on diffusion of vapor into the ambient that assumes isothermal conditions. This vapor-diffusion-only model captures the qualitative evaporation characteristics on both test substrates, but reasonable quantitative agreement is achieved only for the hydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic surface demonstrates significant deviation between the measured evaporation rate and that obtained using the vapor-diffusion-only model, with the difference being amplified as the substrate temperature is increased. A simple model considering thermal diffusion through the droplet is used to highlight the important role of evaporative cooling at the droplet interface in determining the droplet evaporation characteristics on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  17. Scaling laws for slippage on superhydrophobic fractal surfaces

    E-print Network

    Cottin-Bizonne, C; Bocquet, L

    2012-01-01

    We study the slippage on hierarchical fractal superhydrophobic surfaces, and find an unexpected rich behavior for hydrodynamic friction on these surfaces. We develop a scaling law approach for the effective slip length, which is validated by numerical resolution of the hydrodynamic equations. Our results demonstrate that slippage does strongly depend on the fractal dimension, and is found to be always smaller on fractal surfaces as compared to surfaces with regular patterns. This shows that in contrast to naive expectations, the value of effective contact angle is not sufficient to infer the amount of slippage on a fractal surface: depending on the underlying geometry of the roughness, strongly superhydrophobic surfaces may in some cases be fully inefficient in terms of drag reduction. Finally, our scaling analysis can be directly extended to the study of heat transfer at fractal surfaces, in order to estimate the Kapitsa surface resistance on patterned surfaces, as well as to the question of trapping of diff...

  18. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 8 JUNE 2014 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2980 Pancake bouncing on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 8 JUNE 2014 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2980 Pancake bouncing on superhydrophobic including anti-icing3­5 ,dropwisecondensation6 andself-cleaning7­9 .Here we show how superhydrophobic-perfluorooctyl)silane, is applied, the surface exhibits a superhydrophobic property with an apparent contact angle of over 165 (Fig

  19. Surface adhesive forces: a metric describing the drag-reducing effects of superhydrophobic coatings.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mengjiao; Song, Mengmeng; Dong, Hongyu; Shi, Feng

    2015-04-01

    Nanomaterials with superhydrophobic properties are promising as drag-reducing coatings. However, debates regarding whether superhydrophobic surfaces are favorable for drag reduction require further clarification. A quantified water adhesive force measurement is proposed as a metric and its effectiveness demonstrated using three typical superhydrophobic coatings on model ships with in situ sailing tests. PMID:25418808

  20. Durable superhydrophobic PTFE films through the introduction of micro- and nanostructured pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao-Yao; Ge, Quan; Yang, Long-Lai; Shi, Xiao-Jun; Li, Jiao-Jiao; Yang, De-Quan; Sacher, Edward

    2015-06-01

    A superhydrophobic surface, highly water repellant and self-cleaning, is typically made by introducing micro- and nanoscale roughness onto the surface of a low surface energy material. Herein, we offer a new process of superhydrophobic film formation, accomplishing the same thing through the production of micro- and nanoscale surface porosities. Such a material is prepared by introducing zinc acetate (ZnAc2) and sodium chloride (NaCl) into a commercially available PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) emulsion. On drying, baking and washing with acetic acid, the PTFE film produced from the emulsion had both micro- and nanoscale surface porosities, and demonstrated superhydrophobic properties, with a static contact angle >150° and a slide angle <10°. From SEM observation, NaCl contributes microscale porosity, while ZnAc2 decomposes to ZnO, contributing nanoscale porosity. Using either ZnAc2 or NaCl alone produces a surface with a static contact angle >150°, but with a slide angle >10°. Based on XPS and SEM data, we explore herein the affect of chemistry and porosity on the mechanism of superhydrophobic surface formation, and the durability of that surface under abrasion.

  1. Drag reduction in external flows using superhydrophobic patterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogte, Salil; Truesdell, Richard; Mammoli, Andrea

    2004-11-01

    We present an experimental investigation of a laminar boundary layer in water flow over a superhydrophobic patterned surface. The experimental set-up uses a water tunnel to measure the drag over a Joukowski airfoil using a Linear Variable Differential Transducer (LVDT). The experimental results are presented for laminar boundary layers over the airfoil, the flow fields being quantified with Particle Image Velocitimetry (PIV) techniques for a range of Reynolds numbers. The Joukowski airfoil is developed and patterned with micron scale grooves using Rapid Prototyping techniques. The surface is then coated with a superhydrophobic aerogel substance, at thickness of less than 500 nm, which results in contact angles greater than 150 degrees. The drag force on the airfoil is also calculated numerically using semi-analytical models and is compared with experiments. Although slip on a superhydrophobic surface with nanoscale roughness is undetectable, the presence of patterns of sizes comparable to the boundary layer thickness (on the order of tens or hundreds of micrometers) in combination with the superhydrophobic coatings may result in substantial drag reduction.

  2. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al2O3 and Fe3O4, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  3. Modelling contact angle hysteresis on chemically patterned and superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    H. Kusumaatmaja; J. M. Yeomans

    2006-11-03

    We investigate contact angle hysteresis on chemically patterned and superhydrophobic surfaces, as the drop volume is quasi-statically increased and decreased. We consider both two, and three, dimensions using analytical and numerical approaches to minimise the free energy of the drop. In two dimensions we find, in agreement with other authors, a slip, jump, stick motion of the contact line. In three dimensions this behaviour persists, but the position and magnitude of the contact line jumps are sensitive to the details of the surface patterning. In two dimensions we identify analytically the advancing and receding contact angles on the different surfaces and we use numerical insights to argue that these provide bounds for the three dimensional cases. We present explicit simulations to show that a simple average over the disorder is not sufficient to predict the details of the contact angle hysteresis, and to support an explanation for the low contact angle hysteresis of suspended drops on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  4. A reliable method of manufacturing metallic hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pogreb, Roman; Whyman, Gene; Barayev, Reuven; Bormashenko, Edward; Aurbach, Doron

    2009-06-01

    A method of manufacturing hierarchical metallic surfaces demonstrating superhydrophobic properties is presented. The surfaces showed apparent contact angles as high as 153 deg. and sliding angles of 10 deg. for 50-100 {mu}l droplets. The Cassie-like model [A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 546 (1944)], considering the hierarchical topography of the relief, predicts apparent contact angles in a satisfactory agreement with the measured values.

  5. Quantum Vacuum Photon Modes and Superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellieu, Louis; Deparis, Olivier; Muller, Jérôme; Sarrazin, Michaël

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructures are commonly used for developing superhydrophobic surfaces. However, available wetting theoretical models ignore the effect of vacuum photon-mode alteration on van der Waals forces and thus on hydrophobicity. Using first-principles calculations, we show that superhydrophibicity of nanostructured surfaces is dramatically enhanced by vacuum photon-mode tuning. As a case study, wetting contact angles of a water droplet above a polyethylene nanostructured surface are obtained from the interaction potential energy calculated as a function of the droplet-surface separation distance. This new approach could pave the way for the design of novel superhydrophobic coatings.

  6. Electro-osmosis on anisotropic super-hydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Belyaev, Aleksey V

    2011-01-01

    We give a general theoretical description of electro-osmotic flow at striped super-hydrophobic surfaces in a thin double layer limit, and derive a relation between the electro-osmotic mobility and hydrodynamic slip-length tensors. Our analysis demonstrates that electro-osmotic flow shows a very rich behavior controlled by slip length and charge at the gas sectors. In case of uncharged liquid-gas interface, the flow is the same or inhibited relative to flow in homogeneously charged channel with zero interfacial slip. By contrast, it can be amplified by several orders of magnitude provided slip regions are uniformly charged. When gas and solid regions are oppositely charged, we predict a flow reversal, which suggests a possibility of huge electro-osmotic slip even for electro-neutral surfaces. On the basis of these observations we suggest strategies for practical microfluidic mixing devices. These results provide a framework for the rational design of super-hydrophobic surfaces.

  7. Electro-osmosis on anisotropic super-hydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Aleksey V. Belyaev; Olga I. Vinogradova

    2011-07-20

    We give a general theoretical description of electro-osmotic flow at striped super-hydrophobic surfaces in a thin double layer limit, and derive a relation between the electro-osmotic mobility and hydrodynamic slip-length tensors. Our analysis demonstrates that electro-osmotic flow shows a very rich behavior controlled by slip length and charge at the gas sectors. In case of uncharged liquid-gas interface, the flow is the same or inhibited relative to flow in homogeneous channel with zero interfacial slip. By contrast, it can be amplified by several orders of magnitude provided slip regions are uniformly charged. When gas and solid regions are oppositely charged, we predict a flow reversal, which suggests a possibility of huge electro-osmotic slip even for electro-neutral surfaces. On the basis of these observations we suggest strategies for practical microfluidic mixing devices. These results provide a framework for the rational design of super-hydrophobic surfaces.

  8. Bioinspired superhydrophobic, self-cleaning and low drag surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2013-09-01

    Nature has evolved objects with desired functionality using commonly found materials. Nature capitalizes on hierarchical structures to achieve functionality. The understanding of the functions provided by objects and processes found in nature can guide us to produce nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes with desirable functionality. This article provides an overview of four topics: (1) Lotus Effect used to develop superhydrophobic and self-cleaning/antifouling surfaces with low adhesion, (2) Shark Skin Effect to develop surfaces with low fluid drag and anti-fouling characteristics, and (3-4) Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wing Effect to develop superhydrophobic and self-cleaning surfaces with low drag. Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wings combine the Shark Skin and Lotus Effects.

  9. Spectral tuning of liquid microdroplets standing on a superhydrophobic surface using electrowetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraz, A.; Karada?, Y.; Coskun, A. F.

    2008-05-01

    Using electrowetting, we demonstrate reversible spectral tuning of the whispering gallery modes of glycerol/water microdroplets standing on a superhydrophobic surface by up to 4.7nm at 400V. Our results can inspire electrically tunable optical switches and filters based on microdroplets on a superhydrophobic surface. The sensitivity of the observed spectral drift to the contact angle can also be used to measure the contact angles of microdroplets on a superhydrophobic surface.

  10. Superhydrophobic films on glass surface derived from trimethylsilanized silica gel nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Debmita; Medda, Samar Kumar; De, Goutam

    2011-09-01

    The paper deals with the fabrication of sol-gel-derived superhydrophobic films on glass based on the macroscopic silica network with surface modification. The fabricated transparent films were composed of a hybrid -Si(CH(3))(3)-functionalized SiO(2) nanospheres exhibiting the desired micro/nanostructure, water repellency, and antireflection (AR) property. The wavelength selective AR property can be tuned by controlling the physical thickness of the films. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies revealed the existence of SiO(2) nanoparticles of average size ?9.4 nm in the sols. TEM studies showed presence of interconnected SiO(2) NPs of ?10 nm in size. The films were formed with uniformly packed SiO(2) aggregates as observed by FESEM of film surface. FTIR of the films confirmed presence of glasslike Si-O-Si bonding and methyl functionalization. The hydrophobicity of the surface was depended on the thickness of the deposited films. A critical film thickness (>115 nm) was necessary to obtain the air push effect for superhydrophobicity. Trimethylsilyl functionalization of SiO(2) and the surface roughness (rms ?30 nm as observed by AFM) of the films were also contributed toward the high water contact angle (WCA). The coated glass surface showed WCA value of the droplet as high as 168 ± 3° with 6 ?L of water. These superhydrophobic films were found to be stable up to about 230-240 °C as confirmed by TG/DTA studies, and WCA measurements of the films with respect to the heat-treatment temperatures. These high water repellant films can be deposited on relatively large glass surfaces to remove water droplets immediately without any mechanical assistance. PMID:21823656

  11. Unified Model for Contact Angle Hysteresis on Heterogeneous and Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Raj, Rishi

    Understanding the complexities associated with contact line dynamics on chemically heterogeneous and superhydrophobic surfaces is important for a wide variety of engineering problems. Despite significant efforts to capture ...

  12. Deposition and tuning of nanostructured hydrocarbon deposits: From superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic and back

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, J.; Acid, H.; Kovacevic, E.; Cachoncinlle, C.; Boufendi, L.; Strunskus, Th.

    2013-02-14

    Carbonaceous fluorine free nanoparticles synthesized in a low temperature acetylene discharge are used in a first step for the production of (super)hydrophobic coatings. In a second step, the influence of different plasma and UV induced functionalizations on the wetting characteristics of these materials is investigated. The experiments show that the superhydrophobic surfaces can be turned continuously and reversibly into hydrophilic (superhydrophilic) surfaces by means of the different treatment methods. The reversibility of these processes is studied in a third step. It is shown that the changes of the surface which are induced by the plasma treatment can be undone by means of EUV irradiation. The switchability of the surface due to external stimuli can be easily used for the controlled production of patterned surfaces. This is demonstrated by means of one simple example.

  13. Effective slip over superhydrophobic surfaces in thin channels

    E-print Network

    Feuillebois, François; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2008-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces reduce drag by combining hydrophobicity and roughness to trap gas bubbles in a micro- and nanoscopic texture. Recent work has focused on specific cases, such as striped grooves or arrays of pillars, with limited theoretical guidance. Here, we consider the experimentally relevant limit of thin channels and obtain rigorous bounds on the effective slip length for any two-component (e.g. low-slip and high-slip) texture with given area fractions. Among all anisotropic textures, parallel stripes attain the largest (or smallest) possible slip in a straight, thin channel for parallel (or perpendicular) orientation with respect to the mean flow. For isotropic (e.g. chessboard or random) textures, the Hashin-Strikman conditions further constrain the effective slip. These results provide a framework for the rational design of superhydrophobic surfaces.

  14. Velocity-field measurements near surfaces with superhydrophobic coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobieff, Peter; Brinker, C. Jeff; Shah, Pratik; Truesdell, Richard; Mammoli, Andrea; van Swol, Frank

    2003-11-01

    An experimental study of the flow near a surface with a recently developed superhydrophobic (SH) coating employs particle-tracking techniques to reconstruct the velocity field adjacent to the surface. Visualization in the immediate vicinity of the surface is facilitated by matching the refractive index of the base surface material with the refractive index of the fluid. The results of the experiments show that SH coating effectively modifies the macroscopic boundary conditions, changing the slip velocity on the boundary from zero (non-slip) without SH coating to about 0.4 of the mean freestream velocity with SH coating.

  15. Transparent, durable and thermally stable PDMS-derived superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaojiang; Xu, Yang; Ben, Keyang; Chen, Zao; Wang, Yan; Guan, Zisheng

    2015-06-01

    We reported a novel, simple, modification-free process for the preparation of transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by calcining candle-soot-coated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. Though a calcination process, a candle soot template was gradually removed while robust fibrous and network structures were created on glass. Owing to these structures, the glass substrates were durable and highly transparent with an average transmittance (400-800 nm) of 89.50%, very closed to the bare glass slides (89.70%). These substrates exhibited a water contact angle (WCA) of 163° and a sliding angle (SA) of ?1°. Importantly, the superhydrophobicity of these surfaces can thermally recover after oil-contamination due to their high thermal stability below 500 °C. Based on these, superhydrophobic fiberglass cotton was also prepared for optimized oil-water separation and air filtration. This method is suitable for large-scale production because it uses inexpensive and environmentally friendly materials and gets rids of sophisticated equipment, special atmosphere and harsh operations.

  16. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Patankar, Neelesh A; Marston, Jeremy O; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-09-13

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling--by heat transfer--the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. PMID:22972299

  17. Scaling laws for slippage on superhydrophobic fractal surfaces

    E-print Network

    C. Cottin-Bizonne; C. Barentin; L. Bocquet

    2012-01-24

    We study the slippage on hierarchical fractal superhydrophobic surfaces, and find an unexpected rich behavior for hydrodynamic friction on these surfaces. We develop a scaling law approach for the effective slip length, which is validated by numerical resolution of the hydrodynamic equations. Our results demonstrate that slippage does strongly depend on the fractal dimension, and is found to be always smaller on fractal surfaces as compared to surfaces with regular patterns. This shows that in contrast to naive expectations, the value of effective contact angle is not sufficient to infer the amount of slippage on a fractal surface: depending on the underlying geometry of the roughness, strongly superhydrophobic surfaces may in some cases be fully inefficient in terms of drag reduction. Finally, our scaling analysis can be directly extended to the study of heat transfer at fractal surfaces, in order to estimate the Kapitsa surface resistance on patterned surfaces, as well as to the question of trapping of diffusing particles by patchy hierarchical surfaces, in the context of chemoreception.

  18. Super-hydrophobic bandages and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T. (Clinton, TN); D'Urso, Brian R. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2012-06-05

    A bandage that includes a material, which can be breathable, having a first surface, and a plurality of superhydrophobic particles attached to the first surface. The plurality of superhydrophobic particles ranging in size from about 100 nanometers to about 10 micrometers. The superhydrophobic particles including a protrusive material defining a plurality of nanopores and a plurality of spaced apart nanostructures that define an external boundary of the hydrophobic particles. The nanopores providing a flow through porosity. The first surface can be rendered superhydrophobic by the attached superhydrophobic particles. The material can have a second surface opposite the first surface that is hydrophilic. The superhydrophobic particles can be adhered to the first surface by a binder. Also included is a method of making the bandages described herein.

  19. Hot embossing of PTFE: Towards superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jucius, D.; Grigali?nas, V.; Mikolaj?nas, M.; Guobien?, A.; Kopustinskas, V.; Gudonyt?, A.; Narmontas, P.

    2011-01-01

    Three types of reusable stamps with features in the form of 2D arrays of pits having lateral dimensions in the range of 2-80 ?m and heights of 1.5-15 ?m were successfully employed for the hot embossing of PTFE at temperatures up to 50 °C above the glass transition temperature of PTFE amorphous phase. Due to the softening of PTFE at the temperatures used in this study, we were able to decrease imprint pressure significantly when comparing with the imprint conditions reported by other authors. Impact of the imprint temperature, pressure and time on the fidelity of pattern transfer as well as on water repellency was tested. The best results of embossing were achieved by applying pressure of 10 kg/cm 2 for 2 min at 170 °C. In this case, flattening of a natural PTFE roughness and pretty accurate deep replicas of the stamp patterns were observable on the whole imprinted area. Improvement in water repellency was largest for the samples imprinted by Ni stamp patterned with a 2D array of 2 ?m square pits spaced by the same dimension and having a depth of 1.5 ?m. Cassie-Baxter wetting regime was observed for the deepest imprints with water contact angles up to the superhydrophobic limit.

  20. Communication: Anti-icing characteristics of superhydrophobic surfaces investigated by quartz crystal microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Moonchan; Yim, Changyong; Jeon, Sangmin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the anti-icing characteristics of superhydrophobic surfaces with various morphologies by using quartz crystal microresonators. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) or ZnO nanorods were synthesized directly on gold-coated quartz crystal substrates and their surfaces were rendered hydrophobic via chemical modifications with octyltrichlorosilane (OTS), octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS), or octadecanethiol (ODT). Four different hydrophobic nanostructures were prepared on the quartz crystals: ODT-modified hydrophobic plain gold (C18-Au), an OTS-modified AAO nanostructure (C8-AAO), an ODS-modified AAO nanostructure (C18-AAO), and ODT-modified ZnO nanorods (C18-ZnO). The water contact angles on the C18-Au, C8-AAO, C18-AAO, and C18-ZnO surfaces were measured to be 91.4°, 147.2°, 156.3°, and 157.8°, respectively. A sessile water droplet was placed on each quartz crystal and its freezing temperature was determined by monitoring the drastic changes in the resonance frequency and Q-factor upon freezing. The freezing temperature of a water droplet was found to decrease with decreases in the water contact radius due to the decreases in the number of active sites available for ice nucleation.

  1. A numerical study of the effects of superhydrophobic surface on skin-friction drag in turbulent channel flow

    E-print Network

    Kim, John

    A numerical study of the effects of superhydrophobic surface on skin- friction drag in turbulent;PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 25, 110815 (2013) A numerical study of the effects of superhydrophobic surface on skin; accepted 21 May 2013; published online 11 September 2013) Superhydrophobic surfaces have attracted much

  2. Dynamic contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces Jeong-Hyun Kim, H. Pirouz Kavehpour, and Jonathan P. Rothstein

    E-print Network

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    Dynamic contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces Jeong-Hyun Kim, H. Pirouz Kavehpour: "Dynamic contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces" [Phys. Fluids 27, 032107 (2015)] Phys measurements of superhydrophobic surfaces J. Appl. Phys. 116, 114903 (2014); 10.1063/1.4895779 Using sharp

  3. Using sharp transitions in contact angle hysteresis to move, deflect, and sort droplets on a superhydrophobic surface

    E-print Network

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    on a superhydrophobic surface Michael A. Nilsson and Jonathan P. Rothstein Citation: Phys. Fluids 24, 062001 (2012); doi droplets on a superhydrophobic surface Michael A. Nilsson and Jonathan P. Rothsteina) Department by sanding Teflon are used as the microfluidics platform. The superhydrophobic surfaces used in this study

  4. Generation of stainless steel superhydrophobic surfaces using WEDM technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yanling; Liu, Xianping; Qi, Houjun

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a novel fabrication methodology for generating superhydrophobic surfaces on stainless steel. The Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM) technique was utilized to change the wettability of stainless steel which is generally hydrophilic. Superhydrophobic surfaces were obtained on the stainless steel by strictly control the machining progress. The mechanism of wettability modulation was explored using the well-established surface metrology and characterisation instruments. It was noted that WEDM can be used to generate a recast layer on stainless steel surface. There was a number of hierarchic micro-structures in the irregular recast layer and the number of micro-holes increases the contact area between the water drop and the top surface of stainless steel. Thus, the contact angle was significantly increased and the wettability of stainless steel changed from hydrophilic into hydrophobic. Compared with other established fabrication approaches, the stainless steel based hydrophobic surface can provide long durability, high efficiency and low cost metallic surfaces, which paves the way for the practical applications of stainless steel hydrophobic surfaces in the academic and engineering fields.

  5. Synthesis of superhydrophobic PTFE-like thin films by self-nanostructuration in a hybrid plasma process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Frédéric; Renaux, Fabian; Coppée, Séverine; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Vandencasteele, Nicolas; Reniers, François; Snyders, Rony

    2012-12-01

    Superhydrophobic poly(tetrafluoro-ethylene) (PTFE) like thin films were grown on silicon wafers using a plasma-based hybrid process consisting on sputtering a carbon target in an Ar/CF4 atmosphere. The influence of the bias voltage applied to the substrate (VBias) as well as of the gas mixture composition (%CF4) on the chemical composition, the wettability and the morphology of the deposited thin films were evaluated. The chemical composition measured by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) has revealed that the F/C atomic ratio is always lower than for conventional PTFE (F/C = 2) and that it decreases when VBias increases (from F/C = 1 for VBias = - 100 V to F/C = 0.75 for VBias = - 200 V). This behavior is associated with the preferential sputtering of the fluorine atoms during the plasma-assisted growth of the films. Consecutively, a self-nanostructuration enhanced when increasing VBias is observed. As a consequence, the water contact angle (WCA) measurements range from 70° up to 150° depending on (i) the fluorine concentration and (ii) on the magnitude of the nanostructuration. In addition, for the films presenting the highest WCAs, a small hysteresis between the advancing and receding WCAs is observed (< 10°) allowing these films to fulfill completely the requirements of superhydrophobicity. The nanostructuration is probably due to the chemical etching by fluorine atoms of the fluorinated group. In order to get more understanding on the wettability mechanisms of these surfaces, the topography of the films has been evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The data have revealed, for all films, a dense and regular structure composed by conic objects (AvH is their average height and AvD is the average distance between them) for which the dimensions increase with VBias. A correlation between AvH/AvD, defined as the "morphological ratio", with the WCA was established. Theoretical evaluations of the WCA using the Wenzel and Cassie equations with, as inputs, the features of the deposited thin film surfaces measured by AFM suggest that the wetting regime is intermediate between these two ideal situations.

  6. Free-surface liquid jet impingement on rib patterned superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynes, D.; Johnson, M.; Webb, B. W.

    2011-05-01

    We report experimental results characterizing the dynamics of a liquid jet impinging normally on hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces spanning the Weber number (based on the jet velocity and diameter) range from 100 to 1900. The superhydrophobic surfaces are fabricated with both hydrophobically coated silicon and polydimethylsiloxane that exhibit alternating microribs and cavities. For all surfaces a transition from a thin radially moving liquid sheet occurs. This takes the form of the classical hydraulic jump for the hydrophilic surfaces but is markedly different for the hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces, where the transition is significantly influenced by surface tension and a break-up into droplets is observed at high Weber number. For the superhydrophobic surfaces, the transition exhibits an elliptical shape with the major axis being aligned parallel to the ribs, concomitant with the frictional resistance being smaller in the parallel direction than in the transverse direction. However, the total projected area of the ellipse exhibits a nearly linear dependence on the jet Weber number, and was nominally invariant with varying hydrophobicity and relative size of the ribs and cavities. For the hydrophobic and superhydrophobic scenarios, the local Weber number based on the local radial velocity and local depth of the radially moving liquid sheet is observed to be of order unity at the transition location. The results also reveal that for increasing relative size of the cavities, the ratio of the ellipse axis (major-to-minor) increases.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of a cotton candy like surface with superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, You; Huang, Chengya; Su, Dong; Jiang, Qiangwei; Zhu, Yunfeng

    2011-05-01

    Superhydrophobic thin films were prepared on glass by air-brushing the in situ polymerization compositions of D 5/SiO 2. The wettability and morphology were investigated by contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The most superhydrophobic samples prepared had a static water contact angle of 157° for a 5 ?l droplet and a sliding angle of ˜1° for 10 ?l droplet. Thermal stability analysis showed that the surface maintained superhydrophobic at temperature up to 450 °C. Air trapping and capillary force on superhydrophobic behavior were evaluated.

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: Magnetic surface nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, A.; Skomski, R.; Honolka, J.

    2010-11-01

    Recent trends in the emerging field of surface-supported magnetic nanostructures are reviewed. Current strategies for nanostructure synthesis are summarized, followed by a predominantly theoretical description of magnetic phenomena in surface magnetic structures and a review of experimental research in this field. Emphasis is on Fe- or Co-based nanostructures in various low-dimensional geometries, which are studied as model systems to explore the effects of dimensionality, atomic coordination, chemical bonds, alloying and, most importantly, interactions with the supporting substrate on the magnetism. This review also includes a discussion of closely related systems, such as 3d element impurities integrated into organic networks, surface-supported Fe-based molecular magnets, Kondo systems or 4d element nanostructures that exhibit emergent magnetism, thereby bridging the traditional areas of surface science, molecular physics and nanomagnetism.

  9. Superhydrophobic nanostructured ZnO thin films on aluminum alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying; Sarkar, D. K.; Chen, X.-Grant

    2015-02-01

    Superhydrophobic thin films have been fabricated on aluminum alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process using stearic acid (SA) functionalized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles suspension in alcohols at varying bath temperatures. The deposited thin films have been characterized using both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy and it is found that the films contain low surface energy zinc stearate and ZnO nanoparticles. It is also observed that the atomic percentage of Zn and O, roughness and water contact angle of the thin films increase with the increase of the deposited bath temperature. Furthermore, the thin film deposited at 50 °C, having a roughness of 4.54 ± 0.23 ?m, shows superhydrophobic properties providing a water contact angle of 155 ± 3° with rolling off properties. Also, the activation energy of electrophoretic deposition of stearic-acid-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles is calculated to be 0.5 eV.

  10. Learning from superhydrophobic plants: the use of hydrophilic areas on superhydrophobic surfaces for droplet control.

    PubMed

    Shirtcliffe, N J; McHale, G; Newton, M I

    2009-12-15

    In many countries, the mornings in spring are graced with spectacular displays of dew drops hanging on spiders' webs and on leaves. Some leaves, in particular, sport particularly large droplets that last well into the morning. In this paper, we study a group of plants that show this effect on their superhydrophobic leaves to try to discover how and why they do it. We describe the structures they use to gather droplets and suggest that these droplets are used as a damper to absorb kinetic energy allowing water to be redirected from sideways motion into vertical motion. Model surfaces in the shape of leaves and as more general flat sheets show that this principle can be used to manipulate water passively, such as on the covers of solar panels, and could also be used in parts of microfluidic devices. The mode of transport can be switched between rolling droplets and rivulets to maximize control. PMID:20560556

  11. Liquid Freezing Dynamics on Hydrophobic and Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    False color environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) images of water freezing on smooth (?e ? 120°) and nanostructured (l ~ 50 nm, ?e ? 170 - 180°) hydrophobic surfaces are presented. To obtain the freezing dynamics ...

  12. Fabrication of TiO2/EP super-hydrophobic thin film on filter paper surface.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengxin; Zhai, Xianglin; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Ming; Zang, Deli; Wang, Chengyu

    2015-09-01

    A composite filter paper with super-hydrophobicity was obtained by adhering micro/nano structure of amorphous titanium dioxide on the filter paper surface with modifying low surface energy material. By virtue of the coupling agent, which plays an important part in bonding amorphous titanium dioxide and epoxy resin, the structure of super-hydrophobic thin film on the filter paper surface is extremely stable. The microstructure of super-hydrophobic filter paper was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the images showed that the as-prepared filter paper was covered with uniform amorphous titanium dioxide particles, generating a roughness structure on the filter paper surface. The super-hydrophobic performance of the filter paper was characterized by water contact angle measurements. The observations showed that the wettability of filter paper samples transformed from super-hydrophilicity to super-hydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 153 ± 1°. Some experiments were also designed to test the effect of water-oil separation and UV-resistant by the super-hydrophobic filter paper. The prepared super-hydrophobic filter paper worked efficiently and simply in water-oil separation as well as enduringly in anti-UV property after the experiments. This method offers an opportunity to the practical applications of the super-hydrophobic filter paper. PMID:26005136

  13. Characterization of Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Anti-icing in a Low-Temperature Wind Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Swarctz, Christopher; Alijallis, Elias; Hunter, Scott Robert; Simpson, John T; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a closed loop low-temperature wind tunnel was custom-built and uniquely used to investigate the anti-icing mechanism of superhydrophobic surfaces in regulated flow velocities, temperatures, humidity, and water moisture particle sizes. Silica nanoparticle-based hydrophobic coatings were tested as superhydrophobic surface models. During tests, images of ice formation were captured by a camera and used for analysis of ice morphology. Prior to and after wind tunnel testing, apparent contact angles of water sessile droplets on samples were measured by a contact angle meter to check degradation of surface superhydrophobicity. A simple peel test was also performed to estimate adhesion of ice on the surfaces. When compared to an untreated sample, superhydrophobic surfaces inhibited initial ice formation. After a period of time, random droplet strikes attached to the superhydrophobic surfaces and started to coalesce with previously deposited ice droplets. These sites appear as mounds of accreted ice across the surface. The appearance of the ice formations on the superhydrophobic samples is white rather than transparent, and is due to trapped air. These ice formations resemble soft rime ice rather than the transparent glaze ice seen on the untreated sample. Compared to untreated surfaces, the icing film formed on superhydrophobic surfaces was easy to peel off by shear flows.

  14. Dewetting Transitions on Superhydrophobic Surfaces: When are Wenzel Drops Reversible?

    SciTech Connect

    Boreyko, Jonathan B; Collier, Pat

    2013-01-01

    On superhydrophobic surfaces, drops in theWenzel state can be switched to the suspended Cassie state in some cases, but in other cases are irreversibly impaled in the surface roughness. To date, the question of when dewetting transitions are possible for Wenzel drops has not been resolved. Here, we show that pinned Wenzel drops being stretched out-of-plane cannot reduce their contact angle below a critical value where unstable pinch-off occurs, preventing dewetting for Wenzel drops which exhibit receding contact angles beneath this critical pinchoff angle. Dewetting transitions are therefore only possible for Wenzel drops with moderately large receding contact angles, which requires low surface roughness for one-tier surfaces or a Partial Wenzel wetting state for two-tier surfaces.

  15. Hydraulic Jumps on Superhydrophobic Surfaces Exhibiting Ribs and Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael; Russell, Benton; Maynes, Daniel; Webb, Brent

    2009-11-01

    We report experimental results characterizing the dynamics of a liquid jet impinging normally on superhydrophobic surfaces spanning the Weber number (based on the jet velocity and diameter) range from 100 to 1400. The superhydrophobic surfaces are fabricated with both silicon and PDMS surfaces and exhibit micro-ribs and cavities coated with a hydrophobic coating. In general, the hydraulic jump exhibits an elliptical shape with the major axis being aligned parallel to the ribs, concomitant with the frictional resistance being smaller in the parallel direction than in the transverse direction. When the water depth downstream of the jump was imposed at a predetermined value, the major and minor axis of the jump increased with decreasing water depth, following classical hydraulic jump behavior. When no water depth was imposed, however, the total projected area of the ellipse exhibited a nearly linear dependence on the jet Weber number, and was nominally invariant with varying hydrophobicity and relative size of the ribs and cavities. For this scenario the Weber number (based on the local radial velocity and water depth prior to the jump) was of order unity at the jump location. The results also reveal that for increasing relative size of the cavities, the ratio of the ellipse axis (major-to-minor) increases.

  16. Fabrication of superhydrophobic textured steel surface for anti-corrosion and tribological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Jin; Chen, Beibei; Liu, Can; Zhang, Mingsuo; Li, Changsheng

    2015-12-01

    We describe a simple and rapid method to fabricate superhydrophobic textured steel surface with excellent anti-corrosion and tribological properties on S45C steel substrate. The steel substrate was firstly ground using SiC sandpapers, and then polished using diamond paste to remove scratches. The polished steel was subsequently etched in a mixture of HF and H2O2 solution for 30 s at room temperature to obtain the textured steel surface with island-like protrusions, micro-pits, and nano-flakes. Meanwhile, to investigate the formation mechanism of the multiscale structures, the polished steel was immersed in a 3 wt% Nital solution for 5 s to observe the metallographic structures. The multiscale structures, along with low-surface-energy molecules, led to the steel surface that displayed superhydrophobicity with the contact angle of 158 ± 2° and the sliding angle of 3 ± 1°. The chemical stability and potentiodynamic polarization test indicated that the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface had excellent corrosion resistance that can provide effective protection for the steel substrate. The tribological test showed that the friction coefficient of the superhydrophobic surface maintained 0.11 within 6000 s and its superhydrophobicity had no obvious decrease after the abrasion test. The theoretical mechanism for the excellent anti-corrosion and tribological properties on the superhydrophobic surface were also analyzed respectively. The advantages of facile production, anti-corrosion, and tribological properties for the superhydrophobic steel surface make it to be a good candidate in practical applications.

  17. Green Approach to the Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Mesh Surface for Oil/Water Separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fajun; Lei, Sheng; Xu, Yao; Ou, Junfei

    2015-07-20

    We report a simple and environment friendly method to fabricate superhydrophobic metallic mesh surfaces for oil/water separation. The obtained mesh surface exhibits superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity after it was dried in an oven at 200?°C for 10 min. A rough silver layer is formed on the mesh surface after immersion, and the spontaneous adsorption of airborne carbon contaminants on the silver surface lower the surface free energy of the mesh. No low-surface-energy reagents and/or volatile organic solvents are used. In addition, we demonstrate that by using the mesh box, oils can be separated and collected from the surface of water repeatedly, and that high separation efficiencies of larger than 92?% are retained for various oils. Moreover, the superhydrophobic mesh also possesses excellent corrosion resistance and thermal stability. Hence, these superhydrophobic meshes might be good candidates for the practical separation of oil from the surface of water. PMID:26017675

  18. Pressure fluctuations and interfacial robustness in turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Seo, J.; García-Mayoral, R.; Mani, A.

    2015-10-22

    Superhydrophobic surfaces can entrap gas pockets within their grooves when submerged in water. Such a mixed-phase boundary is shown to result in an effective slip velocity on the surface, and has promising potential for drag reduction and energy...

  19. Shear driven droplet shedding and coalescence on a superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghtadernejad, S.; Tembely, M.; Jadidi, M.; Esmail, N.; Dolatabadi, A.

    2015-03-01

    The interest on shedding and coalescence of sessile droplets arises from the importance of these phenomena in various scientific problems and industrial applications such as ice formation on wind turbine blades, power lines, nacelles, and aircraft wings. It is shown recently that one of the ways to reduce the probability of ice accretion on industrial components is using superhydrophobic coatings due to their low adhesion to water droplets. In this study, a combined experimental and numerical approach is used to investigate droplet shedding and coalescence phenomena under the influence of air shear flow on a superhydrophobic surface. Droplets with a size of 2 mm are subjected to various air speeds ranging from 5 to 90 m/s. A numerical simulation based on the Volume of Fluid method coupled with the Large Eddy Simulation turbulent model is carried out in conjunction with the validating experiments to shed more light on the coalescence of droplets and detachment phenomena through a detailed analysis of the aerodynamics forces and velocity vectors on the droplet and the streamlines around it. The results indicate a contrast in the mechanism of two-droplet coalescence and subsequent detachment with those related to the case of a single droplet shedding. At lower speeds, the two droplets coalesce by attracting each other with successive rebounds of the merged droplet on the substrate, while at higher speeds, the detachment occurs almost instantly after coalescence, with a detachment time decreasing exponentially with the air speed. It is shown that coalescence phenomenon assists droplet detachment from the superhydrophobic substrate at lower air speeds.

  20. Verification of icephobic/anti-icing properties of a superhydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyi; Xue, Jian; Wang, Qingjun; Chen, Qingmin; Ding, Jianfu

    2013-04-24

    Four aluminum surfaces with wettability varied from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic were prepared by combining an etching and a coating process. The surface wettability was checked in terms of water contact angle (CA) and sliding angle (SA) under different humidity at -10 °C. High-speed photography was applied to study water droplet impact dynamics on these surfaces. It was found that single and successive water droplets could rebound on the superhydrophobic surface and roll off at a tilt angle larger than 30° under an extremely condensing weather condition (-10 °C and relative humidity of 85-90%). In addition, the superhydrophobic surface showed a strong icephobic property, the ice adhesion on this surface was only 13% of that on the superhydrophilic surface, though they had a similar nano/microtopological structure. Moreover, this superhydrophobic surface displayed an excellent durability of the icephobic property. The ice adhesion only increased to 20% and 16% of that on the superhydrophobic surface after the surface was undergone 20 icing/ice-breaking cycles and 40 icing/ice-melting cycles, respectively. Surface profile and XPS studies on these surfaces indicated a minor damage of the surface nano/microstructure and the coating layer upon these multiple ice-breaking and ice-melting processes. Therefore, this superhydrophobic surface could be a good candidate for icephobic applications. PMID:23537106

  1. Laser nanostructuring of materials surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zavestovskaya, I N

    2010-12-29

    This paper reviews results of experimental and theoretical studies of surface micro- and nanostructuring of metals and other materials irradiated directly by short and ultrashort laser pulses. Special attention is paid to direct laser action involving melting of the material (with or without ablation), followed by ultrarapid surface solidification, which is an effective approach to producing surface nanostructures. Theoretical analysis of recrystallisation kinetics after irradiation by ultrashort laser pulses makes it possible to determine the volume fraction of crystallised phase and the average size of forming crystalline structures as functions of laser treatment regime and thermodynamic properties of the material. The present results can be used to optimise pulsed laser treatment regime in order to ensure control nanostructuring of metal surfaces. (photonics and nanotechnology)

  2. Modeling of Droplet Evaporation on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Heitor C M; Vainstein, Mendeli H; Brito, Carolina

    2015-07-14

    When a drop of water is placed on a rough surface, there are two possible extreme regimes of wetting: the one called Cassie-Baxter (CB) with air pockets trapped underneath the droplet and the one called the Wenzel (W) state characterized by the homogeneous wetting of the surface. A way to investigate the transition between these two states is by means of evaporation experiments, in which the droplet starts in a CB state and, as its volume decreases, penetrates the surface's grooves, reaching a W state. Here we present a theoretical model based on the global interfacial energies for CB and W states that allows us to predict the thermodynamic wetting state of the droplet for a given volume and surface texture. We first analyze the influence of the surface geometric parameters on the droplet's final wetting state with constant volume and show that it depends strongly on the surface texture. We then vary the volume of the droplet, keeping the geometric surface parameters fixed to mimic evaporation and show that the drop experiences a transition from the CB to the W state when its volume reduces, as observed in experiments. To investigate the dependency of the wetting state on the initial state of the droplet, we implement a cellular Potts model in three dimensions. Simulations show very good agreement with theory when the initial state is W, but it disagrees when the droplet is initialized in a CB state, in accordance with previous observations which show that the CB state is metastable in many cases. Both simulations and the theoretical model can be modified to study other types of surfaces. PMID:26086999

  3. Ultrasonic approach for surface nanostructuring.

    PubMed

    Skorb, Ekaterina V; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2016-03-01

    The review is about solid surface modifications by cavitation induced in strong ultrasonic fields. The topic is worth to be discussed in a special issue of surface cleaning by cavitation induced processes since it is important question if we always find surface cleaning when surface modifications occur, or vice versa. While these aspects are extremely interesting it is important for applications to follow possible pathways during ultrasonic treatment of the surface: (i) solely cleaning; (ii) cleaning with following surface nanostructuring; and (iii) topic of this particular review, surface modification with controllably changing its characteristics for advanced applications. It is important to know what can happen and which parameters should be taking into account in the case of surface modification when actually the aim is solely cleaning or aim is surface nanostructuring. Nanostructuring should be taking into account since is often accidentally applied in cleaning. Surface hydrophilicity, stability to Red/Ox reactions, adhesion of surface layers to substrate, stiffness and melting temperature are important to predict the ultrasonic influence on a surface and discussed from these points for various materials and intermetallics, silicon, hybrid materials. Important solid surface characteristics which determine resistivity and kinetics of surface response to ultrasonic treatment are discussed. It is also discussed treatment in different solvents and presents in solution of metal ions. PMID:26382299

  4. Facile stamp patterning method for superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Sungnam; Hwang, Woonbong

    2015-11-01

    Patterning techniques are essential to many research fields such as chemistry, biology, medicine, and micro-electromechanical systems. In this letter, we report a simple, fast, and low-cost superhydrophobic patterning method using a superhydrophilic template. The technique is based on the contact stamping of the surface during hydrophobic dip coating. Surface characteristics were measured using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis. The results showed that the hydrophilic template, which was contacted with the stamp, was not affected by the hydrophobic solution. The resolution study was conducted using a stripe shaped stamp. The patterned line was linearly proportional to the width of the stamp line with a constant narrowing effect. A surface with regions of four different types of wetting was fabricated to demonstrate the patterning performance.

  5. Self-cleaning of superhydrophobic surfaces by spontaneously jumping condensate drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisdom, Katrina; Watson, Jolanta; Watson, Gregory; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2012-11-01

    The self-cleaning function of superhydrophobic surfaces is conventionally attributed to the removal of contaminating particles by impacting or rolling water droplets, which implies the action of external forces such as gravity. Here, we demonstrate a new self-cleaning mechanism, whereby condensate drops spontaneously jump upon coalescence on a superhydrophobic surface, and the merged drop self-propels away from the surface along with the contaminants. The jumping-condensate mechanism is shown to autonomously clean superhydrophobic cicada wings, where the contaminating particles cannot be removed by external wind flow. Our findings offer new insights for the development of self-cleaning materials.

  6. Superhydrophobic Zr-based metallic glass surface with high adhesive force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Xia, Ting; Heng, Liping; Liu, Lin

    2013-06-01

    Micro/nano hierarchical structures were constructed on Zr35Ti30Be26.75Cu8.25 metallic glass surface by silicon moulding and subsequently chemical etching. The as-formed surface exhibited both superhydrophobicity and high adhesive force towards water. The superhydrophobicity is rationalized based on the modified Cassie-Baxter model [A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 546 (1944)]. The origin of the robust adhesion is described in terms of intermolecular capillary forces. The present results not only provide a method to fabricate superhydrophobic metallic glasses surface but also explore an important industrial application as dry adhesives and transport of liquid microdroplets.

  7. Jet impingement and thin film breakup on a superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Julie; Prince, Joseph; Maynes, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    A vertical laminar jet impinging on a horizontal surface spreads out in a thin film on the surface. If the surface is hydrophobic, and a downstream depth is not maintained the film will breakup into droplets. This occurs where the jet's outward radial momentum is balanced by the inward surface tension force of the advancing film. An analytical model has been created to estimate this location. All surfaces explored are hydrophobic or superhydrophobic (SH), where the SH surfaces exhibit an apparent slip at the surface. For SH surfaces with random micropatterning, the slip on the surface is uniform in all directions and droplet breakup occurs in a circular pattern. When alternating rib/cavity microstructures are used to create a SH surface the slip varies as a function azimuth resulting in an elliptically shaped breakup. The location of breakup for multiple surfaces over a range of jet Weber numbers and realistic slip length values is determined. Results show the breakup radius increases with increasing Weber number and slip length. The eccentricity of the breakup ellipse for the rib/cavity SH structures increases with increasing Weber number and slip length as well. The model results compare well to experimental measurements.

  8. Fabrication of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polymeric coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenyong; Luo, Yuting; Sun, Linyu; Wu, Ruomei; Jiang, Haiyun; Liu, Yuejun

    2013-01-01

    We reported the preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy via anodizing and polymeric coating. Both the different anodizing processes and different polymeric coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. The results showed that a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated by polypropylene (PP) coating after anodizing. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. When the concentration of oxalic acid was 10 g/L, the concentration of NaCl was 1.25 g/L, anodization time was 40 min, and anodization current was 0.4 A, the best superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy with the contact angle (CA) of 162° and the sliding angle of 2° was obtained. On the other hand, the different polymeric coatings, such as polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene grafting maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) were used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the superhydrophobicity was most excellent by coating PP, while the duration of the hydrophobic surface was poor. By modifying the surface with the silane coupling agent before PP coating, the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved. The morphologies of the superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Combined with the material of PP with the low surface free energy, the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  9. Microscopic structure of electrowetting-driven transitions on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Staicu, A; Mugele, F

    2008-01-01

    We investigate directly at the microscale the morphology of the electrowetting induced transition between the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel states for a water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface. Our experiments demonstrate that the transition originates in a very narrow annular region near the macroscopic contact line, which is first invaded by water and causes a thin film of air to be entrapped below. At high applied voltages, a growing fraction of microscopic air-pockets collapse, resulting in a partialWenzel state. Modulations in the intensity of the light reflected from individual micro-menisci clarify that the local contact angles near the filling transition are close to the usual advancing values for contact lines on smooth surfaces.

  10. Simple approach to superhydrophobic nanostructured Al for practical antifrosting application based on enhanced self-propelled jumping droplets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aeree; Lee, Chan; Kim, Hyungmo; Kim, Joonwon

    2015-04-01

    Frost formation can cause operational difficulty and efficiency loss for many facilities such as aircraft, wind turbines, and outdoor heat exchangers. Self-propelled jumping by condensate droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces delays frost formation, so many attempts have been made to exploit this phenomenon. However, practical application of this phenomenon is currently unfeasible because many processes to fabricate the superhydrophobic surfaces are inefficient and because self-propelled jumping is difficult to be achieved in a humid and low-temperature environment because superhydrophobicity is degraded in these conditions. Here, we achieved significantly effective anti-icing superhydrophobic aluminum. Its extremely low adhesive properties allow self-propelled jumping under highly supersaturated conditions of high humidity or low surface temperature. As a result, this surface helps retard frost formation at that condition. The aluminum was made superhydrophobic by a simple and cost-effective process that is adaptable to any shape. Therefore, it has promise for use in practical and industrial applications. PMID:25782028

  11. Flow past superhydrophobic surfaces with cosine variation in local slip length

    E-print Network

    Asmolov, Evgeny S; Harting, Jens; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2012-01-01

    Anisotropic super-hydrophobic surfaces have the potential to greatly reduce drag and enhance mixing phenomena in microfluidic devices. Recent work has focused mostly on cases of super-hydrophobic stripes. Here, we analyze a relevant situation of cosine variation of the local slip length. We derive approximate formulae for maximal (longitudinal) and minimal (transverse) directional effective slip lengths that are in good agreement with the exact numerical solution and lattice-Bolzmann simulations for any surface slip fraction. The cosine texture can provide a very large effective (forward) slip, but it was found to be less efficient in generating a transverse flow as compared to super-hydrophobic stripes.

  12. Sustainable Drag Reduction in Turbulent Taylor-Couette Flows by Depositing Sprayable Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, Siddarth

    We demonstrate a reduction in the measured inner wall shear stress in moderately turbulent Taylor-Couette flows by depositing sprayable superhydrophobic microstructures on the inner rotor surface. The magnitude of reduction ...

  13. Self-cleaning of superhydrophobic surfaces by self-propelled jumping condensate

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Katrina M.; Qu, Xiaopeng; Liu, Fangjie; Watson, Gregory S.; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The self-cleaning function of superhydrophobic surfaces is conventionally attributed to the removal of contaminating particles by impacting or rolling water droplets, which implies the action of external forces such as gravity. Here, we demonstrate a unique self-cleaning mechanism whereby the contaminated superhydrophobic surface is exposed to condensing water vapor, and the contaminants are autonomously removed by the self-propelled jumping motion of the resulting liquid condensate, which partially covers or fully encloses the contaminating particles. The jumping motion off the superhydrophobic surface is powered by the surface energy released upon coalescence of the condensed water phase around the contaminants. The jumping-condensate mechanism is shown to spontaneously clean superhydrophobic cicada wings, where the contaminating particles cannot be removed by gravity, wing vibration, or wind flow. Our findings offer insights for the development of self-cleaning materials. PMID:23630277

  14. Research on super-hydrophobic surface of biodegradable magnesium alloys used for vascular stents.

    PubMed

    Wan, Peng; Wu, Jingyao; Tan, LiLi; Zhang, Bingchun; Yang, Ke

    2013-07-01

    Micro-nanometer scale structure of nubby clusters overlay was constructed on the surface of an AZ31 magnesium alloy by a wet chemical method. The super-hydrophobicity was achieved with a water contact angle of 142° and a sliding angle of about 5°. The microstructure and composition of the super-hydrophobic surface were characterized by SEM and FTIR. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to evaluate the corrosion behavior, and the hemocompatibility of the super-hydrophobic surface was investigated by means of hemolytic and platelet adhesion tests. Results showed that the super-hydrophobic treatment could improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys in PBS and inhibit blood platelet adhesion on the surface, which implied excellent hemocompatibility with controlled degradation. PMID:23623110

  15. Self-cleaning of superhydrophobic surfaces by self-propelled jumping condensate.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Katrina M; Watson, Jolanta A; Qu, Xiaopeng; Liu, Fangjie; Watson, Gregory S; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2013-05-14

    The self-cleaning function of superhydrophobic surfaces is conventionally attributed to the removal of contaminating particles by impacting or rolling water droplets, which implies the action of external forces such as gravity. Here, we demonstrate a unique self-cleaning mechanism whereby the contaminated superhydrophobic surface is exposed to condensing water vapor, and the contaminants are autonomously removed by the self-propelled jumping motion of the resulting liquid condensate, which partially covers or fully encloses the contaminating particles. The jumping motion off the superhydrophobic surface is powered by the surface energy released upon coalescence of the condensed water phase around the contaminants. The jumping-condensate mechanism is shown to spontaneously clean superhydrophobic cicada wings, where the contaminating particles cannot be removed by gravity, wing vibration, or wind flow. Our findings offer insights for the development of self-cleaning materials. PMID:23630277

  16. Design and Fabrication of a Hybrid Superhydrophobic-Hydrophilic Surface That Exhibits Stable Dropwise Condensation.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Bikash; Mac Giolla Eain, Marc; Xu, QianFeng; Egan, Vanessa M; Punch, Jeff; Lyons, Alan M

    2015-10-28

    Condensation of water vapor is an essential process in power generation, water collection, and thermal management. Dropwise condensation, where condensed droplets are removed from the surface before coalescing into a film, has been shown to increase the heat transfer efficiency and water collection ability of many surfaces. Numerous efforts have been made to create surfaces which can promote dropwise condensation, including superhydrophobic surfaces on which water droplets are highly mobile. However, the challenge with using such surfaces in condensing environments is that hydrophobic coatings can degrade and/or water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces transition from the mobile Cassie to the wetted Wenzel state over time and condensation shifts to a less-effective filmwise mechanism. To meet the need for a heat-transfer surface that can maintain stable dropwise condensation, we designed and fabricated a hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface. An array of hydrophilic needles, thermally connected to a heat sink, was forced through a robust superhydrophobic polymer film. Condensation occurs preferentially on the needle surface due to differences in wettability and temperature. As the droplet grows, the liquid drop on the needle remains in the Cassie state and does not wet the underlying superhydrophobic surface. The water collection rate on this surface was studied using different surface tilt angles, needle array pitch values, and needle heights. Water condensation rates on the hybrid surface were shown to be 4 times greater than for a planar copper surface and twice as large for silanized silicon or superhydrophobic surfaces without hydrophilic features. A convection-conduction heat transfer model was developed; predicted water condensation rates were in good agreement with experimental observations. This type of hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface with a larger array of needles is low-cost, robust, and scalable and so could be used for heat transfer and water collection applications. PMID:26372672

  17. Mechanisms of drag reduction of superhydrophobic surfaces in a turbulent boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingxian; Tian, Haiping; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei; Jiang, Nan

    2015-09-01

    The drag-reducing property of a superhydrophobic surface is investigated along with its mechanism. A superhydrophobic surface with micro-nanotextures is fabricated and tested using SEM and contact angle measurement. Velocity distributions in the turbulent boundary layer with a superhydrophobic surface and a smooth surface are measured by particle image velocimetry at Re ? = 810, 990, and 1220. An upward lift effect on the velocity profile caused by the rugged air layer on the superhydrophobic surface is observed, which indicates drag reduction. Estimated by the wall shear stress, a drag reduction of 10.1, 20.7, and 24.1 % is observed for Re ? equal to 810, 990, and 1220, respectively. The drag reduction is caused mainly by slip on the interface and modifications in the turbulent structures, and the latter plays a more important role as Re ? increases. Suppressions are observed in turbulence intensities, and reductions in the total Reynolds shear stress T {turb/+} are 2.5, 18.5, and 23.1 % for Re ? = 810, 990, and 1220, respectively. Vortex fields above the superhydrophobic and smooth surfaces at Re ? = 990 are investigated. Vortexes are weakened and lifted upward by the superhydrophobic surface, and the position of the maximum swirling strength is lifted 0.17 ? ( ? is the boundary layer thickness) upward in the wall-normal direction. This modification in turbulence structures contributes significantly to the drag reduction in the turbulent boundary layer flow.

  18. Evaporating behaviors of water droplet on superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, PengFei; Lv, CunJing; He, Feng

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the dynamic evaporating behaviors of water droplet on superhydrophobic surfaces with micropillars. Our experimental data showed that receding contact angles of the water droplet increased with the decreasing of the scale of the micropillars during evaporation, even though the solid area fractions of the microstructured substrates remained constant. We also experimentally found that the critical contact diameters of the transition between the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel states are affected not only by the geometrical parameters of the microstructures, but also by the initial volume of the water droplet. The measured critical pressure is consistent with the theoretical model, which validated the pressure-induced impalement mechanism for the wetting state transition.

  19. Using Superhydrophobic Surfaces and Optical Caustics to Detect Nanoparticle Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Antonio; Lindsay, James; Gilmore, Eric

    2012-02-01

    A 3-D envelope of refracted light known as an optical caustic, can be formed by shaping an aqueous drop on a superhydrophobic surface which is used to generate a signal that is very sensitive to changes in particle size. When the sample being detected is suspended in the drop, slow evaporation induces movement that segregates smaller from larger particles, enhancing the speed of detection via induced aggregation. While the unique properties of optical caustics have been used in engineering science to evaluate stress distributions and contact between material components, they have not been widely used in diagnostics or biological analyses. This paper demonstrates how this method can track aggregation of gold nanoparticles for rapid detection of molecular disease markers using immunoassays.

  20. Supramolecular polymers as surface coatings: rapid fabrication of healable superhydrophobic and slippery surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang; Schlaich, Christoph; Prévost, Sylvain; Schulz, Andrea; Böttcher, Christoph; Gradzielski, Michael; Qi, Zhenhui; Haag, Rainer; Schalley, Christoph A

    2014-11-19

    Supramolecular polymerization for non-wetting surface coatings is described. The self-assembly of low-molecular-weight gelators (LMWGs) with perfluorinated side chains can be utilized to rapidly construct superhydrophobic, as well as liquid-infused slippery surfaces within minutes. The lubricated slippery surface exhibits impressive repellency to biological li-quids, such as human serum and blood, and very fast self-healing. PMID:25236438

  1. Design of a robust superhydrophobic surface: thermodynamic and kinetic analysis

    E-print Network

    Anjishnu Sarkar; Anne-Marie Kietzig

    2014-12-17

    The design of a robust superhydrophobic surface is a widely pursued topic.While many investigations are limited to applications with high impact velocities (for raindrops of the order of a few m/s), the essence of robustness is yet to be analyzed for applications involving quasi-static liquid transfer.To achieve robustness with high impact velocities, the surface parameters (geometrical details, chemistry) have to be selected from a narrow range of permissible values, which often entail additional manufacturing costs.From the dual perspectives of thermodynamics and mechanics, we analyze the significance of robustness for quasi-static drop impact, and present the range of permissible surface characteristics.For surfaces with a Youngs contact angle greater than 90{\\deg} and square micropillar geometry, we show that robustness can be enforced when an intermediate wetting state (sagged state) impedes transition to a wetted state (Wenzel state).From the standpoint of mechanics, we use available scientific data to prove that a surface with any topology must withstand a pressure of 117 Pa to be robust.Finally, permissible values of surface characteristics are determined, which ensure robustness with thermodynamics (formation of sagged state) and mechanics (withstanding 117 Pa).

  2. Inspired superhydrophobic surfaces by a double-metal-assisted chemical etching route

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu; School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 ; Guo, Zhiguang; Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 ; Xu, Jiansheng; Shi, Lei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yabin

    2012-07-15

    Graphical abstract: A double-metal-assisted chemical etching method is employed to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces, showing a good superhydrophobicity with the contact angle of about 170°, and the sliding angle of about 0°. Meanwhile, the potential formation mechanism about it is also presented. Highlights: ? A double-metal-assisted chemical etching method is employed to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces. ? The obtained surfaces show good superhydrophobicity with a high contact angle and low sliding angle. ? The color of the etched substrate dark brown or black and it is so-called black silicon. -- Abstract: Silicon substrates treated by metal-assisted chemical etching have been studied for many years since they could be employed in a variety of electronic and optical devices such as integrated circuits, photovoltaics, sensors and detectors. However, to the best of our knowledge, the chemical etching treatment on the same silicon substrate with the assistance of two or more kinds of metals has not been reported. In this paper, we mainly focus on the etching time and finally obtain a series of superhydrophobic silicon surfaces with novel etching structures through two successive etching processes of Cu-assisted and Ag-assisted chemical etching. It is shown that large-scale homogeneous but locally irregular wire-like structures are obtained, and the superhydrophobic surfaces with low hysteresis are prepared after the modifications with low surface energy materials. It is worth noting that the final silicon substrates not only possess high static contact angle and low hysteresis angle, but also show a black color, indicating that the superhydrophobic silicon substrate has an extremely low reflectance in a certain range of wavelengths. In our future work, we will go a step further to discuss the effect of temperature, the size of Cu nanoparticles and solution concentration on the final topography and superhydrophobicity.

  3. Nanocrystalline nickel films with lotus leaf texture for superhydrophobic and low friction surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiei, Mehdi; Alpas, Ahmet T.

    2009-11-01

    Nanostructured Ni films with high hardness, high hydrophobicity and low coefficient of friction (COF) were fabricated. The surface texture of lotus leaf was replicated using a cellulose acetate film, on which a nanocrystalline (NC) Ni coating with a grain size of 30 ± 4 nm was electrodeposited to obtain a self-sustaining film with a hardness of 4.42 GPa. The surface texture of the NC Ni obtained in this way featured a high density (4 × 10 3 mm -2) of conical protuberances with an average height of 10.0 ± 2.0 ?m and a tip radius of 2.5 ± 0.5 ?m. This structure increased the water repellency and reduced the COF, compared to smooth NC Ni surfaces. The application of a short-duration (120 s) electrodeposition process that deposited "Ni crowns" with a larger radius of 6.0 ± 0.5 ?m on the protuberances, followed by a perfluoropolyether (PFPE) solution treatment succeeded in producing a surface texture consisting of nanotextured protuberances that resulted in a very high water contact angle of 156°, comparable to that of the superhydrophobic lotus leaf. Additionally, the microscale protuberances eliminated the initial high COF peaks observed when smooth NC Ni films were tested, and the PFPE treatment resulted in a 60% reduction in the steady-state COFs.

  4. Superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by femtosecond laser with tunable water adhesion: from lotus leaf to rose petal.

    PubMed

    Long, Jiangyou; Fan, Peixun; Gong, Dingwei; Jiang, Dafa; Zhang, Hongjun; Li, Lin; Zhong, Minlin

    2015-05-13

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable water adhesion have attracted much interest in fundamental research and practical applications. In this paper, we used a simple method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable water adhesion. Periodic microstructures with different topographies were fabricated on copper surface via femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation. The topography of these microstructures can be controlled by simply changing the scanning speed of the laser beam. After surface chemical modification, these as-prepared surfaces showed superhydrophobicity combined with different adhesion to water. Surfaces with deep microstructures showed self-cleaning properties with extremely low water adhesion, and the water adhesion increased when the surface microstructures became flat. The changes in surface water adhesion are attributed to the transition from Cassie state to Wenzel state. We also demonstrated that these superhydrophobic surfaces with different adhesion can be used for transferring small water droplets without any loss. We demonstrate that our approach provides a novel but simple way to tune the surface adhesion of superhydrophobic metallic surfaces for good potential applications in related areas. PMID:25906058

  5. Facile creation of bio-inspired superhydrophobic Ce-based metallic glass surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Kesong; Li Zhou; Wang Weihua; Jiang Lei

    2011-12-26

    A bio-inspired synthesis strategy was conducted to fabricate superhydrophobic Ce-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) surfaces with self-cleaning properties. Micro-nanoscale hierarchical structures were first constructed on BMG surfaces and then modified with the low surface energy coating. Surface structures, surface chemical compositions, and wettability were characterized by combining scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. Research indicated that both surface multiscale structures and the low surface free energy coating result in the final formation of superhydrophobicity.

  6. A Comprehensive Model of Electric-Field-Enhanced Jumping-Droplet Condensation on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Birbarah, Patrick; Li, Zhaoer; Pauls, Alexander; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2015-07-21

    Superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured surfaces for dropwise condensation have recently received significant attention due to their potential to enhance heat transfer performance by shedding positively charged water droplets via coalescence-induced droplet jumping at length scales below the capillary length and allowing the use of external electric fields to enhance droplet removal and heat transfer, in what has been termed electric-field-enhanced (EFE) jumping-droplet condensation. However, achieving optimal EFE conditions for enhanced heat transfer requires capturing the details of transport processes that is currently lacking. While a comprehensive model has been developed for condensation on micro/nanostructured surfaces, it cannot be applied for EFE condensation due to the dynamic droplet-vapor-electric field interactions. In this work, we developed a comprehensive physical model for EFE condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces by incorporating individual droplet motion, electrode geometry, jumping frequency, field strength, and condensate vapor-flow dynamics. As a first step toward our model, we simulated jumping droplet motion with no external electric field and validated our theoretical droplet trajectories to experimentally obtained trajectories, showing excellent temporal and spatial agreement. We then incorporated the external electric field into our model and considered the effects of jumping droplet size, electrode size and geometry, condensation heat flux, and droplet jumping direction. Our model suggests that smaller jumping droplet sizes and condensation heat fluxes require less work input to be removed by the external fields. Furthermore, the results suggest that EFE electrodes can be optimized such that the work input is minimized depending on the condensation heat flux. To analyze overall efficiency, we defined an incremental coefficient of performance and showed that it is very high (?10(6)) for EFE condensation. We finally proposed mechanisms for condensate collection which would ensure continuous operation of the EFE system and which can scalably be applied to industrial condensers. This work provides a comprehensive physical model of the EFE condensation process and offers guidelines for the design of EFE systems to maximize heat transfer. PMID:26110977

  7. Plastron-Mediated Growth of Captive Bubbles on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Huynh, So Hung; Zahidi, Alifa Afiah Ahmad; Muradoglu, Murat; Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2015-06-23

    Captive bubbles on a superhydrophobic (SH) surface have been shown to increase in volume via injection of air through the surrounding plastron. The experimental contact diameter against volume trends were found to follow that predicted by the Surface Evolver simulation generally but corresponded with the simulated data at contact angle (CA) = 158° when the volume was 20 ?L but that at CA = 170° when the volume was increased to 180 ?L. In this regime, there was a simultaneous outward movement of the contact line as well as a small reduction in the slope that the liquid-air interface makes with the horizontal as air was injected. At volumes higher than 180 ?L, air injection caused the diameter to reduce progressively until detachment. The inward movement of the contact line in this regime allowed the bubble body to undergo shape deformations to stay attached onto the substrate with larger volumes (300 ?L) than predicted (220 ?L at CA = 170°) using simulation. In experiments to investigate the effect of translating the SH surface, movement of captive bubbles was possible with 280 ?L volume but not with 80 ?L volume. This pointed to the possibility of transporting gas-phase samples on SH surfaces using larger captive bubble volumes. PMID:25986160

  8. Liquid Droplet Impact Dynamics on Micro-Patterned Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Clavijo, Cristian; Crockett, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The video exhibits experimental qualitative and quantitative results of water/glycerol (50%/50% by mass) droplet impact on two types of micro-patterned superhydrophobic surfaces. The two types of surfaces used were 80% cavity fraction ribs and posts with a periodic spacing of 40 {\\mu}m and 32 {\\mu}m, respectively. All surfaces were manufactured through photolithography. The impact Weber number is used as the dynamic parameter to compare splash and rebound behaviors between the two types of surfaces. While droplets exhibit similar dynamics at low Weber numbers, rebound jet speed (normalized by droplet impact speed) is notably higher on posts than ribs for all Weber numbers tested here (5 265. On posts, satellite droplets also follow a specific path but in a different orientation. Satellite droplets form in locations aligned with the post lattice structure. This behavior is observed for 600 < We < 750. Jet rebound exhibits an interesting phenomenon on ribs under certain conditions. Due to the uneven shear...

  9. Liquid-body resonance while contacting a rotating superhydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Chong, Matthew Lai Ho; Cheng, Michael; Katariya, Mayur; Muradoglu, Murat; Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Zahidi, Alifa Afiah Ahmad; Yu, Yang; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2015-11-01

    We advance a scheme in which a liquid body on a stationary tip in contact with a rotating superhydrophobic surface is able to maintain resonance primarily from stick-slip events. With tip-to-surface spacing in the range [Formula: see text] mm for a volume of 10 ?L, the liquid body was found to exhibit resonance independent of the speed of the drum. The mechanics were found to be due to a surface-tension-controlled vibration mode based on the natural frequency values determined. With spacing in the range [Formula: see text] mm imposed for a volume of 10 ?L, the contact length of the liquid body was found to vary with rotation of the SH drum. This was due to the stick-slip events being able to generate higher energy fluctuations causing the liquid-solid contact areas to vary since the almost oblate spheroid shape of the liquid body had intrinsically higher surface energies. This resulted in the natural frequency perturbations being frequency- and amplitude-modulated over a lower frequency carrier. These findings have positive implications for microfluidic sensing. PMID:26577818

  10. Preparation of superhydrophobic nanodiamond and cubic boron nitride films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y. B.; Liu, W. M.; Wang, P. F.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Q.; He, B.; Pan, X. J.; Zhang, W. J.; Bello, I.; Lee, S. T.; Zou, Y. S.

    2010-09-27

    Superhydrophobic surfaces were achieved on the hardest and the second hardest materials, diamond and cubic boron nitride (cBN) films. Various surface nanostructures of nanocrystalline diamond (ND) and cBN films were constructed by carrying out bias-assisted reactive ion etching in hydrogen/argon plasmas; and it is shown that surface nanostructuring may enhance dramatically the hydrophobicity of ND and cBN films. Together with surface fluorination, superhydrophobic ND and cBN surfaces with a contact angle greater than 150 deg. and a sliding angle smaller than 10 deg. were demonstrated. The origin of hydrophobicity enhancement is discussed based on the Cassie model.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis on an anisotropically superhydrophobic surface with a hierarchical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Su, Zhengliang; Yan, Shaoze

    2015-12-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces, which refer to the surfaces with contact angle higher than 150° and hysteresis less than 10°, have been reported in various studies. However, studies on the superhydrophobicity of anisotropic, hierarchical surfaces are limited and the corresponding thermodynamic mechanisms could not be explained thoroughly. Here we propose a simplified surface model of anisotropic patterned surface with dual scale roughness. Based on the thermodynamic method, we calculate the equilibrium contact angle (ECA) and the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) on the given surface. We show here that the hierarchical structure has much better anisotropic wetting properties than the single-scale one, and the results shed light on the potential application in controllable micro-/nano-fluidic systems. Our studies can be potentially applied for the fabrication of anisotropically superhydrophobic surfaces.

  12. Hydrophobic to superhydrophobic surface modification using impacting particulate sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Chun Yat; Vuong, Thach; Wang, Jingming; Muradoglu, Murat; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2014-08-01

    The roughening or structuring of inherently hydrophobic surfaces to possess microscopic and nanoscopic features can transform them to exhibit superhydrophobicity. The use of impacting particulate sprays here eschews specialized reagents and equipments; is simple, inexpensive, and rapid to implement; creates highly repeatable outcomes; and permits selective region transformation via simple masking. With PTFE, the contact angle transforms from 90° to 150°, in which SEM examination reveals erosive wear mechanisms that are dependent on the impingement angle. The process tends to cause the sample to bulge upwards from the treated surface due to elongation there, and can be mitigated by using lower impingement angles in the particulate spray. A finite element model created enables this characteristic to be related to the action of locked-in surface traction forces. The use of adhesive bonding to a rigid base is shown to be an alternative method to reduce the bulging. A second finite model developed allows knowledge of the right adhesive needed for this. In developing substrates for biochemical analysis, the approach offers very small possibilities for unintended synergistic interactions.

  13. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of highly flexible, transparent superhydrophobic films with hierarchical surface design.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Ha, Sung-Hun; Jang, Nam-Su; Kim, Jeonghyo; Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Jong-Kweon; Lee, Deug-Woo; Lee, Jaebeom; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Kim, Jong-Man

    2015-03-11

    Optical transparency and mechanical flexibility are both of great importance for significantly expanding the applicability of superhydrophobic surfaces. Such features make it possible for functional surfaces to be applied to various glass-based products with different curvatures. In this work, we report on the simple and potentially cost-effective fabrication of highly flexible and transparent superhydrophobic films based on hierarchical surface design. The hierarchical surface morphology was easily fabricated by the simple transfer of a porous alumina membrane to the top surface of UV-imprinted polymeric micropillar arrays and subsequent chemical treatments. Through optimization of the hierarchical surface design, the resultant superhydrophobic films showed superior surface wetting properties (with a static contact angle of >170° and contact angle hysteresis of <3.5°) in the Cassie-Baxter wetting regime, considerable dynamic water repellency (with perfect bouncing of a water droplet dropped from an impact height of 30 mm), and good optical transparency (>82% at 550 nm wavelength). The superhydrophobic films were also experimentally found to be robust without significant degradation in the superhydrophobicity, even under repetitive bending and pressing for up to 2000 cycles. Finally, the practical usability of the proposed superhydorphobic films was clearly demonstrated by examining the antiwetting performance in real time while pouring water on the film and submerging the film in water. PMID:25688451

  14. Facile fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic surface with anti-frosting on stainless steel substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Bai, Yuan; Jin, Jingfu; Tian, Limei; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2015-11-01

    Inspired by typical plant surfaces with super-hydrophobic character such as lotus leaves and rose petals, a superhydrophobic surface was achieved successfully by a chemical immersion process. Here, 304 SS (stainless steel) was used as substrates and a micro-nano hierarchical structure was obtained by chemical etching with a mixed solution containing ferric chloride. The results showed that the water contact angle (WAC) decreased obviously due to surface morphology changing after chemical etching process. However, we obtained a superhydrophobic surface with a WAC of 158.3 ± 2.8° after modification by DTS (CH3(CH2)11Si(OCH3)3). Furthermore, the superhydrophobic surface showed an excellent anti-frosting character compared to pure staining steel. The surface morphology, chemical composition and wettability are characterized by means of SEM, XPS and water contact angle measurements. This method could provide a facile, low-cost and stable route to fabricate a large-area superhydrophobic surface with anti-frosting for application in various environments including in humid condition.

  15. Anti-icing potential of superhydrophobic Ti6Al4V surfaces: ice nucleation and growth.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yizhou; Tao, Jie; Tao, Haijun; Chen, Shanlong; Pan, Lei; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    On the basis of the icing-delay performance and ice adhesion strength, the anti-icing potential of the superhydrophobic surface has been well-investigated in the past few years. The present work mainly emphasized the investigations of ice nucleation and growth to fully explore the anti-icing potential of the superhydrophobic surface. We took the various surfaces ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic as the research objects and, combining the classical nucleation theory, discussed the ice nucleation behaviors of the water droplets on these sample surfaces under the condition of supercooling. Meanwhile, the macroscopical growth processes of ice on these surfaces were analyzed on the basis of the growth mechanism of the ice nucleus. It was found that the superhydrophobic surface could greatly reduce the solid-liquid interface nucleation rate, owing to the extremely low actual solid-liquid contact area caused by the composite micro-nanoscale hierarchical structures trapping air pockets, leading to the bulk nucleation dominating the entire ice nucleation at the lower temperatures. Furthermore, ice on the superhydrophobic surface possessed a lower macroscopical growth velocity as a result of the less ice nucleation rate and the insulating action of the trapped air pockets. PMID:26367109

  16. Effects of hierarchical features on longevity of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces with parallel grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemeda, A. A.; Gad-el-Hak, M.; Tafreshi, H. Vahedi

    2014-08-01

    While the air-water interface over superhydrophobic surfaces decorated with hierarchical micro- or nanosized geometrical features have shown improved stability under elevated pressures, their underwater longevity—-the time that it takes for the surface to transition to the Wenzel state—-has not been studied. The current work is devised to study the effects of such hierarchical features on the longevity of superhydrophobic surfaces. For the sake of simplicity, our study is limited to superhydrophobic surfaces composed of parallel grooves with side fins. The effects of fins on the critical pressure—-the pressure at which the surface starts transitioning to the Wenzel state—-and longevity are predicted using a mathematical approach based on the balance of forces across the air-water interface. Our results quantitatively demonstrate that the addition of hierarchical fins significantly improves the mechanical stability of the air-water interface, due to the high advancing contact angles that can be achieved when an interface comes in contact with the fins sharp corners. For longevity on the contrary, the hierarchical fins were only effective at hydrostatic pressures below the critical pressure of the original smooth-walled groove. Our results indicate that increasing the length of the fins decreases the critical pressure of a submerged superhydrophobic groove but increases its longevity. Increasing the thickness of the fins can improve both the critical pressure and longevity of a submerged groove. The mathematical framework presented in this paper can be used to custom-design superhydrophobic surfaces for different applications.

  17. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with improved corrosion inhibition on 6061 aluminum alloy substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuewu; Zhang, Qiaoxin; Guo, Zheng; Shi, Tian; Yu, Jingui; Tang, Mingkai; Huang, Xingjiu

    2015-07-01

    This work has developed a simple and low-cost method to render 6061 aluminum alloy surface superhydrophobicity and excellent corrosion inhibition. The superhydrophobic aluminum alloy surface has been fabricated by hydrochloric acid etching, potassium permanganate passivation and fluoroalkyl-silane modification. Meanwhile, the effect of the etching and passivation time on the wettability and corrosion inhibition of the fabricated surface has also been investigated. Results show that with the etching time of 6 min and passivation time of 180 min the fabricated micro/nano-scale terrace-like hierarchical structures accompanying with the nanoscale coral-like network bulge structures after being modified can result in superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (CA) of 155.7°. Moreover, an extremely weak adhesive force to droplets as well as an outstanding self-cleaning behavior of the superhydrophobic surface has also been proved. Finally, corrosion inhibition in seawater of the as-prepared aluminum alloy surface is characterized by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Evidently, the fabricated superhydrophobic surface attained an improved corrosion inhibition efficiency of 83.37% compared with the traditional two-step processing consisting of etching and modification, which will extend the further applications of aluminum alloy especially in marine engineering fields.

  18. Effect of ionizing radiation on the properties of superhydrophobic silicone surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Alan M.; Barahman, Mark; Mondal, Bikash; Taylor, Edward W.

    2010-09-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces may be useful for a variety of optical applications as these surfaces exhibit high contact angles with water (>150°) and low-drag. These properties prevent the accumulation of water droplets on the optical surface that would otherwise occur due to condensation or the adhesion of droplets from precipitation. Challenges to producing robust superhydrophobic surfaces for optical applications include the development of cost-effective processes that are compatible with non-planar optical substrates as well as the identification of material systems that exhibit longterm reliability. We have developed a 3D printing technology to create superhydrophobic surfaces by dispensing arrays of high aspect ratio polymeric features onto optical substrates. In this paper, superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by dispensing silicone elastomers into arrays of features on glass substrates. These samples were exposed to either Cobalt 60 gammarays or 63.8 MeV protons to simulate ionization-induced total dose environments that could be experienced in some space orbits. In addition exposure to other harsh environments, including salt water and 125°C temperatures were evaluated. The effects of these exposure conditions on superhydrophobic properties, as measured by slip angles, are reported. Near-term potential space applications will be discussed.

  19. Fabricating an enhanced stable superhydrophobic surface on copper plates by introducing a sintering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinyi; Yuan, Wei; Yan, Zhiguo; Zhou, Bo; Tang, Yong; Li, Zongtao

    2015-11-01

    The superhydrophobic surface has the potential for use in functional applications. This study reports a novel method for coupling a sintering process with a traditional technique based on the solution-immersion method to prepare a stable superhydrophobic surface. The use of a sintering process aids in the enhancement of the adhesive strength and acid resistance of the surface structure. The advantage of using this method lies in its flexibility in regulating the processing parameters and functional behaviours. The influences of different processing parameters were experimentally investigated. The surface treated with a sintering process remains superhydrophobic with a contact angle of >150° after immersion in an acid solution for 120 h. The sintered surface maintains good integrity after experiencing ultrasonic vibration for 5 min. The results indicate that the sintering temperature must be optimized to increase the adhesive strength and maintain sufficient hydrophobicity. The modification time is an important factor related to the level of hydrophobicity.

  20. Fabrication of super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminum alloy substrates by RF-sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Xiao Wei; Zhang, Hai Feng; Zhou, Zhi Ping

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we present a method of fabricating super-hydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy substrate. The etching of aluminum surfaces has been performed using Beck's dislocation etchant for different time to create micrometer-sized irregular steps. An optimised etching time of 50 s is found to be essential before polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coating, to obtain a highest water contact angle of 165±2° with a lowest contact angle hysteresis as low as 5±2°. The presence of patterned microstructure as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with the low surface energy ultrathin RF-sputtered PTFE films renders the aluminum alloy surfaces highly super-hydrophobic.

  1. Fabrication of super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminum alloy substrates by RF-sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Xiao Wei; Zhang, Hai Feng Zhou, Zhi Ping

    2014-03-15

    In this work, we present a method of fabricating super-hydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy substrate. The etching of aluminum surfaces has been performed using Beck's dislocation etchant for different time to create micrometer-sized irregular steps. An optimised etching time of 50 s is found to be essential before polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coating, to obtain a highest water contact angle of 165±2° with a lowest contact angle hysteresis as low as 5±2°. The presence of patterned microstructure as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with the low surface energy ultrathin RF-sputtered PTFE films renders the aluminum alloy surfaces highly super-hydrophobic.

  2. Robust superhydrophobic silicon without a low surface-energy hydrophobic coating.

    PubMed

    Hoshian, Sasha; Jokinen, Ville; Somerkivi, Villeseveri; Lokanathan, Arcot R; Franssila, Sami

    2015-01-14

    Superhydrophobic surfaces without low surface-energy (hydrophobic) modification such as silanization or (fluoro)polymer coatings are crucial for water-repellent applications that need to survive under harsh UV or IR exposures and mechanical abrasion. In this work, robust low-hysteresis superhydrophobic surfaces are demonstrated using a novel hierarchical silicon structure without a low surface-energy coating. The proposed geometry produces superhydrophobicity out of silicon that is naturally hydrophilic. The structure is composed of collapsed silicon nanowires on top and bottom of T-shaped micropillars. Collapsed silicon nanowires cause superhydrophobicity due to nanoscale air pockets trapped below them. T-shaped micropillars significantly decrease the water contact angle hysteresis because microscale air pockets are trapped between them and can not easily escape. Robustness is studied under mechanical polishing, high-energy photoexposure, high temperature, high-pressure water shower, and different acidic and solvent environments. Mechanical abrasion damages the nanowires on top of micropillars, but those at the bottom survive. Small increase of hysteresis is seen, but the surface is still superhydrophobic after abrasion. PMID:25522296

  3. Characterization of Si Nanostructured Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brueck, S.R.J.; Gee, James M.; Ruby, Douglas S.; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    1999-07-20

    Surface texturing of Si to enhance absorption particularly in the IR spectral region has been extensively investigated. Previous research chiefly examined approaches based on geometrical optics. These surface textures typically consist of pyramids with dimensions much larger than optical wavelengths. We have investigated a physical optics approach that relies on surface texture features comparable to, or smaller than, the optical wavelengths inside the semiconductor material. Light interaction at this are strongly dependent on incident polarization and surface profile. Nanoscale textures can be tuned for either narrow band, or broad band absorptive behavior. Lowest broadband reflection has been observed for triangular profiles with linewidths significantly less than 100 nm. Si nanostructures have been integrated into large ({approximately}42 cm{sup 2}) area solar cells, Internal quantum efficiency measurements in comparison with polished and conventionally textured cells show lower efficiency in the UV-visible (350-680 mu), but significantly higher IR (700-1200 nm) efficiency.

  4. Nonfunctionalized Polydimethyl Siloxane Superhydrophobic Surfaces Based on Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Polizos, Georgios; Tuncer, Enis; Qiu, Xiaofeng; Aytug, Tolga; Kidder, Michelle; Messman, Jamie M; Sauers, Isidor

    2011-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces based on polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) were fabricated using a 50:50 PDM-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blend. PDMS was mixed with PEG, and incomplete phase separation yielded a hierarchic structure. The phase-separated mixture was annealed at a temperature close to the crystallization temperature of the PEG. The PEG crystals were formed isothermally at the PDMS/PEG interface, leading to an engineered surface with PDMS spherulites. The resulting roughness of the surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The PDMS spherulites, a few micrometers in diameter observed from SEM images, were found to have an undulated (rippled) surface with nanometer-sized features. The combination of micrometer- and nanometer-sized surface features created a fractal surface and increased the water contact angle (WCA) of PDMS more than 60, resulting in a superhydrophobic PDMS surface with WCA of >160 degrees. The active surface layer for the superhydrophobicity was approximately 100 mu m thick, illustrating that the material had bulk superhydrophobicity compared to conventional fluorocarbon or fluorinated coated rough surfaces. Theoretical analysis of the fractal surface indicates that the constructed surface has a fractal dimension of 2.5, which corresponds to the Apollonian sphere packing.

  5. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces by combining mussel-inspired adhesion with lotus-inspired coating.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Ji, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Jia, Shun-Tian

    2015-08-21

    Superhydrophobic surfaces on PET textiles were fabricated by combined bioinspiration from the strong adhesion of marine mussels and the two-scale structure of lotus leaves under mild conditions. Dopamine can spontaneously polymerize in alkaline aqueous solution to form a thin adhesive layer of polydopamine (PDA) wrapping on the micro-scale fibers. The as-formed thin PDA layer worked as a reactive template to generate PDA nanoparticles decorated on the fiber surfaces, imparting the textiles with excellent UV-shielding properties as well as a hierarchical structure similar to the morphology of the lotus leaf. After further modification with perfluorodecyl trichlorosilane, the textiles turned superhydrophobic with a water contact angle higher than 150°. Due to the strong adhesion of PDA to a wide range of materials, the present strategy may be extendable to fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on a variety of other substrates. PMID:26222622

  6. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces by combining mussel-inspired adhesion with lotus-inspired coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Ji, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Jia, Shun-Tian

    2015-08-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces on PET textiles were fabricated by combined bioinspiration from the strong adhesion of marine mussels and the two-scale structure of lotus leaves under mild conditions. Dopamine can spontaneously polymerize in alkaline aqueous solution to form a thin adhesive layer of polydopamine (PDA) wrapping on the micro-scale fibers. The as-formed thin PDA layer worked as a reactive template to generate PDA nanoparticles decorated on the fiber surfaces, imparting the textiles with excellent UV-shielding properties as well as a hierarchical structure similar to the morphology of the lotus leaf. After further modification with perfluorodecyl trichlorosilane, the textiles turned superhydrophobic with a water contact angle higher than 150°. Due to the strong adhesion of PDA to a wide range of materials, the present strategy may be extendable to fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on a variety of other substrates.

  7. General Formulations for Predicting Longevity of Submerged Superhydrophobic Surfaces Composed of Pores or Posts

    E-print Network

    Tafreshi, Hooman Vahedi

    General Formulations for Predicting Longevity of Submerged Superhydrophobic Surfaces Composed have a short underwater life, and their longevity depends strongly on the hydrostatic pressure at which stability and the longevity of submerged SHP surfaces with arbitrary pore or post geometries. We start

  8. A Novel General Chemistry Laboratory: Creation of Biomimetic Superhydrophobic Surfaces through Replica Molding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbanic, Samuel; Brady, Owen; Sanda, Ahmed; Gustafson, Carolina; Donhauser, Zachary J.

    2014-01-01

    Biomimetic replicas of superhydrophobic lotus and taro leaf surfaces can be made using polydimethylsiloxane. These replicas faithfully reproduce the microstructures of the leaves' surface and can be analyzed using contact angle goniometry, self-cleaning experiments, and optical microscopy. These simple and adaptable experiments were used to…

  9. Femtosecond laser induced hierarchical ZnO superhydrophobic surfaces with switchable wettability.

    PubMed

    Yong, Jiale; Chen, Feng; Yang, Qing; Fang, Yao; Huo, Jinglan; Hou, Xun

    2015-06-18

    A simple and one-step method to form a rough ZnO layer consisting of micro/nanoscale hierarchical structures via direct femtosecond laser ablation of the Zn surface is reported for the first time. The resultant surfaces show switchable wettability between superhydrophobicity and quasi-superhydrophilicity via alternate UV irradiation and dark storage. PMID:25987485

  10. Toward a durable superhydrophobic aluminum surface by etching and ZnO nanoparticle deposition.

    PubMed

    Rezayi, Toktam; Entezari, Mohammad H

    2016-02-01

    Fabrication of suitable roughness is a fundamental step for acquiring superhydrophobic surfaces. For this purpose, a deposition of ZnO nanoparticles on Al surface was carried out by simple immersion and ultrasound approaches. Then, surface energy reduction was performed using stearic acid (STA) ethanol solution for both methods. The results demonstrated that ultrasound would lead to more stable superhydrophobic Al surfaces (STA-ZnO-Al-U) in comparison with simple immersion method (STA-ZnO-Al-I). Besides, etching in HCl solution in another sample was carried out before ZnO deposition for acquiring more mechanically stable superhydrophobic surface. The potentiodynamic measurements demonstrate that etching in HCl solution under ultrasound leads to superhydrophobic surface (STA-ZnO-Al(E)-U). This sample shows remarkable decrease in corrosion current density (icorr) and long-term stability improvement versus immersion in NaCl solution (3.5%) in comparison with the sample prepared without etching (STA-ZnO-Al-U). Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed a more condense and further particle deposition on Al substrate when ultrasound was applied in the system. The crystallite evaluation of deposited ZnO nanoparticles was carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Finally, for STA grafting verification on Al surface, Fourier transform infrared in conjunction with attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) was used as a proper technique. PMID:26513735

  11. Control of Superhydrophilic and Superhydrophobic Graphene Interface

    E-print Network

    Gao, Hongjun

    Control of Superhydrophilic and Superhydrophobic Graphene Interface Jing Dong1 , Zhaohui Yao1 Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, PR China. Superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic properties structures. A superhydrophilic graphene surface (contact angle 06) and a superhydrophobic graphene surface

  12. Fabrication and anti-icing property of coral-like superhydrophobic aluminum surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhiping; Liao, Ruijin; Guo, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Zhao, Xuetong; Zhuang, Aoyun; Zhang, YiYi

    2015-03-01

    Aluminum is one of the most widely used metals in transmission lines. Accumulation of ice on aluminum may cause serious consequences such as tower collapse and power failure. Here we develop a method to fabricate a coral-like superhydrophobic surface to improve its anti-icing performance via chemical etching and hot-water treatment. The as-prepared surface exhibited superhydrophobicity with a contact angle (CA) of 164.8 ± 1.1° and the sliding angle smaller than 1°. The static and dynamic anti-icing behaviors of the superhydrophobic surface in different conditions were systematically investigated using a self-made device and artificial climate laboratory. Results show that the coral-like superhydrophobic structure displayed excellent anti-icing property. The water droplet remained unfrozen on the as-prepared surface at -6 °C for over 110 min. 71% of the surface was free of ice when exposed in "glaze ice" for 30 min. This investigation proposed a new way to design an anti-icing surface which may have potential future applications in transmission lines against ice accumulation.

  13. Sustainable Drag Reduction in Turbulent Taylor-Couette Flows by Depositing Sprayable Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Sustainable Drag Reduction in Turbulent Taylor-Couette Flows by Depositing Sprayable length b+ = b/ , where is the viscous length scale, is the key parameter that governs the drag reduction.08.Bc It is well known that superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces can reduce drag in laminar flows

  14. Superhydrophobic Surfaces as a Tool for the Fabrication of Hierarchical Spherical Polymeric Carriers.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana M S; Alatorre-Meda, Manuel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Mano, João F

    2015-08-12

    Hierarchical polymeric carriers with high encapsulation efficiencies are fabricated via a biocompatible strategy developed using superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces. The carries are obtained by the incorporation of cell/BSA-loaded dextran-methacrylate (DEXT-MA) microparticles into alginate (ALG) macroscopic beads. Engineered devices like these are expected to boost the development of innovative and customizable systems for biomedical and biotechnological purposes. PMID:25764987

  15. The freezing process of continuously sprayed water droplets on the superhydrophobic silicone acrylate resin coating surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianlin; Xu, Ke; Wu, Yao; Lan, Binhuan; Jiang, Xingliang; Shu, Lichun

    2014-10-01

    This study conducted experiments on freezing process of water droplets on glass slides covered with superhydrophobic coatings under the continuous water spray condition in the artificial climatic chamber which could simulate low temperature and high humidity environments. The freezing mechanism and freezing time of water droplets under the condition of continuous spray were observed by the microscope and were compared with those of the single static droplet. Then, differences of freezing process between continuously sprayed droplets and single static droplet were analyzed. Furthermore, the effects of static contact angle (CA), contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and roughness of the superhydrophobic coating surface on the freezing time of continuously sprayed droplets were explored. Results show that the freezing process of the continuously sprayed droplets on the superhydrophobic coating started with the homogeneous nucleation at gas-liquid interfaces. In addition, the temperature difference between the location near the solid-liquid interface and the location near the gas-liquid interface was the key factor that influenced the ice crystallization mechanism of water droplets. Moreover, with the larger CA, the smaller CAH and the greater roughness of the surface, droplets were more likely to roll down the surface and the freezing duration on the surface was delayed. Based on the findings, continuous water spray is suggested in the anti-icing superhydrophobic coatings research.

  16. Fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface on copper foil based on ammonium bicarbonate and paraffin wax coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ou; Wang, Xian; Yuan, Zhiqing; Wang, Menglei; Huang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    A simple and low cost approach was developed to fabricate a superhydrophobic surface on copper foil. The oxidation and etching of the copper foil surface were promoted in NH4HCO3 solution using a water and ethanol admixture as a component solvent. After 28 h in this solution, a hydrophilic rough surface structure was obtained on the copper foil surface. With modification using a paraffin wax coating, the hydrophilic rough copper surface changed to become hydrophobic or superhydrophobic. The surface morphology and wettability were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements, respectively. When the optimum concentration of paraffin wax was about 2 g L-1, its water contact angle could reach about 152 ± 1.5° and its sliding angle was around 7°. The formation mechanism of the rough copper surface was also explored in detail. Both the experimental process and the material are environmentally friendly.

  17. Low Drag Porous Ship with Superhydrophobic and Superoleophilic Surface for Oil Spills Cleanup.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Zeng, Zhixiang; Wang, He; Zhang, Lin; Sun, Xiaodong; He, Yi; Li, Longyang; Wu, Xuedong; Ren, Tianhui; Xue, Qunji

    2015-12-01

    To efficiently remove and recycle oil spills, we construct aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on the surface of the porous stainless steel wire mesh to fabricate a porous unmanned ship (PUS) with properties of superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity, and low drag by imitating the structure of nonwetting leg of water strider. The superhydrophobicity of the PUS is stable, which can support 16.5 cm water column with pore size of 100 ?m. Water droplet can rebound without adhesion. In the process of oil/water separation, when the PUS contacts with oil, the oil is quickly pulled toward and penetrates into the PUS automatically. The superhydrophobicity and low water adhesion force of the PUS surface endow the PUS with high oil recovery capacity (above 94%) and drag-reducing property (31% at flowing velocity of 0.38m/s). In addition, the PUS has good corrosion resistance and reusability. We further investigate the wetting behavior of water and oil, oil recovery capacity, drag-reducing property, and corrosion resistance of the PUS after oil absorbed. The PUS surface changes significantly from superhydrophobic to hydrophobic after absorbing oil. However, the oil absorbed PUS possesses better drag-reducing property and corrosion resistance due to the changes of the motion state of the water droplets. PMID:26562211

  18. Nonaligned carbon nanotubes partially embedded in polymer matrixes: a novel route to superhydrophobic conductive surfaces.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mao; Liao, Zhangjie; Qi, Ji; Zhou, Zhi

    2010-08-17

    A new method for transforming common polymers into superhydrophobic conductive surfaces, with both a high static water contact angle (approximately 160 degrees) and a low sliding angle (2.0 degrees-4.5 degrees), and a low sheet resistance on the order of 10(1)-10(3) ohms/sq is presented. A layer of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) is first distributed on the surface of a polymer substrate, then by a single step of pressing, the MWNTs are partially embedded inside the substrate surface and form a superhydrophobic coating with a "carpet-" or "hair"-like morphology. The infiltration of polymer melts into the porous MWNT layer follows Darcy's law, and the pressing time greatly influence the morphology and superhydrophobicity. Moreover, the coating can be electrically heated by 20-70 degrees C with a voltage as low as 4-8 V at an electric energy density below 1.6 J/cm(2) and therefore can be used for deicing applications. Hydroxylation and fluoroalkylsilane treatment can greatly improve the stability of the superhydrophobicity of MWNTs. This method is convenient and applicable to a variety of thermoplastic polymers and nonpolymer substrates coated by silicone rubber. PMID:20695606

  19. Direct growth of cerium oxide nanorods on diverse substrates for superhydrophobicity and corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young Jun; Jang, Hanmin; Lee, Kwan-Soo; Kim, Dong Rip

    2015-06-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with anti-corrosion properties have attracted great interest in many industrial fields, particularly to enhance the thermal performance of offshore applications such as heat exchangers, pipelines, power plants, and platform structures. Nanostructures with hydrophobic materials have been widely utilized to realize superhydrophobicity of surfaces, and cerium oxide has been highlighted due to its good corrosion resistive and intrinsically hydrophobic properties. However, few studies of direct growth of cerium oxide nanostructures on diverse substrates have been reported. Herein we report a facile hydrothermal method to directly grow cerium oxide nanorods on diverse substrates, such as aluminum alloy, stainless steel, titanium, and silicon. Diverse substrates with cerium oxide nanorods exhibited superhydrophobicity with no hydrophobic modifiers on their surfaces, and showed good corrosion resistive properties in corrosive medium. We believe our method could pave the way for realization of scalable and sustainable corrosion resistive superhydrophobic surfaces in many industrial fields.

  20. Synthesis of superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers via combination of surface roughness and fluorination

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Kyeong; Yeong Kim, Ji; Sub Kim, Sang

    2013-01-15

    We describe the preparation of superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers through a combination of surface roughness and fluorination. Electrospraying SiO{sub 2} precursor solutions that were prepared by a sol-gel route and included trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane as a fluorination source produced highly rough, fluorinated SiO{sub 2} layers. In sharp contrast to the fluorinated flat SiO{sub 2} layer, the fluorinated rough SiO{sub 2} layer showed much enhanced repellency toward liquid droplets of different surface tensions. The surface fraction and the work of adhesion of the superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers were determined, respectively, based on Cassie-Baxter and Young-Dupre equations. The satisfactory long-term stability for 30 days, the ultraviolet resistance and the thermal stability up to 400 {sup o}C of the superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers prepared in this work confirm a promising practical application. - Graphical abstract: A schematic illustration of the electrospray deposition used for preparing SiO{sub 2} layers. Shapes of liquid droplets of water, glycerol, coffee, juice and milk created on the fluorinated rough SiO{sub 2} layer deposited on a silicon wafer. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers are realized by a combination of surface roughness and fluorination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorinated rough SiO{sub 2} layer shows enhanced repellency toward various liquid droplets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wetting behavior is explained based on Cassie-Baxter and Young-Dupre equations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers confirm a promising practical application.

  1. Microscopic Receding Contact Line Dynamics on Pillar and Irregular Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yeong, Yong Han; Milionis, Athanasios; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S.

    2015-01-01

    Receding angles have been shown to have great significance when designing a superhydrophobic surface for applications involving self-cleaning. Although apparent receding angles under dynamic conditions have been well studied, the microscopic receding contact line dynamics are not well understood. Therefore, experiments were performed to measure these dynamics on textured square pillar and irregular superhydrophobic surfaces at micron length scales and at micro-second temporal scales. Results revealed a consistent “slide-snap” motion of the microscopic receding line as compared to the “stick-slip” dynamics reported in previous studies. Interface angles between 40–60° were measured for the pre-snap receding lines on all pillar surfaces. Similar “slide-snap” dynamics were also observed on an irregular nanocomposite surface. However, the sharper features of the surface asperities resulted in a higher pre-snap receding line interface angle (~90°). PMID:25670630

  2. Surface studies on superhydrophobic and oleophobic polydimethylsiloxane-silica nanocomposite coating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Bharathibai J.; Dinesh Kumar, V.; Anandan, C.

    2012-11-01

    Superhydrophobic and oleophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-silica nanocomposite double layer coating was fabricated by applying a thin layer of low surface energy fluoroalkyl silane (FAS) as topcoat. The coatings exhibited WCA of 158-160° and stable oleophobic property with oil CA of 79°. The surface morphology was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and surface chemical composition was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometery (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FESEM images of the coatings showed micro-nano binary structure. The improved oleophobicity was attributed to the combined effect of low surface energy of FAS and roughness created by the random distribution of silica aggregates. This is a facile, cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces on larger area of various substrates.

  3. Microscopic Receding Contact Line Dynamics on Pillar and Irregular Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeong, Yong Han; Milionis, Athanasios; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S.

    2015-02-01

    Receding angles have been shown to have great significance when designing a superhydrophobic surface for applications involving self-cleaning. Although apparent receding angles under dynamic conditions have been well studied, the microscopic receding contact line dynamics are not well understood. Therefore, experiments were performed to measure these dynamics on textured square pillar and irregular superhydrophobic surfaces at micron length scales and at micro-second temporal scales. Results revealed a consistent ``slide-snap'' motion of the microscopic receding line as compared to the ``stick-slip'' dynamics reported in previous studies. Interface angles between 40-60° were measured for the pre-snap receding lines on all pillar surfaces. Similar ``slide-snap'' dynamics were also observed on an irregular nanocomposite surface. However, the sharper features of the surface asperities resulted in a higher pre-snap receding line interface angle (~90°).

  4. A new method for preparing bionic multi scale superhydrophobic functional surface on X70 pipeline steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Sirong; Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Wei; Yao, Qiang; Xu, Jun; Xiong, Wei

    2013-04-01

    The hydrophobic property of a rough surface with a low free energy coating was theoretically analyzed in this paper. In order to obtain a superhydrophobic surface, a rough surface morphology must be formed in addition to the low free energy coating on the surface. Through the shot blasting, chemical etching with concentrated hydrochloric acid, and low free energy modification with myristic acid ethanol solution, the superhydrophobic surface was obtained on X70 pipeline steel. The better process parameters for preparing superhydrophobic surface on X70 pipeline steel were obtained. The diameter of the stainless steel shot used in the shot blasting was 0.8-1.0 mm. The concentration of hydrochloric acid was 6 mol/L. The chemical etching time was 320 min. The concentration of myristic acid ethanol solution was 0.1 mol/L. The soaking time in myristic acid ethanol solution was 72 h. After X70 pipeline steel surface was treated using the process parameters mentioned above, the biggest contact angle between the specimen surface and distilled water was 153.5°, and the sliding angle was less than 5°.

  5. Transferrable superhydrophobic TiO2 nanorods on reduced graphene oxide films using block copolymer templates.

    PubMed

    Seo, Myung-Seok; Kim, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kang, Heejung; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok

    2015-04-24

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are normally fixed on the chosen materials. Here, we report transferrable superhydrophobicity which was enabled by fabricating TiO2 nanorods on a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film. Superhydrophobic TiO2 nanorods were first synthesized from a nanoporous template of block copolymers (BCPs). The controllability over the dimension and shape of nanopores of the BCP template allowed for the adjustment of TiO2 nanostructures for superhydrophobicity. Since the rGO film provided effective transferring, TiO2 nanorods were conveyed onto a flexible polymer film and a metal substrate. Thus, the surface of the designated substrate was successfully changed to a superhydrophobic surface without alteration of its inherent characteristics. PMID:25824622

  6. Transferrable superhydrophobic TiO2 nanorods on reduced graphene oxide films using block copolymer templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Myung-Seok; Kim, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kang, Heejung; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok

    2015-04-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are normally fixed on the chosen materials. Here, we report transferrable superhydrophobicity which was enabled by fabricating TiO2 nanorods on a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film. Superhydrophobic TiO2 nanorods were first synthesized from a nanoporous template of block copolymers (BCPs). The controllability over the dimension and shape of nanopores of the BCP template allowed for the adjustment of TiO2 nanostructures for superhydrophobicity. Since the rGO film provided effective transferring, TiO2 nanorods were conveyed onto a flexible polymer film and a metal substrate. Thus, the surface of the designated substrate was successfully changed to a superhydrophobic surface without alteration of its inherent characteristics.

  7. Bouncing of a droplet on a superhydrophobic surface in AC electrowetting

    E-print Network

    Lee, Seung Jun; Kang, Kwan Hyoung

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a droplet-jumping phenomenon on a superhydrophobic surface driven by the resonant AC electrowetting. The resonant electrical actuation enables a droplet to accumulate sufficient surface energy for jumping, and superhydrophobic surface minimizes adhesion and hysteresis effects. They provide the effective energy conversion from the surface energy to the kinetic energy and improve the stability and the reproducibility of the droplet jumping. The controlled droplet jumping made by the resonant AC electrowetting could place another milestone in digital microfluidics by establishing a potential way to realize the three-dimensional droplet manipulation based on the conventional single plate EWOD configurations. This abstract is related to a fluid dynamics video for the gallery of fluid motion 2009.

  8. Two types of Cassie-to-Wenzel wetting transitions on superhydrophobic surfaces during drop impact.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choongyeop; Nam, Youngsuk; Lastakowski, Henri; Hur, Janet I; Shin, Seungwon; Biance, Anne-Laure; Pirat, Christophe; Kim, Chang-Jin C J; Ybert, Christophe

    2015-06-21

    Despite the fact that superhydrophobic surfaces possess useful and unique properties, their practical application has remained limited by durability issues. Among those, the wetting transition, whereby a surface gets impregnated by the liquid and permanently loses its superhydrophobicity, certainly constitutes the most limiting aspect under many realistic conditions. In this study, we revisit this so-called Cassie-to-Wenzel transition (CWT) under the broadly encountered situation of liquid drop impact. Using model hydrophobic micropillar surfaces of various geometrical characteristics and high speed imaging, we identify that CWT can occur through different mechanisms, and at different impact stages. At early impact stages, right after contact, CWT occurs through the well established dynamic pressure scenario of which we provide here a fully quantitative description. Comparing the critical wetting pressure of surfaces and the theoretical pressure distribution inside the liquid drop, we provide not only the CWT threshold but also the hardly reported wetted area which directly affects the surface spoiling. At a later stage, we report for the first time to our knowledge, a new CWT which occurs during the drop recoil toward bouncing. With the help of numerical simulations, we discuss the mechanism underlying this new transition and provide a simple model based on impulse conservation which successfully captures the transition threshold. By shedding light on the complex interaction between impacting water drops and surface structures, the present study will facilitate designing superhydrophobic surfaces with a desirable wetting state during drop impact. PMID:25959867

  9. Experimental drag reduction study of super-hydrophobic surface with dual-scale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Sungnam; Nguyen, Dang C.; Kim, Dongseob; Hwang, Woonbong; Yoon, Bumsang

    2013-12-01

    Hydrophobic surfaces with micro- or nanoscale pillars have been attracting considerable interest from scientists. In nature, such surfaces can be found on lotus leaves or under the feet of pond skaters. One significant property of these surfaces is friction drag reduction (FDR). Many studies have been conducted to demonstrate this reduction in terms of laminar and turbulent flows. The slip-length hypothesis is often used to explain this phenomenon. In this study, processes with the advantages of simplicity and cost effectiveness were used to fabricate dual-scale structures. Durable super-hydrophilic and super-hydrophobic surfaces were easily obtained from these structures. FDR was measured on a super-hydrophobic surface and was compared to that on smooth and super-hydrophilic surfaces. The experimental results in a circulating water channel revealed the Reynolds number range within which substantial FDR can occur on a super-hydrophobic surface. The mechanism of FDR and the role of slip are discussed by comparing experimental results.

  10. Superhydrophobic Transparent Surface of Nanostructured Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)

    E-print Network

    Kim, Ho-Young

    by a Hydrolysis Reaction E. K. Her,y T.-J. Ko,y B. Shin, H. Roh, W. Dai, W. K. Seong, H.-Y. Kim, K.-R. Lee, K. H lenses, bone cement, and dental impression materials due to its high clarity.[1] Several novel methods

  11. Fabrication and characterization of superhydrophobic surface by using water vapor impingement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kok Deng; Leo, C. P.; Chai, Siang Piao

    2012-07-01

    In this research, superhydrophobic coating with average static contact angle of 166° has been successfully prepared by using a new surface roughening method. Discussion on the applicability of Cassie and Wenzel equations used to determine surface parameters from experimental data is being included as well. This new surface roughening method uses accelerated water vapor to impinge wet film forming crater-like structure surface; analogous to meteor striking earth forming crater. Wet film is comprised of aluminium tri-sec butoxide, propan-2-ol, and ethyl acetoacetate according to molar ratio of 1:10:1. Craters with diameter distribution of 1-20 ?m were formed on the roughened surface. It was then subjected to 10 min of immersion in boiling water, 20 min of immersion in fluoroalkylsilane solution, and 10 min of 100 °C hot air treatment producing superhydrophobic coating. This superhydrophobic crater-like structure surface has approximately 8% solid-to-liquid area fraction and high roughness value of 6.4. These values were obtained from both Cassie and Wenzel equations but with some minor modification in order to fit them into experimental data. Average sliding angle of 2.6° and hysteresis value of 10° were recorded.

  12. Unified model for contact angle hysteresis on heterogeneous and superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Raj, Rishi; Enright, Ryan; Zhu, Yangying; Adera, Solomon; Wang, Evelyn N

    2012-11-13

    Understanding the complexities associated with contact line dynamics on chemically heterogeneous and superhydrophobic surfaces is important for a wide variety of engineering problems. Despite significant efforts to capture the behavior of a droplet on these surfaces over the past few decades, modeling of the complex dynamics at the three-phase contact line is needed. In this work, we demonstrate that contact line distortion on heterogeneous and superhydrophobic surfaces is the key aspect that needs to be accounted for in the dynamic droplet models. Contact line distortions were visualized and modeled using a thermodynamic approach to develop a unified model for contact angle hysteresis on chemically heterogeneous and superhydrophobic surfaces. On a surface comprised of discrete wetting defects on an interconnected less wetting area, the advancing contact angle was determined to be independent of the defects, while the relative fraction of the distorted contact line with respect to the baseline surface was shown to govern the receding contact angle. This behavior reversed when the relative wettability of the discrete defects and interconnected area was inverted. The developed model showed good agreement with the experimental advancing and receding contact angles, both at low and high solid fractions. The thermodynamic model was further extended to demonstrate its capability to capture droplet shape evolution during liquid addition and removal in our experiments and those in literature. This study offers new insight extending the fundamental understanding of solid-liquid interactions required for design of advanced functional coatings for microfluidics, biological, manufacturing, and heat transfer applications. PMID:23057739

  13. Fabrication of self-healing super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminium alloy substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Wei Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Hai Feng; Zhou, Zhi Ping

    2015-04-01

    We present a method to fabricate a super-hydrophobic surface with a self-healing ability on an aluminium alloy substrate. The coatings are obtained by combining a two-step process (first, the substrate is immersed in a solution of HCl, HF and H2O, and then in boiling water) and succeeding surface fluorination with a solution of poly(vinylidene-fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and a fluoroalkyl silane. The morphological features and chemical composition were studied by scanning electron micrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The prepared super-hydrophobic aluminium surfaces showed hierarchical structures forming pores, petals and particles with a contact angle of 161° and a sliding angle of 3°.

  14. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on wood substrates via a one-step hydrothermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Qing, Yan; Wu, Yiqiang; Liang, Jin; Luo, Sha

    2015-03-01

    Superhydrophobic nanocomposite surfaces were successfully fabricated on wood substrates via a one-step hydrothermal process. The morphology of the nanocomposite surfaces was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the elemental composition was determined via energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the crystallization of the anatase phase of TiO2 was prevented because of the presence of vinyltriethoxysilane [VTES, CH2CHSi(OC2H5)3] during the hydrothermal process. In addition, the nanocomposite contained Ti/Si particles with diameters ranging from 50 to 100 nm that thoroughly covered the wood substrate. Furthermore, the roughness coupled with the presence of low surface free energy groups led to superhydrophobicity; the static water contact angle (WCA) was as high as 153°, and the sliding angle was very low.

  15. Preparation of self-cleaning surfaces with a dual functionality of superhydrophobicity and photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eun Ji; Yoon, Hye Soo; Kim, Dae Han; Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Young Dok

    2014-11-01

    Thin film of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was deposited on SiO2 nanoparticles by chemical vapor deposition, and SiO2 became completely hydrophobic after PDMS coating. Mixtures of TiO2 and PDMS-coated SiO2 nanoparticles with various relative ratios were prepared, and distributed on glass surfaces, and water contact angles and photocatalytic activities of these surfaces were studied. Samples consisting of TiO2 and PDMS-coated SiO2 with a ratio of 7:3 showed a highly stable superhydrophobicity under UV irradiation with a water contact angle of 165° and UV-driven photocatalytic activity for decomposition of methylene blue and phenol in aqueous solution. Our process can be exploited for fabricating self-cleaning surfaces with dual functionality of superhydrophobicity and photocatalytic activity at the same time.

  16. Durable superhydrophobic and antireflective surfaces by trimethylsilanized silica nanoparticles-based sol-gel processing.

    PubMed

    Manca, Michele; Cannavale, Alessandro; De Marco, Luisa; Aricò, Antonino S; Cingolani, Roberto; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2009-06-01

    We present a robust and cost-effective coating method to fabricate long-term durable superhydrophobic andsimultaneouslyantireflective surfaces by a double-layer coating comprising trimethylsiloxane (TMS) surface-functionalized silica nanoparticles partially embedded into an organosilica binder matrix produced through a sol-gel process. A dense and homogeneous organosilica gel layer was first coated onto a glass substrate, and then, a trimethylsilanized nanospheres-based superhydrophobic layer was deposited onto it. After thermal curing, the two layers turned into a monolithic film, and the hydrophobic nanoparticles were permanently fixed to the glass substrate. Such treated surfaces showed a tremendous water repellency (contact angle = 168 degrees ) and stable self-cleaning effect during 2000 h of outdoor exposure. Besides this, nanotextured topology generated by the self-assembled nanoparticles-based top layer produced a fair antireflection effect consisting of more than a 3% increase in optical transmittance. PMID:19466786

  17. Thermal transport in laminar flow over superhydrophobic surfaces, utilizing an effective medium approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, David; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2015-05-01

    An analytical methodology to characterizing the effects of heat transport in internal laminar flows over ridged patterns, mimicking superhydrophobic surfaces, is indicated. The finite slip velocity on such surfaces and the thermal conductivity characteristics of the constituent material are both shown to modify the convective heat transport in the fluid. We use an effective medium approach to model the lowered thermal conductivity caused by the presence of air in the ridge interstices. The proposed analytical solutions for fully developed flow were verified through comparison with numerical simulations for a periodically ridged geometry in laminar flow. While the convective heat transport and the Nusselt Number (Nu) increase due to the modified fluid velocity profile on superhydrophobic surfaces, the decrease in the thermal conductivity of the substrate may play a larger role in determining the overall heat transfer in the channel.

  18. Role of nanoparticles in phase separation and final morphology of superhydrophobic polypropylene/zinc oxide nanocomposite surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, Iman; Hajalizadeh, Bardia; Seyfi, Javad; Sadeghi, Gity Mir Mohamad; Jafari, Seyed-Hassan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali

    2014-02-01

    In this work, phase separation process was revisited to study the effect of nanoparticles in acceleration of phase separation and formation of hierarchical structures. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared using polypropylene (PP) and the corresponding nanocomposites containing zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles through a typical solution casting method. The wettability and morphological behavior of the surfaces were investigated via water contact angle (WCA) measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. It was found that upon introduction of ZnO nanoparticles into the pure PP, the obtained surfaces have become superhydrophobic with WCAs above 150° and sliding angles below 10°. Calcination of ZnO nanoparticles was exploited to explicate the unexpected significant loss in superhydrophobicity of the sample loaded with high ZnO content. Crystallization behavior of the samples were also investigated via differential scanning calorimetry and correlated to superhydrophobicity of the surfaces. X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies were also utilized to further characterize the samples. An attempt was also made to present a more clear mechanism for formation of hierarchical structures which are responsible for superhydrophobicity. Likewise, the so far proposed mechanisms for formation of micro/nano roughness on the superhydrophobic surfaces were reviewed as well.

  19. One-step controllable fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with special composite structure on zinc substrates.

    PubMed

    Ning, Tao; Xu, Wenguo; Lu, Shixiang

    2011-09-01

    Stable superhydrophobic platinum surfaces have been effectively fabricated on the zinc substrates through one-step replacement deposition process without further modification or any other post-treatment procedures. The fabrication process was controllable, which could be testified by various morphologies and hydrophobic properties of different prepared samples. By conducting SEM and water CA analysis, the effects of reaction conditions on the surface morphology and hydrophobicity of the resulting surfaces were carefully studied. The results show that the optimum condition of superhydrophobic surface fabrication depends largely on the positioning of zinc plate and the concentrations of reactants. When the zinc plate was placed vertically and the concentration of PtCl(4) solution was 5 mmol/L, the zinc substrate would be covered by a novel and interesting composite structure. The structure was composed by microscale hexagonal cavities, densely packed nanoparticles layer and top micro- and nanoscale flower-like structures, which exhibit great surface roughness and porosity contributing to the superhydrophobicity. The maximal CA value of about 171° was obtained under the same reaction condition. The XRD, XPS and EDX results indicate that crystallite pure platinum nanoparticles were aggregated on the zinc substrates in accordance with a free deposition way. PMID:21679962

  20. Rapid deposition of transparent super-hydrophobic layers on various surfaces using microwave plasma.

    PubMed

    Irzh, Alexander; Ghindes, Lee; Gedanken, Aharon

    2011-12-01

    We report herein on a very fast and simple process for the fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by using microwave (MW) plasma. It was found that the reaction of various organic liquids in MW argon plasma yields hydrophobic polymeric layers on a large assortment of surfaces, including glass, polymeric surfaces, ceramics, metals, and even paper. In most cases, these polymers are deposited as a rough layer composed of 10-15 nm nanoparticles (NPs). This roughness, together with the chemical hydrophobic nature of the coated materials, is responsible for the superhydrophobic nature of the surface. The typical reaction time of the coating procedure was 1-10 s. The stability of these superhydrophobic surfaces was examined outdoors, and was found to last 2-5 days under direct exposure to the environment and to last 2 months when the sample was protected by a quartz cover. A detailed characterization study of the chemical composition of the layers followed using XPS, solid-state NMR, and IR measurements. Modifications were introduced in the products leading to a substantial improvement in the stability of the products outdoors. PMID:22047036

  1. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with low roughness on Ti-6Al-4V substrates via anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuze; Sun, Yuwen; Guo, Dongming

    2014-09-01

    The combination of suitable micro-scale structures and low surface energy modification plays a vital role in fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on hydrophilic metal substrates. This work proposes a simple, facile and efficient method of fabricating superhydrophobic titanium alloy surfaces with low surface roughness. Complex micro-pore structures are generated on titanium alloy surfaces by anodic oxidation in the NaOH and H2O2 mixed solution. Fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) is used to reduce the surface energy of the electrochemically oxidized surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Zygogpi-xp6 (ZYGO) and contact angle measurements are performed to determine the morphological features, chemical composition, surface roughness and wettability. The formation mechanism of micro-scale rough structures, wettability of the superhydrophobic surfaces and the relationship between reaction time with wettability and roughness of the superhydrophobic surfaces are also analyzed in detail. The as-prepared titanium alloy surfaces not only show low roughness Ra = 0.669 ?m and good superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 158.5° ± 1.9° as well as a water tilting angle of 5.3° ± 1.1°, but also possess good long-term stability and abrasion resistance.

  2. Facile fabrication of superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic surface on titanium substrate by single-step anodization and fluorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junsheng; Liu, Kuanyao; Wang, Dazhi; Li, Hao; Li, Pengfei; Li, Shouzuo; Su, Shijie; Xu, Shuangchao; Luo, Ying

    2015-05-01

    A facile and scalable technique for preparation of superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic titanium (Ti) surface by single-step anodization and fluorination is presented in this paper. The Ti substrates were anodized to produce micro-nano hierarchical structure which is essential for superhydrophilic surface. The water contact angles (WCAs) of 5 ?l water droplets on the anodized Ti surfaces were measured as low as 0°. Capillary rise measurement was used to evaluate the superhydrophilicity on Ti surfaces anodized at different conditions. Results show that higher anodization voltage can yield stronger superhydrophilicity on Ti surface, but the influence of electrolyte temperature on the superhydrophilicity has a close correlation with the anodization voltages. At 20 V and 40 V anodization voltages, the increase of electrolyte temperature can improve the surface superhydrophilicity, but this trend will be reversed when the voltages rise to 60 V and 80 V. Superhydrophobic surfaces were further obtained from fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) modification on the anodized Ti substrates. It was observed that appropriate anodization voltages and electrolyte temperatures can balance the growth and dissolution of the micro-nano hierarchical surface structure, thereby obtaining the desired superhydrophobic Ti surface. The WCA, rolling angle and contact angle hysteresis of water droplets on the best superhydrophobic Ti surface were respectively recorded as 160°, 2° and 1.7° in this work. Furthermore, the superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic Ti surfaces fabricated in this research also show satisfactory stability in acidic, neutral and alkaline aqueous solutions as well as ambient conditions.

  3. Fabrication of superhydrophobic copper surface on various substrates for roll-off, self-cleaning, and water/oil separation.

    PubMed

    Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Mondal, Chanchal; Sinha, Arun Kumar; Gauri, Samiran Sona; Pal, Jaya; Aditya, Teresa; Ganguly, Mainak; Dey, Satyahari; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-12-24

    Superhydrophobic surfaces prevent percolation of water droplets and thus render roll-off, self-cleaning, corrosion protection, etc., which find day-to-day and industrial applications. In this work, we developed a facile, cost-effective, and free-standing method for direct fabrication of copper nanoparticles to engender superhydrophobicity for various flat and irregular surfaces such as glass, transparency sheet (plastic), cotton wool, textile, and silicon substrates. The fabrication of as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces was accomplished using a simple chemical reduction of copper acetate by hydrazine hydrate at room temperature. The surface morphological studies demonstrate that the as-prepared surfaces are rough and display superhydrophobic character on wetting due to generation of air pockets (The Cassie-Baxter state). Because of the low adhesion of water droplets on the as-prepared surfaces, the surfaces exhibited not only high water contact angle (164 ± 2°, 5 ?L droplets) but also superb roll-off and self-cleaning properties. Superhydrophobic copper nanoparticle coated glass surface uniquely withstands water (10 min), mild alkali (5 min in saturated aqueous NaHCO3 of pH ? 9), acids (10 s in dilute HNO3, H2SO4 of pH ? 5) and thiol (10 s in neat 1-octanethiol) at room temperature (25-35 °C). Again as-prepared surface (cotton wool) was also found to be very effective for water-kerosene separation due to its superhydrophobic and oleophilic character. Additionally, the superhydrophobic copper nanoparticle (deposited on glass surface) was found to exhibit antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25419984

  4. Effect of wettability and surface roughness on ice-adhesion strength of hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathidasan, T.; Kumar, S. Vijay; Bobji, M. S.; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2014-09-01

    The anti-icing properties of hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces/coatings were evaluated using a custom-built apparatus based on zero-degree cone test method. The ice-adhesion reduction factor (ARF) of these coatings has been evaluated using bare aluminium alloy as a reference. The wettability of the surfaces was evaluated by measuring water contact angle (WCA) and sliding angle. It was found that the ice-adhesion strength (?) on silicone based hydrophobic surfaces was ? 43 times lower than compared to bare polished aluminium alloy indicating excellent anti-icing property of these coatings. Superhydrophobic coatings displayed poor anti-icing property in spite of their high water repellence. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope reveal that Silicone based hydrophobic coatings exhibited smooth surface whereas the superhydrophobic coatings had a rough surface consisting of microscale bumps and protrusions superimposed with nanospheres. Both surface roughness and surface energy play a major role on the ice-adhesion strength of the coatings. The 3D surface roughness profiles of the coatings also indicated the same trend of roughness. An attempt is made to correlate the observed ice-adhesion strength of different surfaces with their wettability and surface roughness.

  5. Disintegration of a Round Liquid Jet due to Impact on a Superhydrophobic Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalaal, Maziyar; Stoeber, Boris

    2013-11-01

    Liquid jet breakup has several applications such as Inkjet printers, diesel fuel injectors, and paint sprays. Very recently liquid jets have been shown to be useful for small volume transportation (Clestini et al. Soft Matter, 2010), where a micro-scale liquid jet on superhydrophobic surface was investigated. Although the instability of the liquid jet for some circumstances was shown, the disintegration of the liquid jet was not discussed. In the present study, we aim to analyze the breakup of a micro liquid jet due to inclined impact to a superhydrophobic surface. A range of Weber and Reynolds numbers have been explored experimentally. Water-glycerin solution as the working fluid. Generally, it is shown that the liquid jet forms a disc-like film over the surface and further rebounds (``bouncing jet''). A simple energy balance method is provided to estimate the diameter of the disc-like film. It is shown, for the case of low viscosity (large Re), this parameter is logarithmically proportional to the normal Weber number. Additionally, linear stability analysis for viscous jets provides a good estimate of droplet size. From an application point of view, using superhydrophobic surfaces 1) enables rebound of the liquid jet 2) advances the breakup point (shorten the breakup length).

  6. Trapping of Water Drops by Line-Shaped Defects on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Olin, Pontus; Lindström, Stefan B; Wågberg, Lars

    2015-06-16

    We have investigated the effect of line-shaped topographical defects on the motion of water drops across superhydrophobic wax surfaces using a high-speed video camera. The defects are introduced onto the superhydrophobic wax surfaces by a scratching procedure. It is demonstrated that the motion of a drop interacting with the defect can be approximated by a damped harmonic oscillator. Whether a drop passes or gets trapped by the defect is determined by the incident speed and the properties of the oscillator, specifically by the damping ratio and a nondimensional forcing constant representing the effects of gravity and pinning forces. We also show that it is possible to predict a critical trapping speed as well as an exit speed in systems with negligible viscous dissipation using a simple work-energy consideration. PMID:26010934

  7. Surface initiation from adsorbed polymer clusters: a rapid route to superhydrophobic coatings.

    PubMed

    Tuberquia, Juan C; Jennings, G Kane

    2013-04-10

    We introduce the use of a hydroborated polyisoprene (PIP) macroinitiator for the rapid surface-initiated growth of superhydrophobic polymethylene (PM) films. Rinsing of a dip-coated PIP film on a methyl-terminated surface atop silicon or gold substrates results in robustly bound, isolated PIP clusters. After hydroboration of the internal olefins, these clusters result in extremely rapid growth of polymethylene coatings upon exposure to a diazomethane solution in diethyl ether at -17 °C. The resulting PM films achieve 6 ?m thicknesses within 20 min of polymerization and become superhydrophobic with advancing and receding water contact angles of 166° and 156°, respectively, within 1 min. The PM films grown from these PIP clusters exhibit 3× greater propagation velocities, 30% lower termination rates, and more highly textured morphologies than PM films grown from hydroborated monolayers. PMID:23465650

  8. Wetting and phase-change phenomena on micro/nanostructures for enhanced heat transfer

    E-print Network

    Xiao, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Micro/nanostructures have been extensively studied to amplify the intrinsic wettability of materials to create superhydrophilic or superhydrophobic surfaces. Such extreme wetting properties can influence the heat transfer ...

  9. Superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T. (Clinton, TN); D'Urso, Brian R. (Clinton, TN)

    2012-07-10

    A superhydrophobic powder is prepared by coating diatomaceous earth (DE) with a hydrophobic coating on the particle surface such that the coating conforms to the topography of the DE particles. The hydrophobic coating can be a self assembly monolayer of a perfluorinated silane coupling agent. The DE is preferably natural-grade DE where organic impurities have been removed. The superhydrophobic powder can be applied as a suspension in a binder solution to a substrate to produce a superhydrophobic surface on the substrate.

  10. Superhydrophobic surface on steel substrate and its anti-icing property in condensing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; Xiong, Dangsheng; Li, Mengtong; Deng, Yaling; Shi, Yan; Wang, Kun

    2015-11-01

    A superhydrophobic surface (SHS) was prepared on steel via the synergetic corrosion of H2O2 and H2SO4, followed by the modification of silanes. Flower-like hierarchical structures were obtained by the following two etching aspects: the non-uniform ions concentration around O2, and the selective corrosion for steel substrate. Surface grafting was manifested to preferentially be realized on the oxidized area, and the H2O2 is crucial for the grafting efficiency. Moreover, the resultant surface exhibited superior anti-icing property in extremely condensing condition. In addition, surface with C-F bond exhibited outstanding UV-durability.

  11. Research on the behavior of liquid fluids atop superhydrophobic gas-bubbled surfaces

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Gerrit C; Horsch, Martin; Huang, Yow-Lin; Miroshnichenko, Svetlana; Pflock, Rüdiger; Sonnenrein, Gerrit; Vrabec, Jadran

    2010-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces play an important role in the development of new product coatings such as cars, but also in mechanical engineering, especially design of turbines and compressors. Thus a vital part of the design of these surfaces is the computational simulation of such with a special interest on variation of shape and size of minor pits grooved into plane surfaces. In the present work, the dependence of the contact angle on the fluid-wall dispersive energy is determined by molecular simulation and static as well as dynamic properties of unpolar fluids in contact with extremely rough surfaces are obtained.

  12. The evaluation of hierarchical structured superhydrophobic coatings for the alleviation of insect residue to aircraft laminar flow surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, Mariana; Young, Trevor M.

    2014-09-01

    Surface contamination caused by insects on laminar flow wing surfaces causes a disruption of the flow, resulting in an increase in drag and fuel consumption. Consequently, the use of superhydrophobic coatings to mitigate insect residue adhesion was investigated. A range of hierarchical superhydrophobic coatings with different surface chemistry and topography was examined. Candidate coatings were characterized in terms of their morphology and hydrophobic properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and static and dynamic contact angle measurements, respectively. Arithmetic mean surface roughness (Ra) values were measured using profilometry. Only superhydrophobic coatings with a specific topography showed complete mitigation against insect residue adhesion. A surface which exhibited a specific microstructure (Ra = 5.26 ?m) combined with a low sliding angle (SA = 7.6°) showed the best anti-contamination properties. The dynamics of an insect impact event and its influence on the wetting and adhesion mechanisms of insect residue to a surface were discussed.

  13. Synergistic Effect of Superhydrophobicity and Oxidized Layers on Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Alloy Surface Textured by Nanosecond Laser Treatment.

    PubMed

    Boinovich, Ludmila B; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M; Modestov, Alexander D; Domantovsky, Alexandr G; Emelyanenko, Kirill A

    2015-09-01

    We report a new efficient method for fabricating a superhydrophobic oxidized surface of aluminum alloys with enhanced resistance to pitting corrosion in sodium chloride solutions. The developed coatings are considered very prospective materials for the automotive industry, shipbuilding, aviation, construction, and medicine. The method is based on nanosecond laser treatment of the surface followed by chemisorption of a hydrophobic agent to achieve the superhydrophobic state of the alloy surface. We have shown that the surface texturing used to fabricate multimodal roughness of the surface may be simultaneously used for modifying the physicochemical properties of the thick surface layer of the substrate itself. Electrochemical and wetting experiments demonstrated that the superhydrophobic state of the metal surface inhibits corrosion processes in chloride solutions for a few days. However, during long-term contact of a superhydrophobic coating with a solution, the wetted area of the coating is subjected to corrosion processes due to the formation of defects. In contrast, the combination of an oxide layer with good barrier properties and the superhydrophobic state of the coating provides remarkable corrosion resistance. The mechanisms for enhancing corrosion protective properties are discussed. PMID:26271017

  14. Water desorption from nanostructured graphite surfaces.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Anna; Hellberg, Lars; Grönbeck, Henrik; Chakarov, Dinko

    2013-12-21

    Water interaction with nanostructured graphite surfaces is strongly dependent on the surface morphology. In this work, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) in combination with quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) has been used to study water ice desorption from a nanostructured graphite surface. This model surface was fabricated by hole-mask colloidal lithography (HCL) along with oxygen plasma etching and consists of a rough carbon surface covered by well defined structures of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The results are compared with those from pristine HOPG and a rough (oxygen plasma etched) carbon surface without graphite nanostructures. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The TPD experiments were conducted for H2O coverages obtained after exposures between 0.2 and 55 langmuir (L) and reveal a complex desorption behaviour. The spectra from the nanostructured surface show additional, coverage dependent desorption peaks. They are assigned to water bound in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) hydrogen-bonded networks, defect-bound water, and to water intercalated into the graphite structures. The intercalation is more pronounced for the nanostructured graphite surface in comparison to HOPG surfaces because of a higher concentration of intersheet openings. From the TPD spectra, the desorption energies for water bound in 2D and 3D (multilayer) networks were determined to be 0.32 ± 0.06 and 0.41 ± 0.03 eV per molecule, respectively. An upper limit for the desorption energy for defect-bound water was estimated to be 1 eV per molecule. PMID:24018989

  15. Bioinspired superhydrophobic surfaces, fabricated through simple and scalable roll-to-roll processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Sangeui; Moreira, David; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.; Han, Intaek; Yun, Dong-Jin

    2015-10-01

    A simple, scalable, non-lithographic, technique for fabricating durable superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces, based on the fingering instabilities associated with non-Newtonian flow and shear tearing, has been developed. The high viscosity of the nanotube/elastomer paste has been exploited for the fabrication. The fabricated SH surfaces had the appearance of bristled shark skin and were robust with respect to mechanical forces. While flow instability is regarded as adverse to roll-coating processes for fabricating uniform films, we especially use the effect to create the SH surface. Along with their durability and self-cleaning capabilities, we have demonstrated drag reduction effects of the fabricated films through dynamic flow measurements.

  16. Coupling of surface energy with electric potential makes superhydrophobic surfaces corrosion-resistant.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Nosonovsky, Michael

    2015-10-14

    We study the correlation of wetting properties and corrosion rates on hydrophobized cast iron. Samples of different surface roughnesses (abraded by sandpaper) are studied without coating and with two types of hydrophobic coatings (stearic acid and a liquid repelling spray). The contact angles and contact angle hysteresis are measured using a goniometer while corrosion rates are measured by a potentiodynamic polarization test. The data show a decrease in corrosion current density and an increase in corrosion potential after superhydrophobization. A similar trend is also found in the recent literature data. We conclude that a decrease in the corrosion rate can be attributed to the changing open circuit potential of a coated surface and increased surface area making the non-homogeneous (Cassie-Baxter) state possible. We interpret these results in light of the idea that the inherent surface energy is coupled with the electric potential in accordance with the Lippmann law of electrowetting and Le Châtelier's principle and, therefore, hydrophobization leads to a decrease in the corrosion potential. This approach can be used for novel anti-corrosive coatings. PMID:26344151

  17. Superhydrophobic nano-wire entanglement structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Donghyun; Hwang, Woonbong; Park, Hyun C.; Lee, Kun-H.

    2006-12-01

    Superhydrophobic nano-wire entanglement structures (NWES) were fabricated by the dipping method, based on an anodization process in oxalic acid. The pore diameter and the depth were influenced by the applied voltage and the anodizing time. To obtain the NWES, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFT, Teflon®: DuPont™) replication based on the dipping method was used, with a PTFT solution (0.3 wt%). During replication, the polymer sticking phenomenon due to van der Waals interactions creates microscale bunch structures on the nanoscale wire-entanglement structures. This process provides a hierarchical structure with nanostructures on microstructures and enables commercialization. The diameter of the replicated wires was about 40 nm, and their lengths were 22-75 µm according to the anodizing time. The fabricated surface has superhydrophobicity; the apparent contact angle of the PTFT micro and nanostructures is about 160°-170° and the sliding angle is less than 1°.

  18. Electron beam heating effects during environmental scanning electron microscopy imaging of water condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rykaczewski, K.; Scott, J. H. J.; Fedorov, A. G.

    2011-02-28

    Superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) show promise as promoters of dropwise condensation. Droplets with diameters below {approx}10 {mu}m account for the majority of the heat transferred during dropwise condensation but their growth dynamics on SHS have not been systematically studied. Due to the complex topography of the surface environmental scanning electron microscopy is the preferred method for observing the growth dynamics of droplets in this size regime. By studying electron beam heating effects on condensed water droplets we establish a magnification limit below which the heating effects are negligible and use this insight to study the mechanism of individual drop growth.

  19. Coalescence-induced jumping of nanoscale droplets on super-hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhi; Keblinski, Pawel

    2015-10-01

    The coalescence-induced jumping of tens of microns size droplets on super-hydrophobic surfaces has been observed in both experiments and simulations. However, whether the coalescence-induced jumping would occur for smaller, particularly nanoscale droplets, is an open question. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that in spite of the large internal viscous dissipation, coalescence of two nanoscale droplets on a super-hydrophobic surface can result in a jumping of the coalesced droplet from the surface with a speed of a few m/s. Similar to the coalescence-induced jumping of microscale droplets, we observe that the bridge between the coalescing nano-droplets expands and impacts the solid surface, which leads to an acceleration of the coalesced droplet by the pressure force from the solid surface. We observe that the jumping velocity decreases with the droplet size and its ratio to the inertial-capillary velocity is a constant of about 0.126, which is close to the minimum value of 0.111 predicted by continuum-level modeling of Enright et al. [ACS Nano 8, 10352 (2014)].

  20. Superhydrophobic hierarchical surfaces fabricated by anodizing of oblique angle deposited Al-Nb alloy columnar films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Takashi; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Habazaki, Hiroki

    2011-07-01

    A combined process of oblique angle magnetron sputtering and anodizing has been developed to tailor superhydrophobic surfaces with hierarchical morphology. Isolated submicron columns of single-phase Al-Nb alloys are deposited by magnetron sputtering at several oblique deposition angles on a scalloped substrate surface, with the gaps between columns increasing with an increase in the deposition angle from 70° to 110°. Then, the columnar films have been anodized in hot phosphate-glycerol electrolyte to form a nanoporous anodic oxide layer on each column. Such surfaces with submicron-/nano-porous structure have been coated with a fluoroalkyl phosphate layer to reduce the surface energy. The porous surface before coating is superhydrophilic with a contact angle for water is less than 10°, while after coating the contact angles are larger than 150°, being superhydrophobic. The beneficial effect of dual-scale porosity to enhance the water repellency is found from the comparison of the contact angles of the submicron columnar films with and without nanoporous oxide layers. The larger submicron gaps between columns are also preferable to increase the water repellency.

  1. Computational Study of Bouncing and Non-bouncing Droplets Impacting on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Bange, Prathamesh G

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate bouncing and non-bouncing of droplets during isothermal impact on superhydrophobic surfaces. An in-house, experimentally-validated, finite-element method based computational model is employed to simulate the droplet impact dynamics and transient fluid flow within the droplet. The liquid-gas interface is tracked accurately in Lagrangian framework with dynamic wetting boundary condition at three-phase contact line. The interplay of kinetic, surface and gravitational energies is investigated via systematic variation of impact velocity and equilibrium contact angle. The numerical simulations demonstrate that the droplet bounces off the surface if the total droplet energy at the instance of maximum recoiling exceeds the initial surface and gravitational energy, otherwise not. The non-bouncing droplet is characterized by the oscillations on the free surface due to competition between the kinetic and surface energy. The droplet dimensions and shapes obtained at different times by the simul...

  2. Stability and corrosion resistance of superhydrophobic surface on oxidized aluminum in NaCl aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Damei; Ou, Junfei; Xue, Mingshan; Wang, Fajun

    2015-04-01

    Superhydrophobic surface (SHS) was fabricated on aluminum via surface roughening by NaClO and surface passivation by hexadecyltrimethoxysilane. The long-term durability for storing the sample in air and the chemical stability for contacting the sample with NaCl solution were investigated. The short-term corrosion resistance for immersing the sample in NaCl solution for 1 h was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization, and the long-term corrosion resistance for immersing the sample in NaCl solution for 7 days was investigated by variation analyses on surface wettability, surface morphology, and surface chemistry. All experimental results suggested that the so-obtained SHS possessed good stability and good corrosion resistance under the testing conditions.

  3. Electrical Switching of Wetting States on Superhydrophobic Surfaces: A Route Towards Reversible Cassie-to-Wenzel Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukyan, G.; Oh, J. M.; van den Ende, D.; Lammertink, R. G. H.; Mugele, F.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the equilibrium shape of the composite interface between superhydrophobic surfaces and drops in the superhydrophobic Cassie state under electrowetting is determined by the balance of the Maxwell stress and the Laplace pressure. Energy barriers due to pinning of contact lines at the edges of the hydrophobic pillars control the transition from the Cassie to the Wenzel state. Barriers due to the narrow gap between adjacent pillars control the lateral propagation of the Wenzel state. We demonstrate how reversible switching between the two wetting states can be achieved locally using suitable surface and electrode geometries.

  4. Mechanism of delayed frost growth on superhydrophobic surfaces with jumping condensates: more than interdrop freezing.

    PubMed

    Hao, Quanyong; Pang, Yichuan; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Jie; Yao, Shuhuai

    2014-12-30

    Delayed frost growth on superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) with jumping condensates has been found by many researchers recently. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon has not been elucidated clearly. In this study, copper SHSs with or without jumping condensates were selected as the substrates for observing condensation icing at a relative humidity (RH) of 60%. The results showed that only SHS with jumping condensates showed delayed condensation icing. Moreover, when such SHSs were placed upward and the surface temperature was held at -10 °C, some discrete frozen drops first appeared on the SHSs. The following icing mainly occurred on these discrete global crystals and then expanded around them until covering the entire surface. Little macroscopic interdrop freezing phenomenon was found. The growth of the frost front is mainly dominated by jumping freezing (the condensed droplets jumped onto the ice crystals and were frozen) or direct vapor-ice deposition. Using microscopy, we found interdrop freezing occurred, in addition to the two mechanisms mentioned above. By placing the SHS downward at -10 °C and intentionally introducing or eliminating tiny dusts, we confirmed that there were no superhydrophobic defects on our SHSs. The discrete frozen drops first appearing on the SHSs were triggered by tiny dusts falling on the surface before or during condensation icing. The key approach in delaying or resisting frost growth on SHSs with jumping condensates is to retard initial ice crystal formation, e.g., eliminating the edge effect and keeping the SHSs clean. PMID:25466489

  5. Superhydrophobic surface with hierarchical architecture and bimetallic composition for enhanced antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Wang, Ping; Sun, Hongyan; Wang, Zuankai

    2014-12-24

    Developing robust antibacterial materials is of importance for a wide range of applications such as in biomedical engineering, environment, and water treatment. Herein we report the development of a novel superhydrophobic surface featured with hierarchical architecture and bimetallic composition that exhibits enhanced antibacterial activity. The surface is created using a facile galvanic replacement reaction followed by a simple thermal oxidation process. Interestingly, we show that the surface's superhydrophobic property naturally allows for a minimal bacterial adhesion in the dry environment, and also can be deactivated in the wet solution to enable the release of biocidal agents. In particular, we demonstrate that the higher solubility nature of the thermal oxides created in the thermal oxidation process, together with the synergistic cooperation of bimetallic composition and hierarchical architecture, allows for the release of metal ions in a sustained and accelerated manner, leading to enhanced antibacterial performance in the wet condition as well. We envision that the ease of fabrication, the versatile functionalities, and the robustness of our surface will make it appealing for broad applications. PMID:25418198

  6. Approaching the theoretical contact time of a bouncing droplet on the rational macrostructured superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Tao, J.; Tao, H.; Chen, S.; Pan, L.; Wang, T.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal theoretically and experimentally a limited contact time of a bouncing droplet on superhydrophobic surfaces with the rationally designed macrostructures. During impacting, the water droplet hydrodynamics is properly altered under the assistance of the macrotextures. As a consequence, the retracting process of the impact water droplet can be completely integrated into the process of spreading out to the maximal deformation, resulting in a limited overall contact time of approximately 5.5 ms, i.e., the time required for spreading out to the maximal deformation.

  7. Lasing from single, stationary, dye-doped glycerol/water microdroplets located on a superhydrophobic surface

    E-print Network

    Kiraz, A; DoÄ?anay, S; Dündar, M A; Kurt, A; KalaycıoÄ?lu, H; Demirel, A L

    2007-01-01

    We report laser emission from single, stationary, Rhodamine B-doped glycerol/water microdroplets located on a superhydrophobic surface. In the experiments, a pulsed, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm was used as the excitation source. The microdroplets ranged in diameter from a few to 20 um. Lasing was achieved in the red-shifted portion of the dye emission spectrum with threshold fluences as low as 750 J/cm2. Photobleaching was observed when the microdroplets were pumped above threshold. In certain cases, multimode lasing was also observed and attributed to the simultaneous lasing of two modes belonging to different sets of whispering gallery modes.

  8. Preparation of porous super-hydrophobic and super-oleophilic polyvinyl chloride surface with corrosion resistance property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yingke; Wang, Jinyan; Yang, Guangbin; Xiong, Xiujuan; Chen, Xinhua; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Pingyu

    2011-11-01

    Porous super-hydrophobic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces were obtained via a facile solvent/non-solvent coating process without introducing compounds with low surface energy. The microstructure, wetting behavior, and corrosion resistance of resultant super-hydrophobic PVC coatings were investigated in relation to the effects of dosage of glacial acetic acid and the temperature of drying the mixed PVC solution spread over glass slide substrate. As-prepared PVC coatings had porous microstructure, and the one obtained at a glacial acetic acid to tetrahydrofuran volume ratio of 2.5:10.0 and under a drying temperature of 17 °C had a water contact angle of 150 ± 1.5°, showing super-hydrophobicity. In the meantime, it possessed very small contact angles for liquid paraffin and diiodomethane and good corrosion resistance against acid and alkali corrosive mediums, showing promising applications in self-cleaning, waterproof for outer wall of building, seawater resistant coating, and efficient separation of oil and water.

  9. Statistical theory of wetting of liquid drops on superhydrophobic randomly rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Afferrante, L; Carbone, G

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that hydrophobic surfaces may become superhydrophobic when their surface is properly roughened. However, the role of roughness is not yet very clear, notwithstanding several theoretical and experimental investigations. In the present paper, we propose a relatively simple theory aiming at calculating the apparent contact angle (ACA) and the contact area occurring in the case of drops gently deposited on two-dimensional randomly rough surfaces. Our theory applies both to isotropic and anisotropic rough surfaces, although in the latter case the predicted ACA has to be interpreted as the average contact angle at the triple line. We assume large separation of scales, i.e., that the spectral content of the surface lies in a range of wavelengths much smaller than the size of the apparent liquid-solid contact area. Results show that anisotropy negligibly affects the ACA, and a very reasonable agreement is obtained between theoretical ACA values and experimental data. PMID:26565257

  10. Statistical theory of wetting of liquid drops on superhydrophobic randomly rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afferrante, L.; Carbone, G.

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that hydrophobic surfaces may become superhydrophobic when their surface is properly roughened. However, the role of roughness is not yet very clear, notwithstanding several theoretical and experimental investigations. In the present paper, we propose a relatively simple theory aiming at calculating the apparent contact angle (ACA) and the contact area occurring in the case of drops gently deposited on two-dimensional randomly rough surfaces. Our theory applies both to isotropic and anisotropic rough surfaces, although in the latter case the predicted ACA has to be interpreted as the average contact angle at the triple line. We assume large separation of scales, i.e., that the spectral content of the surface lies in a range of wavelengths much smaller than the size of the apparent liquid-solid contact area. Results show that anisotropy negligibly affects the ACA, and a very reasonable agreement is obtained between theoretical ACA values and experimental data.

  11. Superhydrophobic surfaces on diverse metals based on ultrafast sequential deposition of silver and stearic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Junfei; Shi, Qingwen; Chen, Yiwei; Wang, Fajun; Xue, Mingshan; Li, Wen

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of NaF, silver (Ag) was galvanically deposited onto aluminum (Al) substrate quickly (typically 10 s) from dilute aqueous AgNO3 solution. Subsequent immersion into ethanolic solution of stearic acid (SA, for 30 s) rendered Al superhydrophobic. The deposition and morphological evolution of Ag were investigated in detail. It was found that NaF was indispensable to initiate the Ag galvanic deposition by dissolving the barrier oxide layer. Moreover, as reaction time prolonging, surface morphology and surface wettability varied synchronously. This strategy to fabricate superhydrophobic surface (coded as SHS) was also applicable to many other metals, such as Fe, Co and Mo with oxide passivation layer (NaF was needed) or Mg, Zn, Sn, Pb, and Cu with no apparent oxide passivation layer (NaF was not needed). In summary, the strategy to fabricate SHS based on Ag deposition and SA modification was quite impressive for its time-saving benefits and wide substrate applicability.

  12. Surface plasmon resonance of dumbbell nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajith, R.; Mathew, Vincent; Arun, P.

    2014-08-01

    We present an intuitive theoretical description of the optical properties of a complex metal nanostructure, consisting of two nanoshells connected by a nanorod giving a dumbbell-like appearance. The simulations were done using the finite element method. The effects of the length and radius of the nanorods and of the dimensions of the nanoshells on the plasmon properties of the system were analyzed. The peak position and intensities in the absorption spectra were found to have a strong dependence on the geometrical parameters of the dumbbell. This study provides evidence that the localized surface plasmon modes play a key role in the broadband light harvesting capabilities of these nanostructures, and this is promising for a wide range of practical applications, for example in surface-enhanced spectroscopies.

  13. Photoactivatable Nanostructured Surfaces for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Mosinger, Ji?í; Lang, Kamil; Kubát, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to summarize the current status of photoactivatable nanostructured film and polymeric nanofiber surfaces used in biomedical applications with emphasis on their photoantimicrobial activity, oxygen-sensing in biological media, light-triggered release of drugs, and physical or structural transformations. Many light-responsive functions have been considered as novel ways to alter surfaces, i.e., in terms of their reactivities and structures. We describe the design of surfaces, nano/micro-fabrication, the properties affected by light, and the application principles. Additionally, we compare the various approaches reported in the literature. PMID:26589508

  14. Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques

    PubMed Central

    Accardo, Angelo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Limongi, Tania; Marinaro, Giovanni; Riekel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data. PMID:24971957

  15. Singlet Oxygen Generation on Porous Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Effect of Gas Flow and Sensitizer Wetting on Trapping Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe physical-organic studies of singlet oxygen generation and transport into an aqueous solution supported on superhydrophobic surfaces on which silicon–phthalocyanine (Pc) particles are immobilized. Singlet oxygen (1O2) was trapped by a water-soluble anthracene compound and monitored in situ using a UV–vis spectrometer. When oxygen flows through the porous superhydrophobic surface, singlet oxygen generated in the plastron (i.e., the gas layer beneath the liquid) is transported into the solution within gas bubbles, thereby increasing the liquid–gas surface area over which singlet oxygen can be trapped. Higher photooxidation rates were achieved in flowing oxygen, as compared to when the gas in the plastron was static. Superhydrophobic surfaces were also synthesized so that the Pc particles were located in contact with, or isolated from, the aqueous solution to evaluate the relative effectiveness of singlet oxygen generated in solution and the gas phase, respectively; singlet oxygen generated on particles wetted by the solution was trapped more efficiently than singlet oxygen generated in the plastron, even in the presence of flowing oxygen gas. A mechanism is proposed that explains how Pc particle wetting, plastron gas composition and flow rate as well as gas saturation of the aqueous solution affect singlet oxygen trapping efficiency. These stable superhydrophobic surfaces, which can physically isolate the photosensitizer particles from the solution may be of practical importance for delivering singlet oxygen for water purification and medical devices. PMID:24885074

  16. Singlet oxygen generation on porous superhydrophobic surfaces: effect of gas flow and sensitizer wetting on trapping efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yang; Xu, Qianfeng; Barahman, Mark; Bartusik, Dorota; Greer, Alexander; Lyons, Alan M

    2014-11-13

    We describe physical-organic studies of singlet oxygen generation and transport into an aqueous solution supported on superhydrophobic surfaces on which silicon-phthalocyanine (Pc) particles are immobilized. Singlet oxygen ((1)O2) was trapped by a water-soluble anthracene compound and monitored in situ using a UV-vis spectrometer. When oxygen flows through the porous superhydrophobic surface, singlet oxygen generated in the plastron (i.e., the gas layer beneath the liquid) is transported into the solution within gas bubbles, thereby increasing the liquid-gas surface area over which singlet oxygen can be trapped. Higher photooxidation rates were achieved in flowing oxygen, as compared to when the gas in the plastron was static. Superhydrophobic surfaces were also synthesized so that the Pc particles were located in contact with, or isolated from, the aqueous solution to evaluate the relative effectiveness of singlet oxygen generated in solution and the gas phase, respectively; singlet oxygen generated on particles wetted by the solution was trapped more efficiently than singlet oxygen generated in the plastron, even in the presence of flowing oxygen gas. A mechanism is proposed that explains how Pc particle wetting, plastron gas composition and flow rate as well as gas saturation of the aqueous solution affect singlet oxygen trapping efficiency. These stable superhydrophobic surfaces, which can physically isolate the photosensitizer particles from the solution may be of practical importance for delivering singlet oxygen for water purification and medical devices. PMID:24885074

  17. Superhydrophobic hybrid inorganic-organic thiol-ene surfaces fabricated via spray-deposition and photopolymerization.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Bradley J; Hoff, Ethan F T; Xiong, Li; Goetz, James T; Patton, Derek L

    2013-03-13

    We report a simple and versatile method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic inorganic-organic thiol-ene coatings via sequential spray-deposition and photopolymerization under ambient conditions. The coatings are obtained by spray-deposition of UV-curable hybrid inorganic-organic thiol-ene resins consisting of pentaerythritol tetra(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP), triallyl isocyanurate (TTT), 2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-2,4,6,8-tetravinylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMTVSi), and hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles. The spray-deposition process and nanoparticle agglomeration/dispersion provide surfaces with hierarchical morphologies exhibiting both micro- and nanoscale roughness. The wetting behavior, dependent on the concentration of TMTVSi and hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, can be varied over a broad range to ultimately provide coatings with high static water contact angles (>150°), low contact angle hysteresis, and low roll off angles (<5°). The cross-linked thiol-ene coatings are solvent resistant, stable at low and high pH, and maintain superhydrophobic wetting behavior after extended exposure to elevated temperatures. We demonstrate the versatility of the spray-deposition and UV-cure process on a variety of substrate surfaces including glass, paper, stone, and cotton fabric. PMID:23410965

  18. Spatial Control of Condensation and Freezing on Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Hydrophilic Patches

    SciTech Connect

    Mishchenko, L; Khan, M; Aizenberg, J; Hatton, BD

    2013-07-03

    Certain natural organisms use micro-patterned surface chemistry, or ice-nucleating species, to control water condensation and ice nucleation for survival under extreme conditions. As an analogy to these biological approaches, it is shown that functionalized, hydrophilic polymers and particles deposited on the tips of superhydrophobic posts induce precise topographical control over water condensation and freezing at the micrometer scale. A bottom-up deposition process is used to take advantage of the limited contact area of a non-wetting aqueous solution on a superhydrophobic surface. Hydrophilic polymer deposition on the tips of these geometrical structures allows spatial control over the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of micrometer-scale water droplets. The hydrophilic tips nucleate water droplets with extremely uniform nucleation and growth rates, uniform sizes, an increased stability against coalescence, and asymmetric droplet morphologies. Control of freezing behavior is also demonstrated via deposition of ice-nucleating AgI nanoparticles on the tips of these structures. This combination of the hydrophilic polymer and AgI particles on the tips was used to achieve templating of ice nucleation at the micrometer scale. Preliminary results indicate that control over ice crystal size, spatial symmetry, and position might be possible with this method. This type of approach can serve as a platform for systematically analyzing micrometer-scale condensation and freezing phenomena, and as a model for natural systems.

  19. On the Modeling of Droplet Evaporation on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Fernandes, Heitor C M; Brito, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    When a drop of water is placed on a rough surface, there are two possible extreme regimes of wetting: the one called Cassie-Baxter (CB) with air pockets trapped underneath the droplet and the one characterized by the homogeneous wetting of the surface, called the Wenzel (W) state. A way to investigate the transition between these two states is by means of evaporation experiments, in which the droplet starts in a CB state and, as its volume decreases, penetrates the surface's grooves, reaching a W state. Here we present a theoretical model based on the global interfacial energies for CB and W states that allows us to predict the thermodynamic wetting state of the droplet for a given volume and surface texture. We first analyze the influence of the surface geometric parameters on the droplet's final wetting state with constant volume, and show that it depends strongly on the surface texture. We then vary the volume of the droplet keeping fixed the geometric surface parameters to mimic evaporation and show that ...

  20. On the Modeling of Droplet Evaporation on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Heitor C. M. Fernandes; Mendeli H. Vainstein; Carolina Brito

    2015-10-14

    When a drop of water is placed on a rough surface, there are two possible extreme regimes of wetting: the one called Cassie-Baxter (CB) with air pockets trapped underneath the droplet and the one characterized by the homogeneous wetting of the surface, called the Wenzel (W) state. A way to investigate the transition between these two states is by means of evaporation experiments, in which the droplet starts in a CB state and, as its volume decreases, penetrates the surface's grooves, reaching a W state. Here we present a theoretical model based on the global interfacial energies for CB and W states that allows us to predict the thermodynamic wetting state of the droplet for a given volume and surface texture. We first analyze the influence of the surface geometric parameters on the droplet's final wetting state with constant volume, and show that it depends strongly on the surface texture. We then vary the volume of the droplet keeping fixed the geometric surface parameters to mimic evaporation and show that the drop experiences a transition from the CB to the W state when its volume reduces, as observed in experiments. To investigate the dependency of the wetting state on the initial state of the droplet, we implement a cellular Potts model in three dimensions. Simulations show a very good agreement with theory when the initial state is W, but it disagrees when the droplet is initialized in a CB state, in accordance with previous observations which show that the CB state is metastable in many cases. Both simulations and theoretical model can be modified to study other types of surface.

  1. Superhydrophobic, antiadhesive, and antireflective surfaces mediated by hybrid biomimetic salvinia leaf with moth-eye structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cho-Yun; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Yang, Cho-Yu; Sung, Cheng-Kuo; Yu, Peichen; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we successfully demonstrate multifunctional surfaces based on scaffolding biomimetic structures, namely, hybrid salvinia leaves with moth-eye structures (HSMSs). The novel fabrication process employs scalable polystyrene nanosphere lithography and a lift-off process. Systematic characterizations show the biomimetic HSMS exhibiting superhydrophobic, self-cleaning, antiadhesive, and antireflective properties. Furthermore, the resulting surface tension gradient (known as the Marangoni effect) leads to a superior air retention characteristic in the HSMS under water droplet impact, compared with the traditional hybrid lotus leaf with a moth-eye structure (HLMS). Such results and learnings pave the way towards the attainment and mass deployment of dielectric surfaces with multiple functionalities for versatile biological and optoelectronic applications.

  2. Bioinspired superhydrophobic surfaces, fabricated through simple and scalable roll-to-roll processing.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Sangeui; Moreira, David; Bandaru, Prabhakar R; Han, InTaek; Yun, Dong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    A simple, scalable, non-lithographic, technique for fabricating durable superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces, based on the fingering instabilities associated with non-Newtonian flow and shear tearing, has been developed. The high viscosity of the nanotube/elastomer paste has been exploited for the fabrication. The fabricated SH surfaces had the appearance of bristled shark skin and were robust with respect to mechanical forces. While flow instability is regarded as adverse to roll-coating processes for fabricating uniform films, we especially use the effect to create the SH surface. Along with their durability and self-cleaning capabilities, we have demonstrated drag reduction effects of the fabricated films through dynamic flow measurements. PMID:26490133

  3. Bioinspired superhydrophobic surfaces, fabricated through simple and scalable roll-to-roll processing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Sangeui; Moreira, David; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.; Han, InTaek; Yun, Dong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    A simple, scalable, non-lithographic, technique for fabricating durable superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces, based on the fingering instabilities associated with non-Newtonian flow and shear tearing, has been developed. The high viscosity of the nanotube/elastomer paste has been exploited for the fabrication. The fabricated SH surfaces had the appearance of bristled shark skin and were robust with respect to mechanical forces. While flow instability is regarded as adverse to roll-coating processes for fabricating uniform films, we especially use the effect to create the SH surface. Along with their durability and self-cleaning capabilities, we have demonstrated drag reduction effects of the fabricated films through dynamic flow measurements. PMID:26490133

  4. Creation of microstructured surfaces using Cu-Ni composite electrodeposition and their application to superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Min; Bae, Kong Myeong; Jung, Kyung Kuk; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Ko, Jong Soo

    2014-01-01

    This research analyzed the influence of the electrodeposition ratio of Cu-Ni on the creation of microstructure in Cu-Ni composite electrodeposition, and identified the microstructure generation mechanism with respect to the Cu-Ni electrodeposition ratio. The concentration of CuSO4 in the electrodeposition solution was varied to 0.00, 0.02, 0.04 M to control the electrodeposition ratio of Cu, and the applied voltage was varied to voltages of -0.9, -1.2, -1.5 V, which were applied to control the electrodeposition ratio of Ni. In the composite electrodeposition, Cu ions precipitated intensively at the top of the structure with a short ion diffusion length, and the Ni ions precipitated regularly throughout the entire area charge transferred. Therefore, the structure showed vertically oriented growth when Cu electrodeposition was dominant, and the structure showed isotropic growth when Ni electrodeposition was dominant. On the other hand, Cu ions precipitation concentration at the tip of the grown structure intensified as the height of the structure increased. Therefore, when a structure grows above a certain height, the excess Cu ions precipitate at the top of the grown structure and a cluster structure composed of spherical Cu particles develops. The microstructure produced in the electrodeposition solution with the CuSO4 concentration of 0.04 M had such a high structure generation density and aspect ratio that it was modified to a superhydrophobic surface with a contact angle higher than 150°, and it manifested an excellent self-cleaning ability.

  5. Article coated with flash bonded superhydrophobic particles

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T (Clinton, TN) [Clinton, TN; Blue, Craig A (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Kiggans, Jr., James O [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-13

    A method of making article having a superhydrophobic surface includes: providing a solid body defining at least one surface; applying to the surface a plurality of diatomaceous earth particles and/or particles characterized by particle sizes ranging from at least 100 nm to about 10 .mu.m, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of nanopores, wherein at least some of the nanopores provide flow through porosity, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of spaced apart nanostructured features that include a contiguous, protrusive material; flash bonding the particles to the surface so that the particles are adherently bonded to the surface; and applying a hydrophobic coating layer to the surface and the particles so that the hydrophobic coating layer conforms to the nanostructured features.

  6. 1400 ieee transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control, vol. 53, no. 8, august 2006 Characterization of Superhydrophobic Materials

    E-print Network

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    , august 2006 Letters Characterization of Superhydrophobic Materials Using Multiresonance Acoustic Shear Abstract--Various superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces, with enhanced superhydrophobicity achieved by the use years, a variety of synthetic approaches have been developed to create so-called superhydrophobic (SH

  7. Surface plasmon polaritons in artificial metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, Jayson Lawrence

    Surface plasmon polaritons have been the focus of intense research due to their many unique properties such as high electromagnetic field localization, extreme sensitivity to surface conditions, and subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic waves. The area of potential impact is vast and includes promising advancements in photonic circuits, high speed photodetection, hyperspectral imaging, spectroscopy, enhanced solar cells, ultra-small scale lithography, and microscopy. My research has focused on utilizing these properties to design and demonstrate new phenomena and implement real-world applications using artificial metallic nanostructures. Artificial metallic nanostructures employed during my research begin as thin planar gold films which are then lithographically patterned according to previously determined dimensions. The result is a nanopatterned device which can excite surface plasmon polaritons on its surface under specific conditions. Through my research I characterized the optical properties of these devices for further insight into the interesting properties of surface plasmon polaritons. Exploration of these properties led to advancements in biosensing, development of artificial media to enhance and control light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, and hybrid plasmonic cavities. Demonstrations from these advancements include: label-free immunosensing of Plasmodium in a whole blood lysate, low part-per-trillion detection of microcystin-LR, enhanced refractive index sensitivity of novel resonant plasmonic devices, a defect-based plasmonic crystal, spontaneous emission modification of colloidal quantum dots, and coupling of plasmonic and optical Fabry-Perot resonant modes in a hybrid cavity.

  8. The effectiveness of silane and siloxane treatments on the superhydrophobicity and icephobicity of concrete surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Sunil M.

    Icy roads lead to treacherous driving conditions in regions of the U.S., leading to over 450 fatalities per year. De-icing chemicals, such as road salt, leave much to be desired. In this report, commercially available silane, siloxane, and related materials were evaluated as solutions, simple emulsions, and complex emulsions with incorporated particulates, for their effectiveness as superhydrophobic treatments. Through the development and use of a basic impact test, the ease of ice removal (icephobicity) was examined as an application of the targeted superhydrophobicity. A general correlation was found between icephobicity and hydrophobicity, with the amount of ice removed on impact increasing with increasing contact angle. However, the correlation was poor in the high performance region (high contact angle and high ice removal.) Polymethylhydrogensiloxane was a top performer and was more effective when used as a "shell" type emulsion with silica fume particulates. An aqueous sodium methyl siliconate solution showed good performance for ice loss and contact angle, as did a commercial proprietary emulsion using a diethoxyoctylsilyl trimethylsilyl ester of silicic acid. These materials have sterically available functional groups that can react or associate with the concrete surface and are potentially film-forming. Materials with less reactive functional groups and a lower propensity to film-form did not perform as well.

  9. Sustainable drag reduction in turbulent Taylor-Couette flows by depositing sprayable superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Kleingartner, Justin A; Gilbert, Jonathan B; Cohen, Robert E; Milne, Andrew J B; McKinley, Gareth H

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a reduction in the measured inner wall shear stress in moderately turbulent Taylor-Couette flows by depositing sprayable superhydrophobic microstructures on the inner rotor surface. The magnitude of reduction becomes progressively larger as the Reynolds number increases up to a value of 22% at Re=8.0×10(4). We show that the mean skin friction coefficient C(f) in the presence of the superhydrophobic coating can be fitted to a modified Prandtl-von Kármán-type relationship of the form (C(f)/2)(-1/2)=Mln?(Re(C(f)/2)(1/2))+N+(b/?r)Re(C(f)/2)(1/2) from which we extract an effective slip length of b?19???m. The dimensionless effective slip length b(+)=b/?(?), where ?(?) is the viscous length scale, is the key parameter that governs the drag reduction and is shown to scale as b(+)?Re(1/2) in the limit of high Re. PMID:25615472

  10. A superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic in situ wettability switch of microstructured polypyrrole surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jean H; Hunter, Ian W

    2011-05-18

    We present an electrochemical layered system that allows for the fast, in situ wettability switch of microstructured PPy upon the application of an electric stimulus. We have eliminated the need for PPy to be immersed in an electrolyte to switch between wetting states, laying the groundwork for PPy to be used as a viable material in many applications, including microfluidics or smart textiles. The PPy surface was switched from the superhydrophobic state (contact angle=159) to the superhydrophilic state (contact angle=0) in 3 s. A wettability gradient was also created on a PPy surface using the layered system, causing a 3 µL droplet to travel approximately 2 mm in 0.8 s. PMID:21544891

  11. Wetting Transitions of Condensed Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Two-Tier Roughness

    E-print Network

    Lv, Cunjing; Zhang, Xiwen; He, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Although realizing wetting transitions of droplets spontaneously on solid rough surfaces is quite challenging, it is becoming a key research topic in many practical applications which require highly efficient removal of liquid. We report wetting transitions of condensed droplets occurring spontaneously on pillared surfaces with two-tier roughness owing to excellent superhydrophobicity. The phenomenon results from further decreased Laplace pressure on the top side of the individual droplet when its size becomes comparable to the scale of the micropillars, which leads to a surprising robust spontaneous wetting transition, from valleys to tops of the pillars. A simple scaling law is derived theoretically, which demonstrates that the critical size of the droplet is determined by the space of the micropillars. For this reason, highly efficient removal of water benefits greatly from smaller micropillar space. Furthermore, three wetting transition modes exist, in which the in situ wetting behaviors are in good agree...

  12. Wetting Transitions of Condensed Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Two-Tier Roughness

    E-print Network

    Cunjing Lv; Pengfei Hao; Xiwen Zhang; Feng He

    2015-06-26

    Although realizing wetting transitions of droplets spontaneously on solid rough surfaces is quite challenging, it is becoming a key research topic in many practical applications which require highly efficient removal of liquid. We report wetting transitions of condensed droplets occurring spontaneously on pillared surfaces with two-tier roughness owing to excellent superhydrophobicity. The phenomenon results from further decreased Laplace pressure on the top side of the individual droplet when its size becomes comparable to the scale of the micropillars, which leads to a surprising robust spontaneous wetting transition, from valleys to tops of the pillars. A simple scaling law is derived theoretically, which demonstrates that the critical size of the droplet is determined by the space of the micropillars. For this reason, highly efficient removal of water benefits greatly from smaller micropillar space. Furthermore, three wetting transition modes exist, in which the in situ wetting behaviors are in good agreement with our quantitative theoretical analysis.

  13. Superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces: Wetting and wear properties of different CVD-generated coating types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieme, M.; Streller, F.; Simon, F.; Frenzel, R.; White, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    In view of generating superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces, this work presents further results for the combination of anodic oxidation as the primary pretreatment method and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) variants for chemical modification producing coatings of 250-1000 nm thickness. In detail, CVD involved the utilisation of i - hexafluoropropylene oxide as precursor within the hot filament CVD process for the deposition of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) coatings at alternative conditions (PTFE-AC) and ii - 1,3,5-trivinyltrimethylcyclotrisiloxane for the deposition of polysiloxane coatings (PSi) by initiated CVD. The substrate material was Al Mg1 subjected to usual or intensified sulphuric acid anodisation pretreatments (SAAu, SAAi, respectively) affording various degrees of surface micro-roughness (SAAu < SAAi) to the oxidic layers. Performance characteristics were evaluated in the original as-coated states and after standardised artificial weathering and/or mild wear testing. Superhydrophobicity (SH) was observed with the system SAAi + PTFE-AC similarly to former findings with the standard hot filament CVD PTFE coating variant (SAAi + PTFE-SC). The results indicated that the specific coating morphology made an important contribution to the water-repellency, because even some of the SAAu-based samples tended to reveal SH. Subjecting samples to weathering treatment resulted in a general worsening of the wetting behaviour, primarily limited to the receding contact angles. These tendencies were correlated with the chemical composition of the sample surfaces as analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The wear tests showed, as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurement, that the PTFE coatings were relatively sensitive to friction. This was connected with a dramatic deterioration of the water-repelling properties. PSi-coated surfaces generally showed rather poor water-repellency, but this coating type was surprisingly resistant towards the applied friction test. From these findings it may be concluded that the combination of hydrophobic fluorine containing structure elements and cross-linking of the polymeric chains would likely afford highly durable SH.

  14. A study on the fabrication of superhydrophobic iron surfaces by chemical etching and galvanic replacement methods and their anti-icing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kunquan; Zeng, Xingrong; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun

    2015-08-01

    Hierarchical structures on iron surfaces were constructed by means of chemical etching by hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution or the galvanic replacement by silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were successfully prepared by subsequent hydrophobic modification with stearic acid. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and water contact angle (WCA). The effects of reactive concentration and time on the microstructure and the wetting behavior were investigated. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the superhydrophobic iron surfaces were also studied. The FTIR study showed that the stearic acid was chemically bonded onto the iron surface. With the HCl concentration increase from 4 mol/L to 8 mol/L, the iron surface became rougher with a WCA ranging from 127° to 152°. The AgNO3 concentration had little effect on the wetting behavior, but a high AgNO3 concentration caused Ag particle aggregates to transform from flower-like formations into dendritic crystals, owing to the preferential growth direction of the Ag particles. Compared with the etching method, the galvanic replacement method on the iron surface more favorably created roughness required for achieving superhydrophobicity. The superhydrophobic iron surface showed excellent anti-icing properties in comparison with the untreated iron. The icing time of water droplets on the superhydrophobic surface was delayed to 500 s, which was longer than that of 295 s for untreated iron. Meanwhile, the superhydrophobic iron surface maintained superhydrophobicity after 10 icing and de-icing cycles in cold conditions.

  15. Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Reker, Meike; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Summary Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect) are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a highly sensitive custom made strain gauge force transducer setup. The volume of air held by a surface was quantified by comparing the buoyancy force of the specimen with and then without an air layer. Air volumes retained by the Salvinia-surfaces ranged between 0.15 and 1 L/m2 depending on differences in surface architecture. We verified the precision of the method by comparing the measured air volumes with theoretical volume calculations and could find a good agreement between both values. In this context we present techniques to calculate air volumes on surfaces with complex microstructures. The introduced method also allows to measure decrease or increase of air layers with high accuracy in real-time to understand dynamic processes. PMID:24991518

  16. Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mayser, Matthias J; Bohn, Holger F; Reker, Meike; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect) are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a highly sensitive custom made strain gauge force transducer setup. The volume of air held by a surface was quantified by comparing the buoyancy force of the specimen with and then without an air layer. Air volumes retained by the Salvinia-surfaces ranged between 0.15 and 1 L/m(2) depending on differences in surface architecture. We verified the precision of the method by comparing the measured air volumes with theoretical volume calculations and could find a good agreement between both values. In this context we present techniques to calculate air volumes on surfaces with complex microstructures. The introduced method also allows to measure decrease or increase of air layers with high accuracy in real-time to understand dynamic processes. PMID:24991518

  17. Volume of fluid simulations for droplet impact on dry and wetted hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtnett, Emily Nicole

    An aircraft may experience in-flight ice accretion and corresponding reductions in performance and control when the vehicle encounters clouds of super-cooled water droplets. The EADS-IW Surface Engineering Group is investigating passive anti-icing possibilities, such as functional and ice phobic coatings. Ice-resistant coatings require investigating droplet impact on dry surfaces and wet films, including microscopic effects such as droplet splashing. To investigate droplet impacts, a volume of fluid (VOF) flow solver was used for droplets impacting dry and wetted hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces, focusing on meso-scale simulations. The effects of structured, micro-scale surface roughness and the effects of a thin wet film on the surface, corresponding to a saturated surface under high humidity conditions, were investigated. Axisymmetric domains produced acceptable results for smooth, dry surfaces. It was determined that in order to properly predict behavior of droplets impacting surfaces with structured micro-scale roughness, three-dimensional simulations are recommended.

  18. Tailoring the morphology of raspberry-like carbon black/polystyrene composite microspheres for fabricating superhydrophobic surface

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Yubin; Li, Qiuying; Shanghai Key Laboratory Polymeric Materials; Key Laboratory of Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education ; Xue, Pengfei; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Jibin; Guo, Weihong; Wu, Chifei

    2011-05-15

    In our previous report, raspberry-like carbon black/polystyrene (CB/PS) composite microsphere was prepared through heterocoagulation process. Based on the previous study, in the present work, the morphology of raspberry-like CB/PS particle is tailored through adjusting the polarity and the concentration ratio of CB/PS colloidal suspension with the purpose to prepare particulate film for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirms the morphology of raspberry-like particle and the coverage of CB. Rough surfaces fabricated by raspberry-like particles with proper morphology are observed by SEM and clear evidence of superhydrophobic surface is shown. The structure of raspberry-like particle is analyzed by atom force microscope. The proposed relationship between the hydrophobicity and the structure of CB aggregates on the surface of PS microsphere is discussed in details.

  19. Temperature-induced coalescence of colliding binary droplets on superhydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Yi, Nan; Huang, Bin; Dong, Lining; Quan, Xiaojun; Hong, Fangjun; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    This report investigates the impact of droplet temperature on the head-on collision of binary droplets on a superhydrophobic surface. Understanding droplet collision is critical to many fundamental processes and industrial applications. There are many factors, including collision speed, collision angle, and droplet composition, that influence the outcome of the collision between binary droplets. This work provides the first experimental study of the influence of droplet temperature on the collision of binary droplets. As the droplet temperature increases, the possibility increases for the two droplets to coalesce after collision. The findings in this study can be extended to collision of droplets under other conditions where control of the droplet temperature is feasible. Such findings will also be beneficial to applications that involve droplet collision, such as in ink-jet printing, steam turbines, engine ignition, and spraying cooling. PMID:24603362

  20. Temperature-Induced Coalescence of Colliding Binary Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Nan; Huang, Bin; Dong, Lining; Quan, Xiaojun; Hong, Fangjun; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-03-01

    This report investigates the impact of droplet temperature on the head-on collision of binary droplets on a superhydrophobic surface. Understanding droplet collision is critical to many fundamental processes and industrial applications. There are many factors, including collision speed, collision angle, and droplet composition, that influence the outcome of the collision between binary droplets. This work provides the first experimental study of the influence of droplet temperature on the collision of binary droplets. As the droplet temperature increases, the possibility increases for the two droplets to coalesce after collision. The findings in this study can be extended to collision of droplets under other conditions where control of the droplet temperature is feasible. Such findings will also be beneficial to applications that involve droplet collision, such as in ink-jet printing, steam turbines, engine ignition, and spraying cooling.

  1. Temperature-Induced Coalescence of Colliding Binary Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surface

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Nan; Huang, Bin; Dong, Lining; Quan, Xiaojun; Hong, Fangjun; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    This report investigates the impact of droplet temperature on the head-on collision of binary droplets on a superhydrophobic surface. Understanding droplet collision is critical to many fundamental processes and industrial applications. There are many factors, including collision speed, collision angle, and droplet composition, that influence the outcome of the collision between binary droplets. This work provides the first experimental study of the influence of droplet temperature on the collision of binary droplets. As the droplet temperature increases, the possibility increases for the two droplets to coalesce after collision. The findings in this study can be extended to collision of droplets under other conditions where control of the droplet temperature is feasible. Such findings will also be beneficial to applications that involve droplet collision, such as in ink-jet printing, steam turbines, engine ignition, and spraying cooling. PMID:24603362

  2. A durable, superhydrophobic, superoleophobic and corrosion-resistant coating with rose-like ZnO nanoflowers on a bamboo surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chunde; Li, Jingpeng; Han, Shenjie; Wang, Jin; Sun, Qingfeng

    2014-11-01

    Bamboo remains a vital component of modern-day society; however, its use is severely limited in certain applications because of its hydrophilic and oleophilic properties. In this work, we present a method to render bamboo surfaces superamphiphobic by combining control of ZnO nanostructures and fluoropolymer deposition while maintaining their corrosion resistance. Large-scale rose-like ZnO nanoflowers (RZN) were planted on the bamboo surface by a hydrothermal method. After fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) film deposition to lower the surface energy, the resulting surface showed superamphiphobicity toward water, oil, and even certain corrosive liquids, including salt solutions and acidic and basic solutions at all pH values. The as-prepared superamphiphobic bamboo surface was durable and maintained its superhydrophobic property with water contact angles >150° when stored under ambient condition for two months or immersed in a hydrochloric acid solution of pH 1 and a sodium hydroxide solution of pH 14 for 3 h at 50 °C.

  3. Condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces: the role of local energy barriers and structure length scale.

    PubMed

    Enright, Ryan; Miljkovic, Nenad; Al-Obeidi, Ahmed; Thompson, Carl V; Wang, Evelyn N

    2012-10-01

    Water condensation on surfaces is a ubiquitous phase-change process that plays a crucial role in nature and across a range of industrial applications, including energy production, desalination, and environmental control. Nanotechnology has created opportunities to manipulate this process through the precise control of surface structure and chemistry, thus enabling the biomimicry of natural surfaces, such as the leaves of certain plant species, to realize superhydrophobic condensation. However, this "bottom-up" wetting process is inadequately described using typical global thermodynamic analyses and remains poorly understood. In this work, we elucidate, through imaging experiments on surfaces with structure length scales ranging from 100 nm to 10 ?m and wetting physics, how local energy barriers are essential to understand non-equilibrium condensed droplet morphologies and demonstrate that overcoming these barriers via nucleation-mediated droplet-droplet interactions leads to the emergence of wetting states not predicted by scale-invariant global thermodynamic analysis. This mechanistic understanding offers insight into the role of surface-structure length scale, provides a quantitative basis for designing surfaces optimized for condensation in engineered systems, and promises insight into ice formation on surfaces that initiates with the condensation of subcooled water. PMID:22931378

  4. Superhydrophilic - Superhydrophobic Transition in Vertically Aligned Titania Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Oomman; Neupane, Ram; Paulose, Maggie

    2015-03-01

    Both hydrophilic (wetting) and hydrophobic (non-wetting) surfaces find applications in a variety of technological areas. For example, hydrophilic surfaces are used in microfluidic devices to provide antifogging and antifouling functions whereas hydrophobic coatings are used in clothes to attribute stain resistance. While in superhydrophilic surfaces the contact angle that water droplets make with the surface is nearly zero, the surfaces that make contact angles greater than about 120° are considered superhydrophobic. Oxide ceramics generally exhibit hydrophilic behavior. Surface texturing or organic coatings are often used to make the surface hydrophobic or superhydrophobic. We prepared highly ordered titania nanotube arrays on titanium foils using anodic oxidation that showed superhydrophilic behavior upon fabrication. We noticed a strong correlation between fabrication conditions and the wettability. We have become successful in converting such a superhydrophilic nanostructure into superhydrophobic without modifying the surface with organic molecules or texturing. Contact angles in excess of 145° have been obtained. We will present these results and discuss the physiochemical processes that decide wetting properties of oxide nanostructures.

  5. Highly efficient and large-scale fabrication of superhydrophobic alumina surface with strong stability based on self-congregated alumina nanowires.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shan; Tian, Dong; Yang, Xiaojun; Deng, Wenli

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a large-area superhydrophobic alumina surface with a series of superior properties was fabricated via an economical, simple, and highly effective one-step anodization process, and subsequently modified with low-surface-energy film. The effects of the anodization parameters including electrochemical anodization time, current density, and electrolyte temperature on surface morphology and surface wettability were investigated in detail. The hierarchical alumina pyramids-on-pores (HAPOP) rough structure which was produced quickly through the one-step anodization process together with a low-surface-energy film deposition [1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PDES) and stearic acid (STA)] confer excellent superhydrophobicity and an extremely low sliding angle. Both the PDES-modified superhydrophobic (PDES-MS) and the STA-modified superhydrophobic (STA-MS) surfaces present fascinating nonwetting and extremely slippery behaviors. The chemical stability and mechanical durability of the PDES-MS and STA-MS surfaces were evaluated and discussed. Compared with the STA-MS surface, the as-prepared PDES-MS surface possesses an amazing chemical stability which not only can repel cool liquids (water, HCl/NaOH solutions, around 25 °C), but also can show excellent resistance to a series of hot liquids (water, HCl/NaOH solutions, 30-100 °C) and hot beverages (coffee, milk, tea, 80 °C). Moreover, the PDES-MS surface also presents excellent stability toward immersion in various organic solvents, high temperature, and long time period. In particular, the PDES-MS surface achieves good mechanical durability which can withstand ultrasonication treatment, finger-touch, multiple fold, peeling by adhesive tape, and even abrasion test treatments without losing superhydrophobicity. The corrosion resistance and durability of the diverse-modified superhydrophobic surfaces were also examined. These fascinating performances makes the present method suitable for large-scale industrial fabrication of chemically stable and mechanically robust superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:24593862

  6. On jet impingement and thin film breakup on a horizontal superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, Joseph F.; Maynes, Daniel; Crockett, Julie

    2015-11-01

    When a vertical laminar jet impinges on a horizontal surface, it will spread out in a thin film. If the surface is hydrophobic and a downstream depth is not maintained, the film will radially expand until it breaks up into filaments or droplets. We present the first analysis and model that describes the location of this transition for both isotropic and anisotropic structured superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces. All surfaces explored are hydrophobic or SH, where the SH surfaces exhibit an apparent slip at the plane of the surface due to a shear free condition above the air filled cavities between the structures. The influence of apparent slip on the entire flow field is significant and yields behavior that deviates notably from classical behavior for a smooth hydrophilic surface where a hydraulic jump would form. Instead, break up into droplets occurs where the jet's outward radial momentum is balanced by the inward surface tension force of the advancing film. For hydrophobic surfaces, or SH surfaces with random micropatterning, the apparent slip on the surface is uniform in all directions and droplet breakup occurs in a circular pattern. When alternating rib/cavity microstructures are used to create the SH surface, the apparent slip varies as a function of the azimuthal coordinate, and thus, the breakup location is elliptically shaped. The thin film dynamics are modeled by a radial momentum analysis for a given jet Weber number and specified slip length and the location of breakup for multiple surfaces over a range of jet Weber numbers and realistic slip length values is quantified. The results of the analysis show that the breakup radius increases with increasing Weber number and slip length. The eccentricity of the breakup ellipse for the rib/cavity SH structures increases with increasing Weber number and slip length as well. A generalized model that allows prediction of the transition (break-up) location as a function of all influencing parameters is presented. Model results are compared to experimental measurements with very good agreement.

  7. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces based on ZnO-PDMS nanocomposite coatings and study of its wetting behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Kumar, V. Dinesh; Rao, J. L.; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2011-08-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces based on ZnO-PDMS nanocomposite coatings are demonstrated by a simple, facile, time-saving, wet chemical route. ZnO nanopowders with average particle size of 14 nm were synthesized by a low temperature solution combustion method. Powder X-ray diffraction results confirm that the nanopowders exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure and belong to space group P63 mc. Field emission scanning electron micrographs reveal that the nanoparticles are connected to each other to make large network systems consisting of hierarchical structure. The as formed ZnO coating exhibits wetting behaviour with Water Contact Angle (WCA) of ˜108°, however on modification with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), it transforms to superhydrophobic surface with measured contact and sliding angles for water at 155° and less than 5° respectively. The surface properties such as surface free energy ( ?p), interfacial free energy ( ?pw), and the adhesive work ( Wpw) were evaluated. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies on superhydrophobic coatings revealed that the surface defects play a major role on the wetting behaviour. Advantages of the present method include the cheap and fluorine-free raw materials, environmentally benign solvents, and feasibility for applying on large area of different substrates.

  8. Nanostructured Surface by Self-Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes for Bio-Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Ryuichi; Yang, Ming

    A nanostructured surface was designed and created by synthesizing Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) on a plane substrate. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were synthesized on a Si/SiO2 substrate by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition (ACCVD). The MWNTs were vertically synthesized on the surface, and the structure and characteristics of the surface, such as wettability, were evaluated. The surface with the MWNTs was also treated by coating with Au and subsequent plasma irradiation, in order to change the wettability from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. The results of wettability tests show that the surface with the MWNT film behaved as a super-hydrophobic surface before coating with Au and plasma irradiation, but behaved as a super-hydrophilic surface after coating with Au and plasma irradiation. Furthermore, experiments using water droplets on the MWNTs and subsequent drying was carried out, and the resulting changes in the structure and characteristics of the MWNTs were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The MWNTs subjected to plasma irradiation were found to clump together forming bundles after dropping water and drying; we found that the CNTs moved after the water was dropped on them. These results show that highly dense CNTs with self-assembled structures can be realized for potential applications as microreactors.

  9. An analysis of superhydrophobic turbulent drag reduction mechanisms using direct numerical simulation

    E-print Network

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    An analysis of superhydrophobic turbulent drag reduction mechanisms using direct numerical October 2009; accepted 22 April 2010; published online 11 June 2010 Superhydrophobic surfaces combine the drag reducing performance of superhydrophobic surfaces in turbulent channel flow. Slip velocities, wall

  10. Extreme resistance of super-hydrophobic surfaces to impalement: reversible electrowetting related to the impacting/bouncing drop test

    E-print Network

    P. Brunet; F. Lapierre; V. Thomy; Y. Coffinier; R. Boukherroub

    2008-09-04

    The paper reports on the comparison of the wetting properties of super-hydrophobic silicon nanowires (NWs), using drop impact impalement and electrowetting (EW) experiments. A correlation between the resistance to impalement on both EW and drop impact is shown. From the results, it is evident that when increasing the length and density of NWs: (i) the thresholds for drop impact and EW irreversibility increase (ii) the contact-angle hysteresis after impalement decreases. This suggests that the structure of the NWs network could allow for partial impalement, hence preserving the reversibility, and that EW acts the same way as an external pressure. The most robust of our surfaces show a threshold to impalement higher than 35 kPa, while most of the super-hydrophobic surfaces tested so far have impalement threshold smaller than 10 kPa.

  11. Drop evaporation on superhydrophobic PTFE surfaces driven by contact line dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ramos, S M M; Dias, J F; Canut, B

    2015-02-15

    In the present study, we experimentally study the evaporation modes and kinetics of sessile drops of water on highly hydrophobic surfaces (contact angle ?160°), heated to temperatures ranging between 40° and 70 °C. These surfaces were initially constructed by means of controlled tailoring of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. The evaporation of droplets was observed to occur in three distinct phases, which were the same for the different substrate temperatures. The drops started to evaporate in the constant contact radius (CCR) mode, then switched to a more complex mode characterized by a set of stick-slip events accompanied by a decrease in contact angle, and finally shifted to a mixed mode in which the contact radius and contact angle decreased simultaneously until the drops had completely evaporated. It is shown that in the case of superhydrophobic surfaces, the energy barriers (per unit length) associated with the stick-slip motion of a drop ranges in the nJ m(-1) scale. Furthermore, analysis of the evaporation rates, determined from experimental data show that, even in the CCR mode, a linear relationship between V(2/3) and the evaporation time is verified. The values of the evaporation rate constants are found to be higher in the pinned contact line regime (the CCR mode) than in the moving contact line regime. This behavior is attributed to the drop's higher surface to volume ratio in the CCR mode. PMID:25460699

  12. Superhydrophobic and oleophobic surface from fluoropolymer-SiO2 hybrid nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Liang, Junyan; He, Ling

    2014-12-01

    The fluoropolymer-SiO2 hybrid nanocomposite consisting of core-corona fluoropolymer-grafted SiO2 nanoparticle (NP) and poly(dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate) (PDFHM) was obtained by radical solution polymerization of the vinyl trimethoxy silane (VTMS)-treated SiO2 NP with DFHM in this work. In H2O/tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution, PDFHM self-assembles into dendritic micelle and the increase in H2O volume is favorable for fluoropolymer-grafted SiO2 NPs to create dense fluoropolymer corona layer. It also shows that the addition of H2O to the THF suspension of fluoropolymer-SiO2 nanocomposite could cause a transfer for surface morphology of cast film from smooth film-covered aggregation to bare-exposed flaky aggregation and microsphere aggregation, which results in an increase in surface RMS roughness of cast film and induces a superhydrophobicity. Oleophobicity of cast film can be improved by thermal annealing, because strong surface self-segregation of PDFHM chains during thermal annealing process arouses a marked increase in surface fluorine content. PMID:25218050

  13. Superhydrophobic perfluoropolymer surfaces having heterogeneous roughness created by dip-coating from solutions containing a nonsolvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengiz, Ugur; Erbil, H. Yildirim

    2014-02-01

    Superhydrophobic and oleophobic rough copolymer surfaces containing micro- and nano-hierarchical ball-like islands having diameters between 100 nm and 7 ?m were formed using styrene-perfluoromethacrylate random copolymers which were dip-coated on glass slides from THF and MEK mixture containing methanol as nonsolvent. These copolymers were synthesized in a CO2-expanded monomer medium at 250 bar pressure and 80 °C. The sizes of the micro-islands can be controlled by varying the copolymer composition; and the degree of phase separation by adjusting the solvent/non-solvent ratio. Flat and lotus-like hierarchical surfaces of the copolymers were characterized using contact angle measurements and SEM. The increase in the perfluoromethacrylate content of the flat copolymers resulted in a decrease of the total surface free energy of the flat copolymer surfaces from 18.3 down to 14.2 mJ/m2. The increase in the methanol non-solvent fraction resulted in decrease of the micro-island diameter from 7 ?m down to 100 nm and the water contact angle increased from 117° up to 160° and hexadecane from 65° up to 90°.

  14. Surface Plasmon Propagation in Nanostructured Metallic Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calm, Y. M.; Merlo, J. M.; Rose, A. H.; Nesbitt, N. T.; Boyce, A. M.; McMahon, G.; Burns, M. J.; Kempa, K.; Naughton, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Visible frequencies of light can be routed on subwavelength scales with nanostructured, metallic waveguides by coupling optical energy to surface plasmon (SP) modes at a metal-insulator interface. Epitaxially-grown Ag nanowires and nanocoaxes provide a low-loss, ``model'' system to characterize the propagation of SP waves. We have studied these structures by electron, focused ion, scanning probe, and optical microscopies, and have observed propagation lengths exceeding 15?vac with confinement on the order of 0 . 07(?vac) 2 . Experimental efforts towards lithographically-fabricated metal-insulator-metal waveguides are discussed. Finally, an architecture for a nanocoax-based optical microscope, which extracts near-field (evanescent) information and propagates it into the far-field, is presented. Supported by the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  15. Dewetting Transitions of Dropwise Condensation on Nanotexture-Enhanced Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lv, Cunjing; Hao, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiwen; He, Feng

    2015-12-22

    Although realizing dewetting transitions of droplets spontaneously on solid textured surfaces is quite challenging, it has become a key research topic in many practical applications that require highly efficient removal of liquid. Despite intensive efforts over the past few decades, due to impalement of vapor pockets inducing strong pinning of the contact lines, how to realize the self-removal of small droplets trapped in the textures remains an urgent problem. We report an in situ spontaneous dewetting transition of condensed droplets occurring on pillared surfaces with two-tier roughness, from the valleys to the tops of the pillars, owing to the nanotexture-enhanced superhydrophobicity, as well as the topology of the micropillars. Three wetting transition modes are observed. It is found that a further decreased Laplace pressure on the top side of the individual droplets accounts for such a surprising transition and self-removal of condensed water. An explicit model is constructed, which quite effectively predicts the Laplace pressure of droplets trapped by the textures. Our model also reveals that the critical size of the droplet for transition scales as the spacing of the micropillars. These findings are expected to be crucial to a fundamental understanding, as well as a remarkable strategy to guide the fabrication, of optimum super-water-repellant surfaces. PMID:26565420

  16. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  17. Reversible photocontrol of surface wettability between hydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces on an asymmetric diarylethene solid surface.

    PubMed

    Uyama, Ayaka; Yamazoe, Seiji; Shigematsu, Satomi; Morimoto, Masakazu; Yokojima, Satoshi; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Yuko; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Uchida, Kingo

    2011-05-17

    By alternate UV and visible light irradiation, reversible topographical changes were observed on a newly synthesized diarylethene microcrystalline surface between the rough crystalline surface of an open-ring isomer and flat eutectic surfaces. The contact angle changes of a water droplet between 80° and 150° and peak intensities changes of the open-ring isomer in XRD patterns within 2 h of repeating cycle were observed. The results indicated that reversibly photogenerated rod-shaped crystals on the surface were produced based on the lattice of the open-ring isomer crystals in the subphase. PMID:21504166

  18. Superhydrophobic metallic surfaces functionalized via femtosecond laser surface processing for long term air film retention when submerged in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhlke, Craig A.; Anderson, Troy P.; Li, Pengbo; Lucis, Michael J.; Roth, Nick; Shield, Jeffrey E.; Terry, Benjamin; Alexander, Dennis R.

    2015-03-01

    Femtosecond laser surface processing (FLSP) is a powerful technique used to create self-organized microstructures with nanoscale features on metallic surfaces. By combining FLSP surface texturing with surface chemistry changes, either induced by the femtosecond laser during processing or introduced through post processing techniques, the wetting properties of metals can be altered. In this work, FLSP is demonstrated as a technique to create superhydrophobic surfaces on grade 2 titanium and 304 stainless steel that can retain an air film (plastron) between the surface and a surrounding liquid when completely submerged. It is shown that the plastron lifetime when submerged in distilled water or synthetic stomach acid is critically dependent on the specific degree of surface micro- and nano-roughness, which can be tuned by controlling various FLSP parameters. The longest plastron lifetime was on a 304 stainless steel sample that was submerged in distilled water and maintained a plastron for 41 days, the length of time of the study, with no signs of degradation. Also demonstrated for the first time is the precise control of pulse fluence and pulse count to produce three unique classes of surface micron/nano-structuring on titanium.

  19. Fabrication of Highly-Oleophobic and Superhydrophobic Surfaces on Microtextured al Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changsong; Zhou, Jigen; Zheng, Dongmei; Wan, Yong; Li, Zhiwen

    2011-06-01

    Theoretical calculations suggest that creating highly-oleophobic surfaces would require a surface energy lower than that of any known materials. In the present work, we demonstrate microtextured Al substrate surfaces with veins-like micro/nanostructures displaying apparent contact angles (CA) greater than 120°, even with nitromethane (surface tension ?1 = 37 mN/m). The Al substrate was microtextured by a chemical solution mixed by zinc nitrate hexahydrate, hexamethyltetramine and a little of hydrofluoric acid. A fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) agent was used to tune the surface wettability. The Al substrates were microtextured by veins-like micro/nanostructures and generating a solid-liquid-vapor composite interface. Combination with FAS modification, the Al surfaces resulted in an oleophobicity with CA for nitromethane was 126.3° (152.7° for diethylene glycol, ?1 = 45.2 mN/m). In addition, the Al surfaces demonstrated a low rolling-off angle with < 6° even for diethylene glycol. However, nitromethane droplet favored to pin on the sample surface even the sample stage is tilted to 90°. It is noted that this highly-oleophobic behavior is induced mainly by topography, which form a composite surface of air and solid with oil drop sitting partially on air. The results are expected to promote the study on self-cleaning applications, especially in the condition with oil contaminations.

  20. Rapid fabrication of nanostructured surfaces using nanocoining.

    PubMed

    Zdanowicz, Erik; Dow, Thomas A; Scattergood, Ronald O

    2012-10-19

    A new process for creating high quality ordered arrays of nanofeatures called nanocoining is presented. A diamond die with a structured area of nanofeatures (1600 features in a 20 ?m × 20 ?m area) is used to physically transfer features to a mold surface. The die is attached to an actuator capable of producing an elliptical tool-path, the dimensions of which are process dependent and enable the die to match velocity with the moving mold during contact to avoid dragging the nanostructured area along the mold surface (smear). Nanocoining process parameters are discussed which enable indents to be indexed precisely to completely cover target areas. Techniques for die alignment and depth control are also required to create large areas (339 mm(2)) of nanofeatures in short times (?20 min). Nanocoining experiments were performed at 1 kHz (1000 indents or 1.6 million features per second) on a flat electroless nickel sample. UV curable replicates were then created from the nickel mold and both the mold and replicate were examined in an SEM and AFM. PMID:23018619

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Polyacetal & Design and Preparation of Superhydrophobic Photocatalytic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuanyuan

    Acetal copolymers represent a family of well-established engineering thermoplastics serving a broad range of important industrial applications including replacement for metals. The first part of this thesis describes the first synthesis of an eight-member ring acetal, 6-methyl-1, 3-dioxocane (MDOC), and its cationic copolymerization with trioxane initiated by boron trifluoride dibutyl etherate. The copolymerization process was monitored in situ using proton NMR. Incorporation of MDOC led to the insertion of the "stopper" unit, "--[CH2CH2CH(CH3)CH 2CH2)O]--", thus synthesizing the new acetal copolymer. A superior copolymer thermal stability with a ~ 20oC increase in degradation onset temperature compared with end-capped polyoxmethylene was observed. Both TGA and DSC data indicated the random placement of the "stopper" in the copolymer likely due to efficient transacetalization because of the higher basicity and flexibility of the stopper unit compared with co-units comprising 2 to 4 carbons in length. DSC thermo-grams showed a melting curve of a polymer with melting point lower, as expected, than that of oxymethylene homopolymer. No homopolymer in the copolymer samples was in indicated by TGA. The new acetal copolymer, poly(6-methyl-1,3-dioxocane-co-trioxane), which has a "stopper" co-unit with five carbon atoms along the backbone, contains the longest reported stopper co-unit, potentially leading to improved elongation, and toughness and better compatibility with a range of additives compared to acetal homopolymers.. Chapter 3 presents a novel lamination fabrication method that enables pre-formed TiO2 nanoparticles to become partially embedded in the surface of a thermoplastic polymer film. In this way, the particles are strongly adhered to the surface while remaining accessible to the aqueous solution. By modifying the fabrication conditions (e.g. temperature, pressure, polymer melt viscosity, etc.), the morphology of the hierarchical TiO2-polymer surface can be controlled and thus the rate of photocatalytic reactions can be increased. In addition, the fraction of TiO2 particles that become fully embedded in the polymer surface, and so inaccessible to photocatalysis reactions, can be reduced through lamination process control, thereby reducing costs. In Chapter 4 and Chapter 5, a general approach is presented to incorporating particles into a superhydrophobic surface that catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species. Superhydrophobic photocatalytic surfaces are prepared using hydrophilic TiO2 nanoparticles and hydrophobic Silicon-Phthalocyanine photosensitizer particles. A stable Cassie state was maintained, even on surfaces fabricated with hydrophilic TiO2 particles, due to significant hierarchical roughness. A triple phase photogenerator is designed and fabricated. By printing the surface on a porous support, oxygen could be flowed through the plastron resulting in significantly higher photooxidation rates relative to a static ambient. Photooxidation of Rhodamine B and BSA were studied on TiO2-containing surfaces and singlet oxygen was trapped on surfaces incorporating Silicon-Phthalocyanine photosensitizer particles. Catalyst particles could be isolated in the plastron to avoid contamination by the solution. This approach may prove useful for water purification and medical devices where isolation of the catalyst particle from the solution is necessary and so Cassie stability is required. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  2. Investigating the superhydrophobic behavior for underwater surfaces using impedance-based methods.

    PubMed

    Tuberquia, Juan C; Song, Won S; Jennings, G Kane

    2011-08-15

    We have investigated the impedance behavior of immersed superhydrophobic (SH) polymethylene surfaces by tailoring the surface tension of the contacting liquid phase to gradually transition the surface from the Cassie to the Wenzel state. Control over the surface tension is accomplished by varying the ethanol content of the aqueous phase. To establish the mechanism of the transition, we imaged the interface of the film and identified three distinct events of this process: a nucleation event at low concentrations of ethanol in which small areas beneath the liquid phase transition into the Wenzel state, a propagation event characterized by the enlargement of the Wenzel domains and the lateral displacement of air, and a final event at higher concentrations of ethanol in which the thin air layer at the interface morphs into isolated pockets of air. Using this visualization of the transition, we characterized the Cassie and the Wenzel states by measuring the impedance at a frequency of 1 kHz for an initially SH film that changes its wetting behavior upon addition of ethanol. Establishment of the Cassie and Wenzel state conditions was based on concepts of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and quantitatively validated using both the Helmholtz theory and the analytical description of the electrochemical system in terms of the circuit model of a metal surface covered by a polymer film. Finally, we apply this strategy to determine the possibility for SH polymethylene (PM) films to reversibly transition between the Cassie and the Wenzel states. Results show that after rinsing and drying at ambient conditions for 24 h, the film recovers the SH state, suggesting the applicability of these SH films in outdoor environments with occasional periodic submersion in water. PMID:21696148

  3. Nanomanufacturing of functional nanostructured surfaces for efficient light transport

    E-print Network

    Kim, Jeong-Gil

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured surfaces have given rise to many unique optical properties, such as broadband anti-reflectivity, structural coloring effects, and enhanced light extraction from high refractive index materials due to their ...

  4. Geometrically induced surface polaritons in planar nanostructured metallic cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, P. S.; Intravia, F; Dalvit, Diego A.

    2014-01-14

    We examine the modal structure and dispersion of periodically nanostructured planar metallic cavities within the scattering matrix formulation. By nanostructuring a metallic grating in a planar cavity, artificial surface excitations or spoof plasmon modes are induced with dispersion determined by the periodicity and geometric characteristics of the grating. These spoof surface plasmon modes are shown to give rise to new cavity polaritonic modes at short mirror separations that modify the density of modes in nanostructured cavities. The increased modal density of states form cavity polarirons have a large impact on the fluctuation induced electromagnetic forces and enhanced hear transfer at short separations.

  5. Path-programmable water droplet manipulations on an adhesion controlled superhydrophobic surface

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Lee, Jaehong; Seung Lee, Jung; Kwon, Hyukho; Cho, Seung-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Taeyoon

    2015-01-01

    Here, we developed a novel and facile method to control the local water adhesion force of a thin and stretchable superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate with micro-pillar arrays that allows the individual manipulation of droplet motions including moving, merging and mixing. When a vacuum pressure was applied below the PDMS substrate, a local dimple structure was formed and the water adhesion force of structure was significantly changed owing to the dynamically varied pillar density. With the help of the lowered water adhesion force and the slope angle of the formed dimple structure, the motion of individual water droplets could be precisely controlled, which facilitated the creation of a droplet-based microfluidic platform capable of a programmable manipulation of droplets. We showed that the platform could be used in newer and emerging microfluidic operations such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with extremely high sensing capability (10?15?M) and in vitro small interfering RNA transfection with enhanced transfection efficiency of ~80%. PMID:26202206

  6. Path-programmable water droplet manipulations on an adhesion controlled superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Lee, Jaehong; Seung Lee, Jung; Kwon, Hyukho; Cho, Seung-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Taeyoon

    2015-07-01

    Here, we developed a novel and facile method to control the local water adhesion force of a thin and stretchable superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate with micro-pillar arrays that allows the individual manipulation of droplet motions including moving, merging and mixing. When a vacuum pressure was applied below the PDMS substrate, a local dimple structure was formed and the water adhesion force of structure was significantly changed owing to the dynamically varied pillar density. With the help of the lowered water adhesion force and the slope angle of the formed dimple structure, the motion of individual water droplets could be precisely controlled, which facilitated the creation of a droplet-based microfluidic platform capable of a programmable manipulation of droplets. We showed that the platform could be used in newer and emerging microfluidic operations such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with extremely high sensing capability (10-15?M) and in vitro small interfering RNA transfection with enhanced transfection efficiency of ~80%.

  7. Turbulent plane Poiseuille-Couette flow as a model for fluid slip over superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quoc T; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V

    2013-12-01

    In this study, plane Poiseuille-Couette flow is simulated as a model for specified streamwise slip on one of the channel walls. The relative velocity between the two walls is set to be 1, 2, and 4 in viscous wall units. This is equivalent to the presence of a superhydrophobic surface at one of the channel walls that causes fluid to slip on the boundary. The results show that the streamwise slip forces turbulence in the near-wall region to tend towards a limiting one-component state. This leads to the suppression of small scale turbulence and laminarization close to the wall and then to drag reduction. The selective weakening of the streamwise vorticity close the wall and the observed decrease of turbulence kinetic energy production can then be considered as a consequence of this effect. Changes in the coherent structures, including a decrease of sweep events and increase of ejection events close to the wall where slip occurs, are also observed. PMID:24483565

  8. Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Very Low Hysteresis Prepared by Aggregation of Silica Nanoparticles During In Situ Urea-Formaldehyde Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Anubhav; Jensen, David S; Gupta, Vipul; Johnson, Brian I; Evans, Delwyn; Telford, Clive; Linford, Matthew R

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method for the preparation of superhydrophobic materials by in situ aggregation of silica nanoparticles on a surface during a urea-formaldehyde (UF) polymerization. This is a one-step process in which a two-tier topography is obtained. The polymerization is carried out for 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min on silicon shards. Silicon surfaces are sintered to remove the polymer. SEM and AFM show both an increase in the area covered by the nanoparticles and their aggregation with increasing polymerization time. Chemical vapor deposition of a fluorinated silane in the presence of a basic catalyst gives these surfaces hydrophobicity. Deposition of this low surface energy silane is confirmed by the F 1s signal in XPS. The surfaces show advancing water contact angles in excess of 160 degrees with very low hysteresis (< 7) after 120 min and 60 min polymerization times for 7 nm and 14 nm silica, respectively. Depositions are successfully demonstrated on glass substrates after they are primed with a UF polymer layer. Superhydrophobic surfaces can also be prepared on unsintered substrates. PMID:26682448

  9. Liquid-infused nanostructured surfaces with extreme anti-ice and anti-frost performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Philseok; Wong, Tak-Sing; Alvarenga, Jack; Kreder, Michael J; Adorno-Martinez, Wilmer E; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2012-08-28

    Ice-repellent coatings can have significant impact on global energy savings and improving safety in many infrastructures, transportation, and cooling systems. Recent efforts for developing ice-phobic surfaces have been mostly devoted to utilizing lotus-leaf-inspired superhydrophobic surfaces, yet these surfaces fail in high-humidity conditions due to water condensation and frost formation and even lead to increased ice adhesion due to a large surface area. We report a radically different type of ice-repellent material based on slippery, liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), where a stable, ultrasmooth, low-hysteresis lubricant overlayer is maintained by infusing a water-immiscible liquid into a nanostructured surface chemically functionalized to have a high affinity to the infiltrated liquid and lock it in place. We develop a direct fabrication method of SLIPS on industrially relevant metals, particularly aluminum, one of the most widely used lightweight structural materials. We demonstrate that SLIPS-coated Al surfaces not only suppress ice/frost accretion by effectively removing condensed moisture but also exhibit at least an order of magnitude lower ice adhesion than state-of-the-art materials. On the basis of a theoretical analysis followed by extensive icing/deicing experiments, we discuss special advantages of SLIPS as ice-repellent surfaces: highly reduced sliding droplet sizes resulting from the extremely low contact angle hysteresis. We show that our surfaces remain essentially frost-free in which any conventional materials accumulate ice. These results indicate that SLIPS is a promising candidate for developing robust anti-icing materials for broad applications, such as refrigeration, aviation, roofs, wires, outdoor signs, railings, and wind turbines. PMID:22680067

  10. Nano-structured surface plasmon resonance sensor for sensitivity enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Sop; Kim, Jin-Ho; Choi, Sung-Wook; Cho, Yong-Jin

    2008-08-01

    A new nano-structured SPR sensor was devised to improve its sensitivity. Nano-scaled silica particles were used as the template to fabricate nano-structure. The surface of the silica particles was modified with thiol group and a single layer of the modified silica particles was attached on the gold or silver thin film using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. Thereafter, gold or silver was coated on the template by an e-beam evaporator. Finally, the nano-structured surface with basin-like shape was obtained after removing the silica particles by sonication. Applying the new developed SPR sensor to a model food of alcoholic beverage, the sensitivities for the gold and silver nano-structured sensors, respectively, had 95% and 126% higher than the conventional one.

  11. Formation and Mechanism of Superhydrophobic/Hydrophobic Surfaces Made from Amphiphiles through Droplet-Mediated Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fangyuan; Zhang, Mi; Tang, Wai-Wa; Wang, Yi

    2015-04-23

    Superhydrophobic/hydrophobic surfaces have attracted wide attention because of their broad applications in various regions, including coating, textile, packaging, electronic devices, and bioengineering. Many studies have been focused on the fabrication of superhydrophobic/hydrophobic surfaces using natural materials. In this paper, superhydrophobic/hydrophobic surfaces were formed by an amphiphilic natural protein, zein, using electrospinning. Water contact angle (WCA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the hydrophobicity and surface morphology of the electrospun structures. The highest WCA of the zein electrospun surfaces could reach 155.5 ± 1.4°. To further understand the mechanism of superhydrophobic surface formation from amphiphiles using electrospinning, a synthetic amphiphilic polymer was selected, and also, a method similar to electrospinning, spray drying, was tried. The electrospun amphiphilic polymer surface showed a high hydrophobicity with a WCA of 141.4 ± 0.7°. WCA of the spray-dried zein surface could reach 125.3 ± 2.1°. The secondary structures of the zein in the electrospun film and cast-dried film were studied using ATR-FTIR, showing that ?-helix to ?-sheet transformation happened during the solvent evaporation in the cast drying process but not in the electrospinning process. A formation mechanism was proposed on the basis of the orientation of the amphiphiles during the solvent evaporation of different fabrication methods. The droplet-based or jet-based evaporation during electrospinning and spray drying led to the formation of the superhydrophobic/hydrophobic surface by the accumulation of the hydrophobic groups of the amphiphiles on the surface, while the surface-based evaporation during cast drying led to the formation of the hydrophilic surface by the accumulation of the hydrophilic groups of the amphiphiles on the surface. PMID:25835644

  12. Development of nanostructured surfaces for ice protection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Azar

    2012-02-01

    Ice accretion on surfaces of aircrafts, wind turbine blades, oil and gas rigs and heat exchangers, to name a few examples, presents long recognized problems with respect to efficiency and cost of operation. For instance, significant ice accretion on critical surfaces of an aircraft will cause problems during lift off (and will change the aerodynamics of the wings during flight. On the other hand, ice built up on wind turbine blades in cold climates (T < -20 C) drastically reduces the efficiency of power generation. Despite considerable number of studies and significant progress toward development of icephobic coatings, development of robust ice-resistance or anti-icing coatings is still elusive. Several approaches towards development of anti-icing surfaces have recently postulated that the superhydrophobic properties of hierarchically textured coatings, with contact angles > 150 , may lead to a significant reduction and perhaps elimination of snow and ice accretion. However, the exact mechanism of delayed icing on these surfaces is still under debate. Here we present a systematic study of early stages of ice formation upon water droplet impact on a range of hydrophobic, hydrophilic, textured and chemically patterned surfaces. We show that, in addition to a significant reduction in ice-adhesion strength on superhydrophobic surfaces, decreasing the water-substrate contact area plays a dual role in delaying ice nucleation: first by reducing heat-transfer and second by reducing the probability of heterogeneous nucleation at the water-substrate interface. The study presented here also offers a comprehensive perspective on the efficacy of textured surfaces for practical non-icing applications.

  13. Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min

    2013-10-01

    An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79°) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5°) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150°) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 °C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 ?L) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

  14. A bioinspired planar superhydrophobic microboat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Jiale; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Dongshi; Du, Guangqing; Si, Jinhai; Yun, Feng; Hou, Xun

    2014-03-01

    In nature, a frog can easily rest on a lotus leaf even though the frog's weight is several times the weight of the lotus leaf. Inspired by the lotus leaf, we fabricated a planar superhydrophobic microboat (SMB) with a superhydrophobic upper surface on a PDMS sheet which was irradiated by a focused femtosecond laser. The SMB can not only float effortlessly over the water surface but can also hold up some heavy objects, exhibiting an excellent loading capacity. The water surface is curved near the edge of the upper surface and the SMB's upper edge is below the water level, greatly enhancing the displacement. Experimental results and theoretical analysis demonstrate that the superhydrophobicity on the edge of the upper surface is responsible for the SMB's large loading capacity. Here, we call it the ‘superhydrophobic edge effect’.

  15. Surface effects on shape and topology optimization of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanthakumar, S. S.; Valizadeh, Navid; Park, Harold S.; Rabczuk, Timon

    2015-07-01

    We present a computational method for the optimization of nanostructures, where our specific interest is in capturing and elucidating surface stress and surface elastic effects on the optimal nanodesign. XFEM is used to solve the nanomechanical boundary value problem, which involves a discontinuity in the strain field and the presence of surface effects along the interface. The boundary of the nano-structure is implicitly represented by a level set function, which is considered as the design variable in the optimization process. Two objective functions, minimizing the total potential energy of a nanostructure subjected to a material volume constraint and minimizing the least square error compared to a target displacement, are chosen for the numerical examples. We present results of optimal topologies of a nanobeam subject to cantilever and fixed boundary conditions. The numerical examples demonstrate the importance of size and aspect ratio in determining how surface effects impact the optimized topology of nanobeams.

  16. Formation of hierarchical ZnO nanostructure on tinfoil substrate and the application on wetting repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun; Xia, Jun; Jing, Chen; Lei, Wei; Wang, Bao-ping

    2011-10-01

    Hierarchical ZnO (zinc oxide) nanostructures composed with nano-sheet and micro-flower structures (made from the nano-sheet) have been generated on tinfoil substrate via a chemical bath deposition process. Benefiting from an inherent distinct lattice constant compared with commonly used glass or other kinds of substrate, the tinfoil substrate played an important role on the formation of the hierarchical ZnO nanostructures. The resulting hierarchical ZnO surface shows excellent superhydrophobicity and extremely low water rolling angle after being modified with spin coating Teflon. The flexible and superhydrophobic characteristics of such fabricated substrate will be beneficial for applications requiring bendable and lightweight superhydrophobic substrates. In addition, the multifunctional properties of ZnO nanostructures are expected to broaden the applications to electronic and optical applications.

  17. Uni-directional liquid spreading on asymmetric nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kuang-Han; Xiao, Rong; Wang, Evelyn N

    2010-05-01

    Controlling surface wettability and liquid spreading on patterned surfaces is of significant interest for a broad range of applications, including DNA microarrays, digital lab-on-a-chip, anti-fogging and fog-harvesting, inkjet printing and thin-film lubrication. Advancements in surface engineering, with the fabrication of various micro/nanoscale topographic features, and selective chemical patterning on surfaces, have enhanced surface wettability and enabled control of the liquid film thickness and final wetted shape. In addition, groove geometries and patterned surface chemistries have produced anisotropic wetting, where contact-angle variations in different directions resulted in elongated droplet shapes. In all of these studies, however, the wetting behaviour preserves left-right symmetry. Here, we demonstrate that we can harness the design of asymmetric nanostructured surfaces to achieve uni-directional liquid spreading, where the liquid propagates in a single preferred direction and pins in all others. Through experiments and modelling, we determined that the spreading characteristic is dependent on the degree of nanostructure asymmetry, the height-to-spacing ratio of the nanostructures and the intrinsic contact angle. The theory, based on an energy argument, provides excellent agreement with experimental data. The insights gained from this work offer new opportunities to tailor advanced nanostructures to achieve active control of complex flow patterns and wetting on demand. PMID:20348909

  18. Uni-directional liquid spreading on asymmetric nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Kuang-Han; Xiao, Rong; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2010-05-01

    Controlling surface wettability and liquid spreading on patterned surfaces is of significant interest for a broad range of applications, including DNA microarrays, digital lab-on-a-chip, anti-fogging and fog-harvesting, inkjet printing and thin-film lubrication. Advancements in surface engineering, with the fabrication of various micro/nanoscale topographic features, and selective chemical patterning on surfaces, have enhanced surface wettability and enabled control of the liquid film thickness and final wetted shape. In addition, groove geometries and patterned surface chemistries have produced anisotropic wetting, where contact-angle variations in different directions resulted in elongated droplet shapes. In all of these studies, however, the wetting behaviour preserves left-right symmetry. Here, we demonstrate that we can harness the design of asymmetric nanostructured surfaces to achieve uni-directional liquid spreading, where the liquid propagates in a single preferred direction and pins in all others. Through experiments and modelling, we determined that the spreading characteristic is dependent on the degree of nanostructure asymmetry, the height-to-spacing ratio of the nanostructures and the intrinsic contact angle. The theory, based on an energy argument, provides excellent agreement with experimental data. The insights gained from this work offer new opportunities to tailor advanced nanostructures to achieve active control of complex flow patterns and wetting on demand.

  19. Surface modification of blood-contacting biomaterials by plasma-polymerized superhydrophobic films using hexamethyldisiloxane and tetrafluoromethane as precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Chaio-Ru; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chou, Chia-Man; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a plasma polymerization system that can be used to modify the surface of the widely used biomaterial, polyurethane (PU), by employing low-cost hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and tetrafluoromethane (CF4) as precursors; this system features a pulsed-dc power supply. Plasma-polymerized HMDSO/CF4 (pp-HC) with coexisting micro- and nanoscale morphology was obtained as a superhydrophobic coating material by controlling the HMDSO/CF4 (fH) monomer flow ratio. The developed surface modification technology can be applied to medical devices, because it is non-cytotoxic and has favorable hemocompatibility, and no blood clots form when the device surface direct contacts. Experimental results reveal that the obtained pp-HC films contained SiOx nanoparticles randomly dispersed on the micron-scale three-dimensional network film surface. The sbnd CF functional group, sbnd CF2 bonding, and SiOx were detected on the film surface. The maximal water contact angle of the pp-HC coating was 161.2°, apparently attributable to the synergistic effect of the coexisting micro- and nanoscale surface morphology featuring a low surface-energy layer. The superhydrophobic and antifouling characteristics of the coating were retained even after it was rubbed 20 times with a steel wool tester. Results of in vitro cytotoxicity, fibrinogen adsorption, and platelet adhesion tests revealed favorable myoblast cell proliferation and the virtual absence of fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion on the pp-HC coated specimens. These quantitative findings imply that the pp-HC coating can potentially prevent the formation of thrombi and provide an alternative means of modifying the surfaces of blood-contacting biomaterials.

  20. Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanotube Forests Kenneth K. S. Lau*1

    E-print Network

    Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanotube Forests Kenneth K. S. Lau*1 , José Bico2 , Kenneth B. K. Teo3 demonstrates the creation of a stable, superhydrophobic surface using the nano-scale roughness inherent (PTFE) coating on the surface of the nanotubes. Superhydrophobicity is achieved down to the microscopic

  1. Nanostructured surfaces for anti-biofouling/anti-microbial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2009-05-01

    Recent nanotechnology revolutions have cast increased challenges to biotechnology including bio-adhesion of cells. Surface topography and chemistry tailored by the nanotechnology exert significant effects on such applications so that it is necessary to understand how cells migrate and adhere on three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures. However, the effects of the surface topography and chemistry on cell adhesions have not been studied systematically and interactively yet mostly due to the inability to create well-controlled nanostructures over a relatively large surface area. In this paper, we report on the bio-adhesions of varying cell types on well-ordered (post and grate patterns), dense-array (230 nm in pattern periodicity), and sharp-tip (less than 10 nm in tip radius) nanostructures with varying three-dimensionalities (50- 500 nm in structural height). Significantly lower cell proliferation and smaller cell size were measured on tall nanostructures. On a grate pattern, significant cell elongation and alignment along the grate pattern were observed. On tall nanostructures, it was shown that cells were levitated by sharp tips and easily peeled off, suggesting that cell adherence to the tall and sharp-tip nanostructures was relatively weak. The control of cell growth and adherence by the nanoscale surface topographies can benefit the micro- and nanotechnogies-based materials, devices, and systems, such as for anti-biofouling and anti-microbial surfaces. The obtained knowledge by this investigation will also be useful to deal with engineering problems associated with the contact with biological substances such as biomaterials and biosensors.

  2. Facile preparation of super durable superhydrophobic materials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Zhang, Junping; Li, Bucheng; Fan, Ling; Li, Lingxiao; Wang, Aiqin

    2014-10-15

    The low stability, complicated and expensive fabrication procedures seriously hinder practical applications of superhydrophobic materials. Here we report an extremely simple method for preparing super durable superhydrophobic materials, e.g., textiles and sponges, by dip coating in fluoropolymers (FPs). The morphology, surface chemical composition, mechanical, chemical and environmental stabilities of the superhydrophobic textiles were investigated. The results show how simple the preparation of super durable superhydrophobic textiles can be! The superhydrophobic textiles outperform their natural counterparts and most of the state-of-the-art synthetic superhydrophobic materials in stability. The intensive mechanical abrasion, long time immersion in various liquids and repeated washing have no obvious influence on the superhydrophobicity. Water drops are spherical in shape on the samples and could easily roll off after these harsh stability tests. In addition, this simple dip coating approach is applicable to various synthetic and natural textiles and can be easily scaled up. Furthermore, the results prove that a two-tier roughness is helpful but not essential with regard to the creation of super durable superhydrophobic textiles. The combination of microscale roughness of textiles and materials with very low surface tension is enough to form super durable superhydrophobic textiles. According to the same procedure, superhydrophobic polyurethane sponges can be prepared, which show high oil absorbency, oil/water separation efficiency and stability. PMID:25069050

  3. Integrating anti-reflection and superhydrophobicity of moth-eye-like surface morphology on a large-area flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chia-Hsing; Niu, Pei-Lun; Sung, Cheng-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) roll-to-roll (R2R) process with argon and oxygen (Ar-O2) plasma ashing and coating of a dilute perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) layer to fabricate the large-area moth-eye-like surface morphology on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. By using Maxwell-Garnett's effective medium theory, the optimal dimensions of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was designed and fabricated with UV-NIL R2R process to obtain maximum transmittance ratio. In addition, the base angle (? = 30.1°) of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was modified with Ar-O2 plasma ashing and coated with a dilute FDTS layer to possess both superhydrophobic and air-retention properties. This increases both the transmittance ratio of 4% and contact angle to 153°.

  4. Nanostructured surfaces for surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petefish, Joseph W.

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has achieved widespread recognition as a sensitive, label-free, and versatile optical method for monitoring changes in refractive index at a metal-dielectric interface. Refractive index deviations of 10-6 RIU are resolvable using SPR, and the method can be used in real-time or ex-situ. Instruments based on carboxymethyl dextran coated SPR chips have achieved commercial success in biological detection, while SPR sensors can also be found in other fields as varied as food safety and gas sensing. Chapter 1 provides a physical background of SPR sensing. A brief history of the technology is presented, and publication data are included that demonstrate the large and growing interest in surface plasmons. Numerous applications of SPR sensors are listed to illustrate the broad appeal of the method. Surface plasmons (SPs) and surface plasmon polaritions (SPPs) are formally defined, and important parameters governing their spatial behavior are derived from Maxwell's equations and appropriate boundary conditions. Physical requirements for exciting SPs with incident light are discussed, and SPR imaging is used to illustrate the operating principle of SPR-based detection. Angle-tunable surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) of polymer vibrational modes via grating-coupled SPR is demonstrated in Chapter 2. Over 10-fold enhancement of C-H stretching modes was found relative to the absorbance of the same film in the absence of plasmon excitation. Modeling results are used to support and explain experimental observations. Improvements to the grating coupler SEIRA platform in Chapter 2 are explored in Chapters 3 and 4. Chapter 3 displays data for two sets of multipitch gratings: one set with broadly distributed resonances with the potential for multiband IR enhancement and the other with finely spaced, overlapping resonances to form a broadband IR enhancement device. Diffraction gratings having multiple periods were fabricated using a Lloyd's mirror interferometer to perform multiple exposures at multiple angles before developing. Precise control of the resonance position is shown by locating three SPR dips at predetermined wavenumbers of 5000, 4000, and 3000 cm-1, respectively. A set of three gratings, each having four closely spaced resonances is employed to show how the sensor response could be broadened. The work in Chapter 3 shows potential for simultaneous enhancement of multiple vibrational modes; the multiband approach might find application for modes at disparate locations within the IR spectrum, while the broadband approach may allow concurrent probing of broad single modes or clusters of narrow modes within a particular neighborhood of the spectrum. Chapter 4 uses the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method to numerically explore another facet of the nanostructure-based tunability of grating-baed SPR sensing. The work in this chapter illustrates how infrared signal enhancement could be tailored by through adjustment of the grating amplitude. Modeled infrared reflection absorption (IRRAS) spectra and electric field distributions were generated for several nanostructured grating configurations. It was found that there exists a critical amplitude value for a given grating pitch where the plasmon response achieves a maximum. Amplitudes greater than this critical value produce a broader and attenuated plasmon peak, while smaller amplitudes produce a plasmon resonance that is not as intense. Field simulations show how amplitudes nearer the critical amplitude resulted in large increases in the electric field within an analyte film atop the sensor surface, and the relative strength of the increased field is predictable based on the appearance of the IRRAS spectra. It is believed that these larger fields are the cause of observed enhanced absorption. Published reports pertaining to interactions of SPs with molecular resonance and to diffraction-based tracking of plasmons without a spectrometer are included in the Appendix to this thesis. In the first of the two reports, it is shown that plasmons

  5. Superhydrophobic surfaces allow probing of exosome self organization using X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardo, Angelo; Tirinato, Luca; Altamura, Davide; Sibillano, Teresa; Giannini, Cinzia; Riekel, Christian; di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2013-02-01

    Drops of exosome dispersions from healthy epithelial colon cell line and colorectal cancer cells were dried on a superhydrophobic PMMA substrate. The residues were studied by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering using both a synchrotron radiation micrometric beam and a high-flux table-top X-ray source. Structural differences between healthy and cancerous cells were detected in the lamellar lattices of the exosome macro-aggregates.Drops of exosome dispersions from healthy epithelial colon cell line and colorectal cancer cells were dried on a superhydrophobic PMMA substrate. The residues were studied by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering using both a synchrotron radiation micrometric beam and a high-flux table-top X-ray source. Structural differences between healthy and cancerous cells were detected in the lamellar lattices of the exosome macro-aggregates. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34032e

  6. Understanding the biological responses of nanostructured metals and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Terry C.; Reiss, Rebecca A.

    2014-08-01

    Metals produced by Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) offer distinct advantages for medical applications such as orthopedic devices, in part because of their nanostructured surfaces. We examine the current theoretical foundations and state of knowledge for nanostructured biomaterials surface optimization within the contexts that apply to bulk nanostructured metals, differentiating how their microstructures impact osteogenesis, in particular, for Ultrafine Grained (UFG) titanium. Then we identify key gaps in the research to date, pointing out areas which merit additional focus within the scientific community. For example, we highlight the potential of next-generation DNA sequencing techniques (NGS) to reveal gene and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) expression changes induced by nanostructured metals. While our understanding of bio-nano interactions is in its infancy, nanostructured metals are already being marketed or developed for medical devices such as dental implants, spinal devices, and coronary stents. Our ability to characterize and optimize the biological response of cells to SPD metals will have synergistic effects on advances in materials, biological, and medical science.

  7. Imprinted and injection-molded nano-structured optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Alexander B.; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Clausen, Jeppe; Caringal, Gideon P.; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by nature, nano-textured surfaces have attracted much attention as a method to realize optical surface functionality. The moth-eye antireflective structure and the structural colors of Morpho butterflies are well- known examples used for inspiration for such biomimetic research. In this paper, nanostructured polymer surfaces suitable for up-scalable polymer replication methods, such as imprinting/embossing and injection-molding, are discussed. The limiting case of injection-moulding compatible designs is investigated. Anti-reflective polymer surfaces are realized by replication of Black Silicon (BSi) random nanostructure surfaces. The optical transmission at normal incidence is measured for wavelengths from 400 nm to 900 nm. For samples with optimized nanostructures, the reflectance is reduced by 50 % compared to samples with planar surfaces. The specular and diffusive reflection of light from polymer surfaces and their implication for creating structural colors is discussed. In the case of injection-moulding compatible designs, the maximum reflection of nano-scale textured surfaces cannot exceed the Fresnel reflection of a corresponding flat polymer surface, which is approx. 4 % for normal incidence. Diffraction gratings provide strong color reflection defined by the diffraction orders. However, the apperance varies strongly with viewing angles. Three different methods to address the strong angular-dependence of diffraction grating based structural color are discussed.

  8. Flow in channels with superhydrophobic trapezoidal textures

    E-print Network

    Nizkaya, Tatiana V; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2013-01-01

    Superhydrophobic one-dimensional surfaces reduce drag and generate transverse hydrodynamic phenomena by combining hydrophobicity and roughness to trap gas bubbles in a microscopic textures. Recent work in this area has focused on specific cases of superhydrophobic stripes. Here we study theoretically and numerically the hydrodynamic flow in a channel with a superhydrophobic trapezoidal texture. These allow us to evaluate the drag reduction and anisotropy of the flow for various trapezoidal reliefs. Our results provide a framework for the rational design of superhydrophobic surfaces for microfluidic applications.

  9. Making micro soccer balls: Spherical macro-clusters of colloidal particles by droplet evaporation on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Alvaro; Susarrey-Arce, Arturo; Gardeniers, Han; Lohse, Detlef

    2011-11-01

    Imagine a clean capillary droplet evaporating in a fakir state on a superhydrophobic micro-structured surface. When the superhydrophobicity is robust enough, the droplet will always remain on top of the micro-structure and the droplet will retain its spherical shape until its ``death.'' Very often one can observe the remains of the impurities within the droplet left on top of the structure at the end of the process. In this work, instead of using clean liquid droplets, we use dilute colloidal dispersion droplets of monodisperse polymer micro-spheres (sizes from 0 . 2 to 2 ?m). The colloidal dispersion droplet retains its spherical shape during its whole life, even when the whole solution has been evaporated. The remaining object consist on a spherical-shaped massive cluster of particles with diameters ranging from a few tens of microns up to several hundreds of microns, depending on the amount of micro-particles present in the solution and on the final packing fraction. We will discuss on the different observed packing fractions, particle arrangements and their governing parameters. Additionally some predictions will also be introduced.

  10. A self-cleaning polybenzoxazine/TiO2 surface with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity for oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenfei; Lu, Xin; Xin, Zhong; Zhou, Changlu

    2015-11-19

    Two important properties-the low surface free energy of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) and the photocatalysis-induced self-cleaning property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles-are combined to develop a promising approach for oil/water separation. They are integrated into a multifunctional superhydrophobic and superoleophilic material, PBZ/TiO2 modified polyester non-woven fabrics (PBZT), through a simple dip coating and subsequent thermal curing method. The resulting PBZT reveals excellent mechanical durability and strong resistance to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as well as acid and alkali. This durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic fabric is efficient for separating oil/water mixtures by gravity with high separation efficiency, and it can also purify wastewater that contains soluble dyes, which makes it more effective and promising in treating water pollution. Importantly, PBZT demonstrates an integrated self-cleaning performance on the removal of both oil and particle contamination. It is expected that this simple process can be readily adopted for the design of multifunctional PBZ/TiO2 based materials for oil/water separation. PMID:26530425

  11. From petal effect to lotus effect: a facile solution immersion process for the fabrication of super-hydrophobic surfaces with controlled adhesion.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongjun; Du, Ming; Lai, Hua; Zhang, Naiqing; Sun, Kening

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a convenient approach based on the reaction between an alkyl thiol and hierarchical structured Cu(OH)2 substrates is reported for the fabrication of super-hydrophobic surfaces with controlled adhesion. This reaction can etch the Cu(OH)2 microstructures and simultaneously introduce a coating with low surface energy. By simply controlling the reaction time or the chain length of the thiol, super-hydrophobic surfaces with controlled adhesion can be achieved, and the adhesive force between the surface and the water droplet can be adjusted from extreme low (?14 ?N) to very high (?65 ?N). The tunable effect of the adhesion is ascribed to the different wetting states for the droplet on the surface that results from the change of the morphology and microstructure scale after the thiolate reaction. Noticeably, the as-prepared surfaces are acid/alkali-resisting; the acidic and basic water droplets have similar contact angles and adhesive forces to that of the neutral water droplet. Moreover, we demonstrate a proof of water droplet transportation for application in droplet-based microreactors via our surfaces. We believe that the results reported here would be helpful for the further understanding of the effect of wetting states on the surface adhesion and the fabrication principle for a super-hydrophobic surface with controlled adhesion. PMID:23429404

  12. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milekhin, A. G.; Sveshnikova, L. L.; Duda, T. A.; Yeryukov, N. A.; Rodyakina, E. E.; Gutakovskii, A. K.; Batsanov, S. A.; Latyshev, A. V.; Zahn, D. R. T.

    2016-01-01

    We review our recent results concerning surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by confined optical and surface optical phonons in semiconductor nanostructures including CdS, CuS, GaN, and ZnO nanocrystals, GaN and ZnO nanorods, and AlN nanowires. Enhancement of Raman scattering by confined optical phonons as well as appearance of new Raman modes with the frequencies different from those in ZnO bulk attributed to surface optical modes is observed in a series of nanostructures having different morphology located in the vicinity of metal nanoclusters (Ag, Au, and Pt). Assignment of surface optical modes is based on calculations performed in the frame of the dielectric continuum model. It is established that SERS by phonons has a resonant character. A maximal enhancement by optical phonons as high as 730 is achieved for CdS nanocrystals in double resonant conditions at the coincidence of laser energy with that of electronic transitions in semiconductor nanocrystals and localized surface plasmon resonance in metal nanoclusters. Even a higher enhancement is observed for SERS by surface optical modes in ZnO nanocrystals (above 104). Surface enhanced Raman scattering is used for studying phonon spectrum in nanocrystal ensembles with an ultra-low areal density on metal plasmonic nanostructures.

  13. A continuum state variable theory to model the size-dependent surface energy of nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Jamshidian, Mostafa; Thamburaja, Prakash; Rabczuk, Timon

    2015-09-23

    We propose a continuum-based state variable theory to quantify the excess surface free energy density throughout a nanostructure. The size-dependent effect exhibited by nanoplates and spherical nanoparticles i.e. the reduction of surface energy with reducing nanostructure size is well-captured by our continuum state variable theory. Our constitutive theory is also able to predict the reducing energetic difference between the surface and interior (bulk) portions of a nanostructure with decreasing nanostructure size. PMID:26365098

  14. Bioinspired multifunctional hetero-hierarchical micro/nanostructure tetragonal array with self-cleaning, anticorrosion, and concentrators for the SERS detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao-Xin; Chen, Yu-Xue; Guo, Zheng; Liu, Hong-Lin; Wang, Da-Peng; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2013-11-13

    Heterohierarchical micro/nanostructure tetragonal array consisted of engineering materials of microprotrusion-like Cu and secondary nanostructured dendrite Ag have been fabricated via a primary cell-induced deposition and a facile galvanic displacement reaction combined with photolithography technique on Cu foil. Confined by the circle microwell tetragonal array of the photoresist template, regular microprotrusion-like Cu with the tunable size of diameter can be easily deposited on the surface of Cu foil. Then, the secondary dendritic Ag nanostructures in situ grow on the surface of microprotrusion via a galvanic displacement reaction, leading to the formation of heterohierarchical micro/nanostructure tetragonal array, which is similar to the surface microstructure of the lotus leaf. Inspired by this novel surface structure of imitating lotus leaf, its wettability has been systematically investigated. The results indicate that the fabricated heterohierarchical micro/nanostructure regular array after the surface fluoration presents a remarkable superhydrophobic performance. Initiated from its superhydrophobicity, an excellent self-cleaning property has also been demonstrated. In addition, the durability of the superhydrophobic surfaces is examined in the wide pH range of corrosive liquids. Notably, the fabricated superhydrophobic surface can be potentially used as concentrators, which presents a great perspective in the field of analysis through employing the SERS detection as an example. PMID:24080041

  15. Supercooled Water Drops Impacting Superhydrophobic Textures Tanmoy Maitra,

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    Supercooled Water Drops Impacting Superhydrophobic Textures Tanmoy Maitra, Carlo Antonini, Manish K with superhydrophobic surface textures is of fundamental significance for unraveling the mechanisms of icing as well investigate the problem of supercooled water drops impacting superhydrophobic textures for drop supercooling

  16. Transverse flow in thin superhydrophobic channels Franois Feuillebois,1

    E-print Network

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Transverse flow in thin superhydrophobic channels François Feuillebois,1 Martin Z. Bazant,2 in superhydrophobic channels. Our focus is on the canonical micro- and nanofluidic geometry of a parallel are possible. Optimized superhydrophobic surfaces may find applications in passive microfluidic mixing

  17. Influence of slip on vortex-induced motion of a superhydrophobic cylinder

    E-print Network

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    Influence of slip on vortex-induced motion of a superhydrophobic cylinder Robert Daniello, Pranesh: Superhydrophobic Ultrahydrophobic Superhydrophobicity Slip Partial slip Drag reduction Vortex Cylinder a b s t r a c t The partial slip boundary condition produced by a superhydrophobic surface in the Cassie state

  18. Superhydrophobic conductive carbon nanotube coatings for steel.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sunny; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2009-04-21

    We report the synthesis of superhydrophobic coatings for steel using carbon nanotube (CNT)-mesh structures. The CNT coating maintains its structural integrity and superhydrophobicity even after exposure to extreme thermal stresses and has excellent thermal and electrical properties. The coating can also be reinforced by optimally impregnating the CNT-mesh structure with cross-linked polymers without significantly compromising on superhydrophobicity and electrical conductivity. These superhydrophobic conductive coatings on steel, which is an important structural material, open up possibilities for many new applications in the areas of heat transfer, solar panels, transport of fluids, nonwetting and nonfouling surfaces, temperature resilient coatings, composites, water-walking robots, and naval applications. PMID:19281157

  19. Superhydrophobic and anti-icing properties at overcooled temperature of a fluorinated hybrid surface prepared via a sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhan, Xiaoli; Chen, Fengqiu

    2015-06-14

    A superhydrophobic surface with anti-icing performance has been the focus of research, but few studies have reported the effective and low cost strategy that met the requirements under overcooled conditions. In this article, the fluorinated sol-gel colloid coatings were simply prepared via hydrolytic condensation of nanosilica sol, methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) and 3-[(perfluorohexylsulfonyl)amino]propyltriethoxysilane (HFTES). The multi scale morphology and chemical composition of the artificial surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The influence of the surface roughness structure and fluorinated groups on the wettability and freezing delay time of the colloid surface under overcooled conditions were explored. As the HFTES content was higher than 6 wt%, the prepared colloid surface showed excellent superhydropobicity with a contact angle (CA) of about 166° at room temperature. The CA gradually reduced with the decrease of the temperature. Only the samples with high HFTES contents (above 30 wt%) exhibited special superhydrophobic and anti-icing properties under freeze temperature. Besides the surface roughness structure, the high fluoride enrichment on the surface plays a major role in the superhydrophobic and anti-icing properties under overcooled conditions. PMID:25966370

  20. Coherent ExcitonSurface-Plasmon-Polariton Interaction in Hybrid Metal-Semiconductor Nanostructures

    E-print Network

    Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

    Coherent Exciton­Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Interaction in Hybrid Metal-Semiconductor Nanostructures polaritons (SPP) and quantum well excitons in a hybrid metal-semiconductor nanostructure. The hybrid when placed close to a metallic nanostructure due to its coupling to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs

  1. Dropwise Condensation on Micro- and Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    In this review we cover recent developments in the area of surface- enhanced dropwise condensation against the background of earlier work. The development of fabrication techniques to create surface structures at the micro- ...

  2. Superhydrophobic Coating SSSSSSSSSSuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuupppppppppppppppppppeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeerrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhyyyyyyyyddddddddddrrrrrrrooooppppphhhhhhhhoooooooooobbbbbbiiiicccc CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC

    E-print Network

    Siefert, Chris

    Superhydrophobic Coating 1 CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCoooooooooooooooooooooooooooooaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaattttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnggggggggggggggggggggggg 1 #12;Superhydrophobic Coating 2 Sandia National Laboratories P.O. Box 5800,MS 1349 Albuquerque representation of this product. _____________________________ C.Jeffrey Brinker N/A Superhydrophobic Coating

  3. Nanostructured surfaces for microfluidics and sensing applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Picraux, Samuel Thomas; Piech, Marcin; Schneider, John F.; Vail, Sean; Hayes, Mark A.; Garcia, Anthony A.; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Gust, D; Yang, Dongqing

    2007-01-01

    The present work demonstrates the use of light to move liquids on a photoresponsive monolayer, providing a new method for delivering analyses in lab-on-chip environments for microfluidic systems. The light-driven motion of liquids was achieved on photoresponsive azobenzene modified surfaces. The surface energy components of azobenzene modified surfaces were calculated by Van Oss theory. The motion of the liquid was achieved by generation of a surface tension gradient by isomerization of azobenzene monolayers using UV and Visible light, thereby establishing a surface energy heterogeneity on the edge of the droplet. Contact angle measurements of various solvents were used to demonstrate the requirement for fluid motion.

  4. Wetting, superhydrophobicity, and icephobicity in biomimetic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, Vahid

    Recent developments in nano- and bio-technology require new materials. Among these new classes of materials which have emerged in the recent years are biomimetic materials, which mimic structure and properties of materials found in living nature. There are a large number of biological objects including bacteria, animals and plants with properties of interest for engineers. Among these properties is the ability of the lotus leaf and other natural materials to repel water, which has inspired researchers to prepare similar surfaces. The Lotus effect involving roughness-induced superhydrophobicity is a way to design nonwetting, self-cleaning, omniphobic, icephobic, and antifouling surfaces. The range of actual and potential applications of superhydrophobic surfaces is diverse including optical, building and architecture, textiles, solar panels, lab-on-a-chip, microfluidic devices, and applications requiring antifouling from biological and organic contaminants. In this thesis, in chapter one, we introduce the general concepts and definitions regarding the wetting properties of the surfaces. In chapter two, we develop novel models and conduct experiments on wetting of composite materials. To design sustainable superhydrophobic metal matrix composite (MMC) surfaces, we suggest using hydrophobic reinforcement in the bulk of the material, rather than only at its surface. We experimentally study the wetting properties of graphite-reinforced Al- and Cu-based composites and conclude that the Cu-based MMCs have the potential to be used in the future for the applications where the wear-resistant superhydrophobicity is required. In chapter three, we introduce hydrophobic coating at the surface of concrete materials making them waterproof to prevent material failure, because concretes and ceramics cannot stop water from seeping through them and forming cracks. We create water-repellant concretes with CA close to 160o using superhydrophobic coating. In chapter four, experimental data are collected in terms of oleophobicity especially when underwater applications are of interest. We develop models for four-phase rough interface of underwater oleophobicity and develop a novel approach to predict the CA of organic liquid on the rough surfaces immersed in water. We investigate wetting transition on a patterned surface in underwater systems, using a phase field model. We demonstrated that roughening on an immersed solid surface can drive the transition from Wenzel to Cassie-Baxter state. This discovery improves our understanding of underwater systems and their surface interactions during the wetting phenomenon and can be applied for the development of underwater oil-repellent materials which are of interest for various applications in the water industry, and marine devices. In chapter five, we experimentally and theoretically investigate the icephobicity of composite materials. A novel comprehensive definition of icephobicity, broad enough to cover a variety of situations including low adhesion strength, delayed ice crystallization, and bouncing is determined. Wetting behavior and ice adhesion properties of various samples are theoretically and experimentally compared. We conclude superhydrophobic surfaces are not necessarily icephobic. The models are tested against the experimental data to verify the good agreement between them. The models can be used for the design of novel superhydrophobic, oleophobic, omniphobic and icephobic composite materials. Finally we conclude that creating surface micro/nanostructures using mechanical abrasion or chemical etching as well as applying low energy materials are the most simple, inexpensive, and durable techniques to create superhydrophobic, oleophobic, and icephobic materials.

  5. Impact of surface nanostructure on ice nucleation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang-Xiong; Chen, Min; Fu, Ming

    2014-09-28

    Nucleation of water on solid surface can be promoted noticeably when the lattice parameter of a surface matches well with the ice structure. However, the characteristic length of the surface lattice reported is generally less than 0.5 nm and is hardly tunable. In this paper, we show that a surface with nanoscale roughness can also remarkably promote ice nucleation if the characteristic length of the surface structure matches well with the ice crystal. A series of surfaces composed of periodic grooves with same depth but different widths are constructed in molecular dynamics simulations. Water cylinders are placed on the constructed surfaces and frozen at constant undercooling. The nucleation rates of the water cylinders are calculated in the simulation using the mean first-passage time method and then used to measure the nucleation promotion ability of the surfaces. Results suggest that the nucleation behavior of the supercooled water is significantly sensitive to the width of the groove. When the width of the groove matches well with the specific lengths of the ice crystal structure, the nucleation can be promoted remarkably. If the width does not match with the ice crystal, this kind of promotion disappears and the nucleation rate is even smaller than that on the smooth surface. Simulations also indicate that even when water molecules are adsorbed onto the surface structure in high-humidity environment, the solid surface can provide promising anti-icing ability as long as the characteristic length of the surface structure is carefully designed to avoid geometric match. PMID:25273463

  6. Femtosecond laser induced nanostructuring for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messaoudi, H.; Das, S. K.; Lange, J.; Heinrich, F.; Schrader, S.; Frohme, M.; Grunwald, R.

    2014-03-01

    The formation of periodical nanostructures with femtosecond laser pulses was used to create highly efficient substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). We report about the structuring of silver and copper substrates and their application to the SERS of DNA (herring sperm) and protein molecules (egg albumen). The maximum enhancement factors were found on Ag substrates processed with the second harmonic generation (SHG) of a 1-kHz Ti:sapphire laser and structure periods near the SHG wavelength. In the case of copper, however, the highest enhancement was obtained with long-period ripples induced with at fundamental wavelength. This is explained by an additional significant influence of nanoparticles on the surface. Nanostructured areas in the range of 1.25 mm2 were obtained in 10 s. The surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fast Fourier Transform and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the role of the chemical modification of the metal structures is addressed. Thin oxide layers resulting from working in atmosphere which improve the biocompatibility were indicated by vibration spectra. It is expected that the detailed study of the mechanisms of laser-induced nanostructure formation will stimulate further applications of functionalized surfaces like photocatalysis, selective chemistry and nano-biology.

  7. How superhydrophobicity breaks down

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Periklis; Mammen, Lena; Deng, Xu; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    A droplet deposited or impacting on a superhydrophobic surface rolls off easily, leaving the surface dry and clean. This remarkable property is due to a surface structure that favors the entrainment of air cushions beneath the drop, leading to the so-called Cassie state. The Cassie state competes with the Wenzel (impaled) state, in which the liquid fully wets the substrate. To use superhydrophobicity, impalement of the drop into the surface structure needs to be prevented. To understand the underlying processes, we image the impalement dynamics in three dimensions by confocal microscopy. While the drop evaporates from a pillar array, its rim recedes via stepwise depinning from the edge of the pillars. Before depinning, finger-like necks form due to adhesion of the drop at the pillar’s circumference. Once the pressure becomes too high, or the drop too small, the drop slowly impales the texture. The thickness of the air cushion decreases gradually. As soon as the water–air interface touches the substrate, complete wetting proceeds within milliseconds. This visualization of the impalement dynamics will facilitate the development and characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:23382197

  8. Enantioselectivity on Surfaces with Chiral Nanostructures

    E-print Network

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    of amino acids that form proteins, the building blocks of life, and of DNA, which encodes the genetic solid surfaces and can be made enantioselective by using chiral surfaces. There are three common types that they are nonsuperimposable on their mirror images. One of the most common and versatile approaches to

  9. Effect of the size of silica nanoparticles on wettability and surface chemistry of sol-gel superhydrophobic and oleophobic nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, R. V.; Bera, Parthasarathi; Anandan, C.; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2014-11-01

    Superhydrophobic sol-gel nanocomposite coatings have been fabricated by incorporating silica nanoparticles with different particle sizes separately in an acid-catalyzed sol of methyltriethoxysilane (MTEOS). Water contact angle (WCA) of the coatings increased with increase in the concentration of silica nanoparticles in both the cases. The coatings became superhydrophobic at an optimum silica concentration. The water repellency was further improved by the addition of fluoroalkylsilane (FAS). The optimum silica concentration was found to depend on the size of silica nanoparticles and FAS content and the coatings exhibited WCA of about 160° and water sliding angle (WSA) of <2°. FAS addition also improved the oleophobicity of the coatings. The coatings exhibited oil-repellency with a lubricant oil contact angle of 126° and ethylene glycol contact angle of 153.3°. Surface morphology of the coatings analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed a rough surface with microscale bumps and nanoscale pores. XPS was used to study the surface composition of the coatings. The superhydrophobic property of the coatings was due to the synergistic effect of surface chemistry and surface microstructure and can be explained using Cassie-Baxter model.

  10. Nanostructured Surfaces for Drug Delivery and Anti-Fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, Kimberly Renee

    Effective and cost-efficient healthcare is at the forefront of public discussion; on both personal and policy levels, technologies that improve therapeutic efficacy without the use of painful hypodermic needle injections or the use of harsh chemicals would prove beneficial to patients. Nanostructured surfaces as structure-mediated permeability enhancers introduce a potentially revolutionary approach to the field of drug delivery. Parental administration routes have been the mainstay technologies for delivering biologics because these therapeutics are too large to permeate epithelial barriers. However, there is a significant patient dislike for hypodermic needles resulting in reduced patient compliance and poor therapeutic results. We present an alternative strategy to harness the body's naturally occurring biological processes and transport mechanisms to enhance the drug transport of biologics across the epithelium. Our strategy offers a paradigm shift from traditional biochemical drug delivery vehicles by using nanotopography to loosen the epithelial barrier. Herein, we demonstrate that nanotopographical cues can be used to enable biologics > 66 kDa to be transported across epithelial monolayers by increasing paracellular transport. When placed in contact with epithelial cells, nanostructured films significantly increase the transport of albumin, IgG, and a model therapeutic, etanercept. Our work highlights the potential to use drug delivery systems which incorporate nanotopographical cues to increase the transport of biologics across epithelial tissue. Furthermore, we describe current advancements in nano- and microfabrication for applications in anti-fibrosis and wound healing. Influencing cellular responses to biomaterials is crucial in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Since cells are surrounded by extracellular matrix features that are on the nanoscale, identifying nanostructures for imparting desirable cellular function could greatly impact the field. Due to the rise in micro and nanofabrication techniques borrowed from the advances in the microelectronics industry, previously unattainable nanostructured surfaces on a variety of biomaterials can be generated. We investigated how nanostructured surfaces with varying nanofeature aspect ratios can influence fibrosis. Thus, nanostructured surfaces show substantial progress for therapeutic applications in drug delivery and wound healing.

  11. Superhydrophobic aerogel that does not require per-fluoro compounds or contain any fluorine

    DOEpatents

    Kissel, David J.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    2015-05-26

    Provided are superhydrophobic coatings, devices and articles including superhydrophobic coatings, and methods for preparing the superhydrophobic coatings. The exemplary superhydrophobic device can include a substrate component and one or more superhydrophobic coatings disposed over the substrate component, wherein at least one of the one or more superhydrophobic coatings has a water contact angle of at least about 150.degree. and a contact angle hysteresis of less than about 1.degree.. The one or more superhydrophobic coatings can include an ultra high water content acid catalyzed polysilicate gel, the polysilicate gel including a three dimensional network of silica particles having surface functional groups derivatized with a silylating agent and a plurality of pores.

  12. Femtosecond surface plasmon interferometry with gold nanostructures

    E-print Network

    Temnov, Vasily V.

    We measure the ultrafast electron dynamics in gold via ultrafast surface plasmon interferometry. A new plasmonic microinterferometer with tilted slit-groove pair is used to unambiguously determine changes of real and ...

  13. DROPWISE CONDENSATION ON MICRO- AND NANOSTRUCTURED SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Enright, R; Miljkovic, N; Alvarado, JL; Kim, K; Rose, JW

    2014-07-23

    In this review we cover recent developments in the area of surface-enhanced dropwise condensation against the background of earlier work. The development of fabrication techniques to create surface structures at the micro-and nanoscale using both bottom-up and top-down approaches has led to increased study of complex interfacial phenomena. In the heat transfer community, researchers have been extensively exploring the use of advanced surface structuring techniques to enhance phase-change heat transfer processes. In particular, the field of vapor-to-liquid condensation and especially that of water condensation has experienced a renaissance due to the promise of further optimizing this process at the micro-and nanoscale by exploiting advances in surface engineering developed over the last several decades.

  14. Simulation of rough nanostructured surfaces for ARXPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, S.

    Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) is a commonly used method for non-destructive depth-profile analysis in the range of nanometer thickness. To quantify the measuring data, model calculations are used which usually approximate the surface structures by smooth layers. This is often far away from reality because at least surface and interface roughness always influences the measurement results. We recently introduced a computer algorithm for the simulation of ARXPS measurement results on inhomogeneous surface structures to study such influences. Surface roughness is modeled by different inhomogeneities (objects like islands, hollows, pores) at smooth surface overlayers. Model calculations with varied object sizes show that inhomogeneous structures can be more and more well described with homogeneous smooth layers when lowering the typical length dimensions. In parallel, the obtained effective amount of overlayer material (or effective overlayer thickness, respectively) is systematically lower than the real one. Problems with the stability of solutions and influences of errors are discussed. It must be summarized that the information content of ARXPS data is substantially decreased for structures with dimensions in the range of the attenuation length of the used electrons by virtual homogenization from edge and shadowing effects.

  15. Superhydrophobic materials for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohe, Stefan Thomas

    Superhydrophobicity is a property of material surfaces reflecting the ability to maintain air at the solid-liquid interface when in contact with water. These surfaces have characteristically high apparent contact angles, by definition exceeding 150°, as a result of the composite material-air surface formed under an applied water droplet. Superhydrophobic surfaces were first discovered on naturally occurring substrates, and have subsequently been fabricated in the last several decades to harness these favorable surface properties for a number of emerging applications, including their use in biomedical settings. This work describes fabrication and characterization of superhydrophobic 3D materials, as well as their use as drug delivery devices. Superhydrophobic 3D materials are distinct from 2D superhydrophobic surfaces in that air is maintained not just at the surface of the material, but also within the bulk. When the superhydrophobic 3D materials are submerged in water, water infiltrates slowly and continuously as a new water-air-material interface is formed with controlled displacement of air. Electrospinning and electrospraying are used to fabricate superhydrophobic 3D materials utilizing blends of the biocompatible polymers poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and poly(caprolactone-co-glycerol monostearate) (PGC-C18). PGC-C18 is significantly more hydrophobic than PCL (contact angle of 116° versus 83° for flat materials), and further additions of PGC-C18 into electrospun meshes and electrosprayed coatings affords increased stability of the entrapped air layer. For example, PCL meshes alone (500 mum thick) take 10 days to fully wet, and with 10% or 30% PGC-C18 addition wetting rates are dramatically slowed to 60% wetted by 77 days and 4% by 75 days, respectively. Stability of the superhydrophobic materials can be further probed with a variety of physio-chemical techniques, including pressure, surfactant containing solutions, and solvents of varying surface tension. Superhydrophobicity is shown to be enhanced with further increases in PGC-C18 content and surface roughness (a decrease in fiber size). We demonstrate the utility of superhydrophobicity as a method for drug delivery. When the camptothecin derivatives SN-38 and CPT-11 are encapsulated within electrospun meshes, changes in air layer stability (due to changes in PGC-C18 content) dictate the rate of drug release by controlling the rate in which water can permeate into the porous 3D electrospun structure. Drug release can be tuned from 2 weeks to >10 weeks from 300 mum meshes, and meshes effectively kill a variety of cancer cell lines (lung, colon, breast) when utilized in a cytotoxicity assay. After determining that air could be used to control the rate of drug release, superhydrophobic 3D materials are explored for three applications. First, meshes are considered as a potential combination reinforcement-drug delivery device for use in resectable colorectal cancer. Second, removal of the air layer in superhydrophobic meshes is used as a method to trigger drug release. The pressure generated from high-intensity focused ultrasound (0.75-4.25 MPa) can remove the air layer spatially and temporally, allowing drug release to be controlled with application of a sufficient treatment. Third, "connective" electrosprayed coatings are deposited on chemically distinct material surfaces, which are both three-dimensional and mechanically robust. In summary, superhydrophobic 3D materials are fabricated and characterized, and are utilized as drug delivery devices. Controlled air removal from these materials offers an entirely new strategy for drug delivery, and is promising for the applications considered in this work as well as many others.

  16. Rational nanostructuring of surfaces for extraordinary icephobicity

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    , such surfaces delayed the freezing of a sessile supercooled water droplet at the same temperature lower than the freezing point.5,10­15 Additionally, roughness can critically affect the heteroge- neous by a remarkable 25 hours. Introduction Ice formation is practically as old as the presence of water on earth

  17. Trapping Nanostructures on Surfaces through Weak Interactions.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Vivien; Kikkawa, Yoshihiro; Koepf, Matthieu; Hijazi, Ismail; Wytko, Jennifer A; Campidelli, Stéphane; Goujon, Antoine; Kanesato, Masatoshi; Weiss, Jean

    2015-09-14

    The assembly of imidazole-functionalized phenanthroline-strapped zinc porphyrins (ZnPorphen) with alkyl or polyethylene glycol (PEG) side chains was studied in solution and by AFM after casting on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) or mica. The nature of the solvent and its evaporation time influenced the morphology of the objects observed. On HOPG, short rods of about 100?nm were observed after fast evaporation of solutions of the alkyl derivatives in CHCl3 , THF, or pyridine, whereas islands of aligned rows of longer wires were obtained from methylcyclohexane (MCH). Slow evaporation of MCH led to a three-dimensional assembly. The PEG porphyrin assembled into short wires on HOPG or fibers on mica after slow evaporation of solutions in THF. This study shows the role of surface-molecule interactions in the interfacial assembly of ZnPorphen derivatives and contributes to understanding the parameters that control their noncovalent assembly into molecular wires on a surface. PMID:26270238

  18. Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, S. A.; Bagnall, D. M.

    2008-09-01

    Broadband antireflection schemes for silicon surfaces based on the moth-eye principle and comprising arrays of subwavelength-scale pillars are applicable to solar cells, photodetectors, and stealth technologies and can exhibit very low reflectances. We show that rigorous coupled wave analysis can be used to accurately model the intricate reflectance behavior of these surfaces and so can be used to explore the effects of variations in pillar height, period, and shape. Low reflectance regions are identified, the extent of which are determined by the shape of the pillars. The wavelengths over which these low reflectance regions operate can be shifted by altering the period of the array. Thus the subtle features of the reflectance spectrum of a moth-eye array can be tailored for optimum performance for the input spectrum of a specific application.

  19. Sensitive And Selective Chemical Sensor With Nanostructured Surfaces.

    DOEpatents

    Pipino, Andrew C. R. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2003-02-04

    A chemical sensor is provided which includes an optical resonator including a nanostructured surface comprising a plurality of nanoparticles bound to one or more surfaces of the resonator. The nanoparticles provide optical absorption and the sensor further comprises a detector for detecting the optical absorption of the nanoparticles or their environment. In particular, a selective chemical interaction is provided which modifies the optical absorption of the nanoparticles or their environment, and an analyte is detected based on the modified optical absorption. A light pulse is generated which enters the resonator to interrogate the modified optical absorption and the exiting light pulse is detected by the detector.

  20. Table of Contents Superhydrophilic and Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces for Microfluidics and Thermal Management 4-1

    E-print Network

    Reif, Rafael

    for Insect Flight Mechanics 4-32 Biomimetically Inspired MEMS Pressure Sensor Assays for Passive Underwater Detection of Fast Reaction Kinetics in Nanochannels with an Induced Flow 4-4 Integration of Actuated

  1. Electrostatic charging of jumping droplets on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces : fundamental study and applications

    E-print Network

    Preston, Daniel J. (Daniel John)

    2014-01-01

    Condensation is a ubiquitous process often observed in nature and harnessed in many industrial processes such as power generation, desalination, thermal management, and building environmental control. Recent advancements ...

  2. Surface nanostructuring by ion-induced localized plasma expansion in zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    El-Said, A. S. E-mail: a.s.el-said@hzdr.de; Moslem, W. M.; Djebli, M.

    2014-06-09

    Creation of hillock-like nanostructures on the surface of zinc oxide single crystals by irradiation with slow highly charged ions is reported. At constant kinetic energy, the nanostructures were only observed after irradiation with ions of potential energies above a threshold between 19.1?keV and 23.3?keV. The size of the nanostructures increases as a function of potential energy. A plasma expansion approach is used to explain the nanostructures creation. The calculations showed that the surface nanostructures became taller with the increase of ionic temperature. The influence of charged cluster formation and the relevance of their polarity are discussed.

  3. Superomniphobic, transparent, and antireflection surfaces based on hierarchical nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Prantik; Jiang, Yongdong; Baker, David; Carrilero, Albert; Tulli, Domenico; Infante, Daniel; Hunt, Andrew T; Pruneri, Valerio

    2014-08-13

    Optical surfaces that can repel both water and oil have much potential for applications in a diverse array of technologies including self-cleaning solar panels, anti-icing windows and windshields for automobiles and aircrafts, low-drag surfaces, and antismudge touch screens. By exploiting a hierarchical geometry made of two-tier nanostructures, primary nanopillars of length scale ? 100-200 nm superposed with secondary branching nanostructures made of nanoparticles of length scale ? 10-30 nm, we have achieved static contact angles of more than 170° and 160° for water and oil, respectively, while the sliding angles were lower than 4°. At the same time, with respect to the initial flat bare glass, the nanotextured surface presented significantly reduced reflection (<0.5%), increased transmission (93.8% average over the 400 to 700 nm wavelength range), and very low scattering values (about 1% haze). To the authors' knowledge, these are the highest optical performances in conjunction with superomniphobicity reported to date in the literature. The primary nanopillars are monolithically integrated in the glass surface using lithography-free metal dewetting followed by reactive ion etching,1 while the smaller and higher surface area branching structure made of secondary nanoparticles are deposited by the NanoSpray2 combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). PMID:24988148

  4. Superhydrophobic graphene foams.

    PubMed

    Singh, Eklavya; Chen, Zongping; Houshmand, Farzad; Ren, Wencai; Peles, Yoav; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2013-01-14

    The static and dynamic wetting properties of a 3D graphene foam network are reported. The foam is synthesized using template-directed chemical vapor deposition and contains pores several hundred micrometers in dimension while the walls of the foam comprise few-layer graphene sheets that are coated with Teflon. Water contact angle measurements reveal that the foam is superhydrophobic with an advancing contact angle of ?163 degrees while the receding contact angle is ?143 degrees. The extremely water repellent nature of the foam is also confirmed when impacting water droplets are able to completely rebound from the surface. Such superhydrophobic graphene foams show potential in a variety of applications ranging from anti-sticking and self-cleaning to anti-corrosion and low-friction coatings. PMID:22911509

  5. Titanium nanostructural surface processing for improved biocompatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.-C.; Lee, S.-Y.; Chen, C.-C.; Shyng, Y.-C.; Ou, K.-L.

    2006-10-23

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incident x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to evaluate the effect of titanium hydride on the formation of nanoporous TiO{sub 2} on Ti during anodization. Nano-titanium-hydride was formed cathodically before anodizing and served as a sacrificial nanoprecipitate during anodization. Surface oxidation occurred and a multinanoporous structure formed after cathodic pretreatments followed by anodization treatment. The sacrificial nanoprecipitate is directly dissolved and the Ti transformed to nanoporous TiO{sub 2} by anodization. The formation of sacrificial nanoprecipitates by cathodic pretreatment and of the multinanostructure by anodization is believed to improve biocompatibility, thereby promoting osseointegration.

  6. Magnetically induced decrease in droplet contact angle on nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Ristenpart, William D; Stroeve, Pieter

    2011-10-01

    We report a magnetic technique for altering the apparent contact angle of aqueous droplets deposited on a nanostructured surface. Polymeric tubes with embedded superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles were prepared via layer-by-layer deposition in the 800 nm diameter pores of polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) membranes. Etching away the original membrane yields a superparamagnetic film composed of mostly vertical tubes attached to a rigid substrate. We demonstrate that the apparent contact angle of pure water droplets deposited on the nanostructured film is highly sensitive to the ante situm strength of an applied magnetic field, decreasing linearly from 117 ± 1.3° at no applied field to 105 ± 0.4° at an applied field of approximately 500 G. Importantly, this decrease in contact angle did not require an inordinately strong magnetic field: a 15° decrease in contact angle was observed even with a standard alnico bar magnet. We interpret the observed contact angle behavior in terms of magnetically induced conformation changes in the film nanostructure, and we discuss the implications for reversibly switching substrates from hydrophilic to hydrophobic via externally tunable magnetic fields. PMID:21882807

  7. Architecting boron nanostructure on the diamond particle surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, H.; Dai, D.; Yu, J. H.; Nishimura, K.; Sasaoka, S.; Jiang, N.

    2014-02-01

    The present study provides an efficient approach for nano-functionalization of diamond powders. Boron nanostructure can be grown on diamond particle entire surface by a simple heat-treatment process. After treatment, various boron nanoforms were grown on the diamond particle surface at different processing temperature. High-density boron nanowires (BNWs) grow on the diamond particle entire surface at 1333 K, while nanopillars cover diamond powders when the heat treatment process is performed at 1393 K. The influence of the pretreatment temperature on the microstructure and thermal conductivity of Cu/diamond composites were investigated. Cu/diamond composites with high thermal conductivity of 670 W (m K)-1 was obtained, which was achieved by the formation of large number of nanowires and nanopillars on the diamond particle surface.

  8. PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 25, 062108 (2013) Predicting longevity of submerged superhydrophobic

    E-print Network

    Tafreshi, Hooman Vahedi

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 25, 062108 (2013) Predicting longevity of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces) A mathematical framework is developed to predict the longevity of a submerged superhydrophobic surface made up as the interface touches the groove's bottom. For demonstration, a superhydrophobic surface made of parallel

  9. Nanostructuring of molybdenum and tungsten surfaces by low-energy helium ions

    SciTech Connect

    De Temmerman, Gregory; Bystrov, Kirill; Zielinski, Jakub J.; Balden, Martin; Matern, Gabriele; Arnas, Cecile; Marot, Laurent

    2012-07-15

    The formation of metallic nanostructures by exposure of molybdenum and tungsten surfaces to high fluxes of low energy helium ions is studied as a function of the ion energy, plasma exposure time, and surface temperature. Helium plasma exposure leads to the formation of nanoscopic filaments on the surface of both metals. The size of the helium-induced nanostructure increases with increasing surface temperature while the thickness of the modified layer increases with time. In addition, the growth rate of the nanostructured layer also depends on the surface temperature. The size of the nanostructure appears linked with the size of the near-surface voids induced by the low energy ions. The results presented here thus demonstrate that surface processing by low-energy helium ions provides an efficient route for the formation of porous metallic nanostructures.

  10. Strong Casimir force reduction through metallic surface nanostructuring

    PubMed Central

    Intravaia, Francesco; Koev, Stephan; Jung, Il Woong; Talin, A. Alec; Davids, Paul S.; Decca, Ricardo S.; Aksyuk, Vladimir A.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; López, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The Casimir force between bodies in vacuum can be understood as arising from their interaction with an infinite number of fluctuating electromagnetic quantum vacuum modes, resulting in a complex dependence on the shape and material of the interacting objects. Becoming dominant at small separations, the force has a significant role in nanomechanics and object manipulation at the nanoscale, leading to a considerable interest in identifying structures where the Casimir interaction behaves significantly different from the well-known attractive force between parallel plates. Here we experimentally demonstrate that by nanostructuring one of the interacting metal surfaces at scales below the plasma wavelength, an unexpected regime in the Casimir force can be observed. Replacing a flat surface with a deep metallic lamellar grating with sub-100?nm features strongly suppresses the Casimir force and for large inter-surfaces separations reduces it beyond what would be expected by any existing theoretical prediction. PMID:24071657

  11. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Shillingford, C; MacCallum, N; Wong, TS; Kim, P; Aizenberg, J

    2013-12-11

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e. g., rain), and when exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. Herein we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.

  12. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Shillingford, Cicely; MacCallum, Noah; Wong, Tak -Sing; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-12-11

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e.g., rain), and when exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. However we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.

  13. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shillingford, Cicely; MacCallum, Noah; Wong, Tak -Sing; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-12-11

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e.g., rain), and whenmore »exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. However we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.« less

  14. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shillingford, Cicely; MacCallum, Noah; Wong, Tak-Sing; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e.g., rain), and when exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. Herein we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.

  15. Frictional forces between hydrophilic and hydrophobic particle coated nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Petra M; Claesson, Per M; Swerin, Agne; Briscoe, Wuge H; Schoelkopf, Joachim; Gane, Patrick A C; Thormann, Esben

    2013-11-01

    Friction forces have long been associated with the famous Amontons' rule that states that the friction force is linearly dependent on the applied normal load, with the proportionality constant being known as the friction coefficient. Amontons' rule is however purely phenomenological and does not in itself provide any information on why the friction coefficient is different for different material combinations. In this study, friction forces between a colloidal probe and nanostructured particle coated surfaces in an aqueous environment exhibiting different roughness length scales were measured by utilizing the atomic force microscope (AFM). The chemistry of the surfaces and the probe was varied between hydrophilic silica and hydrophobized silica. For hydrophilic silica surfaces, the friction coefficient was significantly higher for the particle coated surfaces than on the flat reference surface. All the particle coated surfaces exhibited similar friction coefficients, from which it may be concluded that the surface geometry, and not the roughness amplitude per se, influenced the measured friction. During measurements with hydrophobic surfaces, strong adhesive forces related to the formation of a bridging air cavity were evident from both normal force and friction force measurements. In contrast to the frictional forces between the hydrophilic surfaces, the friction coefficient for hydrophobic surfaces was found to depend on the surface structure and we believe that this dependence is related to the restricted movement of the three-phase line of the bridging air cavity. For measurements using a hydrophobic surface and a hydrophilic probe, the friction coefficient was significantly smaller compared to the two homogeneous systems. A layer of air or air bubbles on the hydrophobic surface working as a lubricating layer is a possible mechanism behind this observation. PMID:24056733

  16. Effects of long pulse width and high pulsing frequency on surface superhydrophobicity of polytetrafluoroethylene in quasi-direct-current plasma immersion ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Dixon T. K.; Wang Huaiyu; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Chu, Paul K.; Zhang Yumei

    2009-03-01

    Long pulse, high frequency quasi-direct-current (dc) oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is utilized to create a superhydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface with a water contact angle of over 150 deg. This technique allows the use of a high duty cycle without deleterious effects such as extensive sample heating encountered in conventional PIII. Scanning electron microscopy images review submicrometer-nanometer structures on the PTFE surface after long pulse, high frequency PIII indicative of ion implantation. On the other hand, plasma modification is the dominant effect in short pulse, low frequency PIII. Quasi-dc PIII is demonstrated to offer adjustable synergistic plasma and ion beam effects.

  17. Nanostructures and pinholes on W surfaces exposed to high flux D plasma at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y. Z.; Liu, W.; Xu, B.; Luo, G.-N.; Li, C.; Fu, B. Q.; De Temmerman, G.

    2015-08-01

    Nanostructures and pinholes formed on tungsten surface exposed to high fluxes (1024 m-2 s-1) deuterium ions at 943 K and 1073 K were studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. Nanostructure formation is observed at 943 K and 1073 K, and exhibits a strong dependence on the surface orientation. With increasing fluence, pinholes appear on the surface and are mainly observed on grains with surface normal near [1 1 1]. The pinholes are speculated to be caused by the rupture of bubbles formed near the surface. The formation of pinholes has no obvious relationship with the surface nanostructures.

  18. Superhydrophobic membranes with ordered arrays of nanospiked microchannels for water desalination.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zeyu; Hong, Yan; Ma, Liyuan; Su, Ming

    2009-05-19

    Membrane distillation can desalinate seawater using low-grade heat energy or solar heat, but it has limited mass fluxes and membrane fouling issues. Glass membranes with integrated arrays of nanospiked microchannels and a narrow pore size distribution are made through a process that involves glass fiber drawing, dissolving template material from microchannels and differential chemical etching. After surface modification, superhydrophobic glass membranes with water contact angles of over 160 degrees are produced because of the formations of ordered arrays of spiked nanostructures. The superhydrophobic membrane has shown better antifouling ability and higher flux than those of existing polymer membranes, especially at high salt concentration, owing to its large pore diameter, straight pore shape, narrow pore size distribution, high chemical and thermal stabilities, and water-repelling ability. PMID:19341278

  19. Superhydrophobicity in perfection: the outstanding properties of the lotus leaf

    PubMed Central

    Ditsche-Kuru, Petra; Neinhuis, Christoph; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Summary Lotus leaves have become an icon for superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning surfaces, and have led to the concept of the ‘Lotus effect’. Although many other plants have superhydrophobic surfaces with almost similar contact angles, the lotus shows better stability and perfection of its water repellency. Here, we compare the relevant properties such as the micro- and nano-structure, the chemical composition of the waxes and the mechanical properties of lotus with its competitors. It soon becomes obvious that the upper epidermis of the lotus leaf has developed some unrivaled optimizations. The extraordinary shape and the density of the papillae are the basis for the extremely reduced contact area between surface and water drops. The exceptional dense layer of very small epicuticular wax tubules is a result of their unique chemical composition. The mechanical robustness of the papillae and the wax tubules reduce damage and are the basis for the perfection and durability of the water repellency. A reason for the optimization, particularly of the upper side of the lotus leaf, can be deduced from the fact that the stomata are located in the upper epidermis. Here, the impact of rain and contamination is higher than on the lower epidermis. The lotus plant has successfully developed an excellent protection for this delicate epistomatic surface of its leaves. PMID:21977427

  20. Engineering aperiodic nanostructured surfaces for scattering-based optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuk Kwan Sylvanus

    Novel optical devices such as biosensors, color displays and authentication devices can be obtained from the distinctive light scattering properties of resonant nanoparticles and nanostructured arrays. These arrays can be optimized through the choice of material, particle morphology and array geometry. In this thesis, by engineering the multi-frequency colorimetric responses of deterministic aperiodic nanostructured surfaces (DANS) with various spectral Fourier properties, I designed, fabricated and characterized scattering-based devices for optical biosensing and structural coloration applications. In particular, using analytical and numerical optimization, colorimetric biosensors are designed and fabricated with conventional electron beam lithography, and characterized using dark-field scattering imaging as well as image autocorrelation analysis of scattered intensity in the visible spectral range. These sensors, which consist of aperiodic surfaces ranging from quasi-periodic to pseudo-random structures with flat Fourier spectra, sustain highly complex structural resonances that enable a novel optical sensing approach beyond the traditional Bragg scattering. To this end, I have experimentally demonstrated that DANS with engineered structural colors are capable of detecting nanoscale protein monolayers with significantly enhanced sensitivity over periodic structures. In addition, different aperiodic arrays of gold (Au) nanoparticles are integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic structures by soft-lithographic micro-imprint techniques. Distinctive scattering spectral shifts and spatial modifications of structural color patterns in response to refractive index variations were simultaneously measured. The successful integration of DANS with microfluidics technology has introduced a novel opto-fluidic sensing platform for label-free and multiplexed lab-on-a-chip applications. Moreover, by studying the isotropic scattering properties of homogenized Pinwheel aperiodic arrays, angle-insensitive (i.e. isotropic) coloration from nanostructured metal surfaces can be designed and optimized without randomization. Pinwheel nanoparticle arrays on a gold thin film were fabricated for the first time and investigated using dark-field scattering and angle-resolved reflectivity measurements. In sharp contrast to the colorimetric responses of periodically nanopatterned surfaces, which strongly depend on the observation angle, spatially uniform and isotropic green coloration of gold films were demonstrated using these engineered metal surfaces. In addition, the intensity of the scattered light is enhanced by plasmonic resonance originated from gold nanoparticles deposited on the gold substrates. The development of the enhanced isotropic scattering devices could advance plasmonic applications to color display, optical tagging and colorimetric sensing technologies.

  1. Effect of mesoscopic misfit on growth, morphology, electronic properties and magnetism of nanostructures at metallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovko, Oleg O.; Bazhanov, Dmitry I.; Meyerheim, Holger L.; Sander, Dirk; Stepanyuk, Valeri S.; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Stress and strain originating from mesoscopic misfit at interfaces can have diverse effects on the properties of surfaces and nanostructures thereon. We review the sources and consequences of mesoscopic misfit at metallic surfaces and elucidate various ways in which it affects growth, morphology, electronic properties and magnetism of thin films in early stages of epitaxy and epitaxial nanostructures.

  2. Multifunctional Superhydrophobic Polymer/Carbon Nanocomposites: Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, or Carbon Black?

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    were used to separate mineral oil and water through filtration of their mixture. KEYWORDS: superhydrophobic, multifunctional, nanocomposite, conductive, impalement resistance, oil-water separation, Switzerland *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Superhydrophobic surfaces resisting water penetration

  3. Study on Molding of a Nanostructured Plastic Plate and Its Surface Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Yeong-Eun; Kim, Tae Hoon; Choi, Doo-Sun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Choi, Seong Joo; Kim, Sun Kyung

    2009-06-01

    Plastic substrates with high-aspect-ratio surface nanostructures were fabricated by hot embossing using an anodic aluminum oxidation (AAO) membrane, and by injection molding using an AAO plate as a mold master with a very dense array of nanoholes on the surface. A new method of rapidly heating the AAO plate was used to injection-mold high-aspect-ratio nanostructures 120 nm in diameter and 1.5 µm high. The AAO plate was heated to over 150 °C to fill the nanoholes with melted polymer and then cooled to below 70 °C to release the molded nanostructures from the holes. Hot embossing was used to replicate surface nanostructures with an average diameter of 200 nm and a height of 60 µm. The contact angle and adhesive force of the hot-embossed textured surface were measured to estimate the effect of the surface nanostructures on the hydrophobicity and dry adhesiveness.

  4. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    PubMed

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties. PMID:26265296

  5. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Fiber Coatings by DC-Biased AC-Electrospinning

    E-print Network

    Tafreshi, Hooman Vahedi

    Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Fiber Coatings by DC-Biased AC-Electrospinning Fredrick O. Ochanda DC-biased AC-electrospinning. Superhydrophobic surfaces with water contact angles greater than 150 surfaces; electrospinning; DC-biased AC-electrospinning; superhydrophobic fibrous coatings; fabrication

  6. Au-coated ZnO nanostructures for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dikovska, A O; Nedyalkov, N N; Imamova, S E; Atanasova, G B; Atanasov, P A

    2012-03-31

    Thin ZnO nanostructured films were produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies. The experimental conditions used for preparation of the samples were chosen to obtain different types of ZnO nanostructures. The Raman spectra of rhodamine 6G (R6G) were measured at an excitation wavelength of 785 nm after coating the ZnO nanostructures with a thin Au layer. The influence of the surface morphology on the Raman signal obtained from the samples was investigated. High SERS signal enhancement was observed from all Au-coated ZnO nanostructures.

  7. A gecko skin micro/nano structure - A low adhesion, superhydrophobic, anti-wetting, self-cleaning, biocompatible, antibacterial surface.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gregory S; Green, David W; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Li, Xin; Cribb, Bronwen W; Myhra, Sverre; Watson, Jolanta A

    2015-07-01

    Geckos, and specifically their feet, have attracted significant attention in recent times with the focus centred around their remarkable adhesional properties. Little attention however has been dedicated to the other remaining regions of the lizard body. In this paper we present preliminary investigations into a number of notable interfacial properties of the gecko skin focusing on solid and aqueous interactions. We show that the skin of the box-patterned gecko (Lucasium sp.) consists of dome shaped scales arranged in a hexagonal patterning. The scales comprise of spinules (hairs), from several hundred nanometres to several microns in length, with a sub-micron spacing and a small radius of curvature typically from 10 to 20 nm. This micro and nano structure of the skin exhibited ultralow adhesion with contaminating particles. The topography also provides a superhydrophobic, anti-wetting barrier which can self clean by the action of low velocity rolling or impacting droplets of various size ranges from microns to several millimetres. Water droplets which are sufficiently small (10-100 ?m) can easily access valleys between the scales for efficient self-cleaning and due to their dimensions can self-propel off the surface enhancing their mobility and cleaning effect. In addition, we demonstrate that the gecko skin has an antibacterial action where Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis) are killed when exposed to the surface however eukaryotic cell compatibility (with human stem cells) is demonstrated. The multifunctional features of the gecko skin provide a potential natural template for man-made applications where specific control of liquid, solid and biological contacts is required. PMID:25772496

  8. Titanium Surfaces with Nanostructures Influence on Osteoblasts Proliferation: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Vilkinis, Valdas

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Nanothechnology found to be increasingly implemented in implantology sphere over the recent years and it shows encouraging effect in this field. The aim of present review is to compare, based on the recent evidence, the influence of various nanostructure surface modifications of titanium for implants, on osteoblasts proliferation. Material and Methods A literature review of English articles was conducted by using MEDLINE database restricted to 2009 - 2014 and constructed according PRISMA guidelines. Search terms included “Titanium implant”, “Titanium surface with nanostructure”, “Osteoblast”. Additional studies were identified in bibliographies. Only in vitro and/or in vivo studies on nano structured implant surfaces plus control sample, with specific evaluation method for osteoblasts proliferation and at least one Ti sample with nanostructure, were included in the review. Results 32 studies with 122 groups of examined samples were selected for present review. Each study conducted in vitro experiment, two studies conducted additional in vivo experiments. All studies were dispensed by type of surface modification into two major groups; “Direct ablative titanium implant surface nano-modifications” with 19 studies and ”Nanocomposite additive implant surface modifications” with 13 studies. Overall 24 studies reporting on positive effect of nanostructured surface, 2 studies found no significant advantage and 6 studies reported on negative effect compared to other structure scales. Conclusions From examination of selected articles we can notice marked advantage in implementation of various nanostructures onto implant surface. Yet for discovering the ultimate implant surface nanostructure, further comparable investigations of Ti surface nanostructures need to be done. PMID:25386228

  9. Structure of vapour deposited adenine on a nanostructured perovskite surface studied by STM

    E-print Network

    Castell, Martin

    Structure of vapour deposited adenine on a nanostructured perovskite surface studied by STM Donald the deposition under high vacuum of the nucleic acid base, adenine, on the surface of the perovskite mineral Sr

  10. Printing Highly Controlled Suspended Carbon Nanotube Network on Micro-patterned Superhydrophobic Flexible Surface

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Wang, Xin; Jung, Hyun Young; Kim, Young Lae; Robinson, Jeremy T.; Zalalutdinov, Maxim; Hong, Sanghyun; Hao, Ji; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Wan, Kai-Tak; Jung, Yung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) offer unique functionalities for electronic and electromechanical systems. Due to their outstanding flexible nature, suspended SWCNT architectures have great potential for integration into flexible electronic systems. However, current techniques for integrating SWCNT architectures with flexible substrates are largely absent, especially in a manner that is both scalable and well controlled. Here, we present a new nanostructured transfer paradigm to print scalable and well-defined suspended nano/microscale SWCNT networks on 3D patterned flexible substrates with micro- to nanoscale precision. The underlying printing/transfer mechanism, as well as the mechanical, electromechanical, and mechanical resonance properties of the suspended SWCNTs are characterized, including identifying metrics relevant for reliable and sensitive device structures. Our approach represents a fast, scalable and general method for building suspended nano/micro SWCNT architectures suitable for flexible sensing and actuation systems. PMID:26511284

  11. Printing Highly Controlled Suspended Carbon Nanotube Network on Micro-patterned Superhydrophobic Flexible Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Xin; Jung, Hyun Young; Kim, Young Lae; Robinson, Jeremy T.; Zalalutdinov, Maxim; Hong, Sanghyun; Hao, Ji; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Wan, Kai-Tak; Jung, Yung Joon

    2015-10-01

    Suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) offer unique functionalities for electronic and electromechanical systems. Due to their outstanding flexible nature, suspended SWCNT architectures have great potential for integration into flexible electronic systems. However, current techniques for integrating SWCNT architectures with flexible substrates are largely absent, especially in a manner that is both scalable and well controlled. Here, we present a new nanostructured transfer paradigm to print scalable and well-defined suspended nano/microscale SWCNT networks on 3D patterned flexible substrates with micro- to nanoscale precision. The underlying printing/transfer mechanism, as well as the mechanical, electromechanical, and mechanical resonance properties of the suspended SWCNTs are characterized, including identifying metrics relevant for reliable and sensitive device structures. Our approach represents a fast, scalable and general method for building suspended nano/micro SWCNT architectures suitable for flexible sensing and actuation systems.

  12. Printing Highly Controlled Suspended Carbon Nanotube Network on Micro-patterned Superhydrophobic Flexible Surface.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wang, Xin; Jung, Hyun Young; Kim, Young Lae; Robinson, Jeremy T; Zalalutdinov, Maxim; Hong, Sanghyun; Hao, Ji; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Wan, Kai-Tak; Jung, Yung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) offer unique functionalities for electronic and electromechanical systems. Due to their outstanding flexible nature, suspended SWCNT architectures have great potential for integration into flexible electronic systems. However, current techniques for integrating SWCNT architectures with flexible substrates are largely absent, especially in a manner that is both scalable and well controlled. Here, we present a new nanostructured transfer paradigm to print scalable and well-defined suspended nano/microscale SWCNT networks on 3D patterned flexible substrates with micro- to nanoscale precision. The underlying printing/transfer mechanism, as well as the mechanical, electromechanical, and mechanical resonance properties of the suspended SWCNTs are characterized, including identifying metrics relevant for reliable and sensitive device structures. Our approach represents a fast, scalable and general method for building suspended nano/micro SWCNT architectures suitable for flexible sensing and actuation systems. PMID:26511284

  13. Shaping of nanostructured surface in femtosecond laser ablation of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaji, Godai; Miyazaki, Kenzo

    2010-03-01

    We report that the nanostructured surface of diamondlike carbon films can be shaped so as to have a sawlike pattern with obliquely incident p-polarized femtosecond laser pulses. The nanoscale surface shape was observed as functions of incident angle, superimposed number and fluence of laser pulses and characterized with height and slope angle of the inclined surface. It is shown that the inclined shape is formed with the non-uniform spatial distribution of the local field enhanced on the nanostructured surface.

  14. Preparation of a Superhydrophobic and Peroxidase-like Activity Array Chip for H2O2 Sensing by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi; Park, Yeonju; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Bing; Jung, Young Mee; Cong, Qian

    2015-10-28

    In this paper, we propose a novel and simple method for preparing a dual-biomimetic functional array possessing both superhydrophobic and peroxidase-like activity that can be used for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensing. The proposed method is an integration innovation that combines the above two properties and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We integrated a series of well-ordered arrays of Au points (d = 1 mm) onto a superhydrophobic copper (Cu)/silver (Ag) surface by replicating an arrayed molybdenum template. Instead of using photoresists and the traditional lithography method, we utilized a chemical etching method (a substitution reaction between Cu and HAuCl4) with a Cu/Ag superhydrophobic surface as the barrier layer, which has the benefit of water repellency. The as-prepared Au points were observed to possess peroxidase-like activity, allowing for catalytic oxidation of the chromogenic molecule o-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (OPD). Oxidation was evidenced by a color change in the presence of H2O2, which allows the array chip to act as an H2O2 sensor. In this study, the water repellency of the superhydrophobic surface was used to fabricate the array chip and increase the local reactant concentration during the catalytic reaction. As a result, the catalytic reaction occurred when only 2 ?L of an aqueous sample (OPD/H2O2) was placed onto the Au point, and the enzymatic product, 2,3-diaminophenazine, showed a SERS signal distinguishable from that of OPD after mixing with 2 ?L of colloidal Au. Using the dual-biomimetic functional array chip, quantitative analysis of H2O2 was performed by observing the change in the SERS spectra, which showed a concentration-dependent behavior for H2O2. This method allows for the detection of H2O2 at concentrations as low as 3 pmol per 2 ?L of sample, which is a considerable advantage in H2O2 analysis. The as-prepared substrate was convenient for H2O2 detection because only a small amount of sample was required in each analysis. Highly sensitive detection was realized using SERS. Therefore, this chip was shown to exhibit significant potential for applications in bioanalysis. PMID:26437325

  15. Staudinger Vilarassa reaction: A powerful tool for surface modification and superhydrophobic properties.

    PubMed

    Godeau, Guilhem; Darmanin, Thierry; Guittard, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Here we report for the time, the use of Staudinger-Vilarrasa reaction for fast surface functionalization. Using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibrous surfaces bearing azido groups, this reaction allows for the functionalization of surfaces with amide linker in just 3 h. The functionalization by long alkyl chains induces the formation of highly hydrophobic surfaces while the surface structures are preserved. This reaction can be a key pathway for fast surface modification for a large range of applications such as in cell or bacterial adhesion, for example. PMID:26160733

  16. Self-assembly of metal nanostructures on binary alloy surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Duguet, T.; Han, Yong; Yuen, Chad; Jing, Dapeng; Ünal, Bar??; Evans, J. W.; Thiel, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    Deposition of metals on binary alloy surfaces offers new possibilities for guiding the formation of functional metal nanostructures. This idea is explored with scanning tunneling microscopy studies and atomistic-level analysis and modeling of nonequilibrium island formation. For Au/NiAl(110), complex monolayer structures are found and compared with the simple fcc(110) bilayer structure recently observed for Ag/NiAl(110). We also consider a more complex codeposition system, (Ni + Al)/NiAl(110), which offers the opportunity for fundamental studies of self-growth of alloys including deviations for equilibrium ordering. A general multisite lattice-gas model framework enables analysis of structure selection and morphological evolution in these systems. PMID:21097706

  17. Transient and self-limited nanostructures on patterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimastrodonato, V.; Pelucchi, E.; Zestanakis, P. A.; Vvedensky, D. D.

    2013-05-01

    Site-controlled quantum dots formed during the deposition of (Al)GaAs layers by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy on GaAs(111)B substrates patterned with inverted pyramids result in geometric and compositional self-ordering along the vertical axis of the template. We describe a theoretical scheme that reproduces the experimentally observed time-dependent behavior of this process, including the evolution of the recess and the increase of Ga incorporation along the base of the template to stationary values determined by alloy composition and other growth parameters. Our work clarifies the interplay between kinetics and geometry for the development of self-ordered nanostructures on patterned surfaces, which is essential for the reliable on-demand design of confined systems for applications to quantum optics.

  18. Spin dynamics of atoms and magnetic nanostructures on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy is a powerful tool for studying the electronic and magnetic properties of magnetic nanostructures on surfaces. Over the last decade, inelastic tunneling spectroscopy has been used to probe discrete energy levels of quantum spin systems. These states can often be described as solutions of simple spin Hamiltonians. In spin excitation spectroscopy, a spin system is kicked from the ground into excited spin states at discrete energy increments. In this talk we will focus on the dynamics of quantum spin systems on surfaces. STM can measure tunnel currents in the range of pico amps with millisecond time resolution. This time resolution is well matched to observing transition between spin states of artificial magnetic nanostructures on surfaces that can be built and measured with STM. We will highlight an example of extended, artificial antiferromagnets on a Cu2N surface (Science 2012). Smaller magnetic clusters relax much faster but their dynamics can be measured with pump probe techniques. A pump voltage pulse drives the spin system into excited states and a subsequent probe pulse measures the resulting population of spin states. An exponential decay back to the ground state is observed when averaging over many pump-probe cycles (Science 2010). We will show results down to nanosecond time resolution with an ultimate limit set by modern electronics at about 100 pico seconds. Individual atoms on Cu2N relax their spin states even faster. Hence, another technique is employed to determine spin relaxation times: small tunnel currents always leave the spin system in the ground state while high currents can create non-equilibrium distributions of spin states. This approach relies on some modeling but allows time domain measurements down to about 1 pico second (Nature Physics 2010). Transition metal atoms on metal surfaces relax even faster, on time scales of about 100 femtoseconds. This fast relaxation manifests itself as a measurable lifetime broadening of spin excitation spectra. Combining these approaches allows measurements of spin relaxation times over about 16 orders of magnitude for spins on surfaces - while maintaining the atomic scale spatial resolution of STM!

  19. Colour centres and nanostructures on the surface of laser crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kulagin, N A

    2012-11-30

    This paper presents a study of structural and radiationinduced colour centres in the bulk and ordered nanostructures on the surface of doped laser crystals: sapphire, yttrium aluminium garnet and strontium titanate. The influence of thermal annealing, ionising radiation and plasma exposure on the spectroscopic properties of high-purity materials and crystals containing Ti, V and Cr impurities is examined. Colour centres resulting from changes in the electronic state of impurities and plasma-induced surface modification of the crystals are studied by optical, EPR and X-ray spectroscopies, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. X-ray line valence shift measurements are used to assess changes in the electronic state of some impurity and host ions in the bulk and on the surface of oxide crystals. Conditions are examined for the formation of one- and two-level arrays of ordered crystallites 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -7} m in size on the surface of crystals doped with irongroup and lanthanoid ions. The spectroscopic properties of the crystals are analysed using ab initio self-consistent field calculations for Me{sup n+} : [O{sup 2-}]{sub k} clusters. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  20. Effective slip on textured superhydrophobic surfaces Salil Gogte, Peter Vorobieff, Richard Truesdell, and Andrea Mammoli

    E-print Network

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    and for an external flow near the surface hydrofoil , there is evidence of appreciable drag reduction in the presence on surfaces with irregular textures with characteristic feature size 8 m. Application of the same texture and coating to the surface of a hydrofoil in a water tunnel results in drag reduction on the order of 10

  1. Superhydrophobicity of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane fabricated by chemical vapor deposition from solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhenrong; Gu, Zhenya; Huo, Ruiting; Ye, Yonghong

    2009-05-01

    Due to the chemical stability and flexibility, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes are widely used as the topcoat of architectural membrane structures, roof materials of vehicle, tent fabrics, and so on. Further modified PVDF membrane with superhydrophobic property may be even superior as the coating layer surface. The lotus flower is always considered to be a sacred plant, which can protect itself against water, dirt, and dust. The superhydrophobic surface of lotus leaf is rough, showing the micro- and nanometer scale morphology. In this work, the microreliefs of lotus leaf were mimicked using PVDF membrane and the nanometer scale peaks on the top of the microreliefs were obtained by the method of chemical vapor deposition from solution. The surface morphology of PVDF membrane was investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Elemental composition analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the material of the nanostructure of PVDF membrane was polymethylsiloxane. On the lotus-leaf-like PVDF membrane, the water contact angle and sliding angle were 155° and 4°, respectively, exhibiting superhydrophobic property.

  2. Formation of metallic nanostructures on the surface of ion- exchange glass by focused electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komissarenko, F. E.; Zhukov, M. V.; Mukhin, I. S.; Golubok, A. O.; Sidorov, A. I.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a new method for formation of metallic nanostructures on the surface of ion-exchange glass. The method is based on the interaction of a focused electron beam with ions in ion-exchange glass. In experiments nanostructures with different shapes were obtained, depending on the electrons irradiation conditions.

  3. Organic-inorganic composite nanocoatings with superhydrophobicity, good transparency, and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian Feng; Wang, Jian Nong; Sanderson, Kevin D

    2010-04-27

    Superhydrophobic, highly transparent, and stable organic-inorganic composite nanocoating is successfully prepared by a simple sol-gel dip-coating method. This method involves control of the aggregation of inorganic colloid particles by polymerization and ultrasonic vibration to create the desired micro/nanostructure in the coating. Superhydrophobicity and transparency of the coating can be controlled by adjusting the initial concentration of monomer and the size of aggregates in the sol-gel. Thus, superhydrophobicity and high transparency can be concurrently achieved in a single coating. The prepared coating also possesses good thermal stability. Its superhydrophobicity can be maintained from 20 to 90 degrees C. PMID:20302323

  4. REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 82, 045109 (2011) In situ, noninvasive characterization of superhydrophobic coatings

    E-print Network

    Tafreshi, Hooman Vahedi

    2011-01-01

    of superhydrophobic coatings Mohamed A. Samaha, Fredrick O. Ochanda, Hooman Vahedi Tafreshi, Gary C. Tepper. © 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3579498] I. INTRODUCTION Superhydrophobicity in a reduction in the skin-friction drag exerted on the surface.1 Superhydrophobic coatings can be utilized

  5. Porous Superhydrophobic Membranes: Hydrodynamic Anomaly in Oscillating Flows S. Rajauria,1,2

    E-print Network

    Ekinci, Kamil

    Porous Superhydrophobic Membranes: Hydrodynamic Anomaly in Oscillating Flows S. Rajauria,1,2 O fabricated and characterized a novel superhydrophobic system, a meshlike porous super- hydrophobic membrane hydrophobic [3­6] and superhydrophobic surfaces [7­10]. The consequences of a shift in boundary condition from

  6. Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanotube Kenneth K. S. Lau,*, Jose Bico, Kenneth B. K. Teo, Manish Chhowalla,|

    E-print Network

    Bico,José

    Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanotube Forests Kenneth K. S. Lau,*, Jose´ Bico, Kenneth B. K. Teo, superhydrophobic surface using the nanoscale roughness inherent in a vertically aligned carbon nanotube forest of the nanotubes. Superhydrophobicity is achieved down to the microscopic level where essentially spherical

  7. Polymer Brush Surfaces Showing Superhydrophobicity and Air-Bubble Repellency in a Variety of Organic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Dunderdale, Gary J; England, Matt W; Urata, Chihiro; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2015-06-10

    Silicon (Si) substrates were modified with polyalkyl methacrylate brushes having different alkyl chain lengths (C(n), where n = 1, 4, 8, and 18) using ARGET-ATRP at ambient temperature without purging the reaction solution of oxygen. The dynamic hydrophobicity of these polymer brush-covered Si surfaces when submerged in a variety of organic solvents (1-butanol, dichloromethane, toluene, n-hexane) depended markedly on the alkyl chain length and to a lesser extent polymer solubility. Long-chain poly(stearyl methacrylate) brushes (C(n) = 18) submerged in toluene showed excellent water-repellant properties, having large advancing/receding contact angles (CAs) of 169°/168° with negligible CA hysteresis (1°). Whereas polymer brushes with short alkyl-chain (C(n) ? 4) had significantly worse water drop mobility because of small CAs (as low as 125°/55°) and large CA hysteresis (up to 70°). However, such poor dynamic dewetting behavior of these surfaces was found to significantly improve when water drops impacted onto the surfaces at moderate velocities. Under these conditions, all brush surfaces were able to expel water drops from their surface. In addition, our brush surfaces were also highly repellant toward air bubbles under all conditions, irrespective of C(n) or polymer solubility. These excellent surface properties were found to be vastly superior to the performance of conventional perfluoroalkylsilane-derived surfaces. PMID:25988214

  8. Morphology control of nanostructures via surface reaction of metal nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Niu, K Y; Yang, J; Kulinich, S A; Sun, J; Li, H; Du, X W

    2010-07-21

    We report on the controllable synthesis of diverse nanostructures using laser ablation of a metal target in a liquid medium. The nanodroplets generated by laser ablation react with the liquid and produce various nanostructures, such as hollow nanoparticles, core-shell nanoparticles, heterostructures, nanocubes, and ordered arrays. A millisecond laser with low power density is essential for obtaining such metal nanodroplets, while the target material, the reactivity of liquid medium, and the laser frequency are decisive for controlling the morphology and size of the nanostructures produced. This green and powerful technique can be extended to different material systems for obtaining various nanostructures. PMID:20572659

  9. Cu mesh's super-hydrophobic and oleophobic properties with variations in gravitational pressure and surface components for oil/water separation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Zhang, Qin; Xiao, Haibo; Xu, Jie; Li, Qintao; Pan, Xiaohui; Huang, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    The super-hydrophobic and super-oleophilic properties of various materials have been utilized to separate oil from water. These properties induce both oil penetration and water slide off. This research demonstrates that the mesh with both super-hydrophobic and oleophobic properties, with a water contact angle (WCA) higher than 150° and oil contact angle (OCA) near 140°, can also be used to separate oil from. Oil has a higher probability than water of entering into the interstice of the Cu mesh surface and passing through it due to the capillarity effect, van der Waals attractions and the effects of gravitational pressure. The modified mesh surface can easily adsorb the oil, which then forms a film, due to the very strong adhesion properties of the oil molecules. The oil film then contributes to the water sliding off. These properties can be used to separate oil from water with separation efficiencies reaching 99.3%. Additionally, the separation of an oil/water mixture using sand permeated with oil yielded separation efficiencies exceeding 90%.

  10. Biomimetic super-hydrophobic surfaces for use in enhanced dropwise condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kuok; Zhang, Bong June; Lee, Chi Young; Kennedy, Mike; Kim, Sunwoo; Yoon, Hyungkee; Kim, Kwang J.; Liu, Jiong; Skandan, Ganesh

    2011-04-01

    There have been many attempts to enhance heat transfer during the condensation (vapor to liquid) process since condensation is a critical heat transfer mechanism in many industrial processes. One conventional method of enhancing condensation heat transfer is to specially treat the condensing heat exchanger surface to adequately promote so-called "dropwise" condensation. Biomimetically constructed coating with hydrophobic materials is often employed for surface treatment. This coating on the condensing heat transfer surface effectively shifts the condensation mode from filmwise (the conventional heat transfer mode) to dropwise (similar to lotus leaves?), resulting in much higher condensation heat transfer. In this method the thickness of coatings is a key parameter governing the heat transfer rate. Thin coating benefits the heat transfer but can lead to weakening hydrophobicity and failure to have an acceptable life span. However, thick coating reduces or eliminates the merit of the dropwise condensation phenomenon because the coating introduces additional thermal resistance. Herein, we report an innovative biomimetic concept in connection with a surface treatment that potentially solves the aforementioned issues. Instead of using conventional dense coatings on the condensing surface, the concept of randomly arranged or structurally oriented nano or submicro-scale fins and/or porous surfaces similar to nature-invented hydrophobic surfaces allowing molecular clustering for effective steam condensation, is presented and experimentally verified.

  11. Condensation on Superhydrophobic Surfaces: The Role of Local Energy Barriers and Structure Length Scale

    E-print Network

    Enright, Ryan

    Water condensation on surfaces is a ubiquitous phase-change process that plays a crucial role in nature and across a range of industrial applications, including energy production, desalination, and environmental control. ...

  12. Wetting hysteresis and droplet roll off behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces by Katherine Marie Smyth.

    E-print Network

    Smyth, Katherine Marie

    2010-01-01

    Various states of hydrophobic wetting and hysteresis are observed when water droplets are deposited on micro-post surfaces of different post densities. Hysteresis is commonly defined as the difference between the advancing ...

  13. Criterion for sliding / rolling characterization during droplet motion over superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Wadgaonkar, Indrajit P; Das, Sarit K

    2015-01-01

    Super hydrophobic surfaces have been the focus of research in the recent years.One of the reasons for this is the self cleaning property of these surfaces which emerges from the ability of the droplets to roll freely over them.However majority of the studies available in literature are on the static wetting behavior of liquid droplets on such surfaces and the physics of the motion of droplets has not been studied exhaustively either theoretically or experimentally.In the present study droplet motion on super hydrophobic surfaces has been modeled to analyze the sliding/ rolling characteristics of the droplet motion.A non-dimensional number is proposed to indicate whether a given droplet would tend to roll or slide more on a given super hydrophobic surface.We refer to this number as 'Slip Reynolds' number. Simulations of droplet motion were carried out with different surface and droplet characteristics leading to a unique value of this number corresponding to sliding/rolling behavior.The applicability of this n...

  14. Surface Plasmon Mediated Chemical Solution Deposition of Gold Nanoparticles on a Nanostructured Silver Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Jingjing; Wu, Yung-Chen; Wang, Yi-Chung; Engelhard, Mark H.; McElwee-White, Lisa; Wei, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing intrinsic surface properties to direct and control nanostructure growth on a large-scale surface is fundamentally interesting and holds great technological promise. Reported here is a novel "bottom-up" approach to fabricating sub-15 nm Au nanoparticles on a nanostructured Ag surface via a liquid-phase chemical deposition by using localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) excitation. A molecular thermometry strategy was employed to investigate the SPR-mediated photothermal heating of the Ag film on nanosphere (AgFON) substrate and measured the surface temperature to be above 230 °C, which led to an efficient decomposition of CH3AuPPh3 to form Au nanoparticles on the Ag surface. Particle sizes were tunable between 3 to 10 nm by adjusting the deposition time. Moreover, investigation of the deposition kinetics revealed that the Au nanoparticle deposition was surface-limited by the Ag substrate. This SPR-mediated chemical solution deposition (SPMCSD) strategy should be extendable to the deposition of many other materials for various applications.

  15. Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic hierarchical arrays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongta; Dou, Xuan; Fang, Yin; Jiang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Here, we report a simple and inexpensive bottom-up technology for fabricating superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical micro-/nano-structures, which are inspired by the binary periodic structure found on the superhydrophobic compound eyes of some insects (e.g., mosquitoes and moths). Binary colloidal arrays consisting of exemplary large (4 and 30 ?m) and small (300 nm) silica spheres are first assembled by a scalable Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology in a layer-by-layer manner. After surface modification with fluorosilanes, the self-assembled hierarchical particle arrays become superhydrophobic with an apparent water contact angle (CA) larger than 150°. The throughput of the resulting superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical structures can be significantly improved by templating the binary periodic structures of the LB-assembled colloidal arrays into UV-curable fluoropolymers by a soft lithography approach. Superhydrophobic perfluoroether acrylate hierarchical arrays with large CAs and small CA hysteresis can be faithfully replicated onto various substrates. Both experiments and theoretical calculations based on the Cassie's dewetting model demonstrate the importance of the hierarchical structure in achieving the final superhydrophobic surface states. PMID:23786830

  16. Thermodynamics of sustaining gases in the roughness of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Neelesh A. Patankar

    2015-05-22

    Rough surfaces submerged in a liquid can remain almost dry if the liquid does not fully wet the roughness and gases are sustained in roughness grooves. Such partially dry surfaces can help reduce drag or enhance boiling. Gases sustained in roughness grooves would be composed of air and the vapor phase of the liquid itself. The thermodynamics of sustaining vapor was considered in a prior work [Patankar, Soft Matter, 2010, 6:1613]. Here, the thermodynamics of sustaining gases (e.g. air) is considered. Governing equations are presented along with a solution methodology to determine a critical condition to sustain gases. The critical roughness scale to sustain gases is estimated for different degrees of saturation of gases dissolved in the liquid. It is shown that roughness spacings of less than a micron are essential to sustain gases on surfaces submerged in water at atmospheric pressure. This is consistent with prior empirical data.

  17. Fully reversible transition from Wenzel to Cassie-Baxter states on corrugated superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    R. J. Vrancken; H. Kusumaatmaja; K. Hermans; A. M. Prenen; O. Pierre-Louis; C. W. M. Bastiaansen; D. J. Broer

    2009-10-30

    Liquid drops on textured surfaces show different dynamical behaviors depending on their wetting states. They are extremely mobile when they are supported by composite solid-liquid-air interfaces (Cassie-Baxter state) and immobile when they fully wet the textured surfaces (Wenzel state). By reversibly switching between these two states, it will be possible to achieve large control over the fluid dynamics. Unfortunately, these wetting transitions are usually prevented by surface energy barriers. We demonstrate here a new and simple design paradigm, consisting of parallel grooves of appropriate aspect ratio, that allows for a controlled, barrierless, and reversible switching of the wetting states upon the application of electrowetting. We report a direct observation of the barrierless dynamical pathway for the reversible transitions between the Wenzel (collapsed) and the Cassie-Baxter (suspended) states and present a theory that accounts for these transitions, including detailed lattice-Boltzmann simulations.

  18. Fully reversible transition from Wenzel to Cassie-Baxter states on corrugated superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Vrancken, R J; Hermans, K; Prenen, A M; Pierre-Louis, O; Bastiaansen, C W M; Broer, D J

    2009-01-01

    Liquid drops on textured surfaces show different dynamical behaviors depending on their wetting states. They are extremely mobile when they are supported by composite solid-liquid-air interfaces (Cassie-Baxter state) and immobile when they fully wet the textured surfaces (Wenzel state). By reversibly switching between these two states, it will be possible to achieve large control over the fluid dynamics. Unfortunately, these wetting transitions are usually prevented by surface energy barriers. We demonstrate here a new and simple design paradigm, consisting of parallel grooves of appropriate aspect ratio, that allows for a controlled, barrierless, and reversible switching of the wetting states upon the application of electrowetting. We report a direct observation of the barrierless dynamical pathway for the reversible transitions between the Wenzel (collapsed) and the Cassie-Baxter (suspended) states and present a theory that accounts for these transitions, including detailed lattice-Boltzmann simulations.

  19. Impact of picolitre droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces with ultra-low spreading ratios

    E-print Network

    Brown, P. S.; Berson, A.; Talbot, E. L.; Wood, T. J.; Schofield, W. C. E.; Bain, C. D.; Badyal, J. P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Important technological applications include: rapid cooling,2,3,4 delayed freezing,5,6,7,8 crop spraying,9 and inkjet printing. In recent years, work has been carried out to assess the feasibility of inkjet printing technology in manufacturing processes... than the receding angle, the contact line will not retract. The equilibrium contact angle on surfaces with hysteresis lies between the maximum advancing and minimum receding contact angles. Evidence to support this view is that static contact angles...

  20. Droplet impact dynamics for two liquids impinging on anisotropic superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John T.; Maynes, Daniel; Webb, Brent W.

    2012-09-01

    Droplet impingement experiments were performed on grooved hydrophobic surfaces with cavity fractions of 0, 80, and 93 % using droplets of water and a 50 %/50 % water/glycerol mixture. The influence of liquid viscosity, cavity fraction, and spreading direction, relative to the surface grooves, is explored qualitatively and quantitatively. The maximum droplet spread diameter, velocity of the rebounding jet, and the time delay between droplet impact and jet emission were characterized for Weber numbers, We, based on droplet impact speed and diameter, up to 500. The unequal shear stresses and contact angles influence the maximum spread diameters in the two primary spread directions. At We > 100, the ratio of the spread diameter along the direction of the grooves to the spread diameter perpendicular to the grooves increases above unity with increasing We. The maximum droplet spread diameter is compared to recent predictive models, and the data reveal differing behavior for the two fluids considered. The results also reveal the existence of very high relative jet velocities in the range 5 ? We ? 15 for water droplets, while such jets were not observed for the more viscous mixture. Further, in the range 115 ? We ? 265, the water/glycerol jet formation dynamics are radically different from the water behavior. Most evident is the existence of two-pronged jets, which arise from the anisotropy of the surface and the unequal shear stresses and contact angles that prevail on the surfaces. It is these influences that give rise to differences in the maximum spread diameters in the two primary spread directions. Similar two-pronged jet emission was observed for water over the very narrow range of We from 91 to 96. The issuing jet velocities were also observed to increase with increasing cavity fraction for both fluids and over the entire range of We explored. Lastly, the elapsed time between droplet impact and jet emission decreased with increasing cavity fraction.

  1. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Milekhin, A. G. Yeryukov, N. A.; Sveshnikova, L. L.; Duda, T. A.; Zenkevich, E. I.; Kosolobov, S. S.; Latyshev, A. V.; Himcinski, C.; Surovtsev, N. V.; Adichtchev, S. V.; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Wu, Chia Cheng; Wuu, Dong Sing; Zahn, D. R. T.

    2011-12-15

    Raman scattering (including nonresonant, resonant, and surface enhanced scattering) of light by optical and surface phonons of ZnO nanocrystals and nanorods has been investigated. It has been found that the nonresonant and resonant Raman scattering spectra of the nanostructures exhibit typical vibrational modes, E{sub 2}(high) and A{sub 1}(LO), respectively, which are allowed by the selection rules. The deposition of silver nanoclusters on the surface of nanostructures leads either to an abrupt increase in the intensity (by a factor of 10{sup 3}) of Raman scattering of light by surface optical phonons or to the appearance of new surface modes, which indicates the observation of the phenomenon of surface enhanced Raman light scattering. It has been demonstrated that the frequencies of surface optical phonon modes of the studied nanostructures are in good agreement with the theoretical values obtained from calculations performed within the effective dielectric function model.

  2. Investigations of the Band Structure and Morphology of Nanostructured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Kevin R.

    2011-12-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the electronic structure of two very different types of two-dimensional systems: valence band electrons in single layer graphene and electronic states created at the vacuum interface of single crystal copper surfaces. The characteristics of both electronic systems depend intimately on the morphology of the surfaces they inhabit. Thus, in addition to discussing the respective band structures of these systems, a significant portion of this dissertation will be devoted to measurements of the surface morphology of these systems. Free-standing exfoliated monolayer graphene is an ultra-thin flexible membrane and, as such, is known to exhibit large out-of-plane deformation due to substrate and adsorbate interaction as well as thermal vibrations and, possibly, intrinsic buckling. Such crystal deformation is known to limit mobility and increase local chemical reactivity. Additionally, deformations present a measurement challenge to researchers wishing to determine the band structure by angle-resolved photoemission since they limit electron coherence in such measurements. In this dissertation, I present low energy electron microscopy and micro probe diffraction measurements, which are used to image and characterize corrugation in SiO2-supported and suspended exfoliated graphene at nanometer length scales. Diffraction line-shape analysis reveals quantitative differences in surface roughness on length scales below 20 nm which depend on film thickness and interaction with the substrate. Corrugation decreases with increasing film thickness, reflecting the increased stiffness of multilayer films. Specifically, single-layer graphene shows a markedly larger short range roughness than multilayer graphene. Due to the absence of interactions with the substrate, suspended graphene displays a smoother morphology and texture than supported graphene. A specific feature of suspended single-layer films is the dependence of corrugation on both adsorbate load and temperature, which is manifested by variations in the diffraction lineshape. The effects of both intrinsic and extrinsic corrugation factors will be discussed. Through a carefully coordinated study I show how these surface morphology measurements can be combined with angle resolved photoemission measurements to understand the role of surface corrugation in the ARPES measurement process. The measurements described here rely on the development of an analytical formulation for relating the crystal corrugation to the photoemission linewidth. I present ARPES measurements that show that, despite significant deviation from planarity of the crystal, the electronic structure of exfoliated suspended graphene is nearly that of ideal, undoped graphene; the Dirac point is measured to be within 25 meV of EF. Further, I show that suspended graphene behaves as a marginal Fermi-liquid, with a quasiparticle lifetime which scales as (E -- EF)--1 ; comparison with other graphene and graphite data is discussed. In contrast to graphene, which must be treated as a flexible membrane with continuous height variation, roughness in clean single crystal surfaces arises from lattice dislocations, which introduce discrete height variations. Such height variations can be exploited to generate a self assembled nano-structured surface. In particular, by making a vicinal cut on a single crystal surface, a nanoscale step array can be formed. A model system for such nanoscale self assembly is Cu(111). Cu(775) is formed by making an 8.5° viscinal cut of Cu(111) along the [112¯] axis. The electronic states formed on the surface of this system, with a nanoscale step array of 14 A terraces, shows markedly different behavior those formed on Cu(111). In this dissertation, I show that the tunability of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator, combined with its high-repetition rate and short pulse length, provides a powerful tool for resonant band mapping of the sp surface and image states on flat and vicinal Cu(111)-Cu (775) surfaces, over the photon energy range from 3.9 to 5 eV. Since the tim

  3. Superhydrophobic materials and coatings: a review.

    PubMed

    Simpson, John T; Hunter, Scott R; Aytug, Tolga

    2015-07-01

    Over the past few years, the scientific community, as well as the world's coatings industry has seen the introduction of oxide/polymer-based superhydrophobic surfaces and coatings with exceptional water repellency. Online videos have caught the public's imagination by showing people walking through mud puddles without getting their tennis shoes wet or muddy, and water literally flying off coated surfaces. This article attempts to explain the basics of this behavior and to discuss and explain the latest superhydrophobic technological breakthroughs. Since superhydrophobic surfaces and coatings can fundamentally change how water interacts with surfaces, and the fact that earth is a water world, it can legitimately be said that this technology has the potential to literally change the world. PMID:26181655

  4. Superhydrophobic materials and coatings: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.; Aytug, Tolga

    2015-07-01

    Over the past few years, the scientific community, as well as the world’s coatings industry has seen the introduction of oxide/polymer-based superhydrophobic surfaces and coatings with exceptional water repellency. Online videos have caught the public’s imagination by showing people walking through mud puddles without getting their tennis shoes wet or muddy, and water literally flying off coated surfaces. This article attempts to explain the basics of this behavior and to discuss and explain the latest superhydrophobic technological breakthroughs. Since superhydrophobic surfaces and coatings can fundamentally change how water interacts with surfaces, and the fact that earth is a water world, it can legitimately be said that this technology has the potential to literally change the world.

  5. Engineered nanostructured thin films for enhanced surface acoustic wave sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Jonathan Kwok Wah

    Sensor technologies profoundly impact all aspects of our everyday lives. Advances have led to smaller devices, faster response times, reduced costs, higher specificity and sensitivity, and even new sensing technologies. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology, which has been around for many decades already, is an example of a newer sensing technology that has begun to be studied for sensing applications. Many advantages of SAW sensors have been identified, in particular the high sensitivity, low cost and wireless capability. However, as the technology is still in its infancy for sensing applications, many improvements and refinements on the platform have yet to be explored. With the arrival of nanotechnology, many existing technologies have benefited from integrating with the new findings that nanotechnology has brought forth. This thesis investigates the enhancement of existing SAW sensors using nanostructured films fabricated by a thin film deposition process known as glancing angle deposition (GLAD). The GLAD technique is a highly flexible and precise thin film fabrication method that is able to create high-surface-area thin films. This high-surface-area characteristic of these films is the driving motivation in their utilization to enhance the performance of SAW sensors. This thesis first demonstrates that dense, extremely high surface area films can be deposited on SAW sensors without adversely affecting device performance. These modified sensors were then studied as humidity sensors to demonstrate improved sensitivity with the addition of the GLAD films. Before the sensors with GLAD films could be tested in a liquid environment, ion-milling was investigated as a method of eliminating the clustering of the individual structures typically seen after exposure to liquids. These modified films were extended for use on the SAW sensors to investigate liquid sensing performance. The performance of SAW devices with clustered films was also studied for comparison. Both types of films were shown to increase sensitivity greatly over the reference SAW device. The success of these results validates the ability of GLAD films to enhance the sensitivity of not only SAW devices, but potentially other sensing technologies as well.

  6. Two-silane chemical vapor deposition treatment of polymer (nylon) and oxide surfaces that yields hydrophobic (and superhydrophobic), abrasion-resistant thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Gaurav; Sautter, Ken; Hild, Frank E.; Pauley, Jerry; Linford, Matthew R.

    2008-09-15

    This article describes a two-silane, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach to creating hydrophobic (or even superhydrophobic), abrasion-resistant coatings on silicon oxide and polymer (nylon) substrates. This multistep approach employs only reagents delivered in the gas phase, as follows: (i) plasma cleaning/oxidation of the substrate, (ii) CVD of 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane, which is used as an adhesion promoter for the substrate, (iii) hydrolysis with water vapor, and (iv) CVD of (tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyl)trichlorosilane (the 'R{sub f}-Cl silane'). Surfaces are characterized by wetting, spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). This work has the following unique features. First, the authors explore an all gas phase deposition of a new silane coating that is scientifically interesting and technologically useful. Second, the authors show that the presence of an adhesion promoter in the process leads to thinner films that are more robust in abrasion testing. Third, results obtained using plasma/deposition equipment that is relatively inexpensive and/or available in most laboratories are compared to those obtained with a much more sophisticated, commercially available plasma/CVD system (the YES-1224P). The entire deposition process can be completed in only {approx}1 h using the industrial equipment (the 1224P). It is of significance that the polymer surfaces modified using the 1224P are superhydrophobic. Fourth, the thickness of the R{sub f}-Cl silane layer deposited by CVD correlates well with the thickness of the underlying spin coated nylon surface, suggesting that the nylon film acts as a reservoir of water for the hydrolysis and condensation of the R{sub f}-Cl silane.

  7. Durability of Hydrophobic Coatings for Superhydrophobic Aluminum Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Jenner, Elliot; Barbier, Charlotte N; D'Urso, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    Robust and easily produced Superhydrophobic surfaces are of great interest for mechanical applications, including drag reduction and MEMS. We produce novel superhydrophobic surfaces with several different coatings and tested the durability of each of these coatings with respect to long term immersion in water in order to determine the most long-lasting surface preparation. A pair of combinations of spin on polymers, surface features, and adhesion promoters was found that provide long term durability.

  8. Facile synthesis of mesoporous silica and titania supraparticles by a meniscus templating route on a superhydrophobic surface and their application to adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Jin, Min-Ho; Lee, Chun-Boo; Oh, Duckkyu; Ryi, Shin-Kun; Park, Jong-Soo; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Choi, Young-Chan

    2014-03-01

    Mesoporous silica and titania supraparticles with controllable pore size, particle size, and macroscopic morphology were readily synthesized by a novel synthetic pathway using meniscus templating on a superhydrophobic surface, which is much simpler than well-known emulsion systems. Moreover, we first report that despite the very large radius of droplet curvature on a millimeter scale, supraparticles kept the round cap morphology due to addition of sucrose as a shape preserver as well as a pore-forming agent. In addition, mesoporous silica and titania supraparticles provided good adsorption performance for Acid Blue 25 and Cr(vi), and were easily separated from the solution by using a scoop net after adsorption tests.Mesoporous silica and titania supraparticles with controllable pore size, particle size, and macroscopic morphology were readily synthesized by a novel synthetic pathway using meniscus templating on a superhydrophobic surface, which is much simpler than well-known emulsion systems. Moreover, we first report that despite the very large radius of droplet curvature on a millimeter scale, supraparticles kept the round cap morphology due to addition of sucrose as a shape preserver as well as a pore-forming agent. In addition, mesoporous silica and titania supraparticles provided good adsorption performance for Acid Blue 25 and Cr(vi), and were easily separated from the solution by using a scoop net after adsorption tests. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed method, supporting figures, tables, TEM, XRD and FTIR analyses for KIE-1 and KIE-2, and videos showing easy separation of KIE-1 and KIE-2 from dye and Cr(vi) solutions. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05501a

  9. Role of nanostructured gold surfaces on monocyte activation and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Sara; Forsberg, Magnus; Hulander, Mats; Vazirisani, Forugh; Palmquist, Anders; Lausmaa, Jukka; Thomsen, Peter; Trobos, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The role of material surface properties in the direct interaction with bacteria and the indirect route via host defense cells is not fully understood. Recently, it was suggested that nanostructured implant surfaces possess antimicrobial properties. In the current study, the adhesion and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and human monocyte adhesion and activation were studied separately and in coculture in different in vitro models using smooth gold and well-defined nanostructured gold surfaces. Two polystyrene surfaces were used as controls in the monocyte experiments. Fluorescent viability staining demonstrated a reduction in the viability of S. epidermidis close to the nanostructured gold surface, whereas the smooth gold correlated with more live biofilm. The results were supported by scanning electron microscopy observations, showing higher biofilm tower formations and more mature biofilms on smooth gold compared with nanostructured gold. Unstimulated monocytes on the different substrates demonstrated low activation, reduced gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and low cytokine secretion. In contrast, stimulation with opsonized zymosan or opsonized live S. epidermidis for 1 hour significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species, the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, and IL-10, as well as the secretion of TNF-?, demonstrating the ability of the cells to elicit a response and actively phagocytose prey. In addition, cells cultured on the smooth gold and the nanostructured gold displayed a different adhesion pattern and a more rapid oxidative burst than those cultured on polystyrene upon stimulation. We conclude that S. epidermidis decreased its viability initially when adhering to nanostructured surfaces compared with smooth gold surfaces, especially in the bacterial cell layers closest to the surface. In contrast, material surface properties neither strongly promoted nor attenuated the activity of monocytes when exposed to zymosan particles or S. epidermidis. PMID:24550671

  10. Biomimetic silica nanostructures on the surface, controlled by polyvalent counteranions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sung Ho

    2013-09-01

    Biosilicification (silica biomineralization in diatoms) has been intensively investigated for the in vitro formation of inorganic nanostructures under the ambient condition. It is known that biosilicification occurs at the interface of catalytic templates, derived by interactions between cationic polyamines and anions. In this work, nanostructures of silica thin films were controlled by exchanging counteranions of quaternized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) with orthophosphate/pyrophosphate anions such as HPO4-, HPO42-, PO43- and PO74-. Thickness of silica films and diameters of silica nanoparticulates were tuned at the nanometer scale. In addition, it was found that resulted silica structure highly depended on the structure of catalytic polymeric templates.

  11. Magnetic Behavior of Surface Nanostructured 50-nm Nickel Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Thermally evaporated 50-nm nickel thin films coated on borosilicate glass substrates were nanostructured by excimer laser (0.5 J/cm2, single shot), DC electric field (up to 2 kV/cm) and trench-template assisted technique. Nanoparticle arrays (anisotropic growth features) have been observed to form in the direction of electric field for DC electric field treatment case and ruptured thin film (isotropic growth features) growth for excimer laser treatment case. For trench-template assisted technique; nanowires (70–150 nm diameters) have grown along the length of trench template. Coercive field and saturation magnetization are observed to be strongly dependent on nanostructuring techniques. PMID:21076670

  12. Nitrocellulose strip array assembled on superhydrophobic surface: an aqueous solution diffusion-localized platform for multianalyte immunogold staining assays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Wang, Hua; Li, Jianping; Nie, Jinfang; Zhang, Yuwei; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2011-03-15

    In this paper, an aqueous solution diffusion-localized platform (ASDLP) for multianalyte immunogold staining assays has been developed for the first time by assembling nitrocellulose (NC) strips onto a superhydrophobic polycarbonate (PC) coating with a water contact angle (CA) up to 160°. In the concept-of-proof experiments, the ASDLP was used for colorimetric detection of a human IgG model antigen based on the gold-enhanced gold nanoparticle (AuNP) label amplification. The relative concentration of the analyte captured on NC was further quantified by measuring the intensity of staining result with the use of image analysis software. The comparison study demonstrates that the white superhydrophobic PC-based ASDLP can offer preferable advantages over the commonly adopted bulky piece of NC for immunogold staining assays, in terms of the localized antibody immobilization and reagent addition, the minimization of "coffee effect", uniformity of staining results, quantitative analysis and use efficiency of NC. Moreover, the high selectivity of a multiple antibodies-immobilized NC strip array for multiple antigens in a single sample has been further demonstrated in the multianalyte immunogold staining assay experiments. PMID:21282051

  13. Cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuyang; Xin, J H; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2012-12-18

    This article reports on the fabrication of cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity using a simple foam finishing process. Unlike most commonly reported superhydrophobic fabrics, the fabrics developed in this study exhibit asymmetric wettability on their two faces: one face showing superhydrophobic behavior (highly nonwetting or water-repellent characteristics) and the other face retaining the inherent hydrophilic nature of cotton. The superhydrophobic face exhibits a low contact angle hysteresis of ?(a)/?(r) = 151°/144° (?(a), advancing contact angle; ?(r), receding contact angle), which enables water drops to roll off the surface easily so as to endow the surface with well-known self-cleaning properties. The untreated hydrophilic face preserves its water-absorbing capability, resulting in 44% of the water-absorbing capacity compared to that of the original cotton samples with both sides untreated (hydrophilic). The single-faced superhydrophobic fabrics also retain moisture transmissibility that is as good as that of the original untreated cotton fabrics. They also show robust washing fastness with the chemical cross-linking process of hydrophobic fluoropolymer to fabric fibers. Fabric materials with such asymmetric or gradient wettability will be of great use in many applications such as unidirectional liquid transporting, moisture management, microfluidic systems, desalination of seawater, flow management in fuel cells, and water/oil separation. PMID:23186211

  14. Surface Science Letters Nano-structures developing at the graphene/silicon carbide interface

    E-print Network

    Chiang, Shirley

    Surface Science Letters Nano-structures developing at the graphene/silicon carbide interface S­semiconductor interfaces Surface defects Silicon carbide Graphene We use scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy­10]. Because silicon carbide (SiC), a IV­IV compound semiconductor, has a wide band gap (ranging from 2.4 to 3

  15. Thickness influence on surface morphology and ozone sensing properties of nanostructured ZnO transparent

    E-print Network

    Thickness influence on surface morphology and ozone sensing properties of nanostructured Zn Keywords: Zinc oxide; PLD; AFM; Ozone 1. Introduction Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an n-type semiconductor to a decrease in the concentration of electrons in the surface layer and an increase in the height

  16. From Rolling Ball to Complete Wetting: The Dynamic Tuning of Liquids on Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Falvo, Michael

    was obtained at voltages as low as 22 V. We have demonstrated that the liquid droplet on a nanostructured surface exhibits sharp transitions between three possible wetting states as a function of applied voltage angles and very low flow resistance. This kind of behavior makes the superhydro- phobic surfaces

  17. Guided evolution of bulk metallic glass nanostructures: A platform for designing three-dimensional electrocatalytic surfaces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Doubek, Gustavo; Sekol, Ryan C.; Li, Jinyang; Ryu, Won -Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Nejati, Siamak; Moy, Eric; Reid, Candy; Carmo, Marcelo; Linardi, Marcelo; et al

    2015-12-22

    Precise control over catalyst surface composition and structure is necessary to improve the function of electrochemical systems. To that end, bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys with atomically dispersed elements provide a highly processable, nanoscale platform for electrocatalysis and surface modification. Here we report on nanostructures of Pt-based BMGs that are modified with various subtractive and additive processes to improve their electrochemical performance.

  18. Observation and Modeling of Interrupted Pattern Coarsening: Surface Nanostructuring by Ion Erosion

    E-print Network

    Cuerno, Rodolfo

    Observation and Modeling of Interrupted Pattern Coarsening: Surface Nanostructuring by Ion Erosion the experimental observation of interrupted coarsening for surface self-organized nano- structuring by ion erosion systems, from colloids [4] to social dynamics [5], to ion- beam erosion of solid targets [6,7]. Actually

  19. Superhydrophobic coating to delay drug release from drug-loaded electrospun fibrous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Botao; Xu, Shichen; Shi, Suqing; Jia, Pengxiang; Xu, Qing; Hu, Gaoli; Zhang, Hongxin; Wang, Cuiyu

    2015-12-01

    The drug-loaded electrospun fibrous materials showed attractive applications in biomedical fields; however, the serve burst release of drug from this kind of drug carrier limited its further applications. In this study, inspired by water strong repellency of superhydrophobic surface, the drug-loaded electrospun fibrous mat coated with superhydrophobic layer was constructed to retard and control drug release. The results indicated that the superhydrophobic coating could be simply fabricated on the drug-loaded electrospun mat by the electrospray approach, and the thickness of the superhydrophobic coating could be finely controlled by varying the deposition time. It was further found that, as compared with drug-loaded electrospun mats, drug released sustainably from the samples coated with superhydrophobic layer, and the drug release rate could be controlled by the thickness of superhydrophobic layer. In summary, the current approach of coating a superhydrophobic layer on the drug-loaded electrospun fibrous materials offered a fundament for drug sustained release.

  20. Structure-related antibacterial activity of a titanium nanostructured surface fabricated by glancing angle sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengstock, Christina; Lopian, Michael; Motemani, Yahya; Borgmann, Anna; Khare, Chinmay; Buenconsejo, Pio John S.; Schildhauer, Thomas A.; Ludwig, Alfred; Köller, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to reproduce the physico-mechanical antibacterial effect of the nanocolumnar cicada wing surface for metallic biomaterials by fabrication of titanium (Ti) nanocolumnar surfaces using glancing angle sputter deposition (GLAD). Nanocolumnar Ti thin films were fabricated by GLAD on silicon substrates. S. aureus as well as E. coli were incubated with nanostructured or reference dense Ti thin film test samples for one or three hours at 37 °C. Bacterial adherence, morphology, and viability were analyzed by fluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy and compared to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Bacterial adherence was not significantly different after short (1 h) incubation on the dense or the nanostructured Ti surface. In contrast to S. aureus the viability of E. coli was significantly decreased after 3 h on the nanostructured film compared to the dense film and was accompanied by an irregular morphology and a cell wall deformation. Cell adherence, spreading and viability of hMSCs were not altered on the nanostructured surface. The results show that the selective antibacterial effect of the cicada wing could be transferred to a nanostructured metallic biomaterial by mimicking the natural nanocolumnar topography.

  1. Tuning thermal transport ultra-thin silicon membranes: Influence of surface nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogi, Sanghamitra; Donadio, Davide

    2015-03-01

    A detailed understanding of the behaviour of phonons in low-dimensional and nanostructured systems provides opportunities for thermal management at the nanoscale, efficient conversion of waste heat into electricity, and exploration of new paradigms in information and communication technologies. We elucidate the interplay between nanoscale surface structures and thermal transport properties in free-standing silicon membranes with thicknesses down to 4 nm. We demonstrate that whereas dimensional reduction affects the phonon dispersion, the surface nanostructures provide the main channel for phonon scattering leading to the dramatic reduction of thermal conductivity in ultra-thin silicon membranes. The presence of surface nanostructures, by means of pattern formation and surface oxidation, leads to a 40-fold reduction in the in-plane thermal conductivity of the thinnest membrane. We also investigate the effect of chemical substitution and the geometry of the nanostructures in the thermal transport properties of the membranes. We show that local strain induced by nanostructuring enables tuning of the thermal conductivity of these nanophononic metamaterials. Acknowledgment: This project is funded by the program FP7-ENERGY-2012-1-2STAGE under Contract Number 309150.

  2. Near surface properties of mixtures of propylammonium nitrate with n-alkanols 1. Nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Elbourne, Aaron; Cronshaw, Samuel; Voïtchovsky, Kislon; Warr, Gregory G; Atkin, Rob

    2015-10-28

    In situ amplitude modulated-atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) has been used to probe the nanostructure of mixtures of propylammonium nitrate (PAN) with n-alkanols near a mica surface. PAN is a protic ionic liquid (IL) which has a bicontinuous sponge-like nanostructure of polar and apolar domains in the bulk, which becomes flatter near a solid surface. Mixtures of PAN with 1-butanol, 1-octanol, and 1-dodecanol at 10-70 vol% n-alkanol have been examined, along with each pure n-alkanol, to reveal the effect of composition and n-alkanol chain length. At low concentrations the butanol simply swells the PAN near-surface nanostructure, but at higher concentrations the nanostructure fragments. Octanol and dodecanol first lower the preferred curvature of the PAN near-surface nanostructure because, unlike n-butanol, their alkyl chains are too long to be accommodated alongside the PAN cations. At higher concentrations, octanol and dodecanol self-assemble into n-alkanol rich aggregates in a PAN rich matrix. The concentration at which aggregation first becomes apparent decreases with n-alkanol chain length. PMID:26388145

  3. Enhanced optical characteristics of light emitting diodes by surface plasmon of Ag nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Lee-Woon; Ju, Jin-Woo; Jeon, Ju-Won; Jeon, Dae-Woo; Choi, Jung-Hun; Lee, Seung-Jae; Jeon, Seong-Ran; Baek, Jong-Hyeob; Sari, E.; Demir, H. V.; Yoon, Hyung-Do; Hwang, Sung-Min; Lee, In-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the surface plasmon coupling behavior in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells at 460 nm by employing Ag nanostructures on the top of a roughened p-type GaN. After the growth of a blue light emitting diode structure, the p-GaN layer was roughened by inductive coupled plasma etching and the Ag nanostructures were formed on it. This structure showed a drastic enhancement in photoluminescence and electroluminescence intensity and the degree of enhancement was found to depend on the morphology of Ag nanostructures. From the time-resolved photoluminescence measurement a faster decay rate for the Ag-coated structure was observed. The calculated Purcell enhancement factor indicated that the improved luminescence intensity was attributed to the energy transfer from electron-hole pair recombination in the quantum well to electron vibrations of surface plasmon at the Ag-coated surface of the roughened p-GaN.

  4. Preparation of Ag/Au bimetallic nanostructures and their application in surface-enhanced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jun; Ye, Yanyan; Zhang, Wenhui; Ren, Zebin; Huo, Yiping; Zheng, Hairong

    2015-11-01

    An effective substrate for surface-enhanced fluorescence, which consists of cluster Ag/Au bimetallic nanostructures on a copper surface, was synthesized via a multi-stage galvanic replacement reaction of a Ag cluster in a chlorauric acid (HAuCl4 ) solution at room temperature. The fabricated silver/gold bimetallic cluster were found to yield large surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) enhancement factors for rhodamine 6G probe molecules deposited on the substrate, and also the fluorescence efficiency is critically dependent on the period of nanostructure growth. With the help of proper control reaction conditions, such as the reaction time, and concentration of reaction solutions, the maximum fluorescence enhanced effect was obtained. Therefore, the bimetallic nanostructure substrate also can be adapted to studies in SEF, which will expand the application of SEF. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25691287

  5. Superhydrophobicity of a material made from multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup

    2006-06-12

    Superhydrophobic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by low-pressure CF{sub 4} glow plasma to provide roughness and fluorination in CNTs. The water droplet falling freely on the superhydrophobic CNT powders bounced dynamically. The superhydrophobicity resulted from the combined effects of the chemical modification and surface roughness. Using the contact angles obtained from the capillary rise method based on the Washburn equation, the total surface free energy of CNT powder treated by CF{sub 4} plasma for 20 min was calculated to be drastically decreased from 27.04 to 4.06x10{sup -7}mJ/m{sup 2}.

  6. Resonant vibration of a droplet located on a superhydrophobic surface under the vertical and horizontal ac field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashiyama, Y.; Ohuchi, T.; Sugimoto, T.

    2015-10-01

    A water droplet under an ac electric field with resonant frequency changes drastically its shape repeating extension and shrinkage, alternatively. To develop an electrostatic mixing method of small amount of liquid, resonant vibrating motion of a water droplet was investigated. Both horizontal and vertical fields were applied to the droplet placed on a super-hydrophobic plate with a contact angle of 150 degrees. From the video images of the droplet, the degree of deformation of the droplet shape was evaluated by deformation rate. Under the two-directional electric field, the deformation ratio at shrinkage was increased significantly. The height of the droplet varies from 1.2 to 1.8 times larger than that of the original droplet during vibrating motion. Furthermore, the deformation rate at shrinkage varies with time periodically due to rotating motion of the droplet. The vertical electric field might be effective to cause the turbulent flow inside of the droplet.

  7. Atomic layer deposition in nanostructured photovoltaics: tuning optical, electronic and surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmstrom, Axel F.; Santra, Pralay K.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2015-07-01

    Nanostructured materials offer key advantages for third-generation photovoltaics, such as the ability to achieve high optical absorption together with enhanced charge carrier collection using low cost components. However, the extensive interfacial areas in nanostructured photovoltaic devices can cause high recombination rates and a high density of surface electronic states. In this feature article, we provide a brief review of some nanostructured photovoltaic technologies including dye-sensitized, quantum dot sensitized and colloidal quantum dot solar cells. We then introduce the technique of atomic layer deposition (ALD), which is a vapor phase deposition method using a sequence of self-limiting surface reaction steps to grow thin, uniform and conformal films. We discuss how ALD has established itself as a promising tool for addressing different aspects of nanostructured photovoltaics. Examples include the use of ALD to synthesize absorber materials for both quantum dot and plasmonic solar cells, to grow barrier layers for dye and quantum dot sensitized solar cells, and to infiltrate coatings into colloidal quantum dot solar cell to improve charge carrier mobilities as well as stability. We also provide an example of monolayer surface modification in which adsorbed ligand molecules on quantum dots are used to tune the band structure of colloidal quantum dot solar cells for improved charge collection. Finally, we comment on the present challenges and future outlook of the use of ALD for nanostructured photovoltaics.

  8. Is superhydrophobicity robust with respect to disorder?

    PubMed

    De Coninck, Joël; Dunlop, François; Huillet, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    We consider theoretically the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel states describing the wetting contact angles for rough substrates. More precisely, we consider different types of periodic geometries such as square protrusions and disks in 2D, grooves and nanoparticles in 3D and derive explicitly the contact angle formulas. We also show how to introduce the concept of surface disorder within the problem and, inspired by biomimetism, study its effect on superhydrophobicity. Our results, quite generally, prove that introducing disorder, at fixed given roughness, will lower the contact angle: a disordered substrate will have a lower contact angle than a corresponding periodic substrate. We also show that there are some choices of disorder for which the loss of superhydrophobicity can be made small, making superhydrophobicity robust. PMID:24072468

  9. Super-Hydrophobic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Coatings for Stainless Steel

    E-print Network

    Francesco De Nicola; Paola Castrucci; Manuela Scarselli; Francesca Nanni; Ilaria Cacciotti; Maurizio De Crescenzi

    2015-03-18

    We have taken advantage of the native surface roughness and the iron content of AISI 316 stainless steel to direct grow multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) random networks by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at low-temperature ($steel sheets were obtained, exhibiting high contact angle values ($154^{\\circ}$) and high adhesion force (high contact angle hysteresis). Furthermore, the investigation of MWCNT films at scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals a two-fold hierarchical morphology of the MWCNT random networks made of hydrophilic carbonaceous nanostructures on the tip of hydrophobic MWCNTs. Owing to the Salvinia effect, the hydrophobic and hydrophilic composite surface of the MWCNT films supplies a stationary super-hydrophobic coating for conductive stainless steel. This biomimetical inspired surface not only may prevent corrosion and fouling but also could provide low-friction and drag-reduction.

  10. Simultaneous droplet impingement dynamics and heat transfer on nano-structured surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Jian; Graber, Christof; Liburdy, James; Pence, Deborah; Narayanan, Vinod

    2010-05-15

    This study examines the hydrodynamics and temperature characteristics of distilled deionized water droplets impinging on smooth and nano-structured surfaces using high speed (HS) and infrared (IR) imaging at We = 23.6 and Re = 1593, both based on initial drop impingement parameters. Results for a smooth and nano-structured surface for a range of surface temperatures are compared. Droplet impact velocity, transient spreading diameter and dynamic contact angle are measured. The near surface average droplet fluid temperatures are evaluated for conditions of evaporative cooling and boiling. Also included are surface temperature results using a gold layered IR opaque surface on silicon. Four stages of the impingement process are identified: impact, boiling, near constant surface diameter evaporation, and final dry-out. For the boiling conditions there is initial nucleation followed by severe boiling, then near constant diameter evaporation resulting in shrinking of the droplet height. When a critical contact angle is reached during evaporation the droplet rapidly retracts to a smaller diameter reducing the contact area with the surface. This continues as a sequence of retractions until final dry out. The basic trends are the same for all surfaces, but the nano-structured surface has a lower dissipated energy during impact and enhances the heat transfer for evaporative cooling with a 20% shorter time to achieve final dry out. (author)

  11. Nanostructure Formation on the Surface of YAG:Nd Crystal by ARF Laser Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahibakhsh, S.; Jelvani, S.; Mollabashi, M.; Maleki, M. H.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, nanostructure formation on the surface of a YAG:Nd single crystal by ArF laser irradiation is reported. The minimum diameter and height of the observed structures are about 100 and 20 nm, respectively. The morphology of the structures, which was analyzed by both scanning electron and atomic force microscopy (SEM & AFM)), indicates the growth of structures with increasing the number of laser pulses. With irradiation of pure YAG crystals under similar experimental conditions, no nanostructures are observed on the surface of the crystal. It reveals that the formation of the nano-mounds is associated with, as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDS) spectroscopy confirms, the presence of Nd in the structures. It seems that dopant diffusion, redistribution, and cluster formation through the strain field in the crystal lead to the nanostructure development.

  12. Localized surface plasmon resonance induced structure-property relationships of metal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilayurganapathy, Subramanian

    The confluence of nanotechnology and plasmonics has led to new and interesting phenomena. The industrial need for fast, efficient and miniature devices which constantly push the boundaries on device performance tap into the happy marriage between these diverse fields. Designing devices for real life application that give superior performance when compared with existing ones are enabled by a better understanding of their structure-property relationships. Among all the design constraints, without doubt, the shape and size of the nanostructure along with the dielectric medium surrounding it has the maximum influence on the response and thereby the performance of the device. Hence a careful study of the above mentioned parameters is of utmost importance in designing efficient devices. In this dissertation, we synthesize and study the optical properties of nanostructures of different shapes and size. In particular, we estimated the plasmonic near field enhancement via surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and 2-photon Photoemission electron microscopy (2P-PEEM). We synthesized the nanostructures using four different techniques. One synthesis technique, the thermal growth method was employed to grow interesting Ag and Au nanostructures on Si. The absence of toxic chemicals during nanostructure synthesis via the thermal growth technique opens up myriad possibilities for applications in the fields of biomedical science, bioengineering, drug delivery among others along with the huge advantage of being environment friendly. The other three synthesis techniques (ion implantation, Electrodeposition and FIB lithography) were chosen with the specific goal of designing novel plasmonic metal, metal hybrid nanostructures as photocathode materials in next generation light sources. The synthesis techniques for these novel nanostructures were dictated by the requirement of high quantum efficiency, robustness under constant irradiation and coherent unidirectional electron emission. Two designs, (i) partially exposed metal nanostructures in an oxide matrix (ii) metal nanorod arrays, couple with incoming light at particular wavelengths which leads to plasmonic near field enhancement from the nanostructures. This plasmonic response is expected to lead to enhanced photoemission and thereby enhanced quantum efficiency. Moreover, the plasmonic enhancement and the shape of the nanostructure enable coherent unidirectional electron emission. Such an in depth study of the structure-property relationship, particularly the near field enhancement of novel metal, metal-metal oxide nanostructures will lead to applications as photocathode materials in next generation light sources.

  13. Spreading and Fragmenting Characteristics of Impacting Droplet on Micro/ Nanostructured Water-Repellent Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyungmo; Lee, Chan; Kim, Moo Hwan; Kim, Joonwon

    2012-11-01

    After impact on a solid surface a droplet spreads, but in different ways such as deposition, rebound, and fragmentation. Because fragmentation occurs when the kinetic energy beat the surface energy during impact, Weber number is the most important dimensionless number in the rebound/fragmentation criteria. This also can be dramatically changed by the micro/nano-scale surface structures. Different micro/nanostructured surfaces were fabricated using silicon wet etching, black silicon formation, or the combination of these methods. Then, spreading and fragmenting events were analyzed with supporting experimental results. On the surfaces, the microstructures form obstacles to drop spreading and retracting, the nanostructures give extreme water-repellency, and the hybrid micro/nanostructures facilitate droplet fragmentation. Especially, the Cassie-Baxter's fraction factor of the microstructures can change rebound/fragmentation criteria. From this work, we finally investigate how the micro/nanostructures can change spreading and fragmenting dynamics during droplet impact. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2011-0030075).

  14. Control of bacterial biofilm growth on surfaces by nanostructural mechanics and geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, A. K.; Hochbaum, A. I.; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, J.

    2011-12-01

    Surface-associated communities of bacteria, called biofilms, pervade natural and anthropogenic environments. Mature biofilms are resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial treatments and therefore pose persistent pathogenic threats. The use of surface chemistry to inhibit biofilm growth has been found to only transiently affect initial attachment. In this work, we investigate the tunable effects of physical surface properties, including high-aspect-ratio (HAR) surface nanostructure arrays recently reported to induce long-range spontaneous spatial patterning of bacteria on the surface. The functional parameters and length scale regimes that control such artificial patterning for the rod-shaped pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa are elucidated through a combinatorial approach. We further report a crossover regime of biofilm growth on a HAR nanostructured surface versus the nanostructure effective stiffness. When the 'softness' of the hair-like nanoarray is increased beyond a threshold value, biofilm growth is inhibited as compared to a flat control surface. This result is consistent with the mechanoselective adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Therefore by combining nanoarray-induced bacterial patterning and modulating the effective stiffness of the nanoarray—thus mimicking an extremely compliant flat surface—bacterial mechanoselective adhesion can be exploited to control and inhibit biofilm growth.

  15. Solvent-transfer assisted photolithography of high-density and high-aspect-ratio superhydrophobic micropillar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shaolin; Hu, Mingjun; Guo, Qiuquan; Cai, Xiaobing; Xu, Xiangmin; Yang, Jun

    2015-02-01

    An effective and facile route of solvent-transfer assisted photolithography (STAP) was explored to successfully fabricate uprightly standing high-density (HD) and high-aspect-ratio (HAR) micropillar arrays with excellent superhydrophobicity. The collapse problem that frequently occurs with the HAR micro or nano-structures was simply resolved by the combined optimization of an SU-8 UV photolithographic process that aimed to maximize the stiffness of HAR pillars and minimize the capillary effect by fully optimizing UV exposure, resist baking and the final step of rinse and drying. The SU-8 micropillar array with high density close to 29% and varied aspect ratio up to 13:1 can be fabricated in an equivalently effective but less time-consuming and simpler way compared to conventional techniques of supercritical point drying and freeze drying. As a result, the SU-8 surfaces structured with the upright standing HD and HAR micropillars created by the combined optimization of the STAP process were demonstrated to be of superhydrophobicity with a contact angle up to 162° and those pillars array with varied AR above 5:1 assumed a slightly varied level of superhydrophobicity.

  16. Picosecond ultrasonic study of surface acoustic waves on titanium nitride nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornsson, M. M.; Connolly, A. B.; Mahat, S.; Rachmilowitz, B. E.; Daly, B. C.; Antonelli, G. A.; Myers, A.; Singh, K. J.; Yoo, H. J.; King, S. W.

    2015-03-07

    We have measured surface acoustic waves on nanostructured TiN wires overlaid on multiple thin films on a silicon substrate using the ultrafast pump-probe technique known as picosecond ultrasonics. We find a prominent oscillation in the range of 11–54?GHz for samples with varying pitch ranging from 420?nm down to 168?nm. We find that the observed oscillation increases monotonically in frequency with decrease in pitch, but that the increase is not linear. By comparing our data to two-dimensional mechanical simulations of the nanostructures, we find that the type of surface oscillation to which we are sensitive changes depending on the pitch of the sample. Surface waves on substrates that are loaded by thin films can take multiple forms, including Rayleigh-like waves, Sezawa waves, and radiative (leaky) surface waves. We describe evidence for detection of modes that display characteristics of these three surface wave types.

  17. Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces

    E-print Network

    Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces Fion Sze-Yan Yeung 21 December 2005; published online 7 February 2006 We present results of a fast-response no of liquid crystal displays LCDs re- quire fast response times. For example, image blurring due to slow

  18. Two-color beam improvement of the colloidal particle lens array assisted surface nanostructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasiev, Andrei; Bredikhin, Vladimir; Pikulin, Alexander; Ilyakov, Igor; Shishkin, Boris; Akhmedzhanov, Rinat; Bityurin, Nikita

    2015-05-04

    We consider laser nanostructuring of the material surface by means of a colloidal particle lens array. Here, the monolayer of dielectric micro- or nanospheres placed on the surface acts as an array of near-field lenses that focus the laser radiation into the multitude of distinct spots, allowing the formation of many structures in a single stage. We show that conversion of a small part of the energy of the femtosecond beam into the second harmonic (SH) is an efficient way to increase the surface density of obtained nanostructures. By combining the fundamental frequency and the SH, one benefits both from the power of the former and from the focusing ability of the latter. This combination provides an efficient nanostructuring with sphere diameter close to the wavelength of the second harmonic. The possibility to create arrays of nanostructures with surface density above 5×10{sup 8}?cm{sup ?2} with femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser operating at 800?nm was demonstrated by employing 0.45??m spheres.

  19. Role of surface recombination in affecting the efficiency of nanostructured thin-film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Da, Yun; Xuan, Yimin

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured light trapping is a promising way to improve the efficiency in thin-film solar cells recently. In this work, both the optical and electrical properties of thin-film solar cells with 1D periodic grating structure are investigated by using photoelectric coupling model. It is found that surface recombination plays a key role in determining the performance of nanostructured thin-film solar cells. Once the recombination effect is considered, the higher optical absorption does not mean the higher conversion efficiency as most existing publications claimed. Both the surface recombination velocity and geometric parameters of structure have great impact on the efficiency of thin-film solar cells. Our simulation results indicate that nanostructured light trapping will not only improve optical absorption but also boost the surface recombination simultaneously. Therefore, we must get the tradeoffs between optical absorption and surface recombination to obtain the maximum conversion efficiency. Our work makes it clear that both the optical absorption and electrical recombination response should be taken into account simultaneously in designing the nanostructured thin-film solar cells. PMID:24514926

  20. Theoretical Analyses of Electric-Current Related Phenomena at Surface Nanostructures under Strong

    E-print Network

    Katsumoto, Shingo

    Theoretical Analyses of Electric-Current Related Phenomena at Surface Nanostructures under Strong-8-14 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 1 Introduction Electric currents and related phenomena have. Experimentally, many attempts to examine electric-current related phenomena under elec- tric fields have been