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1

Jumping-Droplet-Enhanced Condensation on Scalable Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces  

E-print Network

When droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump from the surface due to the release of excess surface energy. If designed properly, these superhydrophobic nanostructured ...

Miljkovic, Nenad

2

Liquid Evaporation on Superhydrophobic and Superhydrophilic Nanostructured Surfaces  

E-print Network

Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) images of water evaporation from superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces are presented. The nanostructured surfaces consiste of an array of equidistant ...

Miljkovic, Nenad

3

Superhydrophobic nanostructured silicon surfaces with controllable broadband reflectance.  

PubMed

Nanostructured superhydrophobic silicon surfaces with tunable reflectance are fabricated via a simple maskless deep reactive-ion etching process. By controlling the scale of the high-aspect-ratio nanostructures on a wafer-scale surface, surface reflectance is maximized or minimized over the UV-vis-IR range while maintaining superhydrophobic properties. PMID:21523314

Cho, Seong J; An, Taechang; Kim, Jin Young; Sung, Jungwoo; Lim, Geunbae

2011-06-01

4

Superhydrophobic elastomer surfaces with nanostructured micronails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New approaches to the fabrication of microstructures of special shape were developed for polymers. Unusual superhydrophobic surface structures were achieved with the use of flexible polymers and hierarchical molds. Flexible polyurethane-acrylate coatings were patterned with microstructures with use of microstructured aluminum mold in a controlled UV-curing process. Electron microscope images of the UV-cured coatings on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates revealed micropillars that were significantly higher than the corresponding depressions of the mold (even 47 vs. 35 ?m). The elongation was achieved by detaching the mold from the flexible, partially cured acrylate surface and then further curing the separated microstructure. The modified acrylate surface is superhydrophobic with a water contact angle of 156° and sliding angle of < 10°. Acrylic thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) were patterned with micro-nanostructured aluminum oxide molds through injection molding. The hierarchical surface of the elastomer showed elongated micropillars (57 ?m) with nail-head tops covered with nanograss. Comparison with a reference microstructure of the same material (35 ?m) indicated that the nanopores of the micro-nanomold assisted the formation of the nail-shaped micropillars. The elasticity of the TPE materials evidently plays a role in the elongation because similar elongation has not been found in hierarchically structured thermoplastic surfaces. The hierarchical micronail structure supports a high water contact angle (164°), representing an increase of 88° relative to the smooth TPE surface. The sliding angle was close to zero degrees, indicating the Cassie-Baxter state.

Saarikoski, Inka; Joki-Korpela, Fatima; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tuula T.; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

2012-01-01

5

Electric-field-enhanced condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces.  

PubMed

When condensed droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump due to the conversion of excess surface energy into kinetic energy. This phenomenon has been shown to enhance condensation heat transfer by up to 30% compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensing surfaces. However, after the droplets jump away from the surface, the existence of the vapor flow toward the condensing surface increases the drag on the jumping droplets, which can lead to complete droplet reversal and return to the surface. This effect limits the possible heat transfer enhancement because larger droplets form upon droplet return to the surface, which impedes heat transfer until they can be either removed by jumping again or finally shedding via gravity. By characterizing individual droplet trajectories during condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured copper oxide (CuO) surfaces, we show that this vapor flow entrainment dominates droplet motion for droplets smaller than R ? 30 ?m at moderate heat fluxes (q? > 2 W/cm(2)). Subsequently, we demonstrate electric-field-enhanced condensation, whereby an externally applied electric field prevents jumping droplet return. This concept leverages our recent insight that these droplets gain a net positive charge due to charge separation of the electric double layer at the hydrophobic coating. As a result, with scalable superhydrophobic CuO surfaces, we experimentally demonstrated a 50% higher overall condensation heat transfer coefficient compared to that on a jumping-droplet surface with no applied field for low supersaturations (<1.12). This work not only shows significant condensation heat transfer enhancement but also offers avenues for improving the performance of self-cleaning and anti-icing surfaces as well as thermal diodes. PMID:24261667

Miljkovic, Nenad; Preston, Daniel J; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N

2013-12-23

6

Condensation on superhydrophobic copper oxide nanostructures  

E-print Network

Condensation is an important process in many power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces have unique condensation properties that may enhance heat transfer through a ...

Dou, Nicholas (Nicholas Gang)

2012-01-01

7

Fabrication of surface micro- and nanostructures for superhydrophobic surfaces in electric and electronic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our study, the superhydrophobic surface based on biomimetic lotus leave is explored to maintain the desired properties for self-cleaning. Parameters in controlling bead-up and roll-off characteristics of water droplets were investigated on different model surfaces. The governing equations were proposed. Heuristic study is performed. First, the fundamental understanding of the effect of roughness on superhydrophobicity is performed. The effect of hierarchical roughness, i.e., two scale roughness effect on roughness is investigated using systems of (1) monodisperse colloidal silica sphere (submicron) arrays and Au nanoparticle on top and (2) Si micrometer pyramids and Si nanostructures on top from KOH etching and metal assisted etching of Si. The relation between the contact area fraction and water droplet contact angles are derived based on Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter equation for the systems and the two scale effect is explained regarding the synergistic combination of two scales. Previously the microscopic three-phase-contact line is thought to be the key factor in determining contact angles and hystereses. In our study, Laplace pressure was brought up and related to the three-phase-contact line and taken as a key figure of merit in determining superhydrophobicity. In addition, we are one of the first to study the effect of tapered structures (wall inclination). Combining with a second scale roughness on the tapered structures, stable Cassie state for both water and low surface energy oil may be achieved. This is of great significance for designing both superhydrophobicity and superoleophobicity. Regarding the origin of contact angle hysteresis, study of superhydrophobicity on micrometer Si pillars was performed. The relation between the interface work of function and contact angle hysteresis was proposed and derived mathematically based on the Young-Dupre equation. The three-phase-contact line was further related to a secondary scale roughness induced. Based on our understanding of the roughness effect on superhydrophobicity (both contact angle and hysteresis), structured surfaces from polybutadiene, polyurethane, silica, and Si etc. were successfully prepared. For engineering applications of superhydrophobic surfaces, stability issues regarding UV, mechanical robustness and humid environment need to be investigated. Among these factors, UV stability is the first one to be studied. However, most polymer surfaces we prepared failed the purpose. Silica surfaces with excellent UV stability were prepared. This method consists of preparation of rough silica surfaces, thermal treatment and the following surface hydrophobization by fluoroalkyl silane treatment. Fluoroalkyl groups are UV stable and the underlying species are silica which is also UV stable (UV transparent). UV stability on the surface currently is 5,500 h according the standard test method of ASTM D 4329. No degradation on surface superhydrophobicity was observed. New methods for preparing superhydrophobic and transparent silica surfaces were investigated using urea-choline chloride eutectic liquid to generate fine roughness and reduce the cost for preparation of surface structures. Another possible application for self-cleaning in photovoltaic panels was investigated on Si surfaces by construction of the two-scale rough structures followed by fluoroalkyl silane treatment. Metal (Au) assisted etching was employed to fabricate nanostructures on micrometer pyramid surfaces. The light reflection on the prepared surfaces was investigated. After surface texturing using KOH etching for micrometer pyramids and the following nanostructure using metal assisted etching, surface light reflection reduced to a minimum value which shows that this surface texturing technique is highly promising for improving the photovoltaic efficiency while imparting photovoltaics the self-cleaning feature. This surface is also expected to be UV stable due to the same fluoroalkyl silane used. Regarding the mechanical robustness, epoxy-silica superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by O2 plas

Xiu, Yonghao

8

Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films.  

PubMed

We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military. PMID:23857991

Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T; Lupini, Andrew R; Trejo, Rosa M; Jellison, Gerald E; Ivanov, Ilia N; Pennycook, Stephen J; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Winter, Kyle O; Christen, David K; Hunter, Scott R; Haynes, J Allen

2013-08-01

9

Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military.

Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Trejo, Rosa M.; Jellison, Gerald E.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Hillesheim, Daniel A.; Winter, Kyle O.; Christen, David K.; Hunter, Scott R.; Haynes, J. Allen

2013-08-01

10

Superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobicity - also known as water repellency - has recently attracted considerable attention because of its numerous potential applications. However, the fundamental concepts and equations describing the wettability of superhydrophobic surfaces have been known since the 1940s. These concepts are reviewed and discussed in the present feature article in light of the recent developments. Furthermore, the potential use of water-repellent siloxane-nanoparticle composites for surface protection and consolidation of stones and mortars used in outdoor objects of cultural heritage is investigated. Finally, it is shown that the wettability of the composite surfaces can be predicted by the Cassie-Baxter equation.

Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Manoudis, Panagiotis

2012-11-01

11

Superhydrophobic and colorful copper surfaces fabricated by picosecond laser induced periodic nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, functional copper surfaces combined with vivid structural colors and superhydrophobicity were fabricated by picosecond laser. Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), i.e. ripples, were fabricated by picosecond laser nanostructuring to induce rainbow-like structural colors which are uniquely caused by the grating - type structure. The effects of laser processing parameters on the formation of ripples were investigated. We also discussed the formation mechanism of ripples. With different combinations of the laser processing parameters, ripples with various morphologies were fabricated. After the modification with triethoxyoctylsilane, different types of ripples exhibited different levels of wettability. The fine ripples with minimal redeposited nanoparticles exhibited high adhesive force to water. The increased amount of nanoscale structures decreased the adhesive force to water and increased the contact angle simultaneously. In particular, a specific type of ripples exhibited superhydrophobicity with a large contact angle of 153.9 ± 3.2° and a low sliding angle of 11 ± 3°.

Long, Jiangyou; Fan, Peixun; Zhong, Minlin; Zhang, Hongjun; Xie, Yongde; Lin, Chen

2014-08-01

12

Multiscale effect of hierarchical self-assembled nanostructures on superhydrophobic surface.  

PubMed

In this work, we describe self-assembled surfaces with a peculiar multiscale organization, from the nanoscale to the microscale, exhibiting the Cassie-Baxter wetting regime with extremely low water adhesion: floating drops regime with roll-off angles < 5°. These surfaces comprise bundles of hierarchical, quasi-one-dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanostructures functionalized with a fluorinated molecule (PFNA). While the hierarchical nanostructures are the result of a gas-phase self-assembly process, their bundles are the result of the capillary forces acting between them when the PFNA solvent evaporates. Nanometric features are found to influence the hydrophobic behavior of the surface, which is enhanced by the micrometric structures up to the achievement of the superhydrophobic Cassie-Baxter state (contact angle (CA) ? 150°). Thanks to their high total and diffuse transmittance and their self-cleaning properties, these surfaces could be interesting for several applications such as smart windows and photovoltaics where light management and surface cleanliness play a crucial role. Moreover, the multiscale analysis performed in this work contributes to the understanding of the basic mechanisms behind extreme wetting behaviors. PMID:25346328

Passoni, Luca; Bonvini, Giacomo; Luzio, Alessandro; Facibeni, Anna; Bottani, Carlo E; Di Fonzo, Fabio

2014-11-18

13

Condensation on Superhydrophobic Copper Oxide Nanostructures  

E-print Network

Condensation is an important process in both emerging and traditional power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructures promise enhanced condensation heat transfer by reducing the ...

Enright, Ryan

14

Optically Transparent, Mechanically Durable, Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces Enabled by Spinodally Phase-Separated Glass Thin Films  

SciTech Connect

Inspired by highly non-wetting natural biological surfaces (e.g., lotus leaves and water strider legs), artificial superhydrophobic surfaces that exhibit water droplet contact angles exceeding 150o have previously been constructed by utilizing various synthesis strategies.[ , , ] Such bio-inspired, water-repellent surfaces offer significant potential for numerous uses ranging from marine applications (e.g., anti-biofouling, anti-corrosion), anti-condensation (e.g., anti-icing, anti-fogging), membranes for selective separation (e.g., oil-water, gas-liquid), microfluidic systems, surfaces requiring reduced maintenance and cleaning, to applications involving glasses and optical materials.[ ] In addition to superhydrophobic attributes, for integration into device systems that have extended operational limits and overall improved performance, surfaces that also possess multifunctional characteristics are desired, where the functionality should match to the application-specific requirements.

Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; Hillesheim, Daniel A [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL; Winters, Kyle O. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Haynes, James A [ORNL; Simpson, John T [ORNL

2013-01-01

15

Superhydrophobic surface of TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures fabricated by Ti anodization.  

PubMed

A hierarchical structure of TiO2 with disordered nanowires on top of regular nanotubes was fabricated. With organic monolayers, it showed stronger superhydrophobic properties than regular nanotubes. The surface roughness was further enhanced by removing the dense nanowires layer, resulting in 172° water contact angle. The potential application for aquatic devices was explored by the treated Ti mesh which showed striking floating stability. PMID:24559706

Dong, Junye; Ouyang, Xin; Han, Jie; Qiu, Wei; Gao, Wei

2014-04-15

16

Condensation on Hydrophilic, Hydrophobic, Nanostructured Superhydrophobic and Oil-Infused Surfaces  

E-print Network

Color images of steady state water vapor condensing on smooth and nanostructured hydrophobic surfaces are presented. Figure 1a shows a snapshot of classical filmwise condensation on hydrophilic copper. A thin liquid film ...

Nenad, Miljkovic

17

Transparent nanostructured coatings with UV-shielding and superhydrophobicity properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible light transparent, UV-shielding and superhydrophobic nanostructured coatings have been successfully fabricated through a facile layer-by-layer deposition of TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles. The coatings are composed of an underlying UV-shielding TiO2 layer and a top fully covered protective SiO2 layer. The resulting coatings can block 100% of UVB and UVC and almost 85% of UVA. The fabricated surfaces have contact angles exceeding 165° after coating with organic PTES (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane) molecules. The transparent superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit extremely strong UV stability. All coatings retain the initial UV-shielding and superhydrophobic properties even after exposure to 275 nm UV light with a light intensity of 75 mW cm - 2 for 12 h.

Wang, Taoye; Isimjan, Tayirjan T.; Chen, Jianfeng; Rohani, Sohrab

2011-07-01

18

Superhydrophobic nanostructured Kapton® surfaces fabricated through Ar + O2 plasma treatment: Effects of different environments on wetting behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kapton® [poly (4,4'-oxy diphenylene pyromellitimide)] polyimides have widespread usage in semiconductor devices, solar arrays, protective coatings and space applications, due to their excellent chemical and physical properties. In addition to their inherent properties, imparting superhydrophobicity on these surfaces will be an added advantage. Present work describes the usage of Ar + O2 plasma treatment for the preparation of superhydrophobic Kapton® surfaces. Immediately after the plasma treatment, the surfaces showed superhydrophilicity as a result of high energy dangling bonds and polar group concentration. But the samples kept in low vacuum for 48 h exhibited superhydrophobicity with high water contact angles (>150°). It is found that the post plasma treatment process, called ageing, especially in low vacuum plays an important role in delivering superhydrophobic property to Kapton®. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to probe the physical changes in the surface of the Kapton®. The surfaces showed formation of nano-feathers and nano-tussock microstructures with variation in surface roughness against plasma treatment time. A thorough chemical investigation was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy, which revealed changes in the surface of the Ar + O2 plasma treated Kapton®. Surface chemical species of Kapton® were confirmed again by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra for untreated surfaces whereas Ar + O2 plasma treated samples showed the de-bonding and re-organization of structural elements. Creation of surface roughness plays a dominant role in the contribution of superhydrophobicity to Kapton® apart from the surface modifications due to Ar + O2 plasma treatment and ageing in low vacuum.

Barshilia, Harish C.; Ananth, A.; Gupta, Nitant; Anandan, C.

2013-03-01

19

Superhydrophobicity on hairy surfaces  

E-print Network

We investigate the wetting properties of surfaces patterned with fine elastic hairs, with an emphasis on identifying superhydrophobic states on hydrophilic hairs. We formulate a two dimensional model of a large drop in contact with a row of equispaced elastic hairs and, by minimising the free energy of the model, identify the stable and metastable states. In particular we concentrate on "partially suspended" states, where the hairs bend to support the drop -- singlet states where all hairs bend in the same direction, and doublet states where neighbouring hairs bend in opposite directions -- and find the limits of stability of these configurations in terms of material contact angle, hair flexibility, and system geometry. The drop can remain suspended in a singlet state at hydrophilic contact angles, but doublets exist only when the hairs are hydrophobic. The system is more likely to evolve into a singlet state if the hairs are inclined at the root. We discuss how, under limited circumstances, the results can be modified to describe an array of hairs in three dimensions. We find that now both singlets and doublets can exhibit superhydrophobic behaviour on hydrophilic hairs. We discuss the limitations of our approach and the directions for future work.

M. L. Blow; J. M. Yeomans

2010-09-27

20

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 40 (2005) 3587 3591 LETTERS Nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces  

E-print Network

of a hy- drophilic surface. This relationship was established by Wenzel and referred to as Wenzel's law [12, 13]. How- ever, Young's equation and Wenzel's law can only be used if the water droplet has

Cao, Guozhong

21

Anti-icing performance of superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article studies the anti-ice performance of several micro/nano-rough hydrophobic coatings with different surface chemistry and topography. The coatings were prepared by spin-coating or dip coating and used organosilane, fluoropolymer or silicone rubber as a top layer. Artificially created glaze ice, similar to the naturally accreted one, was deposited on the nanostructured surfaces by spraying supercooled water microdroplets (average size ˜80 ?m) in a wind tunnel at subzero temperature (-10 °C). The ice adhesion strength was evaluated by spinning the samples in a centrifuge at constantly increasing speed until ice delamination occurred. The results show that the anti-icing properties of the tested materials deteriorate, as their surface asperities seem to be gradually broken during icing/de-icing cycles. Therefore, the durability of anti-icing properties appears to be an important point for further research. It is also shown that the anti-icing efficiency of the tested superhydrophobic surfaces is significantly lower in a humid atmosphere, as water condensation both on top and between surface asperities takes place, leading to high values of ice adhesion strength. This implies that superhydrophobic surfaces may not always be ice-phobic in the presence of humidity, which can limit their wide use as anti-icing materials.

Farhadi, S.; Farzaneh, M.; Kulinich, S. A.

2011-05-01

22

Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with high and low adhesion inspired from rose petal.  

PubMed

Certain rose petals are known to be superhydrophobic with high adhesion. There also exist rose petals which are superhydrophobic with low adhesion similar to lotus leaf. The purpose of this study is to characterize systematically the superhydrophobic rose petal with high and low adhesion surfaces and understand the mechanism for adhesion characteristics. Based on these, artificial superhydrophobic surfaces with high and low adhesion are fabricated using a two-step molding process and wax evaporation method. It is shown that the pitch values of microstructures and density of nanostructures play an important role in real rose petals and artificial surfaces to control their adhesion properties. PMID:20131881

Bhushan, Bharat; Her, Eun Kyu

2010-06-01

23

Wettability Switching Techniques on Superhydrophobic Surfaces  

PubMed Central

The wetting properties of superhydrophobic surfaces have generated worldwide research interest. A water drop on these surfaces forms a nearly perfect spherical pearl. Superhydrophobic materials hold considerable promise for potential applications ranging from self cleaning surfaces, completely water impermeable textiles to low cost energy displacement of liquids in lab-on-chip devices. However, the dynamic modification of the liquid droplets behavior and in particular of their wetting properties on these surfaces is still a challenging issue. In this review, after a brief overview on superhydrophobic states definition, the techniques leading to the modification of wettability behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces under specific conditions: optical, magnetic, mechanical, chemical, thermal are discussed. Finally, a focus on electrowetting is made from historical phenomenon pointed out some decades ago on classical planar hydrophobic surfaces to recent breakthrough obtained on superhydrophobic surfaces.

2007-01-01

24

Frost formation and ice adhesion on superhydrophobic surfaces  

E-print Network

We study frost formation and its impact on icephobic properties of superhydrophobic surfaces. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope, we show that frost nucleation occurs indiscriminately on superhydrophobic ...

Varanasi, Kripa K.

25

Superhydrophobic surfaces engineered using diatomaceous earth.  

PubMed

We present a simple method to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces using siliceous exoskeleton of diatoms, a widespread group of algae. This makes diatomaceous earth an accessible and cheap natural material. A micro/nanoscale hierarchical topography was achieved by coating a glass surface with diatomaceous earth, giving rise to a superhydrophilic surface. Superhydrophobic surfaces were obtained by a further surface chemical modification through fluorosilanization. The wettability of the superhydrophobic surface can be modified by Argon plasma treatment in a controlled way by exposure time variation. The chemical surface modification by fluorosilanization and posterior fluorinated SH surface modification by plasma treatment was analyzed by XPS. Using appropriated hollowed masks only specific areas on the surface were exposed to plasma permitting to pattern hydrophilic features with different geometries on the superhydrophobic surface. We showed that the present strategy can be also applied in other substrates, including thermoplastics, enlarging the potential applicability of the resulting surfaces. PMID:23647196

Oliveira, Nuno M; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

2013-05-22

26

Surfaces with combined microscale and nanoscale structures: a route to mechanically stable superhydrophobic surfaces?  

PubMed

Materials with superhydrophobic properties are usually generated by covering the surfaces with hydrophobic nanoscale rough features. A major problem, however, for any practical application of such strongly water-repellent surfaces is the mechanical fragility of the nanostructures. Even moderate forces caused by touching or rubbing the surfaces are frequently strong enough to destroy the nanostructures and lead to the loss of the superhydrophobic properties. In this article, we study the mechanical stability of superhydrophobic surfaces with three different topographies: nano- and microscale features and surfaces carrying a combination of both. The surfaces are generated by silicon etching and subsequent coating with a monolayer of a fluoropolymer (PFA). We perform controlled wear tests on the different surfaces and discuss the impact of wear on the wetting properties of the different surfaces. PMID:23363078

Groten, Jonas; Rühe, Jürgen

2013-03-19

27

Superhydrophobic Ag nanostructures on polyaniline membranes with strong SERS enhancement.  

PubMed

We demonstrate here a facile fabrication of n-dodecyl mercaptan-modified superhydrophobic Ag nanostructures on polyaniline membranes for molecular detection based on SERS technique, which combines the superhydrophobic condensation effect and the high enhancement factor. It is calculated that the as-fabricated superhydrophobic substrate can exhibit a 21-fold stronger molecular condensation, and thus further amplifies the SERS signal to achieve more sensitive detection. The detection limit of the target molecule, methylene blue (MB), on this superhydrophobic substrate can be 1 order of magnitude higher than that on the hydrophilic substrate. With high reproducibility, the feasibility of using this SERS-active superhydrophobic substrate for quantitative molecular detection is explored. A partial least squares (PLS) model was established for the quantification of MB by SERS, with correlation coefficient R(2) = 95.1% and root-mean-squared error of prediction (RMSEP) = 0.226. We believe this superhydrophobic SERS substrate can be widely used in trace analysis due to its facile fabrication, high signal reproducibility and promising SERS performance. PMID:25242264

Liu, Weiyu; Miao, Peng; Xiong, Lu; Du, Yunchen; Han, Xijiang; Xu, Ping

2014-11-01

28

Marangoni convection in droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces  

E-print Network

We consider a small droplet of water sitting on top of a heated superhydrophobic surface. A toroidal convection pattern develops in which fluid is observed to rise along the surface of the spherical droplet and to accelerate ...

Tam, Daniel

29

Scale effect on dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

Micro/nano (two-tier) structures are often employed to achieve superhydrophobicity. In condensation, utilizing such a surface is not necessarily advantageous because the macroscopically observed Cassie droplets are usually in fact partial Wenzel in condensation. The increase in contact angle through introducing microstructures on such two-tier roughened surfaces may result in an increase in droplet departure diameter and consequently deteriorate the performance. In the meantime, nanostructure roughened surfaces could potentially yield efficient shedding of liquid droplets, whereas microstructures roughened surfaces often lead to highly pinned Wenzel droplets. To attain efficient shedding of liquid droplets in condensation on a superhydrophobic surface, a Bond number (a dimensionless number for appraising dropwise condensation) and a solid-liquid fraction smaller than 0.1 and 0.3, respectively, are suggested. PMID:25069032

Lo, Ching-Wen; Wang, Chi-Chuan; Lu, Ming-Chang

2014-08-27

30

Water drop friction on superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

To investigate water drop friction on superhydrophobic surfaces, the motion of water drops on three different superhydrophobic surfaces has been studied by allowing drops to slide down an incline and capturing their motion using high-speed video. Two surfaces were prepared using crystallization of an alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) wax, and the third surface was the leaf of a Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera). The acceleration of the water droplets on these superhydrophobic surfaces was measured as a function of droplet size and inclination of the surface. For small capillary numbers, we propose that the energy dissipation is dominated by intermittent pinning-depinning transitions at microscopic pinning sites along the trailing contact line of the drop, while at capillary numbers exceeding a critical value, energy dissipation is dominated by circulatory flow in the vicinity of the contacting disc between the droplet and the surface. By combining the results of the droplet acceleration with a theoretical model based on energy dissipation, we have introduced a material-specific coefficient called the superhydrophobic sliding resistance, b(sh). Once determined, this parameter is sufficient for predicting the motion of water drops on superhydrophobic surfaces of a general macroscopic topography. This theory also infers the existence of an equilibrium sliding angle, ?(eq), at which the drop acceleration is zero. This angle is decreasing with the radius of the drop and is in quantitative agreement with the measured tilt angles required for a stationary drop to start sliding down an incline. PMID:23721176

Olin, Pontus; Lindström, Stefan B; Pettersson, Torbjörn; Wågberg, Lars

2013-07-23

31

Superhydrophobic surfaces developed by mimicking hierarchical surface morphology of lotus leaf.  

PubMed

The lotus plant is recognized as a 'King plant' among all the natural water repellent plants due to its excellent non-wettability. The superhydrophobic surfaces exhibiting the famous 'Lotus Effect', along with extremely high water contact angle (>150°) and low sliding angle (<10°), have been broadly investigated and extensively applied on variety of substrates for potential self-cleaning and anti-corrosive applications. Since 1997, especially after the exploration of the surface micro/nanostructure and chemical composition of the lotus leaves by the two German botanists Barthlott and Neinhuis, many kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces mimicking the lotus leaf-like structure have been widely reported in the literature. This review article briefly describes the different wetting properties of the natural superhydrophobic lotus leaves and also provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art discussion on the extensive research carried out in the field of artificial superhydrophobic surfaces which are developed by mimicking the lotus leaf-like dual scale micro/nanostructure. This review article could be beneficial for both novice researchers in this area as well as the scientists who are currently working on non-wettable, superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:24714190

Latthe, Sanjay S; Terashima, Chiaki; Nakata, Kazuya; Fujishima, Akira

2014-01-01

32

Superhydrophobic ceramic coatings enabled by phase-separated nanostructured composite TiO2-Cu2O thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By exploiting phase-separation in oxide materials, we present a simple and potentially low-cost approach to create exceptional superhydrophobicity in thin-film based coatings. By selecting the TiO2-Cu2O system and depositing through magnetron sputtering onto single crystal and metal templates, we demonstrate growth of nanostructured, chemically phase-segregated composite films. These coatings, after appropriate chemical surface modification, demonstrate a robust, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and yield an exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles reaching to ˜172° and sliding angles <1°. As an added benefit, despite the photo-active nature of TiO2, the chemically coated composite film surfaces display UV stability and retain superhydrophobic attributes even after exposure to UV (275 nm) radiation for an extended period of time. The present approach could benefit a variety of outdoor applications of superhydrophobic coatings, especially for those where exposure to extreme atmospheric conditions is required.

Aytug, Tolga; Bogorin, Daniela F.; Paranthaman, Parans M.; Mathis, John E.; Simpson, John T.; Christen, David K.

2014-06-01

33

Superhydrophobic silica surfaces: fabrication and stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a simple method to make hybrid or pure silica micropatterns at the surface of a substrate based on the combination of sol-gel process and nano-imprint lithography. The silica patterns can be easily designed during the photolithographic step and functionalized with a vapor phase deposition of fluorosilane molecules to obtain superhydrophobic surfaces. Benefiting from the properties of silica, our superhydrophobic patterns can withstand elevated temperatures and show interesting optical properties. These surfaces can be used for thermal transfer applications or microfluidic devices for example to limit noise in fluorescence measurements for biological applications. In connection to the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces, the organization of patterns (period of grating) and height of patterns were tested, and the stability of the Cassie-Baxter state studied. The transition can be described on a wide range of tested parameters by the sliding threshold where the control of side wall angle of patterns and chemistry of surface is essential.

Dubov, A. L.; Perez-Toralla, K.; Letailleur, A.; Barthel, E.; Teisseire, J.

2013-12-01

34

Advanced understanding of stickiness on superhydrophobic surfaces  

PubMed Central

This study explores how contact angle hysteresis and titling angle relate with stickiness on superhydrophobic surfaces. The result indicates that contact angle hysteresis could not be mentioned as a proper factor to evaluate the surface stickiness. By analyzing the system pinning force of droplet placed on a titled surface, we concluded that both solid fraction and surface geometric factor are the critical factors determining the surface stickiness. PMID:24253402

Wu, Jun; Xia, Jun; Lei, Wei; Wang, Bao-ping

2013-01-01

35

Wetting study of patterned surfaces for superhydrophobicity.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobic surfaces have considerable technological potential for various applications due to their extreme water-repellent properties. A number of studies have been carried out to produce artificial biomimetic roughness-induced hydrophobic surfaces. In general, both homogeneous and composite interfaces are possible on the produced surface. Silicon surfaces patterned with pillars of two different diameters and heights with varying pitch values were fabricated. We show how static contact angles vary with different pitch values on the patterned silicon surfaces. Based on the experimental data and a numerical model, the trends are explained. We show that superhydrophobic surfaces have low hysteresis and tilt angle. Tribological properties play an important role in many applications requiring water-repellent properties. Therefore, it is important to study the adhesion and friction properties of these surfaces that mimic nature. An atomic/friction force microscope (AFM/FFM) is used for surface characterization and adhesion and friction measurements. PMID:17553620

Bhushan, Bharat; Chae Jung, Yong

2007-10-01

36

Fabrication and characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces on aluminum alloy substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobic surfaces have potential anti-icing applications in industries and daily life. In the present study, we combine the methods of chemical etching and surface modification with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (POTS) which has very low surface energy to simplify the fabrication procedures for superhydrophobic surfaces on aluminum alloy substrates. The results show that the contact angle (CA), rolling angle (RA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of superhydrophobic surfaces etched with 8.0 wt% HCl aqueous solutions are 162.5°, 1.9° and 1.1°, respectively; the apparent surface free energies (ASFEs) of superhydrophobic surfaces increase with the decrease in surface temperature; the freezing time of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces is retarded by 1568s, and the temperature drops to as low as -11.9 ?C. The results indicate that superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit excellent anti-icing properties.

Lv, F. Y.; Zhang, P.

2014-12-01

37

Formation of superhydrophobic poly(dimethysiloxane) by ultrafast laser-induced surface modification.  

PubMed

The formation of hemispherical nanostructures and microscaled papilla by ultrafast laser irradiation was found to be a potential method to generate superhydrophbic surface of synthetic polymers. Irradiation of femtosecond laser creates roughened poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surface in nano- and microscales, of which topography fairly well imitate a Lotus leaf in nature. The modified surface showed superhydrophobicity with a contact angle higher than 170 degrees as well as sliding angle less than 3 degrees. We further demonstrated that negative replica of the processed PDMS surface exhibit large contact angle hysteresis with a sliding angle of 90 degrees while the positive replica maintains superhydrophobicity. PMID:18711510

Yoon, Tae Oh; Shin, Hyun Joo; Jeoung, Sae Chae; Park, Youn-Il

2008-08-18

38

Electrochemical fabrication of superhydrophobic Zn surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of 165.3° and a tilting angle of 2° was fabricated on a zinc substrate by electrochemical processing using a mixed electrolyte composed of NaCl and NaNO3, followed by overcoating with a fluorinated polymer. The fabrication process is based on the electrochemical processing of Zn under an applied electric field. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer system (XRD) were used to characterize surface morphology and crystal structures. Micrometer-scale pits, protrusions and numerous nanometer-scale dendrite structures were found on the surface. XRD results indicated that the new products formed on the treated surface. The anodic dissolution mechanism of Zn in the electrolyte was analyzed. The effects of processing time, processing current, electrolyte type and electrolyte concentration on surface micromorphology and superhydrophobicity of the samples were also investigated. The results show that the electrochemical processing does not require exacting processing parameters. This method is highly efficient and environmental friendly. The ideal processing conditions to create the optimum superhydrophobic surface are a processing time of 20 min, a current density of 0.2 A/cm2, and a mixed electrolyte of 0.1 mol/L NaNO3 and 0.05 mol/L NaCl.

Sun, Jing; Zhang, Fangdong; Song, Jinlong; Wang, Long; Qu, Qingsong; Lu, Yao; Parkin, Ivan

2014-10-01

39

Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model. PMID:23919719

Vakarelski, Ivan U; Chan, Derek Y C; Marston, Jeremy O; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

2013-09-01

40

Formation of superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic patterns by combination of nanostructure-imprinted perfluoropolymer and nanostructured silicon oxide for biological droplet generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we report a technology for fabricating superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic patterns using a combination of a nanostructure-imprinted perfluoropolymer and nanostructured silicon oxide. In our previous study, we used a combination of hydrophobic and superhydrophilic materials. However, it was difficult to split low-surface-tension liquids such as biological liquids into droplets solely using hydrophobic/hydrophilic patterns. In this study, the contact angle of the hydrophobic region was enhanced from 109.3° to 155.6° by performing nanostructure imprinting on a damage-reduced perfluoropolymer. The developed superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic patterns allowed the splitting of even those media that contained fetal bovine serum into droplets of a desired shape.

Kobayashi, Taizo; Shimizu, Kazunori; Kaizuma, Yoshihiro; Konishi, Satoshi

2011-03-01

41

Hybrid surface design for robust superhydrophobicity.  

PubMed

Surfaces may be rendered superhydrophobic by engineering the surface morphology to control the extent of the liquid-air interface and by the use of low-surface-energy coatings. The droplet state on a superhydrophobic surface under static and dynamic conditions may be explained in terms of the relative magnitudes of the wetting and antiwetting pressures acting at the liquid-air interface on the substrate. In this paper, we discuss the design and fabrication of hollow hybrid superhydrophobic surfaces which incorporate both communicating and noncommunicating air gaps. The surface design is analytically shown to exhibit higher capillary (or nonwetting) pressure compared to solid pillars with only communicating air gaps. Six hybrid surfaces are fabricated with different surface parameters selected such that the Cassie state of a droplet is energetically favorable. The robustness of the surfaces is tested under dynamic impingement conditions, and droplet dynamics are explained using pressure-based transitions between Cassie and Wenzel states. During droplet impingement, the effective water hammer pressure acting due to the sudden change in the velocity of the droplet is determined experimentally and is found to be at least 2 orders of magnitude less than values reported in the literature. The experiments show that the water hammer pressure depends on the surface morphology and capillary pressure of the surface. We propose that the observed reduction in shock pressure may be attributed to the presence of air gaps in the substrate. This feature allows liquid deformation and hence avoids the sudden stoppage of the droplet motion as opposed to droplet behavior on smooth surfaces. PMID:22630787

Dash, Susmita; Alt, Marie T; Garimella, Suresh V

2012-06-26

42

Modelling receding contact lines on superhydrophobic surfaces  

E-print Network

We use mesoscale simulations to study the depinning of a receding contact line on a superhydrophobic surface patterned by a regular array of posts. In order that the simulations are feasible, we introduce a novel geometry where a column of liquid dewets a capillary bounded by a superhydrophobic plane which faces a smooth hydrophilic wall of variable contact angle. We present results for the dependence of the depinning angle on the shape and spacing of the posts, and discuss the form of the meniscus at depinning. We find, in agreement with [17], that the local post concentration is a primary factor in controlling the depinning angle, and show that the numerical results agree well with recent experiments. We also present two examples of metastable pinned configurations where the posts are partially wet.

B. M. Mognetti; J. M. Yeomans

2010-09-23

43

Nano to micro structural hierarchy is crucial for stable superhydrophobic and water-repellent surfaces.  

PubMed

Water-repellent biological systems such as lotus leaves and water strider's legs exhibit two-level hierarchical surface structures with the smallest characteristic size on the order of a few hundreds nanometers. Here we show that such nano to micro structural hierarchy is crucial for a superhydrophobic and water-repellent surface. The first level structure at the scale of a few hundred nanometers allows the surface to sustain the highest pressure found in the natural environment of plants and insects in order to maintain a stable Cassie state. The second level structure leads to dramatic reduction in contact area, hence minimizing adhesion between water and the solid surface. The two level hierarchy further stabilizes the superhydrophobic state by enlarging the energy difference between the Cassie and the Wenzel states. The stability of Cassie state at the nanostructural scale also allows the higher level structures to restore superhydrophobicity easily after the impact of a rainfall. PMID:20092298

Su, Yewang; Ji, Baohua; Zhang, Kai; Gao, Huajian; Huang, Yonggang; Hwang, Kehchih

2010-04-01

44

Effect of electro-osmotic flow on energy conversion on superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that superhydrophobic surfaces, due to the presence of a no-shear zone, can greatly enhance transport of surface charges, leading to a considerable increase in the streaming potential. This could find potential use in micro-energy harvesting devices. In this paper, we show using analytical and numerical methods, that when a streaming potential is generated in such superhydrophobic geometries, the reverse electro-osmotic flow and hence current generated by this, is significant. A decrease in streaming potential compared to what was earlier predicted is expected. We also show that, due to the electro-osmotic streaming-current, a saturation in both the power extracted and efficiency of energy conversion is achieved in such systems for large values of the free surface charge densities. Nevertheless, under realistic conditions, such microstructured devices with superhydrophobic surfaces have the potential to even reach energy conversion efficiencies only achieved in nanostructured devices so far.

Seshadri, Gowrishankar; Baier, Tobias

2013-04-01

45

Superhydrophobic and icephobic surfaces prepared by RF-sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A superhydrophobic and icephobic surface were investigated on aluminum alloy substrate. Anodizing was used first to create a micro-nanostructured aluminum oxide underlayer on the alloy substrate. In a second step, the rough surface was coated with RF-sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon ®). Scanning electron microscopy images showed a " bird's nest"-like structure on the anodized surface. The RF-sputtered PTFE coating exhibited a high static contact angle of ˜165° with a very low contact angle hysteresis of ˜3°. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed high quantities of CF 3 and CF 2 groups, which are responsible for the hydrophobic behavior of the coatings. The performance of this superhydrophobic film was studied under atmospheric icing conditions. These results showed that on superhydrophobic surfaces ice-adhesion strength was 3.5 times lower than on the polished aluminum substrate.

Jafari, R.; Menini, R.; Farzaneh, M.

2010-12-01

46

Superhydrophobics  

SciTech Connect

A water repellent developed by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory outperforms nature at its best and could open a floodgate of commercial possibilities. The super-water repellent (superhydrophobic) material, developed by John Simpson, is easy to fabricate and uses inexpensive base materials. The process could lead to the creation of a new class of water repellant products, including windshields, eyewear, clothing, building materials, road surfaces, ship hulls and self-cleaning coatings. The list of likely applications is virtually endless.

Schaeffer, Daniel; Winter, Kyle

2013-05-02

47

Superhydrophobics  

ScienceCinema

A water repellent developed by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory outperforms nature at its best and could open a floodgate of commercial possibilities. The super-water repellent (superhydrophobic) material, developed by John Simpson, is easy to fabricate and uses inexpensive base materials. The process could lead to the creation of a new class of water repellant products, including windshields, eyewear, clothing, building materials, road surfaces, ship hulls and self-cleaning coatings. The list of likely applications is virtually endless.

Schaeffer, Daniel; Winter, Kyle

2014-05-23

48

Microcones and nanograss: toward mechanically robust superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

We describe the generation of mechanically robust superhydrophobic surfaces, which carry a hierarchical roughness that is composed of silicon microcones and silicon nanograss. Both micro and nanostructures were fabricated using mask-free dry etching processes. The microcones were obtained utilizing a cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process run in the overpassivation regime. By varying process parameters, surfaces with different microcones geometries and densities were achieved. The nanograss was fabricated using a modified DRIE process with alternating etching and passivation cycles ('BOSCH process'). All surfaces were covered with a layer of a fluorinated film so that superhydrophobic structures resulted. Depending on microcone geometry and density, the advancing contact angle ranged between 170° and 180°, and roll-off angles of 10 ?L drops between 30' (0.5°) and 6° were observed. The samples were exposed to varying shear loads, and the changes in the morphology were recorded by using electron microscopy. The wetting angles of the mechanically challenged surfaces were recorded and correlated with the mechanical properties of the samples. PMID:24628022

Kondrashov, Vitaliy; Rühe, Jürgen

2014-04-22

49

Superhydrophobic nature of nanostructures on an indigenous Australian eucalyptus plant and its potential application.  

PubMed

In this preliminary study, the morphology and nanostructured features formed by the epicuticular waxes of the mottlecah (Eucalyptus macrocarpa) leaf were investigated and quantified. The surface features formed by the waxes give the leaf remarkable wetting and self-cleaning properties that enhance the plant's survival in an arid climate. This paper also provides experimental evidence of the self-assembly properties of the epicuticular waxes. Analysis of the water contact angle measurements gave a mean static contact angle of 162.00 ± 6.10 degrees, which clearly indicated that the mottlecah's leaf surface was superhydrophobic. Detailed field emission scanning electron microscopy examination revealed that the surface was covered by bumps approximately 20 ?m in diameter and regularly spaced at a distance of around 26 ?m. The bumps are capped by nanotubules/pillars with an average diameter of 280 nm at the tips. Self-cleaning experiments indicated that the mottlecah's leaf could be effectively cleaned by a fine spray of water droplets that rolled over the surface picking up contaminants. Field emission scanning electron microscopy investigation of extracted epicuticular waxes revealed that the waxes were capable of self-reassembly and formed features similar to those of the original leaf surface. Furthermore, also reported is a simple technique for surface treating one side of a planar surface to produce a superhydrophobic surface that can be used as a planar floatation platform for microdevices. PMID:24198490

Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Le, Xuan Thi; Fawcett, Derek

2011-01-01

50

Fabrication of nonaging superhydrophobic surfaces by packing flowerlike hematite particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors demonstrate the fabrication of nonaging superhydrophobic surfaces by packing flowerlike micrometer-sized hematite (?-Fe2O3) particles. Although hematite is intrinsically hydrophilic, the nanometer-sized protrusions on the particles form textures with overhanging structures that prevent water from entering into the textures and induce a macroscopic superhydrophobic phenomenon. These superhydrophobic surfaces do not age even in extremely oxidative environments—they retain the superhydrophobicity after being stored in ambient laboratory air for 4months, heated to 800°C in air for 10h, and exposed to ultraviolet ozone for 10h.

Cao, Anmin; Cao, Liangliang; Gao, Di

2007-07-01

51

Plastron properties of a superhydrophobic surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most insects and spiders drown when submerged during flooding or tidal inundation, but some are able to survive and others can remain submerged indefinitely without harm. Many achieve this by natural adaptations to their surface morphology to trap films of air, creating plastrons which fix the water-vapor interface and provide an incompressible oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange surface. Here the authors demonstrate how the surface of an extremely water-repellent foam mimics this mechanism of underwater respiration and allows direct extraction of oxygen from aerated water. The biomimetic principle demonstrated can be applied to a wide variety of man-made superhydrophobic materials.

Shirtcliffe, Neil J.; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I.; Perry, Carole C.; Pyatt, F. Brian

2006-09-01

52

Rapid formation of superhydrophobic surfaces with fast response wettability transition.  

PubMed

We have developed a facile and time-saving method to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces on copper sheets. Various surface textures composed of Cu(OH)2 nanorod arrays and CuO microflowers/Cu(OH)2 nanorod arrays hierarchical structure were prepared by a simple solution-immersion process. After chemical modification with stearic acid, the wettability of the as-prepared surfaces was changed from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity. The shortest processing time for fabricating a superhydrophobic surface was 1.5 min. Interestingly, the rapid wettability transition between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity can be realized on the prepared surfaces with ease by the alternation of air-plasma treatment and stearic acid coating. It took just 2 min to complete the whole wettability transition. Additionally, the regeneration of the superhydrophobic surface is also considered regarding its application. PMID:21073178

Zhu, Xiaotao; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Men, Xuehu; Yang, Jin; Xu, Xianghui

2010-12-01

53

Boiling heat transfer on superhydrophilic, superhydrophobic, and superbiphilic surfaces  

E-print Network

Boiling heat transfer on superhydrophilic, superhydrophobic, and superbiphilic surfaces Amy Rachel Enhanced heat transfer Pool boiling Nucleation a b s t r a c t With recent advances in micro characterize pool boiling on surfaces with wettabilities varied from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic

Attinger, Daniel

54

Photoresponsive superhydrophobic surfaces for effective wetting control.  

PubMed

Dynamically tuning the surface wettability has long been a scientific challenge, but of great importance in surface science. Robust superhydrophobic surfaces, displaying switchable and tunable extreme wetting behaviors, are successfully developed by spraying photoresponsive hydrophobic nanoparticles onto various substrates. The surface wettability can be intelligently adjusted by applying irradiation with UV or visible light, which is assumed to initiate large conformation changes of azobenzene units at the coating surface, resulting in distinct surface energy change and thus controlled wetting behaviors. The underlying wetting mechanism about the resulting surfaces is systematically investigated and supported by the estimation of water contact angles using newly rewritten Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel relations and also by the evaluation of solid surface free energy adopting the Owens-Wendt approach. The methodology proposed may provide a novel way of tuning surface wettability and investigating the wetting transition mechanism and also promote applications in self-cleaning and smart fluid control. PMID:25322263

Pan, Shuaijun; Guo, Rui; Xu, Weijian

2014-10-30

55

Are superhydrophobic surfaces best for icephobicity?  

PubMed

Ice formation can have catastrophic consequences for human activity on the ground and in the air. Here we investigate water freezing delays on untreated and coated surfaces ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic and use these delays to evaluate icephobicity. Supercooled water microdroplets are inkjet-deposited and coalesce until spontaneous freezing of the accumulated mass occurs. Surfaces with nanometer-scale roughness and higher wettability display unexpectedly long freezing delays, at least 1 order of magnitude longer than typical superhydrophobic surfaces with larger hierarchical roughness and low wettability. Directly related to the main focus on heterogeneous nucleation and freezing delay of supercooled water droplets, the observed ensuing crystallization process consisted of two distinct phases: one very rapid recalescent partial solidification phase and a subsequent slower phase. Observations of the droplet collision process employed for the continuous liquid mass accumulation up to the point of ice formation reveal a previously unseen atmospheric-pressure, subfreezing-temperature regime for liquid-on-liquid bounce. On the basis of the entropy reduction of water near a solid surface, we formulate a modification to the classical heterogeneous nucleation theory, which predicts the observed freezing delay trends. Our results bring to question recent emphasis on super water-repellent surface formulations for ice formation retardation and suggest that anti-icing design must optimize the competing influences of both wettability and roughness. PMID:21319778

Jung, Stefan; Dorrestijn, Marko; Raps, Dominik; Das, Arindam; Megaridis, Constantine M; Poulikakos, Dimos

2011-03-15

56

Superhydrophobic Surface Based on a Coral-Like Hierarchical Structure of ZnO  

PubMed Central

Background Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces has attracted much interest in the past decade. The fabrication methods that have been studied are chemical vapour deposition, the sol-gel method, etching technique, electrochemical deposition, the layer-by-layer deposition, and so on. Simple and inexpensive methods for manufacturing environmentally stable superhydrophobic surfaces have also been proposed lately. However, work referring to the influence of special structures on the wettability, such as hierarchical ZnO nanostructures, is rare. Methodology This study presents a simple and reproducible method to fabricate a superhydrophobic surface with micro-scale roughness based on zinc oxide (ZnO) hierarchical structure, which is grown by the hydrothermal method with an alkaline aqueous solution. Coral-like structures of ZnO were fabricated on a glass substrate with a micro-scale roughness, while the antennas of the coral formed the nano-scale roughness. The fresh ZnO films exhibited excellent superhydrophilicity (the apparent contact angle for water droplet was about 0°), while the ability to be wet could be changed to superhydrophobicity after spin-coating Teflon (the apparent contact angle greater than 168°). The procedure reported here can be applied to substrates consisting of other materials and having various shapes. Results The new process is convenient and environmentally friendly compared to conventional methods. Furthermore, the hierarchical structure generates the extraordinary solid/gas/liquid three-phase contact interface, which is the essential characteristic for a superhydrophobic surface. PMID:21209931

Wu, Jun; Xia, Jun; Lei, Wei; Wang, Baoping

2010-01-01

57

Dynamic wetting on superhydrophobic surfaces: Droplet impact and wetting hysteresis  

E-print Network

We study the wetting energetics and wetting hysteresis of sessile and impacting water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of surface texture and surface energy. For sessile drops, we find three wetting ...

Smyth, Katherine M.

58

Stable superhydrophobic surfaces over a wide pH range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stable superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by solidifying poly(epoxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane- co-bisphenol A) [P(ETPDMS- co-BPA)] copolymer on a rough substrate. The low surface energy of the copolymer and the geometric structure at micrometer scale of the surface contribute to the superhydrophobic property. The as-prepared surface shows stable superhydrophobicity over a wide pH range (1-14) and the wettability is excellent stable to heating, water, corrosive solution and organic solvent treatments. The procedure is simple and time-saving as well as utilizing non-fluorine-containing compounds.

Guo, Li; Yuan, Wenfang; Li, Junping; Zhang, Zhijie; Xie, Zemin

2008-01-01

59

Superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic plant surfaces: an inspiration for biomimetic materials.  

PubMed

The diversity of plant surface structures, evolved over 460 million years, has led to a large variety of highly adapted functional structures. The plant cuticle provides structural and chemical modifications for surface wetting, ranging from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic. In this paper, the structural basics of superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic plant surfaces and their biological functions are introduced. Wetting in plants is influenced by the sculptures of the cells and by the fine structure of the surfaces, such as folding of the cuticle, or by epicuticular waxes. Hierarchical structures in plant surfaces are shown and further types of plant surface structuring leading to superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity are presented. The existing and potential uses of superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic surfaces for self-cleaning, drag reduction during moving in water, capillary liquid transport and other biomimetic materials are shown. PMID:19324720

Koch, Kerstin; Barthlott, Wilhelm

2009-04-28

60

Combining hierarchical surface roughness with fluorinated surface chemistry to preserve superhydrophobicity after organic contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surfaces exhibiting superhydrophobicity are attracting commercial and academic attention because of their potential applications in, for example, self-cleaning utensils, microfluidic systems, and microelectronic devices. In this study, we prepared a fluorinated superhydrophobic surface displaying nanoscale roughness, a superhydrophobic surface possessing a micro- and nanoscale binary structure, and a fluorinated superhydrophobic surface possessing such a binary structure. We investigated the effects of the (i) hierarchy of the surface topography and (ii) the surface chemical composition of the superhydrophobic carbon nanotube/polybenzoxazine coatings on their ability to retain superhydrophobicity upon contamination with particles and organic matter, an important characteristic for maintaining non-wetting properties under outdoor conditions. We have found that the topographical microstructure and the surface chemical composition are both important factors for preservation of the non-wetting properties of such superhydrophobic surfaces upon contamination with organic matter.

Wang, Chih-Feng; Hung, Shih-Wei; Kuo, Shiao-Wei; Chang, Chi-Jung

2014-11-01

61

Delayed frost growth on jumping-drop superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

Self-propelled jumping drops are continuously removed from a condensing superhydrophobic surface to enable a micrometric steady-state drop size. Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled superhydrophobic surface are able to repeatedly jump off the surface before heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs. Frost still forms on the superhydrophobic surface due to ice nucleation at neighboring edge defects, which eventually spreads over the entire surface via an interdrop frost wave. The growth of this interdrop frost front is shown to be up to 3 times slower on the superhydrophobic surface compared to a control hydrophobic surface, due to the jumping-drop effect dynamically minimizing the average drop size and surface coverage of the condensate. A simple scaling model is developed to relate the success and speed of interdrop ice bridging to the drop size distribution. While other reports of condensation frosting on superhydrophobic surfaces have focused exclusively on liquid-solid ice nucleation for isolated drops, these findings reveal that the growth of frost is an interdrop phenomenon that is strongly coupled to the wettability and drop size distribution of the surface. A jumping-drop superhydrophobic condenser minimized frost formation relative to a conventional dropwise condenser in two respects: preventing heterogeneous ice nucleation by continuously removing subcooled condensate, and delaying frost growth by limiting the success of interdrop ice bridge formation. PMID:23286736

Boreyko, Jonathan B; Collier, C Patrick

2013-02-26

62

Effects of Contact Angle Hysteresis on Ice Adhesion and Growth over Superhydrophobic Surfaces under Dynamic Flow Conditions  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the iceophobic properties of superhydrophobic surfaces are investigated under dynamic flow conditions by using a closed loop low-temperature wind tunnel. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by coating the substrates of aluminum and steel plates with nano-structured hydrophobic particles. The superhydrophobic plates along with uncoated control ones were exposed to an air flow of 12 m/s and 20 F accompanying micron-sized water droplets in the icing wind tunnel and the ice formation and accretion were probed by high-resolution CCD cameras. Results show that the superhydrophobic coatings significantly delay the ice formation and accretion even under the dynamic flow condition of the highly energetic impingement of accelerated super-cooled water droplets. It is found that there is a time scale for this phenomenon (delay of the ice formation) which has a clear correlation with the contact angle hysteresis and the length scale of surface roughness of the superhydrophobic surface samples, being the highest for the plate with the lowest contact angle hysteresis and finer surface roughness. The results suggest that the key parameter for designing iceophobic surfaces is to retain a low contact angle hysteresis (dynamic property) and the non-wetting superhydrophobic state under the hydrodynamic pressure of impinging droplets, rather than to only have a high contact angle (static property), in order to result in efficient anti-icing properties under dynamic conditions such as forced flows.

Sarshar, Mohammad Amin [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Swarctz, Christopher [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL; Simpson, John T [ORNL; Choi, Chang-Hwan [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey

2012-01-01

63

Condensation and freezing of droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobic coatings are reported as promising candidates for anti-icing applications. Various studies have shown that as well as having ultra water repellency the surfaces have reduced ice adhesion and can delay water freezing. However, the structure or texture (roughness) of the superhydrophobic surface is subject to degradation during the thermocycling or wetting process. This degradation can impair the superhydrophobicity and the icephobicity of those coatings. In this review, a brief overview of the process of droplet freezing on superhydrophobic coatings is presented with respect to their potential in anti-icing applications. To support this discussion, new data is presented about the condensation of water onto physically decorated substrates, and the associated freezing process which impacts on the freezing of macroscopic droplets on the surface. PMID:24200089

Oberli, Linda; Caruso, Dean; Hall, Colin; Fabretto, Manrico; Murphy, Peter J; Evans, Drew

2014-08-01

64

Topographical length scales of hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology of hydrophobic CF4 plasma fluorinated polybutadiene surfaces has been characterised using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Judicious choice of the plasma power and exposure duration leads to formation of three different surface morphologies (Micro, Nano, and Micro + Nano). Scaling theory analysis shows that for all three surface topographies, there is an initial increase in roughness with length scale followed by a levelling-off to a saturation level. At length scales around 500 nm, it is found that the roughness is very similar for all three types of surfaces, and the saturation roughness value for the Micro + Nano morphology is found to be intermediate between those for the Micro and Nano surfaces. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis has shown that the Micro + Nano topography comprises a hierarchical superposition of Micro and Nano morphologies. Furthermore, the Micro + Nano surfaces display the highest local roughness (roughness exponent ? = 0.42 for length scales shorter than ?500 nm), which helps to explain their superhydrophobic behaviour (large water contact angle (>170°) and low hysteresis (<1°)).

Dhillon, P. K.; Brown, P. S.; Bain, C. D.; Badyal, J. P. S.; Sarkar, S.

2014-10-01

65

Low temperature self-cleaning properties of superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outdoor surfaces are usually dirty surfaces. Ice accretion on outdoor surfaces could lead to serious accidents. In the present work, the superhydrophobic surface based on 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecanethiol (PFDT) modified Ag/PDMS composite was prepared to investigate the anti-icing property and self-cleaning property at temperatures below freezing point. The superhydrophobic surface was deliberately polluted with activated carbon before testing. It was observed that water droplet picked up dusts on the cold superhydrophobic surface and took it away without freezing at a measuring temperature of -10 °C. While on a smooth PFDT surface and a rough surface base on Ag/PDMS composite without PFDT modification, water droplets accumulated and then froze quickly at the same temperature. However, at even lower temperature of -12 °C, the superhydrophobic surface could not prevent the surface water from icing. In addition, it was observed that the frost layer condensed from the moisture pay an important role in determining the low temperature self-cleaning properties of a superhydrophobic surface.

Wang, Fajun; Shen, Taohua; Li, Changquan; Li, Wen; Yan, Guilong

2014-10-01

66

Nano-engineering of superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces for anti-corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal corrosion is a serious problem, both economically and operationally, for engineering systems such as aircraft, automobiles, pipelines, and naval vessels. In such engineering systems, aluminum is one of the primary materials of construction due to its light weight compared to steel and good general corrosion resistance. However, because of aluminum's relatively lower resistance to corrosion in salt water environments, protective measures such as thick coatings, paints, or cathodic protection must be used for satisfactory service life. Unfortunately, such anti-corrosion methods can create other concerns, such as environmental contamination, protection durability, and negative impact on hydrodynamic efficiency. Recently, a novel approach to preventing metal corrosion has emerged, using superhydrophobic surfaces. Superhydrophobic surfaces create a composite interface to liquid by retaining air within the surface structures, thus minimizing the direct contact of the liquid environment to the metal surface. The result is a highly non-wetting and anti-adherent surface that can offer other benefits such as biofouling resistance and hydrodynamic low friction. Prior research with superhydrophobic surfaces for corrosion applications was based on irregular surface roughening and/or chemical coatings, which resulted in random surface features, mostly on the micrometer scale. Such microscale surface roughness with poor controllability of structural dimensions and shapes has been a critical limitation to deeper understanding of the anti-corrosive effectiveness and optimized application of this approach. The research reported here provides a novel approach to producing controlled superhydrophobic nanostructures on aluminum that allows a systematic investigation of the superhydrophobic surface parameters on the corrosion resistance and hence can provide a route to optimization of the surface. Electrochemical anodization is used to controllably modulate the oxide layer thickness and pore dimensions at the aluminum surface. The results show that thicker oxide layers with larger pore sizes allow the nanostructured surface to retain more gas (air) and hence provide a more effective barrier to corrosion. The anodizing techniques are further advanced to design and produce hierarchical three-dimensional nanostructures for better retention of the gaseous barrier layer at the surface.

Jeong, Chanyoung

67

Boiling Heat Transfer on Superhydrophilic, Superhydrophobic, and Superbiphilic Surfaces  

E-print Network

With recent advances in micro- and nanofabrication, superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces have been developed. The statics and dynamics of fluids on these surfaces have been well characterized. However, few investigations have been made into the potential of these surfaces to control and enhance other transport phenomena. In this article, we characterize pool boiling on surfaces with wettabilities varied from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic, and provide nucleation measurements. The most interesting result of our measurements is that the largest heat transfer coefficients are reached not on surfaces with spatially uniform wettability, but on biphilic surfaces, which juxtapose hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. We develop an analytical model that describes how biphilic surfaces effectively manage the vapor and liquid transport, delaying critical heat flux and maximizing the heat transfer coefficient. Finally, we manufacture and test the first superbiphilic surfaces (juxtaposing superhydrophobic ...

Betz, Amy Rachel; Kim, Chang-Jin 'CJ'; Attinger, Daniel

2012-01-01

68

Wetting of soap bubbles on hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces  

E-print Network

Wetting of sessile bubbles on solid and liquid surfaces has been studied. A model is presented for the contact angle of a sessile bubble based on a modified Young equation - the experimental results agree with the model. A hydrophilic surface results in a bubble contact angle of 90 deg whereas on a superhydrophobic surface one observes 134 deg. For hydrophilic surfaces, the bubble angle diminishes with bubble radius - whereas on a superhydrophobic surface, the bubble angle increases. The size of the Plateau borders governs the bubble contact angle - depending on the wetting of the surface.

Arscott, Steve

2013-01-01

69

Wetting of soap bubbles on hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces  

E-print Network

Wetting of sessile bubbles on solid and liquid surfaces has been studied. A model is presented for the contact angle of a sessile bubble based on a modified Young equation - the experimental results agree with the model. A hydrophilic surface results in a bubble contact angle of 90 deg whereas on a superhydrophobic surface one observes 134 deg. For hydrophilic surfaces, the bubble angle diminishes with bubble radius - whereas on a superhydrophobic surface, the bubble angle increases. The size of the Plateau borders governs the bubble contact angle - depending on the wetting of the surface.

Steve Arscott

2013-03-26

70

Wetting of soap bubbles on hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetting of sessile bubbles on various wetting surfaces (solid and liquid) has been studied. A model is presented for the apparent contact angle of a sessile bubble based on a modified Young's equation--the experimental results agree with the model. Wetting a hydrophilic surface results in a bubble contact angle of 90° whereas using a superhydrophobic surface one observes 134°. For hydrophilic surfaces, the bubble angle diminishes with bubble radius whereas on a superhydrophobic surface, the bubble angle increases. The size of the plateau borders governs the bubble contact angle, depending on the wetting of the surface.

Arscott, Steve

2013-06-01

71

Condensation heat transfer on two-tier superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated water vapor condensation on a two-tier superhydrophobic surface in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and in a customer-designed vapor chamber. We have observed continuous dropwise condensation (DWC) on the textured surface in ESEM. However, a film layer of condensate was formed on the multiscale texture in the vapor chamber. Due to the filmwise condensation, the condensation heat transfer coefficient of the superhydrophobic surface is lower than that of a flat hydrophobic surface especially under high heat flux situations. Our studies indicate that adaptive and prompt condensate droplet purging is the dominant factor for sustaining long-term DWC.

Cheng, Jiangtao; Vandadi, Aref; Chen, Chung-Lung

2012-09-01

72

Reversible switching between superhydrophobic states on a hierarchically structured surface  

PubMed Central

Nature offers exciting examples for functional wetting properties based on superhydrophobicity, such as the self-cleaning surfaces on plant leaves and trapped air on immersed insect surfaces allowing underwater breathing. They inspire biomimetic approaches in science and technology. Superhydrophobicity relies on the Cassie wetting state where air is trapped within the surface topography. Pressure can trigger an irreversible transition from the Cassie state to the Wenzel state with no trapped air—this transition is usually detrimental for nonwetting functionality and is to be avoided. Here we present a new type of reversible, localized and instantaneous transition between two Cassie wetting states, enabled by two-level (dual-scale) topography of a superhydrophobic surface, that allows writing, erasing, rewriting and storing of optically displayed information in plastrons related to different length scales. PMID:22689952

Verho, Tuukka; Korhonen, Juuso T.; Sainiemi, Lauri; Jokinen, Ville; Bower, Chris; Franze, Kristian; Franssila, Sami; Andrew, Piers; Ikkala, Olli; Ras, Robin H. A.

2012-01-01

73

Controllable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces based on PDMS microwell arrays.  

PubMed

This paper presents a one-step method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with extremely controllable adhesion based on PDMS microwell arrays. The microwell array structures are rapidly produced on PDMS films by a point-by-point femtosecond laser scanning process. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces show water controllable adhesion that ranges from ultrahigh to ultralow by adjusting the extent of overlap of the adjacent microwells, on which the sliding angle can be controlled from 180° (a water droplet can not slide down even when the as-prepared surface is turned upside down) to 3°. A "micro-airbag effect" is introduced to explain the adhesion transition phenomenon of the microwell array structures. This work provides a facile and promising strategy to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with controllable adhesion. PMID:23391207

Yong, Jiale; Chen, Feng; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Dongshi; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Si, Jinhai; Meng, Xiangwei; Hou, Xun

2013-03-12

74

High contact angle hysteresis of superhydrophobic surfaces: Hydrophobic defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A typical superhydrophobic surface is essentially nonadhesive and exhibits very low water contact angle (CA) hysteresis, so-called Lotus effect. However, leaves of some plants such as scallion and garlic with an advancing angle exceeding 150° show very serious CA hysteresis. Although surface roughness and epicuticular wax can explain the very high advancing CA, our analysis indicates that the unusual hydrophobic defect, diallyl disulfide, is the key element responsible for contact line pinning on allium leaves. After smearing diallyl disulfide on an extended polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film, which is originally absent of CA hysteresis, the surface remains superhydrophobic but becomes highly adhesive.

Chang, Feng-Ming; Hong, Siang-Jie; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

2009-08-01

75

Mechanical stability of surface architecture-consequences for superhydrophobicity.  

PubMed

Wet chemistry methods such as sol-gel provide a facile means of preparing coatings with controlled surface chemistry and architecture. The manipulation of colloidal "building blocks," film constituents, and reaction conditions makes it a promising method for simple, scalable, and routine production of superhydrophobic coatings. Despite all of this, the practical application of superhydrophobic coatings remains limited by low mechanical durability. The translation of chemistry to mechanical strength within superhydrophobic films is severely hindered by the requisite physical structure. More specifically, porosity and the surface architecture of roughness in sol-gel-derived films contribute significantly to poor mechanical properties. These physical effects emphasize that collective structure and chemistry-based strategies are required. This challenge is not unique to superhydrophobics, and there are many principles that can be drawn upon to greatly improve performance. The delicate interplay between chemistry and physical structure has been highlighted through theory and characterization of porous and rough interfaces within and outside the framework of superhydrophobics. Insights can further be drawn from biology. Nature's capacity for self-repair remains extremely challenging to mimic in materials. However, nature does demonstrate strategies for structuring nano- and microbuilding blocks to achieve generally mutually exclusive properties. Difficulties with characterization and example mechanical characterization methods have also been emphasized. PMID:25318076

Dyett, Brendan P; Wu, Alex H; Lamb, Robert N

2014-11-12

76

Ag dendrites with rod-like tips: synthesis, characterization and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facile, low-cost and templateless wet-chemical method was reported for the mass synthesis of Ag dendrites with rod-like tips which were characterized by various methods. The columniform tips protruded in random directions, of which the diameters were similar. A series of experiments were carried out to explore the effect of sodium citrate on the morphology of the obtained Ag nanostructures, and it was demonstrated that the concentration of sodium citrate was important for the formation of the cylindrical tips on the Ag dendrites. A possible mechanism was proposed to explain the role of sodium citrate in the synthesis of Ag dendrites with rod-like tips. Based on the roughness caused by the Ag dendrites, a superhydrophobic surface was fabricated in a simple procedure on a glass substrate, and the contact angle of the surface was as high as 156.4°. According to similar procedures, superhydrophobic surfaces were easily attained on a DVD disc and commercial aluminium foil, indicating the as-prepared Ag dendrites can be used to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces on various smooth substrates.

Ren, Wen; Guo, Shaojun; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang

2011-05-01

77

Designing robust alumina nanowires-on-nanopores structures: superhydrophobic surfaces with slippery or sticky water adhesion.  

PubMed

Hierarchical alumina surfaces with different morphologies were fabricated by a simple one-step anodization method. These alumina films were fabricated by a new raw material: silica gel plate (aluminum foil with a low purity of 97.17%). The modulation of anodizing time enabled the formation of nanowires-on-nanopores hybrid nanostructures having controllable nanowires topographies through a self-assembly process. The resultant structures were demonstrated to be able to achieve superhydrophobicity without any hydrophobic coating layer. More interestingly, it is found that the as-prepared superhydrophobic alumina surfaces exhibited high contrast water adhesion. Hierarchical alumina film with nanowire bunches-on-nanopores (WBOP) morphology presents extremely slippery property which can obtain a sliding angle (SA) as low as 1°, nanowire pyramids-on-nanopores (WPOP) structure shows strongly sticky water adhesion with the adhesive ability to support 15 ?L inverted water droplet at most. The obtained superhydrophobic alumina surfaces show remarkable mechanical durability even treated by crimping or pressing without impact on the water-repellent performance. Moreover, the created surfaces also show excellent resistivity to ice water, boiling water, high temperature, organic solvent and oil contamination, which could expand their usefulness and efficacy in harsh conditions. PMID:23981676

Peng, Shan; Tian, Dong; Miao, Xinrui; Yang, Xiaojun; Deng, Wenli

2013-11-01

78

Characterization of underwater stability of superhydrophobic surfaces using quartz crystal microresonators.  

PubMed

We synthesized porous aluminum oxide nanostructures directly on a quartz crystal microresonator and investigated the properties of superhydrophobic surfaces, including the surface wettability, water permeation, and underwater superhydrophobic stability. After increasing the pore diameter to 80 nm (AAO80), a gold film was deposited onto the AAO80 membrane, and the pore entrance size was reduced to 30 nm (AAO30). The surfaces of the AAO80 and AAO30 were made to be hydrophobic through chemical modification by incubation with octadecanethiol (ODT) or octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS), which produced three different types of superhydrophobic surfaces on quartz microresonators: OTS-modified AAO80 (OTS-AAO80), ODT-modified AAO30 (ODT-AAO30), and ODT-OTS-modified AAO30 (TS-AAO30). The loading of a water droplet onto a microresonator or the immersion of a resonator into water induced changes in the resonance frequency that corresponded to the water permeation into the nanopores. TS-AAO30 exhibited the best performance, with a low degree of water permeation, and a high stability. These features were attributed to the presence of sealed air pockets and the narrow pore entrance diameter. PMID:24978595

Lee, Moonchan; Yim, Changyong; Jeon, Sangmin

2014-07-15

79

Droplet evaporation on heated hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaporation characteristics of sessile water droplets on smooth hydrophobic and structured superhydrophobic heated surfaces are experimentally investigated. Droplets placed on the hierarchical superhydrophobic surface subtend a very high contact angle (˜160°) and demonstrate low roll-off angle (˜1°), while the hydrophobic substrate supports corresponding values of 120° and ˜10°. The substrates are heated to different constant temperatures in the range of 40-60 °C, which causes the droplet to evaporate much faster than in the case of natural evaporation without heating. The geometric parameters of the droplet, such as contact angle, contact radius, and volume evolution over time, are experimentally tracked. The droplets are observed to evaporate primarily in a constant-contact-angle mode where the contact line slides along the surface. The measurements are compared with predictions from a model based on diffusion of vapor into the ambient that assumes isothermal conditions. This vapor-diffusion-only model captures the qualitative evaporation characteristics on both test substrates, but reasonable quantitative agreement is achieved only for the hydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic surface demonstrates significant deviation between the measured evaporation rate and that obtained using the vapor-diffusion-only model, with the difference being amplified as the substrate temperature is increased. A simple model considering thermal diffusion through the droplet is used to highlight the important role of evaporative cooling at the droplet interface in determining the droplet evaporation characteristics on superhydrophobic surfaces.

Dash, Susmita; Garimella, Suresh V.

2014-04-01

80

Facile and fast fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobic surface has many special functions and is widely investigated by researchers. Magnesium alloy is one of the lightest metal materials among the practice metals. It plays an important role in automobile, airplane and digital product for reducing devices weight. But due to the low standard potential, magnesium alloy has a high chemical activity and easily be corroded. That seriously impedes the application of magnesium alloy. In the process of fabrication a superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy, there are two ineluctable problems that must be solved: (1) high chemical activity and (2) the chemical activity is inhomogeneous on surface. In this study, we solved those problems by using the two characters to gain a rough surface on magnesium alloy and obtained a superhydrophobic surface after following modification process. The results show that the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has obvious anti-corrosion effect in typically corrosive solution and naturally humid air. The delay-icing and self-cleaning effects are also investigated. The presented method is low-cost, fast and has great potential value in large-scale industry production.

Wang, Zhongwei; Li, Qing; She, Zuxin; Chen, Funan; Li, Longqin; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Peng

2013-04-01

81

Droplet evaporation on heated hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

The evaporation characteristics of sessile water droplets on smooth hydrophobic and structured superhydrophobic heated surfaces are experimentally investigated. Droplets placed on the hierarchical superhydrophobic surface subtend a very high contact angle (?160°) and demonstrate low roll-off angle (?1°), while the hydrophobic substrate supports corresponding values of 120° and ?10°. The substrates are heated to different constant temperatures in the range of 40-60?°C, which causes the droplet to evaporate much faster than in the case of natural evaporation without heating. The geometric parameters of the droplet, such as contact angle, contact radius, and volume evolution over time, are experimentally tracked. The droplets are observed to evaporate primarily in a constant-contact-angle mode where the contact line slides along the surface. The measurements are compared with predictions from a model based on diffusion of vapor into the ambient that assumes isothermal conditions. This vapor-diffusion-only model captures the qualitative evaporation characteristics on both test substrates, but reasonable quantitative agreement is achieved only for the hydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic surface demonstrates significant deviation between the measured evaporation rate and that obtained using the vapor-diffusion-only model, with the difference being amplified as the substrate temperature is increased. A simple model considering thermal diffusion through the droplet is used to highlight the important role of evaporative cooling at the droplet interface in determining the droplet evaporation characteristics on superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:24827255

Dash, Susmita; Garimella, Suresh V

2014-04-01

82

Superhydrophobic Aluminum Surfaces: Preparation routes, properties and artificial weathering impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the materials that can show superhydrophobic properties are hydrophilic metals which must undergo a sequential treatment, including roughening and hydrophobic coating. This contribution presents various preparation routes along with characterization work employing dynamic contact angle measurements (CA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and spec- trometric techniques (FT-IRRAS, XPS, EIS). Micro-rough surfaces of pure and alloyed aluminum were generated most easily

M. Thieme; C. Blank; A. Pereira de Oliveira; H. Worch; R. Frenzel; S. Höhne

83

Micro-and nanostructured silicon-based superomniphobic surfaces.  

PubMed

We report on the fabrication of silicon nanostructured superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surfaces also called "superomniphobic" surfaces. For this purpose, silicon interfaces with different surface morphologies, single or double scale structuration, were investigated. These structured surfaces were chemically treated with perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (PFTS), a low surface energy molecule. The morphology of the resulting surfaces was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their wetting properties: static contact angle (CA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) were investigated using liquids of various surface tensions. Despite that we found that all the different morphologies display a superhydrophobic character (CA>150° for water) and superoleophobic behavior (CA ? 140° for hexadecane), values of hysteresis are strongly dependent on the liquid surface tension and surface morphology. The best surface described in this study was composed of a dual scale texturation i.e. silicon micropillars covered by silicon nanowires. Indeed, this surface displayed high static contact angles and low hysteresis for all tested liquids. PMID:24370432

Nguyen, Thi Phuong Nhung; Boukherroub, Rabah; Thomy, Vincent; Coffinier, Yannick

2014-02-15

84

Magnetic surface nanostructures.  

PubMed

Recent trends in the emerging field of surface-supported magnetic nanostructures are reviewed. Current strategies for nanostructure synthesis are summarized, followed by a predominantly theoretical description of magnetic phenomena in surface magnetic structures and a review of experimental research in this field. Emphasis is on Fe- or Co-based nanostructures in various low-dimensional geometries, which are studied as model systems to explore the effects of dimensionality, atomic coordination, chemical bonds, alloying and, most importantly, interactions with the supporting substrate on the magnetism. This review also includes a discussion of closely related systems, such as 3d element impurities integrated into organic networks, surface-supported Fe-based molecular magnets, Kondo systems or 4d element nanostructures that exhibit emergent magnetism, thereby bridging the traditional areas of surface science, molecular physics and nanomagnetism. PMID:21403321

Enders, A; Skomski, R; Honolka, J

2010-11-01

85

Fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on aluminum by continuous chemical etching and its anti-icing property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum is extensively used metals in transmission lines, and the accumulation of ice on aluminum may inflict serious damage such as tower collapse and power failure. In this study, micro/nanostructured aluminum surface was fabricated using a continuous chemical etching method. The static and dynamic anti-icing behaviors of the as-prepared aluminum surface in different conditions were systematically investigated with a self-made device and artificial climate laboratory. Results showed that the as-prepared surface can mitigate freezing in glaze ice. Only several isolated ice points formed on the surface in glaze ice after 50 min. Due to the superhydrophobicity of the as-prepared aluminum surface, cold water sprayed on the surface aggregated into large drops and rolled off the surface before freezing, thus protecting the surface against excessive ice accumulation. The surface morphology and crystal structure of the samples were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. This study offers insight into understanding the anti-icing behavior of the superhydrophobic aluminum surface and may favor the application of structured aluminum surface in power transmission lines against ice accumulation.

Liao, Ruijin; Zuo, Zhiping; Guo, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Zhuang, Aoyun

2014-10-01

86

Micro to nano: Surface size scale and superhydrophobicity  

PubMed Central

Summary This work looks at the fundamental question of how the surface mobility of drops in the composite state is related to the size scale of the roughness features of the surface. To this end, relevant literature is first reviewed and the important terms are clarified. We then describe and discuss contact and roll-off angle measurements on a set of hydrophobicized silicon post surfaces for which all parameters except for the surface size scale were held constant. It was found that a critical transition from “sticky superhydrophobic” (composite state with large contact angle hysteresis) to “truly superhydrophobic” (composite state with low hysteresis) takes place as the size of the surface features reaches 1 ?m. PMID:21977446

Dorrer, Christian

2011-01-01

87

Microcavity-array superhydrophobic surfaces: Limits of the model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobic surfaces formed of microcavities can be designed with specific desired advancing and receding contact angles using a new model described by us in prior work. Here, we discuss the limits of validity of the model, and explore the application of the model to surfaces fabricated with small cavities of radius 250 nm and with large cavities of radius 40 ?m. The Wenzel model is discussed and used to calculate the advancing and receding contact angles for samples for which our model cannot be applied. We also consider the case of immersion of a sample containing microcavities in pressurized water. A consideration that then arises is that the air inside the cavities can be dissolved in the water, leading to complete water invasion into the cavities and compromising the superhydrophobic character of the surface. Here, we show that this effect does not destroy the surface hydrophobia when the surface is subsequently removed from the water.

Salvadori, M. C.; Oliveira, M. R. S.; Spirin, R.; Teixeira, F. S.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I. G.

2013-11-01

88

Dynamic effects of bouncing water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobic surfaces have considerable technological potential for various applications due to their extreme water repellent properties. Superhydrophobic surfaces may be generated by the use of hydrophobic coating, roughness, and air pockets between solid and liquid. Dynamic effects, such as the bouncing of a droplet, can destroy the composite solid-air-liquid interface. The relationship between the impact velocity of a droplet and the geometric parameters affects the transition from the solid-air-liquid interface to the solid-liquid interface. Therefore, it is necessary to study the dynamic effect of droplets under various impact velocities. We studied the dynamic impact behavior of water droplets on micropatterned silicon surfaces with pillars of two different diameters and heights and with varying pitch values. A criterion for the transition from the Cassie and Baxter regime to the Wenzel regime based on the relationship between the impact velocity and the parameter of patterned surfaces is proposed. The trends are explained based on the experimental data and the proposed transition criterion. For comparison, the dynamic impact behavior of water droplets on nanopatterned surfaces was investigated. The wetting behavior under various impact velocities on multiwalled nanotube arrays also was investigated. The physics of wetting phenomena for bouncing water droplet studies here is of fundamental importance in the geometrical design of superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:18479153

Jung, Yong Chae; Bhushan, Bharat

2008-06-17

89

Bioinspired superhydrophobic, self-cleaning and low drag surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature has evolved objects with desired functionality using commonly found materials. Nature capitalizes on hierarchical structures to achieve functionality. The understanding of the functions provided by objects and processes found in nature can guide us to produce nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes with desirable functionality. This article provides an overview of four topics: (1) Lotus Effect used to develop superhydrophobic and self-cleaning/antifouling surfaces with low adhesion, (2) Shark Skin Effect to develop surfaces with low fluid drag and anti-fouling characteristics, and (3-4) Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wing Effect to develop superhydrophobic and self-cleaning surfaces with low drag. Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wings combine the Shark Skin and Lotus Effects.

Bhushan, Bharat

2013-09-01

90

Electro-osmosis on anisotropic super-hydrophobic surfaces  

E-print Network

We give a general theoretical description of electro-osmotic flow at striped super-hydrophobic surfaces in a thin double layer limit, and derive a relation between the electro-osmotic mobility and hydrodynamic slip-length tensors. Our analysis demonstrates that electro-osmotic flow shows a very rich behavior controlled by slip length and charge at the gas sectors. In case of uncharged liquid-gas interface, the flow is the same or inhibited relative to flow in homogeneously charged channel with zero interfacial slip. By contrast, it can be amplified by several orders of magnitude provided slip regions are uniformly charged. When gas and solid regions are oppositely charged, we predict a flow reversal, which suggests a possibility of huge electro-osmotic slip even for electro-neutral surfaces. On the basis of these observations we suggest strategies for practical microfluidic mixing devices. These results provide a framework for the rational design of super-hydrophobic surfaces.

Belyaev, Aleksey V

2011-01-01

91

Electro-osmosis on anisotropic super-hydrophobic surfaces  

E-print Network

We give a general theoretical description of electro-osmotic flow at striped super-hydrophobic surfaces in a thin double layer limit, and derive a relation between the electro-osmotic mobility and hydrodynamic slip-length tensors. Our analysis demonstrates that electro-osmotic flow shows a very rich behavior controlled by slip length and charge at the gas sectors. In case of uncharged liquid-gas interface, the flow is the same or inhibited relative to flow in homogeneous channel with zero interfacial slip. By contrast, it can be amplified by several orders of magnitude provided slip regions are uniformly charged. When gas and solid regions are oppositely charged, we predict a flow reversal, which suggests a possibility of huge electro-osmotic slip even for electro-neutral surfaces. On the basis of these observations we suggest strategies for practical microfluidic mixing devices. These results provide a framework for the rational design of super-hydrophobic surfaces.

Aleksey V. Belyaev; Olga I. Vinogradova

2011-03-16

92

Micro-micro hierarchy replacing micro-nano hierarchy: a precisely controlled way to produce wear-resistant superhydrophobic polymer surfaces.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobic polymer surfaces are typically fabricated by combining hierarchical micro-nanostructures. The surfaces have a great technological potential because of their special water-repellent and self-cleaning properties. However, the poor mechanical robustness of such surfaces has severely limited their use in practical applications. This study presents a simple and swift mass production method for manufacturing hierarchically structured polymer surfaces at micrometer scale. Polypropylene surface structuring was done using injection molding, where the microstructured molds were made with a microworking robot. The effect of the micro-microstructuring on the polymer surface wettability and mechanical robustness was studied and compared to the corresponding properties of micro-nanostructured surfaces. The static contact angles of the micro-microstructured surfaces were greater than 150° and the contact angle hysteresis was low, showing that the effect of hierarchy on the surface wetting properties works equally well at micrometer scale. Hierarchically micro-microstructured polymer surfaces exhibited the same superhydrophobic wetting properties as did the hierarchically micro-nanostructured surfaces. Micro-microstructures had superior mechanical robustness in wear tests as compared to the micro-nanostructured surfaces. The new microstructuring technique offers a precisely controlled way to produce superhydrophobic wetting properties to injection moldable polymers with sufficiently high intrinsic hydrophobicity. PMID:23009694

Huovinen, Eero; Hirvi, Janne; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A

2012-10-16

93

Induced detachment of coalescing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

Coalescence of a falling droplet with a stationary sessile droplet on a superhydrophobic surface is investigated by a combined experimental and numerical study. In the experiments, the droplet diameter, the impact velocity, and the distance between the impacting droplets were controlled. The evolution of surface shape during the coalescence of two droplets on the superhydrophobic surface is captured using high speed imaging and compared with numerical results. A two-phase volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to determine the dynamics of droplet coalescence, shape evaluation, and contact line movement. The spread length of two coalesced droplets along their original center is also predicted by the model and compared well with the experimental results. The effect of different parameters such as impact velocity, center to center distance, and droplet size on contact time and restitution coefficient are studied and compared to the experimental results. Finally, the wetting and the self-cleaning properties of superhydrophobic surfaces have been investigated. It has been found that impinging water drops with very small amount of kinetic impact energy were able to thoroughly clean these surfaces. PMID:22171956

Farhangi, Mehran M; Graham, Percival J; Choudhury, N Roy; Dolatabadi, Ali

2012-01-17

94

Multifunctional superhydrophobic surfaces templated from innately microstructured hydrogel matrix.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobic surfaces are of immense scientific and technological interests for a broad range of applications. However, a major challenge remains in developing scalable methodologies that enable superhydrophobic coatings on versatile substrates with a combination of strong mechanical stability, optical transparency, and even stretchability. Herein, we developed a scalable methodology to versatile hydrophobic surfaces that combine with strong mechanical stability, optical transparency, and stretchability by using a self-assembled hydrogel as the template to in situ generate silica microstructures and subsequent silanization. The superhydrophobic coatings can be enabled on virtually any substrates via large-area deposition techniques like dip coating. Transparent surfaces with optical transmittance as high as 98% were obtained. Moreover, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical flexibility and robustness that it can sustain contact angles ? 160° even after 5000 cycles of mechanically stretching at 100% strain. The multifunctional surfaces can be used as screen filters and sponges for the oil/water separation that can selectively absorb oils up to 40× their weight. PMID:24977920

Wang, Yaqun; Shi, Ye; Pan, Lijia; Yang, Meng; Peng, Lele; Zong, Shi; Shi, Yi; Yu, Guihua

2014-08-13

95

Unified Model for Contact Angle Hysteresis on Heterogeneous and Superhydrophobic Surfaces  

E-print Network

Understanding the complexities associated with contact line dynamics on chemically heterogeneous and superhydrophobic surfaces is important for a wide variety of engineering problems. Despite significant efforts to capture ...

Raj, Rishi

96

Superhydrophobic films on glass surface derived from trimethylsilanized silica gel nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The paper deals with the fabrication of sol-gel-derived superhydrophobic films on glass based on the macroscopic silica network with surface modification. The fabricated transparent films were composed of a hybrid -Si(CH(3))(3)-functionalized SiO(2) nanospheres exhibiting the desired micro/nanostructure, water repellency, and antireflection (AR) property. The wavelength selective AR property can be tuned by controlling the physical thickness of the films. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies revealed the existence of SiO(2) nanoparticles of average size ?9.4 nm in the sols. TEM studies showed presence of interconnected SiO(2) NPs of ?10 nm in size. The films were formed with uniformly packed SiO(2) aggregates as observed by FESEM of film surface. FTIR of the films confirmed presence of glasslike Si-O-Si bonding and methyl functionalization. The hydrophobicity of the surface was depended on the thickness of the deposited films. A critical film thickness (>115 nm) was necessary to obtain the air push effect for superhydrophobicity. Trimethylsilyl functionalization of SiO(2) and the surface roughness (rms ?30 nm as observed by AFM) of the films were also contributed toward the high water contact angle (WCA). The coated glass surface showed WCA value of the droplet as high as 168 ± 3° with 6 ?L of water. These superhydrophobic films were found to be stable up to about 230-240 °C as confirmed by TG/DTA studies, and WCA measurements of the films with respect to the heat-treatment temperatures. These high water repellant films can be deposited on relatively large glass surfaces to remove water droplets immediately without any mechanical assistance. PMID:21823656

Goswami, Debmita; Medda, Samar Kumar; De, Goutam

2011-09-01

97

Deposition and tuning of nanostructured hydrocarbon deposits: From superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic and back  

SciTech Connect

Carbonaceous fluorine free nanoparticles synthesized in a low temperature acetylene discharge are used in a first step for the production of (super)hydrophobic coatings. In a second step, the influence of different plasma and UV induced functionalizations on the wetting characteristics of these materials is investigated. The experiments show that the superhydrophobic surfaces can be turned continuously and reversibly into hydrophilic (superhydrophilic) surfaces by means of the different treatment methods. The reversibility of these processes is studied in a third step. It is shown that the changes of the surface which are induced by the plasma treatment can be undone by means of EUV irradiation. The switchability of the surface due to external stimuli can be easily used for the controlled production of patterned surfaces. This is demonstrated by means of one simple example.

Berndt, J.; Acid, H.; Kovacevic, E.; Cachoncinlle, C.; Boufendi, L. [GREMI, Universite d'Orleans, Polytech'Orleans, F-45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Strunskus, Th. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft-Materialverbunde, D-24143 Kiel (Germany)

2013-02-14

98

Biomolecule and nanoparticle transfer on patterned and heterogeneously wetted superhydrophobic silicon nanowire surfaces.  

PubMed

We report on the use of patterned superhydrophobic silicon nanowire surfaces for the efficient, selective transfer of biological molecules and nanoparticles. Superhydrophilic patterns are prepared on superhydrophobic silicon nanowire surfaces using standard optical lithography. The resulting water-repellent surface allows material transfer and physisorption to the superhydrophilic islands upon exposure to an aqueous solution containing peptides, proteins, or nanoparticles. PMID:18251564

Piret, Gaëlle; Coffinier, Yannick; Roux, Clément; Melnyk, Oleg; Boukherroub, Rabah

2008-03-01

99

Hot embossing of PTFE: Towards superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of reusable stamps with features in the form of 2D arrays of pits having lateral dimensions in the range of 2-80 ?m and heights of 1.5-15 ?m were successfully employed for the hot embossing of PTFE at temperatures up to 50 °C above the glass transition temperature of PTFE amorphous phase. Due to the softening of PTFE at the temperatures used in this study, we were able to decrease imprint pressure significantly when comparing with the imprint conditions reported by other authors. Impact of the imprint temperature, pressure and time on the fidelity of pattern transfer as well as on water repellency was tested. The best results of embossing were achieved by applying pressure of 10 kg/cm 2 for 2 min at 170 °C. In this case, flattening of a natural PTFE roughness and pretty accurate deep replicas of the stamp patterns were observable on the whole imprinted area. Improvement in water repellency was largest for the samples imprinted by Ni stamp patterned with a 2D array of 2 ?m square pits spaced by the same dimension and having a depth of 1.5 ?m. Cassie-Baxter wetting regime was observed for the deepest imprints with water contact angles up to the superhydrophobic limit.

Jucius, D.; Grigali?nas, V.; Mikolaj?nas, M.; Guobien?, A.; Kopustinskas, V.; Gudonyt?, A.; Narmontas, P.

2011-01-01

100

Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling--by heat transfer--the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. PMID:22972299

Vakarelski, Ivan U; Patankar, Neelesh A; Marston, Jeremy O; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

2012-09-13

101

Programming nanostructured soft biological surfaces by atomic layer deposition.  

PubMed

Here, we present the first successful attempt to programme the surface properties of nanostructured soft biological tissues by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The nanopatterned surface of lotus leaf was tuned by 3-125 nm TiO2 thin films. The lotus/TiO2 composites were studied by SEM-EDX, XPS, Raman, TG-DTA, XRR, water contact angle and photocatalysis measurements. While we could preserve the superhydrophobic feature of lotus, we managed to add a new property, i.e. photocatalytic activity. We also explored how surface passivation treatments and various ALD precursors affect the stability of the sensitive soft biological tissues. As we were able to gradually change the number of nanopatterns of lotus, we gained new insight into how the hollow organic nanotubes on the surface of lotus influence its superhydrophobic feature. PMID:23680967

Szilágyi, Imre Miklós; Teucher, Georg; Härkönen, Emma; Färm, Elina; Hatanpää, Timo; Nikitin, Timur; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Räsänen, Markku; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku

2013-06-21

102

Super-hydrophobic bandages and method of making the same  

DOEpatents

A bandage that includes a material, which can be breathable, having a first surface, and a plurality of superhydrophobic particles attached to the first surface. The plurality of superhydrophobic particles ranging in size from about 100 nanometers to about 10 micrometers. The superhydrophobic particles including a protrusive material defining a plurality of nanopores and a plurality of spaced apart nanostructures that define an external boundary of the hydrophobic particles. The nanopores providing a flow through porosity. The first surface can be rendered superhydrophobic by the attached superhydrophobic particles. The material can have a second surface opposite the first surface that is hydrophilic. The superhydrophobic particles can be adhered to the first surface by a binder. Also included is a method of making the bandages described herein.

Simpson, John T. (Clinton, TN); D'Urso, Brian R. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2012-06-05

103

Mechanically robust superhydrophobic polymer surfaces based on protective micropillars.  

PubMed

Considerable attention is currently being devoted less to the question of whether it is possible to produce superhydrophobic polymer surfaces than to just how robust they can be made. The present study demonstrates a new route for improving the mechanical durability of water-repellent structured surfaces. The key idea is the protection of fragile fine-scale surface topographies against wear by larger scale sacrificial micropillars. A variety of surface patterns was manufactured on polypropylene using a microstructuring technique and injection molding. The surfaces subjected to mechanical pressure and abrasive wear were characterized by water contact and sliding angle measurements as well as by scanning electron microscopy and roughness analysis based on optical profilometry. The superhydrophobic polypropylene surfaces with protective structures were found to maintain their wetting properties in mechanical compression up to 20 MPa and in abrasive wear tests up to 120 kPa. For durable properties, the optimal surface density of the protective pillars was found to be about 15%. The present approach to the production of water-repellent polymer surfaces provides the advantages of mass production and mechanical robustness with practical applications of structurally functionalized surfaces. PMID:24483340

Huovinen, Eero; Takkunen, Laura; Korpela, Tarmo; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tuula T; Pakkanen, Tapani A

2014-02-11

104

Superhydrophobic silicon surfaces with micro-nano hierarchical structures via deep reactive ion etching and galvanic etching.  

PubMed

An effective fabrication method combining deep reactive ion etching and galvanic etching for silicon micro-nano hierarchical structures is presented in this paper. The method can partially control the morphology of the nanostructures and enables us to investigate the effects of geometry changes on the properties of the surfaces. The forming mechanism of silicon nanostructures based on silver nanoparticle galvanic etching was illustrated and the effects of process parameters on the surface morphology were thoroughly discussed. It is found that process parameters have more impact on the height of silicon nanostructure than its diameter. Contact angle measurement and tilting/dropping test results show that as-prepared silicon surfaces with hierarchical structures were superhydrophobic. What's more, two-scale model composed of micropillar arrays and nanopillar arrays was proposed to study the wettability of the surface with hierarchical structures. Wettability analysis results indicate that the superhydrophobic surface may demonstrate a hybrid state at which water sits on nanoscale pillars and immerses into microscale grooves partially. PMID:21889158

He, Yang; Jiang, Chengyu; Yin, Hengxu; Chen, Jun; Yuan, Weizheng

2011-12-01

105

Learning from superhydrophobic plants: the use of hydrophilic areas on superhydrophobic surfaces for droplet control.  

PubMed

In many countries, the mornings in spring are graced with spectacular displays of dew drops hanging on spiders' webs and on leaves. Some leaves, in particular, sport particularly large droplets that last well into the morning. In this paper, we study a group of plants that show this effect on their superhydrophobic leaves to try to discover how and why they do it. We describe the structures they use to gather droplets and suggest that these droplets are used as a damper to absorb kinetic energy allowing water to be redirected from sideways motion into vertical motion. Model surfaces in the shape of leaves and as more general flat sheets show that this principle can be used to manipulate water passively, such as on the covers of solar panels, and could also be used in parts of microfluidic devices. The mode of transport can be switched between rolling droplets and rivulets to maximize control. PMID:20560556

Shirtcliffe, N J; McHale, G; Newton, M I

2009-12-15

106

Fabrication and characterization of a cotton candy like surface with superhydrophobicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobic thin films were prepared on glass by air-brushing the in situ polymerization compositions of D 5/SiO 2. The wettability and morphology were investigated by contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The most superhydrophobic samples prepared had a static water contact angle of 157° for a 5 ?l droplet and a sliding angle of ˜1° for 10 ?l droplet. Thermal stability analysis showed that the surface maintained superhydrophobic at temperature up to 450 °C. Air trapping and capillary force on superhydrophobic behavior were evaluated.

Hu, You; Huang, Chengya; Su, Dong; Jiang, Qiangwei; Zhu, Yunfeng

2011-05-01

107

Static and dynamic characterization of robust superhydrophobic surfaces built from nano-flowers on silicon micro-post arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobic nano-flower surfaces were fabricated using MEMS technology and microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) of carbon nanotubes on silicon micro-post array surfaces. The nano-flower structures can be readily formed within 1-2 min on the micro-post arrays with the spacing ranging from 25 to 30 µm. The petals of the nano-flowers consisted of clusters of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Patterned nano-flower structures were characterized using various microscopy techniques. After MPCVD, the apparent contact angle (160 ± 0.2°), abbreviated as ACA (defined as the measured angle between the apparent solid surface and the tangent to the liquid-fluid interface), of the nano-flower surfaces increased by 139% compared with that of the silicon micro-post arrays. The measured ACA of the nano-flower surface is consistent with the predicted ACA from a modified Cassie-Baxter equation. A high-speed CCD camera was used to study droplet impact dynamics on various micro/nanostructured surfaces. Both static testing (ACA and sliding angle) and droplet impact dynamics demonstrated that, among seven different micro/nanostructured surfaces, the nano-flower surfaces are the most robust superhydrophobic surfaces.

Chen, Longquan; Xiao, Zhiyong; Chan, Philip C. H.; Lee, Yi-Kuen

2010-10-01

108

Stable superhydrophobic surface with hierarchical mesh-porous structure fabricated by a femtosecond laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by the lotus leaf, a new superhydrophobic surface with hierarchical mesh-porous structure is fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation on silicon. The fabricated surface shows a superhydrophobic character with water contact angle being found to reach up to 158?±1? and sliding angle of 4?±0.5?. The superhydrophobicity is stable even if the PH of solution changes from 1 to 14. And the surface also exhibits excellent self-cleaning effect and bouncing behavior, implying that the adhesion of the surface is extremely low. This work will enhance further understanding of the wettability of a solid surface with special surface morphology.

Yong, Jiale; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Dongshi; Bian, Hao; Ou, Yan; Si, Jinhai; Du, Guangqing; Hou, Xun

2013-04-01

109

Rebound behaviors of droplets impacting on a superhydrophobic surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rebound behaviors of droplets impacting on a self-fabricated superhydrophobic brass surface (WCA=164.5°) were observed and studied by using high-speed-camera. In accordance with energy conversion, theoretical analysis of different behaviors and rebound mechanism were given. At lower velocities, three behaviors in different velocity ranges were observed: partial rebounding, entire rebounding and ejecting during rebounding. At higher velocities, such two behaviors as rebound after splashing and rebound, ejecting after splashing, occurred alternately and exhibited certain periodicity. A function to predict the critical impact velocity is derived from energy conservation condition, and the prediction values tally with the experimental values, with the maximum relative error about 14%.

Hu, HaiBao; Chen, LiBin; Huang, SuHe; Song, BaoWei

2013-05-01

110

Predicting longevity of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces with parallel grooves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical framework is developed to predict the longevity of a submerged superhydrophobic surface made up of parallel grooves. Time-dependent integro-differential equations predicting the instantaneous behavior of the air-water interface are derived by applying the balance of forces across the air-water interface, while accounting for the dissolution of the air in water over time. The calculations start by producing a differential equation for the initial steady-state shape and equilibrium position of the air-water interface at t = 0. Analytical and/or numerical solutions are then developed to solve the time-dependent equations and to compute the volume of the trapped air in the grooves over time until a Wenzel state is reached as the interface touches the groove's bottom. For demonstration, a superhydrophobic surface made of parallel grooves is considered, and the influence of the groove's dimensions on the longevity of the surface under different hydrostatic pressures is studied. It was found that for grooves with higher width-to-depth ratios, the critical pressure (pressure at which departure from the Cassie state starts) is higher due to stronger resistance to deflection of the air-water interface from the air trapped in such grooves. However, grooves with higher width-to-depth ratios reach the Wenzel state faster because of their greater air-water interface areas.

Emami, B.; Hemeda, A. A.; Amrei, M. M.; Luzar, A.; Gad-el-Hak, M.; Vahedi Tafreshi, H.

2013-06-01

111

Stable superhydrophobic surface of hierarchical carbon nanotubes on Si micropillar arrays  

PubMed Central

It is of great importance to construct a stable superhydrophobic surface with low sliding angle (SA) for various applications. We used hydrophobic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to construct the superhydrophobic hierarchical architecture of CNTs on silicon micropillar array (CNTs/Si-?p), which have a large contact angle of 153° to 155° and an ultralow SA of 3° to 5°. Small water droplets with a volume larger than 0.3 ?L can slide on the CNTs/Si-?p with a tilted angle of approximately 5°. The CNTs growing on planar Si wafer lose their superhydrophobic properties after exposing to tiny water droplets. However, the CNTs/Si-?p still show superhydrophobic properties even after wetting using tiny water droplets. The CNTs/Si-?p still have a hierarchical structure after wetting, resulting in a stable superhydrophobic surface. PMID:24098965

2013-01-01

112

Corrosion resistance properties of superhydrophobic copper surfaces fabricated by one-step electrochemical modification process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobic copper surfaces have been prepared by a one-step electrochemical modification process in an ethanolic stearic acid solution. In this work, the corrosion properties of hydrophobic copper surface and superhydrophobic copper surfaces were analyzed by means of electrochemical analyses and compared with that of as-received bare copper substrate. The decrease of corrosion current density (icorr) as well as the increase of polarization resistance (Rp) obtained from potentiodynamic polarization curves revealed that the superhydrophobic film on the copper surfaces improved the corrosion resistance performance of the copper substrate.

Huang, Ying; Sarkar, D. K.; Gallant, Danick; Chen, X.-Grant

2013-10-01

113

Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques.  

PubMed

Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data. PMID:24971957

Accardo, Angelo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Limongi, Tania; Marinaro, Giovanni; Riekel, Christian

2014-07-01

114

Verification of icephobic/anti-icing properties of a superhydrophobic surface.  

PubMed

Four aluminum surfaces with wettability varied from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic were prepared by combining an etching and a coating process. The surface wettability was checked in terms of water contact angle (CA) and sliding angle (SA) under different humidity at -10 °C. High-speed photography was applied to study water droplet impact dynamics on these surfaces. It was found that single and successive water droplets could rebound on the superhydrophobic surface and roll off at a tilt angle larger than 30° under an extremely condensing weather condition (-10 °C and relative humidity of 85-90%). In addition, the superhydrophobic surface showed a strong icephobic property, the ice adhesion on this surface was only 13% of that on the superhydrophilic surface, though they had a similar nano/microtopological structure. Moreover, this superhydrophobic surface displayed an excellent durability of the icephobic property. The ice adhesion only increased to 20% and 16% of that on the superhydrophobic surface after the surface was undergone 20 icing/ice-breaking cycles and 40 icing/ice-melting cycles, respectively. Surface profile and XPS studies on these surfaces indicated a minor damage of the surface nano/microstructure and the coating layer upon these multiple ice-breaking and ice-melting processes. Therefore, this superhydrophobic surface could be a good candidate for icephobic applications. PMID:23537106

Wang, Yuanyi; Xue, Jian; Wang, Qingjun; Chen, Qingmin; Ding, Jianfu

2013-04-24

115

Drop impact and rebound dynamics on an inclined superhydrophobic surface.  

PubMed

Due to its potential in water-repelling applications, the impact and rebound dynamics of a water drop impinging perpendicular to a horizontal superhydrophobic surface have undergone extensive study. However, drops tend to strike a surface at an angle in applications. In such cases, the physics governing the effects of oblique impact are not well studied or understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to conduct an experiment to investigate the impact and rebound dynamics of a drop at various liquid viscosities, in an isothermal environment, and on a nanocomposite superhydrophobic surface at normal and oblique impact conditions (tilted at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°). This study considered drops falling from various heights to create normal impact Weber numbers ranging from 6 to 110. In addition, drop viscosity was varied by decreasing the temperature for water drops and by utilizing water-glycerol mixtures, which have similar surface tension to water but higher viscosities. Results revealed that oblique and normal drop impact behaved similarly (in terms of maximum drop spread as well as rebound dynamics) at low normal Weber numbers. However, at higher Weber numbers, normal and oblique impact results diverged in terms of maximum spread, which could be related to asymmetry and more complex outcomes. These asymmetry effects became more pronounced as the inclination angle increased, to the point where they dominated the drop impact and rebound characteristics when the surface was inclined at 60°. The drop rebound characteristics on inclined surfaces could be classified into eight different outcomes driven primarily by normal Weber number and drop Ohnesorge numbers. However, it was found that these outcomes were also a function of the receding contact angle, whereby reduced receding angles yielded tail-like structures. Nevertheless, the contact times of the drops with the coating were found to be generally independent of surface inclination. PMID:25216298

Yeong, Yong Han; Burton, James; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

2014-10-14

116

Fabrication of nano-structured super-hydrophobic film on aluminum by controllable immersing method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum alloy surface can be etched easily in acid environment, but the microstructure of alloy surface hardly meets the customers' demand. In this work, a facile acidic-assistant surface oxidation technique has been employed to form reproducible super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminum alloy plates. The samples immersed in three different acid solutions at ambient temperatures are studied and the results demonstrated that the aqueous mixture solution of oxalic acid and hydrochloric is easier to produce better faces and better stability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement are used to investigate the morphologies, microstructures, chemical compositions and hydrophobicity of the produced films on aluminum substrates. The surfaces, configured of a labyrinth structure with convexity and concavity, are in different roughness and gloss because of the different recipe acid solutions used. Better roughness of the surface can be obtained by adjusting the concentration of Cl? and oxalate ions in acid solutions. The present research work provides a new strategy for the controllable preparation super-hydrophobic films of general materials on aluminum alloy for practical industrial applications.

Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Pan, Anqiang; Yuan, Zhiqing; Tang, Yan; Tan, Xiaoping; Guan, Dikai; Yu, Ya

2012-06-01

117

Fabrication of a super-hydrophobic surface on metal using laser ablation and electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, the fabrication process of a super-hydrophobic metallic surface using laser ablation and electrodeposition was investigated. Re-entrant structure and surface roughness play an important role in forming a super-hydrophobic surface on intrinsically hydrophilic material. A micro pillar array with a re-entrant structure of copper on stainless steel was fabricated through a sequential process of laser ablation, insulating, mechanical polishing and electrodeposition. Spacing of the micro pillars in the array played a major role in the structure hydrophobicity that was confirmed by measuring the water contact angle. Surface morphology changed relative to the parameters of the laser ablation process and electrodeposition process. Under a gradual increase in current density during the electrodeposition process, surface morphology roughness was maximized for fabricating a super-hydrophobic surface. Finally, the super-hydrophobic surface was successfully fabricated on metal.

Kwon, Min Ho; Shin, Hong Shik; Chu, Chong Nam

2014-01-01

118

EWOD driven cleaning of bioparticles on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

Environmental air monitoring is of great interest due to the large number of people concerned and exposed to different possible risks. From the most common particles in our environment (e.g. by-products of combustion or pollens) to more specific and dangerous agents (e.g. pathogenic micro-organisms), there are a large range of particles that need to be controlled. In this article we propose an original study on the collection of electrostatically deposited particles using electrowetting droplet displacement. A variety of particles were studied, from synthetic particles (e.g. Polystyrene Latex (PSL) microsphere) to different classes of biological particle (proteins, bacterial spores and a viral simulant). Furthermore, we have compared ElectroWetting-On-Dielectric (EWOD) collecting efficiency using either a hydrophobic or a superhydrophobic counter electrode. We observe different cleaning efficiencies, depending on the hydrophobicity of the substrate (varying from 45% to 99%). Superhydrophobic surfaces show the best cleaning efficiency with water droplets for all investigated particles (MS2 bacteriophage, BG (Bacillus atrophaeus) spores, OA (ovalbumin) proteins, and PSL). PMID:21103534

Jönsson-Niedzió?ka, M; Lapierre, F; Coffinier, Y; Parry, S J; Zoueshtiagh, F; Foat, T; Thomy, V; Boukherroub, R

2011-02-01

119

Multimode Multidrop Serial Coalescence Effects during Condensation on Two-Tier Superhydrophobic Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile coalescence leading to spontaneous drop motion was initially reported to occur only during water condensation on two-tier superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS), consisting of both nanoscale and microscale topological features. However, subsequent studies have shown that mobile coalescence also occurs on solely nanostructured SHS. Thus, recent focus has been on understanding the condensation process on just nanostructured surfaces rather than on two-tier SHS. Here, we investigate the impact of microscale topography of two-tier SHS on the droplet coalescence dynamics and wetting states during the condensation process. We identify new droplet shedding modes, which consist of serial coalescence events that lead to merging of multiple droplets. The formed drops either depart or remain anchored to the surface. We explain the observed post-merging drop adhesion trends through direct correlation to formation of drops in nanoscale as well as microscale Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter wetting states. We find that optimally designed two-tier SHS, which promote the highest number of departing microdrops, consists of microscale features spaced close enough to enable transition of larger droplets into micro-Cassie state, yet at the same time provide sufficient area in-between the features for occurrence of mobile coalescence.

Rykaczewski, Konrad; Paxton, Adam T.; Anand, Sushant; Chen, Xuemei; Wang, Zuankai; Varanasi, Kripa K.

2013-03-01

120

Fluorinated Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxane Surfaces and Superhydrophobicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorinated compounds are a logical choice for hydrophobic applications owing to their generally low surface energy. Polyhedral molecules may also improve hydrophobicity by increasing material surface roughness. There have been many recent attempts to synthesize and characterize various types of fluorinated polyhedra. These reports include the fluorination or fluoroalkylation of C60 [1,2]. Unfortunately, C60F48 (fluorinated buckminsterfullerene) cannot be used as a hydrophobic material, since it is metastable and is hydrolyzed by water [3]. However, the perfluorocarborane species, perfluoro-deca-?-methyl-para-carborane, shows remarkable hydrolytic and oxidative stability [4]. Fluorinated carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have also been produced [5]. Many of these fluorinated polyhedral compounds may be useful in hydrophobic applications, but they are generally hazardous to prepare, require air and moisture sensitive manipulations, and have limited economies of scale. For these reasons, alternative fluorinated polyhedra, such as Polyhedral Oligomeric SilSesquioxanes (POS) are highly desired (Figure 6.1).

Iacono, Scott T.; Peloquin, Andrew J.; Smith, Dennis W.; Mabry, Joseph M.

121

Research on super-hydrophobic surface of biodegradable magnesium alloys used for vascular stents.  

PubMed

Micro-nanometer scale structure of nubby clusters overlay was constructed on the surface of an AZ31 magnesium alloy by a wet chemical method. The super-hydrophobicity was achieved with a water contact angle of 142° and a sliding angle of about 5°. The microstructure and composition of the super-hydrophobic surface were characterized by SEM and FTIR. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to evaluate the corrosion behavior, and the hemocompatibility of the super-hydrophobic surface was investigated by means of hemolytic and platelet adhesion tests. Results showed that the super-hydrophobic treatment could improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys in PBS and inhibit blood platelet adhesion on the surface, which implied excellent hemocompatibility with controlled degradation. PMID:23623110

Wan, Peng; Wu, Jingyao; Tan, LiLi; Zhang, Bingchun; Yang, Ke

2013-07-01

122

Self-cleaning of superhydrophobic surfaces by self-propelled jumping condensate.  

PubMed

The self-cleaning function of superhydrophobic surfaces is conventionally attributed to the removal of contaminating particles by impacting or rolling water droplets, which implies the action of external forces such as gravity. Here, we demonstrate a unique self-cleaning mechanism whereby the contaminated superhydrophobic surface is exposed to condensing water vapor, and the contaminants are autonomously removed by the self-propelled jumping motion of the resulting liquid condensate, which partially covers or fully encloses the contaminating particles. The jumping motion off the superhydrophobic surface is powered by the surface energy released upon coalescence of the condensed water phase around the contaminants. The jumping-condensate mechanism is shown to spontaneously clean superhydrophobic cicada wings, where the contaminating particles cannot be removed by gravity, wing vibration, or wind flow. Our findings offer insights for the development of self-cleaning materials. PMID:23630277

Wisdom, Katrina M; Watson, Jolanta A; Qu, Xiaopeng; Liu, Fangjie; Watson, Gregory S; Chen, Chuan-Hua

2013-05-14

123

Superhydrophobic PDMS surfaces with three-dimensional (3D) pattern-dependent controllable adhesion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we demonstrate an effective approach for the three-dimensional (3D) pattern-structured superhydrophobic PDMS surfaces with controllable adhesion by using femtosecond laser etching method. By combining different laser power with a multi-layered etching way, various 3D patterns can be fabricated (for example, convex triangle array, round pit array, cylindrical array, convex rhombus array and concave triangle-cone array). The as-prepared surfaces with 3D patterns show superhydrophobic character and water controllable adhesion that range from ultralow to ultrahigh by designing different 3D patterns, on which the sliding angle can be controlled from 1° to 90° (the water droplet is firmly pinned on the superhydrophobic surface without any movement at any tilted angles). The 3D pattern-dependent adhesive property is attributed to the different contact modes. This work will provide a facile and promising strategy for the adhesion adjustment on superhydrophobic surfaces.

Yong, Jiale; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Dongshi; Du, Guangqing; Bian, Hao; Si, Jinhai; Yun, Feng; Hou, Xun

2014-01-01

124

Self-cleaning of superhydrophobic surfaces by self-propelled jumping condensate  

PubMed Central

The self-cleaning function of superhydrophobic surfaces is conventionally attributed to the removal of contaminating particles by impacting or rolling water droplets, which implies the action of external forces such as gravity. Here, we demonstrate a unique self-cleaning mechanism whereby the contaminated superhydrophobic surface is exposed to condensing water vapor, and the contaminants are autonomously removed by the self-propelled jumping motion of the resulting liquid condensate, which partially covers or fully encloses the contaminating particles. The jumping motion off the superhydrophobic surface is powered by the surface energy released upon coalescence of the condensed water phase around the contaminants. The jumping-condensate mechanism is shown to spontaneously clean superhydrophobic cicada wings, where the contaminating particles cannot be removed by gravity, wing vibration, or wind flow. Our findings offer insights for the development of self-cleaning materials. PMID:23630277

Wisdom, Katrina M.; Qu, Xiaopeng; Liu, Fangjie; Watson, Gregory S.; Chen, Chuan-Hua

2013-01-01

125

A facile dip-coating process for preparing highly durable superhydrophobic surface with multi-scale structures on paint films.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobic surfaces with multi-scale nano/microstructures have been prepared on epoxy paint surfaces using a feasible dip-coating process. The microstructures with 5-10 microm protuberances were first prepared on epoxy paint surface by sandblast. Then the nanostructures were introduced on the microstructure surface by anchoring 50-100 nm SiO(2) particles (nano-SiO(2)) onto the sandblasted paint surface, which was completed by dip-coating with a nano-SiO(2)/epoxy adhesive solution (M1). At last the surface was further modified for enhancing hydrophobicity by another dip-coating with a solution of a low surface energy polymer, aminopropyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane (ATPS) modified epoxy adhesive (M2). The water contact angle of the as-prepared samples reached as high as 167.8 degrees and the sliding angle was 7 degrees. The prepared superhydrophobic surface exhibited excellent durability to the high speed scouring test and high stability in neutral and basic aqueous solutions and some common organic solvents. In addition, this method can be adopted to fabricate large scale samples with a good homogeneity of the whole surface at very low cost. PMID:19552913

Cui, Zhe; Yin, Long; Wang, Qingjun; Ding, Jianfu; Chen, Qingmin

2009-09-15

126

Superhydrophobic bull's-eye for surface-enhanced Raman scattering.  

PubMed

We present a micro-patterned silicon structure that enables the preparation of a substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and pre-concentration of the analyte molecules. The structure is designed to produce a hydrophobicity gradient. As a result, a water droplet placed on it will remain centred on the structure as it dries, enabling delivery of materials to its centre. The structure is therefore referred to as a superhydrophobic bull's-eye. A water droplet containing gold colloids placed on it dries to produce a cluster at the bull's-eye centre. A second water droplet placed on it, this time containing analyte molecules, dries such that the molecules are delivered to the gold colloid cluster. We demonstrate the detection of molecules at low concentrations (Rhodamine 6G at 10(-15) M) from small droplets. PMID:25141812

Song, Wuzhou; Psaltis, Demetri; Crozier, Kenneth B

2014-09-16

127

Evaporating behaviors of water droplet on superhydrophobic surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the dynamic evaporating behaviors of water droplet on superhydrophobic surfaces with micropillars. Our experimental data showed that receding contact angles of the water droplet increased with the decreasing of the scale of the micropillars during evaporation, even though the solid area fractions of the microstructured substrates remained constant. We also experimentally found that the critical contact diameters of the transition between the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel states are affected not only by the geometrical parameters of the microstructures, but also by the initial volume of the water droplet. The measured critical pressure is consistent with the theoretical model, which validated the pressure-induced impalement mechanism for the wetting state transition.

Hao, PengFei; Lv, CunJing; He, Feng

2012-12-01

128

Super-hydrophobic surfaces from a simple coating method: a bionic nanoengineering approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired by the self-cleaning behaviour of lotus leaves in nature, we developed a simple coating method that can facilitate the bionic creation of super-hydrophobic surfaces on various substrates, thus providing a feasible way of fabricating super-hydrophobic surfaces for civil and industrial applications. Micro-nanoscale binary structured composite particles of silica\\/fluoropolymer were prepared using an emulsion-mediated sol-gel process, and then these composite

Yuyang Liu; Xianqiong Chen; J. H. Xin

2006-01-01

129

Self-cleaning superhydrophobic surface based on titanium dioxide nanowires combined with polydimethylsiloxane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work describes a simple dipping process for the preparation of superhydrophobic coatings based on titanium dioxide nanowires combined with polydimethylsiloxane. The coating surface morphology, composition and wettability were investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope and contact angle measurements, respectively. Interestingly, the superhydrophobic coatings turn into a hydrophilic one after UV irradiation. It is found that the superhydrophobic surface shows almost complete wet self-cleaning of dirt particles with water droplets. Furthermore, the coating surface shows the anti-fouling performance for organic solvents, which can self-remove the organic solvents layer and recovers its superhydrophobic behavior. The advantage of the present approach is that the damaged coating can be easily repaired.

Zhang, Xia; Guo, Yonggang; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Pingyu

2013-11-01

130

Inspired superhydrophobic surfaces by a double-metal-assisted chemical etching route  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: A double-metal-assisted chemical etching method is employed to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces, showing a good superhydrophobicity with the contact angle of about 170°, and the sliding angle of about 0°. Meanwhile, the potential formation mechanism about it is also presented. Highlights: ? A double-metal-assisted chemical etching method is employed to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces. ? The obtained surfaces show good superhydrophobicity with a high contact angle and low sliding angle. ? The color of the etched substrate dark brown or black and it is so-called black silicon. -- Abstract: Silicon substrates treated by metal-assisted chemical etching have been studied for many years since they could be employed in a variety of electronic and optical devices such as integrated circuits, photovoltaics, sensors and detectors. However, to the best of our knowledge, the chemical etching treatment on the same silicon substrate with the assistance of two or more kinds of metals has not been reported. In this paper, we mainly focus on the etching time and finally obtain a series of superhydrophobic silicon surfaces with novel etching structures through two successive etching processes of Cu-assisted and Ag-assisted chemical etching. It is shown that large-scale homogeneous but locally irregular wire-like structures are obtained, and the superhydrophobic surfaces with low hysteresis are prepared after the modifications with low surface energy materials. It is worth noting that the final silicon substrates not only possess high static contact angle and low hysteresis angle, but also show a black color, indicating that the superhydrophobic silicon substrate has an extremely low reflectance in a certain range of wavelengths. In our future work, we will go a step further to discuss the effect of temperature, the size of Cu nanoparticles and solution concentration on the final topography and superhydrophobicity.

Chen, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Guo, Zhiguang, E-mail: zguo@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Xu, Jiansheng [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China)] [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Shi, Lei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yabin [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2012-07-15

131

Evolution and environmental degradation of superhydrophobic aspen and black locust leaf surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study is focused on the characterization of four natural leaf species (quaking, bigtooth and columnar european aspen as well as black locust) possessing a unique dual-scale cuticle structure composed of micro- and nano-scale asperities, which are able to effectively resist wetting (superhydrophobic), characteristic of The Lotus Effect. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to track the growth and evolution of their distinctive nano-scale epicuticular wax (ECW) morphologies over one full growing season. In addition, the stability of their superhydrophobic property was tested in various environments. It was determined that the long-term stability of these surfaces is tentatively linked to various environmental stress factors. Specifically, a combination of high temperature and humidity caused the degradation of nanoscale asperities and loss of the superhydrophobic property. The dual-scale surface structure was found to provide a suitable template for the design of future superhydrophobic engineering materials.

Tranquada, George Christopher

132

Facile creation of bio-inspired superhydrophobic Ce-based metallic glass surfaces  

SciTech Connect

A bio-inspired synthesis strategy was conducted to fabricate superhydrophobic Ce-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) surfaces with self-cleaning properties. Micro-nanoscale hierarchical structures were first constructed on BMG surfaces and then modified with the low surface energy coating. Surface structures, surface chemical compositions, and wettability were characterized by combining scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. Research indicated that both surface multiscale structures and the low surface free energy coating result in the final formation of superhydrophobicity.

Liu Kesong; Li Zhou [Key Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang Weihua [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Jiang Lei [Key Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2011-12-26

133

TOPICAL REVIEW: Magnetic surface nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent trends in the emerging field of surface-supported magnetic nanostructures are reviewed. Current strategies for nanostructure synthesis are summarized, followed by a predominantly theoretical description of magnetic phenomena in surface magnetic structures and a review of experimental research in this field. Emphasis is on Fe- or Co-based nanostructures in various low-dimensional geometries, which are studied as model systems to explore the effects of dimensionality, atomic coordination, chemical bonds, alloying and, most importantly, interactions with the supporting substrate on the magnetism. This review also includes a discussion of closely related systems, such as 3d element impurities integrated into organic networks, surface-supported Fe-based molecular magnets, Kondo systems or 4d element nanostructures that exhibit emergent magnetism, thereby bridging the traditional areas of surface science, molecular physics and nanomagnetism.

Enders, A.; Skomski, R.; Honolka, J.

2010-11-01

134

Reversible low adhesive to high adhesive superhydrophobicity transition on ZnO nanoparticle surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces with water contact angle of 162° and sliding angle of 2° were fabricated successfully by spraying hydrophobic ZnO nanoparticle suspensions without limitations the shape and size of substrates. The as-prepared superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces are low adhesive and a water droplet easily rolls off with the surface slightly tilted. However, after being irradiated by UV light through a photomask, it becomes highly adhesive, on which a water droplet is firmly pinned without any movement. Further annealing the irradiated film, water droplets can roll off the surface again. Reversible transition between the low adhesive rolling state and high adhesive pinning state can be realized simply by UV illumination and heat treatment alternately. At the same time, the maximum adhesive force between the superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces and the water droplet changes from extreme low (˜5.1 ?N) to very high (˜136.1 ?N). When irradiated without a photomask, the surface became hydrophilic. Additionally, a water droplet can be transfered from the low adhesive superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces to the hydrophilic ZnO surfaces using the high adhesive superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces as a mechanical hand.

Li, Jian; Jing, Zhijiao; Yang, Yaoxia; Zha, Fei; Yan, Long; Lei, Ziqiang

2014-01-01

135

Superhydrophobic and adhesive properties of surfaces: testing the quality by an elaborated scanning electron microscopy method.  

PubMed

In contrast to advancements in the fabrication of new superhydrophobic materials, the characterization of their water repellency and quality is often coarse and unsatisfactory. In view of the problems and inaccuracies, particularly in the measurement of very high contact angles, we developed alternative methods for the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces. It was found that adhering water remnants after immersion are a useful criterion in determining the repellency quality. In this study, we introduce microscopy methods to detect traces of water-resembling test liquids on superhydrophobic surfaces by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or fluorescence light microscopy (FLM). Diverse plant surfaces and some artificial superhydrophobic samples were examined. Instead of pure water, we used aqueous solutions containing a detectable stain and glycerol in order to prevent immediate evaporation of the microdroplets. For the SEM examinations, aqueous solutions of lead acetate were used, which could be detected in a frozen state at -90 °C with high sensitivity using a backscattered electron detector. For fluorescence microscopy, aqueous solutions of auramine were used. On different species of superhydrophobic plants, varying patterns of remaining microdroplets were found on their leaves. On some species, drop remnants occurred only on surface defects such as damaged epicuticular waxes. On others, microdroplets regularly decorated the locations of increased adhesion, particularly on hierarchically structured surfaces. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the method is suitable for testing the limits of repellency under harsh conditions, such as drop impact or long-enduring contact. The supplementation of the visualization method by the measurement of the pull-off force between a water drop and the sample allowed us to determine the adhesive properties of superhydrophobic surfaces quantitatively. The results were in good agreement with former studies of the water repellency and contact angles. In contrast to contact angle measurements, the acqusition of SEM images with high resolution and wide depth of sharpness gives better insight into the wetting behavior and susceptibility of the structural elements of the superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:22978578

Ensikat, Hans J; Mayser, Matthias; Barthlott, Wilhelm

2012-10-01

136

Linear abrasion of a titanium superhydrophobic surface prepared by ultrafast laser microtexturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method of fabricating titanium superhydrophobic surfaces by ultrafast laser irradiation is reported. The ultrafast laser irradiation creates self-organized microstructure superimposed with nano-scale roughness, after which a fluoropolymer coating is applied to lower the surface energy of the textured surface and achieve superhydrophobicity. The focus of this study is to investigate abrasion effects on this mechanically durable superhydrophobic surface. The mechanical durability is analyzed with linear abrasion testing and microscopy imaging. Linear abrasion tests indicate that these surfaces can resist complete microstructure failure up to 200 abrasion cycles and avoid droplet pinning up to ten abrasion cycles at 108.4 kPa applied pressure, which roughly corresponds to moderate to heavy sanding or rubbing in the presence of abrasive particles. The wear mechanisms are also investigated and the primary mechanism for this system is shown to be abrasive wear with fatigue by repeated plowing. Although these results demonstrate an advancement in mechanical durability over the majority of existing superhydrophobic surfaces, it exemplifies the challenge in creating superhydrophobic surfaces with suitable mechanical durability for harsh applications, even when using titanium.

Steele, Adam; Nayak, Barada K.; Davis, Alexander; Gupta, Mool C.; Loth, Eric

2013-11-01

137

Wetting and self-cleaning properties of artificial superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

The wetting and the self-cleaning properties (the latter is often called the "Lotus-Effect") of three types of superhydrophobic surfaces have been investigated: silicon wafer specimens with different regular arrays of spikes hydrophobized by chemical treatment, replicates of water-repellent leaves of plants, and commercially available metal foils which were additionally hydrophobized by means of a fluorinated agent. Water droplets rolled off easily from those silicon samples which had a microstructure consisting of rather slender spikes with narrow pitches. Such samples could be cleaned almost completely from artificial particulate contaminations by a fog consisting of water droplets (diameter range, 8-20 microm). Some metal foils and some replicates had two levels of roughening. Because of this, a complete removal of all particles was not possible using artificial fog. However, water drops with some amount of kinetic impact energy were able to clean these surfaces perfectly. A substrate where pronounced structures in the range below 5 microm were lacking could not be cleaned by means of fog because this treatment resulted in a continuous water film on the samples. PMID:15667174

Fürstner, Reiner; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Neinhuis, Christoph; Walzel, Peter

2005-02-01

138

Preparation of superhydrophobic nanodiamond and cubic boron nitride films  

SciTech Connect

Superhydrophobic surfaces were achieved on the hardest and the second hardest materials, diamond and cubic boron nitride (cBN) films. Various surface nanostructures of nanocrystalline diamond (ND) and cBN films were constructed by carrying out bias-assisted reactive ion etching in hydrogen/argon plasmas; and it is shown that surface nanostructuring may enhance dramatically the hydrophobicity of ND and cBN films. Together with surface fluorination, superhydrophobic ND and cBN surfaces with a contact angle greater than 150 deg. and a sliding angle smaller than 10 deg. were demonstrated. The origin of hydrophobicity enhancement is discussed based on the Cassie model.

Zhou, Y. B.; Liu, W. M.; Wang, P. F. [Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Y.; Ye, Q.; He, B.; Pan, X. J.; Zhang, W. J.; Bello, I.; Lee, S. T. [Department of Physics and Materials Sciences, Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Zou, Y. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

2010-09-27

139

Fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on zinc substrate by 3-trifluoromethylbenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we report a new and efficient method of fabricating superhydrophobic surface on zinc plate modified with 3-trifluoromethylbenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts (CF3BD), which shows a water contact angle of 160° for a 4 ?l water droplet and a low sliding angle of about 1°. The morphology and chemical composition of as-prepared superhydrophobic zinc surfaces are investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and FT-IR spectrum. The results show that the organic layers formed on zinc plate surface are provided with the special hierarchical porous microstructure and the low surface energy, which lead to the superhydrophobicity surface on the modified zinc.

Li, Hong; Huang, Chengya; Zhang, Long; Lou, Wanqiu

2014-09-01

140

Surface Plasmons of Metal Nanostructure Arrays  

E-print Network

, the surface plasmons lead to near- field localization of the light into subwavelength di- mensions.3Surface Plasmons of Metal Nanostructure Arrays: From Nanoengineering to Active Plasmonics Yue Bing substrates. Surface plasmons of these nanostructure arrays were investigated both experimentally

141

Laser nanostructuring of materials surfaces  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews results of experimental and theoretical studies of surface micro- and nanostructuring of metals and other materials irradiated directly by short and ultrashort laser pulses. Special attention is paid to direct laser action involving melting of the material (with or without ablation), followed by ultrarapid surface solidification, which is an effective approach to producing surface nanostructures. Theoretical analysis of recrystallisation kinetics after irradiation by ultrashort laser pulses makes it possible to determine the volume fraction of crystallised phase and the average size of forming crystalline structures as functions of laser treatment regime and thermodynamic properties of the material. The present results can be used to optimise pulsed laser treatment regime in order to ensure control nanostructuring of metal surfaces. (photonics and nanotechnology)

Zavestovskaya, I N [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-12-29

142

Nonfunctionalized Polydimethyl Siloxane Superhydrophobic Surfaces Based on Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Interactions  

SciTech Connect

Superhydrophobic surfaces based on polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) were fabricated using a 50:50 PDM-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blend. PDMS was mixed with PEG, and incomplete phase separation yielded a hierarchic structure. The phase-separated mixture was annealed at a temperature close to the crystallization temperature of the PEG. The PEG crystals were formed isothermally at the PDMS/PEG interface, leading to an engineered surface with PDMS spherulites. The resulting roughness of the surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The PDMS spherulites, a few micrometers in diameter observed from SEM images, were found to have an undulated (rippled) surface with nanometer-sized features. The combination of micrometer- and nanometer-sized surface features created a fractal surface and increased the water contact angle (WCA) of PDMS more than 60, resulting in a superhydrophobic PDMS surface with WCA of >160 degrees. The active surface layer for the superhydrophobicity was approximately 100 mu m thick, illustrating that the material had bulk superhydrophobicity compared to conventional fluorocarbon or fluorinated coated rough surfaces. Theoretical analysis of the fractal surface indicates that the constructed surface has a fractal dimension of 2.5, which corresponds to the Apollonian sphere packing.

Polizos, Georgios [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Qiu, Xiaofeng [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL

2011-01-01

143

Cutting a Drop of Water Pinned by Wire Loops Using a Superhydrophobic Surface and Knife  

PubMed Central

A water drop on a superhydrophobic surface that is pinned by wire loops can be reproducibly cut without formation of satellite droplets. Drops placed on low-density polyethylene surfaces and Teflon-coated glass slides were cut with superhydrophobic knives of low-density polyethylene and treated copper or zinc sheets, respectively. Distortion of drop shape by the superhydrophobic knife enables a clean break. The driving force for droplet formation arises from the lower surface free energy for two separate drops, and it is modeled as a 2-D system. An estimate of the free energy change serves to guide when droplets will form based on the variation of drop volume, loop spacing and knife depth. Combining the cutting process with an electrofocusing driving force could enable a reproducible biomolecular separation without troubling satellite drop formation. PMID:23029297

Yanashima, Ryan; Garcia, Antonio A.; Aldridge, James; Weiss, Noah; Hayes, Mark A.; Andrews, James H.

2012-01-01

144

Cutting a drop of water pinned by wire loops using a superhydrophobic surface and knife.  

PubMed

A water drop on a superhydrophobic surface that is pinned by wire loops can be reproducibly cut without formation of satellite droplets. Drops placed on low-density polyethylene surfaces and Teflon-coated glass slides were cut with superhydrophobic knives of low-density polyethylene and treated copper or zinc sheets, respectively. Distortion of drop shape by the superhydrophobic knife enables a clean break. The driving force for droplet formation arises from the lower surface free energy for two separate drops, and it is modeled as a 2-D system. An estimate of the free energy change serves to guide when droplets will form based on the variation of drop volume, loop spacing and knife depth. Combining the cutting process with an electrofocusing driving force could enable a reproducible biomolecular separation without troubling satellite drop formation. PMID:23029297

Yanashima, Ryan; García, Antonio A; Aldridge, James; Weiss, Noah; Hayes, Mark A; Andrews, James H

2012-01-01

145

Facile approach in fabricating superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface for water and oil mixture separation.  

PubMed

Metal copper mesh with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface had been successfully fabricated via a facile solution-immersion process. The hierarchical structure was prepared on the commercial copper mesh surface by etching with the nitric acid. After being modified by 1-hexadecanethiol (HDT), the as-prepared mesh indicated both superhydrophobic and superoleophilic property simultaneously. This as-prepared metal mesh could then be applied for oil and water mixture separation. The unusual wettability of the as-prepared mesh was stable in corrosive conditions, such as acidic, basic, and salt solutions. The solution-immersion method was simple, time-saving, and inexpensive and therefore exhibited great potential application. PMID:20356134

Wang, Chuanxi; Yao, Tongjie; Wu, Jie; Ma, Cheng; Fan, Zhanxi; Wang, Zhaoyi; Cheng, Yuanrong; Lin, Quan; Yang, Bai

2009-11-01

146

Electrostatic powder spraying process for the fabrication of stable superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-sized Al2O3 particles were modified by heptadecafluorodecyl trimethoxysilane and 2,3-epoxy propoxy propyl trimethoxysilicane to make it both hydrophobic and reactive. The reactive nano-particles were mixed with polyester resin containing curing agents and electrostatic sprayed on stainless steel substrates to obtain stable superhydrophobic coatings after curing. The water contact angle (WCA) on the hybrid coating is influenced by the content of Al2O3 particles in the coating. As the Al2O3 concentration in the coating was increased from 0% to 8%, WCA increased from 68° to 165°. Surface topography of the coatings was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nano-particles covered on the coating surface formed continuous film with greatly enhanced roughness, which was found to be responsible for the superhydrophobicity. The method is simple and cost effective and can be used for preparing self-cleaning superhydrophobic coating on large areas.

Gu, Guotuan; Tian, Yuping; Li, Zhantie; Lu, Dongfang

2011-03-01

147

A Novel General Chemistry Laboratory: Creation of Biomimetic Superhydrophobic Surfaces through Replica Molding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biomimetic replicas of superhydrophobic lotus and taro leaf surfaces can be made using polydimethylsiloxane. These replicas faithfully reproduce the microstructures of the leaves' surface and can be analyzed using contact angle goniometry, self-cleaning experiments, and optical microscopy. These simple and adaptable experiments were used to…

Verbanic, Samuel; Brady, Owen; Sanda, Ahmed; Gustafson, Carolina; Donhauser, Zachary J.

2014-01-01

148

Fabrication of "Roll-off" and "Sticky" Superhydrophobic Cellulose Surfaces via Plasma Processing  

E-print Network

Fabrication of "Roll-off" and "Sticky" Superhydrophobic Cellulose Surfaces via Plasma Processing (PECVD),15 lithography,16 electro-spinning and -spraying,17 sol-gel process- ing,18 stretching,19 portions of the cellulose in an oxygen plasma and subsequently coating the etched surface with a thin

Breedveld, Victor

149

Porous copper surfaces with improved superhydrophobicity under oil and their application in oil separation and capture from water.  

PubMed

The repeatable wettability of the facile-to-fabricate porous copper surface shows superhydrophobicity in air and improved superhydrophobicity under oil. The resultant 3D copper foam can separate and capture oils from water with high separation efficiency, fast capture kinetics, fine mechanical resistance to water impact, and good recyclability. PMID:23939302

Zang, Dongmian; Wu, Chunxiao; Zhu, Ruiwen; Zhang, Wen; Yu, Xinquan; Zhang, Youfa

2013-09-28

150

Superhydrophobic surface enhanced Raman scattering sensing using Janus particle arrays  

E-print Network

deposition is used to prepare polystyrene (PS)­Ag Janus particle arrays with superhydrophobic properties-specic elec- trochemical deposition (ED) was used to prepare micro/nano- structured polystyrene (PS)­Ag Janus-area (>1 cm2 ), uniformly structured monolayer colloidal crystal (MCC) template composed of PS spheres

151

Production and characterization of stable superhydrophobic surfaces based on copper hydroxide nanoneedles mimicking the legs of water striders.  

PubMed

The present work reports a simple and economic route for production and characterization of stable superhydrophobic surfaces from thin copper layers coated on arbitrary solid substrates. The thin copper layer was anodized in a 2 M aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide to form a thin film of copper hydroxide nanoneedles; then the film was reacted with n-dodecanethiol to form a thermally stable Cu(SC12H25)2 superhydrophobic coating. The contact angle of the modified nanoneedle surface was higher than 150 degrees , and its tilt angle was smaller than 2 degrees . Furthermore, the surface fabricated on copper foil kept its superhydrophobic property after heating at 160 degrees C in air for over 42 h. This technique has also been applied for fabrication of copper wire with superhydrophobic submicrofiber coating to mimic water strider legs. The maximal supporting force of the superhydrophobic copper column has also been investigated in comparison to real water striders. PMID:16771392

Wu, Xufeng; Shi, Gaoquan

2006-06-15

152

Fabrication of superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface with excellent corrosion resistance by a facile and environment-friendly method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work develops a facile and environment-friendly method for preparing the superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface with excellent corrosion resistance. The superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface is fabricated by the boiling water treatment and stearic acid (STA) modification. Results show that the boiling water treatment endows the aluminium alloy surface with a porous and rough structure, while STA modification chemically grafts the long hydrophobic alkyl chains onto the aluminium alloy surface. Just grounded on the micro- and nano-scale hierarchical structure along with the hydrophobic chemical composition, the superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface is endued the excellent corrosion resistance.

Feng, Libang; Che, Yanhui; Liu, Yanhua; Qiang, Xiaohu; Wang, Yanping

2013-10-01

153

Capillary origami: superhydrophobic ribbon surfaces and liquid marbles.  

PubMed

In the wetting of a solid by a liquid it is often assumed that the substrate is rigid. However, for an elastic substrate the rigidity depends on the cube of its thickness and so reduces rapidly as the substrate becomes thinner as it approaches becoming a thin sheet. In such circumstances, it has been shown that the capillary forces caused by a contacting droplet of a liquid can shape the solid rather than the solid shaping the liquid. A substrate can be bent and folded as a (pinned) droplet evaporates or even instantaneously and spontaneously wrapped on contact with a droplet. When this effect is used to create three dimensional shapes from initially flat sheets, the effect is called capillary origami or droplet wrapping.In this work, we consider how the conditions for the spontaneous, capillary induced, folding of a thin ribbon substrate might be altered by a rigid surface structure that, for a rigid substrate, would be expected to create Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel effects. For smooth thin substrates, droplet wrapping can occur for all liquids, including those for which the Young's law contact angle (defined by the interfacial tensions) is greater than 90° and which would therefore normally be considered relatively hydrophobic. However, consideration of the balance between bending and interfacial energies suggests that the tendency for droplet wrapping can be suppressed for some liquids by providing the flexible solid surface with a rigid topographic structure. In general, it is known that when a liquid interacts with such a structure it can either fully penetrate the structure (the Wenzel case) or it can bridge between the asperities of the structure (the Cassie-Baxter case).In this report, we show theoretically that droplet wrapping should occur with both types of solid-liquid contact. We also derive a condition for the transition between the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel type droplet wrapping and relate it to the same transition condition known to apply to superhydrophobic surfaces. The results are given for both droplets being wrapped by thin ribbons and for solid grains encapsulating droplets to form liquid marbles. PMID:21977426

McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I; Shirtcliffe, Neil J; Geraldi, Nicasio R

2011-01-01

154

Role of water vapor desublimation in the adhesion of an iced droplet to a superhydrophobic surface.  

PubMed

The study of the adhesion of solid and liquid aqueous phases to superhydrophobic surfaces has become an attractive topic for researchers in various fields as a vital step in the design of icephobic coatings. The analysis of the available results shows that the experimentally measured values of adhesion strength for superhydrophobic substrates, which in some cases are quite small, are still essentially higher than might be expected from the portion of the actual wetted area. In this study we have considered the peculiarities of the three-phase contact zone between sessile supercooled water or ice droplets and a superhydrophobic coating at negative temperatures (below 0 °C) and during the water-ice phase transition. Two types of superhydrophobic coatings with very different textures were used to analyze the evolution of shape parameters of a sessile water droplet during droplet cooling and freezing. It was shown that the evolution of the contact angle and droplet contact diameter of a water droplet deposited on a superhydrophobic surface does not undergo essential changes when the droplet is cooled simultaneously with the substrate and the surrounding environment, and the humidity is maintained close to 100% during the cooling process. However, the phase transition from supercooled water to ice droplets leads to the growth of a metastable iced meniscus and a frost halo in the vicinity of the three-phase contact zone. The meniscus effectively increases the area of adhesive contact between the droplet and the substrate. This phenomenon is intrinsically related to the release of the heat of crystallization and is responsible for the enhancement of adhesion to a superhydrophobic substrate upon droplet transition from supercooled water to ice. At the same time, it was shown that the metastable state of the above meniscus leads to its spontaneous sublimation during exposure at negative temperatures. PMID:25286023

Boinovich, Ludmila; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M

2014-10-28

155

Liquid flow in surface-nanostructured channels studied by molecular dynamics simulation.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the fluid wetting and flow in nanochannels whose surfaces are structured by an array of nanoscale triangular modules. We find that the surface nanostructures have a dual effect on the boundary slip and friction of the liquid nanoflow. On the one hand, the nanostructures can enhance the surface hydrophilicity for a hydrophilic liquid-solid interaction, and can increase the hydrophobicity for a hydrophobic interaction due to a nanoscale lotus effect. In particular, the nanostructured surface may show superhydrophobicity and lead to the large velocity slip of the liquid flow. On the other hand, simultaneously, the nanostructures distort the nanoscale streamlines of the liquid flow near the channel surfaces and block the nanoflow directly, which decreases the apparent slip length equivalently. The dual effect of the nanostructures on the surface wettability and the hydrodynamic disturbance results in a nonmonotonic dependence of the slip length on the nanostructure size. The simulations imply that the surface nanostructures can be applied to control the friction of liquid micro- and nanoflows. PMID:17280152

Cao, Bing-Yang; Chen, Min; Guo, Zeng-Yuan

2006-12-01

156

Design of Superhydrophobic Paper/Cellulose Surfaces via Plasma Enhanced Etching and Deposition  

E-print Network

. Achievement of superhydrophobic behavior depends on the formation of nano-scale features on the paper fibers on the fiber surface to create nano-scale features. Plasma processing conditions that allow the design-scale roughness as a result of the highly cross-linked web of cellulosic fibers, the nano-scale roughness

Breedveld, Victor

157

Performance of an Electrostatic Precipitator with Superhydrophobic Surface when Collecting Airborne Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern bioaerosol sampling and analysis techniques that enable rapid detection of low bioagent concentrations in various environments are needed to help us understand the causal relationship between adverse health effects and bioaerosol exposures and also to enable the timely biohazard detection in case of intentional release.We have developed a novel bioaerosol sampler, an electrostatic precipitator with superhydrophobic surface (EPSS), where

Taewon Han; Hey Reoun An; Gediminas Mainelis

2010-01-01

158

The freezing process of continuously sprayed water droplets on the superhydrophobic silicone acrylate resin coating surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study conducted experiments on freezing process of water droplets on glass slides covered with superhydrophobic coatings under the continuous water spray condition in the artificial climatic chamber which could simulate low temperature and high humidity environments. The freezing mechanism and freezing time of water droplets under the condition of continuous spray were observed by the microscope and were compared with those of the single static droplet. Then, differences of freezing process between continuously sprayed droplets and single static droplet were analyzed. Furthermore, the effects of static contact angle (CA), contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and roughness of the superhydrophobic coating surface on the freezing time of continuously sprayed droplets were explored. Results show that the freezing process of the continuously sprayed droplets on the superhydrophobic coating started with the homogeneous nucleation at gas-liquid interfaces. In addition, the temperature difference between the location near the solid-liquid interface and the location near the gas-liquid interface was the key factor that influenced the ice crystallization mechanism of water droplets. Moreover, with the larger CA, the smaller CAH and the greater roughness of the surface, droplets were more likely to roll down the surface and the freezing duration on the surface was delayed. Based on the findings, continuous water spray is suggested in the anti-icing superhydrophobic coatings research.

Hu, Jianlin; Xu, Ke; Wu, Yao; Lan, Binhuan; Jiang, Xingliang; Shu, Lichun

2014-10-01

159

Superhydrophobic TiO2-polymer nanocomposite surface with UV-induced reversible wettability and self-cleaning properties.  

PubMed

Multifunctional superhydrophobic nanocomposite surfaces based on photocatalytic materials, such as fluorosilane modified TiO2, have generated significant research interest. However, there are two challenges to forming such multifunctional surfaces with stable superhydrophobic properties: the photocatalytic oxidation of the hydrophobic functional groups, which leads to the permanent loss of superhydrophobicity, as well as the photoinduced reversible hydrolysis of the catalytic particle surface. Herein, we report a simple and inexpensive template lamination method to fabricate multifunctional TiO2-high-density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposite surfaces exhibiting superhydrophobicity, UV-induced reversible wettability, and self-cleaning properties. The laminated surface possesses a hierarchical roughness spanning the micro- to nanoscale range. This was achieved by using a wire mesh template to emboss the HDPE surface creating an array of polymeric posts while partially embedding untreated TiO2 nanoparticles selectively into the top surface of these features. The surface exhibits excellent superhydrophobic properties immediately after lamination without any chemical surface modification to the TiO2 nanoparticles. Exposure to UV light causes the surface to become hydrophilic. This change in wettability can be reversed by heating the surface to restore superhydrophobicity. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticle surface coverage and chemical composition on the mechanism and magnitude of wettability changes was studied by EDX and XPS. In addition, the ability of the surface to shed impacting water droplets as well as the ability of such droplets to clean away particulate contaminants was demonstrated. PMID:23889192

Xu, Qian Feng; Liu, Yang; Lin, Fang-Ju; Mondal, Bikash; Lyons, Alan M

2013-09-25

160

Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic Cu(OH)2 nanorod and CuO nanosheet arrays on copper surface.  

PubMed

Cu(OH)2 nanorod and CuO nanosheet arrays have been successfully grown on the copper surfaces by a simple one-step solution-immersion process at ambient temperature and pressure. After the chemical modification with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane, the wettability of the copper substrate changed from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic. Meanwhile, the sliding angle of the superhydrophobic surface is less than 5 degrees. It is confirmed that both the synergic effect of the surface morphology and the surface free energy contribute to this unique surface water repellence. Furthermore, the as-prepared surfaces were stable even after a long-term storage, and retained good superhydrophobicity for corrosive liquids. Such special superhydrophobic properties will greatly extend the applications of copper in many other important industrial fields. PMID:22755004

Guo, Yonggang; Wu, Haihong; Li, Yongxiang; Jiang, Cheng; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei

2012-03-01

161

Synthesis of Temperature-Responsive Dextran-MA\\/PNIPAAm Particles for Controlled Drug Delivery Using Superhydrophobic Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To implement a bioinspired methodology using superhydrophobic surfaces suitable for producing smart hydrogel beads in which\\u000a the bioactive substance is introduced in the particles during their formation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods   Several superhydrophobic surfaces, including polystyrene, aluminum and copper, were prepared. Polymeric solutions composed\\u000a by photo-crosslinked dextran-methacrylated and thermal responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) mixed with a protein (insulin or albumin) were dropped on the superhydrophobic

Ana Catarina Lima; Wenlong Song; Barbara Blanco-Fernandez; Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo; João F. Mano

2011-01-01

162

Superhydrophobic wind turbine blade surfaces obtained by a simple deposition of silica nanoparticles embedded in epoxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of wind turbine blade surface have been covered with a superhydrophobic coating made of silica nanoparticles embedded in commercial epoxy paint. The superhydrophobic surfaces have a water contact angle around 152°, a hysteresis less than 2° and a water drop sliding angle around 0.5°. These surfaces are water repellent so that water drops cannot remain motionless on the surface. Examination of coated and uncoated surfaces with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, together with measurements of water contact angles, indicates that the air trapped in the cavity enhances the water repellency similarly to the lotus leaf effect. Moreover, this new coating is stable under UVC irradiation and water pouring. The production of this nanoscale coating film being simple and low cost, it can be considered as a suitable candidate for water protection of different outdoor structures.

Karmouch, Rachid; Ross, Guy G.

2010-11-01

163

Experimental evidence of slippage breakdown for a superhydrophobic surface in a microfluidic device  

E-print Network

A full characterization of the water flow past a silicon superhydrophobic surface with longitudinal micro-grooves enclosed in a microfluidic device is presented. Fluorescence microscopy images of the flow seeded with fluorescent passive tracers were digitally processed to measure both the velocity field and the position and shape of the liquid-air interfaces at the superhydrophobic surface. The simultaneous access to the meniscus and velocity profiles allows us to put under a strict test the no-shear boundary condition at the liquid-air interface. Surprisingly, our measurements show that air pockets in the surface cavities can sustain non-zero interfacial shear stresses, thereby hampering the friction reduction capabilities of the surface. The effects of the meniscus position and shape as well as of the liquid-air interfacial friction on the surface performances are separately assessed and quantified.

Bolognesi, Guido; Pirat, Christophe

2014-01-01

164

Experimental evidence of slippage breakdown for a superhydrophobic surface in a microfluidic device  

E-print Network

A full characterization of the water flow past a silicon superhydrophobic surface with longitudinal micro-grooves enclosed in a microfluidic device is presented. Fluorescence microscopy images of the flow seeded with fluorescent passive tracers were digitally processed to measure both the velocity field and the position and shape of the liquid-air interfaces at the superhydrophobic surface. The simultaneous access to the meniscus and velocity profiles allows us to put under a strict test the no-shear boundary condition at the liquid-air interface. Surprisingly, our measurements show that air pockets in the surface cavities can sustain non-zero interfacial shear stresses, thereby hampering the friction reduction capabilities of the surface. The effects of the meniscus position and shape as well as of the liquid-air interfacial friction on the surface performances are separately assessed and quantified.

Guido Bolognesi; Cecile Cottin-Bizonne; Christophe Pirat

2014-06-12

165

Novel method for controllable fabrication of a superhydrophobic CuO surface on AZ91D magnesium alloy.  

PubMed

A novel method for controllable fabrication of a superhydrophobic CuO surface on AZ91D magnesium alloy is reported in this paper. Hierarchical structure composed of micro/nano-featherlike CuO was obtained by electrodeposition of Cu-Zn alloy coating and subsequently an electrochemical anodic treatment in alkaline solution. After modification with lauric acid, the surface became hydrophobicity/superhydrophobicity. The formation of featherlike CuO structures was controllable by varying the coating composition. By applying SEM, ICP-AES, and water contact angle analysis, the effects of coating composition on the surface morphology and hydrophobicity of the as-prepared surfaces were detailedly studied. The results indicated that at the optimal condition, the surface showed a good superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle as high as 155.5 ± 1.3° and a sliding angle as low as about 3°. Possible growth mechanism of featherlike CuO hierarchical structure was discussed. Additionally, the anticorrosion effect of the superhydrophobic surface was studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The interface model for anticorrosion mechanism of superhydrophobic surface in corrosive medium was proposed. Besides, the mechanical stability test indicated that the resulting superhydrophobic surfaces have good mechanical stability. PMID:22845176

She, Zuxin; Li, Qing; Wang, Zhongwei; Li, Longqin; Chen, Funan; Zhou, Juncen

2012-08-01

166

A new method for preparing bionic multi scale superhydrophobic functional surface on X70 pipeline steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrophobic property of a rough surface with a low free energy coating was theoretically analyzed in this paper. In order to obtain a superhydrophobic surface, a rough surface morphology must be formed in addition to the low free energy coating on the surface. Through the shot blasting, chemical etching with concentrated hydrochloric acid, and low free energy modification with myristic acid ethanol solution, the superhydrophobic surface was obtained on X70 pipeline steel. The better process parameters for preparing superhydrophobic surface on X70 pipeline steel were obtained. The diameter of the stainless steel shot used in the shot blasting was 0.8-1.0 mm. The concentration of hydrochloric acid was 6 mol/L. The chemical etching time was 320 min. The concentration of myristic acid ethanol solution was 0.1 mol/L. The soaking time in myristic acid ethanol solution was 72 h. After X70 pipeline steel surface was treated using the process parameters mentioned above, the biggest contact angle between the specimen surface and distilled water was 153.5°, and the sliding angle was less than 5°.

Yu, Sirong; Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Wei; Yao, Qiang; Xu, Jun; Xiong, Wei

2013-04-01

167

Cu surfaces with controlled structures: From intrinsically hydrophilic to apparently superhydrophobic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of Cu films with different surface structures were fabricated by an improved electric brush-plating technique. In the absence of surface chemical modification, the Cu films exhibited hydrophobic and even superhydrophobic behaviors due to their three-level hierarchical structures. Based on the classical Wenzel and Cassie models, the effects of two dimensionless geometrical parameters (the aspect ratio and the spacing factor of micro-scale structure) on the wetting behaviors of the Cu films were investigated. It was demonstrated that to obtain the stable Cassie superhydrophobic state, the aspect ratio and the water contact angle on the basal surface should be as large as possible and the spacing factor should be limited within a specific range for given aspect ratio and water contact angle on the basal surface.

Meng, Keke; Jiang, Yue; Jiang, Zhonghao; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing

2014-01-01

168

Chemical control of superhydrophobicity of carbon nanotube surfaces: droplet pinning and electrowetting behavior.  

PubMed

We report the remarkable transformation of a superhydrophobic surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes after chemical manipulation (functionalization, especially by ozonolysis), which leads to a pinning action and eventually hydrophilic behavior, upon the application of an electric field. The effect of droplet pinning on a hydrophobic surface is an indication of the Wenzel formalism, where it is assumed that the liquid fills up the space between the protrusions on the surface. Also, the ozonized bucky surfaces show fascinating electrowetting behavior in the presence of an electrolyte, which follows a transition from a superhydrophobic, Cassie-Baxter state to a hydrophilic, Wenzel state as a function of the electric field, this has been modelled using a simple approach and the corresponding interfacial capacitance has been determined. PMID:23800839

Kakade, Bhalchandra A

2013-08-01

169

High-adhesive superhydrophobic 3D nanostructured silver films applied as sensitive, long-lived, reproducible and recyclable SERS substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver films with different morphologies were chemically deposited by controlling the bath composition. It is found that the wettability and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties were closely connected with the surface morphology. Due to the perfect 3D morphology and the 3D electromagnetic field enhanced by three types of nanogaps distributed uniformly, the 3D microball/nanosheet (MN) silver film shows better SERS properties than those of 2D nanosheets (NSs) and nanoparticles (NPs). The MN silver film showed high adhesive superhydrophobic properties after an oxidation process without any functionalization. It can hold the liquid droplet and trace the target molecules in a rather small volume. The SERS properties of the oxidized MN substrate were enhanced remarkably compared to those of the freshly prepared substrate because of the concentrating effect of the superhydrophobicity. The as-prepared 3D MN silver substrate has also exhibited good performances in reproducibility and reutilization which makes it a promising substrate for molecule tracing.Silver films with different morphologies were chemically deposited by controlling the bath composition. It is found that the wettability and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties were closely connected with the surface morphology. Due to the perfect 3D morphology and the 3D electromagnetic field enhanced by three types of nanogaps distributed uniformly, the 3D microball/nanosheet (MN) silver film shows better SERS properties than those of 2D nanosheets (NSs) and nanoparticles (NPs). The MN silver film showed high adhesive superhydrophobic properties after an oxidation process without any functionalization. It can hold the liquid droplet and trace the target molecules in a rather small volume. The SERS properties of the oxidized MN substrate were enhanced remarkably compared to those of the freshly prepared substrate because of the concentrating effect of the superhydrophobicity. The as-prepared 3D MN silver substrate has also exhibited good performances in reproducibility and reutilization which makes it a promising substrate for molecule tracing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns of three different substrates. XPS spectra of the MN silver film after modification. Raman spectra collected from 5 random points in the NP silver film. SERS spectra of 1 ?M 4-Mpy absorbed on different substrates. XPS O 1s spectra of the MN surface before and after storage. SERS spectra of 4 ?L 10-12 R6G absorbed onto the freshly prepared MN substrate. Raman spectra obtained on the solid R6G. SERS spectra obtained on the surface of the oxidized MN substrate after rinsing with deionized water. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02198c

Wu, Yunwen; Hang, Tao; Komadina, Jason; Ling, Huiqin; Li, Ming

2014-07-01

170

Laser induced surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane as a super-hydrophobic material  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to render the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) super-hydrophobic without changing its bulk properties, a PDMS film without photosensitizer was exposed to CO2 pulsed laser, at room temperature, as the excitation source. The modified surfaces have been studied by performing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) and attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. To

M. T. Khorasani; H. Mirzadeh; P. G. Sammes

1996-01-01

171

Chemical control of superhydrophobicity of carbon nanotube surfaces: droplet pinning and electrowetting behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the remarkable transformation of a superhydrophobic surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes after chemical manipulation (functionalization, especially by ozonolysis), which leads to a pinning action and eventually hydrophilic behavior, upon the application of an electric field. The effect of droplet pinning on a hydrophobic surface is an indication of the Wenzel formalism, where it is assumed that the liquid fills up the space between the protrusions on the surface. Also, the ozonized bucky surfaces show fascinating electrowetting behavior in the presence of an electrolyte, which follows a transition from a superhydrophobic, Cassie-Baxter state to a hydrophilic, Wenzel state as a function of the electric field, this has been modelled using a simple approach and the corresponding interfacial capacitance has been determined.We report the remarkable transformation of a superhydrophobic surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes after chemical manipulation (functionalization, especially by ozonolysis), which leads to a pinning action and eventually hydrophilic behavior, upon the application of an electric field. The effect of droplet pinning on a hydrophobic surface is an indication of the Wenzel formalism, where it is assumed that the liquid fills up the space between the protrusions on the surface. Also, the ozonized bucky surfaces show fascinating electrowetting behavior in the presence of an electrolyte, which follows a transition from a superhydrophobic, Cassie-Baxter state to a hydrophilic, Wenzel state as a function of the electric field, this has been modelled using a simple approach and the corresponding interfacial capacitance has been determined. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Elemental analysis, TGA studies. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01359f

Kakade, Bhalchandra A.

2013-07-01

172

A simple way to achieve pattern-dependent tunable adhesion in superhydrophobic surfaces by a femtosecond laser.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a new approach to the tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces consisting of periodic hydrophobic patterns and superhydrophobic structures by femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation on silicon. The surfaces are composed of periodic hydrophobic patterns (triangle, circle, and rhombus) and superhydrophobic structures (dual-scale spikes induced by a fs laser). Our results reveal that the adhesive forces of as-prepared surfaces can be tuned by varying the area ratio (AR(s-h)) of superhydrophobic domain to hydrophobic domain, thus resulting in tunable static and dynamic wettabilities. By increasing AR(s-h), (i) the static wetting property, which is characterized by the minimum water droplet volume that enables a droplet to land on the surface, can be tailored from 1 ?L to 9 ?L; (ii) the sliding angle can be flexibly adjusted, ranging from >90° (a droplet cannot slide off when the sample is positioned upside down) to 5°; and (iii) the droplet rebound behaviors can be modulated from partial rebound to triple rebound. In addition, the Cassie-Baxter model and the sliding angle model are used to speculate the contact angles and sliding angles to provide potentially theoretical models to design slippery-to-sticky superhydrophobic surfaces. The tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces achieved by fs laser microfabrication may be potentially used in microfluidic systems to modulate the mobility of liquid droplets. PMID:22909564

Zhang, Dongshi; Chen, Feng; Yang, Qing; Yong, Jiale; Bian, Hao; Ou, Yan; Si, Jinhai; Meng, Xiangwei; Hou, Xun

2012-09-26

173

Controllable fabrication of lotus-leaf-like superhydrophobic surface on copper foil by self-assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel approach was developed to fabricate a lotus-leaf-like superhydrophobic surface on a copper foil by simple self-assembly method with the assistance of the porous PDMS template which was used to adjust the oxidized parts of the copper foil surface before self-assembly. The results showed a series of beautiful flower-like microstructures resulting from the self-assembly of cupric stearate that were distributed at regular intervals on the as-prepared copper foil surface similar to the papillae of lotus leaf surface. The water contact angle of the as-prepared copper surface was up to 161° and its sliding angle was only 3°. Its great superhydrophobicity could be kept unchanged after 6 months in air. The formation mechanism of the lotus-leaf-like structure was discussed. This simple and low-cost method is expected to be applied to design and prepare complicated superhydrophobic surfaces with beautiful regular microstructures on different substrates such as stainless steel, zinc, and so on.

Yuan, Zhiqing; Wang, Xian; Bin, Jiping; Wang, Menglei; Peng, Chaoyi; Xing, Suli; Xiao, Jiayu; Zeng, Jingcheng; Chen, Hong

2014-09-01

174

Preparation and properties of ZnS superhydrophobic surface with hierarchical structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel ZnS hierarchical structure composed of nanorod arrays with branched nanosheets and nanowires grown on their upside walls, was synthesized over Au-coated silicon substrate via chemical vapor deposition technique. Contact angle and sliding angle of this hierarchical film with no surface modification were measured to be about 153.8° and 9.1° for 5 ?l water droplets. Self-cleaning behavior and dynamic water-repelling performance were clearly demonstrated. In addition, electrowetting transition phenomenon from superhydrophobic to hydrophilic state happened when a critical bias ?7.0 V was applied. Below this threshold voltage, the contact angle change is little. This work for the first time reports the creation of ZnS superhydrophobic surface and could enrich its research field as surface functional materials.

Yao, Lujun; Zheng, Maojun; He, Shuanghu; Ma, Li; Li, Mei; Shen, Wenzhong

2011-01-01

175

Superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth  

DOEpatents

A superhydrophobic powder is prepared by coating diatomaceous earth (DE) with a hydrophobic coating on the particle surface such that the coating conforms to the topography of the DE particles. The hydrophobic coating can be a self assembly monolayer of a perfluorinated silane coupling agent. The DE is preferably natural-grade DE where organic impurities have been removed. The superhydrophobic powder can be applied as a suspension in a binder solution to a substrate to produce a superhydrophobic surface on the substrate.

Simpson, John T. (Clinton, TN); D'Urso, Brian R. (Clinton, TN)

2012-07-10

176

Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on zinc substrates and their application as effective corrosion barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable superhydrophobic surfaces have been effectively fabricated on the zinc substrates through one-step platinum replacement deposition process without the further modification or any other post processing procedures. The effect of reaction temperatures on the surface morphology and wettability was studied by using SEM and water contact angle (CA) analysis. Under room temperature, the composite structure formed on the zinc substrate was consisted of microscale hexagonal cavities, densely packed nanoparticles layer and micro/nanoscale structures like the flowers. The structure has exhibited great surface roughness and porosity contributing to the superhydrophobicity where the contact angle could reach an ultra high value of around 170°. Under reaction temperature of 80 °C, the composite structure, on the other hand, was hierarchical structure containing lots of nanoscale flowers and some large bushes and showed certain surface roughness (maximum CA value of about 150°). In addition, an optimal superhydrophobic platinum surface was able to provide an effective anticorrosive coating to the zinc substrate when it was immersed into an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (3% NaCl) for up to 20 days. The corrosion process was monitored through electrochemical means and the results are compared with those of unprotected zinc plates.

Ning, Tao; Xu, Wenguo; Lu, Shixiang

2011-12-01

177

A fast method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces on zinc substrate with ion assisted chemical etching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A metal assisted chemical etching process was proposed to rapidly fabricate super-hydrophobic surfaces on Zn substrates. The influence of three assisting metal ions (Ag+, Cu2+, Cr3+) on the morphology of the fabricated surfaces, and their hydrophobicity after modification by fluorosilane, were studied. This work indicates that the metal ions play an important role on the structure and the hydrophobicity of the prepared surfaces. The rough structure required for super-hydrophobic surfaces, with contact angles of 158 ± 2° and 161 ± 2°, respectively, can be easily obtained within 5 s with Cu2+ or Ag+ assisted chemical etching process. The treatment conditions of Cu2+ assisted chemical etching method were optimized. The sample with the highest contact angle can be achieved when the concentration of Cu(NO3)2 is 0.08 mol L-1, the concentration of HNO3 is 0.6 mol L-1, and the etching time is 5 s at 30 °C. And the prepared superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited enough stability in the air.

Qi, Yi; Cui, Zhe; Liang, Bin; Parnas, Richard S.; Lu, Houfang

2014-06-01

178

Petal effect: a superhydrophobic state with high adhesive force.  

PubMed

Hierarchical micropapillae and nanofolds are known to exist on the petals' surfaces of red roses. These micro- and nanostructures provide a sufficient roughness for superhydrophobicity and yet at the same time a high adhesive force with water. A water droplet on the surface of the petal appears spherical in shape, which cannot roll off even when the petal is turned upside down. We define this phenomenon as the "petal effect" as compared with the popular "lotus effect". Artificial fabrication of biomimic polymer films, with well-defined nanoembossed structures obtained by duplicating the petal's surface, indicates that the superhydrophobic surface and the adhesive petal are in Cassie impregnating wetting state. PMID:18312016

Feng, Lin; Zhang, Yanan; Xi, Jinming; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Nü; Xia, Fan; Jiang, Lei

2008-04-15

179

Fabrication and characterization of hierarchical nanostructured smart adhesion surfaces.  

PubMed

The mechanics of fibrillar adhesive surfaces of biological systems such as a Lotus leaf and a gecko are widely studied due to their unique surface properties. The Lotus leaf is a model for superhydrophobic surfaces, self-cleaning properties, and low adhesion. Gecko feet have high adhesion due to the high micro/nanofibrillar hierarchical structures. A nanostructured surface may exhibit low adhesion or high adhesion depending upon fibrillar density, and it presents the possibility of realizing eco-friendly surface structures with desirable adhesion. The current research, for the first time uses a patterning technique to fabricate smart adhesion surfaces: single- and two-level hierarchical synthetic adhesive structure surfaces with various fibrillar densities and diameters that allows the observation of either the Lotus or gecko adhesion effects. Contact angles of the fabricated structured samples were measured to characterize their wettability, and contamination experiments were performed to study for self-cleaning ability. A conventional and a glass ball attached to an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip were used to obtain the adhesive forces via force-distance curves to study scale effect. A further increase of the adhesive forces on the samples was achieved by applying an adhesive to the surfaces. PMID:22285098

Lee, Hyungoo; Bhushan, Bharat

2012-04-15

180

Superhydrophobic Transparent Surface of Nanostructured Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)  

E-print Network

hydrolysis process with water immersion. During the CF4 plasma treatment, nanoscale pillar structures were or PMMA.[2­5] Along with several precursors for a plasma treatment on polymeric materials, such as oxygen

Kim, Ho-Young

181

Surface plasmon polaritons on nanostructured surfaces and thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abslrnd - Surface plasmon polariton behaviour on periodically nanostructured metal surfaces and thin films is discussed. Such metallic nanostructures act as polaritonic crystals for surface polaritons, in analogy to photonic crystals for light waves. In this paper surface polariton Bloch mode spectrum on the structured surfaces and films is overviewed and manifestations of various surface plasmon modes in the optical

A. V. Zayats; S. A. Darmanyan; D. Gerard; L. Salomon; F. de Fornel

2004-01-01

182

High-adhesive superhydrophobic 3D nanostructured silver films applied as sensitive, long-lived, reproducible and recyclable SERS substrates.  

PubMed

Silver films with different morphologies were chemically deposited by controlling the bath composition. It is found that the wettability and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties were closely connected with the surface morphology. Due to the perfect 3D morphology and the 3D electromagnetic field enhanced by three types of nanogaps distributed uniformly, the 3D microball/nanosheet (MN) silver film shows better SERS properties than those of 2D nanosheets (NSs) and nanoparticles (NPs). The MN silver film showed high adhesive superhydrophobic properties after an oxidation process without any functionalization. It can hold the liquid droplet and trace the target molecules in a rather small volume. The SERS properties of the oxidized MN substrate were enhanced remarkably compared to those of the freshly prepared substrate because of the concentrating effect of the superhydrophobicity. The as-prepared 3D MN silver substrate has also exhibited good performances in reproducibility and reutilization which makes it a promising substrate for molecule tracing. PMID:24995507

Wu, Yunwen; Hang, Tao; Komadina, Jason; Ling, Huiqin; Li, Ming

2014-08-21

183

Effect of wettability and surface roughness on ice-adhesion strength of hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anti-icing properties of hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces/coatings were evaluated using a custom-built apparatus based on zero-degree cone test method. The ice-adhesion reduction factor (ARF) of these coatings has been evaluated using bare aluminium alloy as a reference. The wettability of the surfaces was evaluated by measuring water contact angle (WCA) and sliding angle. It was found that the ice-adhesion strength (?) on silicone based hydrophobic surfaces was ? 43 times lower than compared to bare polished aluminium alloy indicating excellent anti-icing property of these coatings. Superhydrophobic coatings displayed poor anti-icing property in spite of their high water repellence. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope reveal that Silicone based hydrophobic coatings exhibited smooth surface whereas the superhydrophobic coatings had a rough surface consisting of microscale bumps and protrusions superimposed with nanospheres. Both surface roughness and surface energy play a major role on the ice-adhesion strength of the coatings. The 3D surface roughness profiles of the coatings also indicated the same trend of roughness. An attempt is made to correlate the observed ice-adhesion strength of different surfaces with their wettability and surface roughness.

Bharathidasan, T.; Kumar, S. Vijay; Bobji, M. S.; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Basu, Bharathibai J.

2014-09-01

184

Fabrication of superhydrophobic surface of hierarchical ZnO thin films by using stearic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flower-like hierarchical ZnO microspheres were successfully synthesized by a simple, template-free, and low-temperature aqueous solution route. The morphology and microstructure of the ZnO microspheres were examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The bionic films with hydrophobicity were fabricated by the hierarchical ZnO microspheres modified by stearic acid. It was found that the hydrophobicity of the thin films was very sensitive to the added amount of stearic acid. The thin films modified with 8% stearic acid took on strong superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (CA) almost to be 178° and weak adhersion. The remarkable superhydrophobicity could be attributed to the synergistic effect of micro/nano hierarchical structure of ZnO and low surface energy of stearic acid.

Wang, Yanfen; Li, Benxia; Xu, Chuyang

2012-01-01

185

The evaluation of hierarchical structured superhydrophobic coatings for the alleviation of insect residue to aircraft laminar flow surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface contamination caused by insects on laminar flow wing surfaces causes a disruption of the flow, resulting in an increase in drag and fuel consumption. Consequently, the use of superhydrophobic coatings to mitigate insect residue adhesion was investigated. A range of hierarchical superhydrophobic coatings with different surface chemistry and topography was examined. Candidate coatings were characterized in terms of their morphology and hydrophobic properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and static and dynamic contact angle measurements, respectively. Arithmetic mean surface roughness (Ra) values were measured using profilometry. Only superhydrophobic coatings with a specific topography showed complete mitigation against insect residue adhesion. A surface which exhibited a specific microstructure (Ra = 5.26 ?m) combined with a low sliding angle (SA = 7.6°) showed the best anti-contamination properties. The dynamics of an insect impact event and its influence on the wetting and adhesion mechanisms of insect residue to a surface were discussed.

Kok, Mariana; Young, Trevor M.

2014-09-01

186

Nanostructured Surfaces of Dental Implants  

PubMed Central

The structural and functional fusion of the surface of the dental implant with the surrounding bone (osseointegration) is crucial for the short and long term outcome of the device. In recent years, the enhancement of bone formation at the bone-implant interface has been achieved through the modulation of osteoblasts adhesion and spreading, induced by structural modifications of the implant surface, particularly at the nanoscale level. In this context, traditional chemical and physical processes find new applications to achieve the best dental implant technology. This review provides an overview of the most common manufacture techniques and the related cells-surface interactions and modulation. A Medline and a hand search were conducted to identify studies concerning nanostructuration of implant surface and their related biological interaction. In this paper, we stressed the importance of the modifications on dental implant surfaces at the nanometric level. Nowadays, there is still little evidence of the long-term benefits of nanofeatures, as the promising results achieved in vitro and in animals have still to be confirmed in humans. However, the increasing interest in nanotechnology is undoubted and more research is going to be published in the coming years. PMID:23344062

Bressan, Eriberto; Sbricoli, Luca; Guazzo, Riccardo; Tocco, Ilaria; Roman, Marco; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Stellini, Edoardo; Gardin, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Sivolella, Stefano; Zavan, Barbara

2013-01-01

187

Superhydrophobic nano-wire entanglement structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobic nano-wire entanglement structures (NWES) were fabricated by the dipping method, based on an anodization process in oxalic acid. The pore diameter and the depth were influenced by the applied voltage and the anodizing time. To obtain the NWES, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFT, Teflon®: DuPont™) replication based on the dipping method was used, with a PTFT solution (0.3 wt%). During replication, the polymer sticking phenomenon due to van der Waals interactions creates microscale bunch structures on the nanoscale wire-entanglement structures. This process provides a hierarchical structure with nanostructures on microstructures and enables commercialization. The diameter of the replicated wires was about 40 nm, and their lengths were 22-75 µm according to the anodizing time. The fabricated surface has superhydrophobicity; the apparent contact angle of the PTFT micro and nanostructures is about 160°-170° and the sliding angle is less than 1°.

Kim, Donghyun; Hwang, Woonbong; Park, Hyun C.; Lee, Kun-H.

2006-12-01

188

Fabrication of lotus-leaf-like superhydrophobic surfaces via Ni-based nano-composite electro-brush plating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobic surface has become a research hot topic in recent years due to its excellent performance and wide application prospect. This paper investigates the method to fabricate superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via two-layer nano-composite electro-brush plating and subsequent surface modification with low free energy materials. The hydrophobic properties of as-prepared coatings were characterized by a water sliding angle (SA) and a water contact angle (CA) measured by the Surface tension instrument. A Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the surface structure of plating coatings. Anti-corrosion performance of the superhydrophobic coating was characterized by a potentiodynamic polarization curve measured by the Electrochemical workstation. The research result shows that: the superhydrophobic structure can be successfully prepared by plating nano-C/Ni and nano-Cu/Ni two-layer coating on carbon steel substrate under appropriate technology and has similarity with lotus-leaf-like micro/nano composite structure; the contact angle of the as-prepared superhydrophobic coating can be up to 155.5°, the sliding angle is 5°; the coating has better anti-corrosion performance compared with substrate.

Liu, Hongtao; Wang, Xuemei; Ji, Hongmin

2014-01-01

189

Wetting and phase-change phenomena on micro/nanostructures for enhanced heat transfer  

E-print Network

Micro/nanostructures have been extensively studied to amplify the intrinsic wettability of materials to create superhydrophilic or superhydrophobic surfaces. Such extreme wetting properties can influence the heat transfer ...

Xiao, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

190

Fabrication and characterization of stable superhydrophobic surface with good friction-reducing performance on Al foil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lotus-leaf-like hierarchical structure with superhydrophobicity was created on Al foil by a facile three-step solution-immersion method involving etching in hydrochloric acid solution and immersing in hot water as well as surface-modification by stearic acid (denoted as STA). As-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Moreover, the water contact angles and water sliding angles of as-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface were measured, and the friction-reducing performance and self-cleaning ability of the as-prepared surface were also evaluated. Results indicate that the etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface consists of interconnected convex-concave micro-structure and uniformly distributed nano-sheets. Besides, it exhibits stable superhydrophobicity and good friction-reducing ability. Namely, it has a contact angle of water as high as 164.2° and a water sliding angle lower than 5°, while it retains good friction-reducing ability during extended sliding and possesses good self-cleaning ability as well. This demonstrates that the etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface may favor the applications of Al and its alloys in various industrial fields.

Li, Peipei; Chen, Xinhua; Yang, Guangbin; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Pingyu

2014-05-01

191

Superhydrophobic hierarchical surfaces fabricated by anodizing of oblique angle deposited Al-Nb alloy columnar films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined process of oblique angle magnetron sputtering and anodizing has been developed to tailor superhydrophobic surfaces with hierarchical morphology. Isolated submicron columns of single-phase Al-Nb alloys are deposited by magnetron sputtering at several oblique deposition angles on a scalloped substrate surface, with the gaps between columns increasing with an increase in the deposition angle from 70° to 110°. Then, the columnar films have been anodized in hot phosphate-glycerol electrolyte to form a nanoporous anodic oxide layer on each column. Such surfaces with submicron-/nano-porous structure have been coated with a fluoroalkyl phosphate layer to reduce the surface energy. The porous surface before coating is superhydrophilic with a contact angle for water is less than 10°, while after coating the contact angles are larger than 150°, being superhydrophobic. The beneficial effect of dual-scale porosity to enhance the water repellency is found from the comparison of the contact angles of the submicron columnar films with and without nanoporous oxide layers. The larger submicron gaps between columns are also preferable to increase the water repellency.

Fujii, Takashi; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Habazaki, Hiroki

2011-07-01

192

Wetting behaviour during evaporation and condensation of water microdroplets on superhydrophobic patterned surfaces.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobic surfaces have considerable technological potential for various applications due to their extreme water repellent properties. The superhydrophobic surfaces may be generated by the use of hydrophobic coating, roughness and air pockets between solid and liquid. The geometric effects and dynamic effects, such as surface waves, can destroy the composite solid-air-liquid interface. The relationship between the water droplet size and geometric parameters governs the creation of composite interface and affects transition from solid-liquid interface to composite interface. Therefore, it is necessary to study the effect of droplets of various sizes. We have studied the effect of droplet size on contact angle by evaporation using droplets with radii ranging from about 300 to 700 microm. Experimental and theoretical studies of the wetting properties of silicon surfaces patterned with pillars of two different diameters and heights with varying pitch values are presented. We propose a criterion where the transition from Cassie and Baxter regime to Wenzel regime occurs when the droop of the droplet sinking between two asperities is larger than the depth of the cavity. The trends are explained based on the experimental data and the proposed transition criteria. An environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) is used to form smaller droplets of about 20 microm radius and measure the contact angle on the patterned surfaces. The investigation has shown that ESEM provides a new approach to wetting studies on the microscale. PMID:18173651

Jung, Y C; Bhushan, B

2008-01-01

193

Easy route to the wettability cycling of copper surface between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity.  

PubMed

A hierarchical copper structure combining micro- and nanogaps/pores was built up on copper substrate by etching and electrodeposition. The fresh as-deposited copper was easily oxidized in air at room temperature, forming a CuO layer covering on the surface. The surface could be hydrophobized with thiol-modified fluorocarbons, after which it showed a water contact angle as high as 165° ± 2°. This surface could also regain the superhydrophilicity with a zero water contact angel after annealing at 200 °C for 10 min to desorb the low surface energy monolayer of thiol-modified fluorocarbons and reform a CuO layer again on the surface. Repeating the process of adsorption/desorption of the monolayer by modification and annealing, it was successful to fulfill the wettability cycling between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity on the copper surface. The adsorption and desorption mechanism of the monolayer was discussed based on the result of surface chemistry analysis. PMID:22148586

Wang, Guoyong; Zhang, Tong-Yi

2012-01-01

194

Lasing from single, stationary, dye-doped glycerol/water microdroplets located on a superhydrophobic surface  

E-print Network

We report laser emission from single, stationary, Rhodamine B-doped glycerol/water microdroplets located on a superhydrophobic surface. In the experiments, a pulsed, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm was used as the excitation source. The microdroplets ranged in diameter from a few to 20 um. Lasing was achieved in the red-shifted portion of the dye emission spectrum with threshold fluences as low as 750 J/cm2. Photobleaching was observed when the microdroplets were pumped above threshold. In certain cases, multimode lasing was also observed and attributed to the simultaneous lasing of two modes belonging to different sets of whispering gallery modes.

Kiraz, A; DoÄ?anay, S; Dündar, M A; Kurt, A; KalaycıoÄ?lu, H; Demirel, A L

2007-01-01

195

Effects of Various Additives during Hot Water Treatment on the Formation of Alumina Thin Films for Superhydrophobic Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alumina thin films, with roughness of 20–50 nm and pseudoboehmite nanocrystals precipitated on the surface, were formed through immersion of porous alumina gel films in hot water. By coating hydrolyzed fluoroalkylsilane on such a thin film with slight roughness, a superhydrophobic surface with high transparency was obtained. Additives such as hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride, manganese chloride, ethanol and

Kiyoharu Tadanaga; Naoko Yamaguchi; Atsunori Matsuda; Tsutomu Minami; Masahiro Tatsumisago

2008-01-01

196

One-step solution immersion process to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces on light alloys.  

PubMed

A simple and universal one-step process bas been developed to render light alloys (including AZ91D Mg alloy, 5083 Al alloy, and TC4 Ti alloy) superhydrophobic by immersing the substrates in a solution containing low-surface-energy molecules of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane (PFOTS, 20 ?L), ethanol (10 mL), and H2O (10 mL for Al and Mg alloy)/H2O2 (15%, 10 mL for Ti alloy). Field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurements have been performed to characterize the morphological features, chemical composition, and wettability of the surfaces, respectively. The results indicate that the treated light alloys are rough-structured and covered by PFOTS molecules; consequently, the surfaces show static contact angles higher than 150° and sliding angles lower than 10°. This research reveals that it is feasible to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) easily and effectively without involving the traditional two-step processes. Moreover, this one-step process may find potential application in the field of industrial preparation of SHS because of its simplicity and universality. PMID:23895507

Ou, Junfei; Hu, Weihua; Xue, Mingshan; Wang, Fajun; Li, Wen

2013-10-23

197

Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces via CaCO3 mineralization mediated by poly(glutamic acid)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surfaces with micrometer and nanometer sized hierarchical structures were fabricated by an one-step in situ additive controlled CaCO3 mineralization method. After chemical modification, the surfaces with various morphologies showed superhydrophobicity in different states, which could be easily adjusted by the initial supersaturation of the mineralization solution (concentration of calcium ion and poly(glutamic acid)). Generally, the "lotus state" surface which was covered by a thick layer of tetrahedron-shaped CaCO3 particles to exhibit a contact angle (CA) of 157±1° and a very low contact angle hysteresis (CAH) (roll-off angle=1°) was produced under high supersaturation. On the other hands, the petal-like surface with flower-shaped calcite spherulites was obtained in a relative low supersaturation, which showed both high CA (156±2°) and CAH (180°) in a "Cassie impregnating wetting state".

Cao, Heng; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong

2013-03-01

198

Improvement of mechanical robustness of the superhydrophobic wood surface by coating PVA/SiO2 composite polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvement of the robustness of superhydrophobic surfaces is crucial for the purpose of achieving commercial applications of these surfaces in such various areas as self-cleaning, water repellency and corrosion resistance. We have investigated a fabrication of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/silica (SiO2) composite polymer coating on wooden substrates with super repellency toward water, low sliding angles, low contact angle hysteresis, and relatively better mechanical robustness. The composite polymer slurry, consisting of well-mixing SiO2 particles and PVA, is prepared simply and subsequently coated over wooden substrates with good adhesion. In this study, the mechanical robustness of superhydrophobic wood surfaces was evaluated. The effect of petaloid structures of the composite polymer on robustness was investigated using an abrasion test and the results were compared with those of superhydrophobic wood surfaces fabricated by other processes. The produced wood surfaces exhibited promising superhydrophobic properties with a contact angle of 159? and a sliding angle of 4?, and the relatively better mechanical robustness.

Liu, Feng; Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Ming; Ma, Miaolian; Wang, Chengyu; Li, Jian

2013-09-01

199

Singlet oxygen generation on porous superhydrophobic surfaces: effect of gas flow and sensitizer wetting on trapping efficiency.  

PubMed

We describe physical-organic studies of singlet oxygen generation and transport into an aqueous solution supported on superhydrophobic surfaces on which silicon-phthalocyanine (Pc) particles are immobilized. Singlet oxygen ((1)O2) was trapped by a water-soluble anthracene compound and monitored in situ using a UV-vis spectrometer. When oxygen flows through the porous superhydrophobic surface, singlet oxygen generated in the plastron (i.e., the gas layer beneath the liquid) is transported into the solution within gas bubbles, thereby increasing the liquid-gas surface area over which singlet oxygen can be trapped. Higher photooxidation rates were achieved in flowing oxygen, as compared to when the gas in the plastron was static. Superhydrophobic surfaces were also synthesized so that the Pc particles were located in contact with, or isolated from, the aqueous solution to evaluate the relative effectiveness of singlet oxygen generated in solution and the gas phase, respectively; singlet oxygen generated on particles wetted by the solution was trapped more efficiently than singlet oxygen generated in the plastron, even in the presence of flowing oxygen gas. A mechanism is proposed that explains how Pc particle wetting, plastron gas composition and flow rate as well as gas saturation of the aqueous solution affect singlet oxygen trapping efficiency. These stable superhydrophobic surfaces, which can physically isolate the photosensitizer particles from the solution may be of practical importance for delivering singlet oxygen for water purification and medical devices. PMID:24885074

Zhao, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yang; Xu, Qianfeng; Barahman, Mark; Bartusik, Dorota; Greer, Alexander; Lyons, Alan M

2014-11-13

200

Lattice Boltzmann simulations of forced wetting transitions of drops on superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of drops on superhydrophobic surfaces is of interest from an engineering point of view. As it can be difficult to probe some of the more subtle phenomena by experiment, numerical simulations can be illuminating. Many research efforts have utilized the lattice Boltzmann method to glean important conclusions about the nature of this subject, but only few have done so while eliminating the phenomenon of spurious currents and employing drop densities greater than approximately ten times that of the gas density. This paper presents a new implementation of boundary conditions for the complex geometry found in simulations of drops on superhydrophobic surfaces, which extends an existing model that has been shown to eliminate spurious currents. We validate our model by comparison with experiments, and demonstrate that spurious currents are eliminated for the density ratio encountered in a water/air system. We further discuss the issue of numerical resolution for a problem that possesses such a naturally large separation of scales, and we present a comparison between two- and three-dimensional simulations. We find that an adequate resolution, which may be difficult to achieve, must be given to capture the appropriate transition from the Cassie to the Wenzel state for the case of forced wetting under gravity. Furthermore, the form of our boundary condition may be extended to cover other types of complex geometry not included here.

Connington, Kevin; Lee, Taehun

2013-10-01

201

Superhydrophobic hybrid inorganic-organic thiol-ene surfaces fabricated via spray-deposition and photopolymerization.  

PubMed

We report a simple and versatile method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic inorganic-organic thiol-ene coatings via sequential spray-deposition and photopolymerization under ambient conditions. The coatings are obtained by spray-deposition of UV-curable hybrid inorganic-organic thiol-ene resins consisting of pentaerythritol tetra(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP), triallyl isocyanurate (TTT), 2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-2,4,6,8-tetravinylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMTVSi), and hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles. The spray-deposition process and nanoparticle agglomeration/dispersion provide surfaces with hierarchical morphologies exhibiting both micro- and nanoscale roughness. The wetting behavior, dependent on the concentration of TMTVSi and hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, can be varied over a broad range to ultimately provide coatings with high static water contact angles (>150°), low contact angle hysteresis, and low roll off angles (<5°). The cross-linked thiol-ene coatings are solvent resistant, stable at low and high pH, and maintain superhydrophobic wetting behavior after extended exposure to elevated temperatures. We demonstrate the versatility of the spray-deposition and UV-cure process on a variety of substrate surfaces including glass, paper, stone, and cotton fabric. PMID:23410965

Sparks, Bradley J; Hoff, Ethan F T; Xiong, Li; Goetz, James T; Patton, Derek L

2013-03-13

202

Fabrication and analysis of PMMA, ABS, PS, and PC superhydrophobic surfaces using the spray method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated using a facile spraying technique with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC). Also, the surface energy was qualitatively analyzed via the water contact angle with respect to the spraying time and the sprayed position. Firstly, PMMA, ABS, PS and PC were dissolved by using solvents such as methyl chloride, methanol, THF (tetrahydrofuran), and methanol, respectively. After that, the dissolved polymer was sprayed onto a thin film of the same polymer for various spraying times. Nozzle size, pressure and spraying distance were fixed as 0.2 mm, 0.1 bar, and 100 mm, respectively, after several feasibility experiments. For the sprayed surfaces, the topology was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy, and the surface energy was qualitatively analyzed using the water-contactangle measurement. According to a quantitative analysis using the roughness factor and he Wenzel equation, all specimens could be assumed to be in a Wenzel state. To convert the Wenzel state into a Cassie-Baxster state by decreasing the surface energy of polymer-sprayed specimen, we treated the polymer-sprayed surfaces by using trichloro (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl) silane. Consequently, non-sticky superhydrophobic surfaces having water contact angles greater than 155° and water sliding angles lower than 8° were fabricated. The water contact angle and the water sliding angle were measured by using a contact-angle-measuring device. In addition, a brief qualitative analysis of the effect of surface topology on the water sliding angle was conducted for the polymer-sprayed specimens.

Cho, Young-Sam; Ahn, Sang Hyun; Lee, Se-Hwan

2013-07-01

203

Mussel-inspired one-step copolymerization to engineer hierarchically structured surface with superhydrophobic properties for removing oil from water.  

PubMed

In the present study, a superhydrophobic polyurethane (PU) sponge with hierarchically structured surface, which exhibits excellent performance in absorbing oils/organic solvents, was fabricated for the first time through mussel-inspired one-step copolymerization approach. Specifically, dopamine (a small molecular bioadhesive) and n-dodecylthiol were copolymerized in an alkaline aqueous solution to generate polydopamine (PDA) nanoaggregates with n-dodecylthiol motifs on the surface of the PU sponge skeletons. Then, the superhydrophobic sponge that comprised a hierarchical structured surface similar to the chemical/topological structures of lotus leaf was fabricated. The topological structures, surface wettability, and mechanical property of the sponge were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, contact angle experiments, and compression test. Just as a result of the highly porous structure, superhydrophobic property and strong mechanical stability, this sponge exhibited desirable absorption capability of oils/organic solvents (weight gains ranging from 2494% to 8670%), suggesting a promising sorbents for the removal of oily pollutants from water. Furthermore, thanks to the nonutilization of the complicated processes or sophisticated equipment, the fabrication of the superhydrophobic sponge seemed to be quite easy to scale up. All these merits make the sponge a competitive candidate when compared to the conventional absorbents, for example, nonwoven polypropylene fabric. PMID:25198145

Huang, Shouying

2014-10-01

204

Biologically inspired hairy structures for superhydrophobicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superhydrophobic surfaces have received tremendous attention in the last decade, owing to the number of emerging applications in conservation of environment. These surface properties are based on physio-chemical principles and can be transferred into technical “biomimetic” materials, as successfully done for the Lotus leaves. This article provides a review of the most recent development in superhydrophobic surfaces. Examples of superhydrophobic

Shu-Hau Hsu; Karran Woan; Wolfgang Sigmund

2011-01-01

205

Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Liquid Laminar Flow over Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Post Geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frictional resistance reduction of liquid flow over surfaces has recently become a more important topic of research in the field of fluid dynamics. Scientific and technological progress and continued interest in nano and micro-technology have required new developments and approaches related to reducing frictional resistance, especially in liquid flow through nano and micro-channels. The application of superhydrophobic surfaces could be very effective in achieving the desired flow through such small channels. Superhydrophobic surfaces are created by intentionally creating roughnesses on the surface and applying a uniform hydrophobic coating to the entire surface. Liquid droplet tests have revealed that because of the trapped air within the cavities such surfaces could have contact angles as high as 179º. Such a property gives superhydrophobic surfaces liquid repelling characteristics making them very suitable for frictional resistance reduction in liquid flow through nano or micro-channels, provided wetting of the cavities could be avoided. This study presents 3-D numerical simulation results of liquid laminar flow over post patterned superhydrophobic surfaces. The research was performed in three phases, 1) pressure-driven flow with square micro-posts, 2) Couette flow with square micro-posts, and 3) pressure-driven flow with rectangular micro-posts at various aspect ratios. In phases (1) and (2) the influences of important parameters such as the cavity fraction, in the range of 0.0-0.9998, and the relative module width, from 0.01 to 1.5, on frictional resistance reduction in the creeping flow regime were explored. Phase (1) also addressed the effect of varying Reynolds number from 1 to 2500 on frictional resistance. Phase (3) was conducted for aspect ratios of 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 2, 4, and 8 also in the creeping flow regime. The obtained results suggest that important parameters such as cavity fraction (relative area of the cavities), relative module width (combined post and cavity width relative to the channel hydraulic diameter), and the Reynolds number have great influence on the frictional resistance reduction. For pressure-driven flow at cavity fraction 0.9998, reductions as high as 97% in the frictional resistance were predicted compared with the classical channel flow. This reduction is directly related to the significant reduction in liquid-solid contact area. With respect to the effect of relative module width on the overall frictional resistance, a reduction of 93% in the frictional resistance was observed as the relative module width was increased from 0.1 to 1.5. This is indicative of the importance of the relative spacing size of the posts/cavities compared to the channel size in micro-channel liquid flow. The overall frictional resistance for post-patterned superhydrophobic surfaces was found to be independent of the Reynolds number up to a value of nominally 40 after which the non-dimensional frictional resistance increased at high values of the Reynolds number. However, at very high cavity fractions the frictional resistance was independent of Reynolds number only up to about 4. When the driving mechanism was a Couette flow, similar to the pressure-driven flow, as the cavity fraction and the relative module width increased the frictional resistance on the superhydrophobic surface decreased. At a cavity fraction of 0.9998 the reduction in the non-dimensional frictional resistance was approximately 96%, which was only 1% different from the similar pressure-driven scenario. However, a more significant difference was observed between the slip velocities for the two flow types, and it was determined that the pressure-driven flow resulted in greater apparent slip velocities than Couette flow. A maximum difference in normalized slip between the two scenarios of approximately 20% was obtained at relative module width 0.1 and Reynolds number 1. Results for superhydrophobic surfaces with rectangular micro-posts approached those reported in the literature for micro-ribs as the aspect ratio of the posts increased. When th

Amin, Abolfazl

206

Dynamic Air Layer on Textured Superhydrophobic Surfaces Ivan U. Vakarelski,*,  

E-print Network

to the nucleate boiling regime, depending upon the surface roughness and hydrophobicity.9,13-15 Our earlier, cooling occurs entirely in the Leidenfrost regime without transition to nucleate boiling.9 When the hot from the liquid9-12 in the film boiling regime but, as the sphere cools, may subsequently transition

Chan, Derek Y C

207

Multifunctional porous silicon nanopillar arrays: antireflection, superhydrophobicity, photoluminescence, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated porous silicon nanopillar arrays over large areas with a rapid, simple, and low-cost technique. The porous silicon nanopillars show unique longitudinal features along their entire length and have porosity with dimensions on the single-nanometer scale. Both Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence data were used to determine the nanocrystallite size to be <3 nm. The porous silicon nanopillar arrays also maintained excellent ensemble properties, reducing reflection nearly fivefold from planar silicon in the visible range without any optimization, and approaching superhydrophobic behavior with increasing aspect ratio, demonstrating contact angles up to 138°. Finally, the porous silicon nanopillar arrays were made into sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates by depositing metal onto the pillars. The SERS performance of the substrates was demonstrated using a chemical dye Rhodamine 6G. With their multitude of properties (i.e., antireflection, superhydrophobicity, photoluminescence, and sensitive SERS), the porous silicon nanopillar arrays described here can be valuable in applications such as solar harvesting, electrochemical cells, self-cleaning devices, and dynamic biological monitoring.

Kiraly, Brian; Yang, Shikuan; Huang, Tony Jun

2013-06-01

208

The effectiveness of silane and siloxane treatments on the superhydrophobicity and icephobicity of concrete surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Icy roads lead to treacherous driving conditions in regions of the U.S., leading to over 450 fatalities per year. De-icing chemicals, such as road salt, leave much to be desired. In this report, commercially available silane, siloxane, and related materials were evaluated as solutions, simple emulsions, and complex emulsions with incorporated particulates, for their effectiveness as superhydrophobic treatments. Through the development and use of a basic impact test, the ease of ice removal (icephobicity) was examined as an application of the targeted superhydrophobicity. A general correlation was found between icephobicity and hydrophobicity, with the amount of ice removed on impact increasing with increasing contact angle. However, the correlation was poor in the high performance region (high contact angle and high ice removal.) Polymethylhydrogensiloxane was a top performer and was more effective when used as a "shell" type emulsion with silica fume particulates. An aqueous sodium methyl siliconate solution showed good performance for ice loss and contact angle, as did a commercial proprietary emulsion using a diethoxyoctylsilyl trimethylsilyl ester of silicic acid. These materials have sterically available functional groups that can react or associate with the concrete surface and are potentially film-forming. Materials with less reactive functional groups and a lower propensity to film-form did not perform as well.

Rao, Sunil M.

209

Fabrication of pillar-array superhydrophobic silicon surface and thermodynamic analysis on the wetting state transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Textured silicon (Si) substrates decorated with regular microscale square pillar arrays of nearly the same side length, height, but different intervals are fabricated by inductively coupled plasma, and then silanized by self-assembly octadecyl-trichlorosilane (OTS) film. The systematic water contact angle (CA) measurements and micro/nanoscale hierarchical rough structure models are used to analyze the wetting behaviors of original and silanized textured Si substrates each as a function of pillar interval-to-width ratio. On the original textured Si substrate with hydrophilic pillars, the water droplet possesses a larger apparent CAs (> 90°) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH), induced by the hierarchical roughness of microscale pillar arrays and nanoscale pit-like roughness. However, the silanized textured substrate shows superhydrophobicity induced by the low free energy OTS overcoat and the hierarchical roughness of microscale pillar arrays, and nanoscale island-like roughness. The largest apparent CA on the superhydrophobic surface is 169.8°. In addition, the wetting transition of a gently deposited water droplet is observed on the original textured substrate with pillar interval-to-width ratio increasing. Furthermore, the wetting state transition is analyzed by thermodynamic approach with the consideration of the CAH effect. The results indicate that the wetting state changed from a Cassie state to a pseudo-Wenzel during the transition.

Liu, Si-Si; Zhang, Chao-Hui; Zhang, Han-Bing; Zhou, Jie; He, Jian-Guo; Yin, Heng-Yang

2013-10-01

210

Superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces: Wetting and wear properties of different CVD-generated coating types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of generating superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces, this work presents further results for the combination of anodic oxidation as the primary pretreatment method and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) variants for chemical modification producing coatings of 250-1000 nm thickness. In detail, CVD involved the utilisation of i - hexafluoropropylene oxide as precursor within the hot filament CVD process for the deposition of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) coatings at alternative conditions (PTFE-AC) and ii - 1,3,5-trivinyltrimethylcyclotrisiloxane for the deposition of polysiloxane coatings (PSi) by initiated CVD. The substrate material was Al Mg1 subjected to usual or intensified sulphuric acid anodisation pretreatments (SAAu, SAAi, respectively) affording various degrees of surface micro-roughness (SAAu < SAAi) to the oxidic layers. Performance characteristics were evaluated in the original as-coated states and after standardised artificial weathering and/or mild wear testing. Superhydrophobicity (SH) was observed with the system SAAi + PTFE-AC similarly to former findings with the standard hot filament CVD PTFE coating variant (SAAi + PTFE-SC). The results indicated that the specific coating morphology made an important contribution to the water-repellency, because even some of the SAAu-based samples tended to reveal SH. Subjecting samples to weathering treatment resulted in a general worsening of the wetting behaviour, primarily limited to the receding contact angles. These tendencies were correlated with the chemical composition of the sample surfaces as analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The wear tests showed, as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurement, that the PTFE coatings were relatively sensitive to friction. This was connected with a dramatic deterioration of the water-repelling properties. PSi-coated surfaces generally showed rather poor water-repellency, but this coating type was surprisingly resistant towards the applied friction test. From these findings it may be concluded that the combination of hydrophobic fluorine containing structure elements and cross-linking of the polymeric chains would likely afford highly durable SH.

Thieme, M.; Streller, F.; Simon, F.; Frenzel, R.; White, A. J.

2013-10-01

211

Water desorption from nanostructured graphite surfaces.  

PubMed

Water interaction with nanostructured graphite surfaces is strongly dependent on the surface morphology. In this work, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) in combination with quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) has been used to study water ice desorption from a nanostructured graphite surface. This model surface was fabricated by hole-mask colloidal lithography (HCL) along with oxygen plasma etching and consists of a rough carbon surface covered by well defined structures of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The results are compared with those from pristine HOPG and a rough (oxygen plasma etched) carbon surface without graphite nanostructures. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The TPD experiments were conducted for H2O coverages obtained after exposures between 0.2 and 55 langmuir (L) and reveal a complex desorption behaviour. The spectra from the nanostructured surface show additional, coverage dependent desorption peaks. They are assigned to water bound in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) hydrogen-bonded networks, defect-bound water, and to water intercalated into the graphite structures. The intercalation is more pronounced for the nanostructured graphite surface in comparison to HOPG surfaces because of a higher concentration of intersheet openings. From the TPD spectra, the desorption energies for water bound in 2D and 3D (multilayer) networks were determined to be 0.32 ± 0.06 and 0.41 ± 0.03 eV per molecule, respectively. An upper limit for the desorption energy for defect-bound water was estimated to be 1 eV per molecule. PMID:24018989

Clemens, Anna; Hellberg, Lars; Grönbeck, Henrik; Chakarov, Dinko

2013-12-21

212

Temperature-induced coalescence of colliding binary droplets on superhydrophobic surface.  

PubMed

This report investigates the impact of droplet temperature on the head-on collision of binary droplets on a superhydrophobic surface. Understanding droplet collision is critical to many fundamental processes and industrial applications. There are many factors, including collision speed, collision angle, and droplet composition, that influence the outcome of the collision between binary droplets. This work provides the first experimental study of the influence of droplet temperature on the collision of binary droplets. As the droplet temperature increases, the possibility increases for the two droplets to coalesce after collision. The findings in this study can be extended to collision of droplets under other conditions where control of the droplet temperature is feasible. Such findings will also be beneficial to applications that involve droplet collision, such as in ink-jet printing, steam turbines, engine ignition, and spraying cooling. PMID:24603362

Yi, Nan; Huang, Bin; Dong, Lining; Quan, Xiaojun; Hong, Fangjun; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

2014-01-01

213

Temperature-Induced Coalescence of Colliding Binary Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report investigates the impact of droplet temperature on the head-on collision of binary droplets on a superhydrophobic surface. Understanding droplet collision is critical to many fundamental processes and industrial applications. There are many factors, including collision speed, collision angle, and droplet composition, that influence the outcome of the collision between binary droplets. This work provides the first experimental study of the influence of droplet temperature on the collision of binary droplets. As the droplet temperature increases, the possibility increases for the two droplets to coalesce after collision. The findings in this study can be extended to collision of droplets under other conditions where control of the droplet temperature is feasible. Such findings will also be beneficial to applications that involve droplet collision, such as in ink-jet printing, steam turbines, engine ignition, and spraying cooling.

Yi, Nan; Huang, Bin; Dong, Lining; Quan, Xiaojun; Hong, Fangjun; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

2014-03-01

214

Tailoring the morphology of raspberry-like carbon black/polystyrene composite microspheres for fabricating superhydrophobic surface  

SciTech Connect

In our previous report, raspberry-like carbon black/polystyrene (CB/PS) composite microsphere was prepared through heterocoagulation process. Based on the previous study, in the present work, the morphology of raspberry-like CB/PS particle is tailored through adjusting the polarity and the concentration ratio of CB/PS colloidal suspension with the purpose to prepare particulate film for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirms the morphology of raspberry-like particle and the coverage of CB. Rough surfaces fabricated by raspberry-like particles with proper morphology are observed by SEM and clear evidence of superhydrophobic surface is shown. The structure of raspberry-like particle is analyzed by atom force microscope. The proposed relationship between the hydrophobicity and the structure of CB aggregates on the surface of PS microsphere is discussed in details.

Bao, Yubin [Polymer Alloy Lab., School of Material Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)] [Polymer Alloy Lab., School of Material Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Li, Qiuying, E-mail: liqy@ecust.edu.cn [Polymer Alloy Lab., School of Material Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China) [Polymer Alloy Lab., School of Material Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory Polymeric Materials (China); Key Laboratory of Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education (China); Xue, Pengfei; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Jibin; Guo, Weihong; Wu, Chifei [Polymer Alloy Lab., School of Material Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)] [Polymer Alloy Lab., School of Material Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

2011-05-15

215

Volume of fluid simulations for droplet impact on dry and wetted hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aircraft may experience in-flight ice accretion and corresponding reductions in performance and control when the vehicle encounters clouds of super-cooled water droplets. The EADS-IW Surface Engineering Group is investigating passive anti-icing possibilities, such as functional and ice phobic coatings. Ice-resistant coatings require investigating droplet impact on dry surfaces and wet films, including microscopic effects such as droplet splashing. To investigate droplet impacts, a volume of fluid (VOF) flow solver was used for droplets impacting dry and wetted hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces, focusing on meso-scale simulations. The effects of structured, micro-scale surface roughness and the effects of a thin wet film on the surface, corresponding to a saturated surface under high humidity conditions, were investigated. Axisymmetric domains produced acceptable results for smooth, dry surfaces. It was determined that in order to properly predict behavior of droplets impacting surfaces with structured micro-scale roughness, three-dimensional simulations are recommended.

Burtnett, Emily Nicole

216

Nanomechanical and nanotribological properties of plasma nanotextured superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic polymeric surfaces.  

PubMed

Oxygen plasma-induced surface modification of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), under plasma conditions favouring (maximizing) roughness formation, has been shown to create textured surfaces of roughness size and morphology dependent on the plasma-treatment time and subsequent morphology stabilization procedure. Superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic surfaces can thus be obtained, with potential applications in antireflective self-cleaning surfaces, microfluidics, wetting-dewetting control, anti-icing etc, necessitating determination of their mechanical properties. In this study, nanoindentation is used to determine the reduced modulus and hardness of the surface, while nanoscratch tests are performed to measure the coefficient of friction. The data are combined to assess the wear behaviour of such surfaces as a first guide for their practical applications. Short-time plasma treatment slightly changes mechanical, tribological and wear properties compared to untreated PMMA. However, a significant decrease in the reduced modulus and hardness and an increase in the coefficient of friction are observed after long plasma-treatment times. The C(4)F(8) plasma deposited thin hydrophobic layer on the polymeric surfaces (untreated and treated) reveals good adhesion, while its mechanical properties are greatly influenced by the substrate; it is also found that it effectively protects the polymeric surfaces, reducing plastic deformation. PMID:23196721

Skarmoutsou, A; Charitidis, C A; Gnanappa, A K; Tserepi, A; Gogolides, E

2012-12-21

217

Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces  

PubMed Central

Summary Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect) are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a highly sensitive custom made strain gauge force transducer setup. The volume of air held by a surface was quantified by comparing the buoyancy force of the specimen with and then without an air layer. Air volumes retained by the Salvinia-surfaces ranged between 0.15 and 1 L/m2 depending on differences in surface architecture. We verified the precision of the method by comparing the measured air volumes with theoretical volume calculations and could find a good agreement between both values. In this context we present techniques to calculate air volumes on surfaces with complex microstructures. The introduced method also allows to measure decrease or increase of air layers with high accuracy in real-time to understand dynamic processes. PMID:24991518

Reker, Meike; Barthlott, Wilhelm

2014-01-01

218

Nanostructured surfaces described by atomistic simulation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three separate simulation techniques have been applied to study different problems involving nanostructured surfaces. In the first investigation the bonding of fullerene molecules on silicon and Ag adatoms and dimers on graphite are investigated using the PLATO density functional code. It is shown that in the first case there are strong covalent bonds formed whereas in the latter there are

Roger Smith; S D Kenny; C F Sanz-Navarro; Joseph J Belbruno

2003-01-01

219

Various curing conditions for controlling PTFE micro\\/nano-fiber texture of a bionic superhydrophobic coating surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and conventional coating-curing process to fabricate superhydrophobic coating surface with both the micro-nano-scale binary structure (MNBS) roughness, and the lowest surface energy hydrophobic groups (?CF3) on engineering materials of stainless steel or other metals was developed by control of curing conditions. Results show that higher temperature and longer cooling time resulted in longer crystallizing process, and the forming

Zhuangzhu Luo; Zhaozhu Zhang; Wenjing Wang; Weimin Liu; Qunji Xue

2010-01-01

220

Hierarchically structured re-entrant microstructures for superhydrophobic surfaces with extremely low hysteresis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a new type of hierarchically structured surface consisting of re-entrant silicon micropillars with silicon nanowires atop for superhydrophobic surface with extremely low hysteresis. Re-entrant microstructures were fabricated on a silicon substrate through a customized one-mask microfabrication process while silicon nanopillars were created on the entire surface of microstructures, including sidewalls, by a metal-assisted-chemical etching process. The strategy of constructing hierarchical surfaces aims to reduce the actual contact area between liquid and top part of solid surface, thereby increasing the contact angle and reducing the sliding angle. The strategy of using re-entrant profile of the microstructure aims to prevent a liquid droplet from falling into cavities of roughened structures and decrease the actual contact area between the liquid droplet and sidewalls of solid structures, therefore reducing adhesion forces acting on the liquid droplet. Our measurement shows that the surface incorporating both hierarchical and re-entrant strategies exhibits a sliding angle as low as 0.5°, much lower than sliding angles of surfaces only incorporating either one of the strategies.

Hu, Huan; Swaminathan, Vikhram V.; Zamani Farahani, Mahmoud Reza; Mensing, Glennys; Yeom, Junghoon; Shannon, Mark A.; Zhu, Likun

2014-09-01

221

Highly efficient and large-scale fabrication of superhydrophobic alumina surface with strong stability based on self-congregated alumina nanowires.  

PubMed

In this study, a large-area superhydrophobic alumina surface with a series of superior properties was fabricated via an economical, simple, and highly effective one-step anodization process, and subsequently modified with low-surface-energy film. The effects of the anodization parameters including electrochemical anodization time, current density, and electrolyte temperature on surface morphology and surface wettability were investigated in detail. The hierarchical alumina pyramids-on-pores (HAPOP) rough structure which was produced quickly through the one-step anodization process together with a low-surface-energy film deposition [1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PDES) and stearic acid (STA)] confer excellent superhydrophobicity and an extremely low sliding angle. Both the PDES-modified superhydrophobic (PDES-MS) and the STA-modified superhydrophobic (STA-MS) surfaces present fascinating nonwetting and extremely slippery behaviors. The chemical stability and mechanical durability of the PDES-MS and STA-MS surfaces were evaluated and discussed. Compared with the STA-MS surface, the as-prepared PDES-MS surface possesses an amazing chemical stability which not only can repel cool liquids (water, HCl/NaOH solutions, around 25 °C), but also can show excellent resistance to a series of hot liquids (water, HCl/NaOH solutions, 30-100 °C) and hot beverages (coffee, milk, tea, 80 °C). Moreover, the PDES-MS surface also presents excellent stability toward immersion in various organic solvents, high temperature, and long time period. In particular, the PDES-MS surface achieves good mechanical durability which can withstand ultrasonication treatment, finger-touch, multiple fold, peeling by adhesive tape, and even abrasion test treatments without losing superhydrophobicity. The corrosion resistance and durability of the diverse-modified superhydrophobic surfaces were also examined. These fascinating performances makes the present method suitable for large-scale industrial fabrication of chemically stable and mechanically robust superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:24593862

Peng, Shan; Tian, Dong; Yang, Xiaojun; Deng, Wenli

2014-04-01

222

Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces based on ZnO-PDMS nanocomposite coatings and study of its wetting behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobic surfaces based on ZnO-PDMS nanocomposite coatings are demonstrated by a simple, facile, time-saving, wet chemical route. ZnO nanopowders with average particle size of 14 nm were synthesized by a low temperature solution combustion method. Powder X-ray diffraction results confirm that the nanopowders exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure and belong to space group P63 mc. Field emission scanning electron micrographs reveal that the nanoparticles are connected to each other to make large network systems consisting of hierarchical structure. The as formed ZnO coating exhibits wetting behaviour with Water Contact Angle (WCA) of ˜108°, however on modification with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), it transforms to superhydrophobic surface with measured contact and sliding angles for water at 155° and less than 5° respectively. The surface properties such as surface free energy ( ?p), interfacial free energy ( ?pw), and the adhesive work ( Wpw) were evaluated. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies on superhydrophobic coatings revealed that the surface defects play a major role on the wetting behaviour. Advantages of the present method include the cheap and fluorine-free raw materials, environmentally benign solvents, and feasibility for applying on large area of different substrates.

Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Kumar, V. Dinesh; Rao, J. L.; Basu, Bharathibai J.

2011-08-01

223

A durable, superhydrophobic, superoleophobic and corrosion-resistant coating with rose-like ZnO nanoflowers on a bamboo surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bamboo remains a vital component of modern-day society; however, its use is severely limited in certain applications because of its hydrophilic and oleophilic properties. In this work, we present a method to render bamboo surfaces superamphiphobic by combining control of ZnO nanostructures and fluoropolymer deposition while maintaining their corrosion resistance. Large-scale rose-like ZnO nanoflowers (RZN) were planted on the bamboo surface by a hydrothermal method. After fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) film deposition to lower the surface energy, the resulting surface showed superamphiphobicity toward water, oil, and even certain corrosive liquids, including salt solutions and acidic and basic solutions at all pH values. The as-prepared superamphiphobic bamboo surface was durable and maintained its superhydrophobic property with water contact angles >150° when stored under ambient condition for two months or immersed in a hydrochloric acid solution of pH 1 and a sodium hydroxide solution of pH 14 for 3 h at 50 °C.

Jin, Chunde; Li, Jingpeng; Han, Shenjie; Wang, Jin; Sun, Qingfeng

2014-11-01

224

A large-scale superhydrophobic surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform fabricated via capillary force lithography and assembly of Ag nanocubes for ultratrace molecular sensing.  

PubMed

An analytical platform with an ultratrace detection limit in the atto-molar (aM) concentration range is vital for forensic, industrial and environmental sectors that handle scarce/highly toxic samples. Superhydrophobic surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platforms serve as ideal platforms to enhance detection sensitivity by reducing the random spreading of aqueous solution. However, the fabrication of superhydrophobic SERS platforms is generally limited due to the use of sophisticated and expensive protocols and/or suffers structural and signal inconsistency. Herein, we demonstrate a high-throughput fabrication of a stable and uniform superhydrophobic SERS platform for ultratrace molecular sensing. Large-area box-like micropatterns of the polymeric surface are first fabricated using capillary force lithography (CFL). Subsequently, plasmonic properties are incorporated into the patterned surfaces by decorating with Ag nanocubes using the Langmuir-Schaefer technique. To create a stable superhydrophobic SERS platform, an additional 25 nm Ag film is coated over the Ag nanocube-decorated patterned template followed by chemical functionalization with perfluorodecanethiol. Our resulting superhydrophobic SERS platform demonstrates excellent water-repellency with a static contact angle of 165° ± 9° and a consequent analyte concentration factor of 59-fold, as compared to its hydrophilic counterpart. By combining the analyte concentration effect of superhydrophobic surfaces with the intense electromagnetic "hot spots" of Ag nanocubes, our superhydrophobic SERS platform achieves an ultra-low detection limit of 10(-17) M (10 aM) for rhodamine 6G using just 4 ?L of analyte solutions, corresponding to an analytical SERS enhancement factor of 10(13). Our fabrication protocol demonstrates a simple, cost- and time-effective approach for the large-scale fabrication of a superhydrophobic SERS platform for ultratrace molecular detection. PMID:25380327

Rui Tan, Joel Ming; Ruan, Justina Jiexin; Lee, Hiang Kwee; Phang, In Yee; Ling, Xing Yi

2014-11-19

225

Superhydrophobic and oleophobic surface from fluoropolymer-SiO2 hybrid nanocomposites.  

PubMed

The fluoropolymer-SiO2 hybrid nanocomposite consisting of core-corona fluoropolymer-grafted SiO2 nanoparticle (NP) and poly(dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate) (PDFHM) was obtained by radical solution polymerization of the vinyl trimethoxy silane (VTMS)-treated SiO2 NP with DFHM in this work. In H2O/tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution, PDFHM self-assembles into dendritic micelle and the increase in H2O volume is favorable for fluoropolymer-grafted SiO2 NPs to create dense fluoropolymer corona layer. It also shows that the addition of H2O to the THF suspension of fluoropolymer-SiO2 nanocomposite could cause a transfer for surface morphology of cast film from smooth film-covered aggregation to bare-exposed flaky aggregation and microsphere aggregation, which results in an increase in surface RMS roughness of cast film and induces a superhydrophobicity. Oleophobicity of cast film can be improved by thermal annealing, because strong surface self-segregation of PDFHM chains during thermal annealing process arouses a marked increase in surface fluorine content. PMID:25218050

Wang, Li; Liang, Junyan; He, Ling

2014-12-01

226

Multipurpose ultra and superhydrophobic surfaces based on oligodimethylsiloxane-modified nanosilica.  

PubMed

Nonfluorinated hydrophobic surfaces are of interest for reduced cost, toxicity, and environmental problems. Searching for such surfaces together with versatile processing, A200 silica nanoparticles are modified with an oligodimethylsiloxane and used by themselves or with a polymer matrix. The goal of the surface modification is controlled aggregate size and stable suspensions. Characterization is done by NMR, microanalysis, nitrogen adsorption, and dynamic light scattering. The feasibility of the concept is then demonstrated. The silica aggregates are sprayed in a scalable process to form ultrahydrophobic and imperceptible coatings with surface topographies of controlled nanoscale roughness onto different supports, including nanofibrillated cellulose. To improve adhesion and wear properties, the organosilica was mixed with polymers. The resulting composite coatings are characterized by FE-SEM, AFM, and contact angle measurements. Depending on the nature of the polymer, different functionalities can be developed. Poly(methyl methacrylate) leads to almost superhydrophobic and highly transparent coatings. Composites based on commercial acrylic car paint show "pearl-bouncing" droplet behavior. A light-emitting polyfluorene is synthesized to prepare luminescent and water repellent coatings on different supports. The interactions between polymers and the organosilica influence coating roughness and are critical for wetting behavior. In summary, the feasibility of a facile, rapid, and fluorine-free hydrophobization concept was successfully demonstrated in multipurpose antiwetting applications. PMID:25275966

de Francisco, Raquel; Tiemblo, Pilar; Hoyos, Mario; González-Arellano, Camino; García, Nuria; Berglund, Lars; Synytska, Alla

2014-11-12

227

Surface plasmon resonance of dumbbell nanostructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an intuitive theoretical description of the optical properties of a complex metal nanostructure, consisting of two nanoshells connected by a nanorod giving a dumbbell-like appearance. The simulations were done using the finite element method. The effects of the length and radius of the nanorods and of the dimensions of the nanoshells on the plasmon properties of the system were analyzed. The peak position and intensities in the absorption spectra were found to have a strong dependence on the geometrical parameters of the dumbbell. This study provides evidence that the localized surface plasmon modes play a key role in the broadband light harvesting capabilities of these nanostructures, and this is promising for a wide range of practical applications, for example in surface-enhanced spectroscopies.

Ajith, R.; Mathew, Vincent; Arun, P.

2014-08-01

228

Needle-free drop deposition technique for contact angle measurements of superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of wetting characteristics of low-energy (e.g., superhydrophobic) liquid-repellent surfaces is of great importance towards optimal design of such micro/nano-engineered surfaces. The most common technique to accomplish this involves bringing a drop generated at the needle-tip close to the characterizing substrate with a goal to deposit it on the substrate, which often becomes a challenge when the surface energy of the drop-substrate combination is comparable to the needle-drop system. In this paper, we proposed a new "needle-free" drop deposition technique, which overcomes this challenge for characterization the low-energy substrates. This is achieved by placing an additional low-energy substrate above the characterizing substrate and allowing the drop-needle combination to impact on this additional substrate. This technique is not only independent of the wetting properties of the needle and the characterizing substrate but is also independent of the liquid drop properties, thereby making it a very universal technique for characterizing substrate in air medium.

Waghmare, Prashant R.; Mitra, Sushanta K.

2014-09-01

229

Surface modified nano-patterned SU-8 pillar array optically transparent super-hydrophobic thin film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the fabrication and characterization of a porous nano-patterned SU-8 high aspect ratio pillar array as a transparent super-hydrophobic thin film. A 250 µm thick SU-8 layer was backside exposed through a glass substrate to form an array of high aspect ratio tapered pillars with angles in the range of 3°-5°. The SU-8 pillar array was plasma treated to form nano-porous surfaces, and then subsequently coated with fluorocarbon (FC) or Parylene-C film. Static contact angles and optical transmittance of various surface conditions such as with and without plasma treatment, Parylene-C versus FC, were tested and results were compared. Among various surface treated SU-8 pillar arrays, the plasma-treated nano-porous FC-coated SU-8 pillar array showed the highest static contact angle of 161°. It was found that the optical transmittance at around 530 nm for the nano-porous FC-coated SU-8 pillar array was approximately 65%, while the bare SU-8 film was approximately 95%. These nano-patterned transparent polymer films could be used in various water-repellent applications.

Yoon, Youngsam; Lee, Dong-Weon; Lee, Jeong-Bong

2012-03-01

230

Suppressing surface reconstruction of superhydrophobic PDMS using a superhydrophilic zwitterionic polymer.  

PubMed

Poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) is extensively used for biomedical applications due to its low cost, ease of fabrication, high durability and flexibility, oxygen permeability, and self-healing properties. PDMS, however, has some significant drawbacks. PDMS endures unacceptably high levels of nonspecific protein fouling when used with biological samples due to its superhydrophobic characteristics. Unfortunately, conventional surface modification methods do not work for PDMS due to its low glass transition temperature. This phenomenon has been well-known for years as "hydrophobic regeneration". For the same reason, it is also very difficult to bring functionalities onto PDMS surfaces. Herein, we demonstrate how a superhydrophilic zwitterionic material, poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (pCBMA), can provide a highly stable coating with long-term stabilty due to the sharp contrast in hydrophobicity between pCBMA and PDMS. This material is able to suppress nonspecific protein adsorption in complex media and functionalize desired biomolecules needed in applications, such as diagnostics, without sacrificing its nonfouling characteristics. PMID:22512660

Keefe, Andrew J; Brault, Norman D; Jiang, Shaoyi

2012-05-14

231

Manipulating surface states in topological insulator nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological insulators show unique properties resulting from massless, Dirac-like surface states that are protected by time-reversal symmetry. Theory predicts that the surface states exhibit quantum spin Hall effect that allows for spins to transport without scattering. However, to date, the direct manipulation of these states with external means remains a significant challenge owing to the predominance of bulk carriers. Here we show the first experimental evidence of surface-state modulation through the observation of voltage-controlled quantum oscillations in Bi2Te3 nanostructures. The surface conduction can be dramatically enhanced with external gate bias. Up to 51 percent of the total conductance is attributed to the surface states. The ability to manipulate the surface states mark an important milestone in the development of TI materials and may further open up exciting and novel applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics.

Xiu, Faxian; He, Liang; Wang, Kang L.

2011-03-01

232

Fabrication of a lotus-like micro-nanoscale binary structured surface and wettability modulation from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic.  

PubMed

We report a simple method for fabricating a lotus-like micro-nanoscale binary structured surface of copper phosphate dihydrate. The copper phosphate dihydrate nanosheets were generated by galvanic cell corrosion of a copper foil with aqueous phosphorus acid solution drops and dried in an oxygen gas atmosphere, and they self-organized into a film with a lotus-like micro-nanoscale binary structured surface. The wettability of this surface can be changed from superhydrophilic to highly hydrophobic or superhydrophobic by heating or modifying it with an n-dodecanethiol monolayer. PMID:20817971

Wu, Xufeng; Shi, Gaoquan

2005-10-01

233

Turbulent plane Poiseuille-Couette flow as a model for fluid slip over superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

In this study, plane Poiseuille-Couette flow is simulated as a model for specified streamwise slip on one of the channel walls. The relative velocity between the two walls is set to be 1, 2, and 4 in viscous wall units. This is equivalent to the presence of a superhydrophobic surface at one of the channel walls that causes fluid to slip on the boundary. The results show that the streamwise slip forces turbulence in the near-wall region to tend towards a limiting one-component state. This leads to the suppression of small scale turbulence and laminarization close to the wall and then to drag reduction. The selective weakening of the streamwise vorticity close the wall and the observed decrease of turbulence kinetic energy production can then be considered as a consequence of this effect. Changes in the coherent structures, including a decrease of sweep events and increase of ejection events close to the wall where slip occurs, are also observed. PMID:24483565

Nguyen, Quoc T; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V

2013-12-01

234

Turbulent plane Poiseuille-Couette flow as a model for fluid slip over superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, plane Poiseuille-Couette flow is simulated as a model for specified streamwise slip on one of the channel walls. The relative velocity between the two walls is set to be 1, 2, and 4 in viscous wall units. This is equivalent to the presence of a superhydrophobic surface at one of the channel walls that causes fluid to slip on the boundary. The results show that the streamwise slip forces turbulence in the near-wall region to tend towards a limiting one-component state. This leads to the suppression of small scale turbulence and laminarization close to the wall and then to drag reduction. The selective weakening of the streamwise vorticity close the wall and the observed decrease of turbulence kinetic energy production can then be considered as a consequence of this effect. Changes in the coherent structures, including a decrease of sweep events and increase of ejection events close to the wall where slip occurs, are also observed.

Nguyen, Quoc T.; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.

2013-12-01

235

Collection efficiencies of an electrostatic sampler with superhydrophobic surface for fungal bioaerosols  

PubMed Central

We recently developed an electrostatic precipitator with superhydrophobic surface (EPSS), which collects particles into a 10- to 40-?l water droplet allowing achievement of very high concentration rates (defined as the ratio of particle concentration in the collection liquid vs. the airborne particle concentration per time unit) when sampling airborne bacteria. Here, we analyzed the performance of this sampler when collecting three commonly found fungal spores – Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium melinii, and Aspergillus versicolor – under different operating conditions. We also adapted adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-based bioluminescence for the analysis of collection efficiency and the concentration rates. The collection efficiency ranged from 10 to 36% at a sampling flow rate of 10 l/min when the airborne fungal spore concentration was approximately 105–106 spores/m3 resulting in concentration rates in the range of 1 × 105–3 × 105/min for a 10-?l droplet. The collection efficiency was inversely proportional to the airborne spore concentration and it increased to above 60% for common ambient spore concentrations, e.g., 104–105 spores/m3. The spore concentrations determined by the ATP-based method were not statistically different from those determined by microscopy and allowed us to analyze spore concentrations that were too low to be reliably detected by microscopy. PMID:21204982

Han, T.; Nazarenko, Y.; Lioy, P. J.; Mainelis, G.

2014-01-01

236

Superhydrophobicity - Magic Sand - Presentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf from the Midwest Regional Center for Nanotechnology Education (NANO-LINK) introduces the forces and interactions central to understanding nanotechnology. The presentation explores how surfaces respond to water by explaining hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and super-hydrophobic surfaces. Visitors must complete a quick and free registration to access materials.

2014-09-10

237

Why a Lotus-like Superhydrophobic Surface Is Self-Cleaning? An Explanation from Surface Force Measurements and Analysis.  

PubMed

The unique self-cleaning feature of the lotus-like superhydrophobic (SH) surface attracted worldwide interest in recent years. However, the mechanism of the self-cleaning phenomena remains unclear. Here, we attempt to provide a comprehensive understanding of why self-cleaning of the particles with a broad range of size can be realized on the lotus-like SH surfaces. After measurements and analysis of the force involved at the interface, we conclude that there are four main preconditions for self-cleaning: (1) contact angle (CA) > 90°, (2) low enough sliding angle, (3) low enough adhesion force, and (4) proper particle size. However, as far as the lotus-like SH surface and typical dust are concerned, all the preconditions will be satisfied automatically. We also observe that the particles with a broad range of size (from submicron level to the millimeter level) and density (virtually no limit) can be driven by a water droplet on the lotus-like SH surface. This interesting finding may be helpful for the design of novel engineering system at the micron-millimeter scale in the future. PMID:25335800

Yu, Miao; Chen, Sheng; Zhang, Bo; Qiu, Dengli; Cui, Shuxun

2014-11-18

238

A bioinspired planar superhydrophobic microboat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nature, a frog can easily rest on a lotus leaf even though the frog's weight is several times the weight of the lotus leaf. Inspired by the lotus leaf, we fabricated a planar superhydrophobic microboat (SMB) with a superhydrophobic upper surface on a PDMS sheet which was irradiated by a focused femtosecond laser. The SMB can not only float effortlessly over the water surface but can also hold up some heavy objects, exhibiting an excellent loading capacity. The water surface is curved near the edge of the upper surface and the SMB's upper edge is below the water level, greatly enhancing the displacement. Experimental results and theoretical analysis demonstrate that the superhydrophobicity on the edge of the upper surface is responsible for the SMB's large loading capacity. Here, we call it the ‘superhydrophobic edge effect’.

Yong, Jiale; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Dongshi; Du, Guangqing; Si, Jinhai; Yun, Feng; Hou, Xun

2014-03-01

239

Turbulence and skin friction modification in channel flow with streamwise-aligned superhydrophobic surface texture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flow in a channel with superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) were performed, and the effects of the surface texture on the turbulence and skin-friction coefficient were examined. The SHS is modeled as a planar boundary comprised of spanwise-alternating regions of no-slip and free-slip boundary conditions. Relative to the reference no-slip channel flow at the same bulk Reynolds number, the overall mean skin-friction coefficient is reduced by 21.6%. A detailed analysis of the turbulence kinetic energy budget demonstrates a reduction in production over the no-slip phases, which is explained by aid of quadrant analysis of the Reynolds shear stresses and statistical analysis of the turbulence structures. The results demonstrate a significant reduction in the strength of streamwise vortical structures in the presence of the SHS texture and a decrease in the Reynolds shear-stress component ?R12? which has a favorable influence on drag over the no-slip phases. A secondary flow which is set up at the edges of the texture also effects a beneficial change in drag. Nonetheless, the skin-friction coefficient on the no-slip features is higher than the reference levels in a simple no-slip channel flow. The increase in the skin-friction coefficient is attributed to two factors. First, spanwise diffusion of the mean momentum from free-slip to no-slip regions increases the local skin-friction coefficient on the edges of the no-slip features. Second, the drag-reducing capacity of the SHS is further reduced due to additional Reynolds stresses, ?R13?.

Jelly, T. O.; Jung, S. Y.; Zaki, T. A.

2014-09-01

240

Multifunctional porous silicon nanopillar arrays: antireflection, superhydrophobicity, photoluminescence, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering  

E-print Network

Multifunctional porous silicon nanopillar arrays: antireflection, superhydrophobicity Nanotechnology 24 (2013) 245704 (10pp) doi:10.1088/0957-4484/24/24/245704 Multifunctional porous silicon fabricated porous silicon nanopillar arrays over large areas with a rapid, simple, and low-cost technique

241

Surface Localization of Buried III-V Semiconductor Nanostructures.  

PubMed

In this work, we study the top surface localization of InAs quantum dots once capped by a GaAs layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy. At the used growth conditions, the underneath nanostructures are revealed at the top surface as mounding features that match their density with independence of the cap layer thickness explored (from 25 to 100 nm). The correspondence between these mounds and the buried nanostructures is confirmed by posterior selective strain-driven formation of new nanostructures on top of them, when the distance between the buried and the superficial nanostructures is short enough (d = 25 nm). PMID:20596455

Alonso-González, P; González, L; Fuster, D; Martín-Sánchez, J; González, Yolanda

2009-01-01

242

Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79°) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5°) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150°) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 °C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 ?L) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min

2013-10-01

243

Droplet Impingement Cooling Experiments on Nano-structured Surfaces  

E-print Network

triple droplet stream with two different stream spacings (500 ?m and 2000 ?m), experiments have been performed to understand the droplet-surface interactions relevant to spray cooling systems. Experiments have been conducted on nano-structured surfaces...

Lin, Yen-Po

2011-10-21

244

Facile synthesis of superhydrophobic surface of ZnO nanoflakes: chemical coating and UV-induced wettability conversion  

PubMed Central

This work reports an oriented growth process of two-dimensional (2D) ZnO nanoflakes on aluminum substrate through a low temperature hydrothermal technique and proposes the preliminary growth mechanism. A bionic superhydrophobic surface with excellent corrosion protection over a wide pH range in both acidic and alkaline solutions was constructed by a chemical coating treatment with stearic acid (SA) molecules on ZnO nanoflakes. It is found that the superhydrophobic surface of ZnO nanoflake arrays shows a maximum water contact angle (CA) of 157° and a low sliding angle of 8°, and it can be reversibly switched to its initial superhydrophilic state under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, which is due to the UV-induced decomposition of the coated SA molecules. This study is significant for simple and inexpensive building of large-scale 2D ZnO nanoflake arrays with special wettability which can extend the applications of ZnO films to many other important fields. PMID:22500967

2012-01-01

245

Facile synthesis of superhydrophobic surface of ZnO nanoflakes: chemical coating and UV-induced wettability conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports an oriented growth process of two-dimensional (2D) ZnO nanoflakes on aluminum substrate through a low temperature hydrothermal technique and proposes the preliminary growth mechanism. A bionic superhydrophobic surface with excellent corrosion protection over a wide pH range in both acidic and alkaline solutions was constructed by a chemical coating treatment with stearic acid (SA) molecules on ZnO nanoflakes. It is found that the superhydrophobic surface of ZnO nanoflake arrays shows a maximum water contact angle (CA) of 157° and a low sliding angle of 8°, and it can be reversibly switched to its initial superhydrophilic state under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, which is due to the UV-induced decomposition of the coated SA molecules. This study is significant for simple and inexpensive building of large-scale 2D ZnO nanoflake arrays with special wettability which can extend the applications of ZnO films to many other important fields.

Yao, Lujun; Zheng, Maojun; Li, Changli; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

2012-04-01

246

Superhydrophobic surfaces allow probing of exosome self organization using X-ray scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drops of exosome dispersions from healthy epithelial colon cell line and colorectal cancer cells were dried on a superhydrophobic PMMA substrate. The residues were studied by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering using both a synchrotron radiation micrometric beam and a high-flux table-top X-ray source. Structural differences between healthy and cancerous cells were detected in the lamellar lattices of the exosome macro-aggregates.Drops of exosome dispersions from healthy epithelial colon cell line and colorectal cancer cells were dried on a superhydrophobic PMMA substrate. The residues were studied by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering using both a synchrotron radiation micrometric beam and a high-flux table-top X-ray source. Structural differences between healthy and cancerous cells were detected in the lamellar lattices of the exosome macro-aggregates. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34032e

Accardo, Angelo; Tirinato, Luca; Altamura, Davide; Sibillano, Teresa; Giannini, Cinzia; Riekel, Christian; di Fabrizio, Enzo

2013-02-01

247

Fluorinated hyperbranched polyurethane electrospun nanofibrous membrane: fluorine-enriching surface and superhydrophobic state with high adhesion to water.  

PubMed

The fluorination of hyperbranched polyurethane (HPU) was achieved by atom transfer radical grafting polymerization (ATRgP) of dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate that was initiated from 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide-modified end groups of HPU. The nanofibrous membrane of fluorinated HPU was prepared by electrospinning. The structure of fluorinated HPU was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (1H NMR). The surface of nanofibrous membrane was investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle (WCA) analysis, respectively. The results suggested that compared with the reported linear fluorine-containing polyurethane materials, rather high fluorine content up to 29.14% was achieved on the surface of fluorinated HPU nanofibrous membrane. Meanwhile, a superhydrophobic surface (WCA 159.7°) with high adhesion to water was successfully fabricated via a convenient electrospinning process. The prepared material is promising for the application in microfluidic devices. PMID:24594031

Zheng, Fei; Deng, Hongtao; Zhao, Xinjun; Li, Xia; Yang, Can; Yang, Yunyan; Zhang, Aidong

2014-05-01

248

Integrating anti-reflection and superhydrophobicity of moth-eye-like surface morphology on a large-area flexible substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) roll-to-roll (R2R) process with argon and oxygen (Ar-O2) plasma ashing and coating of a dilute perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) layer to fabricate the large-area moth-eye-like surface morphology on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. By using Maxwell-Garnett's effective medium theory, the optimal dimensions of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was designed and fabricated with UV-NIL R2R process to obtain maximum transmittance ratio. In addition, the base angle (? = 30.1°) of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was modified with Ar-O2 plasma ashing and coated with a dilute FDTS layer to possess both superhydrophobic and air-retention properties. This increases both the transmittance ratio of 4% and contact angle to 153°.

Liu, Chia-Hsing; Niu, Pei-Lun; Sung, Cheng-Kuo

2014-01-01

249

Morphological evolution of nanostructured surface using anodic aluminum template  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates are fabricated using an anodization method. The mean diameter of the nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide templates is 100 nm. A molded plastic thin film with nano-structure is fabricated using AAO template as a mold insert by nanoimprint. The surface properties of the molded plastic thin film obtained using various processing parameters in nanoimprint are discussed. The contact angle of the molded polycarbonate (PC) thin film with the nano-structure exceeds that without the nano-structure. The molded PC thin film (with nano-structure) with a hydrophobic surface is formed, and has a water contact angle of 128.5°. The use of anodic aluminum oxide to prepare a mold insert for nanoimprint supports the formation of a nano-structure in the molded PC thin film, and effectively increases its reflectance.

Chiu, Chui-Yu; Huang, Chiung-Fang; Lee, Jeou-Long; Lin, Yi; Shen, Yung-Kang

2012-04-01

250

Morphological evolution of nanostructured surface using anodic aluminum template  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates are fabricated using an anodization method. The mean diameter of the nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide templates is 100 nm. A molded plastic thin film with nano-structure is fabricated using AAO template as a mold insert by nanoimprint. The surface properties of the molded plastic thin film obtained using various processing parameters in nanoimprint are discussed. The contact angle of the molded polycarbonate (PC) thin film with the nano-structure exceeds that without the nano-structure. The molded PC thin film (with nano-structure) with a hydrophobic surface is formed, and has a water contact angle of 128.5°. The use of anodic aluminum oxide to prepare a mold insert for nanoimprint supports the formation of a nano-structure in the molded PC thin film, and effectively increases its reflectance.

Chiu, Chui-Yu; Huang, Chiung-Fang; Lee, Jeou-Long; Lin, Yi; Shen, Yung-Kang

2011-11-01

251

Superhydrophobic conductive carbon nanotube coatings for steel.  

PubMed

We report the synthesis of superhydrophobic coatings for steel using carbon nanotube (CNT)-mesh structures. The CNT coating maintains its structural integrity and superhydrophobicity even after exposure to extreme thermal stresses and has excellent thermal and electrical properties. The coating can also be reinforced by optimally impregnating the CNT-mesh structure with cross-linked polymers without significantly compromising on superhydrophobicity and electrical conductivity. These superhydrophobic conductive coatings on steel, which is an important structural material, open up possibilities for many new applications in the areas of heat transfer, solar panels, transport of fluids, nonwetting and nonfouling surfaces, temperature resilient coatings, composites, water-walking robots, and naval applications. PMID:19281157

Sethi, Sunny; Dhinojwala, Ali

2009-04-21

252

Fabrication of superhydrophobic film by microcellular plastic foaming method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To solve the complicated manufacturing operation and the usage of toxic solvent problems, a simple and novel method to fabricate superhydrophobic film by surface foaming method was introduced in this paper. The superhydrophobic property of the foamed material was obtained at a contact angle >150° and a rolling angle about 8°. The foamed material can instantly generate its superhydrophobicity via peeling process. The effects of blowing agent content, foaming time and peeling rate on the foam structure and superhydrophobicity were studied.

Zhang, Zhen Xiu; Li, Ya Nan; Xia, Lin; Ma, Zhen Guo; Xin, Zhen Xiang; Kim, Jin Kuk

2014-08-01

253

Design of superhydrophobic porous coordination polymers through the introduction of external surface corrugation by the use of an aromatic hydrocarbon building unit.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a new approach to superhydrophobic porous coordination polymers by incorporating an anisotropic crystal morphology featuring a predominant surface that is highly corrugated and terminated by aromatic hydrocarbon moieties. The resulting low-energy surface provides particularly promising hydrophobic properties without the need for postsynthetic modifications or surface processing that would block the porosity of the framework. Consequently, hydrophobic organic molecules and water vapor are able to penetrate the surface and be densely accommodated within the pores, whereas bulk water is repelled as a result of the exterior surface corrugation derived from the aromatic surface groups. This study provides a new strategy for the design and development of superhydrophobic porous materials. PMID:24975561

Rao, Koya Prabhakara; Higuchi, Masakazu; Sumida, Kenji; Furukawa, Shuhei; Duan, Jingui; Kitagawa, Susumu

2014-07-28

254

From petal effect to lotus effect: a facile solution immersion process for the fabrication of super-hydrophobic surfaces with controlled adhesion.  

PubMed

In this paper, a convenient approach based on the reaction between an alkyl thiol and hierarchical structured Cu(OH)2 substrates is reported for the fabrication of super-hydrophobic surfaces with controlled adhesion. This reaction can etch the Cu(OH)2 microstructures and simultaneously introduce a coating with low surface energy. By simply controlling the reaction time or the chain length of the thiol, super-hydrophobic surfaces with controlled adhesion can be achieved, and the adhesive force between the surface and the water droplet can be adjusted from extreme low (?14 ?N) to very high (?65 ?N). The tunable effect of the adhesion is ascribed to the different wetting states for the droplet on the surface that results from the change of the morphology and microstructure scale after the thiolate reaction. Noticeably, the as-prepared surfaces are acid/alkali-resisting; the acidic and basic water droplets have similar contact angles and adhesive forces to that of the neutral water droplet. Moreover, we demonstrate a proof of water droplet transportation for application in droplet-based microreactors via our surfaces. We believe that the results reported here would be helpful for the further understanding of the effect of wetting states on the surface adhesion and the fabrication principle for a super-hydrophobic surface with controlled adhesion. PMID:23429404

Cheng, Zhongjun; Du, Ming; Lai, Hua; Zhang, Naiqing; Sun, Kening

2013-04-01

255

Superhydrophobic surfaces: A model approach to predict contact angle and surface energy of soil particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

C. Hamlett(a), G. McHALE(a), N. Shirtcliffe(a), M. Newton(a), S.K. Woche(b), and J. BACHMANN(b) aSchool of Science & Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham, NG11 8NS, UK and bInstitute of Soil Science, Leibniz University Hannover, Herrenhaeuser Str.2, 30419, Hannover, Germany. Summary Wettability of soil affects a wide variety of processes including infiltration, preferential flow and surface runoff. The problem of determining contact angles and surface energy of powders, such as soil particles, remains unsolved. So far, several theories and approaches have been proposed, but formulation of surface and interfacial free energy, as regards its components, is still a very debatable issue. In the present study, the general problem of the interpretation of contact angles and surface free energy on chemically heterogeneous and rough soil particle surfaces are evaluated by a reformulation of the Cassie-Baxter equation assuming that the particles are attached on to a plane and rigid surface. Compared with common approaches, our model considers a roughness factor which depends on the Young's Law contact angle determined by the surface chemistry. Results of the model are discussed and compared with independent contact angle measurements using the Sessile Drop and the Wilhelmy Plate methods. Based on contact angle data, the critical surface tension of the grains were determined by the method proposed by Zisman. Experiments were made with glass beads and three soil materials ranging from sand to clay. Soil particles were coated with different loadings of dichlorodimethylsilane (DCDMS) to vary the wettability. Varying the solid surface tension using DCDMS treatments provided pure water wetting behaviours ranging from wettable to extremely hydrophobic with contact angles >150°. Results showed that the critical surface energy measured on grains with the highest DCDMS loadings was similar to the surface energy measured independently on ideal DCDMS -coated smooth glass plates, except for the clay soil. Contact angles measured on plane surfaces were related to contact angles measured on rough grain surfaces using the new model based on the combined Cassie-Baxter Wenzel equation which takes into account the particle packing density on the sample surface.

Shirtcliffe, Neil; Hamlett, Christopher; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael; Bachmann, Joerg; Woche, S.

2010-05-01

256

Liquid-infused nanostructured surfaces with extreme anti-ice and anti-frost performance.  

PubMed

Ice-repellent coatings can have significant impact on global energy savings and improving safety in many infrastructures, transportation, and cooling systems. Recent efforts for developing ice-phobic surfaces have been mostly devoted to utilizing lotus-leaf-inspired superhydrophobic surfaces, yet these surfaces fail in high-humidity conditions due to water condensation and frost formation and even lead to increased ice adhesion due to a large surface area. We report a radically different type of ice-repellent material based on slippery, liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), where a stable, ultrasmooth, low-hysteresis lubricant overlayer is maintained by infusing a water-immiscible liquid into a nanostructured surface chemically functionalized to have a high affinity to the infiltrated liquid and lock it in place. We develop a direct fabrication method of SLIPS on industrially relevant metals, particularly aluminum, one of the most widely used lightweight structural materials. We demonstrate that SLIPS-coated Al surfaces not only suppress ice/frost accretion by effectively removing condensed moisture but also exhibit at least an order of magnitude lower ice adhesion than state-of-the-art materials. On the basis of a theoretical analysis followed by extensive icing/deicing experiments, we discuss special advantages of SLIPS as ice-repellent surfaces: highly reduced sliding droplet sizes resulting from the extremely low contact angle hysteresis. We show that our surfaces remain essentially frost-free in which any conventional materials accumulate ice. These results indicate that SLIPS is a promising candidate for developing robust anti-icing materials for broad applications, such as refrigeration, aviation, roofs, wires, outdoor signs, railings, and wind turbines. PMID:22680067

Kim, Philseok; Wong, Tak-Sing; Alvarenga, Jack; Kreder, Michael J; Adorno-Martinez, Wilmer E; Aizenberg, Joanna

2012-08-28

257

XPS Analysis of Nanostructured Materials and Biological Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the types of information that XPS can provide about a variety of nano-structured materials. Although it is sometimes not considered a “nano-scale analysis method” XPS can provide a great deal of information about elemental distributions, layer or coating structure and thicknesses, surface functionality, and even particles sizes on the 1-20 nm scale for samples types that may not be readily analyzed by other methods. This information is important for both synthetic nanostructured or nanosized materials and a variety of natural materials with nanostructure. Although the links between nanostructure materials and biological systems may not at first be obvious, many biological molecules and some organisms are the sizes of nanoparticles. The nanostructure of cells and microbes plays a significant role in how they interact with their environment. The interaction of biomolecules with nanoparticles is important for medical and toxicity studies. The interaction of biomolecules is important for sensor function and many nanomaterials are now the active elements in sensors. This paper first discusses how nanostructures influences XPS data as part of understanding how simple models of sample structure and data analysis can be used to extract information about the physical and chemical structure of the materials being analyzed. Equally important, aspects of sample and analysis limitations and challenges associated with understanding nanostructured materials are indicated. Examples of the application of XPS to nanostructured and biological systems and materials are provided.

Baer, Donald R.; Engelhard, Mark H.

2010-05-01

258

Development of nanostructured surfaces for ice protection applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice accretion on surfaces of aircrafts, wind turbine blades, oil and gas rigs and heat exchangers, to name a few examples, presents long recognized problems with respect to efficiency and cost of operation. For instance, significant ice accretion on critical surfaces of an aircraft will cause problems during lift off (and will change the aerodynamics of the wings during flight. On the other hand, ice built up on wind turbine blades in cold climates (T < -20 C) drastically reduces the efficiency of power generation. Despite considerable number of studies and significant progress toward development of icephobic coatings, development of robust ice-resistance or anti-icing coatings is still elusive. Several approaches towards development of anti-icing surfaces have recently postulated that the superhydrophobic properties of hierarchically textured coatings, with contact angles > 150 , may lead to a significant reduction and perhaps elimination of snow and ice accretion. However, the exact mechanism of delayed icing on these surfaces is still under debate. Here we present a systematic study of early stages of ice formation upon water droplet impact on a range of hydrophobic, hydrophilic, textured and chemically patterned surfaces. We show that, in addition to a significant reduction in ice-adhesion strength on superhydrophobic surfaces, decreasing the water-substrate contact area plays a dual role in delaying ice nucleation: first by reducing heat-transfer and second by reducing the probability of heterogeneous nucleation at the water-substrate interface. The study presented here also offers a comprehensive perspective on the efficacy of textured surfaces for practical non-icing applications.

Alizadeh, Azar

2012-02-01

259

Superhydrophobic materials for drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobicity is a property of material surfaces reflecting the ability to maintain air at the solid-liquid interface when in contact with water. These surfaces have characteristically high apparent contact angles, by definition exceeding 150°, as a result of the composite material-air surface formed under an applied water droplet. Superhydrophobic surfaces were first discovered on naturally occurring substrates, and have subsequently been fabricated in the last several decades to harness these favorable surface properties for a number of emerging applications, including their use in biomedical settings. This work describes fabrication and characterization of superhydrophobic 3D materials, as well as their use as drug delivery devices. Superhydrophobic 3D materials are distinct from 2D superhydrophobic surfaces in that air is maintained not just at the surface of the material, but also within the bulk. When the superhydrophobic 3D materials are submerged in water, water infiltrates slowly and continuously as a new water-air-material interface is formed with controlled displacement of air. Electrospinning and electrospraying are used to fabricate superhydrophobic 3D materials utilizing blends of the biocompatible polymers poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and poly(caprolactone-co-glycerol monostearate) (PGC-C18). PGC-C18 is significantly more hydrophobic than PCL (contact angle of 116° versus 83° for flat materials), and further additions of PGC-C18 into electrospun meshes and electrosprayed coatings affords increased stability of the entrapped air layer. For example, PCL meshes alone (500 mum thick) take 10 days to fully wet, and with 10% or 30% PGC-C18 addition wetting rates are dramatically slowed to 60% wetted by 77 days and 4% by 75 days, respectively. Stability of the superhydrophobic materials can be further probed with a variety of physio-chemical techniques, including pressure, surfactant containing solutions, and solvents of varying surface tension. Superhydrophobicity is shown to be enhanced with further increases in PGC-C18 content and surface roughness (a decrease in fiber size). We demonstrate the utility of superhydrophobicity as a method for drug delivery. When the camptothecin derivatives SN-38 and CPT-11 are encapsulated within electrospun meshes, changes in air layer stability (due to changes in PGC-C18 content) dictate the rate of drug release by controlling the rate in which water can permeate into the porous 3D electrospun structure. Drug release can be tuned from 2 weeks to >10 weeks from 300 mum meshes, and meshes effectively kill a variety of cancer cell lines (lung, colon, breast) when utilized in a cytotoxicity assay. After determining that air could be used to control the rate of drug release, superhydrophobic 3D materials are explored for three applications. First, meshes are considered as a potential combination reinforcement-drug delivery device for use in resectable colorectal cancer. Second, removal of the air layer in superhydrophobic meshes is used as a method to trigger drug release. The pressure generated from high-intensity focused ultrasound (0.75-4.25 MPa) can remove the air layer spatially and temporally, allowing drug release to be controlled with application of a sufficient treatment. Third, "connective" electrosprayed coatings are deposited on chemically distinct material surfaces, which are both three-dimensional and mechanically robust. In summary, superhydrophobic 3D materials are fabricated and characterized, and are utilized as drug delivery devices. Controlled air removal from these materials offers an entirely new strategy for drug delivery, and is promising for the applications considered in this work as well as many others.

Yohe, Stefan Thomas

260

Biomimetic hierarchical ZnO structures with superhydrophobic property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple electrochemical deposition method was developed for the fabrication of ZnO-based hierarchical dual structures on micro and nano scales. A layer of c-axis wellaligned and translucent ZnO micro/nanostructures was deposited on ITO glass substrate from different aqueous electrolytes with systematically varied conditions. Surface morphologies and orientations of the ZnO coatings were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The resulting ZnO-modified surface was found to exhibit water contact angle as high as 170°, a superhydrophobic property found on lotus leaf. Results show that the electrochemical deposition potential, electrolyte concentration, deposition temperature and time are the critical factors controlling the growth and formation of ZnO micro/nanostructures. Such biomimetic ZnO structures have potential for self-cleaning applications.

Saidin, N. U.; Kok, K. Y.; Ng, I. K.; Bustamam, F. K. Ahmad

2012-11-01

261

Towards design rules for covalent nanostructures on metal surfaces.  

PubMed

The covalent molecular assembly on metal surfaces is explored, outlining the different types of applicable reactions. Density functional calculations for on-surface reactions are shown to yield valuable insights into specific reaction mechanisms and trends across the periodic table. Finally, it is shown how design rules could be derived for nanostructures on metal surfaces. PMID:24338925

Björk, Jonas; Hanke, Felix

2014-01-20

262

Surface nanostructuring of Ni/Cu foilsby femtosecond laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work examines the effect of high-power femtosecond laser pulses on Ni/Cu bilayer foils produced by electrodeposition. We consider nanostructures formed at different laser beam parameters and under different ambient conditions. The surface nanostructures obtained in air and water have mostly the form of quasi-periodic ripples with a characteristic period of 400 — 450 and 370 — 390 nm, respectively, at a laser wavelength of 744 nm, whereas the nanostructures produced in ethanol and benzine have the form of spikes, typically spaced 400 — 700 nm apart. Femtosecond laser nanostructuring of metals is for the first time proposed, and experimentally tested, as a viable approach to producing anti-reflective coatings on the surface of polymer replicas.

Korol'kov, V. P.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Kudryashov, Sergei I.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Samsonov, R. V.; Maslii, A. I.; Medvedev, A. Zh; Gol'denberg, B. G.

2011-04-01

263

Mechanical durability of superhydrophobic and oleophobic copper meshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a simple and inexpensive method to prepare the superhydrophobic and oleophobic copper meshes with rough structures fabrication and chemical modification. The achieved surfaces displayed liquid-repellent toward water and several organic liquids (such as hexadecane), which possessed much lower surface tension than that of water. Liquid repellency of the fabricated superhydrophobic copper mesh was demonstrated by visible experiment results and contact angle measurements. Even if the superhydrophobic copper mesh was rolled up, it still kept the superhydrophobicity. The mechanical durability was investigated by finger touch and mechanical abrasion tests. The results indicated that the copper mesh can maintain its superhydrophobicity against an abrasion length of 300 cm under a high pressure (77.2 kPa). The superhydrophobicity and oleophobicity, combined with mechanical durability, would promote the superhydrophobic surface to practical application in industry in the future.

Yin, Linting; Yang, Jin; Tang, Yongcai; Chen, Lin; Liu, Can; Tang, Hua; Li, Changsheng

2014-10-01

264

In situ separation and collection of oil from water surface via a novel superoleophilic and superhydrophobic oil containment boom.  

PubMed

We have prepared a porous, superoleophilic and superhydrophobic miniature oil containment boom (MOCB) for the in situ separation and collection of oils from the surface of water. The MOCB was fabricated by a one-step electrodepositing of Cu2O film on Cu mesh surface without using low surface energy materials. Oils on water surface could be fast contained in the MOCB while water was completely repelled out of the MOCB, thus achieving the separation of oil from water surface. In addition, the contained oil in the MOCB could be in situ collected easily by a dropper, thus achieving the collection of oil. Moreover, the MOCB could be reused for many times in the oil-water separating process with large separation abilities more than 90%. The MOCB also possessed excellent water pressure resistance for about 164 mm water column and good corrosion resistance in simulating seawater. Therefore, the findings in the present study might offer a simple, fast, and low-cost method for the in situ separation and collection of oil spills on seawater surface. PMID:24460039

Wang, Fajun; Lei, Sheng; Xue, Mingshan; Ou, Junfei; Li, Wen

2014-02-11

265

Natural insect and plant micro-/nanostructsured surfaces: an excellent selection of valuable templates with superhydrophobic and self-cleaning properties.  

PubMed

Insects and plants are two types of organisms that are widely separated on the evolutionary tree; for example, plants are mostly phototrophic organisms whilst insects are heterotrophic organisms. In order to cope with environmental stresses, their surfaces have developed cuticular layers that consist of highly sophisticated structures. These structures serve a number of purposes, and impart useful properties to these surfaces. These two groups of organisms are the only ones identified thus far that possess truly superhydrophobic and self-cleaning properties. These properties result from their micro- and nano-scale structures, comprised of three-dimensional wax formations. This review analyzes the surface topologies and surface chemistry of insects and plants in order to identify the features common to both organisms, with particular reference to their superhydrophobic and self-cleaning properties. This information will be valuable when determining the potential application of these surfaces in the design and manufacture of superhydrophobic and self-cleaning devices, including those that can be used in the manufacture of biomedical implants. PMID:25185068

Nguyen, Song Ha; Webb, Hayden K; Mahon, Peter J; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

2014-01-01

266

Microwave sensing of nanostructured semiconductor surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a method for the characterization of the lifetime of photoinduced carriers in semiconductor nanostructures based on the interaction of the photocarriers with the evanescent electric field of a microwave, propagating in a coplanar waveguide. The limited spatial extension of the evanescent field ensures that only a defined portion of material is analyzed. The nanostructures are illuminated by pulses of ultraviolet light which ensures that absorption and photogeneration occur mainly within the semiconductor nanostructure. Absorption due to photogenerated carriers produces weak variations of the power of microwaves travelling along the coplanar structure. Time variations of transmitted power through the waveguide thus follow the time variations of photogenerated charges. The technique is completely contactless, and ensures fast and non-destructive test capability. The measurement was applied for monitoring of lifetime of photogenerated carriers in macroporous silicon, proving to be strongly effective.

Perticaroli, S.; Varlamava, V.; Palma, F.

2014-01-01

267

Superhydrophobic graphene foams.  

PubMed

The static and dynamic wetting properties of a 3D graphene foam network are reported. The foam is synthesized using template-directed chemical vapor deposition and contains pores several hundred micrometers in dimension while the walls of the foam comprise few-layer graphene sheets that are coated with Teflon. Water contact angle measurements reveal that the foam is superhydrophobic with an advancing contact angle of ?163 degrees while the receding contact angle is ?143 degrees. The extremely water repellent nature of the foam is also confirmed when impacting water droplets are able to completely rebound from the surface. Such superhydrophobic graphene foams show potential in a variety of applications ranging from anti-sticking and self-cleaning to anti-corrosion and low-friction coatings. PMID:22911509

Singh, Eklavya; Chen, Zongping; Houshmand, Farzad; Ren, Wencai; Peles, Yoav; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Koratkar, Nikhil

2013-01-14

268

Numerical and analytical study of the impinging and bouncing phenomena of droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces with microtextured structures.  

PubMed

The dynamics of droplets impinging on different microtextured superhydrophobic surfaces are modeled with CFD combined with VOF (Volume of Fluid) technique. The method is validated by experimental data and an analytical model (AM) that is used to predict the penetrating depth and the maximum spreading diameter of an impinging droplet. The effects of geometrical shapes and operating conditions on the spreading and bouncing behaviors of impinging droplets are investigated. Six surfaces with different shapes of pillars are considered, namely, triangular prism, square pillar, pentagonal prism, cylindrical pillar, and crisscross pillar surfaces. The bouncing ability of an impinging droplet on textured surfaces can be illustrated from three aspects, namely, the contact time, the ranges of velocities for rebound and the penetrating depth of liquid in the maximum spreading stage. The surface with crisscross pillars exhibits the best ability to rebound, which can be attributed to its large capillary pressure (PC) and its special structures that can capture air in the gaps during the impinging process. PMID:25203603

Quan, Yunyun; Zhang, Li-Zhi

2014-10-01

269

Bioinspired multifunctional hetero-hierarchical micro/nanostructure tetragonal array with self-cleaning, anticorrosion, and concentrators for the SERS detection.  

PubMed

Heterohierarchical micro/nanostructure tetragonal array consisted of engineering materials of microprotrusion-like Cu and secondary nanostructured dendrite Ag have been fabricated via a primary cell-induced deposition and a facile galvanic displacement reaction combined with photolithography technique on Cu foil. Confined by the circle microwell tetragonal array of the photoresist template, regular microprotrusion-like Cu with the tunable size of diameter can be easily deposited on the surface of Cu foil. Then, the secondary dendritic Ag nanostructures in situ grow on the surface of microprotrusion via a galvanic displacement reaction, leading to the formation of heterohierarchical micro/nanostructure tetragonal array, which is similar to the surface microstructure of the lotus leaf. Inspired by this novel surface structure of imitating lotus leaf, its wettability has been systematically investigated. The results indicate that the fabricated heterohierarchical micro/nanostructure regular array after the surface fluoration presents a remarkable superhydrophobic performance. Initiated from its superhydrophobicity, an excellent self-cleaning property has also been demonstrated. In addition, the durability of the superhydrophobic surfaces is examined in the wide pH range of corrosive liquids. Notably, the fabricated superhydrophobic surface can be potentially used as concentrators, which presents a great perspective in the field of analysis through employing the SERS detection as an example. PMID:24080041

Zhang, Qiao-Xin; Chen, Yu-Xue; Guo, Zheng; Liu, Hong-Lin; Wang, Da-Peng; Huang, Xing-Jiu

2013-11-13

270

Nonplanar Conductive Surfaces via "Bottom-Up" Nanostructured Gold Coating  

E-print Network

of technologies for the construction of bent, curved, and flexible conductive surfaces is among the most important), conductive gold films, Au nanostructures, bottom-up synthesis, flexible electronics INTRODUCTION "Flexible constrained for the creation of three-dimensional and flexible conductive surfaces. Polymers, on the other

Jelinek, Raz

271

Generation of surface nanostructures on nickel by liquid-phase laser ablation and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity  

SciTech Connect

Surface nanostructuring of nickel by ablation with 350-ps Nd:YAG laser pulses in ethanol has been studied experimentally. The morphology of the nanostructured surface has been examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The average lateral size of the surface nanostructures is 30 - 50 nm. The nanostructured surface has been coated with gold using a chemical deposition procedure. The gold-coated substrate has shown surface-enhanced Raman scattering with an enhancement factor of 10{sup 8}. Potential applications of such nanostructured targets are discussed. (nanostructures)

Barmina, E V [Wave Research Center, A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Levi, Zh [ITODYS, Universite Paris (France); Lau Truong, C; Bozon-Verdyura, F; Simakin, Aleksandr V; Shafeev, Georgii A

2010-06-23

272

Bioinspired, cysteamine-catalyzed co-silicification of (1H, 1H, 2H, 2HPerfluorooctyl) triethoxysilane and tetraethyl orthosilicate: formation of superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

Bioinspired silicification attracts a great deal of interest because of its physiologically relevant, mild conditions for hydrolysis and condensation of silica precursors, which makes the bioinspired approach superior to the conventional sol–gel process, particularly when dealing with biological entities. However, the morphological control of silica structures with incorporation of functional groups in the bioinspired silicilication has been unexplored. In this work, we co-silicificated (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl)triethoxysilane and tetraethyl orthosilicate to investigate the morphological evolution of fluorinated silica structures in the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-mediated, cysteamine-catalyzed silicification. The generated micrometer-long wormlike and spherical silica structures display superhydrophobicity after film formation. Interestingly, the measurement of dynamic water contact angles shows that the morphological difference leads to a different wetting state, either the self-cleaning or the pinning state of the superhydrophobic surface. PMID:24730056

Park, Ji Hun; Kim, Ji Yup; Cho, Woo Kyung; Choi, Insung S

2014-03-01

273

Self-cleaning of superhydrophobic surfaces by self-propelled jumping condensate  

E-print Network

; and b School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia adhesion and removal | water-repellant insect wings | nanostructured interfaces | capillary forces Both hydrodynamic forces are not ideal in competing against the adhesive mechanisms such as van der Waals forces

Chen, Chuan-Hua

274

Understanding the biological responses of nanostructured metals and surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metals produced by Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) offer distinct advantages for medical applications such as orthopedic devices, in part because of their nanostructured surfaces. We examine the current theoretical foundations and state of knowledge for nanostructured biomaterials surface optimization within the contexts that apply to bulk nanostructured metals, differentiating how their microstructures impact osteogenesis, in particular, for Ultrafine Grained (UFG) titanium. Then we identify key gaps in the research to date, pointing out areas which merit additional focus within the scientific community. For example, we highlight the potential of next-generation DNA sequencing techniques (NGS) to reveal gene and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) expression changes induced by nanostructured metals. While our understanding of bio-nano interactions is in its infancy, nanostructured metals are already being marketed or developed for medical devices such as dental implants, spinal devices, and coronary stents. Our ability to characterize and optimize the biological response of cells to SPD metals will have synergistic effects on advances in materials, biological, and medical science.

Lowe, Terry C.; Reiss, Rebecca A.

2014-08-01

275

Table of Contents Superhydrophilic and Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces for Microfluidics and Thermal Management 4-1  

E-print Network

for Microfluidics and Thermal Management 4-1 Design of a Micro-breather for Venting Vapor Slugs in Two-phase Microchannels 4-2 Microfluidic Patterning of P-Selectin for Cell Separation through Rolling 4-3 Electrical Membranes in Thermoplastic Microfluidic Devices 4-5 Teflon Films for Chemically-inert Microfluidic Valves

Voldman, Joel

276

One-step fabrication of nanostructured Ni film with lotus effect from deep eutectic solvent.  

PubMed

We report a procedure to fabricate nanostructured Ni films via programmed electrochemical deposition from a choline-chloride-based ionic liquid at a high temperature of 90 °C. Three electrodeposition modes using constant voltage, pulse voltage, and reverse pulse voltage produce a variety of nanostructured Ni films with micro/nanobinary surface architectures, such as nanosheets, aligned nanostrips, and hierarchical flowers. The nanostructured Ni films possess face-centered cubic crystal structure. Amazingly, it is found that the electrodeposited Ni films deliver the superhydrophobic surfaces without any further modifications by low surface-energy materials, which might be attributed to the vigorous micro/nanobinary architectures and the surface chemical composition. The electrochemical measurements reveal that the superhydrophobic Ni film exhibit an obvious passivation phenomenon, which could provide enhanced corrosion resistance for the substrate in the aqueous solutions. PMID:21739965

Gu, Changdong; Tu, Jiangping

2011-08-16

277

Novel Silver Nanostructures for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Si/SiO2 channels filled with Ag clusters have been realized by applying of the swift heavy ion tracks and electroless wet-chemical deposition technologies. Microstructure and morphology have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). An exploitability of silver nanostructures in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been discussed.

Sivakov, V. A.; Zierbock, S.; Cialla, D.; Bochmann, A.; Petrov, A. V.; Kaniukov, E. Yu.; Demyanov, S. E.; Trautmann, C.

2013-05-01

278

Understanding and designing of steam-phobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wetting behavior of a surface under steam condensation depends on its intrinsic wettability and micron or nanoscale surface roughness. A typical superhydrophobic surface may not be suitable as a steam-phobic surface due to nucleation and growth of water inside the valleys and thus, failure to form air-liquid- solid composite interface. Here, we present the results of steam condensation on chemically modified nano-structured carbon nanotube carpets. The combination of surface chemistry and surface roughness provides a mechanism to retain superhydrophobicity of the nanotube surfaces under steam condensation. Ability of withstand steam temperature and pressure also implies improved hydrostatic stability of the surface.

Badge, Ila; Sethi, Sunny; Dhinojwala, Ali

2011-03-01

279

Development and characterization of nanostructured-perlite-cementitious surface compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of perlite loading on the thermal resistivity, solar reflectance and indirect tensile strength of Nanostructured\\u000a Cementitious Binder is studied. The main objective of this research is to constitute structural lightweight surface compounds\\u000a and to improve their thermal resistivity and reflectivity with suitable mechanical performances as a surface compound. Portland\\u000a White Cement (PWC) was partially substituted by nano clay.

M. S. Morsy; H. A. Aglan

2007-01-01

280

Superhydrophobicity in perfection: the outstanding properties of the lotus leaf  

PubMed Central

Summary Lotus leaves have become an icon for superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning surfaces, and have led to the concept of the ‘Lotus effect’. Although many other plants have superhydrophobic surfaces with almost similar contact angles, the lotus shows better stability and perfection of its water repellency. Here, we compare the relevant properties such as the micro- and nano-structure, the chemical composition of the waxes and the mechanical properties of lotus with its competitors. It soon becomes obvious that the upper epidermis of the lotus leaf has developed some unrivaled optimizations. The extraordinary shape and the density of the papillae are the basis for the extremely reduced contact area between surface and water drops. The exceptional dense layer of very small epicuticular wax tubules is a result of their unique chemical composition. The mechanical robustness of the papillae and the wax tubules reduce damage and are the basis for the perfection and durability of the water repellency. A reason for the optimization, particularly of the upper side of the lotus leaf, can be deduced from the fact that the stomata are located in the upper epidermis. Here, the impact of rain and contamination is higher than on the lower epidermis. The lotus plant has successfully developed an excellent protection for this delicate epistomatic surface of its leaves. PMID:21977427

Ditsche-Kuru, Petra; Neinhuis, Christoph; Barthlott, Wilhelm

2011-01-01

281

Superhydrophobicity in perfection: the outstanding properties of the lotus leaf.  

PubMed

Lotus leaves have become an icon for superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning surfaces, and have led to the concept of the 'Lotus effect'. Although many other plants have superhydrophobic surfaces with almost similar contact angles, the lotus shows better stability and perfection of its water repellency. Here, we compare the relevant properties such as the micro- and nano-structure, the chemical composition of the waxes and the mechanical properties of lotus with its competitors. It soon becomes obvious that the upper epidermis of the lotus leaf has developed some unrivaled optimizations. The extraordinary shape and the density of the papillae are the basis for the extremely reduced contact area between surface and water drops. The exceptional dense layer of very small epicuticular wax tubules is a result of their unique chemical composition. The mechanical robustness of the papillae and the wax tubules reduce damage and are the basis for the perfection and durability of the water repellency. A reason for the optimization, particularly of the upper side of the lotus leaf, can be deduced from the fact that the stomata are located in the upper epidermis. Here, the impact of rain and contamination is higher than on the lower epidermis. The lotus plant has successfully developed an excellent protection for this delicate epistomatic surface of its leaves. PMID:21977427

Ensikat, Hans J; Ditsche-Kuru, Petra; Neinhuis, Christoph; Barthlott, Wilhelm

2011-01-01

282

Nano-microstructured, superhydrophobic, and infrared transparent polytetrafluoroethylene/diamond films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A self-assembled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nanostructure is deposited on microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films, by use of physical and chemical vapor deposition in a two-step process, to produce (fully) superhydrophobic surfaces: high water contact angle (static, 165±2 deg), very low hysteresis (dynamic, ˜4 deg), and associated sliding angle (1 deg 5?±15?), thus combining the diamond infrared transparency and self-cleaning properties. These are interpreted in light of Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter wetting models, associated with structural microscopy of nano-micro rough PTFE/MCD surfaces, and present a promising perspective for self-cleaning infrared optics applications.

Horowitz, Flavio; Brandão, Lívia E. V. S.; Camargo, Kelly C.; Michels, Alexandre F.; Balzaretti, Naira M.

2013-01-01

283

Universal dispersion of surface plasmons in flat nanostructures  

PubMed Central

Dimensionality has a significant impact on the optical properties of solid-state nanostructures. For example, dimensionality-dependent carrier confinement in semiconductors leads to the formation of quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots. While semiconductor properties are governed by excitonic effects, the optical response of metal nanostructures is dominated by surface plasmons. Here we find that, in contrast to excitonic systems, the mode dispersions in plasmonic structures of different dimensionality are related by simple scaling rules. Employing electron energy loss spectroscopy, we show that the modes of silver nanodisks can be scaled to the surface and edge modes of extended silver thin films. We thereby introduce a general and intuitive ordering scheme for plasmonic excitations with edge and surface modes as the elementary building blocks. PMID:24717682

Schmidt, Franz-Philipp; Ditlbacher, Harald; Hohenester, Ulrich; Hohenau, Andreas; Hofer, Ferdinand; Krenn, Joachim R.

2014-01-01

284

Universal dispersion of surface plasmons in flat nanostructures.  

PubMed

Dimensionality has a significant impact on the optical properties of solid-state nanostructures. For example, dimensionality-dependent carrier confinement in semiconductors leads to the formation of quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots. While semiconductor properties are governed by excitonic effects, the optical response of metal nanostructures is dominated by surface plasmons. Here we find that, in contrast to excitonic systems, the mode dispersions in plasmonic structures of different dimensionality are related by simple scaling rules. Employing electron energy loss spectroscopy, we show that the modes of silver nanodisks can be scaled to the surface and edge modes of extended silver thin films. We thereby introduce a general and intuitive ordering scheme for plasmonic excitations with edge and surface modes as the elementary building blocks. PMID:24717682

Schmidt, Franz-Philipp; Ditlbacher, Harald; Hohenester, Ulrich; Hohenau, Andreas; Hofer, Ferdinand; Krenn, Joachim R

2014-01-01

285

Dropwise Condensation on Micro- and Nanostructured Surfaces  

E-print Network

In this review we cover recent developments in the area of surface- enhanced dropwise condensation against the background of earlier work. The development of fabrication techniques to create surface structures at the micro- ...

Miljkovic, Nenad

286

Stability of Nanostructures on Surfaces Karsten Pohl  

E-print Network

, including surface dislocation arrays, surface alloys, metal oxides surfaces, and semiconductor quantum dots networks of misfit dislocations that form in monolayer-high strained metal films can be used as templates to grow two-dimensional nano-arrays of large- scale order and size uniformity in thermal equilibrium

Pohl, Karsten

287

Impact of surface nanostructure on ice nucleation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleation of water on solid surface can be promoted noticeably when the lattice parameter of a surface matches well with the ice structure. However, the characteristic length of the surface lattice reported is generally less than 0.5 nm and is hardly tunable. In this paper, we show that a surface with nanoscale roughness can also remarkably promote ice nucleation if the characteristic length of the surface structure matches well with the ice crystal. A series of surfaces composed of periodic grooves with same depth but different widths are constructed in molecular dynamics simulations. Water cylinders are placed on the constructed surfaces and frozen at constant undercooling. The nucleation rates of the water cylinders are calculated in the simulation using the mean first-passage time method and then used to measure the nucleation promotion ability of the surfaces. Results suggest that the nucleation behavior of the supercooled water is significantly sensitive to the width of the groove. When the width of the groove matches well with the specific lengths of the ice crystal structure, the nucleation can be promoted remarkably. If the width does not match with the ice crystal, this kind of promotion disappears and the nucleation rate is even smaller than that on the smooth surface. Simulations also indicate that even when water molecules are adsorbed onto the surface structure in high-humidity environment, the solid surface can provide promising anti-icing ability as long as the characteristic length of the surface structure is carefully designed to avoid geometric match.

Zhang, Xiang-Xiong; Chen, Min; Fu, Ming

2014-09-01

288

Enantioselectivity on Surfaces with Chiral Nanostructures  

E-print Network

of chiral surfaces: surfaces modified by chiral organic adsorbates, surfaces of any naturally chiral bulk of amino acids that form proteins, the building blocks of life, and of DNA, which encodes the genetic molecule and in many synthetic bioactive molecules such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. From

Gellman, Andrew J.

289

Femtosecond laser induced nanostructuring for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of periodical nanostructures with femtosecond laser pulses was used to create highly efficient substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). We report about the structuring of silver and copper substrates and their application to the SERS of DNA (herring sperm) and protein molecules (egg albumen). The maximum enhancement factors were found on Ag substrates processed with the second harmonic generation (SHG) of a 1-kHz Ti:sapphire laser and structure periods near the SHG wavelength. In the case of copper, however, the highest enhancement was obtained with long-period ripples induced with at fundamental wavelength. This is explained by an additional significant influence of nanoparticles on the surface. Nanostructured areas in the range of 1.25 mm2 were obtained in 10 s. The surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fast Fourier Transform and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the role of the chemical modification of the metal structures is addressed. Thin oxide layers resulting from working in atmosphere which improve the biocompatibility were indicated by vibration spectra. It is expected that the detailed study of the mechanisms of laser-induced nanostructure formation will stimulate further applications of functionalized surfaces like photocatalysis, selective chemistry and nano-biology.

Messaoudi, H.; Das, S. K.; Lange, J.; Heinrich, F.; Schrader, S.; Frohme, M.; Grunwald, R.

2014-03-01

290

Impact of surface nanostructure on ice nucleation.  

PubMed

Nucleation of water on solid surface can be promoted noticeably when the lattice parameter of a surface matches well with the ice structure. However, the characteristic length of the surface lattice reported is generally less than 0.5 nm and is hardly tunable. In this paper, we show that a surface with nanoscale roughness can also remarkably promote ice nucleation if the characteristic length of the surface structure matches well with the ice crystal. A series of surfaces composed of periodic grooves with same depth but different widths are constructed in molecular dynamics simulations. Water cylinders are placed on the constructed surfaces and frozen at constant undercooling. The nucleation rates of the water cylinders are calculated in the simulation using the mean first-passage time method and then used to measure the nucleation promotion ability of the surfaces. Results suggest that the nucleation behavior of the supercooled water is significantly sensitive to the width of the groove. When the width of the groove matches well with the specific lengths of the ice crystal structure, the nucleation can be promoted remarkably. If the width does not match with the ice crystal, this kind of promotion disappears and the nucleation rate is even smaller than that on the smooth surface. Simulations also indicate that even when water molecules are adsorbed onto the surface structure in high-humidity environment, the solid surface can provide promising anti-icing ability as long as the characteristic length of the surface structure is carefully designed to avoid geometric match. PMID:25273463

Zhang, Xiang-Xiong; Chen, Min; Fu, Ming

2014-09-28

291

Water-Repellent Silicon Surface with Nanostructure Formed by Catalysis of Single Nanosized Silver Particle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water-repellent silicon (Si) surface with a nanostructure was formed by simple wet chemical etching using catalysis of a silver nanoparticle. Water repellency can be increased by forming micro- or nanostructures on the Si surface. A single nanosized silver particle dispersion solution was coated onto a Si(100) substrate with a polished surface. The samples were soaked in an aqueous etching solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The roughness and depth of the surface structure increased with increasing etching time. The Si surface with the nanostructure had a contact angle of 130°, indicating a water-repellent surface, whereas the surface without the nanostructure had a contact angle of 68°.

Nishioka, Kensuke; Sueto, Tsuyoshi; Yoshino, Kenji; Saito, Nobuo

2011-12-01

292

Manipulating surface states in topological insulator nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topological insulators show unique properties resulting from massless, Dirac-like surface states that are protected by time-reversal symmetry. Theory predicts that the surface states exhibit quantum spin Hall effect that allows for spins to transport without scattering. However, to date, the direct manipulation of these states with external means remains a significant challenge owing to the predominance of bulk carriers. Here

Faxian Xiu; Liang He; Kang L. Wang

2011-01-01

293

Nanostructured Surfaces for Drug Delivery and Anti-Fibrosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective and cost-efficient healthcare is at the forefront of public discussion; on both personal and policy levels, technologies that improve therapeutic efficacy without the use of painful hypodermic needle injections or the use of harsh chemicals would prove beneficial to patients. Nanostructured surfaces as structure-mediated permeability enhancers introduce a potentially revolutionary approach to the field of drug delivery. Parental administration routes have been the mainstay technologies for delivering biologics because these therapeutics are too large to permeate epithelial barriers. However, there is a significant patient dislike for hypodermic needles resulting in reduced patient compliance and poor therapeutic results. We present an alternative strategy to harness the body's naturally occurring biological processes and transport mechanisms to enhance the drug transport of biologics across the epithelium. Our strategy offers a paradigm shift from traditional biochemical drug delivery vehicles by using nanotopography to loosen the epithelial barrier. Herein, we demonstrate that nanotopographical cues can be used to enable biologics > 66 kDa to be transported across epithelial monolayers by increasing paracellular transport. When placed in contact with epithelial cells, nanostructured films significantly increase the transport of albumin, IgG, and a model therapeutic, etanercept. Our work highlights the potential to use drug delivery systems which incorporate nanotopographical cues to increase the transport of biologics across epithelial tissue. Furthermore, we describe current advancements in nano- and microfabrication for applications in anti-fibrosis and wound healing. Influencing cellular responses to biomaterials is crucial in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Since cells are surrounded by extracellular matrix features that are on the nanoscale, identifying nanostructures for imparting desirable cellular function could greatly impact the field. Due to the rise in micro and nanofabrication techniques borrowed from the advances in the microelectronics industry, previously unattainable nanostructured surfaces on a variety of biomaterials can be generated. We investigated how nanostructured surfaces with varying nanofeature aspect ratios can influence fibrosis. Thus, nanostructured surfaces show substantial progress for therapeutic applications in drug delivery and wound healing.

Kam, Kimberly Renee

294

Silver nanostructured catalyst for modification of dielectrics surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of nano-size Ag particles and their application for forming nanostructured catalysts on various surfaces are described. Silver colloid solutions were prepared by reduction of Ag(I) salt by tin(II) and characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and light absorption spectra. Depending on the colloid preparation conditions metal particles of 5–100nm size were obtained. According to XRD data, the colloid

Algirdas Vaškelis; Aldona Jagminien?; Remigijus Jušk?nas

2005-01-01

295

Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity.  

PubMed

The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e.g., rain), and when exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. Herein we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings. PMID:24334333

Shillingford, Cicely; MacCallum, Noah; Wong, Tak-Sing; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

2014-01-10

296

Nanostructured surface layer on metallic materials induced by surface mechanical attrition treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terms of the grain refinement mechanism induced by plastic straining, a novel surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was developed for synthesizing a nanostructured surface layer on metallic materials in order to upgrade the overall properties and performance. In this paper, the SMAT technique and the microstructure of the SMAT surface layer will be described. The grain refinement mechanism of

K. Lu; J. Lu

2004-01-01

297

Superhydrophobicity of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane fabricated by chemical vapor deposition from solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the chemical stability and flexibility, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes are widely used as the topcoat of architectural membrane structures, roof materials of vehicle, tent fabrics, and so on. Further modified PVDF membrane with superhydrophobic property may be even superior as the coating layer surface. The lotus flower is always considered to be a sacred plant, which can protect itself against water, dirt, and dust. The superhydrophobic surface of lotus leaf is rough, showing the micro- and nanometer scale morphology. In this work, the microreliefs of lotus leaf were mimicked using PVDF membrane and the nanometer scale peaks on the top of the microreliefs were obtained by the method of chemical vapor deposition from solution. The surface morphology of PVDF membrane was investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Elemental composition analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the material of the nanostructure of PVDF membrane was polymethylsiloxane. On the lotus-leaf-like PVDF membrane, the water contact angle and sliding angle were 155° and 4°, respectively, exhibiting superhydrophobic property.

Zheng, Zhenrong; Gu, Zhenya; Huo, Ruiting; Ye, Yonghong

2009-05-01

298

Rational nanostructuring of surfaces for extraordinary icephobicity  

E-print Network

and abundant in nature1,2 and technology.3 Lack of adequate understanding of this process has led to humanity's vulnerability to serious accidents.4 Therefore, a rational design of surfaces with exceptional ability to delay lower than the freezing point.5,10­15 Additionally, roughness can critically affect the heteroge- neous

Daraio, Chiara

299

Sensitive And Selective Chemical Sensor With Nanostructured Surfaces.  

DOEpatents

A chemical sensor is provided which includes an optical resonator including a nanostructured surface comprising a plurality of nanoparticles bound to one or more surfaces of the resonator. The nanoparticles provide optical absorption and the sensor further comprises a detector for detecting the optical absorption of the nanoparticles or their environment. In particular, a selective chemical interaction is provided which modifies the optical absorption of the nanoparticles or their environment, and an analyte is detected based on the modified optical absorption. A light pulse is generated which enters the resonator to interrogate the modified optical absorption and the exiting light pulse is detected by the detector.

Pipino, Andrew C. R. (Gaithersburg, MD)

2003-02-04

300

Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualizing three-dimensional (3D) structures at the micrometer and nanometer scale is essential not only for characterizing materials and corrosion but also biological samples. Here, we present a material-based nano-optical method using the near-field properties of periodically nanostructured surfaces (photonic crystal slabs) to obtain 3D images. The wavelength and the quality factor of resonances in the transmission spectrum provide optical thickness information of objects on the surface, which we use for rapid topography determination of cells.

Nazirizadeh, Yousef; Reverey, Julia; Geyer, Ulf; Lemmer, Uli; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine; Gerken, Martina

2013-01-01

301

Micro and nano-structured surfaces.  

PubMed

The study of cell reaction to micro and nanotopography is dependent on the method of manufacture available. Several methods of manufacture have been developed: polymer demixing, embossing and photolithography. Surfaces obtained with these different techniques, having micro and/or nanodomains, have been studied toward the same type of cells, i.e. human endothelial cells (HGTFN) and mouse fibroblasts (3T3). Polymer demixing of polystyrene (PS) and poly(4-bromostyrene) (PBrS) producing nanometrically islands of 18, 45 and 100 nm height, polycarbonate (PC) and polycaprolactone (PCL) grooved with grooves 450 nm wide and 190 high, the natural polysaccharide hyaluronic acid (Hyal) and its sulfated derivative (HyalS) photoimmobilized on silanized glass as grooves 250 nm high and 100, 50, 25 or 10 microm wide have been obtained. The morphology and polarization of the cells has been studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Cells respond in different way to the topography of the materials, but the surface chemistry is dominant in inducing different cell behavior. PMID:15348415

Barbucci, R; Pasqui, D; Wirsen, A; Affrossman, S; Curtis, A; Tetta, C

2003-08-01

302

Biomimetic super-hydrophobic surfaces for use in enhanced dropwise condensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been many attempts to enhance heat transfer during the condensation (vapor to liquid) process since condensation is a critical heat transfer mechanism in many industrial processes. One conventional method of enhancing condensation heat transfer is to specially treat the condensing heat exchanger surface to adequately promote so-called "dropwise" condensation. Biomimetically constructed coating with hydrophobic materials is often employed for surface treatment. This coating on the condensing heat transfer surface effectively shifts the condensation mode from filmwise (the conventional heat transfer mode) to dropwise (similar to lotus leaves?), resulting in much higher condensation heat transfer. In this method the thickness of coatings is a key parameter governing the heat transfer rate. Thin coating benefits the heat transfer but can lead to weakening hydrophobicity and failure to have an acceptable life span. However, thick coating reduces or eliminates the merit of the dropwise condensation phenomenon because the coating introduces additional thermal resistance. Herein, we report an innovative biomimetic concept in connection with a surface treatment that potentially solves the aforementioned issues. Instead of using conventional dense coatings on the condensing surface, the concept of randomly arranged or structurally oriented nano or submicro-scale fins and/or porous surfaces similar to nature-invented hydrophobic surfaces allowing molecular clustering for effective steam condensation, is presented and experimentally verified.

Cheng, Kuok; Zhang, Bong June; Lee, Chi Young; Kennedy, Mike; Kim, Sunwoo; Yoon, Hyungkee; Kim, Kwang J.; Liu, Jiong; Skandan, Ganesh

2011-04-01

303

An optimization of superhydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride/zinc oxide materials using Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is focused on the preparation and characterization of PVDF/ZnO composite materials. The superhydrophobic surface was prepared through spray coating of a mixture of PVDF polymer and ZnO nanoparticles on aluminum substrate. Stearic acid was added to improve the dispersion of ZnO. Taguchi's design of experiment method using MINITAB15 was used to rank several factors that may affect the superhydrophobic properties in order to formulate the optimum conditions. The Taguchi orthogonal array L9 was applied with three level of consideration for each factor. ANOVA were carried out to identify the significant factors that affect the water contact angle. Confirmation tests were performed on the predicted optimum process parameters. The crystallinity and morphology of PVDF-ZnO membranes were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of Taguchi method indicate that the ZnO and stearic acid contents were the parameters making significant contribution toward improvement in hydrophobicity of PVDF materials. As the content of ZnO nanoparticles increased, the values of water contact angle increased, ranging from 122° to 159°, while the contact angle hysteresis and sliding angle decreased to 3.5° and 2.5°, respectively. The SEM results show that hierarchical micro-nanostructure of ZnO plays an important role in the formation of the superhydrophobic surface. FTIR results showed that, in the absence or present ZnO nanoparticles, the crystallization of the PVDF occurred predominantly in the ?-phase.

Mohamed, Adel M. A.; Jafari, Reza; Farzaneh, Masoud

2014-01-01

304

Condensation on Superhydrophobic Surfaces: The Role of Local Energy Barriers and Structure Length Scale  

E-print Network

Water condensation on surfaces is a ubiquitous phase-change process that plays a crucial role in nature and across a range of industrial applications, including energy production, desalination, and environmental control. ...

Enright, Ryan

305

Titanium nanostructural surface processing for improved biocompatibility  

SciTech Connect

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incident x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to evaluate the effect of titanium hydride on the formation of nanoporous TiO{sub 2} on Ti during anodization. Nano-titanium-hydride was formed cathodically before anodizing and served as a sacrificial nanoprecipitate during anodization. Surface oxidation occurred and a multinanoporous structure formed after cathodic pretreatments followed by anodization treatment. The sacrificial nanoprecipitate is directly dissolved and the Ti transformed to nanoporous TiO{sub 2} by anodization. The formation of sacrificial nanoprecipitates by cathodic pretreatment and of the multinanostructure by anodization is believed to improve biocompatibility, thereby promoting osseointegration.

Cheng, H.-C.; Lee, S.-Y.; Chen, C.-C.; Shyng, Y.-C.; Ou, K.-L. [School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)and Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) and Department of Emergency Medicine, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kaohsiung Military General Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Oral Sciences, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)

2006-10-23

306

Thermal stable superhydrophobic polyphenylsilsesquioxane/nanosilica composite coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The superhydrophobic polyphenylsilsesquioxane (PPSQ)/nanosilica composite coatings were prepared by spray coating method with nano fumed silica (NFS) particles embedded in PPSQ matrix. The water contact angle (WCA) increased from 92.9° to 152.5° and the sliding angle (SA) decreased from more than 60° to 3.9° as the NFS content increased. The superhydrophobicity retained up to 500 °C, sustained by the hierarchical micro-nano structures and excellent thermal stability of PPSQ. A superhydrophobic PPSQ coating with WCA of 152.6° and SA of 7.8° was obtained by solvent-nonsolvent method for comparison as well. However, it gradually lost superhydrophobicity at 200 °C because of the elimination of nanostructures by the thermal softening of PPSQ.

Yang, Haowei; Cheng, Yuanrong; Xiao, Fei

2011-12-01

307

Emission of terahertz pulses from nanostructured metal surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When (nanostructured) metals, such as gold and silver, are illuminated with laser pulses having a duration in the femtosecond range, they can emit pulses of THz light. Most of these experiments have been performed using amplified lasers, giving rise to energy densities on the sample on the order of mJ cm-2. The results of the different experiments are surprisingly inconsistent in both the measurements of the THz fluence as a function of laser fluence and in the interpretation of the results. This paper reviews the current state of affairs of this interesting topic and discusses some effects related to surface preparation that may influence the emission THz light on metals, particularly silver and copper. We also show results of measurements on nanostructured metals using unamplified laser pulses, which emphasize the role played by plasmons in the generation of THz light. When increasing the optical energy density on a specially nanostructured sample, we observe a transition from a ‘classical’ second-order non-linear optical process to a higher-order process as the source of the THz radiation. This supports recent results on a differently structured metal by Polyushkin et al (2014 Phys. Rev. B 89 125426), who also observe two different power regimes when decreasing the intensity coming from the high energy density side.

Ramanandan, G. K. P.; Ramakrishnan, G.; Kumar, N.; Adam, A. J. L.; Planken, P. C. M.

2014-09-01

308

Fully reversible transition from Wenzel to Cassie-Baxter states on corrugated superhydrophobic surfaces  

E-print Network

Liquid drops on textured surfaces show different dynamical behaviors depending on their wetting states. They are extremely mobile when they are supported by composite solid-liquid-air interfaces (Cassie-Baxter state) and immobile when they fully wet the textured surfaces (Wenzel state). By reversibly switching between these two states, it will be possible to achieve large control over the fluid dynamics. Unfortunately, these wetting transitions are usually prevented by surface energy barriers. We demonstrate here a new and simple design paradigm, consisting of parallel grooves of appropriate aspect ratio, that allows for a controlled, barrierless, and reversible switching of the wetting states upon the application of electrowetting. We report a direct observation of the barrierless dynamical pathway for the reversible transitions between the Wenzel (collapsed) and the Cassie-Baxter (suspended) states and present a theory that accounts for these transitions, including detailed lattice-Boltzmann simulations.

R. J. Vrancken; H. Kusumaatmaja; K. Hermans; A. M. Prenen; O. Pierre-Louis; C. W. M. Bastiaansen; D. J. Broer

2009-10-30

309

Fabrication of large area nanostructures with surface modified silica spheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface modification of silica spheres with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylmethacrylate (TMSPM) has been performed at ambient condition. However, the FTIR spectra and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images show no evidence of the surface modification. The reaction temperatures were varied from 60 to 80 °C with various reaction periods. Small absorption shoulder of the CO stretching vibration was at 1700 cm-1, and slightly increased with the increase of the reaction time at 60 °C. The clear absorption peak appeared at 1698 cm-1 for the spheres reacted for 80 min at 70 °C and shifted toward 1720 cm-1 with the increase the reaction time. Strong absorption peak showed at 1698 cm-1 and shifted toward 1725 cm-1 with the increase of the reaction time at 80 °C. The spheres were dispersed to methanol and added photoinitiator (Irgacure-184). The solution was poured to a patterned glass substrate and exposed to the 254 nm UV-light during a self-assembly process. A large area and crack-free silica sphere film was formed. To increase the mechanical stability, a cellulose acetate solution was spin-coated to the film. The film was lift-off from the glass substrate to analyze the surface nanostructures. The surface nanostructures were maintained, and the film is stable enough to use as a mold to duplicate the nanopattern and flexible.

Kang, Kwang-Sun

2014-03-01

310

Anti-icing surfaces based on enhanced self-propelled jumping of condensed water microdroplets.  

PubMed

A spontaneous and controllable removal of condensed microdroplets at high supersaturation via self-propelled jumping is achieved by introducing a designed micropore array on a nanostructured superhydrophobic surface. The fabricated surface was demonstrated to delay the ice formation for 1 hour at -15 °C with a supersaturation of 6.97. PMID:23575638

Zhang, Qiaolan; He, Min; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianjun; Song, Yanlin; Jiang, Lei

2013-05-18

311

The transition between wetting states and novel methods of producing superhydrophobic surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of wetting states (the Cassie state---partial wetting and the Wenzel state---complete wetting) of surfaces with protrusions is determined by comparing the total free energy of the two states. It is found that large area fraction of the topographical features, the intrinsic contact angle and the aspect ratio favor the Cassie state. The transition from one wetting state to

Biao Liu

2006-01-01

312

Biomimetic super-hydrophobic surfaces for use in enhanced dropwise condensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been many attempts to enhance heat transfer during the condensation (vapor to liquid) process since condensation is a critical heat transfer mechanism in many industrial processes. One conventional method of enhancing condensation heat transfer is to specially treat the condensing heat exchanger surface to adequately promote so-called \\

Kuok Cheng; Bong June Zhang; Chi Young Lee; Mike Kennedy; Sunwoo Kim; Hyungkee Yoon; Kwang J. Kim; Jiong Liu; Ganesh Skandan

2011-01-01

313

Surface charge lithography for GaN micro- and nanostructuring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the possibility for controlled micro- and nanostructuring of GaN layers by low-dose focused-ion-beam (FIB) treatment with subsequent photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching. The proposed novel maskless approach based on ultra-fast direct writing of surface negative charge that shields the material against PEC etching allows one to fabricate GaN nanowalls and nanowires with lateral dimensions as small as 100 nm. Compared with commonly used lithography masks and/or FIB etching approaches for patterning GaN, the surface charge lithography enables one to fabricate high-aspect ratio micro- and nanostructures and mitigates the need for additional mask layers on the surface prior to etching, and is much faster than FIB etching alone reducing furthermore the ion exposure of material and therefore reducing ion beam damage. We show, in particular, the possibility to etch voids in between structures as narrow as 200 nm and to fabricate GaN suspended membranes and sub-micrometer hollow squares with the thickness defined by the main projection range of implanted ions. The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility of maskless device fabrication based on low-dose FIB direct writing with subsequent wet etching.

Tiginyanu, Ion M.; Popa, Veaceslav; Sarua, Andrei; Heard, Peter J.; Volciuc, Olesea; Kuball, Martin

2009-02-01

314

Nanostructuring of molybdenum and tungsten surfaces by low-energy helium ions  

SciTech Connect

The formation of metallic nanostructures by exposure of molybdenum and tungsten surfaces to high fluxes of low energy helium ions is studied as a function of the ion energy, plasma exposure time, and surface temperature. Helium plasma exposure leads to the formation of nanoscopic filaments on the surface of both metals. The size of the helium-induced nanostructure increases with increasing surface temperature while the thickness of the modified layer increases with time. In addition, the growth rate of the nanostructured layer also depends on the surface temperature. The size of the nanostructure appears linked with the size of the near-surface voids induced by the low energy ions. The results presented here thus demonstrate that surface processing by low-energy helium ions provides an efficient route for the formation of porous metallic nanostructures.

De Temmerman, Gregory; Bystrov, Kirill; Zielinski, Jakub J.; Balden, Martin; Matern, Gabriele; Arnas, Cecile; Marot, Laurent [FOM Institute DIFFER, Ducth Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Laboratoire PIIM, CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universit, 13397 Marseille (France); Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel, CH-4056 (Switzerland)

2012-07-15

315

Strong Casimir force reduction through metallic surface nanostructuring  

PubMed Central

The Casimir force between bodies in vacuum can be understood as arising from their interaction with an infinite number of fluctuating electromagnetic quantum vacuum modes, resulting in a complex dependence on the shape and material of the interacting objects. Becoming dominant at small separations, the force has a significant role in nanomechanics and object manipulation at the nanoscale, leading to a considerable interest in identifying structures where the Casimir interaction behaves significantly different from the well-known attractive force between parallel plates. Here we experimentally demonstrate that by nanostructuring one of the interacting metal surfaces at scales below the plasma wavelength, an unexpected regime in the Casimir force can be observed. Replacing a flat surface with a deep metallic lamellar grating with sub-100?nm features strongly suppresses the Casimir force and for large inter-surfaces separations reduces it beyond what would be expected by any existing theoretical prediction. PMID:24071657

Intravaia, Francesco; Koev, Stephan; Jung, Il Woong; Talin, A. Alec; Davids, Paul S.; Decca, Ricardo S.; Aksyuk, Vladimir A.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Lopez, Daniel

2013-01-01

316

Fibronectin adsorption, cell adhesion, and proliferation on nanostructured tantalum surfaces.  

PubMed

The interaction between dental pulp derived mesenchymal stem cells (DP-MSCs) and three different tantalum nanotopographies with and without a fibronectin coating is examined: sputter-coated tantalum surfaces with low surface roughness <0.2 nm, hut-nanostructured surfaces with a height of 2.9 +/- 0.6 nm and a width of 35 +/- 8 nm, and dome structures with a height of 13 +/- 2 nm and a width of 52 +/- 14 nm. Using ellipsometry, the adsorption and the availability of fibronectin cell-binding domains on the tantalum surfaces were examined, as well as cellular attachment, proliferation, and vinculin focal adhesion spot assembly on the respective surfaces. The results showed the highest fibronectin mass uptake on the hut structures, with a slightly higher availability of cell-binding domains and the most pronounced formation of vinculin focal adhesion spots as compared to the other surfaces. The proliferation of DP-MSCs was found to be significantly higher on dome and hut surfaces coated with fibronectin compared to the uncoated flat tantalum surfaces. Consequently, the results presented in this study indicate that fibronectin-coated nanotopographies with a vertical dimension of less than 5 nm influence cell adhesion. This rather interesting behavior is argued to originate from the more available fibronectin cell-binding domains observed on the hut structures. PMID:20443575

Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A; Jensen, T; Kraft, David Christian; Foss, Morten; Kingshott, Peter; Hansen, John Lundsgaard; Larsen, Arne Nylandsted; Chevallier, Jacques; Besenbacher, Flemming

2010-05-25

317

Site selective surface enhanced Raman scattering on nanostructured cavity arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy is an extremely powerful analytical tool. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERs) enables sample sensitivity to extend down to the single molecule level. There is presently great interest in using uniform nanostructured surfaces to give reproducible and strong surface enhanced Raman (SER) signal. The nanocavities studied here have spherical cap architecture and are arranged uniformly in an Au array. These structures support both localised and delocalised plasmons. Localised surface plasmon polaritons exist inside the nanocavities and delocalised or propagating surface plasmon polaritons exist on the flat surface of the sample (Bragg plasmons). The angle dependence property of surface enhanced Raman is used in the present work to enable comparison between SERs caused by localised plasmons and SERs caused by delocalised plasmons. The samples used here were modified to enable separate investigations of the two plasmon types. The externally modified array had dye placed only on the flat top surface of the array. The internally modified array had dye placed only on the internal walls of the cavities. Results show that the changes in Raman intensities with respect to the incident angle depend on the location of dye on the array.

Lordan, F.; Rice, J.; Jose, B.; Forster, R. J.; Keyes, T. E.

2011-10-01

318

Engineering aperiodic nanostructured surfaces for scattering-based optical devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel optical devices such as biosensors, color displays and authentication devices can be obtained from the distinctive light scattering properties of resonant nanoparticles and nanostructured arrays. These arrays can be optimized through the choice of material, particle morphology and array geometry. In this thesis, by engineering the multi-frequency colorimetric responses of deterministic aperiodic nanostructured surfaces (DANS) with various spectral Fourier properties, I designed, fabricated and characterized scattering-based devices for optical biosensing and structural coloration applications. In particular, using analytical and numerical optimization, colorimetric biosensors are designed and fabricated with conventional electron beam lithography, and characterized using dark-field scattering imaging as well as image autocorrelation analysis of scattered intensity in the visible spectral range. These sensors, which consist of aperiodic surfaces ranging from quasi-periodic to pseudo-random structures with flat Fourier spectra, sustain highly complex structural resonances that enable a novel optical sensing approach beyond the traditional Bragg scattering. To this end, I have experimentally demonstrated that DANS with engineered structural colors are capable of detecting nanoscale protein monolayers with significantly enhanced sensitivity over periodic structures. In addition, different aperiodic arrays of gold (Au) nanoparticles are integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic structures by soft-lithographic micro-imprint techniques. Distinctive scattering spectral shifts and spatial modifications of structural color patterns in response to refractive index variations were simultaneously measured. The successful integration of DANS with microfluidics technology has introduced a novel opto-fluidic sensing platform for label-free and multiplexed lab-on-a-chip applications. Moreover, by studying the isotropic scattering properties of homogenized Pinwheel aperiodic arrays, angle-insensitive (i.e. isotropic) coloration from nanostructured metal surfaces can be designed and optimized without randomization. Pinwheel nanoparticle arrays on a gold thin film were fabricated for the first time and investigated using dark-field scattering and angle-resolved reflectivity measurements. In sharp contrast to the colorimetric responses of periodically nanopatterned surfaces, which strongly depend on the observation angle, spatially uniform and isotropic green coloration of gold films were demonstrated using these engineered metal surfaces. In addition, the intensity of the scattered light is enhanced by plasmonic resonance originated from gold nanoparticles deposited on the gold substrates. The development of the enhanced isotropic scattering devices could advance plasmonic applications to color display, optical tagging and colorimetric sensing technologies.

Lee, Yuk Kwan Sylvanus

319

Durability of hydrophobic coatings for superhydrophobic aluminum oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robust and easily produced superhydrophobic surfaces are of great interest for mechanical applications, including drag reduction and MEMS. We produce novel superhydrophobic surfaces with several different coatings and tested the durability of each of these coatings with respect to long term immersion in water in order to determine the most long-lasting surface preparation. A pair of combinations of spin on polymers, surface features, and adhesion promoters was found that provide long term durability.

Jenner, Elliot; Barbier, Charlotte; D'Urso, Brian

2013-10-01

320

Surface energy density of metal nanostructures by Thomas-Fermi model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter examines the surface energy density of metal nanostructures with different morphologies by taking into account the effects of the electrostatic screening on the systems. The results show that the surface energy density is higher on concave nanostructures than on convex ones. The finding implies voids are more effective for the physisorption process than particles and wires.

Soon Lai, Weng; Chiu, Cheng-Hsin

2011-07-01

321

Effect of mesoscopic misfit on growth, morphology, electronic properties and magnetism of nanostructures at metallic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress and strain originating from mesoscopic misfit at interfaces can have diverse effects on the properties of surfaces and nanostructures thereon. We review the sources and consequences of mesoscopic misfit at metallic surfaces and elucidate various ways in which it affects growth, morphology, electronic properties and magnetism of thin films in early stages of epitaxy and epitaxial nanostructures.

Brovko, Oleg O.; Bazhanov, Dmitry I.; Meyerheim, Holger L.; Sander, Dirk; Stepanyuk, Valeri S.; Kirschner, Jürgen

2014-12-01

322

Cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity.  

PubMed

This article reports on the fabrication of cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity using a simple foam finishing process. Unlike most commonly reported superhydrophobic fabrics, the fabrics developed in this study exhibit asymmetric wettability on their two faces: one face showing superhydrophobic behavior (highly nonwetting or water-repellent characteristics) and the other face retaining the inherent hydrophilic nature of cotton. The superhydrophobic face exhibits a low contact angle hysteresis of ?(a)/?(r) = 151°/144° (?(a), advancing contact angle; ?(r), receding contact angle), which enables water drops to roll off the surface easily so as to endow the surface with well-known self-cleaning properties. The untreated hydrophilic face preserves its water-absorbing capability, resulting in 44% of the water-absorbing capacity compared to that of the original cotton samples with both sides untreated (hydrophilic). The single-faced superhydrophobic fabrics also retain moisture transmissibility that is as good as that of the original untreated cotton fabrics. They also show robust washing fastness with the chemical cross-linking process of hydrophobic fluoropolymer to fabric fibers. Fabric materials with such asymmetric or gradient wettability will be of great use in many applications such as unidirectional liquid transporting, moisture management, microfluidic systems, desalination of seawater, flow management in fuel cells, and water/oil separation. PMID:23186211

Liu, Yuyang; Xin, J H; Choi, Chang-Hwan

2012-12-18

323

Fabrication of superhydrophobic polyaniline films with rapidly switchable wettability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A superhydrophobic polyaniline (PANI) film has been fabricated by using a facile one-step spraying method. The PANI was synthesized via in situ doping polymerization in the presence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as the dopant. The water contact angle of this superhydrophobic surface reaches to 156°. Both the surface chemical compositions and morphological structures were analyzed. A granular morphology of PANI with a moderate amount of nanofibers was obtained. Moreover, a rapid surface wettability transition between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity can be observed when it is doped with PFOA and de-doped with base. The mechanism for this tunable wettability has been discussed in detail.

Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Men, Xuehu; Yang, Jin; Xu, Xianghui; Zhu, Xiaotao; Xue, Qunji

2011-10-01

324

Superhydrophobic RTV silicone rubber insulator coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On wet days, environmental contamination of outdoor insulation surfaces can reduce the reliability of electrical transmission systems and lead to flashover and arcing over the entire insulator. The use of superhydrophobic coatings would resolve this problem due to their self-cleaning effect. Water droplets can pick up dirt particles and remove contamination from the surfaces of insulators. This paper reports on a study to make a superhydrophobic RTV silicone rubber coating that has contact angles of higher than 145° and good UV durability. The Inclined Plane Test, water durability test and adhesion test are presented to show the effectiveness of this coating and the best formulations. The results of tracking and erosion resistance test (Inclined Plane Test) showed that formulations with at least 35 wt% ATH can be used for superhydrophobic RTV insulator coatings.

Seyedmehdi, Seyed Amirhossein; Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Jesse

2012-01-01

325

Facile synthesis of mesoporous silica and titania supraparticles by a meniscus templating route on a superhydrophobic surface and their application to adsorbents.  

PubMed

Mesoporous silica and titania supraparticles with controllable pore size, particle size, and macroscopic morphology were readily synthesized by a novel synthetic pathway using meniscus templating on a superhydrophobic surface, which is much simpler than well-known emulsion systems. Moreover, we first report that despite the very large radius of droplet curvature on a millimeter scale, supraparticles kept the round cap morphology due to addition of sucrose as a shape preserver as well as a pore-forming agent. In addition, mesoporous silica and titania supraparticles provided good adsorption performance for Acid Blue 25 and Cr(VI), and were easily separated from the solution by using a scoop net after adsorption tests. PMID:24384786

Lee, Dong-Wook; Jin, Min-Ho; Lee, Chun-Boo; Oh, Duckkyu; Ryi, Shin-Kun; Park, Jong-Soo; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Choi, Young-Chan

2014-04-01

326

Enhancement of antireflection property of silicon using nanostructured surface combined with a polymer deposition  

PubMed Central

Silicon (Si) nanostructures that exhibit a significantly low reflectance in ultraviolet (UV) and visible light wavelength regions are fabricated using a hydrogen etching process. The fabricated Si nanostructures have aperiodic subwavelength structures with pyramid-like morphologies. The detailed morphologies of the nanostructures can be controlled by changing the etching condition. The nanostructured Si exhibited much more reduced reflectance than a flat Si surface: an average reflectance of the nanostructured Si was approximately 6.8% in visible light region and a slight high reflectance of approximately 17% in UV region. The reflectance was further reduced in both UV and visible light region through the deposition of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) layer with a rough surface on the Si nanostructure: the reflectance can be decreased down to 2.5%. The enhancement of the antireflection properties was analyzed with a finite difference time domain simulation method. PMID:24397945

2014-01-01

327

Titanium Surfaces with Nanostructures Influence on Osteoblasts Proliferation: a Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives Nanothechnology found to be increasingly implemented in implantology sphere over the recent years and it shows encouraging effect in this field. The aim of present review is to compare, based on the recent evidence, the influence of various nanostructure surface modifications of titanium for implants, on osteoblasts proliferation. Material and Methods A literature review of English articles was conducted by using MEDLINE database restricted to 2009 - 2014 and constructed according PRISMA guidelines. Search terms included “Titanium implant”, “Titanium surface with nanostructure”, “Osteoblast”. Additional studies were identified in bibliographies. Only in vitro and/or in vivo studies on nano structured implant surfaces plus control sample, with specific evaluation method for osteoblasts proliferation and at least one Ti sample with nanostructure, were included in the review. Results 32 studies with 122 groups of examined samples were selected for present review. Each study conducted in vitro experiment, two studies conducted additional in vivo experiments. All studies were dispensed by type of surface modification into two major groups; “Direct ablative titanium implant surface nano-modifications” with 19 studies and ”Nanocomposite additive implant surface modifications” with 13 studies. Overall 24 studies reporting on positive effect of nanostructured surface, 2 studies found no significant advantage and 6 studies reported on negative effect compared to other structure scales. Conclusions From examination of selected articles we can notice marked advantage in implementation of various nanostructures onto implant surface. Yet for discovering the ultimate implant surface nanostructure, further comparable investigations of Ti surface nanostructures need to be done. PMID:25386228

Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Vilkinis, Valdas

2014-01-01

328

Facile synthesis of mesoporous silica and titania supraparticles by a meniscus templating route on a superhydrophobic surface and their application to adsorbents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous silica and titania supraparticles with controllable pore size, particle size, and macroscopic morphology were readily synthesized by a novel synthetic pathway using meniscus templating on a superhydrophobic surface, which is much simpler than well-known emulsion systems. Moreover, we first report that despite the very large radius of droplet curvature on a millimeter scale, supraparticles kept the round cap morphology due to addition of sucrose as a shape preserver as well as a pore-forming agent. In addition, mesoporous silica and titania supraparticles provided good adsorption performance for Acid Blue 25 and Cr(vi), and were easily separated from the solution by using a scoop net after adsorption tests.Mesoporous silica and titania supraparticles with controllable pore size, particle size, and macroscopic morphology were readily synthesized by a novel synthetic pathway using meniscus templating on a superhydrophobic surface, which is much simpler than well-known emulsion systems. Moreover, we first report that despite the very large radius of droplet curvature on a millimeter scale, supraparticles kept the round cap morphology due to addition of sucrose as a shape preserver as well as a pore-forming agent. In addition, mesoporous silica and titania supraparticles provided good adsorption performance for Acid Blue 25 and Cr(vi), and were easily separated from the solution by using a scoop net after adsorption tests. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed method, supporting figures, tables, TEM, XRD and FTIR analyses for KIE-1 and KIE-2, and videos showing easy separation of KIE-1 and KIE-2 from dye and Cr(vi) solutions. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05501a

Lee, Dong-Wook; Jin, Min-Ho; Lee, Chun-Boo; Oh, Duckkyu; Ryi, Shin-Kun; Park, Jong-Soo; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Choi, Young-Chan

2014-03-01

329

Optical and electrical characterization of surface passivated GaAs nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GaAs nanostructures are used in different optoelectronic applications including solar cells, LEDs and fast electronics. Although GaAs shows outstanding optical properties, it suffers from surface states and consequently high surface recombination velocity. The surface depletion effects lead to semi-insulating behaviors in GaAs devices. Passivation of GaAs nanostructures (AlGaAs or ionic liquid) lead to surface stability and improvement in optoelectronic properties. We provide a systematic study to compare the optical and electrical improvement after passivation (AlGaAs or ionic liquid) of GaAs nanostructure including nanowires and nanosheets. Both room temperature and low temperature photoluminescent (PL) spectra indicate increase in optical activity of GaAs nanostructures after passivation. Electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements reveal the diffusion length of carries in different GaAs nanostructures.

Arab, Shermin; Chi, Chun Yung; Yao, Maoqing; Chang, Chia-Chi; Dapkus, P. Daniel; Cronin, Stephen B.

2014-02-01

330

Nanostructures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Foothill-De Anza Community College provides a list of nanostructures. For each structure, its properties, structure, process, and application are detailed. Additionally, most pages include a picture, video, and references. The structures include aerogels, biomolecules, carbon, composite materials, ferrofluids, and many others.

2014-09-03

331

Nanosilver on nanostructured silica: Antibacterial activity and Ag surface area  

PubMed Central

Nanosilver is one of the first nanomaterials to be closely monitored by regulatory agencies worldwide motivating research to better understand the relationship between Ag characteristics and antibacterial activity. Nanosilver immobilized on nanostructured silica facilitates such investigations as the SiO2 support hinders the growth of nanosilver during its synthesis and, most importantly, its flocculation in bacterial suspensions. Here, such composite Ag/silica nanoparticles were made by flame spray pyrolysis of appropriate solutions of Ag-acetate or Ag-nitrate and hexamethyldisiloxane or tetraethylorthosilicate in ethanol, propanol, diethylene glucolmonobutyl ether, acetonitrile or ethylhexanoic acid. The effect of solution composition on nanosilver characteristics and antibacterial activity against the Gram negative Escherichia coli was investigated by monitoring their recombinantly synthesized green fluorescent protein. Suspensions with identical Ag mass concentration exhibited drastically different antibacterial activity pointing out that the nanosilver surface area concentration rather than its mass or molar or number concentration determine best its antibacterial activity. Nanosilver made from Ag-acetate showed a unimodal size distribution, while that made from inexpensive Ag-nitrate exhibited a bimodal one. Regardless of precursor composition or nanosilver size distribution, the antibacterial activity of nanosilver was correlated best with its surface area concentration in solution. PMID:23730198

Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Teleki, Alexandra; Camenzind, Adrian; Krumeich, Frank; Meyer, Andreas; Panke, Sven; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

2013-01-01

332

Tunable wetting behavior of nanostructured poly(dimethylsiloxane) by plasma combination treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter reports on the tunable wetting behavior of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) via the combination of nanostructuring and plasma treatment. The PDMS is first micro/nanostructured by an integrated casting process. Subsequently, an inductively coupled plasma is used to modify the siloxanes' surface chemistry. Sulfur hexafluoride, fluoroform, as well as octafluorocyclobutane plasma were applied to treat PDMS samples successively. By optimizing the treatment parameters, tunable wettability of the siloxane was observed, i.e., superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity. The stability of its wetting behavior has been demonstrated after 24 h. This stable and tunable wettability extends the applications of PDMS in microfluidic systems.

Peter, Nicolas J.; Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Chu, Shi-Gan; Zhu, Fu-Yun; Seidel, Helmut; Zhang, Hai-Xia

2012-11-01

333

All spraying processes for the fabrication of robust, self-healing, superhydrophobic coatings.  

PubMed

The spraying method is developed for the fabrication of mechanically robust and self-healing superhydrophobic coatings, which comprise highly porous and rough polyelectrolyte coatings preserved with low-surface-energy healing agents. These coatings can repetitively and autonomically restore superhydrophobicity in humid environments. After depletion of healing agents, superhydrophobic coatings with dual healing agents can regain their self-healing ability by re-spraying fluoroalkylsilane. PMID:24687272

Li, Yang; Chen, Shanshan; Wu, Mengchun; Sun, Junqi

2014-05-28

334

Reusable three-dimensional nanostructured substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering  

PubMed Central

To date, fabricating three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured substrate with small nanogap was a laborious challenge by conventional fabrication techniques. In this article, we address a simple, low-cost, large-area, and spatially controllable method to fabricate 3D nanostructures, involving hemisphere, hemiellipsoid, and pyramidal pits based on nanosphere lithography (NSL). These 3D nanostructures were used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates of single Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecule. The average SERS enhancement factor achieved up to 1011. The inevitably negative influence of the adhesion-promoting intermediate layer of Cr or Ti was resolved by using such kind of 3D nanostructures. The nanostructured quartz substrate is a free platform as a SERS substrate and is nondestructive when altering with different metal films and is recyclable, which avoids the laborious and complicated fabricating procedures. PMID:24417892

2014-01-01

335

Superhydrophobic-oleophobic ag nanowire platform: an analyte-concentrating and quantitative aqueous and organic toxin surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensor.  

PubMed

The ultratrace detection and quantification of toxins in both water and organic liquids remains a challenge due to the random spreading and dilution of liquids on substrate-based sensors, especially for organic liquids with low surface tension. Herein, we fabricate a superhydrophobic-oleophobic (SHP-OP) 3D Ag nanowire mesh-like surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform to overcome the random spreading issue, demonstrating ultratrace toxin sensing in both water and organic liquid. Our SHP-OP SERS platform is able to concentrate analyte solutions in water and toluene to 100-fold and 8-fold smaller areas, respectively, as compared to its omniphilic counterparts. The synergy of analyte-concentrating ability and intense SERS-enhancing properties on our SHP-OP SERS platform enables quantitative and ultratrace detection of melamine and Sudan I down to 0.1 fmol in water and toluene, respectively, using just 1 ?L of analyte solution. These detection limits are 10(3)-fold lower than the regulatory limits, clearly indicating our SHP-OP SERS platform as an appealing universal ultratrace toxin sensor. The ultratrace detection of spiked melamine in liquid milk down to 100 fmol also highlights the suitability of our SHP-OP SERS platform for the sensing of food toxins in real samples. PMID:25230236

Li, Xing; Lee, Hiang Kwee; Phang, In Yee; Lee, Choon Keong; Ling, Xing Yi

2014-10-21

336

Selective surface modification of lithographic silicon oxide nanostructures by organofunctional silanes.  

PubMed

This study investigates the controlled chemical functionalization of silicon oxide nanostructures prepared by AFM-anodization lithography of alkyl-terminated silicon. Different conditions for the growth of covalently bound mono-, multi- or submonolayers of distinctively functional silane molecules on nanostructures have been identified by AFM-height investigations. Routes for the preparation of methyl- or amino-terminated structures or silicon surfaces are presented and discussed. The formation of silane monolayers on nanoscopic silicon oxide nanostructures was found to be much more sensitive towards ambient humidity than, e.g., the silanization of larger OH-terminated silica surfaces. Amino-functionalized nanostructures have been successfully modified by the covalent binding of functional fluorescein dye molecules. Upon excitation, the dye-functionalized structures show only weak fluorescence, which may be an indication of a relatively low surface coverage of the dye molecules on length scale that is not accessible by standard AFM measurements. PMID:23616941

Baumgärtel, Thomas; von Borczyskowski, Christian; Graaf, Harald

2013-01-01

337

Selective surface modification of lithographic silicon oxide nanostructures by organofunctional silanes  

PubMed Central

Summary This study investigates the controlled chemical functionalization of silicon oxide nanostructures prepared by AFM-anodization lithography of alkyl-terminated silicon. Different conditions for the growth of covalently bound mono-, multi- or submonolayers of distinctively functional silane molecules on nanostructures have been identified by AFM-height investigations. Routes for the preparation of methyl- or amino-terminated structures or silicon surfaces are presented and discussed. The formation of silane monolayers on nanoscopic silicon oxide nanostructures was found to be much more sensitive towards ambient humidity than, e.g., the silanization of larger OH-terminated silica surfaces. Amino-functionalized nanostructures have been successfully modified by the covalent binding of functional fluorescein dye molecules. Upon excitation, the dye-functionalized structures show only weak fluorescence, which may be an indication of a relatively low surface coverage of the dye molecules on length scale that is not accessible by standard AFM measurements. PMID:23616941

von Borczyskowski, Christian; Graaf, Harald

2013-01-01

338

Investigations of the Band Structure and Morphology of Nanostructured Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, I examine the electronic structure of two very different types of two-dimensional systems: valence band electrons in single layer graphene and electronic states created at the vacuum interface of single crystal copper surfaces. The characteristics of both electronic systems depend intimately on the morphology of the surfaces they inhabit. Thus, in addition to discussing the respective band structures of these systems, a significant portion of this dissertation will be devoted to measurements of the surface morphology of these systems. Free-standing exfoliated monolayer graphene is an ultra-thin flexible membrane and, as such, is known to exhibit large out-of-plane deformation due to substrate and adsorbate interaction as well as thermal vibrations and, possibly, intrinsic buckling. Such crystal deformation is known to limit mobility and increase local chemical reactivity. Additionally, deformations present a measurement challenge to researchers wishing to determine the band structure by angle-resolved photoemission since they limit electron coherence in such measurements. In this dissertation, I present low energy electron microscopy and micro probe diffraction measurements, which are used to image and characterize corrugation in SiO2-supported and suspended exfoliated graphene at nanometer length scales. Diffraction line-shape analysis reveals quantitative differences in surface roughness on length scales below 20 nm which depend on film thickness and interaction with the substrate. Corrugation decreases with increasing film thickness, reflecting the increased stiffness of multilayer films. Specifically, single-layer graphene shows a markedly larger short range roughness than multilayer graphene. Due to the absence of interactions with the substrate, suspended graphene displays a smoother morphology and texture than supported graphene. A specific feature of suspended single-layer films is the dependence of corrugation on both adsorbate load and temperature, which is manifested by variations in the diffraction lineshape. The effects of both intrinsic and extrinsic corrugation factors will be discussed. Through a carefully coordinated study I show how these surface morphology measurements can be combined with angle resolved photoemission measurements to understand the role of surface corrugation in the ARPES measurement process. The measurements described here rely on the development of an analytical formulation for relating the crystal corrugation to the photoemission linewidth. I present ARPES measurements that show that, despite significant deviation from planarity of the crystal, the electronic structure of exfoliated suspended graphene is nearly that of ideal, undoped graphene; the Dirac point is measured to be within 25 meV of EF. Further, I show that suspended graphene behaves as a marginal Fermi-liquid, with a quasiparticle lifetime which scales as (E -- EF)--1 ; comparison with other graphene and graphite data is discussed. In contrast to graphene, which must be treated as a flexible membrane with continuous height variation, roughness in clean single crystal surfaces arises from lattice dislocations, which introduce discrete height variations. Such height variations can be exploited to generate a self assembled nano-structured surface. In particular, by making a vicinal cut on a single crystal surface, a nanoscale step array can be formed. A model system for such nanoscale self assembly is Cu(111). Cu(775) is formed by making an 8.5° viscinal cut of Cu(111) along the [112¯] axis. The electronic states formed on the surface of this system, with a nanoscale step array of 14 A terraces, shows markedly different behavior those formed on Cu(111). In this dissertation, I show that the tunability of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator, combined with its high-repetition rate and short pulse length, provides a powerful tool for resonant band mapping of the sp surface and image states on flat and vicinal Cu(111)-Cu (775) surfaces, over the photon energy range from 3.9 to 5 eV. Since the tim

Knox, Kevin R.

339

Chondrocyte behavior on nanostructured micropillar polypropylene and polystyrene surfaces.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to investigate whether patterned polypropylene (PP) or polystyrene (PS) could enhance the chondrocytes' extracellular matrix (ECM) production and phenotype maintenance. Bovine primary chondrocytes were cultured on smooth PP and PS, as well as on nanostructured micropillar PP (patterned PP) and PS (patterned PS) for 2 weeks. Subsequently, the samples were collected for fluorescein diacetate-based cell viability tests, for immunocytochemical assays of types I and II collagen, actin and vinculin, for scanning electronic microscopic analysis of cell morphology and distribution, and for gene expression assays of Sox9, aggrecan, procollagen ?1(II), procollagen ?1(X), and procollagen ?2(I) using quantitative RT-PCR assays. After two weeks of culture, the bovine primary chondrocytes had attached on both patterned PP and PS, while practically no adhesion was observed on smooth PP. However, the best adhesion of the cells was on smooth PS. The cells, which attached on patterned PP and PS surfaces synthesized types I and II collagen. The chondrocytes' morphology was extended, and an abundant ECM network formed around the attached chondrocytes on both patterned PP and PS. Upon passaging, no significant differences on the chondrocyte-specific gene expression were observed, although the highest expression level of aggrecan was observed on the patterned PS in passage 1 chondrocytes, and the expression level of procollagen ?1(II) appeared to decrease in passaged chondrocytes. However, the expressions of procollagen ?2(I) were increased in all passaged cell cultures. In conclusion, the bovine primary chondrocytes could be grown on patterned PS and PP surfaces, and they produced extracellular matrix network around the adhered cells. However, neither the patterned PS nor PP could prevent the dedifferentiation of chondrocytes. PMID:25175232

Prittinen, Juha; Jiang, Yu; Ylärinne, Janne H; Pakkanen, Tapani A; Lammi, Mikko J; Qu, Chengjuan

2014-10-01

340

Recent advances in superhydrophobic nanomaterials and nanoscale systems.  

PubMed

This review describes the recent advances in the field of superhydrophobic nanomaterials and nanoscale systems. The term superhydrophobic is defined from the surface properties when the surface shows the contact angle (CA) higher than 150 degrees. This could be well known from the lotus effect due to the non-stick and self-cleaning properties of the lotus leaf (LL). We briefly introduced the methods of preparing superhydrophobic surfaces using top-down approaches, bottom-up approaches and a combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches and various ways to prepare superhydrophobic nanomaterials and nanoscale systems using the bio-inspired materials, polymer nanocomposites, metal nanoparticles graphene oxide (GO) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We also pointed out the recent applications of the superhydrophobic nanomaterials and nanoscale systems in oil-spill capture and separations, self-cleaning and self-healing systems, bio-medicals, anti-icing and anti-corrosive, electronics, catalysis, textile fabrics and papers etc. The review also highlights the visionary outlook for the future development and use of the superhydrophobic nanomaterials and nanoscale systems for a wide variety of applications. PMID:24749434

Nagappan, Saravanan; Park, Sung Soo; Ha, Chang-Sik

2014-02-01

341

A facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic cotton fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facile and novel method for fabricating superhydrophobic cotton fabrics is described in the present work. The superhydrophobic surface has been prepared by utilizing cationic poly (dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) and silica particles together with subsequent modification of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The size distribution of silica particles was measured by Particle Size Analyzer. The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, the superhydrophobic durability of coated cotton textiles has been evaluated by exposure, immersion and washing tests. The results show that the treated cotton fabrics exhibited excellent chemical stability and outstanding non-wettability with the WCA of 155 ± 2°, which offers an opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications.

Zhang, Ming; Wang, Shuliang; Wang, Chengyu; Li, Jian

2012-11-01

342

Excitation and Far field Spectroscopy of surface plasmons in Gold nanostructures  

E-print Network

-Metal SNOM Scanning Near Field Optical Microscope SP Surface Plasmon SPP Surface Plasmon Polariton SPR Surface Plasmon Resonance vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT... .............................................................. 36 IV BAND GAPS OF SP MODES IN METAL NANOSTRUCTURES ........ 40 A. Previous studies ........................................................................ 40 B. Experimental investigation of laser light interaction...

Peng, Siying

2011-08-08

343

Surface and interface magnetism in nanostructures and thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured systems composed of two or more technologically important materials are useful for device applications and intriguing for the new fundamental physics they may display. Magnetism at the nanoscale is dominated by size and surface effects which combined with other media lead to new spin dynamics and interfacial coupling phenomena. These new properties may prove to be useful for optimizing sensors and devices, increasing storage density for magnetic media, as well as for biomedical applications such as drug delivery, MRI contrast enhancement, and hyperthermia treatment for cancer. In this project we have examined the surface and interface magnetism of composite nanoparticles and multilayer thin films by using conventional DC magnetization and AC susceptibility as well as transverse susceptibility, a method for directly probing the magnetic anisotropy of materials. Au and Fe3O4 synthesized together into three different nanoparticle configurations and ranging in size for 60 nm down to 9nm are used to study how the size, shape, and interfaces affect the most fundamental properties of magnetism in the Au-Fe3O 4 system. The findings have revealed ways in which the magnetic properties can be enhanced by tuning these parameters. We have shown that by changing the configurations of the Au and Fe3O4 particles, exotic behavior can be observed such as a large increase in anisotropy field (H K ranging from 435 Oe to 1650 Oe) and the presence of exchange bias. Multilayer thin films have been studied as well which combine the important classes of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials. In one case, barium hexaferrite/barium strontium titanate thin films, the anisotropic behavior of the ferromagnet is shown to change due to the introduction of the secondary material. In the other example, CrO2/Cr2O3 bilayers, exchange coupling is observed as Cr2O3 is an antiferromagnet as well as a ferroelectric. This coupling is manifest as a uniaxial anisotropy rather than the unidirectional anisotropy associated with exchange biased bilayers. Not only will such multifunctional structures will be useful for technological applications, but the materials properties and configurations can be chosen and tuned to further enhance the desired functional properties.

Frey, Natalie A.

344

Biomimetic silica nanostructures on the surface, controlled by polyvalent counteranions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosilicification (silica biomineralization in diatoms) has been intensively investigated for the in vitro formation of inorganic nanostructures under the ambient condition. It is known that biosilicification occurs at the interface of catalytic templates, derived by interactions between cationic polyamines and anions. In this work, nanostructures of silica thin films were controlled by exchanging counteranions of quaternized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) with orthophosphate/pyrophosphate anions such as HPO4-, HPO42-, PO43- and PO74-. Thickness of silica films and diameters of silica nanoparticulates were tuned at the nanometer scale. In addition, it was found that resulted silica structure highly depended on the structure of catalytic polymeric templates.

Yang, Sung Ho

2013-09-01

345

Photonic crystals with SiO2Ag "post-cap" nanostructure coatings for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Photonic crystals with SiO2�Ag "post-cap" nanostructure coatings for surface enhanced Raman efficiently couple light from a laser to SiO2�Ag "post-cap" nanostructures deposited on the PC surface by a glancing angle evaporation technique for achieving high surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy SERS

Cunningham, Brian

346

Durable Nanocomposites for Superhydrophobicity and Superoleophobicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anti-wetting surfaces and materials have the potential for dramatic performance improvements such as drag reduction on marine vehicles and fluid power systems as well as anti-fouling on aircraft and wind turbines. Although a wide variety of synthetic superhydrophobic surfaces have been developed and investigated, several critical obstacles remain before industrial application can be realized, including: (1) large surface area application, (2) multi-liquid anti-wetting, (3) environmentally friendly compositions, (4) mechanical durability and adhesion, and (5) long-term performance. In this dissertation, nanocomposite coatings have been investigated to generate high performance anti-wetting surfaces that address these obstacles which may enable application on wind turbine blades. Solution processable materials were used which self-assemble to create anti-wetting nanocomposite surfaces upon spray coating and curing. As a result, the first superoleophobic nanocomposite, the first environmentally friendly superhydrophobic compositions, and the first highly durable superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings were created. Furthermore, the mechanisms leading to this improved performance were studied.

Steele, Adam

347

Screening conditions for rationally engineered electrodeposition of nanostructures (SCREEN): electrodeposition and applications of polypyrrole nanofibers using microfluidic gradients.  

PubMed

A rapid screening method for optimizing electrochemical deposition conditions of polypyrrole (PPy) nanostructures is reported. An electrochemical cell is integrated within a low-cost microfluidic system, in which electrochemical deposition is carried out across a linear concentration gradient of a reaction parameter. The protocol, refered to as the screening of conditions for rationally engineered electrodeposition of nanostructures (SCREEN), allows rapid screening of conditions for the production of specific morphologies by characterizing the electrodeposited samples produced within a chemical gradient. To demonstrate the utility of the SCREEN method, applications in tunable optical coatings and superhydrophobic surfaces are presented. PMID:22865712

Burgoyne, Hayden A; Kim, Philseok; Kolle, Mathias; Epstein, Alexander K; Aizenberg, Joanna

2012-11-19

348

Synthesis of silver and silver/gold anisotropic nanostructures for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy applications.  

PubMed

We are reporting the one pot chemical reduction synthesis of isotropic spherical silver nanoparticles of size around 4-8 nm and some anisotropic nanostructures of silver and silver-gold systems such as silver nanoprisms of size around 60-80 nm, silver/gold prismatic core/shell nanostructures of size around 30-50 nm and alloy like silver-gold prismatic nanoframes of size around 40-60 nm and investigated their plasmonic properties for the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. Morphology and shape dependent plasmonic properties of these nanostructures were characterized by using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy techniques respectively. The surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) properties of all the fabricated nanostructures were investigated on Methylene Blue (MB) molecule. A gradual improvement in the SERS effect was observed with respect to the change of morphology from spherical to nanoframes and the order of SERS effect was found to be nanoframes > core/shell prismatic nanostructures > nanoprisms > spherical nanoparticles. Our investigation revealed that the phenomenon of the improved SERS effect of anisotropic silver and silver-gold nanostructures is primarily attributed to their prismatic geometrical configurations. PMID:24266213

Sakar, M; Parthiban, P; Balakumar, S

2013-12-01

349

Impact of a Superhydrophobic Sphere onto Water Duck-Gyu Lee and Ho-Young Kim*  

E-print Network

, which leads to a regime map in a space of dimensionless parameters. Dimensional Analysis and ExperimentsImpact of a Superhydrophobic Sphere onto Water Duck-Gyu Lee and Ho-Young Kim* School of Mechanical Form: September 19, 2007 When a water drop hits a superhydrophobic solid surface, it bounces off

Kim, Ho-Young

350

Plastron induced drag reduction and increased slip on a superhydrophobic G. McHale,*a  

E-print Network

. The system is based on a compound droplet model consisting of a solid sphere encased in a sheathing layer of air and is the extreme limit of a solid sphere with a superhydrophobic surface. We demonstratePlastron induced drag reduction and increased slip on a superhydrophobic sphere G. McHale,*a M. R

Flynn, Morris R.

351

Superhydrophobicity of silica nanoparticles modified with polystyrene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polystyrene/silica nanoparticles were prepared by radical polymerization of silica nanoparticles possessing vinyl groups and styrene with benzoyl peroxide. The resulting vinyl silica nanoparticles, polystyrene/silica nanoparticles were characterized by means of Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The results indicated that polystyrene had been successfully grafted onto vinyl silica nanoparticles via covalent bond. The morphological structure of polystyrene/silica nanoparticles film, investigated by scanning electron microscopy, showed a characteristic rough structure. Surface wetting properties of the polystyrene/silica nanoparticles film were evaluated by measuring water contact angle and the sliding angle using a contact angle goniometer, which were measured to be 159° and 2°, respectively. The excellent superhydrophobic property enlarges potential applications of the superhydrophobic surfaces.

Sun, X. L.; Fan, Z. P.; Zhang, L. D.; Wang, L.; Wei, Z. J.; Wang, X. Q.; Liu, W. L.

2011-01-01

352

Ultranarrow band absorbers based on surface lattice resonances in nanostructured metal surfaces.  

PubMed

Nanostructured metals have received a significant amount of attention in recent years due to their exciting plasmonic and photonic properties enabling strong field localization, light concentration, and strong absorption and scattering at their resonance frequencies. Resonant plasmonic and metamaterial absorbers are of particular interest for applications in a wide variety of technologies including photothermal therapy, thermophotovoltaics, heat-assisted magnetic recording, hot-electron collection, and biosensing. However, it is rather challenging to realize ultranarrow absorption bands using plasmonic materials due to large optical losses in metals that decrease the quality factor of optical resonators. Here, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate an ultranarrow band absorber based on the surface lattice resonances (SLRs) in periodic nanowire and nanoring arrays on optically thick, reflecting metallic films. In experiments, we observed ultranarrow band resonant absorption peaks with a bandwidth of 12 nm and absorption amplitude exceeding 90% at visible frequencies. We demonstrate that the resonance absorption wavelength, amplitude of the absorption peak, and the bandwidth can be controlled by tuning the periodicity and the thickness of nanoring and nanowire arrays. Unlike conventional plasmonic absorbers utilizing common metal–insulator–metal stacks, our narrow band absorber consists solely of metals, facilitating stronger optical interaction between the SLR of periodic nanostructures and the highly reflective film. Moreover, by introducing asymmetry to the nanoring/nanowire hybrid system, we observe the spectral evolution of resonance splitting enabled by strong coupling between two individual SLRs arising from nanoring and nanowire arrays. Designing such all-metallic nanostructure arrays is a promising route for achieving ultranarrow band absorbers which can be used as absorption filters, narrow band thermal emitters in thermophotovoltaics, and plasmonic biosensors. PMID:25072803

Li, Zhongyang; Butun, Serkan; Aydin, Koray

2014-08-26

353

Superhydrophobic thermoplastic polyurethane films with transparent/fluorescent performance.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report a simple and versatile route for the fabrication of superhydrophobic thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) films. The approach is based on octadecanamide (ODAA)-directed assembly of nanosilica/TPU/ODAA hybrid with a well-defined sheetlike microstructure. The superhydrophobic hybrid film shows a transparent property, and its water contact angle reaches as high as 163.5° without any further low surface energy treatment. In addition, the superhydrophobic TPU hybrid film with fluorescent properties is achieved by smartly introducing CdTe quantum dots, which will extend potential application of the film to optoelectronic areas. The resulting fluorescent surface produced in this system is stable and has a water contact angle of 172.3°. This assembly method to control surface structures represents an intriguing and valuable route to tune the surface properties of organic-inorganic hybrid films. PMID:21043449

Yang, Shengyang; Wang, Lifang; Wang, Cai-Feng; Chen, Li; Chen, Su

2010-12-01

354

On the superhydrophobic properties of nickel nanocarpets.  

PubMed

A surface formed by dense, aligned nickel nanowires (a "nanocarpet") was prepared by electrodeposition through an alumina membrane template, followed by dissolution of the membrane. The nickel nanowires forming the nanocarpet have a very high aspect ratio ( approximately 250), with a diameter of 200 nm and a length of several tens of micrometers. The nickel nanowires are highly rigid, perpendicularly aligned in the nanocarpet with respect to the substrate, and they touch each other at the tips, forming microscale "tepee"-shaped aggregates. By comparison, nanocarpets made of platinum nanowires have a more disordered, wave-like appearance. The nickel nanocarpet, once coated with a hydrophobic surfactant (stearic acid) has superhydrophobic properties (advancing contact angle approximately 158 degrees), and retains its superhydrophobicity after periods of immersion in water, similar to the hydrophobised platinum nanocarpet (advancing contact angle approximately 162 degrees). Interestingly, we observe that simple electrodeposition of platinum also produces pronounced superhydrophobic properties on "flat" copper surfaces. The magnetic properties of nickel might widen the range of applications in which nanocarpets can be gainfully used, such as in surfaces of switchable wettability for microfluidic applications. PMID:19830339

Neto, Chiara; Joseph, Kyle R; Brant, William R

2009-11-01

355

Effect of substrate roughness on the apparent surface free energy of sputter deposited superhydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene coatings: A comparison of experimental data with different theoretical models  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the effect of substrate roughness on the wettability and the apparent surface free energy (SFE) of sputter deposited polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coatings deposited on untreated glass (average roughness, R{sub a}=2.0 nm), plasma etched glass (R{sub a}=7.4 nm), and sandblasted glass (R{sub a}=4500 nm) substrates. The wettability of the PTFE coatings deposited on substrates with varying roughnesses was evaluated by measuring the apparent contact angle (CA) using a series of probe liquids from nonpolar aprotic to polar protic. The wettability measurements indicate that an apparent water CA of 152 deg. with a sliding angle of 8 deg. was achieved for PTFE coatings deposited on a substrate with R{sub a}=4500 nm. The superhydrophobicity observed in these coatings is attributed to the presence of dual scale roughness, densely packed microstructure and the presence of CF{sub 3} groups. Unlike the bulk PTFE which is mainly dispersive, the sputter deposited PTFE coatings are expected to have some degree of polar component due to the plasma treatment. In order to calculate the dispersive SFE of PTFE coatings, we have used the Girifalco-Good-Fowkes (GGF) method and validated it with the Zisman model. Furthermore, the Owens-Wendt model has been used to calculate the dispersive and the polar components of the apparent SFE of the PTFE coatings. These results are further corroborated using the Fowkes method. Finally, an ''equation of state'' theory proposed by Neumann has been used to calculate the apparent SFE values of the PTFE coatings. The results indicate that the apparent SFE values of the PTFE coatings obtained from the Owens-Wendt and the Fowkes methods are comparable to those obtained from the Neumann's method. The analyses further demonstrate that the GGF and the Zisman methods underestimate the apparent SFE values of the sputter deposited PTFE coatings.

Selvakumar, N.; Barshilia, Harish C.; Rajam, K. S. [Surface Engineering Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, CSIR, Bangalore 560 017 (India)

2010-07-15

356

Integrated waveguide and nanostructured sensor platform for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limitations of current sensors include large dimensions, sometimes limited sensitivity and inherent single-parameter measurement capability. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy can be utilized for environment and pharmaceutical applications with the intensity of the Raman scattering enhanced by a factor of 10. By fabricating and characterizing an integrated optical waveguide beneath a nanostructured precious metal coated surface a new surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy sensing arrangement can be achieved. Nanostructured sensors can provide both multiparameter and high-resolution sensing. Using the slab waveguide core to interrogate the nanostructures at the base allows for the emission to reach discrete sensing areas effectively and should provide ideal parameters for maximum Raman interactions. Thin slab waveguide films of silicon oxynitride were etched and gold coated to create localized nanostructured sensing areas of various pitch, diameter, and shape. These were interrogated using a Ti:Sapphire laser tuned to 785-nm end coupled into the slab waveguide. The nanostructured sensors vertically projected a Raman signal, which was used to actively detect a thin layer of benzyl mercaptan attached to the sensors.

Pearce, Stuart J.; Pollard, Michael E.; Oo, SweZin; Chen, Ruiqi; Kalsi, Sumit; Charlton, Martin D. B.

2014-01-01

357

Nanostructured surface enhanced Raman scattering sensor platform with integrated waveguide core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a planar waveguide based sensor capable of simultaneous surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)/surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing methodologies. The sensor consists of a nanostructured area etched into a low loss planar waveguide fabricated from silicon oxynitride. The selective deposition of the 25 nm thick gold film on the nanostructured features was applied to create the SERS/SPR active sites. In this work, we adapt the SPR approach, coupling light propagating along the slab waveguide to the nano-textured area from underneath. The shapes of the nanostructures, thickness, and morphology of the gold coating are chosen to be suitable for SERS and SPR. Effects of geometric parameters associated with the nanostructured features such as diameters, length, and pitch were investigated. Detection of Benzyl Mercaptan was accomplished using a 785 nm laser in a SERS configuration excited from the underlying waveguide core. The detection of the analyte was confirmed by normal incident SERS measurements using an InVia Raman spectrometer. The surface enhanced Raman scattering signal from the 25 nm thick Au coated nanostructures provided a maximum intensity signal of 104. Using the same device in the SPR sensing arrangement provided a wavelength shift of 25 nm and an average signal to noise ratio of 10 dB to Benzyl Mercaptan. The fabricated sensor can easily be fabricated using nano imprinting into cheap polymer substrates and would provide disposable real-world remote sensing capabilities.

Pearce, S. J.; Pollard, M. E.; Oo, S. Z.; Chen, R.; Charlton, M. D. B.

2014-11-01

358

Water-repellent coating: formation of polymeric self-assembled monolayers on nanostructured surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we suggest a facile and effective method for water-repellent coating of oxide surfaces. As a coating material, we synthesized a new random copolymer, referred to as poly(TMSMA-r-fluoroMA), by the radical polymerization of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSMA) and a fluoromonomer® bearing methacrylate moiety (fluoroMA). The random copolymer was designed to consist of a 'surface-reactive part' (trimethoxysilyl group) for anchoring onto oxide-based surfaces and a 'functional part' (perfluoro group) for water repellency. The polymeric self-assembled monolayers (pSAMs) of poly(TMSMA-r-fluoroMA) were constructed on three different aluminum oxide substrates, such as flat, concave-textured, and nanoporous plates, and the static water contact angle of each surface before and after the formation of pSAMs was measured. The formation of pSAMs resulted in significantly enhanced hydrophobicity compared with the corresponding bare surfaces. In particular, among three poly(TMSMA-r-fluoroMA)-coated surfaces, the nanoporous plate showed the highest water-repellent property, with a static contact angle of ~163°, which is indicative of superhydrophobic surfaces.

Cho, Woo Kyung; Park, Sangjin; Jon, Sangyong; Choi, Insung S.

2007-10-01

359

Physicochemical characteristics and droplet impact dynamics of superhydrophobic carbon nanotube arrays.  

PubMed

The physicochemical and droplet impact dynamics of superhydrophobic carbon nanotube arrays are investigated. These superhydrophobic arrays are fabricated simply by exposing the as-grown carbon nanotube arrays to a vacuum annealing treatment at a moderate temperature. This treatment, which allows a significant removal of oxygen adsorbates, leads to a dramatic change in wettability of the arrays, from mildly hydrophobic to superhydrophobic. Such change in wettability is also accompanied by a substantial change in surface charge and electrochemical properties. Here, the droplet impact dynamics are characterized in terms of critical Weber number, coefficient of restitution, spreading factor, and contact time. Based on these characteristics, it is found that superhydrophobic carbon nanotube arrays are among the best water-repellent surfaces ever reported. The results presented herein may pave a way for the utilization of superhydrophobic carbon nanotube arrays in numerous industrial and practical applications, including inkjet printing, direct injection engines, steam turbines, and microelectronic fabrication. PMID:24866696

Aria, Adrianus I; Gharib, Morteza

2014-06-17

360

Superhydrophobic silanized melamine sponges as high efficiency oil absorbent materials.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobic sponges and sponge-like materials have attracted great attention recently as potential sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup due to their excellent sorption capacity and high selectivity. A major challenge to their broad use is the fabrication of superhydrophobic sponges with superior recyclability, good mechanical strength, low cost, and manufacture scalability. In this study, we demonstrate a facile, cost-effective, and scalable method to fabricate robust, superhydrophobic sponges through the silanization of commercial melamine sponges via a solution-immersion process. The silanization was achieved through secondary amine groups on the surface of the sponge skeletons with alkylsilane compounds, forming self-assembled monolayers on the surface of sponge skeletons. This resulted in our ability to tune the surface properties of the sponges from being hydrophilic to superhydrophobic with a water contact angle of 151.0°. The superhydrophobic silanized melamine sponge exhibited excellent sorption capacity for a wide range of organic solvents and oils, from 82 to 163 times its own weight, depending on the polarity and density of the employed organic solvents and oils, and high selectivity and outstanding recyclability with an absorption capacity retention greater than 90% after 1000 cycles. These findings offer an effective approach for oil spill containment and environmental remediation. PMID:25039789

Pham, Viet Hung; Dickerson, James H

2014-08-27

361

From hydrophobic to superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic siloxanes by thermal treatment.  

PubMed

The cross-influence effects of treatment temperature and time on the wettability of a siloxane elastomer is investigated in detail, through static and tilt contact angle measurements. The material is heated at 400, 500, 600, 650, 700, and 800 °C for various periods, ranging from 1 to 300 s. The siloxane surface is subjected to multiple wettability transitions with treatment time: from intrinsic hydrophobicity to superhydrophobicity (and water repellency) and then through intermediate stages (hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity) to superhydrophilicity. For the time scale used herein (1-300 s), this scenario is recorded for treatment at 650, 700, and 800 °C. For treatment at lower temperatures (400, 500, and 600 °C) only the first transition, from intrinsic hydrophobicity to superhydrophobicity, is recorded. Scanning electron microscopy, micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR), and micro-Raman spectroscopies are employed to correlate the aforementioned wettability transitions with structural and chemical changes of the siloxane surface, developed during thermal treatment. It is shown that the first transition from intrinsic hydrophobicity to superhydrophobicity is accompanied by a severe surface-structure evolution that increases surface roughness. Once superhydrophobicity is achieved, the surface structure reaches a saturation point and it is not subjected to any other change with further thermal treatment. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the intensity of the O-H/C-H peaks increases/decreases with treatment time, and Raman measurements show that the C-Si-C vibrations gradually disappear with treatment time. The evaporation of a droplet resting on a superhydrophobic, water-repellent siloxane surface, which was produced after appropriate thermal treatment, is monitored. It is shown that droplet evaporation initially follows the constant contact area mode. At later evaporation stages, a transition to the constant contact angle mode is recorded. Finally, it is demonstrated that the superhydrophobic and water-repellent siloxane surfaces exhibit self-cleaning properties, good durability, and furthermore do not practically affect the optical transparency of glass substrates. PMID:25313653

Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Manoudis, Panagiotis N; Zurba, Andreea; Lampakis, Dimitrios

2014-11-11

362

Controllable strain recovery of shape memory polystyrene to achieve superhydrophobicity with tunable adhesion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, different superhydrophobic structures were fabricated on the surfaces of polystyrene (PS) blocks, using oxygen reactive ion etch (ORIE) and controllable strain recovery. The PS used here is a thermal shape memory polymer (SMP). Microhills are first generated on the surface of a PS block by ORIE. The PS block is then heated up, which triggers the strain recovery. During this process of recovering its original shape, the PS block gradually reduces its lateral dimensions, while increasing its thickness. Using different recovery temperatures, the surface morphologies can be controlled, which provides an approach to adjust surface wetting properties, including adhesion. At a temperature of 148?°C, microhills deformed to high-aspect-ratio nanowires. The corresponding PS surface has wetting properties similar to those of a lotus surface. The wetting is in Cassie–Baxter state, and a water drop is easy to get off from this surface. When the recovery temperature is increased to 162?°C, microwrinkles appear on the PS surface due to the different stiffnesses between the oxygen-treated top layer and the underlying PS substrate. These microwrinkles, together with nanowires located on their tops, form hybrid micro/nanostructures on the PS surface. The corresponding surface has wetting properties similar to those of a rose petal. The wetting is in a mixed state of Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter. A water droplet is stuck on the surface, although its apparent contact angle is as high as 166° ± 2°.

Sarwate, Prasha; Chakraborty, Anirban; Garg, Varun; Luo, Cheng

2014-11-01

363

Gas-driven ultrafast reversible switching of super-hydrophobic adhesion on palladium-coated silicon nanowires.  

PubMed

A gas-driven ultrafast adhesion switching of water droplets on palladium-coated Si nanowire arrays is demonstrated. By regulating the gas-ambient between the atmosphere and H2 , the super-hydrophobic adhesion is repeatedly switched between water-repellent and water-adhesive. The capability of modulating the super-hydrophobic adhesion on a super-hydrophobic surface with a non-contact mode could be applicable to novel functional lab-on-a-chip platforms. PMID:23733597

Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Soonil; Han, Heetak; Jung, Hwae Bong; Hong, Juree; Song, Giyoung; Cho, Suk Man; Park, Cheolmin; Lee, Wooyoung; Lee, Taeyoon

2013-08-14

364

Formation of nanostructured surface layer on AISI 304 stainless steel by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nanostructured surface layer was formed on an AISI 304 stainless steel with low stacking-fault energy by means of the surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The microstructure of the surface layer of the SMATed sample was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and cross-sectional TEM observation was performed to reveal the

H. W Zhang; Z. K Hei; G Liu; J Lu; K Lu

2003-01-01

365

Control of bacterial biofilm growth on surfaces by nanostructural mechanics and geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-associated communities of bacteria, called biofilms, pervade natural and anthropogenic environments. Mature biofilms are resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial treatments and therefore pose persistent pathogenic threats. The use of surface chemistry to inhibit biofilm growth has been found to only transiently affect initial attachment. In this work, we investigate the tunable effects of physical surface properties, including high-aspect-ratio (HAR) surface nanostructure arrays recently reported to induce long-range spontaneous spatial patterning of bacteria on the surface. The functional parameters and length scale regimes that control such artificial patterning for the rod-shaped pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa are elucidated through a combinatorial approach. We further report a crossover regime of biofilm growth on a HAR nanostructured surface versus the nanostructure effective stiffness. When the 'softness' of the hair-like nanoarray is increased beyond a threshold value, biofilm growth is inhibited as compared to a flat control surface. This result is consistent with the mechanoselective adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Therefore by combining nanoarray-induced bacterial patterning and modulating the effective stiffness of the nanoarray—thus mimicking an extremely compliant flat surface—bacterial mechanoselective adhesion can be exploited to control and inhibit biofilm growth.

Epstein, A. K.; Hochbaum, A. I.; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, J.

2011-12-01

366

Tuning localized plasmons in nanostructured substrates for surface-enhanced Raman  

E-print Network

reflectivity mapping of the angular dispersion of nanostructured arrays comprising of inverted pyramidal pits. Kuipers, "Real-Space Observation of Ultraslow Light in Photonic Crystal Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94-crystal silicon: surface etched by KOH water solution," Sens. Actuators A 73, 122-30 (1999) 10. W.-C. Tan, T

Steiner, Ullrich

367

Thickness influence on surface morphology and ozone sensing properties of nanostructured ZnO transparent  

E-print Network

Thickness influence on surface morphology and ozone sensing properties of nanostructured ZnO. It was demonstrated that the gas sensing characteristics of ZnO films are strongly influenced and may be enhanced sensitivity and microstructure of ZnO thin films. While the semiconducting properties of ZnO are in general

368

Laser desorption/ionization from nanostructured surfaces: nanowires, nanoparticle films and silicon microcolumn arrays  

E-print Network

Laser desorption/ionization from nanostructured surfaces: nanowires, nanoparticle films and silicon for soft laser desorption/ionization (SLDI) mass spectrometry. Thin films of gold nanoparticles (with 12 to analyze a series of directly deposited polypeptide samples. In this new SLDI method, the required laser

Vertes, Akos

369

Assembly of Gold Nanostructured Films Templated by Colloidal Crystals and Use in Surface-Enhanced  

E-print Network

of these requirements. Substrates that are produced by adsorption10,11 or sol-gel entrap- ment12 of metallicAssembly of Gold Nanostructured Films Templated by Colloidal Crystals and Use in Surface schematically in Figure 1a-d. Concentrated gold nanoparticles (25 nm) and latex microspheres (630 nm) were mixed

Velev, Orlin D.

370

EPR Study of the Surface Characteristics of Nanostructured TiO2 under UV Irradiation  

E-print Network

EPR Study of the Surface Characteristics of Nanostructured TiO2 under UV Irradiation Juan M) treatment of an amorphous precursor, and their behavior under UV illumination at 77 K was studied by means irradiation in a vacuum show some Ti3+ centers. In contrast, under these conditions only weak signals

371

Terahertz-pulse emission through excitation of surface plasmons in metallic nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second-order processes of optical rectification and photoconduction are well known and widely used to produce ultrafast electromagnetic pulses in the terahertz frequency domain. We present a new form of rectification relying on the excitation of surface plasmons (SPs) in metallic nanostructures. Multiphoton ionization and ponderomotive acceleration of electrons in the enhanced evanescent field of the SPs, results in a

Gregor H. Welsh; Klaas Wynne

2008-01-01

372

Transparent, biocompatible nanostructured surfaces for cancer cell capture and culture.  

PubMed

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood which have detached from both the primary tumor and any metastases may be considered as a "liquid biopsy" and are expected to replace tumor biopsies in the monitoring of treatment response and determining patient prognosis. Here, we introduce a facile and efficient CTC detection material made of hydroxyapatite/chitosan (HA/CTS), which is beneficial because of its transparency and excellent biological compatibility. Atomic force microscopy images show that the roughness of the HA/CTS nanofilm (HA/CTSNF) substrates can be controlled by changing the HA:CTS ratio. Enhanced local topographic interactions between nano-components on cancer cell membranes, and the antibody coated nanostructured substrate lead to improved CTC capture and separation. This remarkable nanostructured substrate has the potential for CTC culture in situ and merits further analysis. CTCs captured from artificial blood samples were observed in culture on HA/CTSNF substrates over a period of 14 days by using conventional staining methods (hematoxylin eosin and Wright's stain). We conclude that these substrates are multifunctional materials capable of isolating and culturing CTCs for subsequent studies. PMID:24904216

Cheng, Boran; He, Zhaobo; Zhao, Libo; Fang, Yuan; Chen, Yuanyuan; He, Rongxiang; Chen, Fangfang; Song, Haibin; Deng, Yuliang; Zhao, Xingzhong; Xiong, Bin

2014-01-01

373

From superhydrophobicity to icephobicity: forces and interaction analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term ``icephobicity'' has emerged in the literature recently. An extensive discussion took place on whether the icephobicity is related to the superhydrophobicity, and the consensus is that there is no direct correlation. Besides the parallel between the icephobicity and superhydrophobicity for water/ice repellency, there are similarities on other levels including the hydrophobic effect/hydrophobic interactions, mechanisms of protein folding and ice crystal formation. In this paper, we report how ice adhesion is different from water using force balance analysis, and why superhydrophobic surfaces are not necessary icephobic. We also present experimental data on anti-icing of various surfaces and suggest a definition of icephobicity, which is broad enough to cover a variety of situations relevant to de-icing including low adhesion strength and delayed ice crystallization and bouncing.

Hejazi, Vahid; Sobolev, Konstantin; Nosonovsky, Michael

2013-07-01

374

From superhydrophobicity to icephobicity: forces and interaction analysis.  

PubMed

The term "icephobicity" has emerged in the literature recently. An extensive discussion took place on whether the icephobicity is related to the superhydrophobicity, and the consensus is that there is no direct correlation. Besides the parallel between the icephobicity and superhydrophobicity for water/ice repellency, there are similarities on other levels including the hydrophobic effect/hydrophobic interactions, mechanisms of protein folding and ice crystal formation. In this paper, we report how ice adhesion is different from water using force balance analysis, and why superhydrophobic surfaces are not necessary icephobic. We also present experimental data on anti-icing of various surfaces and suggest a definition of icephobicity, which is broad enough to cover a variety of situations relevant to de-icing including low adhesion strength and delayed ice crystallization and bouncing. PMID:23846773

Hejazi, Vahid; Sobolev, Konstantin; Nosonovsky, Michael

2013-01-01

375

Porous Ag and Au hybrid nanostructures: Synthesis, morphology, and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an ordered porous Ag and Au hybrid nanostructures were obtained by using ordered SiO2 nanospheres film as sacrificial templates. Different from previous reports, the different atom ratio of Ag and Au can be conveniently used to control film structures by simply varying the experimental conditions. The morphology of these nanostructures has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and their performance as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates has been evaluated by using rhodamine 6G (R6G) as probe molecule. It was found that the enhancement ability of the ordered porous Ag and Au hybrid nanostructures were related with the atom ratio of Ag and Au. The highest enhancement factor can be achieved at the average value of 4.76×109 from the sample when the atom ratio of Au/Ag is 1:1.

Tang, Jingwu; Yi, Yougen; Wu, Jie; Tang, Yongjian

2014-01-01

376

Biomimetic compound eye with a high numerical aperture and anti-reflective nanostructures on curved surfaces.  

PubMed

Biomimetic compound eyes with a high numerical aperture on a curved surface were successfully fabricated by intelligent integration of traditional top-down and bottom-up micro- and nanofabrication methods together. In addition, the new hybrid micro- and nanofabrication method allows us to fabricate the antireflective nanostructures on each ommatidium to increase its vision sensitivity by improving the light transmission. The fabricated compound eye was optically characterized and was shown to have a numerical aperture of 0.77 for each ommatidium. Furthermore, it is shown that the transmission of the compound eye can be improved by 2.3% for the wavelength of 632.8 nm and a clearer image can be formed by the fabricated compound eye with antireflective nanostructures compared with that without antireflective nanostructures. In addition, the developed hybrid manufacturing method can be adapted to the fabrication of other complex micro- and nanodevices for photonics or other research areas. PMID:22739920

Wang, T; Yu, W; Li, C; Zhang, H; Xu, Z; Lu, Z; Sun, Q

2012-06-15

377

Silver substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering: Correlation between nanostructure and Raman scattering enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fabrication of substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) applications matching the needs for high sensitive and reproducible sensors remains a major scientific and technological issue. We correlate the morphological parameters of silver (Ag) nanostructured thin films prepared by sputter deposition on flat silicon (Si) substrates with their SERS activity. A maximum enhancement of the SERS signal has been found at the Ag percolation threshold, leading to the detection of thiophenol, a non-resonant Raman probe, at concentrations as low as 10-10M, which corresponds to enhancement factors higher than 7 orders of magnitude. To gain full control over the developed nanostructure, we employed the combination of in-situ time-resolved microfocus Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering with sputter deposition. This enables to achieve a deepened understanding of the different growth regimes of Ag. Thereby an improved tailoring of the thin film nanostructure for SERS applications can be realized.

Santoro, G.; Yu, S.; Schwartzkopf, M.; Zhang, P.; Koyiloth Vayalil, Sarathlal; Risch, J. F. H.; Rübhausen, M. A.; Hernández, M.; Domingo, C.; Roth, S. V.

2014-06-01

378

Controllable growth of low-dimensional nanostructures on well-defined surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The controllable growth of nanostructures with desired geometric order and well-defined shapes has stimulated great interest due to its applicability in the development of microelectronic devices. Self-assembly is an efficient and versatile way to guide the atoms or molecules into low-dimensional nanostructures as a consequence of balancing complex interplay between adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate—substrate interfacial interactions. The tailoring of low-dimensional nanostructures by control of inter-adsorbate and adsorbate—substrate interfacial interactions is reviewed. Such inherent interactions greatly influence not only the size and shape of the growing nanostructures, but also their chemical identity. The degree of interaction between adsorbates can be controlled via preparation procedures, opening up the study of the influence of this phenomenon with respect to reactivity and catalytic behavior. The formation of well-defined molecular layers can be controlled not only by repulsive molecule-molecule interaction but also by symmetry matching or charge transfer between adsorbed molecules and the substrate. It has become obvious that inter-adsorbate and adsorbate—substrate interfacial interactions can be tuned to fabricate diverse surface nanostructures from semiconductor, metallic, and molecular materials.

Qin, Zhi-Hui

2013-09-01

379

Suppressing light reflection from polycrystalline silicon thin films through surface texturing and silver nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work demonstrates a novel method combining ion implantation and silver nanostructures for suppressing light reflection from polycrystalline silicon thin films. Samples were implanted with 20-keV hydrogen ions to a dose of 1017/cm2, and some of them received an additional argon ion implant to a dose of 5 × 1015 /cm2 at an energy between 30 and 300 keV. Compared to the case with a single H implant, the processing involved both H and Ar implants and post-implantation annealing has created a much higher degree of surface texturing, leading to a more dramatic reduction of light reflection from polycrystalline Si films over a broadband range between 300 and 1200 nm, e.g., optical reflection from the air/Si interface in the AM1.5 sunlight condition decreasing from ˜30% with an untextured surface to below 5% for a highly textured surface after post-implantation annealing at 1000 °C. Formation of Ag nanostructures on these ion beam processed surfaces further reduces light reflection, and surface texturing is expected to have the benefit of diminishing light absorption losses within large-size (>100 nm) Ag nanoparticles, yielding an increased light trapping efficiency within Si as opposed to the case with Ag nanostructures on a smooth surface. A discussion of the effects of surface textures and Ag nanoparticles on light trapping within Si thin films is also presented with the aid of computer simulations.

Akhter, Perveen; Huang, Mengbing; Kadakia, Nirag; Spratt, William; Malladi, Girish; Bakhru, Hassarum

2014-09-01

380

Phenylacetylene One-Dimensional Nanostructures on the Si(100)-2 1:H Surface  

SciTech Connect

Using ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), many olefins have been shown to self-assemble on the hydrogen-passivated Si(100)-2 1 surface into one-dimensional nanostructures. This paper demonstrates that similar one-dimensional nanostructures can also be realized using alkynes. In particular, UHV STM, sum frequency generation (SFG), and density functional theory (DFT) are employed to study the growth mechanism and binding configuration of phenylacetylene (PA) one-dimensional nanostructures on the Si(100)-2 1:H surface. Molecular-resolution UHV STM images reveal the binding position and spacing of PA with respect to the underlying silicon dimer rows. Furthermore, UHV STM characterization of heteromolecular one-dimensional nanostructures of styrene and PA shows distinct electronic contrast between the two molecules, which is confirmed using simulated STM images derived from DFT and provides insight into the nature of PA binding to silicon. Additional evidence from SFG measurements corroborates the conclusion that the terminal carbon atoms of PA retain -conjugation following reaction to the Si(100)-2 1:H surface.

Walsh, Michael A. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Walter, Stephanie R. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Bevan, Kirk H [ORNL; Geiger, Franz M [ORNL; Hersam, Mark C [ORNL

2010-01-01

381

Modification of implant material surface properties by means of oxide nano-structured coatings deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deposition of functional coatings on the metal surface of artificial joints is an effective way of enhancing joint tribological characteristics. It is well-known that nanostructured oxide coatings have specific properties advantageous for future implant applications. In the present study, we measured the high hardness parameters, the adhesion strength and the low friction coefficient of the oxide magnetron sputtered coatings. The corrosion test results show that the oxide coating deposition had improved the corrosion resistance by a factor of ten for both stainless steel and titanium alloy substrates. Moreover, the hydrophilic nature of coated surfaces in comparison with the metal ones was investigated in the tensiometric tests. The surfaces with nanostructured oxide coatings demonstrated improved biocompatibility for in vitro and in vivo tests, attributed to the high dielectric constants and the high values of the surface free energy parameters.

Safonov, Vladimir; Zykova, Anna; Smolik, Jerzy; Rogowska, Renata; Lukyanchenko, Vladimir; Kolesnikov, Dmitrii

2014-08-01

382

Rationally designed multifunctional plasmonic nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rationally designed multifunctional plasmonic nanostructures efficiently integrate two or more functionalities into a single entity, for example, with both plasmonic and catalytic activity. This review article is focused on their synthesis and use in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a molecular spectroscopic technique with high sensitivity, fingerprint specificity, and surface selectivity. After a short tutorial on the fundamentals of Raman scattering and SERS in particular, applications ranging from chemistry (heterogeneous catalysis) to biology and medicine (diagnostics/imaging, therapy) are summarized.

Xie, Wei; Schlücker, Sebastian

2014-11-01

383

Fabrication of superhydrophobic and antibacterial surface on cotton fabric by doped silica-based sols with nanoparticles of copper  

PubMed Central

The study discussed the synthesis of silica sol using the sol-gel method, doped with two different amounts of Cu nanoparticles. Cotton fabric samples were impregnated by the prepared sols and then dried and cured. To block hydroxyl groups, some samples were also treated with hexadecyltrimethoxysilane. The average particle size of colloidal silica nanoparticles were measured by the particle size analyzer. The morphology, roughness, and hydrophobic properties of the surface fabricated on cotton samples were analyzed and compared via the scanning electron microscopy, the transmission electron microscopy, the scanning probe microscopy, with static water contact angle (SWC), and water shedding angle measurements. Furthermore, the antibacterial efficiency of samples was quantitatively evaluated using AATCC 100 method. The addition of 0.5% (wt/wt) Cu into silica sol caused the silica nanoparticles to agglomerate in more grape-like clusters on cotton fabrics. Such fabricated surface revealed the highest value of SWC (155° for a 10-?l droplet) due to air trapping capability of its inclined structure. However, the presence of higher amounts of Cu nanoparticles (2% wt/wt) in silica sol resulted in the most slippery smooth surface on cotton fabrics. All fabricated surfaces containing Cu nanoparticles showed the perfect antibacterial activity against both of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. PMID:22085594

2011-01-01

384

Infinite Lifetime of Underwater Superhydrophobic States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submerged superhydrophobic (SHPo) surfaces are well known to transition from the dewetted to wetted state over time. Here, a theoretical model is applied to describe the depletion of trapped air in a simple trench and rearranged to prescribe the conditions for infinite lifetime. By fabricating a microscale trench in a transparent hydrophobic material, we directly observe the air depletion process and verify the model. The study leads to the demonstration of infinite lifetime (>50 days) of air pockets on engineered microstructured surfaces under water for the first time. Environmental fluctuations are identified as the main factor behind the lack of a long-term underwater SHPo state to date.

Xu, Muchen; Sun, Guangyi; Kim, Chang-Jin

2014-09-01

385

Quantifying the coverage density of poly(ethylene glycol) chains on the surface of gold nanostructures.  

PubMed

The coverage density of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a key parameter in determining the efficiency of PEGylation, a process pivotal to in vivo delivery and targeting of nanomaterials. Here we report four complementary methods for quantifying the coverage density of PEG chains on various types of Au nanostructures by using a model system based on HS-PEG-NH(2) with different molecular weights. Specifically, the methods involve reactions with fluorescamine and ninhydrin, as well as labeling with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and Cu(2+) ions. The first two methods use conventional amine assays to measure the number of unreacted HS-PEG-NH(2) molecules left behind in the solution after incubation with the Au nanostructures. The other two methods involve coupling between the terminal -NH(2) groups of adsorbed -S-PEG-NH(2) chains and FITC or a ligand for Cu(2+) ion, and thus pertain to the "active" -NH(2) groups on the surface of a Au nanostructure. We found that the coverage density decreased as the length of PEG chains increased. A stronger binding affinity of the initial capping ligand to the Au surface tended to reduce the PEGylation efficiency by slowing down the ligand exchange process. For the Au nanostructures and capping ligands we have tested, the PEGylation efficiency decreased in the order of citrate-capped nanoparticles > PVP-capped nanocages ? CTAC-capped nanoparticles ? CTAB-capped nanorods, where PVP, CTAC, and CTAB stand for poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), cetyltrimethylammonium chloride, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, respectively. PMID:22148912

Xia, Xiaohu; Yang, Miaoxin; Wang, Yucai; Zheng, Yiqun; Li, Qingge; Chen, Jingyi; Xia, Younan

2012-01-24

386

High-frequency acoustic for nanostructure wetting characterization.  

PubMed

Nanostructure wetting is a key problem when developing superhydrophobic surfaces. Conventional methods do not allow us to draw conclusions about the partial or complete wetting of structures on the nanoscale. Moreover, advanced techniques are not always compatible with an in situ, real time, multiscale (from macro to nanoscale) characterization. A high-frequency (1 GHz) acoustic method is used for the first time to characterize locally partial wetting and the wetting transition between nanostructures according to the surface tension of liquids (the variation is obtained by ethanol concentration modification). We can see that this method is extremely sensitive both to the level of liquid imbibition and to the impalement dynamic. We thus demonstrate the possibility to evaluate the critical surface tension of a liquid for which total wetting occurs according to the aspect ratio of the nanostructures. We also manage to identify intermediate states according to the height of the nanotexturation. Finally, our measurements revealed that the drop impalement depending on the surface tension of the liquid also depends on the aspect ratio of the nanostructures. We do believe that our method may lead to new insights into nanoscale wetting characterization by accessing the dynamic mapping of the liquid imbibition under the droplet. PMID:24881654

Li, Sizhe; Lamant, Sebastien; Carlier, Julien; Toubal, Malika; Campistron, Pierre; Xu, Xiumei; Vereecke, Guy; Senez, Vincent; Thomy, Vincent; Nongaillard, Bertrand

2014-07-01

387

Hot ion generation from nanostructured surfaces under intense femtosecond laser irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Studies of ion emission from nanostructured metallic surfaces excited by intense (0.5-6.3x10{sup 16} W cm{sup -2}) 50 fs laser demonstrate that ''hotter'' electrons need not to give rise hotter ions, contrary to conventional expectation. Such surfaces produce twice as many ions as planar surfaces in the moderate energy regime (16-75 keV), but their yield in the higher energy range (75-2000 keV) is substantially lower. Surface modulations also influence ion beam divergence.

Bagchi, S.; Prem Kiran, P.; Bhuyan, M. K.; Bose, S.; Ayyub, P.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Ravindra Kumar, G. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

2007-04-02

388

Understanding the wetting properties of nanostructured selenium coatings: the role of nanostructured surface roughness and air-pocket formation  

PubMed Central

Wetting properties of biomaterials, in particular nanomaterials, play an important role, as these influence interactions with biological elements, such as proteins, bacteria, and cells. In this study, the wetting phenomenon of titanium substrates coated with selenium nanoparticles was studied using experimental and mathematical modeling tools. Importantly, these selenium-coated titanium substrates were previously reported to increase select protein adsorption (such as vitronectin and fibronectin), to decrease bacteria growth, and increase bone cell growth. Increased selenium nanoparticle coating density resulted in higher contact angles but remained within the hydrophilic regime. This trend was found in disagreement with the Wenzel model, which is widely used to understand the wetting properties of rough surfaces. The trend also did not fit well with the Cassie–Baxter model, which was developed to understand the wetting properties of composite surfaces. A modified wetting model was thus proposed in this study, to understand the contributing factors of material properties to the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of these nanostructured selenium-coated surfaces. The analysis and model created in this study can be useful in designing and/or understanding the wetting behavior of numerous biomedical materials and in turn, biological events (such as protein adsorption as well as bacteria and mammalian cell functions). PMID:23737667

Tran, Phong A; Webster, Thomas J

2013-01-01

389

Ultrasound-driven design of metal surface nanofoams.  

PubMed

Ultrasound processes are particularly interesting for a great variety of applications like formation of developed surfaces, finishing, catalyst formation, polymerization and surface polymer attachment, etc. Here, we report on the ultrasound-driven formation of metal surface nanofoams in aqueous media. Systematic investigation of ultrasound effects on various types of aluminium, iron and magnesium alloys shows that the character of the metal determines the roughness of the metal surface. A trick with attachment of layered double hydroxide laurate to a nanostructured aluminium-based foam surface results in the formation of a corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic surface. PMID:20644741

Skorb, Ekaterina V; Shchukin, Dmitry G; Möhwald, Helmuth; Andreeva, Daria V

2010-05-01

390

Surface topography effects in protein adsorption on nanostructured carbon allotropes.  

PubMed

We report a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of protein adsorption on the surface of nanosized carbon allotropes, namely single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) considering both the convex outer surface and the concave inner surface, together with a graphene sheet for comparison. These systems are chosen to investigate the effect of the surface curvature on protein adsorption at the same surface chemistry, given by sp(2) carbon atoms in all cases. The simulations show that proteins do favorably interact with these hydrophobic surfaces, as previously found on graphite which has the same chemical nature. However, the main finding of the present study is that the adsorption strength does depend on the surface topography: in particular, it is slightly weaker on the outer convex surfaces of SWNT and is conversely enhanced on the inner concave SWNT surface, being therefore intermediate for flat graphene. We additionally find that oligopeptides may enter the cavity of common SWNT, provided their size is small enough and the tube diameter is large enough for both entropic and energetic reasons. Therefore, we suggest that proteins can effectively be used to solubilize in water single-walled (and by analogy also multiwalled) carbon nanotubes through adsorption on the outer surface, as indeed experimentally found, and to functionalize them after insertion of oligopeptides within the cavity of nanotubes of appropriate size. PMID:23517008

Raffaini, Giuseppina; Ganazzoli, Fabio

2013-04-16

391

Self-healing of the superhydrophobicity by ironing for the abrasion durable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-healing of the superhydrophobic cotton fabric (SCF) obtained by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of lauryl methacrylate (LMA) and n-hexyl methacrylate (HMA), can be achieved by ironing. Through the steam ironing process, the superhydrophobicity of the SCFs will be regenerated even after the yarns are ruptured during the abrasion test under a load pressure of 44.8 kPa. SCFs made from LMA grafted cotton fabric can ultimately withstand at least 24,000 cycles of abrasion with periodic steam ironing. The FT-IR microscope results show that the migration of the polymethacrylates graft chains from the interior to the surface is responsible for the self-healing effect.

Wu, Jingxia; Li, Jingye; Deng, Bo; Jiang, Haiqing; Wang, Ziqiang; Yu, Ming; Li, Linfan; Xing, Chenyang; Li, Yongjin

2013-10-01

392

Diffusion of Zn in Nanostructured Aluminum Alloys Produced by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After surface nanocrystallization of pure Al and a cast Al-Si alloy through surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT), 200- to 300- ?m-thick Zn coatings were deposited on the nanostructured surface using the clod spray technique. Subsequently, diffusion of Zn into the Al substrate was induced by postspray annealing treatment at various temperatures for different times. The diffusion kinetics of Zn in the nanostructured surface layers was studied in terms of the Zn concentration profile in the substrate by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microscopy analysis (EPMA). Experimental results show that not only the diffusivity of Zn in the nanocrystalline grains is significantly increased compared with the diffusion in the coarse grained counterpart, but the temperature at which noticeable Zn diffusion in Al alloys occurs is also reduced from 573 K (300 °C) in coarse-grained Al alloys to 523 K (250 °C) in nanostructured alloys. In addition, because the nanocrystalline grains produced by SMAT in Al-Si alloys are much smaller than those in pure Al due to the effect of eutectic Si, the diffusion of Zn in the SMATed Al-Si alloy is much faster than that in the SMATed pure Al. It is believed that the high diffusivity of Zn in the nanocrystalline Al grains is attributed to the large fraction of grain boundaries that act as fast diffusion channel. The effect of thermal stability of the nanocrystalline grains on Zn diffusion in the SMATed Al alloys is also discussed.

Chang, H.-W.; Kelly, P. M.; Shi, Y.-N.; Zhang, M.-X.

2012-07-01

393

Interaction of bacterial cells with cluster-assembled nanostructured titania surfaces: an atomic force microscopy study.  

PubMed

The nanoscale interaction of bacterial cells with solid surfaces is a key issue in biomedicine because it constitutes the first pathogenic event in the complex series of biofilm development on prosthetic devices. We report on an Atomic Force Microscopy study of the interaction of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial cells with nanostructured titania thin films with controlled and reproducible nanometer-scale morphology, produced by assembling Ti clusters from the gas phase in a Supersonic Cluster Beam Deposition apparatus. The results demonstrate that bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are significantly influenced by a pure physical stimulus, that is, the nanoscale variation of surface topography. The increase of nanoscale film roughness promotes bacterial adhesion with respect to flat substrates; remarkably, Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells lose their flagella on nanostructured TiO2 thin films upon adhesion, as opposed to same bacteria onto reference smooth glass substrates. Further, we have observed increased cell biovolume and other biofilm properties on nanostructured substrates in comparison with smooth glasses. These findings suggest that the design of innovative biomaterials with a suitable patterning of biomaterials surfaces can be an effective approach to control the adhesion of microorganisms to in vivo implant surfaces with active biological functionalities. PMID:23646700

Singh, Ajay Vikram; Galluzzi, Massimilano; Borghi, Francesca; Indrieri, Marco; Vyas, Varun; Podestà, Alessandro; Gade, W N

2013-01-01

394

Improved implant osseointegration of a nanostructured titanium surface via mediation of macrophage polarization.  

PubMed

The use of endosseous implanted materials is often limited by undesirable effects that may be due to macrophage-related inflammation. The purpose of this study was to fabricate a nanostructured surface on a titanium implant to regulate the macrophage inflammatory response and improve the performance of the implant. Anodization at 5 and 20 V as well as UV irradiation were used to generate hydrophilic, nanostructured TiO2 surfaces (denoted as NT5 and NT20, respectively). Their surface characteristics and in vivo osseointegration as well as the inflammatory response they elicit were analyzed. In addition, the behavior of macrophages in vitro was evaluated. Although the in vitro osteogenic activity on the two surfaces was similar, the NT5 surface was associated with more bone formation, less inflammation, and a reduced CD68(+) macrophage distribution in vivo compared to the NT20 and polished Ti surfaces. Consistently, further experiments revealed that the NT5 surface induced healing-associated M2 polarization in vitro and in vivo. By contrast, the NT20 surface promoted the pro-inflammatory M1 polarization, which could further impair bone regeneration. The results demonstrate the dominant role of macrophage-related inflammation in bone healing around implants and that surface nanotopography can be designed to have an immune-regulating effect in support of the success of implants. PMID:25201737

Ma, Qian-Li; Zhao, Ling-Zhou; Liu, Rong-Rong; Jin, Bo-Quan; Song, Wen; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yu-Si; Chen, Li-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Mei

2014-12-01

395

A Mechanistic Study of Wetting Superhydrophobic Porous 3D Meshes  

PubMed Central

Superhydrophobic, porous, 3D materials composed of poly( ? -caprolactone) (PCL) and the hydrophobic polymer dopant poly(glycerol monostearate-co- ? -caprolactone) (PGC-C18) are fabricated using the electrospinning technique. These 3D materials are distinct from 2D superhydrophobic surfaces, with maintenance of air at the surface as well as within the bulk of the material. These superhydrophobic materials float in water, and when held underwater and pressed, an air bubble is released and will rise to the surface. By changing the PGC-C18 doping concentration in the meshes and/or the fiber size from the micro- to nanoscale, the long-term stability of the entrapped air layer is controlled. The rate of water infiltration into the meshes, and the resulting displacement of the entrapped air, is quantitatively measured using X-ray computed tomography. The properties of the meshes are further probed using surfactants and solvents of different surface tensions. Finally, the application of hydraulic pressure is used to quantify the breakthrough pressure to wet the meshes. The tools for fabrication and analysis of these superhydrophobic materials as well as the ability to control the robustness of the entrapped air layer are highly desirable for a number of existing and emerging applications.

Yohe, Stefan T.; Freedman, Jonathan D.; Falde, Eric J.; Colson, Yolonda L.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

2014-01-01

396

Functional surface on periodical nanostructure self-organized by laser scanning at speed of 300 m/min  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After CW lasers scanned a target at high speed of 300 m/min, periodical nanostructure self-organized on the target surface. Unlike fiber-like structure fabricated by femtosecond laser, the periodic structure showed trench structures with flat bottoms. A theoretical simulation of thermal distribution of the target indicated the target temperature exceeds its melting point, which was verified by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The time dependent thermal distribution indicated the existence of threshold melting period to form the trench nanostructure. The nanostructure showed well-regulated gratings, and the precise periodicity emerged structural color and modified water-repellent on the target surface.

Kaneko, Satoru; Ito, Takeshi; Kato, Chihiro; Tanaka, Satomi; Ono, Yosuke; Yodo, Tokuo; Nakata, Hiroyasu; Matsuno, Akira; Nire, Takashi; Matsuda, Akifumi; Yoshimoto, Mamoru

2013-03-01

397

Plasmonic coupling of SiO2Ag "post-cap" nanostructures and silver film for surface enhanced Raman scattering  

E-print Network

Plasmonic coupling of SiO2�Ag "post-cap" nanostructures and silver film for surface enhanced Raman://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Plasmonic coupling of SiO2�Ag "post-cap" nanostructures and silver film for surface enhanced Raman of SiO2 post sandwiched between them to significantly enhance local electric-field intensity

Cunningham, Brian

398

Nanoscale Surface Engineering with Deformation-Resistant Core–Shell Nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-textured surfaces (NTSs) can reduce adhesion and friction and thus have potential to increase the reliability of micro-electro-mechanical\\u000a systems and nano-electro-mechanical systems. However, deformation of the nanotextures severely limits the effectiveness of\\u000a using NTSs. This article presents a novel concept of nano-surface-engineering by texturing the surface with core–shell nanostructures\\u000a to produce deformation-resistant nanotextures. The NTSs were produced by thermal evaporation

Beau D. Morton; Hengyu Wang; Robert A. Fleming; Min Zou

2011-01-01

399

Thermal desorption spectroscopy from the surfaces of metal-oxide-semiconductor nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental setup, which combines direct heating and temperature measurement of metal nanofilms allowing temperature programmed