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Sample records for nanostructuring optical waveguides

  1. Controlled rod nanostructured assembly of diphenylalanine and their optical waveguide properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Jia, Yi; Dai, Luru; Yang, Yang; Li, Junbai

    2015-03-24

    Diphenylalanine (FF) microrods were obtained by manipulating the fabrication conditions. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence (FL) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed the molecular arrangement within the FF microrods, demonstrating similar secondary structure and molecular arrangement within FF microtubes and nanofibers. Accordingly, a possible mechanism was proposed, which may provide important guidance on the design and assembly manipulation of peptides and other biomolecules. Furthermore, characterization of a single FF microrod indicates that the FF microrod can act as an active optical waveguide material, allowing locally excited photoluminescence to propagate along the length of the microrod with coupling out at the microrod tips. PMID:25759013

  2. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOEpatents

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  3. Planar waveguide optical immunosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, Steven J.; Locascio-Brown, Laurie E.; Durst, Richard A.

    1991-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were covalently bonded to the surfaces of planar waveguides to confer immunoreacth''ity. Silver-ion diffused waveguides were used to measure theophylline concentrations in a fluorescence immunoassay and silicon nitride waveguides were used to detect theophylline in an absorbance-based immunoassay. Liposomes were employed in both assays as the optically detectable label in a competitive reaction to monitor antigen-antibody complexation. Regeneration of the active antibody site will be discussed.

  4. Optical waveguide dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.; Levine, H.; Mclaughlin, W.L.; Siebentritt, C.R.

    1983-03-22

    An optical waveguide dosimeter for personnel dosimetry is provided including a liquid solution of leuko dye hermetically sealed in plastic tubing. Optical transport is improved by dipping the ends of the plastic tubing into clear epoxy, thus forming beads that serve as optical lenses. A layer of clear ultraviolet absorbing varnish coated on these beads and an opaque outer layer over the plastic tubing provides protection against ambient uv.

  5. Effects of sol concentration on structural, morphological and optical waveguiding properties of sol-gel ZnO nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazerout, Mohand; Chelouche, Azeddine; Touam, Tahar; Djouadi, Djamel; Boudjouan, Fares; Khodja, Sebti; Ouhenia, Salim; Fischer, Alexis; Boudrioua, Azzedine

    2014-07-01

    Nanostructured ZnO thin films with different precursor concentrations (0.5-0.8 M) have been deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel dip coating technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-visible spectrophotometer, and m-lines spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the effect of solution concentration on structural, morphological, optical and waveguiding properties of the ZnO thin films. XRD spectra have shown that all the films are polycrystalline and exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure. SEM micrographs and AFM images have revealed that morphology and surface roughness of the thin films depend on sol concentration. The UV-visible transmittance results show a high transparency in the visible range and a shift of the maximum transmittance to the higher wavelength with increasing sol concentration. Waveguiding properties such as refractive index, number of propagating modes and attenuation coefficient measured at 632.8 nm wavelength by m-lines spectroscopy indicate that our ZnO slab waveguides are single mode and demonstrate optical losses estimated around 1.5 decibel per cm (dB/cm) for the thin film prepared with a sol concentration of 0.7 M.

  6. Experimental measurement of plasmonic nanostructures embedded in silicon waveguide gaps.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Soria, Alba; Griol, Amadeu; Martínez, Alejandro

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we report numerical simulations and experiments of the optical response of a gold nanostrip embedded in a silicon strip waveguide gap at telecom wavelengths. We show that the spectral features observed in transmission and reflection when the metallic nanostructure is inserted in the gap are extremely different than those observed in free-space excitation. First, we find that interference between the guided field and the electric dipolar resonance of the metallic nanostructure results in high-contrast (> 10) spectral features showing an asymmetric Fano spectral profile. Secondly, we reveal a crossing in the transmission and reflection responses close to the nanostructure resonance wavelength as a key feature of our system. This approach, which can be realized using standard semiconductor nanofabrication tools, could lead to a full exploitation of the extreme properties of subwavelength metallic nanostructures in an on-chip configuration, with special relevance in fields such as biosensing or optical switching. PMID:27137572

  7. Integrated optic waveguide devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramer, O. G.

    1980-01-01

    Integrated optic waveguide circuits with a phase bias and modulator on the same chip were designed, fabricated, and tested for use in a fiber-optic rotation sensor (gyro) under development. Single mode fiber-optic pigtails were permanently coupled to the four ports of the chip. The switch format was based on coherent coupling between waveguides formed in Z-cut LiNbO3. The control of the coupling was achieved by electro-optically varying the phase propagation constants of each guide. Fiber-to-chip interfacing required the development of appropriate fixturing and manipulation techniques to achieve the close tolerance needed for high coupling efficiency between a fiber with an approximately 5 micron m core and a channel guide with a roughly 2 micron m by 5 micron m cross section. Switch and chip performance at 0.85 micron m is discussed as well as potential improvements related to insertion loss reduction, switching voltages, and suppression of Li2O out-diffusion.

  8. Optics of anisotropic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokushima, Katsu; Antoš, Roman; Mistrík, Jan; Višňovský, Štefan; Yamaguchi, Tomuo

    2006-07-01

    The analytical formalism of Rokushima and Yamakita [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 901-908 (1983)] treating the Fraunhofer diffraction in planar multilayered anisotropic gratings proved to be a useful introduction to new fundamental and practical situations encountered in laterally structured periodic (both isotropic and anisotropic) multilayer media. These are employed in the spectroscopic ellipsometry for modeling surface roughness and in-depth profiles, as well as in the design of various frequency-selective elements including photonic crystals. The subject forms the basis for the solution of inverse problems in scatterometry of periodic nanostructures including magnetic and magneto-optic recording media. It has no principal limitations as for the frequencies and period to radiation wavelength ratios and may include matter wave diffraction. The aim of the paper is to make this formalism easily accessible to a broader community of students and non-specialists. Many aspects of traditional electromagnetic optics are covered as special cases from a modern and more general point of view, e.g., plane wave propagation in isotropic media, reflection and refraction at interfaces, Fabry-Perot resonator, optics of thin films and multilayers, slab dielectric waveguides, crystal optics, acousto-, electro-, and magneto-optics, diffraction gratings, etc. The formalism is illustrated on a model simulating the diffraction on a ferromagnetic wire grating.

  9. Temporal waveguides for optical pulses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Plansinis, Brent W.; Donaldson, William R.; Agrawal, Govind P.

    2016-05-12

    Here we discuss, temporal total internal reflection (TIR), in analogy to the conventional TIR of an optical beam at a dielectric interface, is the total reflection of an optical pulse inside a dispersive medium at a temporal boundary across which the refractive index changes. A pair of such boundaries separated in time acts as the temporal analog of planar dielectric waveguides. We study the propagation of optical pulses inside such temporal waveguides, both analytically and numerically, and show that the waveguide supports a finite number of temporal modes. We also discuss how a single-mode temporal waveguide can be created inmore » practice. In contrast with the spatial case, the confinement can occur even when the central region has a lower refractive index.« less

  10. Omnidirectional optical waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.

    2016-08-02

    In one embodiment, a system includes a scintillator material; a detector coupled to the scintillator material; and an omnidirectional waveguide coupled to the scintillator material, the omnidirectional waveguide comprising: a plurality of first layers comprising one or more materials having a refractive index in a first range; and a plurality of second layers comprising one or more materials having a refractive index in a second range, the second range being lower than the first range, a plurality of interfaces being defined between alternating ones of the first and second layers. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing alternating layers of a material having a relatively high refractive index and a material having a relatively low refractive index on a substrate to form an omnidirectional waveguide; and coupling the omnidirectional waveguide to at least one surface of a scintillator material.

  11. Optical waveguide tamper sensor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.F.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.

    1997-03-01

    Dielectric optical waveguides exhibit properties that are well suited to sensor applications. They have low refractive index and are transparent to a wide range of wavelengths. They can react with the surrounding environment in a variety of controllable ways. In certain sensor applications, it is advantageous to integrate the dielectric waveguide on a semiconductor substrate with active devices. In this work, we demonstrate a tamper sensor based on dielectric waveguides that connect epitaxial GaAs-GaAlAs sources and detectors. The tamper sensing function is realized by attaching particles of absorbing material with high refractive index to the surface of the waveguides. These absorbers are then attached to a lid or cover, as in an integrated circuit package or multi-chip module. The absorbers attenuate the light in the waveguides as a function of absorber interaction. In the tamper indicating mode, the absorbers are placed randomly on the waveguides, to form a unique attenuation pattern that is registered by the relative signal levels on the photodetectors. When the lid is moved, the pattern of absorbers changes, altering the photodetector signals. This dielectric waveguide arrangement is applicable to a variety of sensor functions, and specifically can be fabricated as a chemical sensor by the application of cladding layers that change their refractive index and/or optical absorption properties upon exposure to selected chemical species. An example is found in palladium claddings that are sensitive to hydrogen. A description of designs and a basic demonstration of the tamper sensing and chemical sensing functions is described herein.

  12. Thin heterogeneous optical silicon-on-insulator waveguides and their application in reconfigurable optical multiplexers

    SciTech Connect

    Tsarev, A V

    2008-05-31

    A new type of optical waveguides in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanostructures is proposed and studied. Their optical properties and the possibility of their application in tunable optical filters and reconfigurable multiplexers are discussed based on the results of numerical simulation by the BPM and FDTD methods. A new design of heterogeneous waveguide structures containing additional regions with a high concentration of free charge carriers in the form of a p-n junction, which are located at the edges of a multimode strip waveguide (the cross section of the silicon core being {approx}0.22x35 {mu}m), is proposed. This doping provides single-mode behaviour of the heterogeneous waveguide due to low optical losses in the fundamental mode and to enhanced losses in highest modes. Heterogeneous waveguides can be used for the fabrication of different photonic elements including new types of tunable optical filters and reconfigurable multiplexers based on the multireflection technology. (integral-optical elements)

  13. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOEpatents

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-11-20

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  14. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOEpatents

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-03-06

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  15. Biocompatible silk step-index optical waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Applegate, Matthew B.; Perotto, Giovanni; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2015-01-01

    Biocompatible optical waveguides were constructed entirely of silk fibroin. A silk film (n=1.54) was encapsulated within a silk hydrogel (n=1.34) to form a robust and biocompatible waveguide. Such waveguides were made using only biologically and environmentally friendly materials without the use of harsh solvents. Light was coupled into the silk waveguides by direct incorporation of a glass optical fiber. These waveguides are extremely flexible, and strong enough to survive handling and manipulation. Cutback measurements showed propagation losses of approximately 2 dB/cm. The silk waveguides were found to be capable of guiding light through biological tissue. PMID:26600988

  16. Investigation of semiconductor clad optical waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchman, T. E.; Carson, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of techniques have been proposed for fabricating integrated optical devices using semiconductors, lithium niobate, and glasses as waveguides and substrates. The use of glass waveguides and their interaction with thin semiconductor cladding layers was studied. Though the interactions of these multilayer waveguide structures have been analyzed here using glass, they may be applicable to other types of materials as well. The primary reason for using glass is that it provides a simple, inexpensive way to construct waveguides and devices.

  17. A Simple Optical Waveguide Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, J.; Sambles, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a thin film rectangular dielectric waveguide and its laboratory use. Discusses the theory of uniaxial thin film waveguides with mathematical expressions and the laboratory procedures for a classroom experiment with diagrams. (Author/YP)

  18. All-optical switching in optically induced nonlinear waveguide couplers

    SciTech Connect

    Diebel, Falko Boguslawski, Martin; Rose, Patrick; Denz, Cornelia; Leykam, Daniel; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2014-06-30

    We experimentally demonstrate all-optical vortex switching in nonlinear coupled waveguide arrays optically induced in photorefractive media. Our technique is based on multiplexing of nondiffracting Bessel beams to induce various types of waveguide configurations. Using double- and quadruple-well potentials, we demonstrate precise control over the coupling strength between waveguides, the linear and nonlinear dynamics and symmetry-breaking bifurcations of guided light, and a power-controlled optical vortex switch.

  19. Integrated optical tamper sensor with planar waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Carson, Richard F.; Casalnuovo, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    A monolithic optical tamper sensor, comprising an optical emitter and detector, connected by an optical waveguide and placed into the critical entry plane of an enclosed sensitive region, the tamper sensor having a myriad of scraps of a material optically absorbent at the wavelength of interest, such that when the absorbent material is in place on the waveguide, an unique optical signature can be recorded, but when entry is attempted into the enclosed sensitive region, the scraps of absorbent material will be displaced and the optical/electrical signature of the tamper sensor will change and that change can be recorded.

  20. Integrated optical tamper sensor with planar waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Carson, R.F.; Casalnuovo, S.A.

    1993-01-05

    A monolithic optical tamper sensor, comprising an optical emitter and detector, connected by an optical waveguide and placed into the critical entry plane of an enclosed sensitive region, the tamper sensor having a myriad of scraps of a material optically absorbent at the wavelength of interest, such that when the absorbent material is in place on the waveguide, an unique optical signature can be recorded, but when entry is attempted into the enclosed sensitive region, the scraps of absorbent material will be displaced and the optical/electrical signature of the tamper sensor will change and that change can be recorded.

  1. Characterization of passive polymer optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joehnck, Matthias; Kalveram, Stefan; Lehmacher, Stefan; Pompe, Guido; Rudolph, Stefan; Neyer, Andreas; Hofstraat, Johannes W.

    1999-05-01

    The characterization of monomode passive polymer optical devices fabricated according to the POPCORN technology by methods originated from electron, ion and optical spectroscopy is summarized. Impacts of observed waveguide perturbations on the optical characteristics of the waveguide are evaluated. In the POPCORN approach optical components for telecommunication applications are fabricated by photo-curing of liquid halogenated (meth)acrylates which have been applied on moulded thermoplastic substrates. For tuning of waveguide material refractive indices with respect to the substrate refractive index frequently comonomer mixtures are used. The polymerization characteristics, especially the polymerization kinetics of individual monomers, determine the formation of copolymers. Therefore the unsaturation as function of UV-illumination time in the formation of halogenated homo- and copolymers has been examined. From different suitable copolymer system, after characterization of their glass transition temperatures, their curing behavior and their refractive indices as function of the monomer ratios, monomode waveguides applying PMMA substrates have been fabricated. To examine the materials composition also in the 6 X 6 micrometers 2 waveguides they have been visualized by transmission electron microscopy. With this method e.g. segregation phenomena could be observed in the waveguide cross section characterization as well. The optical losses in monomode waveguides caused by segregation and other materials induce defects like micro bubbles formed as a result of shrinkage have been quantized by return loss measurements. Defects causing scattering could be observed by convocal laser scanning microscopy and by conventional light microscopy.

  2. On-chip plasmonic waveguide optical waveplate

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Linfei; Huo, Yijie; Zang, Kai; Paik, Seonghyun; Chen, Yusi; Harris, James S.; Zhou, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Polarization manipulation is essential in almost every photonic system ranging from telecommunications to bio-sensing to quantum information. This is traditionally achieved using bulk waveplates. With the developing trend of photonic systems towards integration and miniaturization, the need for an on-chip waveguide type waveplate becomes extremely urgent. However, this is very challenging using conventional dielectric waveguides, which usually require complex 3D geometries to alter the waveguide symmetry and are also difficult to create an arbitrary optical axis. Recently, a waveguide waveplate was realized using femtosecond laser writing, but the device length is in millimeter range. Here, for the first time we propose and experimentally demonstrate an ultracompact, on-chip waveplate using an asymmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide to create an arbitrary optical axis. The device is only in several microns length and produced in a flexible integratable IC compatible format, thus opening up the potential for integration into a broad range of systems. PMID:26507563

  3. Optical pumping in a whispering-mode optical waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-08-11

    A device and method for optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide are described. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature for confining the beam to increase intensity. An optical pumping medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Optical pumping is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction path lengths which are achieved in a small volume.

  4. Optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature for confining the beam to increase intensity. An optical pumping medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Optical pumping is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction pathlengths which are achieved in a small volume.

  5. Recent progress on polymer optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Junya

    2008-02-01

    Intensive research on optical interconnection over flexible optical circuit boards has been undertaken for such applications as high-end routers, servers and cellular phones. And these flexible optical circuit boards are expected to be used for polymer optical waveguides. This paper reports recent progress on polymer optical waveguides. It also describes a flexible stamping method, which employs a flexible film stamp made of polymeric materials. Unlike conventional hard stamps, the flexible film stamp does not require either the stamp or its substrate to be perfectly flat, which means large area stamping is easy to achieve at reduced cost. We confirmed this by replicating 50 μm multi-mode optical polymer waveguides. The propagation loss of the waveguide is fairly low at 0.06 dB/cm at a wavelength of 850 nm. This loss is sufficiently small to meet the basic requirement for optical circuit boards, and the waveguide was used to fabricate a flexible optical circuit board with MT connectors.

  6. Forecast analysis of optical waveguide bus performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledesma, R.; Rourke, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Elements to be considered in the design of a data bus include: architecture; data rate; modulation, encoding, detection; power distribution requirements; protocol, work structure; bus reliability, maintainability; interterminal transmission medium; cost; and others specific to application. Fiber- optic data bus considerations for a 32 port transmissive star architecture, are discussed in a tutorial format. General optical-waveguide bus concepts, are reviewed. The electrical and optical performance of a 32 port transmissive star bus, and the effects of temperature on the performance of optical-waveguide buses are examined. A bibliography of pertinent references and the bus receiver test results are included.

  7. Evanescent field sensors and the implementation of waveguiding nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Boerner, Sandra; Orghici, Rozalia; Waldvogel, Siegfried R.; Willer, Ulrike; Schade, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    Conventional fiber optic evanescent-field gas sensors are based on a high number of total reflections while the gas is passing the active bare core fiber and of course a suitable laser light source. The use of miniaturized laser sources for sensitive detection of CO2 in gaseous and water-dissolved phase for environmental monitoring are studied for signal enhancing purposes. Additionally, the fiber optic sensor, consisting of a coiled bare multimode fiber core, was sensitized by an active polymer coating for the detection of explosive TNT. The implementation of ZnO waveguiding nanowires is discussed for surface and sensitivity enhancing coating of waveguiding elements, considering computational and experimental results.

  8. Optical waveguide device with an adiabatically-varying width

    DOEpatents

    Watts; Michael R. , Nielson; Gregory N.

    2011-05-10

    Optical waveguide devices are disclosed which utilize an optical waveguide having a waveguide bend therein with a width that varies adiabatically between a minimum value and a maximum value of the width. One or more connecting members can be attached to the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width thereof to support the waveguide bend or to supply electrical power to an impurity-doped region located within the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width. The impurity-doped region can form an electrical heater or a semiconductor junction which can be activated with a voltage to provide a variable optical path length in the optical waveguide. The optical waveguide devices can be used to form a tunable interferometer (e.g. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) which can be used for optical modulation or switching. The optical waveguide devices can also be used to form an optical delay line.

  9. Flexible parylene-film optical waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagiwa, S.; Ishida, M.; Kawano, T.

    2015-08-01

    Modulation of neuronal activities by light [e.g., laser or light-emitting diode] using optogenetics is a powerful tool for studies on neuronal functions in a brain. Herein, flexible thin-film optical waveguide arrays based on a highly biocompatible material of parylene are reported. Parylene-C and -N thin layers with the different refractive indices form the clad and the core of the waveguide, respectively, and neural recording microelectrodes are integrated to record optical stimuli and electrical recordings simultaneously using the same alignment. Both theoretical and experimental investigations confirm that light intensities of more than 90% can propagate in a bent waveguide with a curvature radius of >5 mm. The proposed flexible thin-film waveguide arrays with microelectrodes can be used for numerous spherical bio-tissues, including brain and spinal cord samples.

  10. Waveguide-based optical chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Grace, Karen M.; Swanson, Basil I.; Honkanen, Seppo

    2007-03-13

    The invention provides an apparatus and method for highly selective and sensitive chemical sensing. Two modes of laser light are transmitted through a waveguide, refracted by a thin film host reagent coating on the waveguide, and analyzed in a phase sensitive detector for changes in effective refractive index. Sensor specificity is based on the particular species selective thin films of host reagents which are attached to the surface of the planar optical waveguide. The thin film of host reagents refracts laser light at different refractive indices according to what species are forming inclusion complexes with the host reagents.

  11. Nonlinear optical coupler using a doped optical waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Pantell, Richard H.; Sadowski, Robert W.; Digonnet, Michel J. F.; Shaw, Herbert J.

    1994-01-01

    An optical mode coupling apparatus includes an Erbium-doped optical waveguide in which an optical signal at a signal wavelength propagates in a first spatial propagation mode and a second spatial propagation mode of the waveguide. The optical signal propagating in the waveguide has a beat length. The coupling apparatus includes a pump source of perturbational light signal at a perturbational wavelength that propagates in the waveguide in the first spatial propagation mode. The perturbational signal has a sufficient intensity distribution in the waveguide that it causes a perturbation of the effective refractive index of the first spatial propagation mode of the waveguide in accordance with the optical Kerr effect. The perturbation of the effective refractive index of the first spatial propagation mode of the optical waveguide causes a change in the differential phase delay in the optical signal propagating in the first and second spatial propagation modes. The change in the differential phase delay is detected as a change in the intensity distribution between two lobes of the optical intensity distribution pattern of an output signal. The perturbational light signal can be selectively enabled and disabled to selectively change the intensity distribution in the two lobes of the optical intensity distribution pattern.

  12. Nanowires and nanoribbons as subwavelength optical waveguides and their use as components in photonic circuits and devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Law, Matt; Sirbuly, Donald J.; Johnson, Justin C.; Saykally, Richard; Fan, Rong; Tao, Andrea

    2012-10-02

    Nanoribbons and nanowires having diameters less than the wavelength of light are used in the formation and operation of optical circuits and devices. Such nanostructures function as subwavelength optical waveguides which form a fundamental building block for optical integration. The extraordinary length, flexibility and strength of these structures enable their manipulation on surfaces, including the precise positioning and optical linking of nanoribbon/wire waveguides and other nanoribbon/wire elements to form optical networks and devices. In addition, such structures provide for waveguiding in liquids, enabling them to further be used in other applications such as optical probes and sensors.

  13. Dispersion and luminescence measurements of optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faik, A.; Allen, L.; Eicher, C.; Gagola, A.; Townsend, P. D.; Pitt, C. W.

    1983-05-01

    The results of measurements are presented for the dispersion curves in the visible wavelength range of a variety of optical waveguides which were formed in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 by the implantation of helium ions. It is found that the radiation damage reduces the refractive index in both materials by about 12 percent throughout the visible region, probably resulting from amorphization of the lattice. Waveguides formed by impurity enhancement of the refractive index were measured in soda lime glass which had been doped by ion exchange of Li, K, Rb, Cs, or Ag; and it was found that in each case the percentage increase in index was wavelength dependent. The Ag ion exchange waveguides were found to have features which could be attributed to colloidal silver metal. The metal colloids give dispersion anomalies as well as a red luminescence which was used to measure the losses in the waveguide.

  14. Optical Waveguide Output Couplers Fabricated in Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Abushagur, Mustafa A. G.; Ashley, Paul R.; Johnson-Cole, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Waveguide output couplers fabricated in Norland Optical Adhesive (NOA) #81 and AMOCO Ultradel 9020D polyimide are investigated. The output couplers are implemented using periodic relief gratings on a planar waveguide. Design theory of the couplers is based on the perturbation approach. Coupling of light from waveguide propagation modes to output radiation modes is described by coupled mode theory and the transmission line approximation of the perturbed area (grating structure). Using these concepts, gratings can be accurately designed to output a minimum number of modes at desired output angles. Waveguide couplers were designed using these concepts. These couplers were fabricated and analyzed for structural accuracy, output beam accuracy, and output efficiency. The results for the two different materials are compared.

  15. Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Anne, Marie-Laure; Keirsse, Julie; Nazabal, Virginie; Hyodo, Koji; Inoue, Satoru; Boussard-Pledel, Catherine; Lhermite, Hervé; Charrier, Joël; Yanakata, Kiyoyuki; Loreal, Olivier; Le Person, Jenny; Colas, Florent; Compère, Chantal; Bureau, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Due to the remarkable properties of chalcogenide (Chg) glasses, Chg optical waveguides should play a significant role in the development of optical biosensors. This paper describes the fabrication and properties of chalcogenide fibres and planar waveguides. Using optical fibre transparent in the mid-infrared spectral range we have developed a biosensor that can collect information on whole metabolism alterations, rapidly and in situ. Thanks to this sensor it is possible to collect infrared spectra by remote spectroscopy, by simple contact with the sample. In this way, we tried to determine spectral modifications due, on the one hand, to cerebral metabolism alterations caused by a transient focal ischemia in the rat brain and, in the other hand, starvation in the mouse liver. We also applied a microdialysis method, a well known technique for in vivo brain metabolism studies, as reference. In the field of integrated microsensors, reactive ion etching was used to pattern rib waveguides between 2 and 300 μm wide. This technique was used to fabricate Y optical junctions for optical interconnections on chalcogenide amorphous films, which can potentially increase the sensitivity and stability of an optical micro-sensor. The first tests were also carried out to functionalise the Chg planar waveguides with the aim of using them as (bio)sensors. PMID:22423209

  16. Nonreciprocal acousto-optical effect in planar waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Nanii, Oleg E

    2000-03-31

    The amplitude nonreciprocal effect in planar waveguides during the interaction of waveguide optical modes with a travelling surface acoustic wave was calculated. The possibility of constructing an optical isolator (circulator) by using collinear acousto-optical diffraction with conversion of the type of waveguide mode is demonstrated. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  17. Rethinking the surface of optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melati, D.; Morichetti, F.; Grillanda, S.; Annoni, A.; Melloni, A.

    2015-05-01

    The interface between the core and the cladding of optical waveguides exhibits a number of physical phenomena that do not occur in the bulk of the material. For this reason, the behavior of nanoscale devices is expected to be conditioned, or even dominated, by the nature of their surfaces. Roughness-induced losses, backscattering and crosstalk between adjacent waveguides, together with surface states absorption impact on the optical and electrical properties of the waveguides must be considered in the design of any integrated optoelectronic device. The detrimental effects and the possibility of their exploitation are carefully reviewed, presenting in particular the ContacLess Integrated Photonic Probe to be used as transparent power monitor.

  18. Solitonic optical waveguides in PR crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, Matthew Jason

    This dissertation describes a new technique for creating permanent, two-dimensional optical circuitry in bulk ferroelectric photorefractive crystals. This method utilizes steady state photorefractive screening spatial solitons to produce a localized space charge field capable of modulating the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric crystal. This localized change in the spontaneous polarization results in a permanent index change within the material that is capable of guiding optical waves. Individual waveguides were formed in the crystal by fixing single screening solitons. The waveguides were found to be identical in size to the soliton responsible for their formation and were observed to efficiently guide light for periods of continuous illumination in excess of 12 hours without degradation. In addition, arrays of waveguides were formed using binary optics to form several solitons in the material at the same time. It was determined that waveguides formed by extraordinarily polarized solitons were single mode and that those formed by ordinarily polarized solitons were multimode, due to the difference in the magnitude of the nonlinear optical properties of the crystal for the different polarization states. Thus the size and mode guiding properties of the fixed waveguides can be controlled by changing the input solitons properties. In addition to single waveguides formed by a single screening soliton, coherent collisions of two screening solitons were used to form a permanent y-junction in the crystal. The screening soliton collision results in two initially independent solitons fusing into a single soliton. After fixing, the resulting waveguide structure allows signals from two distinct inputs to be combined into a single output. It was demonstrated that this fixed structure was bidirectional, i.e. that light sent into the output would exit the original input branches with an even division of power. Again, the size and mode guiding properties were found to

  19. Nanostructured Substrates for Optical Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Kemling, Jonathan W.; Qavi, Abraham J.; Bailey, Ryan C.

    2011-01-01

    Sensors that change color have the advantages of versatility, ease of use, high sensitivity, and low cost. The recent development of optically based chemical sensing platforms has increasingly employed substrates manufactured with advanced processing or fabrication techniques to provide precise control over shape and morphology of the sensor micro- and nano-structure. New sensors have resulted with improved capabilities for a number of sensing applications, including the detection of biomolecules and environmental monitoring. This perspective focuses on recent optical sensor devices that utilize nanostructured substrates. PMID:22174955

  20. Suspended GaN-based nanostructure for integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Dan; Wu, Tong; Li, Xin; Gao, Xumin; Xu, Yin; Cao, Ziping; Zhu, Hongbo; Wang, Yongjin

    2016-01-01

    We show the fabrication and characterization of a suspended GaN-based nanostructure in the visible wavelength region that combines InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) active layer with rib waveguides and then creates multiple separate beamlets. It is implemented on a GaN-on-silicon platform, where silicon substrate is removed and suspended epitaxial films are thinned by back wafer etching technique. When the InGaN/GaN MQWs active layer is optically excited, part of the emitted light is confined inside epitaxial films and acts the light source. The lateral propagation direction is controlled by the rib waveguide, and the light intensity and the propagation mode can be tuned by changing the rib waveguide structure. Experimental and simulated results indicate the proposed suspended GaN-based structure is promising for the integration of emitting device with planar optical circuit in the visible wavelength region.

  1. Carbon-implanted monomode waveguides in magneto-optical glasses for waveguide isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Fu, Li-Li; Zhang, Liao-Lin; Guo, Hai-Tao; Li, Wei-Nan; Lin, She-Bao; Wei, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Tb3+-doped aluminum borosilicate glasses are important magneto-optical materials for optical isolators. Optical waveguides are basic components in integrated photonics. By using the ion implantation technique, optical guiding structures can be produced in Tb3+-doped aluminum borosilicate glasses, and miniaturized waveguide isolators can be realized. In this paper, planar waveguides have been fabricated in Tb3+-doped aluminum borosilicate glasses by (6.0 + 5.5) MeV carbon ion implantation at doses of (8.0 + 4.0) × 1013 ions/cm2. The optical properties of optical waveguides are measured by equipments of prism coupling and end-face coupling systems. They are also analyzed by simulation programs of intensity calculation method and beam propagation method. The waveguides with good optical performances suggest potential applications on fabrication of waveguide isolators in Tb3+-doped aluminum borosilicate glasses.

  2. Design of electro-optic modulators based on graphene-on-silicon slot waveguides.

    PubMed

    Phatak, Abhijeet; Cheng, Zhenzhou; Qin, Changyuan; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-06-01

    We present a graphene-on-silicon (GoS) suspended vertical slot waveguide. By changing the Fermi level of graphene, the variation in the effective refractive index (RI) of the waveguide is a factor of two larger than that in the traditional GoS rib waveguide. The improvement is due to the light-intensity enhancement and the poor confinement of the optical mode in the slot nanostructure. We design Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and microring modulators based on the GoS suspended vertical slot waveguide. Our calculations show that the modulators can be energy-efficient and footprint-compact due to the large phase shift of the propagating mode in the waveguide after applying a gate voltage on the graphene. Fabrication of our design is easy and CMOS-compatible. It paves the way for chip-integrated electronic-RI modulators. PMID:27244399

  3. Slot optical waveguide usage in forming passive optical devices.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Zheng, Z; Liu, J S

    2012-01-01

    We have reviewed the work on SOI slot optical waveguides followed by our work. In a slot waveguide structure, light can be confined in a low index slot guarded by high index slabs. Slot structures are being used in forming complex structures; such as ring resonator circuits. The increased round trip in ring resonator circuits signifies the importance of dispersion calculations. We did analytical and numerical investigations of slot structures' dispersion characteristics. Our dispersion tuned slot structures can help in reducing the dispersion effects on optical signal, which will in turn improve the efficiency of light-on-chip circuits. Since the advent of slot optical waveguides, SOI based slot optical waveguides have been under consideration. It has been found that glass based slot optical waveguide structures with relatively low refractive index contrast ratio can also play an important role in forming complex nano-size optical devices. We made use of power confined inside low index slot regions for a double slot structure. Opto-mechanical sensors have been proposed based upon: (a) variation in power confined inside low index slot region due to the movement of central high index slab under the action of external force (temperature, pressure, humidity, etc). vide Chinese Patent No. ZL 200710176770.1, 2007 (b) variation in power confined inside low refractive index slot regions due to movement of both slots under the action of external force (temperature, pressure, humidity, etc). PMID:21875406

  4. Surface phonon-polariton enhanced optical forces in silicon carbide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongfang; Lawandy, Nabil M; Zia, Rashid

    2013-09-01

    The enhanced optical forces induced by surface phonon-polariton (SPhP) modes are investigated in different silicon carbide (SiC) nanostructures. Specifically, we calculate optical forces using the Maxwell stress tensor for three different geometries: spherical particles, slab waveguides, and rectangular waveguides. We show that SPhP modes in SiC can produce very large forces, more than one order of magnitude larger than the surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) forces in analogous metal nanostructures. The material and geometric basis for these large optical forces are examined in terms of dispersive permittivity, separation distance, and operating wavelength. PMID:24103963

  5. Fabrication of hollow optical waveguides on planar substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, John P.

    This dissertation presents the fabrication of hollow optical waveguides integrated on planar substrates. Similar in principle to Bragg waveguides and other photonic crystal waveguides, the antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) is used to guide light in hollow cores filled with liquids or gases. Waveguides with liquid or gas cores are an important new building block for integrated optical sensors. The fabrication method developed for hollow ARROW waveguides makes use of standard microfabrication processes and materials. Dielectric layers are deposited on a silicon wafer using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to form the bottom layers of the ARROW waveguide. A sacrificial core material is then deposited and patterned. Core materials used include aluminum, SU-8 and reflowed photoresist, each resulting in a different core geometry. Additional dielectric layers are then deposited, forming the top and sides of the waveguide. The sacrificial core is then removed in an acid solution, resulting in a hollow ARROW waveguide. Experiments investigating the mechanical strength of the hollow waveguides and the etching characteristics of the sacrificial core suggest design rules for the different core types. Integration of solid-core waveguides is accomplished by etching a ridge into the top dielectric layer of the ARROW structure. Improved optical performance can be obtained by forming the waveguides on top of a raised pedestal on the silicon substrate. Loss measurements on hollow ARROW waveguides fabricated in this manner gave loss coefficients of 0.26 cm-1 for liquid-core waveguides and 2.6 cm-1 for air-core waveguides. Fluorescence measurements in liquid-core ARROW waveguides have achieved single-molecule detection sensitivity. Integrated optical filters based on ARROW waveguides were fabricated, and preliminary results of a capillary electrophoresis separation device using a hollow ARROW indicate the feasibility of such devices for future

  6. Electro-optics laboratory evaluation: Deutsch optical waveguide connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A description of a test program evaluating the performance of an optical waveguide connector system is presented. Both quality and effectiveness of connections made in an optical fiber, performance of the equipment used and applicability of equipment and components to field conditions are reviewed.

  7. Reconfigurable optical assembly of nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Montelongo, Yunuen; Yetisen, Ali K.; Butt, Haider; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Arrangements of nanostructures in well-defined patterns are the basis of photonic crystals, metamaterials and holograms. Furthermore, rewritable optical materials can be achieved by dynamically manipulating nanoassemblies. Here we demonstrate a mechanism to configure plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer media using nanosecond laser pulses. The mechanism relies on optical forces produced by the interference of laser beams, which allow NPs to migrate to lower-energy configurations. The resulting NP arrangements are stable without any external energy source, but erasable and rewritable by additional recording pulses. We demonstrate reconfigurable optical elements including multilayer Bragg diffraction gratings, volumetric photonic crystals and lenses, as well as dynamic holograms of three-dimensional virtual objects. We aim to expand the applications of optical forces, which have been mostly restricted to optical tweezers. Holographic assemblies of nanoparticles will allow a new generation of programmable composites for tunable metamaterials, data storage devices, sensors and displays. PMID:27337216

  8. Reconfigurable optical assembly of nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Montelongo, Yunuen; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Arrangements of nanostructures in well-defined patterns are the basis of photonic crystals, metamaterials and holograms. Furthermore, rewritable optical materials can be achieved by dynamically manipulating nanoassemblies. Here we demonstrate a mechanism to configure plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer media using nanosecond laser pulses. The mechanism relies on optical forces produced by the interference of laser beams, which allow NPs to migrate to lower-energy configurations. The resulting NP arrangements are stable without any external energy source, but erasable and rewritable by additional recording pulses. We demonstrate reconfigurable optical elements including multilayer Bragg diffraction gratings, volumetric photonic crystals and lenses, as well as dynamic holograms of three-dimensional virtual objects. We aim to expand the applications of optical forces, which have been mostly restricted to optical tweezers. Holographic assemblies of nanoparticles will allow a new generation of programmable composites for tunable metamaterials, data storage devices, sensors and displays. PMID:27337216

  9. Reconfigurable optical assembly of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montelongo, Yunuen; Yetisen, Ali K.; Butt, Haider; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Arrangements of nanostructures in well-defined patterns are the basis of photonic crystals, metamaterials and holograms. Furthermore, rewritable optical materials can be achieved by dynamically manipulating nanoassemblies. Here we demonstrate a mechanism to configure plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer media using nanosecond laser pulses. The mechanism relies on optical forces produced by the interference of laser beams, which allow NPs to migrate to lower-energy configurations. The resulting NP arrangements are stable without any external energy source, but erasable and rewritable by additional recording pulses. We demonstrate reconfigurable optical elements including multilayer Bragg diffraction gratings, volumetric photonic crystals and lenses, as well as dynamic holograms of three-dimensional virtual objects. We aim to expand the applications of optical forces, which have been mostly restricted to optical tweezers. Holographic assemblies of nanoparticles will allow a new generation of programmable composites for tunable metamaterials, data storage devices, sensors and displays.

  10. Nonlinear waveguide optics and photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Knight, J C; Skryabin, D V

    2007-11-12

    Focus Serial: Frontiers of Nonlinear Optics

    Optical fibers and waveguides provide unique and distinct environments for nonlinear optics, because of the combination of high intensities, long interaction lengths, and control of the propagation constants. They are also becoming of technological importance. The topic has a long history but continues to generate rapid development, most recently through the invention of the new forms of optical fiber collectively known as photonic crystal fibers. Some of the discoveries and ideas from the new fibers look set to have lasting influence in the broader field of guided-wave nonlinear optics. In this paper we introduce some of these ideas. PMID:19550822

  11. White beam x-ray waveguide optics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarre, A.; Salditt, T.; Panzner, T.; Pietsch, U.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2004-07-12

    We report a white beam x-ray waveguide (WG) experiment. A resonant beam coupler x-ray waveguide (RBC) is used simultaneously as a broad bandpass (or multibandpass) monochromator and as a beam compressor. We show that, depending on the geometrical properties of the WG, the exiting beam consists of a defined number of wavelengths which can be shifted by changing the angle of incidence of the white x-ray synchrotron beam. The characteristic far-field pattern is recorded as a function of exit angle and energy. This x-ray optical setup may be used to enhance the intensity of coherent x-ray WG beams since the full energetic acceptance of the WG mode is transmitted.

  12. EDITORIAL: Nanostructures + Light = 'New Optics'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay; Shalaev, Vladimir

    2005-02-01

    Suddenly, at the end of the last century, classical optics and classical electrodynamics became fashionable again. Fields that several generations of researchers thought were comprehensively covered by the famous Born and Wolf textbook and were essentially dead as research subjects were generating new excitement. In accordance with Richard Feynman’s famous quotation on nano-science, the optical community suddenly discovered that 'there is plenty of room at the bottom'—mixing light with small, meso- and nano-structures could generate new physics and new mind-blowing applications. This renaissance began when the concept of band structure was imported from electronics into the domain of optics and led to the development of what is now a massive research field dedicated to two- and three-dimensional photonic bandgap structures. The field was soon awash with bright new ideas and discoveries that consolidated the birth of the 'new optics'. A revision of some of the basic equations of electrodynamics led to the suspicion that we had overlooked the possibility that the triad of wave vector, electric field and magnetic field, characterizing propagating waves, do not necessarily form a right-handed set. This brought up the astonishing possibilities of sub-wavelength microscopy and telescopy where resolution is not limited by diffraction. The notion of meta-materials, i.e. artificial materials with properties not available in nature, originated in the microwave community but has been widely adopted in the domain of optical research, thanks to rapidly improving nanofabrication capabilities and the development of sub-wavelength scanning imaging techniques. Photonic meta-materials are expected to open a gateway to unprecedented electromagnetic properties and functionality unattainable from naturally occurring materials. The structural units of meta-materials can be tailored in shape and size; their composition and morphology can be artificially tuned, and inclusions can be

  13. Hollow-core waveguide characterization by optically induced particle transport.

    PubMed

    Measor, Philip; Kühn, Sergei; Lunt, Evan J; Phillips, Brian S; Hawkins, Aaron R; Schmidt, Holger

    2008-04-01

    We introduce a method for optical characterization of hollow-core optical waveguides. Radiation pressure exerted by the waveguide modes on dielectric microspheres is used to analyze salient properties such as propagation loss and waveguide mode profiles. These quantities were measured for quasi-single-mode and multimode propagation in on-chip liquid-filled hollow-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides. Excellent agreement with analytical and numerical models is found, demonstrating that optically induced particle transport provides a simple, inexpensive, and nondestructive alternative to other characterization methods. PMID:18382513

  14. Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics

    PubMed Central

    Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Geremia, Riccardo; Ramponi, Roberta; Sansoni, Linda; Santinelli, Andrea; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Osellame, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Controlling and manipulating the polarization state of a light beam is crucial in applications ranging from optical sensing to optical communications, both in the classical and quantum regime, and ultimately whenever interference phenomena are to be exploited. In addition, many of these applications present severe requirements of phase stability and greatly benefit from a monolithic integrated-optics approach. However, integrated devices that allow arbitrary transformations of the polarization state are very difficult to produce with conventional lithographic technologies. Here we demonstrate waveguide-based optical waveplates, with arbitrarily rotated birefringence axis, fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses. To validate our approach, we exploit this component to realize a compact device for the quantum state tomography of two polarization-entangled photons. This work opens perspectives for integrated manipulation of polarization-encoded information with relevant applications ranging from integrated polarimetric sensing to quantum key distribution. PMID:24963757

  15. Grating assisted optical waveguide coupler to excite individual modes of a multi-mode waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremer, K.; Lochmann, S.; Roth, B.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial division multiplexing (SDM) in the form of mode division multiplexing (MDM) in multi-mode (MM) waveguides is currently explored to overcome the capacity limitation of single-mode (SM) waveguides in data transmission technology. In this work a new approach towards mode selective optical waveguide couplers to multiplex and demultiplex individual modes of MM waveguides is presented. We discuss a grating assisted mode selective optical waveguide coupler and evaluate numerically its coupling efficiency. The approach relies on a grating structure in a SM waveguide which is used to excite individual modes of an adjacent unmodified MM waveguide via evanescent field coupling. The simulations verify that by using the grating structure and tailoring the grating period, light from the SM waveguide can be coupled selectively into the fundamental mode or any higher-order mode of a MM waveguide with high efficiency and low crosstalk to adjacent mode-channels. The results indicate the potential of the grating assisted waveguide coupler approach for future applications in on-chip photonic networks and the (de)multiplexing of individual modes of MM waveguides.

  16. Optical bistability with the waveguide mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montemayor, V. J.; Deck, R. T.

    1985-06-01

    An exact plane-wave treatment of the triple-boundary waveguide geometry for the study of optical bistability is presented. It is found that the switching intensity required to observe the desired switching behavior is lower by at least a factor of 25 from that previously reported, thus making this geometry a prime candidate for experimental investigation. A comparison with the results of an approximate theory is also presented, showing that the approximate theory closely describes the behavior of the system as predicted by the exact theory.

  17. Silicone polymer waveguide bridge for Si to glass optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Kevin L.; Riegel, Nicholas J.; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2015-03-01

    Multimode step index polymer waveguides achieve high-speed, (<10 Gb/s) low bit-error-rates for onboard and embedded circuit applications. Using several multimode waveguides in parallel enables overall capacity to reach beyond 100 Gb/s, but the intrinsic bandwidth limitations due to intermodal dispersion limit the data transmission rates within multimode waveguides. Single mode waveguides, where intermodal dispersion is not present, have the potential to further improve data transmission rates. Single mode waveguide size is significantly less than their multimode counterparts allowing for greater density of channels leading to higher bandwidth capacity per layer. Challenges in implementation of embedded single mode waveguides within printed circuit boards involves mass production fabrication techniques to create precision dimensional waveguides, precision alignment tolerances necessary to launch a mode, and effective coupling between adjoining waveguides and devices. An emerging need in which single mode waveguides can be utilized is providing low loss fan out techniques and coupling between on-chip transceiver devices containing Si waveguide structures to traditional single mode optical fiber. A polymer waveguide bridge for Si to glass optical fibers can be implemented using silicone polymers at 1310 nm. Fabricated and measured prototype devices with modeling and simulation analysis are reported for a 12 member 1-D tapered PWG. Recommendations and designs are generated with performance factors such as numerical aperture and alignment tolerances.

  18. Observation of amplitude and phase in ridge and photonic crystal waveguides operating at 1.55 microm by use of heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tortora, P; Abashin, M; Märki, I; Nakagawa, W; Vaccaro, L; Salt, M; Herzig, H P; Levy, U; Fainman, Y

    2005-11-01

    We apply heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) to observe with subwavelength resolution the amplitude and phase of optical fields propagating in several microfabricated waveguide devices operating around the 1.55 microm wavelength. Good agreement between the SNOM measurements and predicted optical mode propagation characteristics in standard ridge waveguides demonstrates the validity of the method. In situ observation of the subwavelength-scale distribution and propagation of optical fields in straight and 90 degrees bend photonic crystal waveguides facilitates a more detailed understanding of the optical performance characteristics of these devices and illustrates the usefulness of the technique for investigating nanostructured photonic devices. PMID:16279458

  19. Controllable optical Bloch oscillation in planar graded optical waveguide arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, M. J.; Xiao, J. J.; Yu, K. W.

    2010-03-15

    Optical Bloch oscillation is studied theoretically in planar graded optical waveguide arrays with nearest-neighbor couplings. The gradient in the propagation constants can be achieved with the eletro-optical effect. We identify a variety of normal modes (called gradons) in the waveguide arrays with the aid of a phase diagram. Moreover, the localization properties of the normal modes are characterized and the transitions among these modes are obtained from a picture of overlapping bands. The existence of Bloch oscillation and other oscillations are confirmed by using the field-evolution analysis with various input Gaussian beams. From the results, we obtain a correspondence between gradon localization and Bloch oscillation. This study can be extended to more general waveguide arrays in higher dimensions and with further neighbor couplings. The results offer great potential applications in controlling wave propagation by means of graded materials and graded systems, which can be used to explore the tunability of light manipulation and applied to design suitable optical devices.

  20. Nonlinear optical localization in embedded chalcogenide waveguide arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mingshan; Huang, Sheng; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Kevin P.; Petek, Hrvoje

    2014-05-15

    We report the nonlinear optical localization in an embedded waveguide array fabricated in chalcogenide glass. The array, which consists of seven waveguides with circularly symmetric cross sections, is realized by ultrafast laser writing. Light propagation in the chalcogenide waveguide array is studied with near infrared laser pulses centered at 1040 nm. The peak intensity required for nonlinear localization for the 1-cm long waveguide array was 35.1 GW/cm{sup 2}, using 10-nJ pulses with 300-fs pulse width, which is 70 times lower than that reported in fused silica waveguide arrays and with over 7 times shorter interaction distance. Results reported in this paper demonstrated that ultrafast laser writing is a viable tool to produce 3D all-optical switching waveguide circuits in chalcogenide glass.

  1. Guided Photoluminescence from Integrated Carbon-Nanotube-Based Optical Waveguides.

    PubMed

    Bodiou, Loïc; Gu, Qingyuan; Guézo, Maud; Delcourt, Enguerran; Batté, Thomas; Lemaitre, Jonathan; Lorrain, Nathalie; Guendouz, Mohammed; Folliot, Hervé; Charrier, Joël; Mistry, Kevin S; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Doualan, Jean-Louis; Braud, Alain; Camy, Patrice

    2015-10-28

    Thin films and ridge waveguides based on large-diameter semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) dispersed in a polyfluorene derivative are fabricated and optically characterized. Ridge waveguides are designed with appropriate dimensions for single-mode propagation at 1550 nm. Using multimode ridge waveguides, guided s-SWCNT photoluminescence is demonstrated for the first time in the near-infrared telecommunications window. PMID:26350035

  2. Waveguide ring resonator as integrated optics for rotation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Quan'an; Zheng, Ludi; Ma, Xinyu; Zhang, Yanshen

    1996-09-01

    To obtain a micro optic rotation sensor (MORS), a passive ring resonator (PRR) based on channel waveguide was designed and investigated. The waveguide structure of the resonator includes a ring waveguide as well as two directional couplers. The theoretical resolution and transfer functions of the MORS are discussed, and the PRR parameters are determined. According to the sensitivity requirement, the PRR frequency detecting system is discussed, and different detecting schemes are compared.

  3. Micro biochemical sensor based on SOI planar optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yang; Dong, Ying

    2014-02-01

    A novel biochemical sensor based on planar optical waveguide is presented in this paper. The features of the sensor are as follows, the planar optical waveguide is made of SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) material, a Mach Zehnder (M-Z) Interferometer structure is adopted as the sensing part, the sensor chip is fabricated using CMOS compatible technology and the size of the sensor chip is on the micron scale. Compared with the traditional biochemical sensors, this new type of sensor has such notable advantages as miniaturization, integration, high sensitivity and strong anti-interference capability, which provide the sensor with potential applications where traditional biochemical sensors cannot be used. At first, the benefits of SOI material comparing to other optical waveguide materials were analyzed in this paper. Then, according to the optical waveguide mode theory, M-Z interferometer waveguide was designed for the single mode behavior. By theoretical analysis of the radiation loss in the Y-junction of the planar waveguide interferometer, the relationship between the branch angle and the radiation loss was obtained. The power transfer function and the parametric equation of sensitivity of the M-Z interferometer were obtained through analysis of the waveguide structure. At last, the resolution of the effective refractive index and the characteristics of sensitivity of the sensor based on SOI M-Z Interferometer waveguide were simulated and analyzed by utilizing MATLAB software. As a result, the sensitivity of SOI M-Z Interferometer sensor can reach the order of 10-7 magnitude.

  4. Optical loss coefficient in plastic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geetha, K.; Gopinath, Pramod; Unnikrishnan, K. P.; Lee, S. T.; Vallabhan, C. P. G.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Radhakrishnan, Periasamy

    2002-09-01

    We report the position dependent tuning of fluorescence emission from Rhodamine 6G doped plastic waveguide using side illumination technique . The transmitted fluorescence as a function of the distance from the point of illumination is measured by translating the waveguide horizontally across a monochromatic light source. This technique has proved to be a useful method for characterizing the light propagation properties of dye-doped waveguides. An important finding of the present studies is the nonlinear behavior of the loss coefficient as a function of propagation distance through the waveguide. It is also found that this type of nonlinear nature depends on the dye concentration and thickness of the waveguide.

  5. Nonlinear band gap transmission in optical waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Khomeriki, Ramaz

    2004-02-13

    The effect of nonlinear transmission in coupled optical waveguide arrays is theoretically investigated and a realistic experimental setup is suggested. The beam is injected in a single boundary waveguide, linear refractive index of which (n(0)) is larger than refractive indexes (n) of other identical waveguides in the array. Particularly, the effect holds if omega(n(0)-n)/c>2Q, where Q is a linear coupling constant between array waveguides, omega is a carrier wave frequency, and c is a light velocity. Numerical experiments show that the energy transfers from the boundary waveguide to the waveguide array above a certain threshold intensity of the injected beam. This effect is due to the creation and the propagation of gap solitons in full analogy with a similar phenomenon in sine-Gordon lattice [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 134102 (2002)

  6. Vertically-tapered optical waveguide and optical spot transformer formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Bakke, Thor; Sullivan, Charles T.

    2004-07-27

    An optical waveguide is disclosed in which a section of the waveguide core is vertically tapered during formation by spin coating by controlling the width of an underlying mesa structure. The optical waveguide can be formed from spin-coatable materials such as polymers, sol-gels and spin-on glasses. The vertically-tapered waveguide section can be used to provide a vertical expansion of an optical mode of light within the optical waveguide. A laterally-tapered section can be added adjacent to the vertically-tapered section to provide for a lateral expansion of the optical mode, thereby forming an optical spot-size transformer for efficient coupling of light between the optical waveguide and a single-mode optical fiber. Such a spot-size transformer can also be added to a III-V semiconductor device by post processing.

  7. Polymeric optical waveguide devices exploiting special properties of polymer materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Min-Cheol; Chu, Woo-Sung; Shin, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jun-Whee; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Seo, Jun-Kyu; Lee, Hak-Kyu; Noh, Young-Ouk; Lee, Hyung-Jong

    2016-03-01

    Optical polymer materials have many unique features that are unavailable in other inorganic optical materials. These include large thermo-optic effect with low thermal conductivity, index tunability by solution blending, structural diversity, freestanding flexibility, and controllable birefringence. Various functional integrated optic devices have been investigated by our group based on the specialties of fluorinated polymer material, which include extremely low crosstalk integrated optics, strain-controlled flexible waveguide tunable lasers, and birefringence-tuned polarization controllers. They have been demonstrated to have good performance, large fabrication tolerance, and high reliability, and they will be important building blocks for extending the application territory of polymeric optical waveguide devices.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of hydrothermally grown zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods for optical waveguide application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Chandan A.; Rahim, Rafis; Manjunath, S.; Hornyak, Gabor L.; Mohammed, Waleed S.

    2015-07-01

    We report a simple method to synthesize Zinc oxide nanorods, grown without using catalysis with less complicity. This was done by hydrothermal treatment of zinc nitrate and hexamine at 90°C and various times (5- 20h) and also we find that the nanorod size and shape depends on heating rate, temperature and heating time. ZnO nanorods have been investigated for their light guiding ability and their effective index of refraction for use in near air index optical systems by developing a ridge waveguide structure. ZnO nanorod waveguides (100 μm w x 2.5 μm h x 1mm l) were grown on a seeded glass substrate template using hydrothermal process at 90°C. Modification of the substrate surface in order to obtain dense perpendicularly-oriented ordered nanorods induced selective growth. These structures were characterized by SEM, EDX, and XRD. The guiding property, i.e. locally excited photoluminescence propagation along the length of the waveguide, was analyzed with imageprocessing program in MATLAB. Following application of a fiber optic white light source on the ZnO nanostructure, we found that light propagation occurred within the glass substrate. No such propagation occurred if light was applied on uncoated areas of the glass. Modeling of waveguide behavior to determine the number propagating modes was exercised using waveguide mode solver in COMSOL.

  9. Slow Light in Coupled Resonator Optical Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Hongrok; Gates, Amanda L.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.; Witherow, William K.; Paley, Mark S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Smith, David D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recently, we discovered that a splitting of the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) occurs in coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs), and that these split modes are of a higher Q than the single-resonator modes, leading to enormous circulating intensity magnification factors that dramatically reduce thresholds for nonlinear optical (NLO) processes. As a result of the enhancements in Q, pulses propagating at a split resonance can propagate much slower (faster) for over (under)-coupled structures, due to the modified dispersion near the split resonance. Moreover, when loss is considered, the mode-splitting may be thought of as analogous to the Autler-Townes splitting that occurs in atomic three-level lambda systems, i.e., it gives rise to induced transparency as a result of destructive interference. In under- or over-coupled CROWs, this coupled resonator induced transparency (CRIT) allows slow light to be achieved at the single-ring resonance with no absorption, while maintaining intensities such that NLO effects are maximized. The intensity magnification of the circulating fields and phase transfer characteristics are examined in detail.

  10. Optical fiber having wave-guiding rings

    DOEpatents

    Messerly, Michael J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Beach, Raymond J.; Barty, Christopher P. J.

    2011-03-15

    A waveguide includes a cladding region that has a refractive index that is substantially uniform and surrounds a wave-guiding region that has an average index that is close to the index of the cladding. The wave-guiding region also contains a thin ring or series of rings that have an index or indices that differ significantly from the index of the cladding. The ring or rings enable the structure to guide light.

  11. Experimental studies of electro-optic polymer modulators and waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Eric R.; Goetz, Frederick J.

    1995-03-01

    The results of an experimental study of electro-optic modulators and waveguides based on polymeric materials are presented. Included are the design, fabrication, and testing of integrated Mach-Zehnder modulators, which are based on polymer films that contain a novel, nonlinear electro-optic chromophore. Studies also show the efficacy of photolithography or photobleaching by the use of this chromophore to form passive, branching waveguides, which are operated at the 1300-nm wavelength.

  12. Raman scattering in a whispering mode optical waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1982-01-01

    A device and method for Raman scattering in a whispering mode optical waveguide. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature .rho. p for confining the beam to increase intensity. A Raman scattering medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Raman scattering is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction path lengths which are achieved in a small volume.

  13. Optical modes in slab waveguides with magnetoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebi, Nahid

    2016-05-01

    Optical modes in anisotropic slab waveguides with topological and chiral magnetoelectric effects are investigated analytically, by deriving the closed-form characteristic equations of the modes and hence computing the dispersion-diagrams. In order to compute the characteristic equations, a vector-potential approach is introduced by incorporating a generalized Lorentz gauge, and the Helmholtz equations are derived correspondingly. It will be shown that the formation of the complex modes and hybridization of the optical modes in such slab waveguides is inevitable. Moreover, when the tensorial form of the permittivity in the waveguide allows for a hyperbolic dispersion, complex transition from the photonic kinds of modes to the plasmonic modes is expected.

  14. High efficiency source coupler for optical waveguide illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    A fiber optic or optical waveguide illumination system includes a source coupling system. The source coupling system includes an optical channel with an internal cavity. A light source is disposed inside the driving circuit. Coupling losses are minimized by placing the light source within the optical channel. The source cavity and the source optical channel can be shaped to enhance the amount of light captured in the channel by total internal reflection. Multiple light distribution waveguides can be connected to the source coupling channel to produce an illumination system.

  15. Tunable optical bandpass filter with multiple flat-top bands in nanostructured resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jun; Chen, Yuping; Lu, Wenjie; Chen, Xianfeng

    2011-03-01

    Based on second-order nonlinearity, we present a tunable optical bandpass filter at c-band by introducing a back quasiphase-matching technique with a nanostructured named multiple resonator waveguide. Two injecting forward lights and one backward propagating light interact with difference frequency generation. At that juncture, the transmission of the forward signal can be modulated via changing the forward control power. As a result, a tunable optical bandpass filter with multiple flat-top transmit bands of the forward signal can be formed in the waveguide.

  16. Photopolymer-based three-dimensional optical waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagami, M.; Yamashita, T.; Yonemura, M.; Kawasaki, A.; Watanabe, O.; Tomiki, M.

    2012-02-01

    Photopolymer based three-dimensional (3D) waveguide devices are very attractive in low-cost optical system integration. Especially, Light-Induced Self-Written (LISW) technology is suitable for this application, and the technology enables low-loss 3D optical circuitry formation from an optical fiber tip which soaked in photopolymer solution by employing its photo-polymerization due to own irradiation from the fiber tip. This technology is expected drastic mounting cost reduction in fields of micro-optic and hybrid integration devices assembly. The principle of the LISW optical waveguides is self-trapping effect of the irradiation flux into the self-organized waveguide, where, used wavelength can be chosen to fit photopolymer's reactivity from visible to infrared. Furthermore, this effect also makes possible grating formation and "optical solder" interconnection. Actually fabricated self-written grating shows well defined deep periodic index contrast and excellent optical property for the wavelength selectivity. And the "optical solder" interconnection realizes a passive optical interconnection between two faceted fibers or devices by the LISW waveguide even if there is a certain amount of gap and a small degree of misalignment exist. The LISW waveguides grow towards each other from both sides to a central point where the opposing beams overlap and are then combined into one waveguide. This distinctive effect is confirmed in all kind optical fibers, such as from a singlemode to 1-mm-corediameter multimode optical fiber. For example of complicated WDM optical transceiver module, mounted a branchedwaveguide and filter elements, effectiveness of LISW technology is outstanding. In assembling and packaging process, neither dicing nor polishing is needed. In this paper, we introduce LISW technology principles and potential application to integrated WDM optical transceiver devices for both of singlemode and multimode system developed in our research group.

  17. Multi-element optical waveguide sensor: General concept and design.

    PubMed

    Smardzewski, R R

    1988-02-01

    A prototype of a self-contained multi-element optical waveguide sensor for detection and identification of the constituents of gaseous or liquid mixtures has been fabricated. The device consists of eight optical waveguides, each coated with a thin film known to react specifically with one or more components in a multicomponent system. An array of eight sequentially-activated light-emitting diodes is attached to the waveguide assembly in such a fashion as to activate each detection channel separately. Each waveguide is a fiber-optic coupled to a single high-gain, low-noise photomultiplier tube or photodiode/operational amplifier detector. The amplified signals can be displayed visually or input to a microprocessor pattern-recognition algorithm. CMOS analog switches/multiplexers are used in feedback loops to control automatic gain-ranging, light-level adjustment and channel-sequencing. Preliminary experiments involving the monitoring of redox/pH changes are discussed. PMID:18964475

  18. Comprehensive study on the concept of temporal optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junhe; Zheng, Guozeng; Wu, Jianjie

    2016-06-01

    Time and space are dual variables which bring a lot of analogies during theoretical study. In this paper, we extend the concept of a spatial optical waveguide to the temporal domain. Here we show that it is possible to confine the optical pulse within a time interval by introducing the temporal index boundaries. The confined pulse will propagate at a speed of the index change in the waveguide, and it will be behind the original optical pulse which propagates without the temporal index variations. In this way, we may offer an approach to broaden the bandwidth of the slow light and to tune the light speed based on the existing slow light devices. The temporal waveguide has modes, which are the temporal waveforms maintaining their shapes during the propagation. In a single-mode temporal waveguide, the pulse retains its shape as the only mode of the waveguide just like an optical soliton. In a multimode temporal waveguide, multimode interference effect exists, which can duplicate a single pulse into multiple copies and be potentially implemented for all-optical signal processing.

  19. Optical waveguides and structures for short haul optical communication channels within printed circuit boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegel, Nicholas J.

    Optical waveguides have shown promising results for use within printed circuit boards. These optical waveguides have higher bandwidth than traditional copper transmission systems and are immune to electromagnetic interference. Design parameters for these optical waveguides are needed to ensure an optimal link budget. Modeling and simulation methods are used to determine the optimal design parameters needed in designing the waveguides. As a result, optical structures necessary for incorporating optical waveguides into printed circuit boards are designed and optimized. Embedded siloxane polymer waveguides are investigated for their use in optical printed circuit boards. This material was chosen because it has low absorption, high temperature stability, and can be deposited using common processing techniques. Two sizes of waveguides are investigated, 50 mum multimode and 4 - 9 mum single mode waveguides. A beam propagation method is developed for simulating the multimode and single mode waveguide parameters. The attenuation of simulated multimode waveguides are able to match the attenuation of fabricated waveguides with a root mean square error of 0.192 dB. Using the same process as the multimode waveguides, parameters needed to ensure a low link loss are found for single mode waveguides including maximum size, minimum cladding thickness, minimum waveguide separation, and minimum bend radius. To couple light out-of-plane to a transmitter or receiver, a structure such as a vertical interconnect assembly (VIA) is required. For multimode waveguides the optimal placement of a total internal reflection mirror can be found without prior knowledge of the waveguide length. The optimal placement is found to be either 60 microm or 150 microm away from the end of the waveguide depending on which metric a designer wants to optimize the average output power, the output power variance, or the maximum possible power loss. For single mode waveguides a volume grating coupler is

  20. NANOSTRUCTURED PLANAR WAVEGUIDE DEVICE FOR MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS COMPOUNDS IN WATER BY EVANESCENT SURFACE ENHANCED RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Senspex, Inc. proposes to investigate a novel diagnostic tool based upon evanescent field planar waveguide sensing and complementary nanostructured mediated molecular vibration spectroscopy methods for rapid detection and analysis of hazardous biological and chemical targets i...

  1. Polymer multimode waveguide optical and electronic PCB manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selviah, David R.

    2009-02-01

    The paper describes the research in the Â#1.3 million IeMRC Integrated Optical and Electronic Interconnect PCB Manufacturing (OPCB) Flagship Project in which 8 companies and 3 universities carry out collaborative research and which was formed and is technically led by the author. The consortium's research is aimed at investigating a range of fabrication techniques, some established and some novel, for fabricating polymer multimode waveguides from several polymers, some formulations of which are being developed within the project. The challenge is to develop low cost waveguide manufacturing techniques compatible with commercial PCB manufacturing and to reduce their alignment cost. The project aims to take the first steps in making this hybrid optical waveguide and electrical copper track printed circuit board disruptive technology widely available by establishing and incorporating waveguide design rules into commercial PCB layout software and transferring the technology for fabricating such boards to a commercial PCB manufacturer. To focus the research the project is designing an optical waveguide backplane to tight realistic constraints, using commercial layout software with the new optical design rules, for a demonstrator into which 4 daughter cards are plugged, each carrying an aggregate of 80 Gb/s data so that each waveguide carries 10 Gb/s.

  2. Nanoassembled dynamic optical waveguides and sensors based on zeolite L nanocontainers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroso, Álvaro; Dieckmann, Katrin; Alpmann, Christina; Buscher, Tim; Studer, Armido; Denz, Cornelia

    2015-03-01

    Although optical functional devices as waveguides and sensors are of utmost importance for metrology on the nano scale, the micro-and nano-assembly by optical means of functional materials to create such optical elements has yet not been considered. In the last years, an elegant strategy based on holographic optical tweezers (HOT) has been developed to design and fabricate permanent and dynamic three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures based on functional nanocontainers as building blocks. Nanocontainers that exhibit stable and ordered voids to hierarchically organize guest materials are especially attractive. Zeolite L are a type of porous micro-sized crystals which features a high number of strictly one-dimensional, parallel aligned nanochannels. They are highly interesting as building blocks of functional nano-and microsystems due to their potential as nanocontainers to accommodate various different guest molecules and to assemble them in specific configurations. For instance, based on zeolite L crystals, microscopic polarization sensors and chains of several microcrystals for hierarchical supramolecular organization have been realized. Here, we demonstrate the ability of nanocontainers in general, and zeolite L crystals in particular to represent the basic constituent of optical functional microsystems. We show that the capability of HOT to manipulate multitude of non-spherical microparticles in three dimensions can be exploited for the investigation of zeolite L nanocontainers as dynamic optical waveguides. Moreover, we implement as additional elements dye-loaded zeolite L to sense the guiding features of these novel waveguides with high spatial precision and microspheres to enhance the light coupling into the zeolite L waveguides. With this elaborated approach of using nanocontainers as tailored building blocks for functional optical systems a new era of bricking optical components in a lego-like style becomes feasible.

  3. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids. PMID:22331960

  4. Electro-optic polymer waveguide grating with fast tuning capability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Ping; Chen, Jian-Ping; Li, Xin-Wan; Zhou, Jun-He; Shen, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Ye, Ai-Lun

    2005-06-10

    A novel fast tunable electro-optic (EO) polymer waveguide grating is proposed and designed. Its resonant wavelength can be linearly tuned via the first-order EO effect with a high sensitivity of 6.1 pm/V. We find that the spectrum characteristics of EO polymer waveguide gratings depend strongly on many grating parameters, such as refractive-index modulation, modulation function, grating period, and period number. Material selection, fabrication technology, EO tuning ability, and polarization dependence of EO polymer waveguide gratings are also discussed. Such a waveguide grating not only overcomes the disadvantages of fiber-optic gratings, such as slow wavelength tuning ability and large-scale integration inconvenience, but also has many advantages, such as high resonant-wavelength tuning sensitivity, the same fabrication technology used for semiconductors, and polarization independence. PMID:16007840

  5. Giant optical nonlinearity of plasmonic nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Melentiev, P N; Afanasev, A E; Balykin, V I

    2014-06-30

    The experimental studies of giant optical nonlinearity of single metal nanostructures are briefly reviewed. A new hybrid nanostructure – split-hole resonator (SHR) – is investigated. This structure is characterised by a record-high efficiency of third-harmonic generation and multiphoton luminescence (its nonlinearity exceeds that of a single nanohole by five orders of magnitude) and an unprecedently high sensitivity to light polarisation (extinction coefficient 4 × 10{sup 4}). (extreme light fields and their applications)

  6. Influence of gold nanoparticles on the 1.53 µm optical gain in Er3+/Yb3+: PbO-GeO2 RIB waveguides.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Davinson Mariano; Kassab, Luciana Reyes Pires; Siarkowski, Acácio L; de Araújo, Cid B

    2014-06-30

    We report the fabrication of waveguide amplifiers produced by RF-sputtering, using a PbO-GeO(2) glass (PGO glass) film codoped with Er(3+)/Yb(3+). RIB waveguides were obtained from PGO thin films using optical lithography followed by reactive ion etching process. The optical losses in the waveguide were ≈1.0 dB/cm and the maximum internal gain at 1.53 µm, with excitation at 980 nm, was 3 dB/cm. Nanostructured gold films deposited on the waveguides enhanced the Er(3+) ions photoluminescence (PL) by ≈400% in the red region and ≈30% in the infrared, under 980 nm pumping. The optical gain was enhanced and reached 6.5 dB/cm. The results demonstrate that the PGO waveguides, with or without gold nanoparticles, are promising for integrated photonics. PMID:24977891

  7. Dynamic optical methods for direct laser written waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, P. S.; Booth, M. J.

    2013-03-01

    Direct laser writing is widely used to fabricate 3D waveguide devices by modi cation of a materials refractive index. The fabrication delity depends strongly on focal spot quality, which in many cases is impaired by aberrations, particularly spherical aberration caused by refractive index mismatch. We use adaptive optics to correct aberration and maintain fabrication performance at a range of depths. Adaptive multifocus methods are also shown for increasing the fabrication speed for single waveguides.

  8. Copper ion-exchanged channel waveguides optimization for optical trapping.

    PubMed

    Reshak, A H; Khor, K N; Shahimin, M M; Murad, S A Z

    2013-08-01

    Optical trapping of particles has become a powerful non-mechanical and non-destructive technique for precise particle positioning. The manipulation of particles in the evanescent field of a channel waveguide potentially allows for sorting and trapping of several particles and cells simultaneously. Channel waveguide designs can be further optimized to increase evanescent field prior to the fabrication process. This is crucial in order to make sure that the surface intensity is sufficient for optical trapping. Simulation configurations are explained in detail with specific simulation flow. Discussion on parameters optimization; physical geometry, optical polarization and wavelength is included in this paper. The effect of physical, optical parameters and beam spot size on evanescent field has been thoroughly discussed. These studies will continue toward the development of a novel copper ion-exchanged waveguide as a method of particle sorting, with biological cell propulsion studies presently underway. PMID:23726859

  9. Electro-optic switching based on a waveguide-ring resonator made of dielectric-loaded graphene plasmon waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhe; Zhu, Zhi Hong; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Jian Fa; Cai Guo, Chu; Liu, Ken; Yuan, Xiao Dong; Qiao Qin, Shi

    2016-09-01

    We numerically demonstrate that electro-optic switching in the mid-infrared range can be realized using a waveguide-ring resonator made of dielectric-loaded graphene plasmon waveguides (DLGPWs). The numerical results are in good agreement with the results of physical analysis. The switching mechanism is based on dynamic modification of the resonant wavelengths of the ring resonator, achieved by varying the Fermi energy of a graphene sheet. The results reveal that a switching ratio of ∼24 dB can be achieved with only a 0.01 eV change in the Fermi energy. Such electrically controlled switching operation may find use in actively tunable integrated photonic circuits.

  10. Method of adiabatic modes in research of smoothly irregular integrated optical waveguides: zero approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, A A; Sevast'yanov, L A; Sevast'yanov, A L

    2014-02-28

    We consider the application of the method of adiabatic waveguide modes for calculating the propagation of electromagnetic radiation in three-dimensional (3D) irregular integrated optical waveguides. The method of adiabatic modes takes into account a three-dimensional distribution of quasi-waveguide modes and explicit ('inclined') tangential boundary conditions. The possibilities of the method are demonstrated on the example of numerical research of two major elements of integrated optics: a waveguide of 'horn' type and a thin-film generalised waveguide Luneburg lens by the methods of adiabatic modes and comparative waveguides. (integral optical waveguides)

  11. Nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghui; Ying, Zhoufeng; Ho, Ho-Pui; Huang, Ying; Zou, Ningmu; Zhang, Xuping

    2016-02-01

    We propose a plasmonic nano-optical conveyor belt for peristaltic transport of nano-particles. Instead of illumination from the top, waveguide-coupled excitation is used for trapping particles with a higher degree of precision and flexibility. Graded nano-rods with individual dimensions coded to have resonance at specific wavelengths are incorporated along the waveguide in order to produce spatially addressable hot spots. Consequently, by switching the excitation wavelength sequentially, particles can be transported to adjacent optical traps along the waveguide. The feasibility of this design is analyzed using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain and Maxwell stress tensor methods. Simulation results show that this system is capable of exciting addressable traps and moving particles in a peristaltic fashion with tens of nanometers resolution. It is the first, to the best of our knowledge, report about a nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation, which is very important for scalability and on-chip integration. The proposed approach offers a new design direction for integrated waveguide-based optical manipulation devices and its application in large scale lab-on-a-chip integration. PMID:26907415

  12. Omnidirectional optical attractor in structured gap-surface plasmon waveguide.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Chong; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Genov, Dentcho A

    2016-01-01

    An optical attractor based on a simple and easy to fabricate structured metal-dielectric-metal (SMDM) waveguide is proposed. The structured waveguide has a variable thickness in the vicinity of an embedded microsphere and allow for adiabatic nano-focusing of gap-surface plasmon polaritons (GSPPs). We show that the proposed system acts as an omnidirectional absorber across a broad spectral range. The geometrical optics approximation is used to provide a description of the ray trajectories in the system and identify the singularity of the deflection angle at the photon sphere. The analytical theory is validated by full-wave numerical simulations demonstrating adiabatic, deep sub-wavelength focusing of GSPPs and high local field enhancement. The proposed structured waveguide is an ideal candidate for the demonstration of reflection free omnidirectional absorption of GSPP in the optical and infrared frequency ranges. PMID:27001451

  13. Omnidirectional optical attractor in structured gap-surface plasmon waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Chong; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Genov, Dentcho A.

    2016-01-01

    An optical attractor based on a simple and easy to fabricate structured metal-dielectric-metal (SMDM) waveguide is proposed. The structured waveguide has a variable thickness in the vicinity of an embedded microsphere and allow for adiabatic nano-focusing of gap-surface plasmon polaritons (GSPPs). We show that the proposed system acts as an omnidirectional absorber across a broad spectral range. The geometrical optics approximation is used to provide a description of the ray trajectories in the system and identify the singularity of the deflection angle at the photon sphere. The analytical theory is validated by full-wave numerical simulations demonstrating adiabatic, deep sub-wavelength focusing of GSPPs and high local field enhancement. The proposed structured waveguide is an ideal candidate for the demonstration of reflection free omnidirectional absorption of GSPP in the optical and infrared frequency ranges. PMID:27001451

  14. Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Truong X.; Longhi, Stefano; Biancalana, Fabio

    2014-01-15

    We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An optical analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.

  15. Omnidirectional optical attractor in structured gap-surface plasmon waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Chong; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Genov, Dentcho A.

    2016-03-01

    An optical attractor based on a simple and easy to fabricate structured metal-dielectric-metal (SMDM) waveguide is proposed. The structured waveguide has a variable thickness in the vicinity of an embedded microsphere and allow for adiabatic nano-focusing of gap-surface plasmon polaritons (GSPPs). We show that the proposed system acts as an omnidirectional absorber across a broad spectral range. The geometrical optics approximation is used to provide a description of the ray trajectories in the system and identify the singularity of the deflection angle at the photon sphere. The analytical theory is validated by full-wave numerical simulations demonstrating adiabatic, deep sub-wavelength focusing of GSPPs and high local field enhancement. The proposed structured waveguide is an ideal candidate for the demonstration of reflection free omnidirectional absorption of GSPP in the optical and infrared frequency ranges.

  16. Optical waveguides in lithium niobate: Recent developments and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzan, Marco; Sada, Cinzia

    2015-12-01

    The state of the art of optical waveguide fabrication in lithium niobate is reviewed, with particular emphasis on new technologies and recent applications. The attention is mainly devoted to recently developed fabrication methods, such as femtosecond laser writing, ion implantation, and smart cut waveguides as well as to the realization of waveguides with tailored functionalities, such as photorefractive or domain engineered structures. More exotic systems, such as reconfigurable and photorefractive soliton waveguides, are also considered. Classical techniques, such as Ti in-diffusion and proton exchange, are cited and briefly reviewed as a reference standpoint to highlight the recent developments. In all cases, the application-oriented point of view is preferred, in order to provide the reader with an up-to date panorama of the vast possibilities offered by lithium niobate to integrated photonics.

  17. Optical waveguides in lithium niobate: Recent developments and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzan, Marco Sada, Cinzia

    2015-12-15

    The state of the art of optical waveguide fabrication in lithium niobate is reviewed, with particular emphasis on new technologies and recent applications. The attention is mainly devoted to recently developed fabrication methods, such as femtosecond laser writing, ion implantation, and smart cut waveguides as well as to the realization of waveguides with tailored functionalities, such as photorefractive or domain engineered structures. More exotic systems, such as reconfigurable and photorefractive soliton waveguides, are also considered. Classical techniques, such as Ti in-diffusion and proton exchange, are cited and briefly reviewed as a reference standpoint to highlight the recent developments. In all cases, the application-oriented point of view is preferred, in order to provide the reader with an up-to date panorama of the vast possibilities offered by lithium niobate to integrated photonics.

  18. Digital optical phase control in ridge-waveguide phase modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Vawter, G.A.; Hietala, V.M.; Kravitz, S.H. )

    1993-03-01

    The authors report a new digital optical phase modulation concept based on depletion-edge-translation p-n junction GaAs/AlGaAs ridge-waveguide modulators. Digital modulation is achieved by integrating in series several discrete waveguide modulators with lengths related by successive factors of two. To illustrate the concept, the authors fabricated and demonstrated a three-bit digital phase modulator with 45[degree] resolution. This structure represents the first photonic integrated circuit that performs direct digital-electronic to analog-optical conversion.

  19. Transparent and flexible force sensor array based on optical waveguide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsung; Park, Suntak; Park, Seung Koo; Yun, Sungryul; Kyung, Ki-Uk; Sun, Kyung

    2012-06-18

    This paper suggests a force sensor array measuring contact force based on intensity change of light transmitted throughout optical waveguide. For transparency and flexibility of the sensor, two soft prepolymers with different refractive index have been developed. The optical waveguide consists of two cladding layers and a core layer. The top cladding layer is designed to allow light scattering at the specific area in response to finger contact. The force sensor shows a distinct tendency that output intensity decreases with input force and measurement range is from 0 to -13.2 dB. PMID:22714510

  20. Planar optical waveguides for optical panel having gradient refractive index core

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-08-24

    An optical panel is disclosed. A plurality of stacked planar optical waveguides are used to guide light from an inlet face to an outlet face of an optical panel. Each of the optical waveguides comprises a planar sheet of core material having a central plane. The core material has an index of refraction which decreases as the distance from the central plane increases. The decrease in the index of refraction occurs gradually and continuously.

  1. Planar optical waveguides for optical panel having gradient refractive index core

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel is disclosed. A plurality of stacked planar optical waveguides are used to guide light from an inlet face to an outlet face of an optical panel. Each of the optical waveguides comprises a planar sheet of core material having a central plane. The core material has an index of refraction which decreases as the distance from the central plane increases. The decrease in the index of refraction occurs gradually and continuously.

  2. Investigation of semiconductor clad optical waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchman, T. E.; Mcwright, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    Glass waveguides are studied because of the ease and economy of fabricating devices in glass. All calculations are based on the assumption of a glass guide and substrate, but the effects being studied will occur on other materials if the proper refractive indices are used in the calculations.

  3. Embedded planar glass waveguide optical interconnect for data centre applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitwon, Richard; Schröder, Henning; Brusberg, Lars; Graham-Jones, Jasper; Wang, Kai

    2013-02-01

    Electro-optical printed circuit boards (EOCB) based on planar multimode polymer channels are limited by dispersion in the step-index waveguide structures and increased optical absorption at the longer telecom wavelengths [1]. We present a promising technology for large panel EOCB based on holohedrally integrated glass foils. The planar multimode glass waveguides patterned into these glass foils have a graded-index structure, thereby giving rise to a larger bandwidthlength product compared to their polymer waveguide counterparts and lower absorbtion at the longer telecom wavelengths. This will allow glass waveguide based EOCBs to support the future bandwidth requirements inherent to large scale data centre and high performance computer subsystems while not incurring the same dispersion driven penalties on interconnect length or loss dependence on wavelength. To this end glass foil structuring technologies have been developed that are compatible with industrial PCB manufacturing processes. Established processes as well as new approaches were analysed for their eligibility and have been applied to the EOCB process. In addition a connector system has been designed, which would allow optical pluggability to glass waveguide EOCBs.

  4. Thermocapillary Technique for Shaping and Fabricating Optical Ribbon Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Kevin; Troian, Sandra

    The demand for ever increasing bandwidth and higher speed communication has ushered the next generation optoelectronic integrated circuits which directly incorporate polymer optical waveguide devices. Polymer melts are very versatile materials which have been successfully cast into planar single- and multimode waveguides using techniques such as embossing, photolithography and direct laser writing. In this talk, we describe a novel thermocapillary patterning method for fabricating waveguides in which the free surface of an ultrathin molten polymer film is exposed to a spatially inhomogeneous temperature field via thermal conduction from a nearby cooled mask pattern held in close proximity. The ensuring surface temperature distribution is purposely designed to pool liquid selectively into ribbon shapes suitable for optical waveguiding, but with rounded and not rectangular cross sectional areas due to capillary forces. The solidified waveguide patterns which result from this non-contact one step procedure exhibit ultrasmooth interfaces suitable for demanding optoelectronic applications. To complement these studies, we have also conducted finite element simulations for quantifying the influence of non-rectangular cross-sectional shapes on mode propagation and losses. Kf gratefully acknowledges support from a NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship.

  5. Integrated Optical Memory Based on Laser-Written Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrielli, Giacomo; Seri, Alessandro; Mazzera, Margherita; Osellame, Roberto; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2016-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a physical platform for the realization of integrated photonic memories based on laser-written waveguides in rare-earth-doped crystals. Using femtosecond-laser micromachining, we fabricate waveguides in Pr3 +∶Y2SiO5 crystal. We demonstrate that the waveguide inscription does not affect the coherence properties of the material and that the light confinement in the waveguide increases the interaction with the active ions by a factor of 6. We also demonstrate that analogous to the bulk crystals, we can operate the optical pumping protocols necessary to prepare the population in atomic-frequency combs that we use to demonstrate light storage in excited and spin states of the Praseodymium ions. Our results represent a realization of laser-written waveguides in a Pr3 +∶Y2SiO5 crystal and an implementation of an integrated on-demand spin-wave optical memory. They open perspectives for integrated quantum memories.

  6. Magnetically Responsive Nanostructures with Tunable Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingsheng; Yin, Yadong

    2016-05-25

    Stimuli-responsive materials can sense specific environmental changes and adjust their physical properties in a predictable manner, making them highly desired components for designing novel sensors, intelligent systems, and adaptive structures. Magnetically responsive structures have unique advantages in applications, as external magnetic stimuli can be applied in a contactless manner and cause rapid and reversible responses. In this Perspective, we discuss our recent progress in the design and fabrication of nanostructured materials with various optical responses to externally applied magnetic fields. We demonstrate tuning of the optical properties by taking advantage of the magnetic fields' abilities to induce magnetic dipole-dipole interactions or control the orientation of the colloidal magnetic nanostructures. The design strategies are expected to be extendable to the fabrication of novel responsive materials with new optical effects and many other physical properties. PMID:27115174

  7. Measurement of the thermo-optical effect of integrated waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremmel, Johannes; Lamprecht, Tobias; Michler, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Thermo-optical switches are widely used in integrated optics and various types of integrated optical structures have been reported in literature. These structures include, but are not limited to Mach-Zehnder-Interferometer (MZI) switches and digital optical switches. The thermo-optical effect depends on the refractive index, the polarizability and the density of a material. The polarizability effect can often be neglected and the change of refractive index is dominated by a density change due to the thermal expansion of the material. We report herein a new method to measure the thermo-optical effect of waveguides directly, using integrated MZIs fabricated in polymer waveguide technology. Common methods rely on macroscopic samples, but the properties can differ significantly for micro-structured waveguides. Using a floodlight halogen rod lamp and metal-shields, we realized a radiation heater with a trapezoidal-shaped heating pattern. While the heating occurred from the bottom side, a thermocouple was placed on top of the sample. By dynamically measuring the temperature and the corresponding output-power of the MZI, the temperature difference between constructive and destructive interference can be determined. Multiple measurements of different sample MZIs exhibit an average thermo-optical coefficient (TOC) of 1.6 ∗ 10-4 1/K .

  8. Planar Waveguiding Systems for Optical Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambeck, Paul V.; Hoekstra, Hugo J. W. M.

    Driving force of the research in Integrated Optics is the optical (tele-) communication, but in its slipstream a lot of research on Integrated Optical (IO-) sensors has been performed during last decade.

  9. Self-Action of Light Fields in Waveguide Photon Structures Based on Electro-Optic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shandarov, V. M.

    2016-02-01

    Special features of spatial self-action of light fields in nonlinear optical photonic waveguide structures formed in strontium barium niobate and lithium niobate electro-optic crystals are discussed. The main methods of forming such structures including photorefractive waveguide elements and systems are briefly considered. The formation of spatial optical solitons in planar waveguides based on lithium niobate and strontium barium niobate crystals as well as in one-dimensional photonic lattices in lithium niobate is demonstrated experimentally for light beams of microwatt power. In regimes of spatial optical solitons, channel optical waveguides are formed not only in the planar waveguides, but also in the volume of photorefractive lithium niobate.

  10. Harmonic oscillations and their switching in elliptical optical waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie Zheng, Ming; San Chan, Yun; Yu, Kin Wah

    2011-03-01

    We have studied harmonic oscillations in an elliptical optical waveguide array in which the coupling between neighboring waveguides is varied in accord with a Kac matrix so that the propagation constant eigenvalues can take equally spaced values. As a result, long-living Bloch oscillations (BO) and dipole oscillations (DO) are obtained when a linear gradient in the propagation constant is applied. Moreover, we achieve a switching from DO to BO or vice versa by ramping up the gradient profile. The various optical oscillations as well as their switching are investigated by field-evolution analysis and confirmed by Hamiltonian optics. The equally spaced eigenvalues in the propagation constant allow viable applications in transmitting images, switching and routing of optical signals.

  11. Gaussian-Beam/Physical-Optics Design Of Beam Waveguide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veruttipong, Watt; Chen, Jacqueline C.; Bathker, Dan A.

    1993-01-01

    In iterative method of designing wideband beam-waveguide feed for paraboloidal-reflector antenna, Gaussian-beam approximation alternated with more nearly exact physical-optics analysis of diffraction. Includes curved and straight reflectors guiding radiation from feed horn to subreflector. For iterative design calculations, curved mirrors mathematically modeled as thin lenses. Each distance Li is combined length of two straight-line segments intersecting at one of flat mirrors. Method useful for designing beam-waveguide reflectors or mirrors required to have diameters approximately less than 30 wavelengths at one or more intended operating frequencies.

  12. Design of SiOx slab optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarraga-Medina, E. G.; Oliver, A.; Vázquez, G. V.; Salas-Montiel, R.; Márquez, H.

    2015-08-01

    An analysis of the dispersion relation of SiOx submicron optical waveguides in the visible and IR spectral range is presented. Here is considered that the refractive index (n) of SiOx can be tuned in the range from n=1.457-2 for 2>x>1, and a film thickness from 50nm to 1000nm. Starting from the dispersion relation and the distribution of the electric field in the waveguide; cutoff wavelength, cutoff thickness, effective refractive index, effective guide thickness and confinement factor of a selected mode are calculated.

  13. Instability of traveling waves in an optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizushima, Yoshihiko

    2012-09-01

    Instability of traveling IR waves within a waveguide structure is discussed. A practical model of a traveling wave amplifier of a solid state is proposed, utilizing an optical waveguide. The mechanism of instability is interpreted in terms of an interaction between a plasmon wave and a circuit one under a constraining boundary condition. Properties of the traveling amplification and related problems are discussed, with appropriately suggested semiconductor materials and device designs. The features of the amplifier are a simple structure, a low DC biasing power dissipation for room-temperature operation, unidirectionality, and a wide wavelength range from IR or submillimeter order, suited to various applications.

  14. Optical contacts to waveguides in printed circuit boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, Torsten; Shkarban, Oleksandr; Menschig, Arnd

    2004-09-01

    The development of printed circuit boards (PCB) with integrated layers for optical data transfer was pushed during the last few years. Solutions with optical fibers or planar waveguides fabricated from plastics or glass will soon be available on the market. Nevertheless the low loss coupling of functional optical components as connectors, transmitters and receivers to these new generations of PCBs still is open. The packaging of otical transceivers or connectors actually is based mainly on single device solutions or active coupling concepts. On the other side the connectors of external optical data lines or of daughter cards to the main boards and the coupling of transmitter and receiver modules to optical PCBs do need linear array concepts. And the coupling efficiency should not decrease during reflow process. Actual concepts using mulit-mode connectors or a direct waveguide coupling of receivers suffer under high optical losses. However the use of micro-optical functional elements allows the realization of coupling concepts with teh lowest losses possible. The total losses for optical lines from the transmitter to the waveguide and back to the receiver can be reduced below 4 dB. For cost reduction even symmetric optical set-up can be used. The transmission rate can be as high as 40 Gb/s. With this concept error tolerant systems for the optical interconnection are possible. We report about the modeling, the design and the characterization of micro-optical interconnect modules for high efficient contacts to the optical layer in PCBs. For the assembly of the modules we use the new concept of a desk-top factory with miniaturized tools for handling, assembly, and inspection. This concept increases the flexibility and reduces the manufacturing costs.

  15. Optical waveguides using PDMS-metal oxide hybrid nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Arash; Middlebrook, Christopher T.; Mullins, Michael E.

    2015-03-01

    Development of passive and active polymer based optical materials for high data rate waveguide routing and interconnects has gained increased attention because of their excellent properties such as low absorption, cost savings, and ease in fabrication. However, optical polymers are typically limited in the range of their refraction indices. Combining polymeric and inorganic optical materials provides advantages for as development of nano-composites with higher refractive indices with the possibility of being used as an active optical component. In this paper a new composite material is proposed based on polymer-metal oxide nano-composites for use as optical wave guiding structures and components. PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) is utilized for the polymer portion while the inorganic material is titanium dioxide. Refraction indices as high as 1.74 have been reported using these composites. For PDMS-TiO2 hybrids, the higher the ratio of titanium dioxide to PDMS, the higher the resulting refractive index. The index of refraction as a function of the PDMS:TiO2 ratio is reported with an emphasis on use as optical waveguide devices. Absorption spectrum of the nano-composites is measured showing low absorption at 850 nm and high absorption in the UV regime for direct UV laser/light curing. Prototype multimode waveguides are fabricated using soft imprint embossing that is compatible with the low viscosity nano-composite material. Cross dimensional shape and profile show the potential for full scale development utilizing the material set.

  16. Optical clock distribution in supercomputers using polyimide-based waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihari, Bipin; Gan, Jianhua; Wu, Linghui; Liu, Yujie; Tang, Suning; Chen, Ray T.

    1999-04-01

    Guided-wave optics is a promising way to deliver high-speed clock-signal in supercomputer with minimized clock-skew. Si- CMOS compatible polymer-based waveguides for optoelectronic interconnects and packaging have been fabricated and characterized. A 1-to-48 fanout optoelectronic interconnection layer (OIL) structure based on Ultradel 9120/9020 for the high-speed massive clock signal distribution for a Cray T-90 supercomputer board has been constructed. The OIL employs multimode polymeric channel waveguides in conjunction with surface-normal waveguide output coupler and 1-to-2 splitters. Surface-normal couplers can couple the optical clock signals into and out from the H-tree polyimide waveguides surface-normally, which facilitates the integration of photodetectors to convert optical-signal to electrical-signal. A 45-degree surface- normal couplers has been integrated at each output end. The measured output coupling efficiency is nearly 100 percent. The output profile from 45-degree surface-normal coupler were calculated using Fresnel approximation. the theoretical result is in good agreement with experimental result. A total insertion loss of 7.98 dB at 850 nm was measured experimentally.

  17. Integration of waveguides for optical detection in microfabricated analytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutter, Joerg P.; Mogensen, Klaus B.; Friis, Peter; Jorgensen, Anders M.; Petersen, Nickolaj J.; Telleman, Pieter; Huebner, Joerg

    2000-08-01

    Buried optical channel waveguides integrated with a fluidic channel network on a planar microdevice are presented. The waveguides were fabricated using silica-on-silicon technology with the goal to replace bulk optical elements and facilitate various optical detection techniques for miniaturized total analysis systems or lab-on-a-chip systems. Waveguide structures with core layers doped with germanium were employed for fluorescence measurements, while waveguides with nitrogen- only doped core layers were used for absorbance measurements. By the elimination of germanium oxygen deficiency centers transmission of light down to 210nm was possible, allowing absorance measurements in the mid and far UV region (210 to 280nm), which is the region where a large number of different molecules absorb light. Robust, alignment-free microdevices, which can easily be hooked up to a number of light sources and detectors were used for fluorescence measurements of two dyes, fluorescein and Bodipy, and absorbance measurements of a stres-reducing drug, propranolol. The lowest detected concentrations were 250pM for fluorescein, 100nM for Bodipy and 12(mu) M for propranolol.

  18. Design and analysis of a nanostructure grating based on a hybrid plasmonic slot waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jing; Liu, Jiansheng; Zheng, Zheng; Bian, Yusheng; Wang, Guanjun

    2011-10-01

    A novel nanostructure grating with broadband reflection is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The grating is based on a hybrid plasmonic slot waveguide that consists of a vertical dielectric-slot incorporated at the gap between the upper silicon rib and the metal substrate. The structure could provide an ultra-tight mode confinement in the cross-section while maintaining a relatively low propagation loss. By exploiting the superior modal properties, an ultra-compact and broadband Bragg grating is presented, which shows the capability of efficient wavelength selection near the telecom bandwidths. The waveguide-based Bragg grating could be used as a filter in telecommunication systems and could be a promising candidate for future integrated photonic circuits.

  19. Optical Sensors based on single arm thin film Waveguide Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.

    1998-01-01

    The second achievement meets the second objective for the second year. We choose adjustable prism couplers for connecting the sensor to optical fiber lines in our design of a breadboard prototype of the sensor. These couplers have good coupling efficiency at relatively low cost comparing to any other alternatives such as grating couplers. The third accomplishment meets the third objective for the second year. We performed testing the breadboard prototype of the sensor using heating as a technique of changing its refractive index. The only difference is that we ruled out the channel waveguides as irrelevant to the final goals of the project. The feasibility of the sensor can be shown for the slab waveguide configuration without usage of relatively expensive technologies of channel waveguide delineation.

  20. Metal-clad optical waveguides: analytical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kaminow, I P; Mammel, W L; Weber, H P

    1974-02-01

    Planar optical waveguides consisting of thin dielectric films with metal cladding have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. A computer program was devised to provide the phase and attenuation constants and wavefunctions for TE and TM modes in symmetric and asymmetric guides. Approximate expressions suitable for slide-rule calculation were also derived. Numerical results and illustrations are given for films of photoresist with Al, Ag, and Au cladding. Direct measurements of the attenuation and phase constants at 0.633 microm of numerous experimental waveguides are in reasonable agreement with theory. Attenuations <1 dB/cm, which is sufficiently small for application in devices, were measured. Calculated wavefunctions illustrate the mismatch of modes at transitions between unclad and metal-clad waveguides. Experimentally, we find substantial losses at such abrupt junctions. They can be overcome by simple tapered transitions. PMID:20125992

  1. Polycyanurate nanorod arrays for optical-waveguide-based biosensing.

    PubMed

    Gitsas, Antonis; Yameen, Basit; Lazzara, Thomas Dominic; Steinhart, Martin; Duran, Hatice; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate high-sensitivity biosensing by optical waveguide spectroscopy (OWS) at visible wavelengths using aligned polycyanurate thermoset nanorods (PCNs) arranged in extended arrays as waveguides. The PCNs formed by thermal polymerization of a cyanate ester monomer in self-ordered nanoporous alumina templates were 60 nm in diameter and 650 nm in length. Subtle refractive index changes of the medium surrounding the nanorods could be detected by monitoring the angular shifts of waveguiding modes. The sensing figure of merit thus achieved amounted to 196 reciprocal refractive index units and is, therefore, higher than that of other sensors based on angular modulation, while the configuration used here is eligible for further surface functionalization. Kinetics of the binding of taurine to the surface cyanate groups of the PCNs was monitored by OWS. Thus, modified PCNs bearing sulfonic acid groups at their surfaces were obtained. PCN arrays may represent a versatile platform for the design of biosensors. PMID:20527931

  2. Optical manipulation of microparticles and cells on silicon nitride waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaugiran, S.; Gétin, S.; Fedeli, J. M.; Colas, G.; Fuchs, A.; Chatelain, F.; Dérouard, J.

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrate the optical manipulation of cells and dielectric particles on the surface of silicon nitride waveguides. Glass particles with 2μm diameter are propelled at velocities of 15μm/s with a guided power of 20mW. This is approximately 20 times more efficient than previously reported, and permits to use this device on low refractive index objects such as cells. Red blood cells and yeast cells can be trapped on the waveguide and pushed along it by the action of optical forces. This kind of system can easily be combined with various integrated optical structures and opens the way to the development of new microsystems for cell sorting applications.

  3. Method of fabricating optical waveguides by ion implantation doping

    DOEpatents

    Appleton, Bill R.; Ashley, Paul R.; Buchal, Christopher J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for fabricating high-quality optical waveguides in optical quality oxide crystals by ion implantation doping and controlled epitaxial recrystallization is provided. Masked LiNbO.sub.3 crystals are implanted with high concentrations of Ti dopant at ion energies of about 350 keV while maintaining the crystal near liquid nitrogen temperature. Ion implantation doping produces an amorphous, Ti-rich nonequilibrium phase in the implanted region. Subsequent thermal annealing in a water-saturated oxygen atmosphere at up to 1000.degree. C. produces solid-phase epitaxial regrowth onto the crystalline substrate. A high-quality single crystalline layer results which incorporates the Ti into the crystal structure at much higher concentrations than is possible by standard diffusion techniques, and this implanted region has excellent optical waveguides properties.

  4. Method of fabricating optical waveguides by ion implantation doping

    DOEpatents

    Appleton, B.R.; Ashley, P.R.; Buchal, C.J.

    1987-03-24

    A method for fabricating high-quality optical waveguides in optical quality oxide crystals by ion implantation doping and controlled epitaxial recrystallization is provided. Masked LiNbO/sub 3/ crystals are implanted with high concentrations of Ti dopant at ion energies of about 360 keV while maintaining the crystal near liquid nitrogen temperature. Ion implantation doping produces an amorphous, Ti-rich nonequilibrium phase in the implanted region. Subsequent thermal annealing in a water-saturated oxygen atmosphere at up to 1000/degree/C produces solid-phase epitaxial regrowth onto the crystalline substrate. A high-quality crystalline layer results which incorporates the Ti into the crystal structure at much higher concentrations than is possible by standard diffusion techniques, and this implanted region has excellent optical waveguiding properties.

  5. Integrated optical refractometer based on bend waveguide with air trench structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jin Hwa; Park, Jaehoon; Kang, Chan-mo; Son, Youngdal; Do, Lee-Mi; Baek, Kyu-Ha

    2015-07-01

    This study proposed a novel optical sensor based on a refractometer integrating a bend waveguide and a trench structure. The optical sensor is a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) device involving a bend waveguide with maximum optical loss. A trench structure was aligned with the partially exposed core layer's sidewall of the bend waveguide, providing a quantitative measurement condition. The insertion losses of the proposed 1 x 2 single-mode optical splitter-type sensor were 4.38 dB and 8.67 dB for the reference waveguide and sensing waveguide, respectively, at a wavelength of 1,550 nm. The optical loss of the sensing waveguide depends on the change in the refractive index of the material in contact with the trench, but the reference waveguide had stable optical propagating characteristic regardless of the variations of the refractive index.

  6. Optical waveguide circuit board with a surface-mounted optical receiver array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, J. E.; Levesque, Harold; Savov, Emil; Horwitz, Fred; Booth, Bruce L.; Marchegiano, Joseph E.

    1994-03-01

    A photonic circuit board is fabricated for potential application to interchip and interboard parallel optical links. The board comprises photolithographically patterned polymer optical waveguides on a conventional glass-epoxy electrical circuit board and a surface-mounted integrated circuit (IC) package that optically and electrically couples to an optoelectronic IC. The waveguide circuits include eight-channel arrays of straights, cross-throughs, curves, self- aligning interconnects to multi-fiber ribbon, and out-of-plane turning mirrors. A coherent, fused bundle of optical fibers couples light between 45-deg waveguide mirrors and a GaAs receiver array in the IC package. The fiber bundle is easily aligned to the mirrors and the receivers and is amenable to surface mounting and hermetic sealing. The waveguide-receiver- array board achieved error-free data rates up to 1.25 Gbits/s per channel, and modal noise was shown to be negligible.

  7. Deep-Probe Optical Waveguides for Chemical and Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zourob, Mohammed; Skivesen, Nina; Horvath, Robert; Mohr, Stephan; Goddard, Nicholas J.

    Typical evanescent wave biosensors generate an electromagnetic wave at the sensor surface that penetrates 100-200 nm into the analysed medium. This has proven to be a highly sensitive tool to monitor refractive index changes in the close vicinity of the sensor surface. The sensitivity of such sensors can be enhanced significantly to monitor interactions caused by large micron scale objects such as bacterial and mammalian cells by increasing the penetration depth of the evanescent field. Recently, different formats of deep-probe optical waveguides including reverse waveguides (RW) based on low refractive index substrates (below 1.33) and metal-clad leaky waveguides (MCLW) have been developed for various sensing applications. These sensors are designed to maximize the overlap between the optical mode and the adlayer (superstrate layer) to be sensed. Increasing the penetration depth of the evanescent field opens up new perspectives for the detection of larger biological objects as it accommodates the majority of their body within the evanescent field. RWs use substrate materials with lower refractive index than that of the monitored superstrate layer (aqueous solution). In MCLWs, a thin metal layer is inserted between the substrate and the thicker waveguide layer. These sensor designs facilitate both increasing and tuning the penetration depth of the modes into the monitored aqueous solution and thereby significantly extend the range of possible application areas of optical waveguide sensors. The developed devices have been used for a range of biosensing applications, including the detection of bacteria, mammalian cells, organophosphorous pesticides and glucose using refractive index changes, absorbance and fluorescence monitoring. Integrating deep-probe sensors with an external electrical field or ultrasonic standing waves shortens analysis time significantly and reduces non-specific binding due to enhanced diffusion of analytes to the immobilized recognition

  8. Graded-index core polymer optical waveguide for high-bandwidth-density optical printed circuit boards: fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigure, Takaaki

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate that graded-index (GI) core polymer optical waveguides are a promising component realizing highbandwidth- density on-board interconnects. As a method for fabricating GI-circular-core polymer optical waveguides, we introduce the Mosquito method utilizing a microdispenser. The Mosquito method is capable of accurately controlling the core diameter and the inter-core pitch. We also demonstrate that the GI-core polymer waveguides enable remarkably low loss waveguide circuits involving waveguide crossings in a mono layer. We show an alternative technique to realize the low-loss GI-core crossed waveguide: the photo-addressing method which was developed by Sumitomo Bakelite Co., Ltd.

  9. Optical waveguide system for solar power applications in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takashi

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we will discuss an innovative optical system for solar power applications in space. In this system solar radiation is collected by the concentrator array which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the optical waveguide (OW) transmission line made of low loss optical fibers. The OW transmission line directs the solar radiation to the place of solar power utilization such as: the thermochemical receiver for processing of lunar regolith for oxygen production; or the plant growth facility where the solar light is used for biomass production.

  10. Using atom optics to build nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, J. J.

    1998-05-01

    Atom optics involves focusing, diffracting, or reflecting atoms, in analogy with what is done to light in conventional optics. Recently, atom optical techniques have been used to control atoms as they land on a substrate. This has led to a new approach to making nanostructures with feature resolution that is in principle only limited by the De Broglie wavelength of the atoms, or the atomic size itself. Recent demonstrations of nanofabrication with atom optics have used the light forces in the nodes of a near-resonant optical standing wave to make large arrays of nanoscale features with high spatial coherence. Directly deposited nanostructures of sodium,(G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, and K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69), 1636 (1992). chromium,(J. J. McClelland, R. E. Scholten, E. C. Palm, and R. J. Celotta, Science 262), 877 (1993). and aluminum(R. W. McGowan, D. M. Giltner, and S. A. Lee, Opt. Lett. 20), 877 (1995). have been made with this geometry. Also, patterns have been formed by exposing resists to metastable rare gas atoms(K. K. Berggren, A. Bard, J. L. Wilbur, J. D. Gillaspy, A. G. Helg, J. J. McClelland, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips. M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Science 269), 1255 (1995). or alkali atoms.(M. Kreis, F. Lison, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, S. Nowak, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, Appl. Phys. B 63), 649 (1996). Present research is concentrated on examining new ways to utilize atom optics for nanostructure fabrication, and also exploring the practical limits of the process. Two important practical considerations are growth dynamics on the surface, and atomic source quality, that is, brightness, spatial coherence and velocity distribution. Future work will involve cross-disciplinary research with surface physics, and also implementation of a wider range of atom-optical tools, including atom traps, atom holograms, or possibly even Bose-Einstein condensates. This research holds promise for development of

  11. Design and fabrication of optical polymer waveguide devices for optical interconnects and integrated optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guomin

    Optical interconnects is a promising technique to boost the speed of electronic systems through replacing high speed electrical data buses using optical ones. Optical coherence tomography is an attractive imaging technique that has been widely used in medical imaging applications with capability of high resolution subsurface cross sectional imaging in living tissues. Both the optical interconnects and the optical coherence tomography imaging may benefit from the use of integrated optics technology in particular polymer waveguides that can be designed and fabricated to improve the device capability, system compactness, and performance reliability. In this dissertation, we first present our innovative design and realization on the polymer waveguides with 45° integrated mirrors for optical interconnects using the vacuum assisted microfluidic (VAM) soft lithography. VAM is a new microfluidic based replication technique which can be utilized to improve the performance of imprinted devices by eliminating the residue planar layer and accomplish complex devices incorporating different materials in the same layer. A prism-assisted inclined UV lithography technique is introduced to increase the slanted angles of the side walls of the microstructures and to fabricate multidirectional slanted microstructures. It is also used to fabricate 45° integrated mirrors in polymer waveguides to support surface normal optical coupling for optical interconnects. A dynamic card-to-backplane optical interconnects system has also been demonstrated based on polymer waveguides with tunable optofluidic couplers. The operation of the tunable optofluidic coupler is accomplished by controlling the position of air bubbles and index matching liquid in the perpendicular microfluidic channel for refractive index modulation. The dynamic activation and deactivation of the backplane optofluidic couplers can save the optical signal power. 10 Gbps eye diagrams of the dynamic optical interconnect link

  12. Optical properties of plasmonic nanostructures: Theory & experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala Krishna, Juluri

    Metal nanoparticles and thin films enable localization of electromagnetic energy in the form of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) and propagating surface plasmons respectively. This research field, also known as plasmonics, involves understanding and fabricating innovative nanostructures designed to manage and utilize localized light in the nanoscale. Advances in plasmonics will facilitate innovation in sensing, biomedical engineering, energy harvesting and nanophotonic devices. In this thesis, three aspects of plasmonics are studied: 1) active plasmonic systems using charge-induced plasmon shifts (CIPS) and plasmon-molecule resonant coupling; 2) scalable solutions to fabricate large electric field plasmonic nanostructures; and 3) controlling the propagation of designer surface plasmons (DSPs) using parabolic graded media. The full potential of plasmonics can be realized with active plasmonic devices which provide tunable plasmon resonances. The work reported here develops both an understanding for and realization of various mechanisms to achieve tunable plasmonic systems. First, we show that certain nanoparticle geometries and material compositions enable large CIPS. Second, we propose and investigate systems which exhibit coupling between molecular and plasmonic resonances where energy splitting is observed due to interactions between plasmons and molecules. Large electric field nanostructures have many promising applications in the areas of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, higher harmonic light generation, and enhanced uorescence. High throughput techniques that utilize simple nanofabrication are essential their advancement. We contribute to this effort by using a salting-out quenching technique and colloidal lithography to fabricate nanodisc dimers and cusp nanostructures that allow localization of large electric fields, and are comparable to structures fabricated by conventional lithography/milling techniques. Designer surface plasmons (DSPs) are

  13. Nanostructured tapered optical fibers for paticle trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Mark; Truong, Viet Giang; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2015-05-01

    Optical micro- and nanofibers have recently gained popularity as tools in quantum engineering using laser-cooled, neutral atoms. In particular, atoms can be trapped around such optical fibers, and photons coupled into the fibers from the surrounding atoms could be used to transfer quantum state information within the system. It has also been demonstrated that such fibers can be used to manipulate and trap silica and polystyrene particles in the 1-3 μm range. We recently proposed using a focused ion beam nanostructured tapered optical fiber for improved atom trapping geometries1. Here, we present details on the design and fabrication of these nanostructured optical fibers and their integration into particle trapping platforms for the demonstration of submicron particle trapping. The optical fibers are tapered to approximately 1-2 μm waist diameters, using a custom-built, heat-and-pull fiber rig, prior to processing using a focused ion beam. Slots of about 300 nm in width and 10-20 μm in length are milled right though the waist regions of the tapered optical fibers. Details on the fabrication steeps necessary to ensure high optical transmission though the fiber post processing are included. Fiber transmissions of over 80% over a broad range of wavelengths, in the 700-11100 nm range, are attainable. We also present simulation results on the impact of varying the slot parameters on the trap depths achievable and milling multiple traps within a single tapered fiber. This work demonstrates even further the functionality of optical micro- and nanofibers as trapping devices across a range of regimes.

  14. Electro-optical circuit board with single-mode glass waveguide optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Pernthaler, Dominik; Weber, Daniel; Sirbu, Bogdan; Herbst, Christian; Frey, Christopher; Queisser, Marco; Wöhrmann, Markus; Manessis, Dionysios; Schild, Beatrice; Oppermann, Hermann; Eichhammer, Yann; Schröder, Henning; Hâkansson, Andreas; Tekin, Tolga

    2016-03-01

    A glass optical waveguide process has been developed for fabrication of electro-optical circuit boards (EOCB). Very thin glass panels with planar integrated single-mode waveguides can be embedded as a core layer in printed circuit boards for high-speed board-level chip-to-chip and board-to-board optical interconnects over an optical backplane. Such singlemode EOCBs will be needed in upcoming high performance computers and data storage network environments in case single-mode operating silicon photonic ICs generate high-bandwidth signals [1]. The paper will describe some project results of the ongoing PhoxTroT project, in which a development of glass based single-mode on-board and board-to-board interconnection platform is successfully in progress. The optical design comprises a 500 μm thin glass panel (Schott D263Teco) with purely optical layers for single-mode glass waveguides. The board size is accommodated to the mask size limitations of the fabrication (200 mm wafer level process, being later transferred also to larger panel size). Our concept consists of directly assembling of silicon photonic ICs on cut-out areas in glass-based optical waveguide panels. A part of the electrical wiring is patterned by thin film technology directly on the glass wafer surface. A coupling element will be assembled on bottom side of the glass-based waveguide panel for 3D coupling between board-level glass waveguides and chip-level silicon waveguides. The laminate has a defined window for direct glass access for assembling of the photonic integrated circuit chip and optical coupling element. The paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of glass-based electro-optical circuit board with format of (228 x 305) mm2.

  15. Integrating optical glucose sensing into a planar waveguide sensor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Aradhana; Deka, Bidyut; Sahu, Partha P.

    2013-06-01

    A device for glucose monitoring in people with diabetes is a clinical and research priority in the recent years for its accurate self management. An extensive theoretical design and development of an optical sensor is carried out incorporating planar waveguide structure in an endeavor to measure slight changes of glucose concentration. The sensor is simple and highly sensitive and has the potential to be used for online monitoring of blood glucose levels for the diabetic patients in the near future.

  16. Optical waveguide formed by cubic silicon carbide on sapphire substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Xiao; Wongchotigul, Kobchat; Spencer, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    Optical confinement in beta silicon carbide (beta-SiC) thin films on sapphire substrate is demonstrated. Measurements are performed on waveguides formed by the mechanical transfer of thin beta-SiC films to sapphire. Recent results of epitaxial films of SiC on sapphire substrates attest to the technological viability of optoelectronic devices made from silicon carbide. Far-field mode patterns are shown. It is believed that this is the first step in validating a silicon carbide optoelectronic technology.

  17. Spatiotemporal nonlinear optics in arrays of subwavelength waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbach, A. V.; Ding, W.; Staines, O. K.; Nobriga, C. E. de; Hobbs, G. D.; Wadsworth, W. J.; Knight, J. C.; Skryabin, D. V.; Samarelli, A.; Sorel, M.; De La Rue, R. M.

    2010-10-15

    We report numerical and experimental investigations of spatiotemporal nonlinear optical effects leading to spectral broadening in an array of subwavelength silicon waveguides pumped with infrared femtosecond pulses. Adjusting an input pulse position across the array, we observe different patterns in the output spectra. We explain these observations using a theory of the resonant (Cherenkov) radiation emitted by temporal solitons belonging to different spatial supermodes of the array. We also demonstrate strong nonperturbative coupling of temporal dispersion and discrete diffraction in the subwavelength arrays.

  18. Plant tissue optics: micro- and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, David W.

    2009-08-01

    Plants have evolved unusual tissue optical properties, not surprising as creatures of light. These are astonishingly sophisticated, involving both micro- and nanostructures. Microstructures refract, scatter, and channel light in plant tissues, to produce concentrations and gradients of light within, and to remove undesired portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Nanostructures use the different refractive indices of both cellulosic walls and bi-lipid membranes to interfere with light, multiple layers producing intense constructive coloration and reduced fluxes within tissues. In a tropical sedge now under analysis, structures may include silica. Recently discovered surface diffraction gratings produce strong directionally sensitive coloration that assist in pollinator visitation. Although some of these properties have obvious applications, most await appreciation by creative scientists to produce new useful devices.

  19. Nanostructured detector technologies for optical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Ashok K.; Welser, Roger E.; Puri, Yash R.; Dhar, Nibir K.; Polla, Dennis L.; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal; Dubey, Madan

    2014-05-01

    Optical sensing technology is critical for optical communication, defense and security applications. Advances in optoelectronics materials in the UV, Visible and Infrared, using nanostructures, and use of novel materials such as CNT and Graphene have opened doors for new approaches to apply device design methodology that are expected to offer enhanced performance and low cost optical sensors in a wide range of applications. This paper is intended to review recent advancements and present different device architectures and analysis. The chapter will briefly introduce the basics of UV and Infrared detection physics and various wave bands of interest and their characteristics [1, 2] We will cover the UV band (200-400 nm) and address some of the recent advances in nanostructures growth and characterization using ZnO/MgZnO based technologies and their applications. Recent advancements in design and development of CNT and Graphene based detection technologies have shown promise for optical sensor applications. We will present theoretical and experimental results on these device and their potential applications in various bands of interest.

  20. Development of polymer optical waveguide-type alcohol sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Junichi; Honma, Satoshi; Morisawa, Masayuki; Muto, Shinzo

    2008-03-01

    Recently, alcohols such as methanol and ethanol have a wide attention as important fuel in next generation. However, As is known, many alcohols have a toxic and explosive nature. To prevent accidents caused by alcohol, development of a safety and highly sensitive sensor is required strongly. In addition, it is desired to be simple and low-cost. So, in this paper, polymer waveguide-type optical alcohol sensors such as fiber-type and channel waveguide-type have been studied. In these sensor head, refractive index n II of cladding layer was set at slightly larger value than that of core (n I). Therefore, in the state without alcohol, the sensor head operate as a leaky waveguide. On the other hand in the state with alcohol, cladding polymer causes swelling and its refractive index becomes lower than n I in core. Based on this principle, large change in output light intensity occurs and detection of alcohol concentration becomes possible even for vapor phase alcohol. In the experiment using a fiber-type sensor with a core size of 0.25 mm, detection of 1% methanol vapor could easily be obtained. Furthermore, using a channel waveguide-type sensor head with a core size of about 50μm×40μm, large increase in sensitivity was observed.

  1. Amplitude and phase modulation with waveguide optics

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, S.C.; Wilcox, R.B.; Browning, D.; Penko, F.A.

    1996-12-17

    We have developed amplitude and phase modulation systems for glass lasers using integrated electro-optic modulators and solid state high- speed electronics. The present and future generation of lasers for Inertial Confinement Fusion require laser beams with complex temporal and phase shaping to compensate for laser gain saturation, mitigate parametric processes such as transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering in optics, and to provide specialized drive to the fusion targets. These functions can be performed using bulk optoelectronic modulators, however using high-speed electronics to drive low voltage integrated optical modulators has many practical advantages. In particular, we utilize microwave GaAs transistors to perform precision, 250 ps resolution temporal shaping. Optical bandwidth is generated using a microwave oscillator at 3 GHz amplified by a solid state amplifier. This drives an integrated electrooptic modulator to achieve laser bandwidths exceeding 30 GHz.

  2. Extreme optical confinement in a slotted photonic crystal waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Caër, Charles; Le Roux, Xavier; Cassan, Eric; Combrié, Sylvain De Rossi, Alfredo

    2014-09-22

    Using Optical Coherence Tomography, we measure the attenuation of slow light modes in slotted photonic crystal waveguides. When the group index is close to 20, the attenuation is below 300 dB cm{sup −1}. Here, the optical confinement in the empty slot is very strong, corresponding to an ultra-small effective cross section of 0.02 μm{sup 2}. This is nearly 10 times below the diffraction limit at λ = 1.5 μm, and it enables an effective interaction with a very small volume of functionalized matter.

  3. Microfluidic sensor based on integrated optical hollow waveguides.

    PubMed

    Campopiano, Stefania; Bernini, Romeo; Zeni, Luigi; Sarro, Pasqualina M

    2004-08-15

    A simple integrated optical refractometric sensor based on hollow-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides is proposed. The sensor uses the antiresonant reflecting guidance mechanism and permits one to measure the refractive index of a liquid filling the core by simply monitoring the transmitted spectrum. The device has been made with standard silicon technology, and the experimental results confirm numerical simulations performed in one- and two-dimensional geometry. The sensor exhibits a linear response over a wide measurement range (1.3330-1.4450) and a resolution of 9 x 10(-4) and requires a small analyte volume. PMID:15357351

  4. Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Raza, Søren; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Wubs, Martijn; Asger Mortensen, N

    2015-05-13

    This review provides a broad overview of the studies and effects of nonlocal response in metallic nanostructures. In particular, we thoroughly present the nonlocal hydrodynamic model and the recently introduced generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model. The influence of nonlocal response on plasmonic excitations is studied in key metallic geometries, such as spheres and dimers, and we derive new consequences due to the GNOR model. Finally, we propose several trajectories for future work on nonlocal response, including experimental setups that may unveil further effects of nonlocal response. PMID:25893883

  5. Micromachined silicon cantilever beam accelerometer incorporating an integrated optical waveguide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Kevin E.; De Brabander, Gregory N.; Boyd, Joseph T.

    1993-01-01

    A micromachined cantilever beam accelerometer is described in which beam deflection is determined optically. A diving board structure is anisotropically etched into a silicon wafer. This diving board structure is patterned from the wafer backside so as to leave a small gap between the tip of the diving board and the opposite fixed edge on the front side of the wafer. In order to sense a realistic range of accelerations, a foot mass incorporated onto the end of the beam is found to provide design flexibility. A silicon nitride optical waveguide is then deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) onto the sample. Beam deflection is measured by the decrease of light coupled across the gap between the waveguide sections. In order to investigate sensor response and simulate deflection of the beam, we utilized a separate beam and waveguide section which could be displaced from one another in a precisely controlled manner. Measurements were performed on samples with gaps of 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 micron and the variation of the fraction of light coupled across the gap as a function of displacement and gap spacing was found to agree with overlap integral calculations.

  6. WGM-Resonator/Tapered-Waveguide White-Light Sensor Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated the feasibility of compact white-light sensor optics consisting of unitary combinations of (1) low-profile whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators and (2) tapered rod optical waveguides. These sensors are highly wavelength-dispersive and are expected to be especially useful in biochemical applications for measuring absorption spectra of liquids. These sensor optics exploit the properties of a special class of non-diffracting light beams that are denoted Bessel beams because their amplitudes are proportional to Bessel functions of the radii from their central axes. High-order Bessel beams can have large values of angular momentum. In a sensor optic of this type, a low-profile WGM resonator that supports modes having large angular momenta is used to generate high-order Bessel beams. As used here, "low-profile" signifies that the WGM resonator is an integral part of the rod optical waveguide but has a radius slightly different from that of the adjacent part(s).

  7. Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Nizamoglu, Sedat; Gather, Malte C.; Humar, Matjaž; Choi, Myunghwan; Kim, Seonghoon; Kim, Ki Su; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Randolph, Mark; Redmond, Robert W.; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Advances in photonics have stimulated significant progress in medicine, with many techniques now in routine clinical use. However, the finite depth of light penetration in tissue is a serious constraint to clinical utility. Here we show implantable light-delivery devices made of bio-derived or biocompatible, and biodegradable polymers. In contrast to conventional optical fibres, which must be removed from the body soon after use, the biodegradable and biocompatible waveguides may be used for long-term light delivery and need not be removed as they are gradually resorbed by the tissue. As proof of concept, we demonstrate this paradigm-shifting approach for photochemical tissue bonding (PTB). Using comb-shaped planar waveguides, we achieve a full thickness (>10 mm) wound closure of porcine skin, which represents ∼10-fold extension of the tissue area achieved with conventional PTB. The results point to a new direction in photomedicine for using light in deep tissues. PMID:26783091

  8. Wavelet-Galerkin solver for the analysis of optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Barai, Samit; Sharma, Anurag

    2009-04-01

    A new set of basis functions based on truncated Gaussian wavelets is proposed for optical waveguide analysis using the well-known Galerkin method. A spatially limited Gaussian wavelet train is formed by judiciously truncating the tails of Gaussian functions. The proposed set of basis functions produces a sparse eigenvalue equation when the wave equation is solved by the Galerkin method. The limited span of the basis functions makes the computation of integrals associated with matrix elements very fast with lower memory requirements. The effectiveness of the proposed basis functions is tested by comparing the results with those obtained by other methods and other basis functions for diffused and step index planar and channel waveguides. The results show a significant reduction in computation time while maintaining good accuracy. PMID:19340268

  9. Metasurface-loaded waveguide for transformation optics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Pengjiang; Xiao, Shiyi; Xu, Yadong; Chen, Huanyang; Tak Chu, Sai; Li, Jensen

    2016-04-01

    We theoretically investigate a two-dimensional metasurface-loaded waveguide as a generic platform for transformation optics (TO) applications. The mode indices can achieve values much less or greater than one by tuning the reflection phase from the metasurface. Due to the subwavelength feature size of the metasurface, we develop an effective description of the wave propagation using an artificial electromagnetic boundary approach, which replaces the effective medium description of TO for bulk media. We numerically demonstrate a constant zero-index medium for wave collimation, gradient index profiles as Luneburg and Maxwell fisheye lenses and a wave bender based on the finite embedded coordinate transformation. These investigations provide a feasible route to perform TO with metasurfaces as waveguide boundaries, yet the designs can still be obtained using an effective boundary approach with only a few constitutive parameters.

  10. Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizamoglu, Sedat; Gather, Malte C.; Humar, Matjaž; Choi, Myunghwan; Kim, Seonghoon; Kim, Ki Su; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Randolph, Mark; Redmond, Robert W.; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Advances in photonics have stimulated significant progress in medicine, with many techniques now in routine clinical use. However, the finite depth of light penetration in tissue is a serious constraint to clinical utility. Here we show implantable light-delivery devices made of bio-derived or biocompatible, and biodegradable polymers. In contrast to conventional optical fibres, which must be removed from the body soon after use, the biodegradable and biocompatible waveguides may be used for long-term light delivery and need not be removed as they are gradually resorbed by the tissue. As proof of concept, we demonstrate this paradigm-shifting approach for photochemical tissue bonding (PTB). Using comb-shaped planar waveguides, we achieve a full thickness (>10 mm) wound closure of porcine skin, which represents ~10-fold extension of the tissue area achieved with conventional PTB. The results point to a new direction in photomedicine for using light in deep tissues.

  11. Optical waveguides having flattened high order modes

    DOEpatents

    Messerly, Michael Joseph; Beach, Raymond John; Heebner, John Edward; Dawson, Jay Walter; Pax, Paul Henry

    2014-08-05

    A deterministic methodology is provided for designing optical fibers that support field-flattened, ring-like higher order modes. The effective and group indices of its modes can be tuned by adjusting the widths of the guide's field-flattened layers or the average index of certain groups of layers. The approach outlined here provides a path to designing fibers that simultaneously have large mode areas and large separations between the propagation constants of its modes.

  12. A unified approach for radiative losses and backscattering in optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melati, D.; Morichetti, F.; Melloni, A.

    2014-05-01

    Sidewall roughness in optical waveguides represents a severe impairment for the proper functionality of photonic integrated circuits. The interaction between the propagating mode and the roughness is responsible for both radiative losses and distributed backscattering. In this paper, a unified vision on these extrinsic loss phenomena is discussed, highlighting the fundamental role played by the sensitivity of the effective index neff of the optical mode to waveguide width variations. The nw model presented applies to both 2D slab waveguides and 3D laterally confined waveguides and is in very good agreement with existing models that individually describe radiative loss or backscattering only. Experimental results are presented, demonstrating the validity of the nw model for arbitrary waveguide geometries and technologies. This approach enables an accurate description of realistic optical waveguides and provides simple design rules for optimization of the waveguide geometry in order to reduce the propagation losses generated by sidewall roughness.

  13. Optical waveguiding and temperature dependent photoluminescence of nanotubulars grown from molecular building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maibohm, C.; Rastedt, M.; Kutscher, F.; Frey, O. N.; Beckhaus, R.; Rubahn, H.-G.; Al-Shamery, K.

    2013-12-01

    Optical waveguiding of blue light after UV-excitation is demonstrated in bundles of organic nanotubulars obtained via template assisted aggregation of the small π-conjugated non planar molecules 17H-Tetrabenzo[a,c,g,i]fluorene (17H-Tbf) and 17-Trimethylsilyltetrabenzo[a,c,g,i]fluorene (TMS-Tbf). The propagating blue light is strongly attenuated due to self-absorption. Vibronic spectra for both nanotubulars and macroscopic crystallites for temperatures between 5 and 300 K show a behavior of TMS-Tbf that resembles that of long chained molecules while 17H-TbF resembles that of small organic molecules. For both molecular species crystallites and nanostructures have large average Huang-Rhys factors indicating strong phononic coupling promoted by the polycrystallinity of the samples.

  14. Optical simulation of neutrino oscillations in binary waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Marini, Andrea; Longhi, Stefano; Biancalana, Fabio

    2014-10-10

    We theoretically propose and investigate an optical analogue of neutrino oscillations in a pair of vertically displaced binary waveguide arrays with longitudinally modulated effective refractive index. Optical propagation is modeled through coupled-mode equations, which in the continuous limit converge to two coupled Dirac equations for fermionic particles with different mass states, analogously to neutrinos. In addition to simulating neutrino oscillation in the noninteracting regime, our optical setting enables us to explore neutrino interactions in extreme regimes that are expected to play an important role in massive supernova stars. In particular, we predict the quenching of neutrino oscillations and the existence of topological defects, i.e., neutrino solitons, which in our photonic simulator should be observable as excitation of optical gap solitons propagating along the binary arrays at high excitation intensities. PMID:25375692

  15. Highly nonlocal optical nonlinearities in atoms trapped near a waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Grisins, Pjotrs; Stimming, Hans Peter; Mazets, Igor; Kurizki, Gershon

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear optical phenomena are typically local. Here we predict the possibility of highly nonlocal optical nonlinearities for light propagating in atomic media trapped near a nano-waveguide, where long-range interactions between the atoms can be tailored. When the atoms are in an electromagnetically-induced transparency configuration, the atomic interactions are translated to long-range interactions between photons and thus to highly nonlocal optical nonlinearities. We derive and analyze the governing nonlinear propagation equation, finding a roton-like excitation spectrum for light and the emergence of long-range order in its output intensity. These predictions open the door to studies of unexplored wave dynamics and many-body physics with highly-nonlocal interactions of optical fields in one dimension.

  16. Compact holographic printer using RGB waveguide holographic optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyun, Kyungsuk P.; Choi, Chilsung; Morozov, Alexander V.; Kim, Sunil; An, Jungkwuen

    2013-03-01

    We propose compact holographic printer using RGB waveguide hologram while reducing overall device size and quantity of elements with integrated functionality of each optical element. For glasses-free 3D experience anywhere anytime, it is critical to make holography device that can be as compact and integrated as possible. Compared to the conventional optics-based structure, our RGB WGH-based one reduces the overall size by 20 times, the number of components by 10 times, and improves the optical efficiency by 3 times, with comparable holographic quality to the conventional optics-based approaches. Proposed research can be useful for both general consumers and professionals like 3D photography and medical 3D image printing applications.

  17. Potassium Titanyl Phosphate Thin Films for Optical Waveguide Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagerman, Michael Eugene

    1995-11-01

    Optical waveguides based on thin films have a high potential for photonic device applications in laser technology, signal processing, optical computing and image manipulation. Moreover, thin films offer a practical alternative to single crystals for integrated optical applications because of their enhanced design flexibility. Owing to the volatility of potassium and phosphorus oxides at high temperature, attempts to synthesize thin films of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO_4, or KTP) by magnetron sputtering prior to this thesis work were unsuccessful. A principal goal of our work has been the application of an enhanced understanding of the KTP structure field with specific focus on the relevant defect chemistry, structure and defect-processing property relationships, and waveguide technology, as they relate to thin film fabrication and the development of novel nonlinear optical (NLO) photonic devices. The high temperature decomposition of KTP has been examined in detail along with strategies to promote densification of KTP ceramic which serves as the source material for the pulsed laser ablation thin film fabrication technique. KTP thin films have been successfully fabricated for the first time by pulsed excimer laser deposition on a variety of substrates including sapphire, silicon, and fused quartz. It is suggested that the success of this fabrication process relies on the application of an understanding of the complex chemistry of this remarkable material and the transient congruent process generated by the pulsed UV laser beam. The properties of the deposited films, such as the chemical stoichiometry, surface morphology, crystallinity, and NLO response, have been extensively characterized. The second order electric susceptibility, chi^{(2)}, of a textured film on fused silica was determined to be approximately 16 times the magnitude of quartz, or {1over3 } of the largest component in single crystal KTP. Endfire coupling was demonstrated with planar KTP

  18. Photo-induced reduction of graphene oxide coating on optical waveguide and consequent optical intermodulation.

    PubMed

    Chong, W Y; Lim, W H; Yap, Y K; Lai, C K; De La Rue, R M; Ahmad, H

    2016-01-01

    Increased absorption of transverse-magnetic (TM) - polarised light by a graphene-oxide (GO) coated polymer waveguide has been observed in the presence of transverse-electric (TE) - polarised light. The GO-coated waveguide exhibits very strong photo-absorption of TE-polarised light - and acts as a TM-pass waveguide polariser. The absorbed TE-polarised light causes a significant temperature increase in the GO film and induces thermal reduction of the GO, resulting in an increase in optical-frequency conductivity and consequently increased optical propagation loss. This behaviour in a GO-coated waveguide gives the action of an inverted optical switch/modulator. By varying the incident TE-polarised light power, a maximum modulation efficiency of 72% was measured, with application of an incident optical power level of 57 mW. The GO-coated waveguide was able to respond clearly to modulated TE-polarised light with a pulse duration of as little as 100 μs. In addition, no wavelength dependence was observed in the response of either the modulation (TE-polarised light) or the signal (TM-polarised light). PMID:27034015

  19. Photo-induced reduction of graphene oxide coating on optical waveguide and consequent optical intermodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, W. Y.; Lim, W. H.; Yap, Y. K.; Lai, C. K.; de La Rue, R. M.; Ahmad, H.

    2016-04-01

    Increased absorption of transverse-magnetic (TM) - polarised light by a graphene-oxide (GO) coated polymer waveguide has been observed in the presence of transverse-electric (TE) - polarised light. The GO-coated waveguide exhibits very strong photo-absorption of TE-polarised light - and acts as a TM-pass waveguide polariser. The absorbed TE-polarised light causes a significant temperature increase in the GO film and induces thermal reduction of the GO, resulting in an increase in optical-frequency conductivity and consequently increased optical propagation loss. This behaviour in a GO-coated waveguide gives the action of an inverted optical switch/modulator. By varying the incident TE-polarised light power, a maximum modulation efficiency of 72% was measured, with application of an incident optical power level of 57 mW. The GO-coated waveguide was able to respond clearly to modulated TE-polarised light with a pulse duration of as little as 100 μs. In addition, no wavelength dependence was observed in the response of either the modulation (TE-polarised light) or the signal (TM-polarised light).

  20. Photo-induced reduction of graphene oxide coating on optical waveguide and consequent optical intermodulation

    PubMed Central

    Chong, W. Y.; Lim, W. H.; Yap, Y. K.; Lai, C. K.; De La Rue, R. M.; Ahmad, H.

    2016-01-01

    Increased absorption of transverse-magnetic (TM) - polarised light by a graphene-oxide (GO) coated polymer waveguide has been observed in the presence of transverse-electric (TE) - polarised light. The GO-coated waveguide exhibits very strong photo-absorption of TE-polarised light - and acts as a TM-pass waveguide polariser. The absorbed TE-polarised light causes a significant temperature increase in the GO film and induces thermal reduction of the GO, resulting in an increase in optical-frequency conductivity and consequently increased optical propagation loss. This behaviour in a GO-coated waveguide gives the action of an inverted optical switch/modulator. By varying the incident TE-polarised light power, a maximum modulation efficiency of 72% was measured, with application of an incident optical power level of 57 mW. The GO-coated waveguide was able to respond clearly to modulated TE-polarised light with a pulse duration of as little as 100 μs. In addition, no wavelength dependence was observed in the response of either the modulation (TE-polarised light) or the signal (TM-polarised light). PMID:27034015

  1. Transport and optical studies on individual nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Qian

    Nanotechnology is considered a very important scientific discipline. It probably will offer tremendous growth opportunities to many industries. Numerous nanostructures showing interesting and practical properties have been synthesized. In order to fully understand and assemble these nanostructures into useful "nano-machines", investigations on individual nanostructures are needed. This thesis will present electron transport studies on individual organic molecules, a new method of fabricating asymmetric junctions to contact individual nanostructures, and synthesis, electrical and optical characterizations on single vanadium dioxide nanobeams. Chapter 1 serves as a brief introduction to the progress and challenges in nanotechnology. Chapter 2 first introduces single charge tunneling theory, and then discusses in detail the fabrication of single molecule transistors. Finally, this chapter presents a novel electrodeposition-based method to fabricate electrode pairs of dissimilar metals with a nanometer-sized gap between them. This electrodeposition-based method prevents cross-contamination of the different metals and enables simultaneous fabrication of multiple electrode pairs in a self-limiting manner. Chapter 3 presents electron transport studies on single molecule transistors based on individual ferrocene and nickelocene molecules. These devices show clean Coulomb blockade and energy quantization at liquid helium temperature. Low energy excited states are attributed to ring-torsion and center-of-mass vibrational modes of these molecules. Chapter 4 discusses electron transport properties of single molecule transistors based on individual [W6CCl18]n- molecules. Besides Coulomb blockade and energy quantization, these transistors demonstrate that tunneling electrons change the vibrational spectrum of [W 6CCl18]n- molecules and the vibrational modes in turn affect electron tunneling. Chapter 5 presents a vapor transport synthetic method of single crystalline vanadium

  2. Optical properties of new wide heterogeneous waveguides with thermo optical shifters.

    PubMed

    De Leonardis, Francesco; Tsarev, Andrei V; Passaro, Vittorio M

    2008-12-22

    We present analysis and simulation of novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) heterogeneous waveguides with thermo-optic phase shifters. New structure design contains a p-n junction on both sides of SOI ridge waveguide with 220 nm x 35 microm silicon core. Strongly mode-dependent optical losses (by additional free charge absorption) provide quasi-singe-mode behavior of wide waveguide with mode size approximately 10 microm. Local heater produces an efficient phase shifting by small temperature increase (DeltaT approximately 2K), switching power (< 40 mW) and switching time (< 10 micros). Mode optical losses are significantly decreased at high heating (DeltaT approximately 120 K). PMID:19104563

  3. Modeling of Electro Optic Polymer Electrical Characteristics in a 3 layer Optical Waveguide Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Ashley, Paul R.; Guenthner, Andrew J.; Abushagur, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of electro optic polymer waveguide modulators are often described by the bulk reactance of the individual layers. However, the resistance and capacitance between the layers can significantly alter the electrical performance of a waveguide modulator. These interface characteristics are related to the boundary charge density and are strongly affected by the adhesion of the layers in the waveguide stack. An electrical reactance model has been derived to investigate this phenomenon at low frequencies. The model shows the waveguide stack frequency response has no limiting effects below the microwave range and that a true DC response requires a stable voltage for over 1000 hours. Thus, reactance of the layers is the key characteristic of optimizing the voltage across the core layer, even at very low frequencies (> 10(exp -6) Hz). The results of the model are compared with experimental data for two polymer systems and show quite good correlation.

  4. On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Lucas H; Liu, David; Johnson, Steven G; Lipson, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Current optical communication systems rely almost exclusively on multimode fibres for short- and medium-haul transmissions, and are now expanding into the long-haul arena. Ultra-high bandwidth applications are the main drive for this expansion, based on the ability to spatially multiplex data channels in multimode systems. Integrated photonics, on the other hand, although largely responsible for today's telecommunications, continues to operate almost strictly in the single-mode regime. This is because multimode waveguides cannot be compactly routed on-chip without significant inter-mode coupling, which impairs their data rate and prevents the use of modal multiplexing. Here we propose a platform for on-chip multimode devices with minimal inter-mode coupling, opening up the possibilities for integrated multimode optics. Our work combines a novel theoretical approach--large-scale inverse design of transformation optics to maximize performance within fabrication constraints-with unique grayscale-lithography fabrication of an exemplary device: a low-crosstalk multimode waveguide bend. PMID:23169058

  5. Optical biosensor based on silicon nanowire ridge waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamal, Rania; Ismail, Yehia; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2015-02-01

    Optical biosensors present themselves as an attractive solution for integration with the ever-trending lab-on-a-chip devices. This is due to their small size, CMOS compatibility, and invariance to electromagnetic interference. Despite their many benefits, typical optical biosensors rely on evanescent field detection, where only a small portion of the light interacts with the analyte. We propose to use a silicon nanowire ridge waveguide (SNRW) for optical biosensing. This structure is comprised of an array of silicon nanowires, with the envelope of a ridge, on an insulator substrate. The SNRW maximizes the overlap between the analyte and the incident light wave by introducing voids to the otherwise bulk structure, and strengthens the contribution of the material under test to the overall modal effective index will greatly augment the sensitivity. Additionally, the SNRW provides a fabrication convenience as it covers the entire substrate, ensuring that the etching process would not damage the substrate. FDTD simulations were conducted and showed that the percentage change in the effective index due to a 1% change in the surrounding environment was more than 170 times the amount of change perceived in an evanescent detection based bulk silicon ridge waveguide.

  6. Waveguide-fed optical hybrid plasmonic patch nano-antenna.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Leila; Foster, Amy C

    2012-07-30

    We propose a novel optical hybrid plasmonic patch nano-antenna for operation at the standard telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. The nano-antenna is designed to be compatible with a hybrid plasmonic waveguide through matching of both the operational mode and the wave impedance. The antenna is designed to receive the optical signal from a planar waveguide and redirect the signal out of plane, and is therefore useful for inter- or intra-chip optical communications and sensing. The transmission line model in conjunction with surface plasmon theory is used to develop analytical formulas for design and analysis, and a 3-dimensional full-wave numerical method is used to validate the design. The proposed device provides a bandwidth of more than 15 THz, a gain of 5.6 dB, and an efficiency of 87%. Furthermore, by designing an 8 × 8 array of the proposed antenna, a directivity of 20 dBi and steering of the beam angle are achieved by controlling the relative phase shift between elements of the array. PMID:23038383

  7. Radiation-induced transmission loss of integrated optic waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henschel, Henning; Koehn, Otmar; Schmidt, Hans U.

    1993-04-01

    The radiation sensitivity of different integrated optic (IO) devices was compared under standardized test conditions. We investigated four relatively simple device types made by four different manufacturers. The waveguide materials were proton exchanged LiTaO3, LiNbO3:Ti, Tl-diffused glass, and Ag-diffused glass, respectively. In order to standardize the irradiation parameters we followed the 'Procedure for Measuring Radiation-Induced Attenuation in Optical Fibers and Optical Cables' proposed by the NATO NETG as close as possible. In detail we made pulsed irradiations with dose values of about 500 rad*, 104 rad, and 105 rad, as well as continuous irradiations at a 60Co source with a dose rate of 1300 rad*/min up to a total dose of 104 rad. Device temperatures were about 22 degree(s)C, -50 degree(s)C, and +80 degree(s)C.

  8. Bend insensitive graded index multimode polymer optical waveguides fabricated using the Mosquito method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Asami; Ishigure, Takaaki

    2015-02-01

    We fabricate low-loss graded index (GI) circular core multimode polymer optical waveguides with 90o bending and demonstrate low bending loss even if the bend radius is as small as 1 mm. In the several fabrication methods for GI-core polymer waveguides already proposed, we adopt the "Mosquito method" that utilize a microdispenser because the Mosquito method makes it possible to fabricate waveguides directly on board at desired places on a printed circuit board, and to draw various patterns of cores including curves. However, in the waveguides including such curved cores, the additional transmission loss due to the bending (bending loss) is a concern. Thus, we characterize the fabricated GI-core polymer waveguides with bending: using two kinds of cladding monomer with different refractive indexes for fabricating waveguides with bending. We found when the NA of waveguides was as high as 0.35, no additional loss due to bending was observed even if the bending radius is as small as 1 mm. The core diameter of the fabricated waveguides is 50 μm, and it is possible to further decrease the bending loss in the waveguides with smaller core diameter. Furthermore, utilizing the Mosquito method, we fabricate waveguides with not only horizontally curved cores but also vertically curved ones. Waveguides with vertically curved cores could make it possible to realize three-dimensionally optical wiring applicable to on-board optical interconnects.

  9. Radiochromic leuko dye real time dosimeter, one way optical waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Siebentritt, C.R.

    1984-12-18

    A radiochromic leuko dye dosimeter includes a plastic tube containing a solution of a radiochromic dye which is sensitive to ionizing radiation, one end of the tube being closed by a reflective surface, the opposite end of the tube being closed by a transparent plug to form a one-way optical waveguide. Light enters the tube through the transparent end thereof and is reflected back and exits through the transparent end. The intensity of the exiting light is measured to determine radiation induced absorption of the leuko dye.

  10. Technology Development of Stratified Volume Diffractive Optics for Waveguide Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Diana M.

    2000-01-01

    Stratified Volume Diffractive Optical Elements (SVDOE) appear to be viable as high-efficiency waveguide couplers. Preliminary design studies were conducted under this task to provide initial device parameters for evaluation. However, these designs should be revisited prior to fabrication of a device for testing. The emphasis of this task has been development and implementation of fabrication procedures necessary for SVDOE'S, namely alignment of grating layers, Including offsets, to within required tolerances. Progress in this area Indicates that the alignment technique chosen is viable and tolerances have been reached that allow reasonable performance ranges. Approaches have been identified to improve alignment tolerances even further.

  11. Integrated-optic polarization controllers incorporating polymer waveguide birefringence modulators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Whee; Park, Su-Hyun; Chu, Woo-Sung; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2012-05-21

    Polarization controllers based on polymer waveguide technology are demonstrated by incorporating thermo-optic birefringence modulators (BMs) and thin-film wave plates. Highly birefringent polymer materials are used to increase the efficiency of birefringence modulation in proportion to the heating power. Thin-film quarter-wave plates are fabricated by using a crosslinkable liquid crystal, reactive mesogen, and inserted between the BMs to produce static phase retardation and polarization coupling. By applying a triangular AC signal to one BM and a DC signal to another, the polarization states of the output light are modulated to cover the entire surface of the Poincaré sphere. PMID:22714231

  12. Optical pulling force and conveyor belt effect in resonator-waveguide system.

    PubMed

    Intaraprasonk, Varat; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-09-01

    We present the theoretical condition and actual numerical design that achieves an optical pulling force in resonator-waveguide systems, where the direction of the force on the resonator is in the opposite direction to the input light in the waveguide. We also show that this pulling force can occur in conjunction with the lateral optical equilibrium effect, such that the resonator is maintained at the fixed distance from the waveguide while experiencing the pulling force. PMID:23988930

  13. Enhanced electro-optic response in domain-engineered LiNbO3 channel waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zisis, G.; Ying, C. Y. J.; Ganguly, P.; Sones, C. L.; Soergel, E.; Eason, R. W.; Mailis, S.

    2016-07-01

    Substantial enhancement (36.7%) of the intrinsic electro-optic coefficient ( r33) has been observed in lithium niobate channel waveguides, which are made to overlap with a pole-inhibited ferroelectric domain. The waveguide and the overlapping ferroelectric domain are both produced by a single UV irradiation process and are thus self-aligning. The enhancement of the electro-optic coefficient effect is attributed to strain, which is associated with the ferroelectric domain boundaries that contain the channel waveguide.

  14. Ray-optic analysis of the (bio)sensing ability of ring-cladding hollow waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheltikov, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Ray-optic analysis of transmission spectra and the leakage loss of ring-cladding hollow waveguides suggests that such waveguides offer an attractive platform for the creation of compact and efficient biochemical sensors and sensor arrays. The ring cladding in such waveguides serves as a built-in Fabry-Perot interferometer, allowing the detection of few-nanometer-thick molecular layers and ensuring a high sensitivity of transmission spectra of waveguide modes to small changes in the refractive index of an analyte filling the hollow core and air holes in the waveguide cladding.

  15. All-optical intensity modulation of near infrared light in a liquid crystal channel waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Alessandro, Antonio; Asquini, Rita; Trotta, Marco; Gilardi, Giovanni; Beccherelli, Romeo; Khoo, Iam Choon

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate a nonlinear optical channel waveguide made of E7 nematic liquid crystal infiltrated in a silica on silicon groove. Near infrared light at the wavelength of 1560 nm fiber coupled to the core of the liquid crystal waveguide was optically modulated by an optical beam with power below 25 mW by exploiting the optical Freedericks transition. By modeling the optical molecular reorientation in the nematic liquid crystal confined in a waveguiding geometry we are able to reproduce the experimental results.

  16. Optical Nonlinearities in Semiconductor Doped Glass Channel Waveguides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banyai, William Charles

    The nonlinear optical properties of a semiconductor -doped glass (SDG) channel waveguide were measured on a picosecond time-scale; namely, fluence-dependent changes in the absorption and the refractive index as well as the relaxation time of the nonlinearity. Slower, thermally -induced changes in the refractive index were also observed. The saturation of the changes in the absorption and the refractive index with increasing optical fluence is explained using a plasma model with bandfilling as the dominant mechanism. The fast relaxation time of the excited electron-hole plasma (20 ps) is explained using a surface-state recombination model. A figure of merit for a nonlinear directional coupler fabricated in a material with a saturable nonlinear refractive index is presented. The measured nonlinear change in the refractive index of the SDG saturates below the value required to effect fluence-dependent switching in a nonlinear directional coupler. Experiments with a channel-waveguide directional coupler support this prediction. However, absorption switching due to differential saturation of the absorption in the two arms of the directional coupler was observed.

  17. Plasma synthesis of rare earth doped integrated optical waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Raoux, S.; Anders, S.; Yu, K.M.; Brown, I.G.; Ivanov, I.C.

    1995-03-01

    We describe a novel means for the production of optically active planar waveguides. The makes use of a low energy plasma deposition. Cathodic-arc-produced metal plasmas the metallic components of the films and gases are added to form compound films. Here we discuss the synthesis of Al{sub 2{minus}x}ER{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films. The erbium concentration (x) can vary from 0 to 100% and the thickness of the film can be from Angstroms to microns. In such material, at high active center concentration (x=l% to 20%), erbium ions give rise to room temperature 1.53{mu}m emission which has minimum loss in silica-based optical fibers. With this technique, multilayer integrated planar waveguide structures can be grown, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2{minus}x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si, for example.

  18. Ultrafast Optical Beam Deflection in a Planar Waveguide for High Dynamic Range Recording at Picosecond Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantos, C H; Heebner, J E

    2008-07-02

    We report the latest performance of an ultrafast, all-optical beam deflector based on a prism array imprinted in a planar waveguide. The deflector enables single-shot, high dynamic range optical recording with picosecond resolution.

  19. Polymer waveguide end facet roughness and optical input/output coupling loss for OPCB applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghsiahi, Hadi; Wang, Kai; Pitwon, Richard; Selviah, David R.

    2014-03-01

    Electro-optical printed circuit board technology (EOCB) based on integrated planar polymer optical waveguides has been the subject of research and development for many years to provide a cost viable, fully integrated system embedded optical interconnect solution, however a number of constraints of this technology have yet to be overcome. Optical coupling loss at the input and output of the waveguides is one of the major issues and waveguide end facet roughness is one of the main sources of the coupling loss which is investigated in this paper. The results of a comprehensive investigation of the end facet roughness of multimode polymer waveguides, fabricated on FR4 printed circuit boards, PCBs, and its effect of optical loss are presented theoretically and experimentally. The waveguide end facet roughness was measured using an atomic force microscope, AFM, when the waveguides were cut using a milling router with various numbers of cutting edges called flutes. The optimized cutting parameters are derived and the optical coupling loss, between the laser source and the waveguide, due to the different roughness magnitudes is measured by experiment for the first time. To improve the surface quality and decrease the waveguide optical loss, a new fabrication technique for reducing the end facet roughness after cutting is proposed and demonstrated. The insertion loss was reduced by 2.60 dB +/- 1.3 dB which is more than that achieved by other conventional methods such as index matching fluid.

  20. Comprehensive analytical model to characterize randomness in optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junhe; Gallion, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the coupled mode theory (CMT) is used to derive the corresponding stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for the modal amplitude evolution inside optical waveguides with random refractive index variations. Based on the SDEs, the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are derived to analyze the statistics of the modal amplitudes, such as the optical power and power variations as well as the power correlation coefficients between the different modal powers. These ODEs can be solved analytically and therefore, it greatly simplifies the analysis. It is demonstrated that the ODEs for the power evolution of the modes are in excellent agreement with the Marcuse' coupled power model. The higher order statistics, such as the power variations and power correlation coefficients, which are not exactly analyzed in the Marcuse' model, are discussed afterwards. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to demonstrate the validity of the analytical model. PMID:27136981

  1. Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Senior, C. L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses results of our work on development of the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing. In the OW system as shown, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. The feature of the OW system are: (1) Highly concentrated solar radiation (up to 104 suns) can be transmitted via flexible OW lines directly into the thermal reactor for materials processing: (2) Solar radiation intensity or spectra can be tailored to specific materials processing steps; (3) Provide solar energy to locations or inside of enclosures that would not otherwise have an access to solar energy; and (4) The system can be modularized and can be easily transported to and deployed at the lunar base.

  2. Bio-functional subwavelength optical waveguides for biodetection

    SciTech Connect

    Sirbuly, D J; Fischer, N; Huang, S; Artyukhin, A

    2007-07-10

    We report a versatile biofunctional subwavelength photonic device platform for real-time detection of biological molecules. Our devices contain lipid bilayer membranes fused onto metal oxide nanowire waveguides stretched across polymeric flow channels. The lipid bilayers incorporating target receptors are submersed in the propagating evanescent field of the optical cavity. We show that the lipid bilayers in our devices are continuous, have very high mobile fraction, and are resistant to fouling. We also demonstrate that our platform allows rapid membrane exchange. Finally we use this device for detection of specific DNA sequences in solution by anchoring complementary DNA target strands in the lipid bilayer. This evanescent wave sensing architecture holds great potential for portable, all-optical detection systems.

  3. Direct-patterned optical waveguides on amorphous silicon films

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, Steve; Bond, Tiziana C.; Bond, Steven W.; Pocha, Michael D.; Hau-Riege, Stefan

    2005-08-02

    An optical waveguide structure is formed by embedding a core material within a medium of lower refractive index, i.e. the cladding. The optical index of refraction of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and polycrystalline silicon (p-Si), in the wavelength range between about 1.2 and about 1.6 micrometers, differ by up to about 20%, with the amorphous phase having the larger index. Spatially selective laser crystallization of amorphous silicon provides a mechanism for controlling the spatial variation of the refractive index and for surrounding the amorphous regions with crystalline material. In cases where an amorphous silicon film is interposed between layers of low refractive index, for example, a structure comprised of a SiO.sub.2 substrate, a Si film and an SiO.sub.2 film, the formation of guided wave structures is particularly simple.

  4. Use of thin sectioning (nanoskiving) to fabricate nanostructures for electronic and optical applications.

    PubMed

    Lipomi, Darren J; Martinez, Ramses V; Whitesides, George M

    2011-09-01

    This Review discusses nanoskiving--a simple and inexpensive method of nanofabrication, which minimizes requirements for access to cleanrooms and associated facilities, and which makes it possible to fabricate nanostructures from materials, and of geometries, to which more familiar methods of nanofabrication are not applicable. Nanoskiving requires three steps: 1) deposition of a metallic, semiconducting, ceramic, or polymeric thin film onto an epoxy substrate; 2) embedding this film in epoxy, to form an epoxy block, with the film as an inclusion; and 3) sectioning the epoxy block into slabs with an ultramicrotome. These slabs, which can be 30 nm-10 μm thick, contain nanostructures whose lateral dimensions are equal to the thicknesses of the embedded thin films. Electronic applications of structures produced by this method include nanoelectrodes for electrochemistry, chemoresistive nanowires, and heterostructures of organic semiconductors. Optical applications include surface plasmon resonators, plasmonic waveguides, and frequency-selective surfaces. PMID:21755580

  5. Thermo-optic Goos-Hänchen effect in silicon-on-insulator waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tingting; Luo, Li; Liu, Wenli; He, Xiujun; Zhang, Yanfen

    2015-09-01

    We study the thermo-optic Goos-Hänchen (TOGH) effect in a prism-waveguide coupling structure with silicon-on-insulator waveguide. Stationary-phase method is utilized to calculate the TOGH shift. When the waveguide is regarded as a two-dimensional planar waveguide, a nonlinear relation between GH shift and temperature is obtained. Based on the noticeable TOGH effect, a sensitive temperature modulator or sensor can be realized. As the waveguide width is limited, the proposed structure can be regarded as a three-dimensional rectangular waveguide. We explore the GH shift and TOGH effect for different modes propagating in rectangular waveguide which show different linear relations between GH shift and temperature, which can be used to design mode-selective device based on TO effect.

  6. Electro-optical line cards with multimode polymer waveguides for chip-to-chip interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Long Xiu; Immonen, Marika; Wu, Jinhua; Yan, Hui Juan; Shi, Ruizhi; Chen, Peifeng; Rapala-Virtanen, Tarja

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we report developments of electro-optical PCBs (EO-PCB) with low-loss (<0.05dB/cm) polymer waveguides. Our results shows successful fabrication of complex waveguide structures part of hybrid EO-PCBs utilizing production scale process on standard board panels. Test patterns include 90° bends of varying radii (40mm - 2mm), waveguide crossing with varied crossing angles (90°-20°), cascaded bends with varying radii, splitters and tapered waveguides. Full ranges of geometric configurations are required to meet practical optical routing functions and layouts. Moreover, we report results obtained to realize structures to integrate optical connectors with waveguides. Experimental results are shown for MT in-plane and 90° out-of-plane optical connectors realized with coupling loss < 2dB and < 2.5 dB, respectively. These connectors are crucial to realize efficient light coupling from/to TX/RX chip-to-waveguide and within waveguide-to-fiber connections in practical optical PCBs. Furthermore, we show results for fabricating electrical interconnect structures e.g. tracing layers, vias, plated vias top/bottom and through optical layers. Process compatibility with accepted practices and production scale up for high volumes are key concerns to meet the yield target and cost efficiency. Results include waveguide characterization, transmission loss, misalignment tolerance, and effect of lamination. Critical link metrics are reported.

  7. Long single-mode waveguides made by imprint patterning for optical interconnects and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karppinen, Mikko; Hiltunen, Jussi; Kokkonen, Anna; Petäjä, Jarno; Masuda, Noriyuki; Hiltunen, Marianne; Tuominen, Jarkko; Karioja, Pentti

    2012-06-01

    Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides were fabricated by UV-nanoimprinting. With this technique the waveguides are directly patterned by imprinting of the UV-curable optical polymer materials, i.e. no etching processes are needed. By properly manufactured imprinting molds, very smooth waveguide surfaces are achieved and the optical loss is dominated by the material attenuation. The advantages of the manufacturing technology include the potential scalability onto large substrate areas and applicability for fabrication on various substrate materials. For instance, printed circuit boards are interesting substrates for high-bit-rate optical interconnection applications requiring long waveguides, and glass and plastic sheets are interesting for sensor applications. The technology also promises for low overall costs, as it is a relatively simple high-throughput replication process. Both ridge-type and inverted-rib-type single-mode waveguides were fabricated using Ormocer hybrid polymer materials having low optical attenuation. Very low loss waveguides were demonstrated by fabrication long waveguides in a spiral shape. The optical attenuation was characterized of 27 cm-long inverted-rib waveguide spirals having 2 μm-wide cores. The measured average attenuation was 0.25 and 0.56 dB/cm at the wavelengths of 638 and 1310 nm, respectively.

  8. Effect of dielectric claddings on the electro-optic behavior of silicon waveguides.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajat; Puckett, Matthew W; Lin, Hung-Hsi; Isichenko, Andrei; Vallini, Felipe; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2016-03-15

    We fabricate silicon waveguides in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers clad with either silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, or aluminum oxide and, by measuring their electro-optic behavior, we characterize the capacitively induced free-carrier effect. By comparing our results with simulations, we confirm that the observed voltage dependences of the transmission spectra are due to changes in the concentrations of holes and electrons within the semiconductor waveguides and show how strongly these effects depend on the cladding material that comes into contact with the waveguide. Waveguide loss is additionally found to have a high sensitivity to the applied voltage, suggesting that these effects may find use in applications that require low- or high-loss propagation. These phenomena, which are present in all semiconductor waveguides, may be incorporated into more complex waveguide designs in the future to create high-efficiency electro-optic modulators and wavemixers. PMID:26977665

  9. Fiber optic reference frequency distribution to remote beam waveguide antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Malcolm; Kuhnle, Paul; Law, Julius

    1995-01-01

    In the NASA/JPL Deep Space Network (DSN), radio science experiments (probing outer planet atmospheres, rings, gravitational waves, etc.) and very long-base interferometry (VLBI) require ultra-stable, low phase noise reference frequency signals at the user locations. Typical locations for radio science/VLBI exciters and down-converters are the cone areas of the 34 m high efficiency antennas or the 70 m antennas, located several hundred meters from the reference frequency standards. Over the past three years, fiber optic distribution links have replaced coaxial cable distribution for reference frequencies to these antenna sites. Optical fibers are the preferred medium for distribution because of their low attenuation, immunity to EMI/IWI, and temperature stability. A new network of Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas presently under construction in the DSN requires hydrogen maser stability at tens of kilometers distance from the frequency standards central location. The topic of this paper is the design and implementation of an optical fiber distribution link which provides ultra-stable reference frequencies to users at a remote BWG antenna. The temperature profile from the earth's surface to a depth of six feet over a time period of six months was used to optimize the placement of the fiber optic cables. In-situ evaluation of the fiber optic link performance indicates Allan deviation on the order of parts in 10(exp -15) at 1000 and 10,000 seconds averaging time; thus, the link stability degradation due to environmental conditions still preserves hydrogen maser stability at the user locations. This paper reports on the implementation of optical fibers and electro-optic devices for distributing very stable, low phase noise reference signals to remote BWG antenna locations. Allan deviation and phase noise test results for a 16 km fiber optic distribution link are presented in the paper.

  10. Quasi-optical equivalent of waveguide slide screw tuner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurpis, G. P.

    1970-01-01

    Tuner utilizes a metal plated dielectric grid inserted into the cross sectional plane of an oversized waveguide. It provides both variable susceptance and variable longitudinal position along the waveguide to provide a wide matching range.

  11. Direct-Dispense Polymeric Waveguides Platform for Optical Chemical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Gonzalez, Timothy; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Djeghelian, Hagop; Chodavarapu, Vamsy; Andrews, Mark; Therriault, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We describe an automated robotic technique called direct-dispense to fabricate a polymeric platform that supports optical sensor arrays. Direct-dispense, which is a type of the emerging direct-write microfabrication techniques, uses fugitive organic inks in combination with cross-linkable polymers to create microfluidic channels and other microstructures. Specifically, we describe an application of direct-dispensing to develop optical biochemical sensors by fabricating planar ridge waveguides that support sol-gel-derived xerogel-based thin films. The xerogel-based sensor materials act as host media to house luminophore biochemical recognition elements. As a prototype implementation, we demonstrate gaseous oxygen (O2) responsive optical sensors that operate on the basis of monitoring luminescence intensity signals. The optical sensor employs a Light Emitting Diode (LED) excitation source and a standard silicon photodiode as the detector. The sensor operates over the full scale (0%-100%) of O2 concentrations with a response time of less than 1 second. This work has implications for the development of miniaturized multi-sensor platforms that can be cost-effectively and reliably mass-produced.

  12. Optical-assembly periodic structure of ferrofluids in a liquid core/metal cladding optical waveguide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianping; Yin, Cheng; Sun, Jingjing; Han, Qingbang; Li, Honggen; Sang, Minghuang; Yuan, Wen; Cao, Zhuangqi

    2013-11-01

    We present a novel and simple mechanism for the fabrication of periodic microstructure based on a ferrofluids core/metal cladding optical waveguide chip. The ultrahigh-order modes excited in the millimeter scale guiding layer lead to the ordered particle aggregates in ferrofluids without applying a magnetic field. Since the absorption of photons by the extremely dilute ferrofluids is extremely small and the Soret effect is not noticeable, a tentative explanation in terms of the optical trapping effect is proposed. Furthermore, this scheme exhibits all-optically tunable reflectivity and lateral Goos-Hänchen shift, which potentially may be for practical use in novel optical devices. PMID:24216657

  13. Microminiature optical waveguide structure and method for fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Deri, Robert J.; Pocha, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    A method for manufacturing low-cost, nearly circular cross section waveguides comprises starting with a substrate material that a molten waveguide material can not wet or coat. A thin layer is deposited of an opposite material that the molten waveguide material will wet and is patterned to describe the desired surface-contact path pedestals for a waveguide. A waveguide material, e.g., polymer or doped silica, is deposited. A resist material is deposited and unwanted excess is removed to form pattern masks. The waveguide material is etched away to form waveguide precursors and the masks are removed. Heat is applied to reflow the waveguide precursors into near-circular cross-section waveguides that sit atop the pedestals. The waveguide material naturally forms nearly circular cross sections due to the surface tension effects. After cooling, the waveguides will maintain the round shape. If the width and length are the same, then spherical ball lenses are formed. Alternatively, the pedestals can be patterned to taper along their lengths on the surface of the substrate. This will cause the waveguides to assume a conical taper after reflowing by heat.

  14. Microminiature optical waveguide structure and method for fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Deri, R.J.; Pocha, M.D.

    1998-12-08

    A method for manufacturing low-cost, nearly circular cross section waveguides comprises starting with a substrate material that a molten waveguide material can not wet or coat. A thin layer is deposited of an opposite material that the molten waveguide material will wet and is patterned to describe the desired surface-contact path pedestals for a waveguide. A waveguide material, e.g., polymer or doped silica, is deposited. A resist material is deposited and unwanted excess is removed to form pattern masks. The waveguide material is etched away to form waveguide precursors and the masks are removed. Heat is applied to reflow the waveguide precursors into near-circular cross-section waveguides that sit atop the pedestals. The waveguide material naturally forms nearly circular cross sections due to the surface tension effects. After cooling, the waveguides will maintain the round shape. If the width and length are the same, then spherical ball lenses are formed. Alternatively, the pedestals can be patterned to taper along their lengths on the surface of the substrate. This will cause the waveguides to assume a conical taper after reflowing by heat. 32 figs.

  15. Radiochromic leuko dye real time dosimeter, one way optical waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.

    1982-11-15

    This invention relates generally to nuclear radiation dosimetry, and more particularly to a radiochromic leuko dye dosimeter constructed and arranged to measure absorbed radiation doses, such as gamma rays, X-rays and fast neutrons, in real time; viz., as the dose is being delivered. A radiochromic leuko dye dosimeter includes a plastic tube containing a solution of a radiochromic dye which is sensitive to ionizing radiation, one end of the tube being closed by a reflective surface, the opposite end of the tube being closed by a transparent plug to form a one-way optical waveguide. Light enters the tube through the transparent end thereof and is reflected back and exists through the transparent end. The intensity of the existing light is measured to determine radiation induced absorption of the leuko dye.

  16. High sensitivity optical waveguide accelerometer based on Fano resonance.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fenghua; Qian, Guang; Li, Ruozhou; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Tong

    2016-08-20

    An optical waveguide accelerometer based on tunable asymmetrical Fano resonance in a ring-resonator-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed and analyzed. A Fano resonance accelerometer has a relatively large workspace of coupling coefficients with high sensitivity, which has potential application in inertial navigation, missile guidance, and attitude control of satellites. Due to the interference between a high-Q resonance pathway and a coherent background pathway, a steep asymmetric line shape is generated, which greatly improves the sensitivity of this accelerometer. The sensitivity of the accelerometer is about 111.75 mW/g. A 393-fold increase in sensitivity is achieved compared with a conventional MZI accelerometer and is approximately equal to the single ring structure. PMID:27556984

  17. Polymer-on-glass waveguide structure for efficient fluorescence-based optical biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernini, Romeo; Cennamo, Nunzio; Minardo, Aldo; Zeni, Luigi

    2005-03-01

    A novel waveguide geometry for an integrated optics bio-sensor suitable for fluorescence detection is presented. In particular, we propose a polymeric waveguide realized on a glass substrate. This new geometry is aimed to an efficient evanescent-wave excitation of the fluorophores and subsequent collection of the fluorescence emission with no need of optical filters. The absence of any optical filters simplifies the device operation and permits to avoid the losses resulting from the use of the filter itself.

  18. Single-mode glass waveguide technology for optical interchip communication on board level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Schröder, Henning

    2012-01-01

    The large bandwidth demand in long-distance telecom networks lead to single-mode fiber interconnects as result of low dispersion, low loss and dense wavelength multiplexing possibilities. In contrast, multi-mode interconnects are suitable for much shorter lengths up to 300 meters and are promising for optical links between racks and on board level. Active optical cables based on multi-mode fiber links are at the market and research in multi-mode waveguide integration on board level is still going on. Compared to multi-mode, a single-mode waveguide has much more integration potential because of core diameters of around 20% of a multi-mode waveguide by a much larger bandwidth. But light coupling in single-mode waveguides is much more challenging because of lower coupling tolerances. Together with the silicon photonics technology, a single-mode waveguide technology on board-level will be the straight forward development goal for chip-to-chip optical interconnects integration. Such a hybrid packaging platform providing 3D optical single-mode links bridges the gap between novel photonic integrated circuits and the glass fiber based long-distance telecom networks. Following we introduce our 3D photonic packaging approach based on thin glass substrates with planar integrated optical single-mode waveguides for fiber-to-chip and chip-to-chip interconnects. This novel packaging approach merges micro-system packaging and glass integrated optics. It consists of a thin glass substrate with planar integrated singlemode waveguide circuits, optical mirrors and lenses providing an integration platform for photonic IC assembly and optical fiber interconnect. Thin glass is commercially available in panel and wafer formats and characterizes excellent optical and high-frequency properties. That makes it perfect for microsystem packaging. The paper presents recent results in single-mode waveguide technology on wafer level and waveguide characterization. Furthermore the integration in a

  19. [Optical Design of Miniature Infrared Gratings Spectrometer Based on Planar Waveguide].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-yu; Fang, Yong-hua; Li, Da-cheng; Liu, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In order to miniaturize an infrared spectrometer, we analyze the current optical design of miniature spectrometers and propose a method for designing a miniature infrared gratings spectrometer based on planar waveguide. Common miniature spectrometer uses miniature optical elements to reduce the size of system, which also shrinks the effective aperture. So the performance of spectrometer has dropped. Miniaturization principle of planar waveguide spectrometer is different from the principle of common miniature spectrometer. In planar waveguide spectrometer, the propagation of light is limited in a thin planar waveguide, which looks like the whole optical system is squashed flat. In the direction parallel to the planar waveguide, the light through the slit is collimated, dispersed and focused. And a spectral image is formed in the detector plane. This propagation of light is similar to the light in common miniature spectrometer. In the direction perpendicular to the planar waveguide, light is multiple reflected by the upper and lower surfaces of the planar waveguide and propagates in the waveguide. So the size of corresponding optical element could be very small in the vertical direction, which can reduce the size of the optical system. And the performance of the spectrometer is still good. The design method of the planar waveguide spectrometer can be separated into two parts, Czerny-Turner structure design and planar waveguide structure design. First, by using aberration theory an aberration-corrected (spherical aberration, coma, focal curve) Czerny-Turner structure is obtained. The operation wavelength range and spectral resolution are also fixed. Then, by using geometrical optics theory a planar waveguide structure is designed for reducing the system size and correcting the astigmatism. The planar waveguide structure includes a planar waveguide and two cylindrical lenses. Finally, they are modeled together in optical design software and are optimized as a whole. An

  20. Optical Properties of Acrylate-Based Negative-Type Photoresist and Its Application to Optical Waveguide Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafik, Pavol; Sugihara, Okihiro; Okamoto, Naomichi

    2004-04-01

    In this article, we present some of the optical properties of a polymeric acrylate-based photoresist material called PNME, by its principal components, which are pentaerythritol triacrylate, n-methyldiethanolamine, and eosin. The refractive index and absorption spectra were measured. Because of the low absorption of PNME in the datacom and telecom regions, PNME was studied with respect to its suitability for the fabrication of a channel waveguide and/or an optical fiber. A multimode optical waveguide was fabricated using a cold UV stamping fabrication method, and propagation losses at 1.3 μm were measured. An optical fiber core was fabricated using a light-induced self-writing fabrication method. In our study, it was found that optical waveguides made from PNME have low propagation losses due to smooth sidewalls and the low absorption of PNME. An optical waveguide with a corrugated core was also fabricated.

  1. Coupling behaviour of tapered highly multimodal dielectric waveguides as part of PCB-level optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soenmez, Yasin; Mrozynski, Gerd; Schrage, Juergen

    2010-05-01

    Optical interconnects replace electrical links increasingly at shorter distances. At printed circuit board (PCB) level highly multimodal polymer channel waveguides are the chosen approach to meet bandwidth-length and bandwidth-density requirements. One important challenge of board integrated waveguides is the coupling problem. The manufacturing process of PCBs leads to relatively high placement tolerances which cause poor optical coupling efficiency due to mechanical misalignment between separate components, e.g.: 1) Coupling between a VCSEL and the board integrated waveguides; 2) Coupling between waveguides in two separate boards. This paper deals with the deployment of tapered dielectric multimode waveguides for increasing the optical coupling robustness towards mechanical misalignments in these two coupling applications. A coupled mode approach for calculation of the mode coupling and power loss in a taper with decreasing width has been presented before [5]. In [6], the two above mentioned coupling applications for tapered dielectric waveguides have been dealt with, but only the coupling efficiency in case of longitudinal misalignment has been calculated. In this paper, results of advanced analysis of the two applications are presented. The coupling efficiency in case of transverse misalignment is simulated by a ray-optical approach. Furthermore the results of measurements of the coupling behaviour of board integrated tapered waveguides are presented. The results show that tapered multimodal dielectric waveguides have the capability to increase the coupling efficiency significantly if some conditions are fulfilled.

  2. On-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in photonic-phononic hybrid waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guodong; Zhang, Ruiwen; Sun, Junqiang

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme for reversible and tunable on-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in a hybrid photonic-phononic waveguide. The dynamic grating is built up through the acousto-optic effect and the theoretical model of the optical mode conversion is developed by considering the geometrical deformation and refractive index change. Three kinds of mode conversions are able to be realized using the same hybrid waveguide structure in a large bandwidth by only changing the launched acoustic frequency. The complete mode conversion can be achieved by choosing a proper acoustic power under a given waveguide length. PMID:25996236

  3. On-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in photonic-phononic hybrid waveguide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guodong; Zhang, Ruiwen; Sun, Junqiang

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme for reversible and tunable on-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in a hybrid photonic-phononic waveguide. The dynamic grating is built up through the acousto-optic effect and the theoretical model of the optical mode conversion is developed by considering the geometrical deformation and refractive index change. Three kinds of mode conversions are able to be realized using the same hybrid waveguide structure in a large bandwidth by only changing the launched acoustic frequency. The complete mode conversion can be achieved by choosing a proper acoustic power under a given waveguide length. PMID:25996236

  4. Optofluidic waveguide as a transformation optics device for lightwave bending and manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y.; Liu, A.Q.; Chin, L.K.; Zhang, X.M.; Tsai, D.P.; Lin, C.L.; Lu, C.; Wang, G.P.; Zheludev, N.I.

    2012-01-01

    Transformation optics represents a new paradigm for designing light-manipulating devices, such as cloaks and field concentrators, through the engineering of electromagnetic space using materials with spatially variable parameters. Here we analyse liquid flowing in an optofluidic waveguide as a new type of controllable transformation optics medium. We show that a laminar liquid flow in an optofluidic channel exhibits spatially variable dielectric properties that support novel wave-focussing and interference phenomena, which are distinctively different from the discrete diffraction observed in solid waveguide arrays. Our work provides new insight into the unique optical properties of optofluidic waveguides and their potential applications. PMID:22337129

  5. Analysis of resonant optical gyroscopes with two input/output waveguides.

    PubMed

    Hah, Dooyoung; Zhang, Dan

    2010-08-16

    Rotation sensitivity of optical gyroscopes with ring resonators and two input/output waveguides in a coplanar add-drop filter configuration is studied. First, the gyroscope with a single resonator is analyzed, which is shown to have slightly higher sensitivity than the one with one waveguide. Next, the sensor with two identical resonators coupled through waveguides is investigated, which turns out to have half the sensitivity of the one with a single resonator when compared for the same footprints. The last point is valid when the resonators have the same coupling coefficients to the waveguides in the sensor with two resonators. PMID:20721209

  6. The hybrid photonic planar integrated receiver with a polymer optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busek, Karel; Jerábek, Vitezslav; Armas Arciniega, Julio; Prajzler, Václav

    2008-11-01

    This article describes design of the photonic receiver composed of the system polymer planar waveguides, InGaAs p-i-n photodiode and integrated HBT amplifier on a low loss composite substrate. The photonic receiver was the main part of the hybrid integrated microwave optoelectronic transceiver TRx (transciever TRx) for the optical networks PON (passive optical networks) with FTTH (fiber-to-the-home) topology. In this article are presented the research results of threedimensional field between output facet of a optical waveguide and p-i-n photodiode. In terms of our research, there was optimized the optical coupling among the facet waveguide and pi-n photodiode and the electrical coupling among p-i-n photodiode and input of HBT amplifier. The hybrid planar lightwave circuit (PLC) of the transceiver TRx will be composed from a two parts - polymer optical waveguide including VHGT filter section and a optoelectronic microwave section.

  7. Feasibility study of nanoscaled optical waveguide based on near-resonant surface plasmon polariton.

    PubMed

    Yan, Min; Thylén, Lars; Qiu, Min; Parekh, Devang

    2008-05-12

    Currently subwavelength surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguides under intensive theoretical and experimental studies are mostly based on the geometrical singularity property of such waveguides. Typical examples include the metal-insulator-metal based waveguide and the metallic fiber. Both types of waveguides support a mode with divergent propagation constant as the waveguides' geometry (metal gap distance or fiber radius) shrinks to zero. Here we study an alternative way of achieving subwavelength confinement through deploying two materials with close but opposite epsilon values. The interface between such two materials supports a near-resonant SPP. By examining the relationship between mode propagation loss and the mode field size for both planar and fiber waveguides, we show that waveguides based on near-resonant SPP can be as attractive as those solely based on geometrical tailoring. We then explicitly study a silver and silicon based waveguide with a 25nm core size at 600nm wavelength, in its properties like single-mode condition, mode loss and group velocity. It is shown that loss values of both materials have to be decreased by approximately 1000 times in order to have 1dB/microm propagation loss. Hence we point out the necessity of novel engineering of low-loss metamaterials, or introducing gain, for practical applications of such waveguides. Due to the relatively simple geometry, the proposed near-resonant SPP waveguides can be a potential candidate for building optical circuits with a density close to the electronic counterpart. PMID:18545455

  8. Implementation of the Simplex algorithm for reconstruction of optical parameters of double-layer planar optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubica, Jacek M.

    2000-10-01

    The use of the downhill Simplex algorithm in reconstruction of optical parameters of planar silica waveguides is described. The original Nelder-Mead approach has been modified to include physical constraints of the waveguide system. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the behavior of the modified algorithm.

  9. Ultralow-loss waveguide crossings for the integration of microfluidics and optical waveguide sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng; Yan, Hai; Wang, Zongxing; Zou, Yi; Yang, Chun-Ju; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Subbaraman, Harish; Tang, Naimei; Xu, Xiaochuan; Fan, D. L.; Wang, Alan X.; Chen, Ray T.

    2015-03-01

    Integrating photonic waveguide sensors with microfluidics is promising in achieving high-sensitivity and cost-effective biological and chemical sensing applications. One challenge in the integration is that an air gap would exist between the microfluidic channel and the photonic waveguide when the micro-channel and the waveguide intersect. The air gap creates a path for the fluid to leak out of the micro-channel. Potential solutions, such as oxide deposition followed by surface planarization, would introduce additional fabrication steps and thus are ineffective in cost. Here we propose a reliable and efficient approach for achieving closed microfluidic channels on a waveguide sensing chip. The core of the employed technique is to add waveguide crossings, i.e., perpendicularly intersecting waveguides, to block the etched trenches and prevent the fluid from leaking through the air gap. The waveguide crossings offer a smooth interface for microfluidic channel bonding while bring negligible additional propagation loss (0.024 dB/crossing based on simulation). They are also efficient in fabrication, which are patterned and fabricated in the same step with waveguides. We experimentally integrated microfluidic channels with photonic crystal (PC) microcavity sensor chips on silicon-on-insulator substrate and demonstrated leak-free sensing measurement with waveguide crossings. The microfluidic channel was made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and pressure bonded to the silicon chip. The tested flow rates can be varied from 0.2 μL/min to 200 μL/min. Strong resonances from the PC cavity were observed from the transmission spectra. The spectra also show that the waveguide crossings did not induce any significant additional loss or alter the resonances.

  10. Surface transport and stable trapping of particles and cells by an optical waveguide loop.

    PubMed

    Hellesø, Olav Gaute; Løvhaugen, Pål; Subramanian, Ananth Z; Wilkinson, James S; Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh

    2012-09-21

    Waveguide trapping has emerged as a useful technique for parallel and planar transport of particles and biological cells and can be integrated with lab-on-a-chip applications. However, particles trapped on waveguides are continuously propelled forward along the surface of the waveguide. This limits the practical usability of the waveguide trapping technique with other functions (e.g. analysis, imaging) that require particles to be stationary during diagnosis. In this paper, an optical waveguide loop with an intentional gap at the centre is proposed to hold propelled particles and cells. The waveguide acts as a conveyor belt to transport and deliver the particles/cells towards the gap. At the gap, the diverging light fields hold the particles at a fixed position. The proposed waveguide design is numerically studied and experimentally implemented. The optical forces on the particle at the gap are calculated using the finite element method. Experimentally, the method is used to transport and trap micro-particles and red blood cells at the gap with varying separations. The waveguides are only 180 nm thick and thus could be integrated with other functions on the chip, e.g. microfluidics or optical detection, to make an on-chip system for single cell analysis and to study the interaction between cells. PMID:22814473

  11. Laser chemical etching of waveguides and quasi-optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouet D'Aubigny, Christian Yann Pierre

    2003-11-01

    The terahertz (THz) frequency domain, located at the frontier of radio and light, is the last unexplored region of the electromagnetic spectrum. As technology becomes available, THz systems are finding applications to fields ranging all the way from astronomical and atmospheric remote sensing to space telecommunications, medical imaging, and security. In Astronomy the THz and far infrared (IR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (λ = 300 to 10 μm) may hold the answers to countless questions regarding the origin and evolution of the Universe, galaxy, star and planet formation. Over the past decade, advances in telescope and detector technology have for the first time made this regime available to astronomers. Near THz frequencies, metallic hollow waveguide structures become so small, (typically much less than a millimeter), that conventional machining becomes extremely difficult, and in many cases, nearly impossible. Laser induced, micro-chemical etching is a promising new technology that can be used to fabricate three dimensional structures many millimeters across with micrometer accuracy. Laser micromachining of silicon possesses a significant edge over more conventional techniques. It does not require the use of masks and is not confined to crystal planes. A non-contact process, it eliminates tool wear and vibration problems associated with classical milling machines. At the University of Arizona we have constructed the first such laser micromachining system optimized for the fabrication of THz and far IR waveguide and quasi-optical components. The system can machine structures up to 50 mm in diameter, down to a few microns accuracy in a few minutes and with a remarkable surface finish. A variety of THz devices have been fabricated using this technique, their design, fabrication, assembly and theoretical performance is described in the chapters that follow.

  12. Optical investigation of nanophotonic lithium niobate-based optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhri, Makram A.; Al-Douri, Y.; Hashim, U.; Salim, Evan T.; Prakash, Deo; Verma, K. D.

    2015-10-01

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) nanophotonics are prepared on quartz substrate by sol-gel method. They have been deposited with different molarity concentrations and annealed at 500 °C. These samples are characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible. The measured results show an importance of increasing molarity that indicates the structure starts to crystallize to become more regular. The estimated lattice constants, energy gaps and refractive index give good accordance with experimental results. Also, the calculated refractive index and optical dielectric constant are in agreement with experimental data.

  13. Optical characterization of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides for integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigler, Martin; Buh, Jože; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Kirste, Ronny; Bobea, Milena; Mita, Seiji; Gerhold, Michael D.; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko; Zgonik, Marko

    2015-04-01

    Dispersion of the extraordinary and ordinary refractive indices of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides is measured by multiple angle-of-incidence and spectroscopic ellipsometry techniques. The polarity-controlled AlN layers are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on (0001)-sapphire substrates. Taking into consideration the different surface morphologies of the Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides, we propose two optical models to describe the measured ellipsometry data. The results indicate that there is no difference between the refractive indices of the AlN grown in opposite directions, which confirms the potential of the AlN lateral polar structures for use in nonlinear optical applications based on quasi phase matching.

  14. Zero-birefringent polyimide for polymer optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sung-Ho; Kang, Jae-Wook; Li, Xiangdan; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2003-07-01

    A novel zero birefringent and photosensitive polyimide was synthesized. The polymer is soluble in solvents and contains a chalcone group for photo-crosslinking by UV exposure. The glass transition and decomposition temperature of the polymer were 254°C and 430°C before cross-linking. Evolution of the absorption spectra upon UV exposure indicated that the cross-linking reaction is related to the cycloaddition of the double bonds in the chalcone group to form cyclobutane. The photo-crosslinking reaction not only increased the thermal stability, but also induced a refractive index change of the films. The refractive index of the film was reduced upon UV exposure from 1.5862 to 1.5697 for TE mode and from 1.5807 to 1.5697 for TM mode, respectively, resulting in zero birefringence after curing. Loss of p-conjugation in the chalcone group by the crosslinking reaction is supposed to induce the reduction of the refractive indices and orbital change from sp2 to sp3 makes the polymer chain be kinked, resulting in decrease of birefringence. The polymer film showed optical loss of 0.41 dB/cm at 1.3 mm and 0.54 dB/cm at 1.55 mm. Zero birefringence and low optical loss combined with photo-processibility of the material are making it an excellent candidate for the high performance waveguide materials.

  15. Ultracompact variable optical attenuator based on photonic crystal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiang; Cui, Kaiyu; Huang, Yidong

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrated and fabricated a 20μm-long ultra-compact variable optical attenuator based on thermo-optical effect with slow light photonic crystal waveguide (PCWG). In simulation, we optimize the line-defect width and radius/period ratio (r/a) of the PCWG for deep photonic band gap and large slope photonic band edge. An r/a=140nm/410nm W1 PCWG is selected for its -60dB depth and 36dB variable attenuation range when the tunable refractive index change is 0.01. We also study different shapes of micro-heaters for low power consumption and high heat transfer efficiency. A 24.6mW and 75.9% heat transfer efficiency are achieved in a 2μm-wide right-angle-shaped micro-heater. In experiment, A 4.6nm red shift at the cutoff wavelength of the fundamental mode and a 10dB tunable attenuation range are achieved through tuning the temperature of the W1 PCWG by an 4.7μm-wide aluminum micro-heater with a maximum power consumption as low as 30.7mW.

  16. Quasi-optical overmoded waveguide frequency multiplier grid arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenau, Steven Andrew

    There is a growing need for compact, lightweight, inexpensive high power millimeter wave sources. Frequency multipliers can provide these sources by efficiently converting high power microwave signals to millimeter frequencies. Quasi-optical frequency multiplier grid arrays, comprised of hundreds to thousands of varactor devices and antennas on a single wafer, utilize spatial power combining to significantly increase power handling capability beyond that of a single device. In this dissertation work, theoretical and experimental investigations of frequency multiplier grid arrays have been conducted with a specific focus on overmoded waveguide systems. The principles of frequency multipliers and quasi-optical grid array power combining are presented. Simulation, design and experimental measurement techniques are described for both frequency tripler and doubler grid arrays. During this dissertation work, several quantum barrier varactor frequency tripler grid array systems and Schottky varactor frequency doubler grid array systems were designed, fabricated and tested. A frequency tripler grid array system, containing an innovative integrated output structure, achieved a multiplication efficiency of 3.4% and an output power of 148 mW. The two most efficient frequency doubler grid array systems achieved 11.7% multiplication efficiency and 0.41 W output power.

  17. Fabrication of an integrated optical filter using a large-core multimode waveguide vertically coupled to a single-mode waveguide.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min-Suk; Kim, Ki-Hong; Oh, Young-Hoon; Shin, Sang-Yung

    2003-09-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of the process for fabricating a single-mode waveguide and a large-core multimode waveguide aligned vertically on the same substrate. Using this process, we propose and demonstrate a filter that drops optical signal propagating in a single-mode waveguide to a multimode waveguide in the specific wavelength interval by a long-period grating. We use perfluorocyclobutane and benzocyclobutane for the cladding and core of the single-mode waveguide, respectively. The large core of the multimode waveguide is made of Norland Optical Adhesive 61. For the grating period of 315.9 um, the fabricated filter has the center wavelength of 1537.7 nm, at which the maximum attenuation is 17.8 dB. PMID:19466110

  18. Polymer optical waveguide composed of europium-aluminum-acrylate composite core for compact optical amplifier and laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitani, Marina; Yamashita, Kenichi; Fukui, Toshimi; Ishigure, Takaaki

    2015-02-01

    We successfully fabricate polymer waveguides with Europium-Aluminum (Eu-Al) polymer composite core using the Mosquito method that utilizes a microdispenser for realizing a compact waveguide optical amplifiers and lasers. Rareearth (RE) ions are widely used as the gain medium for fiber lasers and optical fiber amplifiers. However, high concentration doping of rare-earth-ion leads to the concentration quenching resulting in observing less gain in optical amplification. For addressing the concentration quenching problem, a rare-earth metal (RE-M) polymer composite has been proposed by KRI, Inc. to be a waveguide core material. Actually, 10-wt% RE doping into organic polymer materials was already achieved. Hence, realization of compact and high-efficiency waveguide amplifiers and lasers have been anticipated using the RE-M polymer composite. In this paper, a microdispenser is adopted to fabricate a Eu-doped polymer waveguide. Then, it is experimentally confirmed that the low-loss waveguides are fabricated with a high reproducibility. Optical gain is estimated by measuring the amplified spontaneous emission using the variable stripe length method. The fabricated waveguide exhibits an optical gain as high as 7.1 dB/cm at 616-nm wavelength.

  19. Magneto-optical switch with amorphous silicon waveguides on magneto-optical garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Eiichi; Miura, Kengo; Shoji, Yuya; Mizumoto, Tetsuya; Nishiyama, Nobuhiko; Arai, Shigehisa

    2016-08-01

    We fabricated a magneto-optical (MO) switch with a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide on an MO garnet. The switch is composed of a 2 × 2 Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI). The switch state is controlled by an MO phase shift through a magnetic field generated by a current flowing in an electrode located on the MZI. The switching operation was successfully demonstrated with an extinction ratio of 11.7 dB at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

  20. Polymer waveguide with tunable optofluidic couplers for card-to-backplane optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guomin; Baig, Sarfaraz; Wang, Michael R.

    2014-03-01

    Polymeric waveguides with tunable optofluidic couplers are fabricated by the vacuum assisted microfluidic technique for card-to-backplane optical interconnect applications. The optofluidic coupler on a backplane consists of polymer waveguides and a perpendicular microfluidic channel with inclined sidewalls. An index matching liquid and air bubbles are located in the microfluidic hollow channel. The activation or deactivation of the surface normal coupling of the optofluidic coupler is accomplished by setting air bubbles or index matching liquid to be in contact with the waveguide mirrors. 10 Gbps eye diagrams of the card-to-backplane optical interconnect link have been demonstrated showing the high performance of the interconnect system.

  1. Shortcut to adiabaticity in full-wave optics for ultra-compact waveguide junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Valle, Giuseppe; Perozziello, Gerardo; Longhi, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    We extend the concept of shortcuts to adiabaticity to full-wave optics and provide an application to the design of an ultra-compact waveguide junction. In particular, we introduce a procedure allowing one to synthesize a purely dielectric optical potential that precisely compensates for non-adiabatic losses of the transverse electric fundamental mode in any (sufficiently regular) two-dimensional waveguide junction. Our results are corroborated by finite-element method numerical simulations in a Pöschl–Teller waveguide mode expander.

  2. Dimension-sensitive optical responses of electromagnetically induced transparency vapor in a waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Qishen; He Sailing

    2006-12-15

    A three-level EIT (electromagnetically induced transparency) vapor is used to manipulate the transparency and absorption properties of the probe light in a waveguide. The most remarkable feature of the present scheme is such that the optical responses resulting from both electromagnetically induced transparency and large spontaneous emission enhancement are very sensitive to the frequency detunings of the probe light as well as to the small changes of the waveguide dimension. The potential applications of the dimension- and dispersion-sensitive EIT responses are discussed, and the sensitivity limits of some waveguide-based sensors, including electric absorption modulator, optical switch, wavelength sensor, and sensitive magnetometer, are analyzed.

  3. Assembly of optical fibers for the connection of polymer-based waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansel, Yannick; Grau, Daniel; Holzki, Markus; Kraus, Silvio; Neumann, Frank; Reinhard, Carsten; Schmitz, Felix

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes the realization of polymer-based optical structures and the assembly and packaging strategy to connect optical fiber ribbons to the waveguides. For that a low cost fabrication process using the SU-8TM thick photo-resist is presented. This process consists in the deposition of two photo-structurized resist layers filled up with epoxy glue realising the core waveguide. For the assembly, a new modular vacuum gripper was realised and installed on an automatic pick and place assembly robot to mount precisely and efficiently the optical fibers in the optical structures. First results have shown acceptable optical propagation loss for the complete test structure.

  4. Polymer waveguide cointegration with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for integrated optical metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Kolin S.; Taylor, B. J.; Dawson, Jeremy M.; Hornak, Lawrence A.

    1998-03-01

    The merging of Microelectromechanical (MEM) devices and optics to create Microoptoelectromechanical (MOEM) systems provides opportunity to create new devices and to expand the functionality and applications of MEMS technology. Planar optical waveguide co-integration with surface micromachined (SMM) structures and inclusion of diffractive optical systems within 3D MEMS chip stack architectures have the potential to enable integrated optical test, metrology, and state feedback functions for complex MEM systems. This paper presents the results of research developing a fabrication process for co-integrating polymer optical waveguides with prefabricated MEMS devices. Multimode air superstrate rectangular optical waveguides have been fabricated using Ultradel optical polyimides over unreleased MEMS dice fabricated using the MultiUser MEMS Process Service (MUMPS) SMM process. These structures serve as the basic building block for exploration of guided wave integrated optical metrology functions for MEMS. Specially designed `split- comb' linear resonator devices enabling coupling of waveguide output to the resonator stage for position measurement are one class of a set of prototype MEMS function MUMPS testbeds under development for both guidance and evaluation of waveguide and free-space IOM efforts. Recently initiated work analytically and experimentally evaluating through-wafer free-space micro-optical systems for IOM will also be outlined.

  5. Optical Sensors Based on Single Arm Thin Film Waveguide Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, S. S.; Diggs, D.; Curley, M.; Adamovsky, Grigory (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Single-arm double-mode double-order optical waveguide interferometer utilizes interference between two propagating modes of different orders. Sensing effect results from the change in propagation conditions of the modes caused by the environment. The waveguide is made as an open asymmetric slab structure containing a dye-doped polymer film onto a fused quartz substrate. It is more sensitive to the change of environment than its conventional polarimetric analog using orthogonal modes (TE and TM) of the same order. The sensor still preserves the option of operating in polarimetric regime using a variety of mode combinations such as TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 0) (conventional), TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1), TE(sub 1)/TM(sub 0), or TE(sub 1)/TM(sub 1) but can also work in nonpolarimetric regime using combinations TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1) or TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1). Utilization of different mode combinations simultaneously makes the device more versatile. Application of the sensor to gas sensing is based on doping polymer film with an organic indicator dye sensitive to a particular gas. Change of optical absorption spectrum of the dye caused by the gaseous pollutant results change of the reactive index of the dye-doped polymer film that can be detected by the sensor. As an indicator dyes, we utilize Bromocresol Purple doped into polymer poly(methyl) methacrylate, which shows a reversible growth of the absorption peak neat 600 nm after exposure to wet ammonia. We have built a breadboard prototype of the sensor with He-Ne laser as a light source and with a single mode fiber input and a multimode fiber output. The prototype showed sensitivity to temperature change of the order of 2 C per one full oscillation of the signal. The sensitivity of the sensor to the presence of wet ammonia is 200 ppm per one full oscillation of the signal. The further improvements include switching to a longer wavelength laser source (750-nm semiconductor laser), substitution of poly(methyl) methacrylate with hydrophilic

  6. Multilayer single-mode polymeric waveguides by imprint patterning for optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Tia; Salminen, Noora; Kokkonen, Annukka; Masuda, Noriyuki; Karppinen, Mikko

    2014-03-01

    Low-loss single-mode waveguides are fabricated for optical interconnection applications. Such waveguides operating at telecom wavelength window are attractive for communicating between micro-photonic integrated circuit chips, such as silicon photonics, on the carrier/package, and also for enhanced coupling of photonic devices to fibers for longer reach interconnects. Manufacturing of the waveguides is based on direct pattering of optical polymeric materials by UV nanoimprinting. The advantages of the technology include the applicability to stack multiple layers of waveguides, fabrication on various substrate materials, and simultaneous fabrication of optical coupling structures. The developed process enables high wafer-level yield with precision overlay alignment. The multilayer waveguides were implemented using the so-called inverted rib waveguide process, that is, the shape of the waveguide cores are imprinted on the undercladding layer as grooves and then the core material is deposited on the cladding layer filling the grooves and also forming a thin slab layer. The subsequent deposition of the upper cladding layer finalizes the first waveguide layer and also starts the manufacturing of the next waveguide layer. The achieved wafer-scale layer-to-layer alignment tolerances were 1...2 μm and <0.3 μm in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Losses measured from the long waveguide spirals made of commercial ORMOCER materials on silicon wafers were 0.35 dB/cm at 1305 nm and 0.86 dB/cm at 1530 nm, which are only around 0.15 dB/cm higher than the material losses.

  7. Optical waveguides in Er:LiNbO3 fabricated by different techniques - A comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajzl, Jakub; Nekvindová, Pavla; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Staněk, Stanislav; Vytykáčová, Soňa; Špirková, Jarmila

    2016-03-01

    We report on the comparison of three techniques used for the fabrication of optical waveguides in erbium doped lithium niobate crystal substrates (Er:LiNbO3). The techniques include ion in-diffusion from a titanium metal layer, annealed proton exchange (APE), and He+ ion implantation. The main focus of the work was placed on the investigation of the influence of the used optical waveguides fabrication techniques on the structural and luminescence properties of Er:LiNbO3 substrates. The results have shown that none of the used optical-waveguide-fabrication techniques significantly affect the position of erbium in the host crystal structure. It turned out, however, that the fabrication process affected luminescence intensities of the characteristic luminescence bands of erbium ions - the most significant decrease in the luminescence intensity was observed in the Ti-indiffused waveguides.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of suspended SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and the devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pengxin; Zhu, Yunpeng; Shi, Yaocheng; Dai, Daoxin; He, Sailing

    2012-09-24

    Novel suspended SiO(2) ridge optical waveguides on silicon are fabricated and characterized. The present suspended SiO(2) ridge optical waveguide has a SiO(2) ridge core surrounded by air. The propagation loss and the bend loss measured are about 0.385dB/cm and 0.037dB/90° respectively for the fabricated 1 μm-wide waveguides with a bending radius of 100 μm when operating at the wavelength of 1550 nm. With the present suspended SiO(2) optical waveguides, a small racetrack resonator with a radius of 100 μm is also demonstrated and the measured Q-factor is about 3160. PMID:23037402

  9. Optical bus waveguide metallic hard mold fabrication with opposite 45° micro-mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Xinyuan; Wang, Alan Xiaolong; Lin, Xiaohui; Huang, Haiyu; Chen, Ray T.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, 3-to-3 metallic hard mold for optical bus waveguide with opposite 45° micro-mirrors was successfully fabricated using electroplating method. The optical bus waveguide pre-mold with 45° surfaces before electroplating was prepared using photopolymer SU-8 through tilted exposure process under de-ionized water. Metal nickel was electroplated into SU-8 defined bus waveguide trenches. The 45° slant angles can be well controlled through titled exposure, which have deviations of 0.15° and 0.27° for SU-8 pre-mold and Ni hard mold, respectively. This metallic hard mold provides a convenient way to fabricate the polymeric optical bus waveguide devices through imprint technique.

  10. Wave propagation through photonic waveguide lattices in the presence of optical gain and loss.

    PubMed

    Ardakani, Abbas Ghasempour

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the effects of gain and loss on the light propagation through a lattice of coupled optical waveguides. We demonstrate that superdiffusive transport becomes diffusive in the presence of optical loss after a critical propagation distance as in [Phys. Rev. Lett.113, 123903 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.123903]. However, when optical gain is introduced in the lattice of coupled waveguides, the beam broadening slows down from a superdiffusive to a highly subdiffusive regime after another critical distance. The critical distance decreases with increase of loss or gain in the waveguide lattice. For equal gain and loss, the value of critical distance in the array of active waveguides is much smaller than that in the case of lattice of lossy waveguides. Furthermore, we find that the effective width in the case of lossy waveguides decreases with increase of loss at the same propagation distance. Our results confirm that the regime of beam broadening does not depend on whether the gain is introduced in the waveguides or in their surroundings. PMID:27140375

  11. Hybrid inorganic-organic aqueous base compatible waveguide materials for optical interconnect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynihan, Matthew L.; Allen, Craig; Ho, Tuan; Little, Luke; Pawlowski, Nathan; Pugliano, Nick; Shelnut, James G.; Sicard, Bruno; Zheng, Hai Bin; Khanarian, Garo

    2003-11-01

    There are a number of organic, inorganic, and hybrid inorganic waveguide materials that are currently being used for a wide variety of optical interconnect applications. Depending upon the approach, waveguide formation is performed using a combination of lithographic and/or reactive ion etch (RIE) techniques. Often the processes involved with waveguide formation require unique processing conditions, hazardous process chemicals, and specialized pieces of capital equipment. In addition, many of the materials have been optimized for silicon substrates but are not compatible with printed wire board (PWB) substrates and processes. We have developed compositions and processes suitable for the creation of optical, planar waveguides on both silicon and PWB substrates. Based on silicate technology, these compositions use lithographic techniques to define waveguides, including aqueous, alkaline development. The resulting planar waveguides take advantage of the glass-like nature of silicate chemistry wedded with the simplicity of standard lithographic processes. Attenuation at typical wavelengths has been found to compete well with the non-silicate-based technologies available today. Single-mode (SM) and multi-mode (MM) waveguides with losses ranging from 0.6 dB/cm @ 1550nm, 0.2 dB/cm @1320nm, and <0.1 @ 850nm are feasible. Composition, process, and physical properties such as optical, thermal and mechanical properties will be discussed.

  12. Design of an ultra-thin near-eye display with geometrical waveguide and freeform optics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Xu, Chen; Song, Weitao; Jin, Guofan

    2014-08-25

    Small thickness and light weight are two important requirements for a see-through near-eye display which are achieved in this paper by using two advanced technologies: geometrical waveguide and freeform optics. A major problem associated with the geometrical waveguide is the stray light which can severely degrade the display quality. The causes and solutions to this problem are thoroughly studied. A mathematical model of the waveguide is established and a non-sequential ray tracing algorithm is developed, which enable us to carefully examine the stray light of the planar waveguide and explore a global searching method to find an optimum design with the least amount of stray light. A projection optics using freeform surfaces on a wedge shaped prism is also designed. The near-eye display integrating the projection optics and the waveguide has a field of view of 28°, an exit pupil diameter of 9.6mm and an exit pupil distance of 20mm. In our final design, the proportion of the stray light energy over the image output energy of the waveguide is reduced to 2%, the modulation transfer function values across the entire field of the eyepiece are above 0.5 at 30 line pairs/mm (lps/mm). A proof-of-concept prototype of the proposed geometrical waveguide near-eye display is developed and demonstrated. PMID:25321274

  13. Optical guiding of terawatt laser pulses in the plasma waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, I.; Fan, J.; Kim, K. Y.; Nikitin, S.; Milchberg, H. M.

    1999-11-01

    We report coupling and guiding of pulses of peak power 0.5 TW in 1.5 cm long preformed plasma waveguides generated in a high repetition rate argon gas jet. Greater than 50 percent coupling was measured in the injection of 50 mJ, 100 fs pulses, giving guided intensities up to 10^17 W/cm^2. For short delays between waveguide generation and pulse injection, refraction-induced pulse shortening occurred, with this effect reduced either by increasing the delay between waveguide generation and injection or by injecting a prepulse into the waveguide. We will also describe recent experiments which attempt to reduce the avalanche ionization threshold for the gases in which the waveguide is generated. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy (DEF G0297 ER 41039) and the National Science Foundation (PHY-9515509).

  14. Electro-optical backplane demonstrator with integrated multimode gradient-index thin glass waveguide panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Henning; Brusberg, Lars; Pitwon, Richard; Whalley, Simon; Wang, Kai; Miller, Allen; Herbst, Christian; Weber, Daniel; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-03-01

    Optical interconnects for data transmission at board level offer increased energy efficiency, system density, and bandwidth scalability compared to purely copper driven systems. We present recent results on manufacturing of electrooptical printed circuit board (PCB) with integrated planar glass waveguides. The graded index multi-mode waveguides are patterned inside commercially available thin-glass panels by performing a specific ion-exchange process. The glass waveguide panel is embedded within the layer stack-up of a PCB using proven industrial processes. This paper describes the design, manufacture, assembly and characterization of the first electro-optical backplane demonstrator based on integrated planar glass waveguides. The electro-optical backplane in question is created by laminating the glass waveguide panel into a conventional multi-layer electronic printed circuit board stack-up. High precision ferrule mounts are automatically assembled, which will enable MT compliant connectors to be plugged accurately to the embedded waveguide interfaces on the glass panel edges. The demonstration platform comprises a standardized sub-rack chassis and five pluggable test cards each housing optical engines and pluggable optical connectors. The test cards support a variety of different data interfaces and can support data rates of up to 32 Gb/s per channel.

  15. Optical pulse dynamics for quantum-dot logic operations in a photonic-crystal waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xun; John, Sajeev

    2011-11-15

    We numerically demonstrate all-optical logic operations with quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a bimodal photonic-crystal waveguide using Maxwell-Bloch equations in a slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA). The two-level QD excitation level is controlled by one or more femtojoule optical driving pulses passing through the waveguide. Specific logic operations depend on the relative pulse strengths and their detunings from an inhomogeneouslly broadened (about 1% for QD transitions centered at 1.5 {mu}m) QD transition. This excitation controlled two-level medium then determines passage of subsequent probe optical pulses. Envelope equations for electromagnetic waves in the linear dispersion and cutoff waveguide modes are derived to simplify solution of the coupled Maxwell-Bloch equations in the waveguide. These determine the quantum mechanical evolution of the QD excitation and its polarization, driven by classical electromagnetic (EM) pulses near a sharp discontinuity in the EM density of states of the bimodal waveguide. Different configurations of the driving pulses lead to distinctive relations between driving pulse strength and probe pulse passage, representing all-optical logic and, or, and not operations. Simulation results demonstrate that such operations can be done on picosecond time scales and within a waveguide length of about 10 {mu}m in a photonic-band-gap (PBG) optical microchip.

  16. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Triphenylalanine-based Peptide Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, A. V.; Mishina, E. D.; Sigov, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear optical properties of peptide nanobelts and peptide nanospheres, the two types of self-assembled triphenylalanine-based peptide nanostructures, are studied. Nanobelts nonlinear susceptibility tensor components are evaluated, and nanobelts crystal structure and crystallographic orientation are defined on the basis of nonlinear optical mapping and polarization dependences of the second harmonic signal. The results obtained suggest that it is possible to use these materials as biologically compatible nonlinear optical converters.

  17. Multiple-analyte fluoroimmunoassay using an integrated optical waveguide sensor.

    PubMed

    Plowman, T E; Durstchi, J D; Wang, H K; Christensen, D A; Herron, J N; Reichert, W M

    1999-10-01

    A silicon oxynitride integrated optical waveguide was used to evanescently excite fluorescence from a multianalyte sensor surface in a rapid, sandwich immunoassay format. Multiple analyte immunoassay (MAIA) results for two sets of three different analytes, one employing polyclonal and the other monoclonal capture antibodies, were compared with results for identical analytes performed in a single-analyte immunoassay (SAIA) format. The MAIA protocol was applied in both phosphate-buffered saline and simulated serum solutions. Point-to-point correlation values between the MAIA and SAIA results varied widely for the polyclonal antibodies (R2 = 0.42-0.98) and were acceptable for the monoclonal antibodies (R2 = 0.93-0.99). Differences in calculated receptor affinities were also evident with polyclonal antibodies, but not so with monoclonal antibodies. Polyclonal antibody capture layers tended to demonstrate departure from ideal receptor-ligand binding while monoclonal antibodies generally displayed monovalent binding. A third set of three antibodies, specific for three cardiac proteins routinely used to categorize myocardial infarction, were also evaluated with the two assay protocols. MAIA responses, over clinically significant ranges for creatin kinase MB, cardiac troponin I, and myoglobin agreed well with responses generated with SAIA protocols (R2 = 0.97-0.99). PMID:10517150

  18. Disorder-induced transparency in a one-dimensional waveguide side coupled with optical cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yongyou Dong, Guangda; Zou, Bingsuo

    2014-05-07

    Disorder influence on photon transmission behavior is theoretically studied in a one-dimensional waveguide side coupled with a series of optical cavities. For this sake, we propose a concept of disorder-induced transparency appearing on the low-transmission spectral background. Two kinds of disorders, namely, disorders of optical cavity eigenfrequencies and relative phases in the waveguide side coupled with optical cavities are considered to show the disorder-induced transparency. They both can induce the optical transmission peaks on the low-transmission backgrounds. The statistical mean value of the transmission also increases with increasing the disorders of the cavity eigenfrequencies and relative phases.

  19. Controlling optical response of metallic nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Grigorenko, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    In this talk I am going to discuss the direct and inverse problems in nanoplasmonics in classical, and in particular quantum regimes of excitations. The inverse problem in nanoplasmonics is aimed to control the eigenspectrum, excitations,and other physical properties of nanosized quantum systems via controlling their size, shape, and structural composition. Using a combination of modern modeling techniques and optimization procedures, one can succeed to solve the inverse problem, namely, to find a nanostructure which has the desired functionality, or to find optimal control field in the presence of known nanostructured metallic surface.

  20. Planar Waveguides Formed by Ag Na Ion Exchange in Nonlinear Optical Glasses: Diffusion and Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Marc; Videau, Jean J.; Canioni, Lionel; Adamietz, Frédéric; Sarger, Laurent; Le Flem, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    All-optical communication systems are the subject of intense research related to the integration of nonlinear optical materials. In sodiocalcic borophosphate glasses that contain niobium oxide and exhibit high nonlinear optical indices, planar waveguides have been formed by a Ag Na ion-exchange technique. WKB analysis has been used to characterize the diffusion profiles of silver ions exchanged in glass substrate samples chemically by an electron microprobe technique and optically by an M -line technique. These methods permit the Ag penetration depth and diffusion profile shape and index profiles to be determined. The results are analyzed and discussed in relation to Ca 2 concentration and exchange conditions in glasses. The Ag diffusion in these glasses can be almost entirely controlled for index-profile engineering.

  1. Finite element analysis of a variable optical attenuator based on s-shape polymer waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Jing; Wu, Lingxun; Xue, Fenglan; Hu, Jian; Fu, Yanjun; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Fangren

    2016-01-01

    A variable optical attenuator (VOA) based on S-shape polymer waveguide is demonstrated at the wavelength λ = 1.55 micron. The VOA consists of straight input and output waveguides, an S-shape waveguide and a pair of deposited electrodes. The cladding material of S waveguide is Poly (methyl methacrylate/disperse red 1) (PMMA/DR1) and the core material of S waveguide is SiON. The refractive index of the polymer cladding at S waveguide is modified by the applied electric voltage. Light scatters at the S waveguide and the VOA has large energy loss in the original state at voltage-off. In the voltage-on state, the refractive index of the polymer of the S waveguide reduces, and energy loss changes as the voltage increases. The attenuation of the VOA can be controled and adjusted by the applied voltage. The beam propagation method(BPM) and finite element analysis are employed to simulate and analyse the VOA. The results show that the VOA has large variable attenuation range of 45.2dB and low insertion loss of 0.8dB.

  2. Ultracompact quantum well waveguide electro-optic modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, Jane E.

    1994-06-01

    Quantum well heterostructures provide enhanced electrooptic effects that allow waveguide modulators with both low drive voltage requirements and small physical footprint. Compactness is important for incorporation in systems where space is at a premium or weight is an issue. Minimizing waveguide device length is also a critical factor in reducing production cost, especially when the modulator is monolithically integrated with other components for higher functionality. Finally, for electrorefractive waveguide modulators that are RC-limited, compactness is the key to obtaining high speed operation.

  3. Optical Gratings Coated with Thin Si3N4 Layer for Efficient Immunosensing by Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Diéguez, Lorena; Caballero, David; Calderer, Josep; Moreno, Mauricio; Martínez, Elena; Samitier, Josep

    2012-01-01

    New silicon nitride coated optical gratings were tested by means of Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS). A thin layer of 10 nm of transparent silicon nitride was deposited on commercial optical gratings by means of sputtering. The quality of the layer was tested by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. As a proof of concept, the sensors were successfully tested with OWLS by monitoring the concentration dependence on the detection of an antibody-protein pair. The potential of the Si3N4 as functional layer in a real-time biosensor opens new ways for the integration of optical waveguides with microelectronics. PMID:25585707

  4. Optical coupling of bare optoelectronic components and flexographically printed polymer waveguides in planar optronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yixiao; Wolfer, Tim; Lange, Alex; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2016-05-01

    Large scale, planar optronic systems allowing spatially distributed functionalities can be well used in diverse sensor networks, such as for monitoring the environment by measuring various physical quantities in medicine or aeronautics. In these systems, mechanically flexible and optically transparent polymeric foils, e.g. polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), are employed as carrier materials. A benefit of using these materials is their low cost. The optical interconnections from light sources to light transmission structures in planar optronic systems occupy a pivotal position for the sensing functions. As light sources, we employ the optoelectronic components, such as edgeemitting laser diodes, in form of bare chips, since their extremely small structures facilitate a high integration compactness and ensure sufficient system flexibility. Flexographically printed polymer optical waveguides are deployed as light guiding structures for short-distance communication in planar optronic systems. Printing processes are utilized for this generation of waveguides to achieve a cost-efficient large scale and high-throughput production. In order to attain a high-functional optronic system for sensing applications, one of the most essential prerequisites is the high coupling efficiency between the light sources and the waveguides. Therefore, in this work, we focus on the multimode polymer waveguide with a parabolic cross-section and investigate its optical coupling with the bare laser diode. We establish the geometrical model of the alignment based on the previous works on the optodic bonding of bare laser diodes and the fabrication process of polymer waveguides with consideration of various parameters, such as the beam profile of the laser diode, the employed polymer properties of the waveguides as well as the carrier substrates etc. Accordingly, the optical coupling of the bare laser diodes and the polymer waveguides was simulated

  5. Optical properties of wide single-mode strip and grating loaded channel waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Tsarev, Andrei V

    2009-12-31

    New wide single-mode strip and grating loaded (SGL) channel waveguides made of silicon nitride on the oxide buffer layer of a planar silicon-on-insulator waveguide are studied. The central 10-lm-wide strip produces a multi-mode channel waveguide and diffraction gratings with a period 0.6 lm built on the structure edges produce mode-dependent additional losses due to radiation to the surrounding medium. The optical properties of these waveguides are discussed using the results of a three-dimensional numerical simulation by the FDTD and BPM methods. It is shown that a wide SGL waveguide is quasi-single-mode one because it has a small propagation loss ({approx} 0.3 dB cm{sup -1}) for the fundamental mode and a high (up to -20 dB cm{sup -1}) loss for the higher order modes. The new SGL waveguides are CMOS compatible and can become basic for fabricating new photonic elements, including tunable optical filters and multi-plexers based on the multireflector technology. (waveguides)

  6. Integrated diffractive optical mode converter for fiber-to-waveguide coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Si; Yan, Ying-Bai; Yi, De-Er; Jin, Guo-Fan; Wu, Min-Xian

    2003-07-01

    An integrated diffractive optical mode converter, which can be integrated into planar lightwave circuits (PLCs), consisting of a diffractive optical element (DOE) and a slab waveguide is presented for fiber-to-waveguide coupling. The DOE is designed using iterative phase retrieval algorithm. In the iterative algorithm, we introduce a new modification of far-field amplitude constraint to provide very high mode conversion quality. Compared with previously published mode converters, the scheme is more universal because it is applicable for any waveguide structure. In simulation, coupling losses lower than 0.12 dB have been reached for all the discussed waveguides. The converter is shown to be polarization-insensitive and applicable in multi-wavelength PLCs. And the tolerance on axis misalignment has been investigated.

  7. Field-hardened optical waveguide hybrid integrated-circuit multisensor chemical probe and its chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollina, Richard J.; Himka, Roger L.; Saini, Devinder P.; McGibbon, Alan; Klainer, Stanley M.

    1997-05-01

    A single probe containing three hybrid integrated-circuit, optical waveguide, chemical-biochemical sensors (chip sensors) has been developed. Each chip sensor contains two hybrid waveguides -- one for sensing and one for reference. The sense waveguide is coated with a species-specific or group-specific chemistry or biochemistry. The reference waveguide is coated with a version of the sense chemistry or biochemistry, which is not sensitive to the analyte. The integrated structure is encapsulated and contains a single fixed light source, two detectors (reference and sense), and an optical train. The design is amenable to fluorescence, absorption, and refraction measurements. The three chip sensors are individually mounted in a probe that contains all of the electronics and computing capability necessary to collect and process the output information from each chip sensor. Only the surface of the individual chips are exposed to the target analytes. The probe is rugged, intrinsically safe, and can operate under 75 m (250 ft) of water.

  8. Hybrid plasmon/dielectric waveguide for integrated silicon-on-insulator optical elements.

    PubMed

    Flammer, P D; Banks, J M; Furtak, T E; Durfee, C G; Hollingsworth, R E; Collins, R T

    2010-09-27

    VLSI compatible optical waveguides on silicon are currently of particular interest in order to integrate optical elements onto silicon chips, and for possible replacements of electrical cross-chip/inter-core interconnects. Here we present simulation and experimental verification of a hybrid plasmon/dielectric, single-mode, single-polarization waveguide for silicon-on-insulator wafers. Its fabrication is compatible with VLSI processing techniques, and it possesses desirable properties such as the absence of birefringence and low sensitivity to surface roughness and metallic losses. The waveguide structure naturally forms an MOS capacitor, possibly useful for active device integration. Simulations predict very long propagation lengths of millimeter scale with micron scale confinement, or sub-micron scale confinement with propagation lengths still in excess of 100 microns. The waveguide may be tuned continuously between these states using standard VLSI processing. Extremely long propagation lengths have been simulated: one configuration presented here has a simulated propagation length of 34 cm. PMID:20940996

  9. Design of optical channel waveguides in SiO2 by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De los Reyes, H.; Lizarraga-Medina, E. G.; Salazar, D.; Rangel-Rojo, R.; Vázquez, G. V.; Oliver, A.; Achenbach, S.; Börner, M.; Márquez, H.

    2015-08-01

    Design of straight and S-bend optical channel waveguides based on silver ion implantation in SiO2 substrates is presented. 3D Beam Propagation Method (BPM) calculations are used for the design of the waveguides based on step index profiles produced from a sequential multiple ion implantation process. An analysis of modal optical confinement was done by means of the Effective Index Method (EIM) for selecting the right dimensions of the channel waveguides. Core index values between 1.4623-1.4662 are obtained, depending on the fluence, are considered. Depth and width for the waveguides were chosen to provide single mode operation. Bending losses are determined as function of bending radius, refractive index change (Δn), and wavelength.

  10. Perforated hollow-core optical waveguides for on-chip atomic spectroscopy and gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud-Carrier, M.; Hill, C.; Decker, T.; Black, J. A.; Schmidt, H.; Hawkins, A.

    2016-03-01

    A hollow-core waveguide structure for on-chip atomic spectroscopy is presented. The devices are based on Anti-Resonant Reflecting Optical Waveguides and may be used for a wide variety of applications which rely on the interaction of light with gases and vapors. The designs presented here feature short delivery paths of the atomic vapor into the hollow waveguide. They also have excellent environmental stability by incorporating buried solid-core waveguides to deliver light to the hollow cores. Completed chips were packaged with an Rb source and the F = 3 ≥ F' = 2, 3, 4 transitions of the D2 line in 85Rb were monitored for optical absorption. Maximum absorption peak depths of 9% were measured.

  11. Optical waveguides in Yb:SBN crystals fabricated by swift C3+ ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guiyuan; Dong, Ningning; Wang, Jun; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Zhou, Shengqiang; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of optical planar waveguides supporting both the TE and TM confinements in Yb:SBN crystal by swift C3+ ions irradiation. A combination of the micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman investigations have evidenced the presence of lattice distortion, damage and disordering of the SBN network along the ion irradiation path, with these effects being at the basis of the refractive index modification. The enhanced micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman intensity in the waveguide volumes show the potential application of the obtained waveguides as active laser gain media.

  12. Vertically-coupled Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator Optical Waveguide, and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatolly A. (Inventor); Matleki, Lute (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A vertically-coupled whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator optical waveguide, a method of reducing a group velocity of light, and a method of making a waveguide are provided. The vertically-coupled WGM waveguide comprises a cylindrical rod portion having a round cross-section and an outer surface. First and second ring-shaped resonators are formed on the outer surface of the cylindrical rod portion and are spaced from each other along a longitudinal direction of the cylindrical rod. The first and second ringshaped resonators are capable of being coupled to each other by way an evanescent field formed in an interior of the cylindrical rod portion.

  13. Optical characterization of femtosecond laser induced active channel waveguides in lithium fluoride crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chiamenti, I.; Kalinowski, H. J.; Bonfigli, F.; Montereali, R. M.; Gomes, A. S. L.; Michelotti, F.

    2014-01-14

    We successfully realized broad-band light-emitting color center waveguides buried in LiF crystals by using femtosecond laser pulses. The characterization of the waveguides was performed by optical microscopy, photoluminescence spectra, loss measurements and near-field profiling. The experimental results show that the direct-writing fabrication process induces low-index contrast active channel waveguides: their wavelength-dependent refractive index changes, estimated from 10{sup −3} to 10{sup −4} depending on the writing conditions, allow supporting few modes at visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

  14. Three-dimensional negative index of refraction at optical frequencies by coupling plasmonic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Ewold; de Waele, René; Kuipers, L; Polman, Albert

    2010-11-26

    We identify a route towards achieving a negative index of refraction at optical frequencies based on coupling between plasmonic waveguides that support backwards waves. We show how modal symmetry can be exploited in metal-dielectric waveguide pairs to achieve negative refraction of both phase and energy. Control of waveguide coupling yields a metamaterial consisting of a one-dimensional multilayer stack that exhibits an isotropic index of -1 at a free-space wavelength of 400 nm. The concepts developed here may inspire new low-loss metamaterial designs operating close to the metal plasma frequency. PMID:21231386

  15. Three-Dimensional Negative Index of Refraction at Optical Frequencies by Coupling Plasmonic Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhagen, Ewold; de Waele, René; Kuipers, L.; Polman, Albert

    2010-11-01

    We identify a route towards achieving a negative index of refraction at optical frequencies based on coupling between plasmonic waveguides that support backwards waves. We show how modal symmetry can be exploited in metal-dielectric waveguide pairs to achieve negative refraction of both phase and energy. Control of waveguide coupling yields a metamaterial consisting of a one-dimensional multilayer stack that exhibits an isotropic index of -1 at a free-space wavelength of 400 nm. The concepts developed here may inspire new low-loss metamaterial designs operating close to the metal plasma frequency.

  16. Acrylic and metal based Y-branch plastic optical fiber splitter with optical NOA63 polymer waveguide taper region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsan, Abang Annuar; Shaari, Sahbudin; Rahman, Mohd Kamil Abd.

    2011-01-01

    We proposed a simple low-cost acrylic and metal-based Y-branch plastic optical fiber (POF) splitter which utilizes a low cost optical polymer glue NOA63 as the main waveguiding medium at the waveguide taper region. The device is composed of three sections: an input POF waveguide, a middle waveguide taper region and output POF waveguides. A desktop high speed CNC engraver is utilized to produce the mold inserts used for the optical devices. Short POF fibers are inserted into the engraved slots at the input and output ports. UV curable optical polymer glue NOA63 is injected into the waveguide taper region and cured. The assembling is completed when the top plate is positioned to enclose the device structure and connecting screws are secured. Both POF splitters have an average insertion loss of 7.8 dB, coupling ratio of 55: 45 and 57: 43 for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively. The devices have excess loss of 4.82 and 4.73 dB for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively.

  17. Bragg diffraction of light by ultrasonic waves in planargyrotrophic optical waveguides in an external electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Kulak, G.V.

    1995-09-01

    Features of Bragg diffraction of light by two-partial surface ultrasonic waves in planar gyrotropic optical waveguides placed in an external electric field are considered. General expressions for complex vector amplitudes of diffracted fields are presented. It is shown that the diffracted waves have elliptic polarization, the ellipticity being determined by the linear anisotropy of the waveguide structure, the anisotropy induced by an external electric field, the anisotropy of photoelasticity, and the crystal gyrotropy. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Enabling transistor-like action in photonic crystal waveguides using optical event horizons.

    PubMed

    Kanakis, Panagiotis; Kamalakis, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    We show that dispersion and loss-engineered photonic crystal waveguides can support optical event horizons enabling the manipulation of a strong soliton pulse by a weaker control pulse within a 3 mm waveguide. Depending on the launching frequency of the weak control pulse, both blue and red soliton shifts are observed, while the soliton appears to be delayed by several pulse widths. PMID:27192239

  19. Design of nonreciprocal waveguide devices based on two-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le; Yang, Dongxiao; Chen, Kan; Li, Tao; Xia, Song

    2013-09-01

    Isolator, circulator and crossing waveguide devices based on two-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystals were designed. The dispersion relation, mode distribution and transmission spectrum for these nonreciprocal devices were analysed using the finite element method. An isolator, a four-port circulator and a low-crosstalk crossing waveguide with a continual one-way transmission bandwidth of 10.6%, a circulation bandwidth of 4.7% and a low-crosstalk bandwidth of 16.6% were fabricated, respectively.

  20. Structure and properties of optical waveguides in stoichiometric LiNbO{sub 3} crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kostritskii, S. M. Korkishko, Yu. N.; Fedorov, V. A.; Frolova, M. V.; Korepanov, N. S.; Moretti, P.

    2009-12-15

    The structures of proton-exchanged and implanted waveguides are studied by X diffraction analysis and vibration spectroscopy. On the basis of the absorption's spectroscopy data in the visible region and the data on the shift of the fundamental absorption edge in the nearultraviolet region, a comparative analysis of technologically conditioned variations in the nonlinear optical properties of proton-exchanged and implanted waveguides in stoichiometric LiNbO{sub 3} crystals is conducted.

  1. Application of the theory of coupled waves for analysis of inclined reflectors in optical waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Kolosovskii, E A; Tsarev, A V

    2008-09-30

    A new method for analysing the transmission and scattering of the guided TE mode in an inclined reflector located in an optical waveguide is proposed and studied. The reflection of an inhomogeneous optical beam from the inclined reflector is described semi-analytically for the first time by using the theory of coupled waves and taking into account the interrelation and transformation of energy between all the waves of the discrete and continuous spectra of the optical 2D-waveguide (even and odd guided, radiation, and evanescent waves). The results of calculations of the propagation of light through the inclined reflector in the form of a thin (10-500 nm) homogeneous strip obtained by our method and by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method are in excellent quantitative agreement. The calculation rate of our method considerably (by one-two orders of magnitude) exceeds that of the FDTD method and our method has a better accuracy. (optical waveguides)

  2. Write-once recording for multilayered optical waveguide-type holographic cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitasaki, Tokinobu; Senda, Masakatsu

    2006-03-01

    We propose a write-once recording technique for multilayered optical waveguide-type holographic cards. The card medium has a construction created by adding a recording layer and a holographic grating layer to the multilayered optical waveguide composed of core and cladding layers. Individual data for each medium were recorded as an arrangement of optically transparent holes formed in the recording layer. Holograms common to all media were designed in the holographic grating layer so that diffracted lights from the holograms could pass through the holes and focus on an image sensor. We succeeded in write-once recording with a memory capacity potential of more than 128 bits.

  3. Periodic nanostructures for tunable thin optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criante, L.; Di Fonzo, F.; Fumagalli, F.; Lanzani, G.; Passoni, L.; Scotognella, F.; Simoni, F.

    2015-08-01

    We report the realization and characterization of porous nanostructures where a periodic refractive index modulation is achieved by stacking layers with different nano-architectures. One multilayer photonic crystal has been fabricated starting from colloidal dispersion of silicon dioxide and zirconium dioxide using spin coating technique. Improved efficiency of Bragg reflectivity (up to 85%) has been obtained by a new bottom-up fabrication technique of photonic hierarchical nanostructures based on self-assembly from the gas-phase at low temperature whit a very thin (≍ 1 μm) photonic crystal devices. Due to the high porosity, these systems can be infiltrated with nematic liquid crystals leading to tuning of the Bragg reflection band by applying low voltages to the structure.

  4. GI-core polymer waveguide based on polynorbornene for optical interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazoe, Katsuma; Kinoshita, Ryota; Horimoto, Akihiro

    2016-03-01

    To meet the increasing demand for board level high speed data transmission in the area of high performance computing, much attention has been paid to employ high performance polymer optical waveguide. So far, optical interconnects have been considered to have advantages over electronic solutions in various aspects, such as lower power consumption, larger information carrying capacity and immunity to crosstalk. It is one of the advantages that waveguides are possible to be curved and crossed light paths in the same circuit plane. GI-core polymer waveguides are capable of confining the signal light around the core center more tightly, by which the GI-core waveguides exhibit low propagation loss, low crosstalk, and low modal dispersion. Therefore, GI-core reduces the loss in meshed waveguide compared to SI-core meshed waveguides. The material of our GI-core polymer waveguide is Polynorbornene. The varnish for both core and cladding is prepared and coated onto a substrate then the coated layers are exposed to a UV light through a photomask and heated at a certain temperature. After heating, index profile changes and GI-core waveguide is formed. This is our original photo-addressing method. We confirm that extremely low crossings loss is observed in both 90-degree (0.53 dB/500 crosses) and 45-degree (1.55 dB/500 crosses). Also, we succeed high-speed data transmission. We expect that this ultra low crossing loss GI-core waveguide will be one of the promising components giving a strong impact on high performance computing systems in near future.

  5. Tailoring the Optical Properties of Silicon with Ion Beam Created Nanostructures for Advanced Photonics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Perveen

    light trapping in poly-Si thin films using ion implantation induced surface texturing. In addition to surface texturing produced by H and Ar ion implantations, metal nanostructures are also added to the surface to further suppress light reflection at the plasmonic resonance of metal nanostructures. Remarkable suppression has been achieved resulting in reflection from the air/Si interface to below ˜5%. In the second part, optical properties of embedded metal nanostructures in silicon matrix gettered into the ion implantation created nanocavities are studied. Embedded nanostructures can have a huge impact in future photonics applications by replacing the existing electronic and photonic components such as interconnects, waveguides, modulators and amplifiers with their plasmonic counterparts. This new method of encapsulating metal nanostructures in silicon is cost-effective and compatible with silicon fabrication technology. Spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to study the dielectric properties of silicon with embedded silver nanostructures. High absorption regions around 900 nm, corresponding to plasmonic absorption of Ag nanoparticles in Si, have been observed and compared to theoretical calculations and simulation results. The possibility of modifying the dielectric function of Si with metal nanostructures can lay the foundation for functional base structures for advanced applications in silicon photonics, photovoltaics and plasmonics.

  6. Optical waveguide writing in photochromic material: photoinduced optical properties by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, J. M.; Camacho-López, S.; Cano-Lara, M.; Rodríguez, A.; Balderas-Navarro, R. E.; Elizalde, L. E.; Ledezma, R.

    2011-09-01

    We report on the interaction of high repetition rate (MHz) Ti: sapphire laser pulses with a spiropyran polymer (MIC1). Such a polymer is photochromic, wich has potential applications in integrated optical devices. A thin film of polymer deposited on a glass substrate is irradiated with ultrashort pulses (66 fs) from a Ti: sapphire laser. We demonstrate that it is possible to induce an absorption band in the visible by the use of femtosecond pulses via a two-photon excitation process; this might be useful to accomplish waveguide-like structures formation with photochromic response.

  7. Capillary waveguide optrodes: an approach to optical sensing in medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippitsch, Max E.; Draxler, Sonja; Kieslinger, Dietmar; Lehmann, Hartmut; Weigl, Bernhard H.

    1996-07-01

    Glass capillaries with a chemically sensitive coating on the inner surface are used as optical sensors for medical diagnostics. A capillary simultaneously serves as a sample compartment, a sensor element, and an inhomogeneous optical waveguide. Various detection schemes based on absorption, fluorescence intensity, or fluorescence lifetime are described. In absorption-based capillary waveguide optrodes the absorption in the sensor layer is analyte dependent; hence light transmission along the inhomogeneous waveguiding structure formed by the capillary wall and the sensing layer is a function of the analyte concentration. Similarly, in fluorescence-based capillary optrodes the fluorescence intensity or the fluorescence lifetime of an indicator dye fixed in the sensing layer is analyte dependent; thus the specific property of fluorescent light excited in the sensing layer and thereafter guided along the inhomogeneous waveguiding structure is a function of the analyte concentration. Both schemes are experimentally demonstrated, one with carbon dioxide as the analyte and the other one with oxygen. The device combines optical sensors with the standard glass capillaries usually applied to gather blood drops from fingertips, to yield a versatile diagnostic instrument, integrating the sample compartment, the optical sensor, and the light-collecting optics into a single piece. This ensures enhanced sensor performance as well as improved handling compared with other sensors. waveguide, blood gases, medical diagnostics.

  8. Optical nano artifact metrics using silicon random nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Naoki; Nishio, Shumpei; Hoga, Morihisa; Ohyagi, Yasuyuki; Tate, Naoya; Naruse, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Nano-artifact metrics exploit unique physical attributes of nanostructured matter for authentication and clone resistance, which is vitally important in the age of Internet-of-Things where securing identities is critical. However, expensive and huge experimental apparatuses, such as scanning electron microscopy, have been required in the former studies. Herein, we demonstrate an optical approach to characterise the nanoscale-precision signatures of silicon random structures towards realising low-cost and high-value information security technology. Unique and versatile silicon nanostructures are generated via resist collapse phenomena, which contains dimensions that are well below the diffraction limit of light. We exploit the nanoscale precision ability of confocal laser microscopy in the height dimension; our experimental results demonstrate that the vertical precision of measurement is essential in satisfying the performances required for artifact metrics. Furthermore, by using state-of-the-art nanostructuring technology, we experimentally fabricate clones from the genuine devices. We demonstrate that the statistical properties of the genuine and clone devices are successfully exploited, showing that the liveness-detection-type approach, which is widely deployed in biometrics, is valid in artificially-constructed solid-state nanostructures. These findings pave the way for reasonable and yet sufficiently secure novel principles for information security based on silicon random nanostructures and optical technologies. PMID:27578146

  9. Optical nano artifact metrics using silicon random nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Naoki; Nishio, Shumpei; Hoga, Morihisa; Ohyagi, Yasuyuki; Tate, Naoya; Naruse, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Nano-artifact metrics exploit unique physical attributes of nanostructured matter for authentication and clone resistance, which is vitally important in the age of Internet-of-Things where securing identities is critical. However, expensive and huge experimental apparatuses, such as scanning electron microscopy, have been required in the former studies. Herein, we demonstrate an optical approach to characterise the nanoscale-precision signatures of silicon random structures towards realising low-cost and high-value information security technology. Unique and versatile silicon nanostructures are generated via resist collapse phenomena, which contains dimensions that are well below the diffraction limit of light. We exploit the nanoscale precision ability of confocal laser microscopy in the height dimension; our experimental results demonstrate that the vertical precision of measurement is essential in satisfying the performances required for artifact metrics. Furthermore, by using state-of-the-art nanostructuring technology, we experimentally fabricate clones from the genuine devices. We demonstrate that the statistical properties of the genuine and clone devices are successfully exploited, showing that the liveness-detection-type approach, which is widely deployed in biometrics, is valid in artificially-constructed solid-state nanostructures. These findings pave the way for reasonable and yet sufficiently secure novel principles for information security based on silicon random nanostructures and optical technologies. PMID:27578146

  10. Formation of nonlinear optical waveguides by using ion-exchange and implantation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, G. W.; de Marchi, G.; Gonella, F.; Mazzoldi, P.; Quaranta, A.; Battaglin, G.; Catalano, M.; Garrido, F.; Haglund, R. F., Jr.

    1996-08-01

    Composite materials consisting of metal nanoclusters embedded in glass matrices have been obtained by the combined use of ion-exchange and ion implantation processes, with possible application in the design of nonlinear all-optical switching devices. Optical waveguides containing either silver or copper clusters have been fabricated. Optical absorption and electron microscopy have been performed to detect the presence of metal clusters. Preliminary measurements have been also performed of the optical nonlinear response on both silver- and copper-containing glasses.

  11. Optical net gain measurement in n-type doped germanium waveguides under optical pumping for silicon monolithic laser.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tadashi; Oda, Katsuya; Kasai, Junichi; Sagawa, Misuzu; Suwa, Yuji

    2016-05-01

    Silicon (Si) monolithic lasers are key devices in large-scale, high-density photonic integrated circuits. Germanium (Ge) is promising as an active layer due to the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process compatibility with Si. A net optical gain from Ge is essential to demonstrate lasing operation. We fabricated Ge waveguides and investigated the n-type doping effect on the net optical gain. The estimated net gain of the n-Ge waveguide increased from -2200 to -500/cm, namely reducing loss, under optically pumped condition. PMID:27137529

  12. Characterization of Si3N4/SiO2 optical channel waveguides by photon scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yan; Chudgar, Mona H.; Jackson, Howard E.; Miller, Jeffrey S.; De Brabander, Gregory N.; Boyd, Joseph T.

    1993-01-01

    Photon scanning tunneling microscopy (PSTM) is used to characterize Si3N4/Si02 optical channel waveguides being used for integrated optical-micromechanical sensors. PSTM utilizes an optical fiber tapered to a fine point which is piezoelectrically positioned to measure the decay of the evanescent field intensity associated with the waveguide propagating mode. Evanescent field decays are recorded for both ridge channel waveguides and planar waveguide regions. Values for the local effective refractive index are calculated from the data for both polarizations and compared to model calculations.

  13. Advantages of UV210 polymer for integrated optics applications: comparison of ridge and photoinscripted strip waveguide performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouldieff, C.; Huby, N.; Bêche, B.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the propagation performance comparison of two waveguide structures obtained from the same UV210 photoresist. Ridge waveguide structures were fabricated by deep ultraviolet photolithography, and photoinscripted strip waveguides were realized by the same process, excluding the last development step. Structural and optical studies were carried out for both waveguide families, highlighting a well-controlled photolithography process. Predictions of the propagating modes were also led using the beam propagation method, showing a good agreement with experiments in single-mode propagation. Propagation losses were evaluated at 635 nm by cut-back measurement, showing mean loss values that are slightly lower for photoinscripted waveguides than for ridge waveguides. UV210 photoinscripted waveguides thus combine a fast and low-cost process, reduced optical losses, and a planar surface with as many advantages for more complex integrated components.

  14. Waveguiding Properties of Nano-Structured TiO2 Thin Films Synthesized by Sol-Gel Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Znaidi, L.; Touam, T.; Vrel, D.; Kunetsova, I. N.; Fischer, A.; Boudrioua, A.

    2011-12-01

    TiO2 thin films were synthesized by sol-gel process: titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dissolved in isopropanol, and then hydrolyzed by adding a water/isopropanol mixture with a controlled hydrolysis ratio. The as prepared sol was deposited by `dip-coating' on a glass substrate with a controlled withdrawal speed. The obtained films were annealed at 350 and 500 °C (2 h). The structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared films were analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The optical and waveguiding properties of TiO2 films were investigated for both annealing temperatures using m-lines spectroscopy. The results show that our fabricated TiO2 waveguides are multimodes and demonstrate low propagation losses of 0.9 dBṡcm-1.

  15. Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with a slit-shaped femtosecond laser beam.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yang; Qi, Jia; Wang, Peng; Chu, Wei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2016-01-01

    We report on fabrication of tubular optical waveguides buried in ZBLAN glass based on transverse femtosecond laser direct writing. Irradiation in ZBLAN with focused femtosecond laser pulses leads to decrease of refractive index in the modified region. Tubular optical waveguides of variable mode areas are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding with slit-shaped femtosecond laser pulses, ensuring single mode waveguiding with a mode field dimension as small as ~4 μm. PMID:27346285

  16. Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with a slit-shaped femtosecond laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yang; Qi, Jia; Wang, Peng; Chu, Wei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2016-06-01

    We report on fabrication of tubular optical waveguides buried in ZBLAN glass based on transverse femtosecond laser direct writing. Irradiation in ZBLAN with focused femtosecond laser pulses leads to decrease of refractive index in the modified region. Tubular optical waveguides of variable mode areas are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding with slit-shaped femtosecond laser pulses, ensuring single mode waveguiding with a mode field dimension as small as ~4 μm.

  17. Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with a slit-shaped femtosecond laser beam

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yang; Qi, Jia; Wang, Peng; Chu, Wei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2016-01-01

    We report on fabrication of tubular optical waveguides buried in ZBLAN glass based on transverse femtosecond laser direct writing. Irradiation in ZBLAN with focused femtosecond laser pulses leads to decrease of refractive index in the modified region. Tubular optical waveguides of variable mode areas are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding with slit-shaped femtosecond laser pulses, ensuring single mode waveguiding with a mode field dimension as small as ~4 μm. PMID:27346285

  18. Gold nanostructure-integrated silica-on-silicon waveguide for the detection of antibiotics in milk and milk products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozhikandathil, Jayan; Badilescu, Simona; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2012-10-01

    Antibiotics are extensively used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. The use of antibiotics for the treatment of animals used for food production raised the concern of the public and a rapid screening method became necessary. A novel approach of detection of antibiotics in milk is reported in this work by using an immunoassay format and the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance property of gold. An antibiotic from the penicillin family that is, ampicillin is used for testing. Gold nanostructures deposited on a glass substrate by a novel convective assembly method were heat-treated to form a nanoisland morphology. The Au nanostructures were functionalized and the corresponding antibody was absorbed from a solution. Solutions with known concentrations of antigen (antibiotics) were subsequently added and the spectral changes were monitored step by step. The Au LSPR band corresponding to the nano-island structure was found to be suitable for the detection of the antibody antigen interaction. The detection of the ampicillin was successfully demonstrated with the gold nano-islands deposited on glass substrate. This process was subsequently adapted for the integration of gold nanostructures on the silica-on-silicon waveguide for the purpose of detecting antibiotics.

  19. Detection of avian influenza antigens in proximity fiber, droplet, and optical waveguide microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Heinze, Brian C.; Gamboa, Jessica; You, David J.

    2009-05-01

    Virus antigens of avian influenza subtype H3N2 were detected on two different microfluidic platforms: microchannel and droplet. Latex immunoagglutination assays were performed using 920-nm highly carboxylated polystyrene beads that are conjugated with antibody to avian influenza virus. The bead suspension was merged with the solutions of avian influenza virus antigens in a Y-junction of a microchannel made by polydimethylsiloxane soft lithography. The resulting latex immunoagglutinations were measured with two optical fibers in proximity setup to detect 45° forward light scattering. Alternatively, 10 μL droplets of a bead suspension and an antigen solution were merged on a superhydrophobic surface (water contact angle = 155°), whose movement was guided by a metal wire, and 180° back light scattering is measured with a backscattering optical probe. Detection limits were 0.1 pg mL-1 for both microchannel with proximity fibers and droplet microfluidics, thanks to the use of micro-positioning stages to help generate reproducible optical signals. Additionally, optical waveguide was tested by constructing optical waveguide channels (filled with mineral oil) within a microfluidic device to detect the same light scattering. Detection limit was 0.1 ng mL-1 for an optical waveguide device, with a strong potential of improvement in the near future. The use of optical waveguide enabled smaller device setup, easier operation, smaller standard deviations and broader linear range of assay than proximity fiber microchannel and droplet microfluidics. Total assay time was less than 10 min.

  20. Optical waveguides fabricated by nitrogen ion implantation in fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Fu, Li-Li; Zheng, Rui-Lin; Guo, Hai-Tao; Zhou, Zhi-Guang; Li, Wei-Nan; Lin, She-Bao; Wei, Wei

    2016-02-01

    We report on the fabrication of waveguides in fused silica using 4.5-MeV nitrogen ion implantation with a fluence of 5.0×1014 ions/cm2. The prism-coupling method was employed to measure the effective refractive indices of guiding modes at the wavelengths of 632.8 and 1539 nm. The effective refractive indices of the first few modes were higher than that of the substrate. The refractive index profiles at 632.8 and 1539 nm were reconstructed by the reflectivity calculation method. Positive index changes were induced in the waveguide layers. The end-face coupling method was used to measure the near-field light intensity distributions at the wavelength of 632.8 nm and the finite-difference beam propagation method was applied to simulate the guided mode profile at the wavelength of 1539 nm. The waveguide structures emerge as candidates for integrated photonic devices.

  1. Experimental verification of optical models of graphene with multimode slab waveguides.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zeshan; Chiang, Kin Seng

    2016-05-01

    We compare three optical models of graphene, namely, the interface model, the isotropic model, and the anisotropic model, and verify them experimentally with two multimode slab waveguide samples operating at the wavelengths of 632.8 and 1536 nm. By comparing the calculated graphene-induced losses and the measurement data, we confirm that the interface model and the anisotropic model give correct results for both the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic modes, while the isotropic model gives correct results only for the TE modes. With the experimental data, we also quantitatively verify the widely used expression for the surface conductivity of graphene in the optical regime. Our findings clarify the issue of modeling graphene in the analysis of graphene-incorporated waveguides and offer deeper insight into the optical properties of graphene for waveguide applications. PMID:27128091

  2. Optical lattice-like cladding waveguides by direct laser writing: fabrication, luminescence, and lasing.

    PubMed

    Nie, Weijie; He, Ruiyun; Cheng, Chen; Rocha, Uéslen; Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, Javier; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-15

    We report on the fabrication of optical lattice-like waveguide structures in an Nd:YAP laser crystal by using direct femtosecond laser writing. With periodically arrayed laser-induced tracks, the waveguiding cores can be located in either the regions between the neighbored tracks or the central zone surrounded by a number of tracks as outer cladding. The polarization of the femtosecond laser pulses for the inscription has been found to play a critical role in the anisotropic guiding behaviors of the structures. The confocal photoluminescence investigations reveal different stress-induced modifications of the structures inscribed by different polarization of the femtosecond laser beam, which are considered to be responsible for the refractive index changes of the structures. Under optical pump at 808 nm, efficient waveguide lasing at ∼1  μm wavelength has been realized from the optical lattice-like structure, which exhibits potential applications as novel miniature light sources. PMID:27176954

  3. Symbolic-computation study of bright solitons in the optical waveguides and Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-Po; Tian, Bo; Wang, Yu-Feng; Huang, Zhi-Ruo; Sun, Ya; Cai, Hui-Ping

    2015-06-01

    We investigate solitons in optical waveguides and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) governed by a (3+1)-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii system, which describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the optical waveguides and ground-state wave functions of the BECs. We use the symbolic computation and Hirota method to derive analytic bright one- and two-soliton solutions under certain conditions. Soliton amplitude/width amplification and the influence of time-modulated dispersion on the bright-soliton shape are studied via graphic analysis. Through the analysis of bright solitons in optical waveguides and BECs, we find that both the amplitude and the width of bright solitons can become larger during propagation with certain choices of time-modulated dispersion, and that the shape of the bright soliton can also be affected by the time-modulated dispersion; when the time-modulated dispersion is different, we can obtain bright parabolic-like and periodic-type solitons.

  4. Optical Fano resonance of an individual semiconductor nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Fan, Pengyu; Yu, Zongfu; Fan, Shanhui; Brongersma, Mark L

    2014-05-01

    Fano resonances with a characteristic asymmetric line shape can be observed in light scattering, transmission and reflection spectra of resonant optical systems. They result from interference between direct and indirect, resonance-assisted pathways. In the nanophotonics field, Fano effects have been observed in a wide variety of systems, including metallic nanoparticle assemblies, metamaterials and photonic crystals. Their unique properties find extensive use in applications, including optical filtering, polarization selectors, sensing, lasers, modulators and nonlinear optics. We report on the observation of a Fano resonance in a single semiconductor nanostructure, opening up opportunities for their use in active photonic devices. We also show that Fano-resonant semiconductor nanostructures afford the intriguing opportunity to simultaneously measure the far-field scattering response and the near-field energy storage by extracting photogenerated charge. Together they can provide a complete experimental characterization of this type of resonance. PMID:24747781

  5. Nonlinear photonic crystal waveguide structures based on barium titanate thin films and their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhifu; Lin, Pao-Tai; Wessels, Bruce W.; Yi, Fei; Ho, Seng-Tiong

    2007-05-01

    Nonlinear photonic crystal waveguide structures were fabricated from barium titanate thin films using nanolithography. A cascaded Bragg reflector using a strip waveguide was designed and analyzed. Both simulation and experimental results show that there is sufficient refractive index contrast to form a stop band by only etching through the Si3N4 strip layer. The band gap of the Bragg reflector can be engineered through control of the Bragg spacing, thickness, and etching depth of the strip layer. The transmission spectrum of the Bragg reflector waveguide was measured over the spectral range of 1500-1580nm. A 27nm wide stop band was obtained for a millimeter long sample. The nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides are potentially suitable as tunable filters, optical switches, and ultrawide bandwidth modulators.

  6. Broadband all-optical modulation in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Karthik; Elshaari, Ali W; Preble, Stefan F

    2010-05-10

    We demonstrate broadband all-optical modulation in low loss hydrogenated-amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) waveguides. Significant modulation (approximately 3 dB) occurs with a device of only 15 microm without the need for cavity interference effects in stark contrast to an identical crystalline silicon waveguide. We attribute the enhanced modulation to the significantly larger free-carrier absorption effect of a-Si:H, estimated here to be alpha = 1.6310(-16)N cm(-1). In addition, we measured the modulation time to be only tau(c) approximately 400 ps, which is comparable to the recombination rate measured in sub-micron crystalline silicon waveguides, illustrating the strong dominance of surface recombination in similar sized (460 nm x 250 nm) a-Si:H waveguides. Consequently, a-Si:H could serve as a high performance platform for backend integrated CMOS photonics. PMID:20588830

  7. F2-laser writing of silica optical waveguides in silicone rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoshi, Masayuki; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R.

    2005-04-01

    F2-laser writing of silica (SiO2) optical waveguides has been successfully demonstrated on the surface of silicone [(SiO(CH3)2)n] rubber by the photochemical modification of silicone into silica. The 2-mm-thick silicone rubber was exposed to the 157-nm F2-laser beam through a thin (~0.2 mm) air layer. A proximity Cr-on-CaF2 photomask with 8- to 16-micron-wide slits controlled the exposure size to define the width of the silica waveguide. Optimum laser conditions to generate crack-free waveguides with good transparency were found by varying the laser fluence, pulse repetition rate and total exposure. The optimized waveguides were found to guide both red (~635-nm) and infrared (~1550-nm) wavelengths with light end-fired from standard single-mode fiber.

  8. Calculated coupling efficiency between an elliptical-core optical fiber and an optical waveguide over temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Weisshaar, Andreas; Li, Jian; Beheim, Glenn

    1995-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of coupling the output of a single-mode optical fiber into a single-mode rib waveguide in a temperature varying environment, a theoretical calculation of the coupling efficiency between the two was investigated. Due to the complex geometry of the rib guide, there is no analytical solution to the wave equation for the guided modes, thus, approximation and/or numerical techniques must be utilized to determine the field patterns of the guide. In this study, three solution methods were used for both the fiber and guide fields; the effective-index method (EIM), Marcatili's approximation, and a Fourier method. These methods were utilized independently to calculate the electric field profile of each component at two temperatures, 20 C and 300 C, representing a nominal and high temperature. Using the electric field profile calculated from each method, the theoretical coupling efficiency between an elliptical-core optical fiber and a rib waveguide was calculated using the overlap integral and the results were compared. It was determined that a high coupling efficiency can be achieved when the two components are aligned. The coupling efficiency was more sensitive to alignment offsets in the y direction than the x, due to the elliptical modal field profile of both components. Changes in the coupling efficiency over temperature were found to be minimal.

  9. Remote detection of single emitters via optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Then, Patrick; Razinskas, Gary; Feichtner, Thorsten; Haas, Philippe; Wild, Andreas; Bellini, Nicola; Osellame, Roberto; Cerullo, Giulio; Hecht, Bert

    2014-05-01

    The integration of lab-on-a-chip technologies with single-molecule detection techniques may enable new applications in analytical chemistry, biotechnology, and medicine. We describe a method based on the reciprocity theorem of electromagnetic theory to determine and optimize the detection efficiency of photons emitted by single quantum emitters through truncated dielectric waveguides of arbitrary shape positioned in their proximity. We demonstrate experimentally that detection of single quantum emitters via such waveguides is possible, confirming the predicted behavior of the detection efficiency. Our findings blaze the trail towards efficient lensless single-emitter detection compatible with large-scale optofluidic integration.

  10. Synthesis and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Duo-Fa; Liao, Lei; Li, Jin-Chai; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Ming-Zeng; Zhou, Jun-Ming

    2005-08-01

    ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies were fabricated by changing the partial oxygen pressure. The structures, morphologies and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures were investigated by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra at room temperature. All the samples show preferred orientation along the c-axis. The oxygen partial pressure and the annealing atmosphere have important effect on the PL property of ZnO nanostructures. The high oxygen partial pressure during growth of samples and high-temperature annealing of the ZnO samples in oxygen can increase oxygen vacancies and can especially increase antisite oxygen (Ozn) defects, which degraded the near band-edge emission. However, the annealing in H2 can significantly modify the NBE emission.

  11. Waveguide-coupling to be used in a micro optical laser gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leber, Ingmar; Niesel, Thalke; Dietzel, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    A new concept for the realization of a micro optical laser gyroscope was developed. This new concept involves a passive free space ring resonator in which the light is circulating by reflections at three double mirrors and an external light source to activate the resonator. To couple the light in and out of the resonator waveguide-couplers are employed. This paper reports on the simulation of waveguide-coupler structures and on experimental investigation of coupling efficiency using micro fabricated SU-8 coupler structures. The modeled coupler structures consist of two parallel waveguides. The waveguides with rectangular profile are in close proximity i.e. separated only by a narrow gap over a certain path length Waveguide-coupler structures with similar geometries have been micro fabricated and optically characterized. It has been found that as a consequence of the lithographic formation of SU-8 high aspect ratio waveguides residual SU- 8 material remains between the waveguides as the gaps become very small (below 5 μm). In these structures a parasitic connection between the two parallel waveguides could be identified. No coupling effect was observed in the micro fabricated devices with perfect gap separation. From comparison of simulations and experiments we can conclude that there is a coupling mechanism based on the residual SU-8 material bridging the separation gap. Bridging allows coupling light at gaps even larger than 1 μm. Such residual material coupling can be achieved with SU8 lithographic high aspect ratio structuring (height 30 μm x width 50 μm or height 30 μm x width 20 μm) in which sub μm-gaps are almost impossible to produce with standard technologies.

  12. Light-guided localization within tissue using biocompatible surgical suture fiber as an optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Park, Kwan Seob; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2014-09-01

    In breast-conserving surgery, an optical wire is a useful surgical guiding tool to optically locate small lesions within the breast tissue. However, the use of a long silica glass fiber as the optical wire can be burdensome to patients because of its stiffness and nonbiocompatibility. We investigate the use of a biocompatible fiber for light localization in tissue. A surgical suture with a diameter of 400 μm and a few centimeters long is employed as the biocompatible optical waveguide to transport the visible laser light to the inner tissue site. Optical location is confirmed with glow ball-like red laser illumination at the tip of the suture embedded within a fresh chicken breast tissue. Effective optical power coupling to the suture is made by using a double-cladding fiber coupler. From this preliminary result, we realize practical light localization with biopolymer waveguides.

  13. Light-guided localization within tissue using biocompatible surgical suture fiber as an optical waveguide.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo June; Park, Kwan Seob; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2014-09-01

    In breast-conserving surgery, an optical wire is a useful surgical guiding tool to optically locate small lesions within the breast tissue. However, the use of a long silica glass fiber as the optical wire can be burdensome to patients because of its stiffness and nonbiocompatibility. We investigate the use of a biocompatible fiber for light localization in tissue. A surgical suture with a diameter of 400 μm and a few centimeters long is employed as the biocompatible optical waveguide to transport the visible laser light to the inner tissue site. Optical location is confirmed with glow ball-like red laser illumination at the tip of the suture embedded within a fresh chicken breast tissue. Effective optical power coupling to the suture is made by using a double-cladding fiber coupler. From this preliminary result, we realize practical light localization with biopolymer waveguides. PMID:25202898

  14. Mode conversion in magneto-optic rib waveguide made by silica matrix doped with magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouras, Mounir; Hocini, Abdessalem

    2016-03-01

    The TE-TM mode conversion is an important requirement for magneto-optical waveguide devices. It has been analyzed by means of a full-vectorial beam propagation method. The present work is based on the study of the influence of diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the complex dielectric tensor on the conversion efficiency in magneto-optical rib waveguide. We have found that in the presence of the absorption (taking into account the imaginary part of diagonal tensor) the conversion efficiency is affected by the absorption and these latter increases as the volume fraction of nanoparticles increases.

  15. Coherent tunneling by adiabatic process in a four-waveguide optical coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jian; Ma, Rui-Qiong; Duan, Zuo-Liang; Liang, Meng; Zhang, Wen-wen; Dong, Jun

    2016-07-01

    We numerically simulate Schrödinger-like paraxial wave equation of a four-waveguide system. The coherent tunneling by adiabatic passage in a four-waveguide optical coupler is analyzed by borrowing the dressed state theory of coherent atom system. We discuss the optical coupling mechanism and coupling efficiency of light energy in both intuitive and counterintuitive tunneling schemes and analyze the threshold condition from adiabatic to non-adiabatic regimes in intuitive scheme. The results show that this coupler can be used as power splitter under certain conditions.

  16. Exceptional points and asymmetric mode conversion in quasi-guided dual-mode optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. N.; Chong, Y. D.

    2016-04-01

    Non-Hermitian systems host unconventional physical effects that be used to design new optical devices. We study a non-Hermitian system consisting of 1D planar optical waveguides with suitable amount of simultaneous gain and loss. The parameter space contains an exceptional point, which can be accessed by varying the transverse gain and loss profile. When light propagates through the waveguide structure, the output mode is independent of the choice of input mode. This “asymmetric mode conversion” phenomenon can be explained by the swapping of mode identities in the vicinity of the exceptional point, together with the failure of adiabatic evolution in non-Hermitian systems.

  17. Exceptional points and asymmetric mode conversion in quasi-guided dual-mode optical waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, S. N.; Chong, Y. D.

    2016-01-01

    Non-Hermitian systems host unconventional physical effects that be used to design new optical devices. We study a non-Hermitian system consisting of 1D planar optical waveguides with suitable amount of simultaneous gain and loss. The parameter space contains an exceptional point, which can be accessed by varying the transverse gain and loss profile. When light propagates through the waveguide structure, the output mode is independent of the choice of input mode. This “asymmetric mode conversion” phenomenon can be explained by the swapping of mode identities in the vicinity of the exceptional point, together with the failure of adiabatic evolution in non-Hermitian systems. PMID:27101933

  18. Observation of an optical event horizon in a silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguide.

    PubMed

    Ciret, Charles; Leo, François; Kuyken, Bart; Roelkens, Gunther; Gorza, Simon-Pierre

    2016-01-11

    We report on the first experimental observation of an optical analogue of an event horizon in integrated nanophotonic waveguides, through the reflection of a continuous wave on an intense pulse. The experiment is performed in a dispersion-engineered silicon-on-insulator waveguide. In this medium, solitons do not suffer from Raman induced self-frequency shift as in silica fibers, a feature that is interesting for potential applications of optical event horizons. As shown by simulations, this also allows the observation of multiple reflections at the same time on fundamental solitons ejected by soliton fission. PMID:26832243

  19. Amplification of frequency-modulated soliton-like pulses in inhomogeneous optical waveguides with normal dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotovskii, I. O.; Novikov, S. G.; Okhotnikov, O. G.; Sementsov, D. I.; Yavtushenko, I. O.; Yavtushenko, M. S.

    2012-06-01

    The possibility of effective amplification of self-similar frequency-modulated pulses (FMPs) in longitudinally inhomogeneous active optical waveguides is studied. Peculiarities of the dynamics of parabolic pulses with a constant frequency modulation rate are considered. An optimal profile of variation of the group velocity dispersion was obtained in correspondence with optimal amplification of a similariton-like pulse. The use of FMPs in amplifying and longitudinally inhomogeneous optical waveguides with a correspondingly matched profile of normal dispersion of group velocities is shown to be capable of providing for an amplification of subpicosecond pulses up to energies above 1 nJ.

  20. Optical Parametric Fluorescence In Ti:LiNbO3 Channel Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, B.; Sohler, W.

    1986-11-01

    The optical parametric fluorescence was observed for the first time in a guided wave structure. In contrast to bulk optics three processes occur: signal and idler photons belong both to guided modes or both to radia-ting substrate modes or one to a guided mode and the other to substrate modes. These processes were investigated experimentally in Ti:LiNb03-channel waveguides. Using a cw-argon laser (λ = 514 nm) or a pulsed dye laser (580 nm < λ < 615 nm) as pump source, the fluorescence was studied as function of the pump wavelength, the pump power, the waveguide temperature and of spatial filtering.

  1. Planar optical waveguides fabricated by Ag+/K+-Na+ ion exchange in soda lime glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, Ahmad; Gregorius, Seran Daton; Widhianingsih, Ika; Lestari, Siti; Suryawan, Joko

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the optical properties of the optical planar waveguides in a soda lime glass fabricated by ion exchange. Planar waveguide fabrication was carried out by immersing the soda lime glass in molten 100 % AgNO3 bath for different duration (ranging from 15 minutes to 735 minutes) and at temperature of 280°C. The results show that the surface refractive index values of the ion exchanged glasses are independent of both the ion exchange duration and temperature. The number of modes and the effective diffusion depth, however, increase with increasing the duration of ion exchange process.

  2. Broadband silicon optical modulator using a graphene-integrated hybrid plasmonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jin Tae

    2015-09-11

    Graphene is an excellent electronic and photonic material for developing electronic-photonic integrated circuits in Si-based semiconductor devices with ultra wide operational bandwidth. As an extended application, here we propose a broadband silicon optical modulator using a graphene-integrated hybrid plasmonic waveguide, and investigate the optical characteristics numerically at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The optical device is based on the surface plasmon polariton absorption of graphene. By electrically tuning the graphene's refractive index as low as that of a noble metal, the hybrid plasmonic waveguide supports a strongly confined highly lossy hybrid long-range surface plasmon polariton strip mode, and hence light coupled from an input waveguide experiences significant power attenuation as it propagates along the waveguide. Over the entire C-band from 1.530 to 1.565 μm wavelengths, the on/off extinction ratio is larger than 13.7 dB. This modulator has the potential to play a key role in realizing graphene-Si waveguide-based integrated photonic devices. PMID:26293975

  3. Second-order optical non-linearity of proton exchanged lithium tantalate waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkishko, Y. N.; Fedorov, V. A.; Alkaev, A. N.; Laurell, F.

    2001-10-01

    A detailed correlation between the fabrication conditions, crystallographic phase state of HxLi1-xTaO3 waveguides and second-order optical non-linearity has been investigated by using reflected SHG measurements from the polished waveguide end face. The non-linearity, strongly reduced after the initial proton exchange, is found to be restored and even increased after annealing. However, this apparent increase in the non-linearity is accompanied by a strong degradation of the quality of the SHG reflected beam in the region of the initial as-exchanged waveguide due to beam scattering. The high temperature proton exchange technique has been shown to produce high-quality α-phase waveguides with essentially undegraded non-linear optical properties. There is no phase transition when the α-phase waveguides are fabricated by direct exchange. This phase presents the same crystalline structure as that of LiTaO3 and maintains the excellent non-linear properties of the bulk material. The results obtained are important for the design, fabrication and optimization of guided-wave non-linear optical devices in LiTaO3.

  4. Modeling, Simulation, and Characterization of Electro-Optic Polymer Waveguide Devices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jiong

    The primary objective of this thesis is to investigate the properties of optical polymer waveguides and switches, develop a phenomenological CAD tool, and to use this phenomenological tool to design optical polymer devices for high-speed interconnects in VLSI systems. In the investigations of optical polymer waveguides, a new phenomenological bleaching model that is able to predict optical index profiles for photobleached polymer films was developed. The theoretical model shows good agreement with measured results for the effective index and optical field distributions of waveguides, and the absorption of films. Based on this bleaching model, we can predict the index profile for polymer channel waveguides and formulate design rules for active optical switches and modulators. The model has been successfully applied to photobleached PMMA/DR1 and Ultem/DEDR1 waveguides. An experimental technique to determine the poling -induced optical birefringence and optical nonlinearity is also discussed. In this technique, absorption measurements are performed immediately after poling. The poling-induced index changes as a function of wavelength are obtained from the absorption changes using a Kramers-Kronig transformation. An alternative method for predicting the poling-induced index changes, requiring a combination of waveguide measurement techniques and order parameter calculations, exhibits good agreement. By combining the poling effects with the photobleaching index profile, a CAD tool has been developed to calculate the optical field distribution and loss which allows the design of active electro-optical modulators. Using the CAD tool together with an equivalent circuit model of electro-optic polymer switches, circuit level comparisons of a CMOS strip line interconnect with an external polymer modulator interconnect were performed in terms of power dissipation, bandwidth, and connection density. HSPICE was used as a circuit simulation tool. Based on this analysis, it is

  5. Direct write fabrication of waveguides and interconnects for optical printed wiring boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingeldein, Joseph C.

    Current copper based circuit technology is becoming a limiting factor in high speed data transfer applications as processors are improving at a faster rate than are developments to increase on board data transfer. One solution is to utilize optical waveguide technology to overcome these bandwidth and loss restrictions. The use of this technology virtually eliminates the heat and cross-talk loss seen in copper circuitry, while also operating at a higher bandwidth. Transitioning current fabrication techniques from small scale laboratory environments to large scale manufacturing presents significant challenges. Optical-to-electrical connections and out-of-plane coupling are significant hurdles in the advancement of optical interconnects. The main goals of this research are the development of direct write material deposition and patterning tools for the fabrication of waveguide systems on large substrates, and the development of out-of-plane coupler components compatible with standard fiber optic cabling. Combining these elements with standard printed circuit boards allows for the fabrication of fully functional optical-electrical-printed-wiring-boards (OEPWBs). A direct dispense tool was designed, assembled, and characterized for the repeatable dispensing of blanket waveguide layers over a range of thicknesses (25-225 μm), eliminating waste material and affording the ability to utilize large substrates. This tool was used to directly dispense multimode waveguide cores which required no UV definition or development. These cores had circular cross sections and were comparable in optical performance to lithographically fabricated square waveguides. Laser direct writing is a non-contact process that allows for the dynamic UV patterning of waveguide material on large substrates, eliminating the need for high resolution masks. A laser direct write tool was designed, assembled, and characterized for direct write patterning waveguides that were comparable in quality to those

  6. Nano-optical imaging of WS e2 waveguide modes revealing light-exciton interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Z.; Scott, M. E.; Gosztola, D. J.; Foley, J. J.; Yan, J.; Mandrus, D. G.; Wen, H.; Zhou, P.; Zhang, D. W.; Sun, Y.; Guest, J. R.; Gray, S. K.; Bao, W.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Xu, X.

    2016-08-01

    We report on a nano-optical imaging study of WS e2 thin flakes with scanning near-field optical microscopy (NSOM). The NSOM technique allows us to visualize in real space various waveguide photon modes inside WS e2 . By tuning the excitation laser energy, we are able to map the entire dispersion of these waveguide modes both above and below the A exciton energy of WS e2 . We found that all the modes interact strongly with WS e2 excitons. The outcome of the interaction is that the observed waveguide modes shift to higher momenta right below the A exciton energy. At higher energies, on the other hand, these modes are strongly damped due to adjacent B excitons or band-edge absorptions. The mode-shifting phenomena are consistent with polariton formation in WS e2 .

  7. Visible and near-infrared optical properties of a proton-implanted KTP waveguide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Fan; Liu, Peng; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Lian; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Tie-Jun; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2014-07-20

    In this work, the optical properties of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguides in the visible and near-infrared region are reported. The KTP waveguides were fabricated using 550 keV proton implantation at room temperature, and the refractive index profiles of the implanted region in the visible and near-infrared region were reconstructed. The profiles of the guided modes were measured through the end-face coupling method with both 632.8 and 1539 nm laser sources and then compared with the simulation results using the beam propagation method. Optical transmission and Raman spectra in the original substrate and waveguide active region were measured to study microstructural changes. The propagation loss of the TM0-mode at 632.8 nm was also measured. PMID:25090217

  8. Low loss Si(3)N(4)-SiO(2) optical waveguides on Si.

    PubMed

    Henry, C H; Kazarinov, R F; Lee, H J; Orlowsky, K J; Katz, L E

    1987-07-01

    We have developed an optical integrated circuit waveguide technology based on conventional Si processing. We demonstrate waveguide losses of <0.3 dB/cm in the 1.3-1.6-microm wavelength range. We use a high refractive-index core of Si(3)N(4) surrounded by SiO(2) cladding layers, which provides a highly confined optical mode adequate for butt coupling to channel substrate buried heterostructure lasers. We report the first IR transmission experiments in these waveguides and find two absorption peaks associated with H in SiO(2) and Si(3)N(4) layers at 1.40 and 1.52 microm, respectively. The peak absorptions are 2.2 and 1.2 dB/cm, respectively, and these peaks can be largely removed by annealing at 1100-1200 degrees C. PMID:20489931

  9. 157 nm F2-laser writing of silica optical waveguides in silicone rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoshi, Masayuki; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R.

    2005-10-01

    Silica (SiO2) optical waveguides have been fabricated on the surface of silicone [(SiO(CH3)2)n] rubber by photochemical modification of silicone rubber into silica with 157 nmF2-laser radiation. The 2 mm thick silicone was exposed through a thin (˜0.2 mm) air layer to generate oxygen radicals that chemically assisted in the silica transformation. Silica waveguides were defined in 8-16 µm wide exposure strips by a proximity Cr-on-CaF2 photomask. Optimum laser processing conditions are presented for generating crack-free waveguides with good optical transparency at red (635 nm) and infrared (1550 nm) wavelengths. A propagation loss of ˜6 dB/cm is reported at the 1550 nm wavelength.

  10. 157 nm F2-laser writing of silica optical waveguides in silicone rubber.

    PubMed

    Okoshi, Masayuki; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R

    2005-10-15

    Silica (SiO2) optical waveguides have been fabricated on the surface of silicone [(SiO(CH3)2)n] rubber by photochemical modification of silicone rubber into silica with 157 nm F2-laser radiation. The 2 mm thick silicone was exposed through a thin (approximately 0.2 mm) air layer to generate oxygen radicals that chemically assisted in the silica transformation. Silica waveguides were defined in 8-16 microm wide exposure strips by a proximity Cr-on-CaF2 photomask. Optimum laser processing conditions are presented for generating crack-free waveguides with good optical transparency at red (635 nm) and infrared (1550 nm) wavelengths. A propagation loss of approximately 6 dB/cm is reported at the 1550 nm wavelength. PMID:16252756

  11. Compact and low power thermo-optic switch using folded silicon waveguides.

    PubMed

    Densmore, Adam; Janz, Siegfried; Ma, Rubin; Schmid, Jens H; Xu, Dan-Xia; Delâge, André; Lapointe, Jean; Vachon, Martin; Cheben, Pavel

    2009-06-22

    By exploiting the small bend radius achievable using high-index-contrast silicon photonic wire waveguides, we demonstrate a new low power thermo-optic switch arranged in a dense, double spiral geometry. Such a design permits the waveguide length to be extended for increased phase shift, without the need for increased heated volume. This provides an effective means to reduce the power consumption of thermo-optic switches, as well as a compact geometry desirable for the development of switch arrays. A low switching power of 6.5 mW was obtained for a spiral-path Mach-Zehnder interferometer device having a 10% - 90% rise time of 14 micros. The switching power is shown to be reduced by more than 5 times compared to a Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing a conventional straight waveguide geometry. PMID:19550441

  12. Low birefringent magneto-optical waveguides fabricated via organic-inorganic sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choueikani, F.; Royer, F.; Douadi, S.; Skora, A.; Jamon, D.; Blanc, D.; Siblini, A.

    2009-09-01

    This paper is devoted to the study and the characterization of novel magneto-optical waveguides prepared via organic-inorganic sol-gel process. Thin silica/zirconia films doped with magnetic nanoparticles were coated on glass substrate using dip-coating technique. After annealing, samples were UV-treated. Two different techniques were used to measure their properties: m-lines spectroscopy and free space ellipsometry. Results evidence low refractive index waveguides that combine a low modal birefringence (2×10-4) with a Faraday rotation around 15 °/cm (φ = 0.1%). The low birefringence is obtained with a soft UV treatment and a graded intrinsic anisotropy is evidenced for films thicker than 5 μm. Therefore, we prove that the organic-inorganic sol-gel approach is very promising to realize magneto-optical waveguides with a non-reciprocal functionality such as TE-TM mode conversion.

  13. Reproduction and optical analysis of Morpho-inspired polymeric nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippets, Cary A.; Fu, Yulan; Jackson, Anne-Martine; Donev, Eugenii U.; Lopez, Rene

    2016-06-01

    The brilliant blue coloration of the Morpho rhetenor butterfly originates from complex nanostructures found on the surface of its wings. The Morpho butterfly exhibits strong short-wavelength reflection and a unique two-lobe optical signature in the incident (θ) and reflected (ϕ) angular space. Here, we report the large-area fabrication of a Morpho-like structure and its reproduction in perfluoropolyether. Reflection comparisons of periodic and quasi-random ‘polymer butterfly’ nanostructures show similar normal-incidence spectra but differ in the angular θ–ϕ dependence. The periodic sample shows strong specular reflection and simple diffraction. However, the quasi-random sample produces a two-lobe angular reflection pattern with minimal specular refection, approximating the real butterfly’s optical behavior. Finite-difference time-domain simulations confirm that this pattern results from the quasi-random periodicity and highlights the significance of the inherent randomness in the Morpho’s photonic structure.

  14. Multidimensional coherent optical spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardin, Gaël

    2016-02-01

    Multidimensional coherent optical spectroscopy (MDCS) is an elegant and versatile tool to measure the ultrafast nonlinear optical response of materials. Of particular interest for semiconductor nanostructures, MDCS enables the separation of homogeneous and inhomogeneous linewidths, reveals the nature of coupling between resonances, and is able to identify the signatures of many-body interactions. As an extension of transient four-wave mixing (FWM) experiments, MDCS can be implemented in various geometries, in which different strategies can be used to isolate the FWM signal and measure its phase. I review and compare different practical implementations of MDCS experiments adapted to the study of semiconductor materials. The power of MDCS is illustrated by discussing experimental results obtained on semiconductor nanostructures such as quantum dots, quantum wells, microcavities, and layered semiconductors.

  15. Optical biosensing transducer based on silicon waveguide structure coated with polyelectrolyte nano layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haron, Saharudin; Nabok, Alexey V.; Ray, Asim K.

    2003-04-01

    An optical biosensor based on attenuation of the light intensity during multiple reflections in a planar waveguide has been developed for water pollution monitoring. The planar waveguide consists of a 190 nanometer thick silicon nitride (Si3N4) core layer sandwiched between 1.5 micrometer thick silicon dioxide (SiO2) cladding layers. Composite polyelectrolyte self-assembled membranes containing Cyclotetrachromotropylene (CTCT) as an indicator and enzymes, such as Urease or Acetylcholine Esterase (AChE) were deposited on top of silicon nitride core layer within a 4 × 6 mm sensing window. Experimental studies on the light propagation through the planar waveguide show the advantages of this method over conventional UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. It was found that the planar waveguide sensitivity is higher by several orders of magnitude than that for UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The respective enzyme reactions as well as their inhibition by heavy metal ions were studied by monitoring the light intensity in the planar waveguide. Cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+) ions were registered in very low concentrations down to 1 ppb with the planar waveguide transducer. The enzymes used were inhibited differently by the above pollutants, which is promising for the development of enzyme sensor arrays.

  16. Dispersion and optical gradient force from high-order mode coupling between two hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanghui; Zhang, Weifeng; Lu, Jiahui; Zhao, Huijun

    2016-08-01

    We analytically study dispersion properties and optical gradient forces of different-order transverse magnetic (TM) modes in two coupled hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides (HMMWs). According to Maxwell's equations, we obtain the dispersion relation of symmetric and antisymmetric modes, and calculate optical gradient forces of different-order modes by using Maxwell stress tensor. Numerical results show that the dispersion properties are dependent on the filling ratio, and the optical gradient forces of high-order TM modes are larger than the fundamental mode when the gap between two HMMWs is very narrow, but they weaken much faster than the case of low-order TM modes with the gap width increasing. In addition, the effects of the dielectric surrounding of waveguides on the coupling effect and optical gradient force are clarified. These properties offer an avenue for various optomechanical applications in optical sensors and actuators.

  17. Tunable broadband optical field enhancement in graphene-based slot waveguide at infrared frequencies.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wanli

    2016-07-01

    Tunable broadband optical field enhancements are demonstrated for graphene-based nanoscale slot waveguides, and the extremely strong field intensity inside the slot region is produced based on the ultrahigh effective mode index. Analytic formulas are obtained to reveal the dependence of enhanced optical fields and effective mode index on the gap distance, the Fermi energy, the width of nanoribbons, and the background medium. We show that most of the optical field is concentrated within the slot regions with the normalized power about up to 86%, and the averaged optical field intensity reaches 104  μm-2 for the slot waveguide with a 3 nm gap distance and 50 nm width. Meanwhile, the optical field enhancement effect is broadband at infrared frequencies and controlled by Fermi energy via bias electrical voltage for graphene. PMID:27409196

  18. Ultrafast, broadband, and configurable midinfrared all-optical switching in nonlinear graphene plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, Kelvin J. A.; Cheng, J. L.; Sipe, J. E.; Ang, L. K.; Tan, Dawn T. H.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene plasmonics provides a unique and excellent platform for nonlinear all-optical switching, owing to its high nonlinear conductivity and tight optical confinement. In this paper, we show that impressive switching performance on graphene plasmonic waveguides could be obtained for both phase and extinction modulations at sub-MW/cm2 optical pump intensities. Additionally, we find that the large surface-induced nonlinearity enhancement that comes from the tight confinement effect can potentially drive the propagating plasmon pump power down to the pW range. The graphene plasmonic waveguides have highly configurable Fermi-levels through electrostatic-gating, allowing for versatility in device design and a broadband optical response. The high capabilities of nonlinear graphene plasmonics would eventually pave the way for the adoption of the graphene plasmonics platform in future all-optical nanocircuitry.

  19. Chalcogenide amorphous nanoparticles doped poly (methyl methacrylate) with high nonlinearity for optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiaojie; Nagasaka, Kenshiro; Cheng, Tonglei; Deng, Dinghuan; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Lai; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear optical polymers show promising potential applications in photonics, for example, electro-optical devices. Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is widely used in optical waveguides, integrated optics and optical fibers. However, PMMA has not been used for nonlinear optical waveguides since it has a low nonlinear refractive index. We successfully prepared chalcogenide amorphous nanoparticles doped PMMA that had a high nonlinearity. The As3S7 bulk glass was dissolved in propylamine to form a cluster solution. Then the As3S7/propylamine solution was added into methyl methacrylate (MMA) containing photoinitiator Irgacure 184 about 0.5 wt%. After well mixing the As3S7 nanoparticle doped MMA was transparent. Under the irradiation by a 365 nm UV lamp, As3S7 nanoparticles doped PMMA was obtained with yellow color. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of As3S7 nanoparticles doped PMMA was investigated. An optical waveguide array based on the As3S7 nanoparticles doped PMMA composite of high nonlinearity was fabricated.

  20. The use of optical waveguides in head up display (HUD) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, Malcolm

    2013-06-01

    The application of optical waveguides to Head Up Displays (HUD) is an enabling technology which solves the critical issues of volume reduction (including cockpit intrusion) and mass reduction in an affordable product which retains the high performance optical capabilities associated with today's generation of digital display based HUDs. Improved operability and pilot comfort is achieved regardless of the installation by virtue of the intrinsic properties of optical waveguides and this has enabled BAE Systems Electronic Systems to develop two distinct product streams for glareshield and overhead HUD installations respectively. This paper addresses the design drivers behind the development of the next generation of Head Up Displays and their compatibility with evolving cockpit architectures and structures. The implementation of large scale optical waveguide combiners capable of matching and exceeding the display performances normally only associated with current digital display sourced HUDs has enabled BAE Systems Electronic Systems to solve the volume and installation challenges of the latest military and civil cockpits with it's LiteHUD® technology. Glareshield mounted waveguide based HUDs are compatible with the trend towards the addition of Large Area Displays (LAD) in place of the traditional multiple Head Down Displays (HDD) within military fast jet cockpits. They use an "indirect view" variant of the display which allows the amalgamation of high resolution digital display devices with the inherently small volume and low mass of the waveguide optics. This is then viewed using the more traditional technology of a conventional HUD combiner. This successful combination of technologies has resulted in the LPHUD product which is specifically designed by BAE Systems Electronic Systems to provide an ultra-low profile HUD which can be installed behind a LAD; still providing the level of performance that is at least equivalent to that of a conventional large volume

  1. Rigorous characterization of acoustic-optical interactions in silicon slot waveguides by full-vectorial finite element method.

    PubMed

    Sriratanavaree, S; Rahman, B M A; Leung, D M H; Kejalakshmy, N; Grattan, K T V

    2014-04-21

    For the first time detailed interactions between optical and acoustic modes in a silicon slot waveguide are presented. A new computer code has been developed by using a full-vectorial formulation to study the acoustic modes in optical waveguides. The results have shown that the acoustic modes in an optical slot waveguide are not purely longitudinal or transverse but fully hybrid in nature. The model allows the effects of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering and the associated frequency shift due to the interaction of these hybrid acoustic modes with the fully hybrid optical mode also to be presented. PMID:24787841

  2. Development of embedded Mach-Zehnder optical waveguide structures in polydimethylsiloxane thin films by proton beam writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kada, W.; Miura, K.; Kato, H.; Saruya, R.; Kubota, A.; Satoh, T.; Koka, M.; Ishii, Y.; Kamiya, T.; Nishikawa, H.; Hanaizumi, O.

    2015-04-01

    A focused 750 keV proton microbeam was used to fabricate an embedded Mach-Zehnder (MZ) optical waveguide in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film for interferometer application. The sample position was precisely controlled by a mechanical stage together with scanning microbeam to form an embedded MZ waveguide structure within an area of 0.3 mm × 40 mm. The MZ waveguides with core size of 8 μm was successfully embedded in PDMS film at a depth of 18 μm by 750 keV proton microbeam with fluences from 10 to 100 nC/mm2. The MZ waveguides were coupled with an IR fiber-laser with a center wavelength of 1550 nm and evaluated by using the transmitted intensity images from an IR vidicon camera. The results indicate that the embedded MZ waveguide structure in PDMS achieved single spot light propagation, which is necessary for building optical switching circuits based on polymer MZ waveguides.

  3. Design of a monopole-antenna-based resonant nanocavity for detection of optical power from hybrid plasmonic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Kelvin J A; Bai, Ping; Gu, Ming Xia; Ang, Lay Kee

    2011-08-29

    A novel plasmonic waveguide-coupled nanocavity with a monopole antenna is proposed to localize the optical power from a hybrid plasmonic waveguide and subsequently convert it into electrical current. The nanocavity is designed as a Fabry-Pérot waveguide resonator, while the monopole antenna is made of a metallic nanorod directly mounted onto the metallic part of the waveguide terminal which acts as the conducting ground. The nanocavity coincides with the antenna feed sandwiched in between the antenna and the ground. Maximum power from the waveguide can be coupled into, and absorbed in the nanocavity by means of the field resonance in the antenna as well as in the nanocavity. Simulation results show that 42% optical power from the waveguide can be absorbed in a germanium filled nanocavity with a nanoscale volume of 220 × 150 × 60 nm3. The design may find applications in nanoscale photo-detection, subwavelength light focusing and manipulating, as well as sensing. PMID:21935068

  4. Optical nonlinearities in high-confinement silicon carbide waveguides.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Jaime; Yu, Mengjie; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Poitras, Carl B; Lau, Ryan K W; Dutt, Avik; Gaeta, Alexander L; Lipson, Michal

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate strong nonlinearities of n2=8.6±1.1×10(-15)  cm2 W(-1) in single-crystal silicon carbide (SiC) at a wavelength of 2360 nm. We use a high-confinement SiC waveguide fabricated based on a high-temperature smart-cut process. PMID:26368731

  5. Photochemical writing of silica optical waveguides in silicone rubber by F2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoshi, M.; Li, J.; Herman, P. R.; Inoue, N.

    2007-04-01

    Photochemical writing of silica (SiO2) optical waveguides in silicone [(SiO(CH3)2)n] rubber has been successfully demonstrated by 157-nm F2 laser-induced photochemical modification of silicone into silica. The 2-mm-thick or ~40- m-thick silicone rubber was exposed to F2 laser through a thin (~0.2 mm) air layer. A proximity Cr-on-CaF2 photomask with 8- to 16- m-wide slits controlled the exposure size to define the width of the silica waveguides. A laser processing window to generate crack-free waveguides with good optical transparency was found by varying the number laser pulse, pulse repetition rate and single pulse laser fluence. Otherwise, rapid or excess exposure of the F2 laser caused cracking of the silica waveguides. The waveguides were found to guide both red (635-nm) and infrared (1550- nm) wavelength light with propagation loss estimated to be ~15 and ~6 dB/cm, respectively. Most of the loss originates in Rayleigh scattering from numerous inclusions originally present in the commercial 2-mm-thick silicone rubber.

  6. Orientation-patterned II-VI semiconductor waveguides for quasi-phasematched nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, Marilyn Joy

    1999-10-01

    The ability to grow epitaxial layers of II-VI compound semiconductors on GaAs substrates, the transparency of these materials to a broad range of visible wavelengths, and their strong second order susceptibility suggest that these materials should be promising for efficient nonlinear frequency conversion by on-chip integration with III-V pump lasers. This work investigates the use of semiconductor microfabrication techniques to create II-VI waveguides with laterally-patterned crystal orientation for quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation. The fabrication of periodically-patterned <100>/<111> CdTe on <100> GaAs substrates, using epitaxial growth by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and a lithographic patterning process, is demonstrated. This process is adapted to create ZnTe/ZnSe waveguides with periodic lateral patterning of the crystal orientation. The optical properties of planar waveguides with orientation-patterned ZnTe core layers are characterized. Second harmonic generation is measured, but does not appear to be quasi-phasematched at the test wavelength. High optical losses are observed in the patterned waveguides, and the mechanism of the loss is investigated using X-ray diffractometry, atomic force microscopy, and angle-resolved scatterometry. These measurements suggest that the losses are primarily due to bulk defects in the <111>-oriented material. Waveguide patterning using <100>-oriented anti-phase domains, which have a single axis of crystal growth, is recommended in order to overcome this problem.

  7. Temperature-insensitive refractometer based on a thermo-optically optimized long-period waveguide grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seok Hyun; Kim, Kyong Hon; Lee, Suk-mock; Lee, Min-Hee; An, Shin-Mo; Lee, El-Hang

    2007-02-01

    We report numerically analyzed results on various parameters of planar-type long period waveguide gratings (LPWGs) for potential temperature-insensitive refractive index sensor applications. The LPWGs based on polymer materials can be low cost mass-produceable devices because they can be fabricated in a wafer-level process with a typical imprinting technology and can be integrated with other multi-functional photonic devices of planar type such as optical printed circuit board (O-PCB). We have designed a temperature insensitive long-period waveguide grating by using a 4-layer waveguide structure which consists of a silica substrate, polymer core and clad layers, and the upper clad layer for materials or analytes to be tested. Our numerical calculation show that there are optimized conditions on the thermo-optic coefficients of the core polymer materials for a temperature-independent LPWGs with given core and clad polymer materials as well as with the given waveguide dimensions. The maximum temperature range and the refractive index sensitivity of the temperature-independent LPWGs have been also calculated for several conditions of the waveguide parameters.

  8. The relationship between polymer waveguide optical interconnection end facet roughness and the optical input and output coupling losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghsiahi, Hadi; Wang, Kai; Pitwon, Richard; Selviah, David R.

    2015-03-01

    The RMS surface roughness of an optical polymer waveguide end facet cut by a milling router and measured by AFM is investigated for a range of rotation speeds and translation speeds of the router. It was found that 1 flute (cutting edge) routers gave significantly less rough surfaces than 2 or 3 flute routers. The best results were achieved for a 1 flute router when the milling bit was inserted from the copper layer side of the board with a rotation speed of 15,000 rpm and a translation speed of 0.25 m/min which minimized the waveguide core end facet RMS roughness to 183 +/- 8 nm and gave input optical coupling loss of 1.7 dB +/- 0.5 dB and output optical coupling loss of 2.0 dB +/- 0.7 dB. The relationship between optical coupling loss at the input and output of the waveguides and waveguide end facet roughness is also investigated in this paper. The ratio of RMS roughness to autocorrelation length of the roughness is shown to have a quantified linear relationship with experimental measurements of optical insertion loss, input optical coupling loss and output optical coupling loss. A new fabrication technique for cut waveguide end facet treatment has been proposed and demonstrated which reduces the insertion loss by 2.60 dB +/- 1.3 dB which is more than that achieved by the closest available index matching fluid which gave 2.23 dB +/- 1.2 dB and which is far more robust for use in commercial products.

  9. Optical connecting devices fabricated by self-written waveguide technology for smart optical interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Tadayuki; Soeda, Yukinobu; Mikami, Osamu

    2014-03-01

    Recently the importance of optical interconnect is increasing particularly in board-to-board interconnection. The success of smart optical interconnects for practical use strongly depends on the development of sophisticated coupling technologies achieving both high coupling efficiency and easy alignment. One promising technology for solving these problems is self-written waveguide (SWW) method which uses light-curable resin. This method is flexible and may allow substantial advances in the practical application of optical interconnect technology. We fabricated a micro 90° light-path converter on the top of MT connector. Four channel SWWs are fabricated by irradiating a blue laser beam (406nm wavelength) from a multi-mode fiber in light-curable resin. The SWWs are covered by cladding resin. This converter is useful for connecting between fibers and an optical wiring board. We have further developed this fiber- SWW technology into a new technology we call the "Mask-Transfer SWW method". The Mask-Transfer SWW technology involves contact exposure of UV-curable resin through a photomask. Alignment of the photomask pattern with the target can be precisely accomplished by employing a conventional mask-aligner. We proposed a new Vgrooving method by applying the Mask-Transfer SWW method. V-grooves are a well-known technique for aligning optical fibers for coupling. Unlike the conventional methods and material, this new method has an advantage that Vgrooves can be easily fabricated precisely on various kinds of substrates as designed. Therefore, optical coupling between fibers and devices is achieved simply and efficiently. We believe that these devices will be a key for smart optical interconnects in near future.

  10. Optical waveguide modeling of refractive index mediated pH responses in silica nanocomposite thin film based fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohodnicki, P. R.; Wang, C.

    2016-02-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated a pH-dependent optical transmission of silica based nanocomposite thin film enabled evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy based fiber optic sensors in aqueous solutions. Although the response was observed to linearly correlate with the pH-dependent surface charge density of the silica matrix, the responsible mechanism was not fully clarified. In this manuscript, an optical waveguide model is applied to describe observed responses through a modified effective refractive index of the silica matrix layer as a function of the solution phase pH. The refractive index dependence results from a surface charge dependent ionic adsorption, resulting in concentration of ionic species at charged surfaces. The resultant effective index modification to porous silica is estimated through effective medium theories and applied to an optical waveguide model of a multi-mode fiber optic based sensor response capable of reproducing all experimental observations reported to date.

  11. Method of protecting a radiochromic optical waveguide dosimeter from adverse temperature effects. Patent Application

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.

    1985-09-26

    A radiochromic optical waveguide dosimeter is protected from the adverse temperature effects of exposure in the desired operational temperature range of -40 C to +60 C by flattening the round plastic tubing to be used for the fabrication of the dosimeter until the tubing attains an elliptical cross section and then fabricating the dosimeter from the tubing having the elliptical cross section.

  12. Three dimensional fabrication of optical waveguiding elements for on-chip integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsi Sreenivas, V. V.; Bülters, M.; Schröder, M.; Bergmann, R. B.

    2014-05-01

    We present micro polymer optical waveguide elements fabricated using femtosecond laser and two-photon absorption (TPA) process. The POWs are constructed by tightly focusing a laser beam in SU-8 based resists transparent to the laser wavelength for single-photon absorption. The TPA process enables the patterning of the resist in three dimensions at a resolution of 100-200 nm, which provides a high degree of freedom for POW designs. Using this technology, we provide a novel approach to fabricate Three dimensional Polymer Optical Waveguides (3D-POW) and coupling with single mode fibers in the visible wavelength regions. Our research is also focused on fabricating passive micro optical elements such as splitters, combiners and simple logical gates. For this reason we are aiming to achieve optimum coupling efficiency between the 3D-POW and fibers. The technology also facilitates 3D-POW fabrication independent of the substrate material. We present these fabrication techniques and designs, along with supporting numerical simulations and its transmission properties. With a length of 270 μm and polymer core diameter of 9 μm with air cladding, the waveguides possess a total loss of 12 dB. This value also includes the external in and out mode coupling and in continuously being improved upon by design optimization and simulations. We verify the overall feasibility of the design and coupling mechanisms that can be exploited to execute waveguide based optical functions such as filtering and logical operations.

  13. New low-loss wide-angle Y-branch configuration for optical dielectric slab waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatami-Hanza, H.; Chu, P. L.; Lederer, M. J.

    1994-04-01

    A new Y-branch configuration for dielectric slab waveguides is proposed, based on the natural refraction of optical field at the dielectric interfaces and analyzed by BPM. It has been shown that the radiation loss of the structure is very small with relatively wide branching angle and fairly insensitive to the fabrication errors.

  14. Semitransparent nanostructured films for imaging mass spectrometry and optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Jay G; Broussard, Joshua A; Lawrie, Jenifer L; Kliman, Michal; Jiao, Yang; Weiss, Sharon M; Webb, Donna J; McLean, John A

    2012-12-18

    Semitransparent porous silicon substrates have been developed for pairing nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) imaging with traditional optical-based microscopy techniques. Substrates were optimized to generate the largest NIMS signal while maintaining sufficient transparency to allow visible light to pass through for optical microscopy. Using these substrates, both phase-contrast and NIMS images of phospholipids from a scratch-wounded cell monolayer were obtained. NIMS images were generated using a spatial resolution of 14 μm. Coupled with further improvements in spatial resolution, this approach may allow for the localization of intact biological molecules within cells without the need for labeling. PMID:23146026

  15. Optical Properties of Nanostructured Dielectric Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giatti, Brandon

    Solar cells have extrinsic losses from a variety of sources which can be minimized by optimization of the design and fabrication processes. Reflection from the front surface is one such loss mechanism and has been managed in the past with the usage of planar antireflection coatings. While effective, these coatings are each limited to a single wavelength of light and do not account for varying incident angles of the incoming light source. Three-dimensional nanostructures have shown the ability to inhibit reflection for differing wavelengths and angles of incidence. Nanocones were modeled and show a broadband, multi-angled reflectance decrease due to an effective grading of the index. Finite element models were created to simulate incident light on a zinc oxide nanocone textured silicon substrate. Zinc oxide is advantageous for its ease of production, benign nature, and refractive index matching to the air source region and silicon substrate. Reflectance plots were computed as functions of incident angle and wavelength of light and compared with planar and quintic refractive index profile models. The quintic profile model exhibits nearly optimum reflection minimization and is thus used as a benchmark. Physical quantities, including height, width, density, and orientation were varied in order to minimize the reflectance. A quasi-random nanocone unit cell was modeled to better mimic laboratory results. The model was comprised of 10 nanocones with differing structure and simulated a larger substrate by usage of periodic boundary conditions. The simulated reflectance shows approximately a 50 percent decrease when compared with a planar model. When a seed layer is added, simulating a layer of non-textured zinc oxide, on which the nanocones are grown, the reflectance shows a fourfold decrease when compared with planar models. At angles of incidence higher than 75 degrees, the nanocone model outperformed the quintic model.

  16. Optical activity of catalytic elements of hetero-metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Apell, S. Peter; Wadell, Carl; Langhammer, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    Interaction of light with metals in the form of surface plasmons is used in a wide range of applications in which the scattering decay channel is important. The absorption channel is usually thought of as unwanted and detrimental to the efficiency of the device. This is true in many applications, however, recent studies have shown that maximization of the decay channel of surface plasmons has potentially significant uses. One of these is the creation of electron-hole pairs or hot electrons which can be used for e.g. catalysis. Here, we study the optical properties of hetero-metallic nanostructures that enhance light interaction with the catalytic elements of the nanostructures. A hybridized LSPR that matches the spectral characteristic of the light source is excited. This LSPR through coupling between the plasmonic elements maximizes light absorption in the catalytic part of the nanostructure. Numerically calculated visible light absorption in the catalytic nanoparticles is enhanced 12-fold for large catalytic disks and by more 30 for small nanoparticles on the order of 5 nm. In experiments we measure a sizable increase in the absorption cross section when small palladium nanoparticles are coupled to a large silver resonator. These observations suggest that heterometallic nanostructures can enhance catalytic reaction rates.

  17. Nanostructuring thin polymer films with optical near fields.

    PubMed

    Martín-Fabiani, Ignacio; Siegel, Jan; Riedel, Stephen; Boneberg, Johannes; Ezquerra, Tiberio A; Nogales, Aurora

    2013-11-13

    In the present work, we report on the application of optical near fields to nanostructuring of poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) thin films. By exposure to a single ultraviolet nanosecond laser pulse, the spatial intensity modulation of the near-field distribution created by a silica microsphere is imprinted into the films. Setting different angles of incidence of the laser, elliptical or circular periodic ring patterns can be produced with periods as small as half the laser wavelength used. These highly complex patterns show optical and topographical contrast and can be characterized by optical microscopy (OM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We demonstrate the key role of the laser wavelength and coherence length in achieving smooth, extended patterns in PTT by using excimer laser (193 nm) and Nd:YAG laser (266 nm) pulses. Reference experiments performed in Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) demonstrate that nanopatterning in PTT is triggered by ablation as opposed to GST, in which nanopatterning originates from laser-induced phase change, accompanied by a small topographical contrast. The experiments presented in this work demonstrate the suitability of optical near fields for structuring polymer films, opening up new possibilities for nanopatterning and paving the way for potential applications where optical near fields and polymer nanostructures are involved. PMID:24127989

  18. Optical waveguides in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped silicate glasses fabricated by proton implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Fu, Li-Li; Zhu, Xu-Feng; Guo, Hai-Tao; Li, Wei-Nan; Lin, She-Bao; Wei, Wei

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a planar waveguide was fabricated by proton implantation in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped silicate glasses with energies of (500 + 550) keV and fluences of (1 + 2) × 1016 ions/cm2. The end-face coupling method was employed to determine whether the light could be confined in the waveguide or not. The prism coupling technique was applied to measure the guided mode spectrum and the intensity calculation method was used to construct the refractive index profile. With the profile, a near-field intensity distribution was calculated by the finite difference beam propagation method. The obtained results may be helpful in developing integrated optical devices.

  19. Planar dielectric waveguides in rotation are optical fibers: comparison with the classical model.

    PubMed

    Peña García, Antonio; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco; Jiménez, José Ramón

    2008-01-21

    A novel and simpler method to calculate the main parameters in fiber optics is presented. This method is based in a planar dielectric waveguide in rotation and, as an example, it is applied to calculate the turning points and the inner caustic in an optical fiber with a parabolic refractive index. It is shown that the solution found using this method agrees with the standard (and more complex) method, whose solutions for these points are also summarized in this paper. PMID:18542167

  20. Dynamics of optical pulses in waveguides with a large self-steepening parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravlev, V M; Zolotovskii, I O; Korobko, D A; Fotiadi, A A

    2013-11-30

    We study the dynamics of a high-energy laser pulse in dispersive optical media with large values of self-steepening. We consider the formation of soliton-like peaks at the front of the envelope in such media with anomalous dispersion. We show the possibility of realisation of a medium based on a photonic crystal waveguide with a very large absolute value of the self-steepening parameter in a certain frequency range. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  1. Optical limiting effects in nanostructured silicon carbide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Borshch, A A; Starkov, V N; Volkov, V I; Rudenko, V I; Boyarchuk, A Yu; Semenov, A V

    2013-12-31

    We present the results of experiments on the interaction of nanosecond laser radiation at 532 and 1064 nm with nanostructured silicon carbide thin films of different polytypes. We have found the effect of optical intensity limiting at both wavelengths. The intensity of optical limiting at λ = 532 nm (I{sub cl} ∼ 10{sup 6} W cm{sup -2}) is shown to be an order of magnitude less than that at λ = 1064 nm (I{sub cl} ∼ 10{sup 7} W cm{sup -2}). We discuss the nature of the nonlinearity, leading to the optical limiting effect. We have proposed a method for determining the amount of linear and two-photon absorption in material media. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  2. OPTICAL AND DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF UNDOPED AND DOPED SEMICONDUCTOR NANOSTRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, C D; Zhang, J Z

    2007-09-28

    This chapter provides an overview of some recent research activities on the study of optical and dynamic properties of semiconductor nanomaterials. The emphasis is on unique aspects of these properties in nanostructures as compared to bulk materials. Linear, including absorption and luminescence, and nonlinear optical as well as dynamic properties of semiconductor nanoparticles are discussed with focus on their dependence on particle size, shape, and surface characteristics. Both doped and undoped semiconductor nanomaterials are highlighted and contrasted to illustrate the use of doping to effectively alter and probe nanomaterial properties. Some emerging applications of optical nanomaterials are discussed towards the end of the chapter, including solar energy conversion, optical sensing of chemicals and biochemicals, solid state lighting, photocatalysis, and photoelectrochemistry.

  3. Evanescent field trapping of nanoparticles using nanostructured ultrathin optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Daly, Mark; Truong, Viet Giang; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2016-06-27

    While conventional optical trapping techniques can trap objects with submicron dimensions, the underlying limits imposed by the diffraction of light generally restrict their use to larger or higher refractive index particles. As the index and diameter decrease, the trapping difficulty rapidly increases; hence, the power requirements for stable trapping become so large as to quickly denature the trapped objects in such diffraction-limited systems. Here, we present an evanescent field-based device capable of confining low index nanoscale particles using modest optical powers as low as 1.2 mW, with additional applications in the field of cold atom trapping. Our experiment uses a nanostructured optical micro-nanofiber to trap 200 nm, low index contrast, fluorescent particles within the structured region, thereby overcoming diffraction limitations. We analyze the trapping potential of this device both experimentally and theoretically, and show how strong optical traps are achieved with low input powers. PMID:27410600

  4. A Novel Optical Biosensing System Using Mach-Zehnder-Type Optical Waveguide for Influenza Virus Detection.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hiroaki; Minpou, Yuma; Sawai, Takayuki; Enami, Yasufumi; Suye, Shin-Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    In order to minimize the damage from viral epidemics, early detection of the causative agent of a viral epidemic and prevention of its immediate spread are urgent social demands. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the utility of a Mach-Zehnder-type optical waveguide as a sensing device for influenza virus detection. However, it is impossible to detect a 100-nm-size virus using a sol-gel optical biosensor because sol-gel glass has a pore size of only a few nanometers, which makes it impossible for the virus to diffuse into the silica thin film. In order to construct the influenza-specific Mach-Zehnder optical biosensor for influenza detection, a stable antibody immobilization method with resulting high density on the sol-gel surface is strongly required. In this study, the sol-gel glass surface was modified with amino and carboxyl groups, and an anti-H1N1/HA1 antibody was covalently immobilized using a cross-linking agent. We successfully prepared a carboxyl-modified sol-gel surface, using NHS/EDC as the cross-linker, for antibody immobilization, and confirmed the detection of influenza virus using the antibody-immobilized sol-gel glass. After treatment with a 100 μg/mL influenza virus solution for 15 min, a peak wavelength shift (~24 nm) was observed in the output light spectrum. PMID:26498024

  5. Imprinted and injection-molded nano-structured optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Alexander B.; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Clausen, Jeppe; Caringal, Gideon P.; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by nature, nano-textured surfaces have attracted much attention as a method to realize optical surface functionality. The moth-eye antireflective structure and the structural colors of Morpho butterflies are well- known examples used for inspiration for such biomimetic research. In this paper, nanostructured polymer surfaces suitable for up-scalable polymer replication methods, such as imprinting/embossing and injection-molding, are discussed. The limiting case of injection-moulding compatible designs is investigated. Anti-reflective polymer surfaces are realized by replication of Black Silicon (BSi) random nanostructure surfaces. The optical transmission at normal incidence is measured for wavelengths from 400 nm to 900 nm. For samples with optimized nanostructures, the reflectance is reduced by 50 % compared to samples with planar surfaces. The specular and diffusive reflection of light from polymer surfaces and their implication for creating structural colors is discussed. In the case of injection-moulding compatible designs, the maximum reflection of nano-scale textured surfaces cannot exceed the Fresnel reflection of a corresponding flat polymer surface, which is approx. 4 % for normal incidence. Diffraction gratings provide strong color reflection defined by the diffraction orders. However, the apperance varies strongly with viewing angles. Three different methods to address the strong angular-dependence of diffraction grating based structural color are discussed.

  6. Silver nanostructures synthesis via optically induced electrochemical deposition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pan; Liu, Na; Yu, Haibo; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Lianqing; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Wang, Yuechao; Li, Wen Jung

    2016-01-01

    We present a new digitally controlled, optically induced electrochemical deposition (OED) method for fabricating silver nanostructures. Projected light patterns were used to induce an electrochemical reaction in a specialized sandwich-like microfluidic device composed of one indium tin oxide (ITO) glass electrode and an optically sensitive-layer-covered ITO electrode. Silver polyhedral nanoparticles, triangular and hexagonal nanoplates, and nanobelts were controllably synthesized in specific positions at which projected light was illuminated. The silver nanobelts had rectangular cross-sections with an average width of 300 nm and an average thickness of 100 nm. By controlling the applied voltage, frequency, and time, different silver nanostructure morphologies were obtained. Based on the classic electric double-layer theory, a dynamic process of reduction and crystallization can be described in terms of three phases. Because it is template- and surfactant-free, the digitally controlled OED method facilitates the easy, low cost, efficient, and flexible synthesis of functional silver nanostructures, especially quasi-one-dimensional nanobelts. PMID:27295084

  7. Ion beam induced optical and surface modification in plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Udai B.; Gautam, Subodh K.; Kumar, Sunil; Hooda, Sonu; Ojha, Sunil; Singh, Fouran

    2016-07-01

    In present work, ion irradiation induced nanostructuring has been exploited as an efficient and effective tool for synthesis of coupled plasmonics nanostructures by using 1.2 MeV Xe ions on Au/ZnO/Au system deposited on glass substrate. The results are correlated on the basis of their optical absorption, surface morphologies and enhanced sensitivity of evolved phonon modes by using UV Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy (RS), respectively. Optical absorbance spectra of plasmonic nanostructures (NSs) show a decrease in band gap, which may be ascribed to the formation of defects with ion irradiation. The surface morphology reveals the formation of percolated NSs upon ion irradiation and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) study clearly shows the formation of multilayer system. Furthermore, RS measurements on samples are studied to understand the enhanced sensitivity of ion irradiation induced phonon mode at 573 cm-1 along with other modes. As compared to pristine sample, a stronger and pronounced evolution of these phonon modes is observed with further ion irradiation, which indicates localized surface plasmon results with enhanced intensity of phonon modes of Zinc oxide (ZnO) material. Thus, such plasmonic NSs can be used as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates.

  8. Silver nanostructures synthesis via optically induced electrochemical deposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Liu, Na; Yu, Haibo; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Lianqing; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Wang, Yuechao; Li, Wen Jung

    2016-01-01

    We present a new digitally controlled, optically induced electrochemical deposition (OED) method for fabricating silver nanostructures. Projected light patterns were used to induce an electrochemical reaction in a specialized sandwich-like microfluidic device composed of one indium tin oxide (ITO) glass electrode and an optically sensitive-layer-covered ITO electrode. Silver polyhedral nanoparticles, triangular and hexagonal nanoplates, and nanobelts were controllably synthesized in specific positions at which projected light was illuminated. The silver nanobelts had rectangular cross-sections with an average width of 300 nm and an average thickness of 100 nm. By controlling the applied voltage, frequency, and time, different silver nanostructure morphologies were obtained. Based on the classic electric double-layer theory, a dynamic process of reduction and crystallization can be described in terms of three phases. Because it is template- and surfactant-free, the digitally controlled OED method facilitates the easy, low cost, efficient, and flexible synthesis of functional silver nanostructures, especially quasi-one-dimensional nanobelts. PMID:27295084

  9. Silver nanostructures synthesis via optically induced electrochemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pan; Liu, Na; Yu, Haibo; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Lianqing; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Wang, Yuechao; Li, Wen Jung

    2016-06-01

    We present a new digitally controlled, optically induced electrochemical deposition (OED) method for fabricating silver nanostructures. Projected light patterns were used to induce an electrochemical reaction in a specialized sandwich-like microfluidic device composed of one indium tin oxide (ITO) glass electrode and an optically sensitive-layer-covered ITO electrode. Silver polyhedral nanoparticles, triangular and hexagonal nanoplates, and nanobelts were controllably synthesized in specific positions at which projected light was illuminated. The silver nanobelts had rectangular cross-sections with an average width of 300 nm and an average thickness of 100 nm. By controlling the applied voltage, frequency, and time, different silver nanostructure morphologies were obtained. Based on the classic electric double-layer theory, a dynamic process of reduction and crystallization can be described in terms of three phases. Because it is template- and surfactant-free, the digitally controlled OED method facilitates the easy, low cost, efficient, and flexible synthesis of functional silver nanostructures, especially quasi-one-dimensional nanobelts.

  10. Optical properties of K9 glass waveguides fabricated by using carbon-ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Wei, Wei; Fu, Li-Li; Zhu, Xu-Feng; Guo, Hai-Tao; Li, Wei-Nan; Lin, She-Bao

    2016-07-01

    K9 glass is a material with promising properties that make it attractive for optical devices. Ion implantation is a powerful technique to form waveguides with controllable depth and refractive index profile. In this work, optical planar waveguide structures were fabricated in K9 glasses by using 6.0-MeV C3+-ion implantation with a fluence of 1.0 × 1015 ions/cm2. The effective refractive indices of the guided modes were measured by using a prism-coupling system. The refractive index change in the ion-irradiated region was simulated by using the intensity calculation method. The modal intensity profile of the waveguide was calculated and measured by using the finite difference beam propagation method and the end-face coupling technique, respectively. The transmission spectra before and after the implantation showed that the main absorption band was not influenced by the low fluence dopants. The optical properties of the carbon-implanted K9 glass waveguides show promise for use as integrated photonic devices.

  11. Optical planar waveguide in sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystals by carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Qin, Xi-Feng; Wang, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Gang; Wang, Hui-Lin; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2013-07-01

    There is great interest in niobate crystals which belong to the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) families owing to their intriguing properties. As one representative of such crystals, CBN (calcium barium niobate) has attracted rapidly growing attention. Because it has a higher Curie temperature than SBN (strontium barium niobate), possesses outstanding ferroelectric and it possesses optical properties. In addition, doped with sodium, CBN will show a higher Curie temperature than pure CBN. We report on the fabrication and characterization of optical planar waveguide in x-cut sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystal by using C ion implantation. The guided-mode properties at the wavelength of 633 and 1539 nm are investigated through prism-coupling measurements, respectively. By applying direct end-face coupling arrangement, the near-field optical intensity distribution of waveguide modes is measured at 633 nm. For comparison, the modal profile of the same guided mode is also numerically calculated by the finite difference beam-propagation method via computer software BeamPROP. The transmission spectra of the waveguide before and after ion implantation treatments were investigated also. Our experiment results reveal that the waveguide could propagate light with transverse magnetic polarized direction only and it is assumed that the polarization selectivity of CBN crystal may responsible for this phenomenon.

  12. Design and investigation of properties of nanocrystalline diamond optical planar waveguides.

    PubMed

    Prajzler, Vaclav; Varga, Marian; Nekvindova, Pavla; Remes, Zdenek; Kromka, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Diamond thin films have remarkable properties comparable with natural diamond. Because of these properties it is a very promising material for many various applications (sensors, heat sink, optical mirrors, chemical and radiation wear, cold cathodes, tissue engineering, etc.) In this paper we report about design, deposition and measurement of properties of optical planar waveguides fabricated from nanocrystalline diamond thin films. The nanocrystalline diamond planar waveguide was deposited by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and the structure of the deposited film was studied by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The design of the presented planar waveguides was realized on the bases of modified dispersion equation and was schemed for 632.8 nm, 964 nm, 1 310 nm and 1 550 nm wavelengths. Waveguiding properties were examined by prism coupling technique and it was found that the diamond based planar optical element guided one fundamental mode for all measured wavelengths. Values of the refractive indices of our NCD thin film measured at various wavelengths were almost the same as those of natural diamond. PMID:23571931

  13. Design of T-shaped nanophotonic wire waveguide for optical interconnection in H-tree network.

    PubMed

    Kurt, H; Giden, I H; Citrin, D S

    2011-12-19

    Nanophotonic wire waveguides play an important role for the realization of highly dense integrated photonic circuits. The miniaturization of optoelectronic devices and realization of ultra-small integrated circuits strongly demand compact waveguide branches. T-shaped versions of nanophotonic wires are the first stage of both power splitting and optical-interconnection systems based on guided-wave optics; however, the acute transitions at the waveguide junctions typically induce huge bending losses in terms of radiated modes. Both 2D and 3D finite-difference time-domain methods are employed to monitor the efficient light propagation. By introducing appropriate combinations of dielectric posts around the dielectric-waveguide junctions within the 4.096μm×4.096μm region, we are able to reduce the bending losses dramatically and increase the transmission efficiency from low values of 18% in the absence of the dielectric posts to approximately 49% and 43% in 2D and 3D cases, respectively. These findings may lead to the implementation of such T-junctions in near-future high-density integrated photonics to deliver optical-clock signals via H-tree network. PMID:22274265

  14. Optics of an individual organic molecular mesowire waveguide: directional light emission and anomalous refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ravi P. N.; Dasgupta, Arindam; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Pratim Patra, Partha; Vasista, Adarsh B.; Pavan Kumar, G. V.

    2016-06-01

    We report on experimental investigations performed on an isolated organic mesowire waveguide resting on a glass substrate. The waveguide was made of diaminoanthraquinone (DAAQ) molecular aggregates. First, we show directional emission of light from distal ends of the DAAQ waveguide. For a given mesowire geometry, operating in passive or photoluminescence regimes, we quantified the emission angles by combining multi-wavelength Fourier-plane optical microscopy and photoluminescence micro-spectroscopy. We found light emission in the photoluminescence regime to be more directional in nature compared to the passive waveguiding regime, which was supported by three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. Second, we measured the anomalous behaviour of refractive index as a function of emission wavelength using the spectra of directionally emitted light. Third, by using spatial-filtered collection optics, we observed and quantified single-excitation dual-channel directional, active emission from DAAQ mesowire. The results discussed herein has implication not only in understanding some fundamental aspects of exciton-polariton mediated directional light emission, but also in applications such as organic optical antennas and photonic couplers.

  15. Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M.; Sato, Hiromu; Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-aki; Odoi, Keisuke; Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2015-09-21

    Ultra-thin silicon and electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulators have been designed and fabricated. The waveguide consists of a silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm. The cladding is an EO polymer. Optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field around the silicon extends into the EO polymer in the TE mode. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator was prepared using common coplanar electrodes. The measured half-wave voltage of the MZI with 7 μm spacing and 1.3 cm long electrodes is 4.6 V at 1550 nm. The evaluated EO coefficient is 70 pm/V, which is comparable to that of the bulk EO polymer film. Using ultra-thin silicon is beneficial in order to reduce the side-wall scattering loss, yielding a propagation loss of 4.0 dB/cm. We also investigated a mode converter which couples light from the hybrid EO waveguide into a strip silicon waveguide. The calculation indicates that the coupling loss between these two devices is small enough to exploit the potential fusion of a hybrid EO polymer modulator together with a silicon micro-photonics device.

  16. Optical investigations of nanostructured oxides and semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvin, Patrick Richard

    This work is motivated by the prospect of building a quantum computer: a device that would allow physicists to explore quantum mechanics more deeply, and allow everyone else to keep their credit card numbers safe on the Internet. In this thesis we explore two classes of materials that are relevant to a proposed quantum computer architecture: oxides and semiconductors. Systems with a ferroelectric to paraelectric transition in the vicinity of room temperature are useful for devices. We investigate strained-SrTiO 3, which is ferroelectric at room-temperature, and a composite material of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 and MgO. We present optical techniques to measure electron spin dynamics with GHz dynamical bandwidth, transform-limited spectral selectivity, and phase-sensitive detection. We demonstrate this technique by measuring GHz-spin precession in n-GaAs. We also describe our efforts to optically probe InAs/GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots. Nanoscale devices with photonic properties have been the subject of intense research over the past decade. Potential nanophotonic applications include communications, polarization-sensitive detectors, and solar power generation. Here we show photosensitivity of a nanoscale detector written at the interface between two oxides.

  17. Refractive index of nanostructured optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flory, Francois; Escoubas, Ludovic; Drouard, Emmanuel; Lazarides, Basile

    2002-06-01

    Thanks to progresses in photolithography techniques optical materials can now be structured to a scale of a few tens of a nanometer. This has opened a wide field of new applications. When concerned with a scale of some tens of a micron down to a few microns, microlens and integrated optic components can be made. When the material is structured with a scale in the order of the wavelength of light, different filtering functions can be made. This concerns Bragg mirrors or more generally Photonic Crystals. A structuration in a scale small in front of the wavelength is also of a great interest. In this case the material does not diffract the light anymore an dit behaves like a homogeneous one. The calculated transmittance of a laser mirror is used to determine the effective index of the single layer equivalent to the multilayer stack. The artificial anisotropy of thin films structured with a one-dimension sub wavelength grating made by holography is measured. The limitation of the first order homogenization theory is given for two different grating steps. Polarizing coatings or polarization rotators are designed to work in normal incidence by inserting anisotropic films in simple multilayer structures.

  18. A planar ion trapping microdevice with integrated planar waveguide for optical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Ms. Linan; Whitten, William B; Pau, Dr. Stanley

    2011-01-01

    A planar ion trap with an integrated waveguide was fabricated and characterized. The microdevice, consisting of a 1 mm-diameter one-hole ring trap and multi-mode optical waveguides, was made on a glass wafer using microfabrication techniques. The experimental results demonstrate that the microdevice can trap 1.5 m-150 m diameter charged particles in air under an alternating electric field with the amplitude and frequency varying from 100V-750V, and 100Hz-700Hz, respectively. The on-chip waveguide is capable of detecting the presence of a particle in the trap, and the particle secular motion frequency was found to depend on the input alternating signal amplitude and frequency.

  19. Efficient optical coupling into ultra-compact plasmonic slot waveguides using dipole nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qian; Ren, Fanghui; Wang, Alan X.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoantenna is used for coupling free space radiation to subwavelength plasmonic waveguide. We provide a theoretical design of ultra-compact dipole nanoantennas --- Yagi-Uda antenna with a reflector in telecom range and experimentally demonstrate efficient optical coupling between lensed fiber and plasmonic slot waveguide by utilizing our designed nanoantenna. We also prove that the couple-in efficiency of 8% from the lensed fiber does not equal to the couple-out efficiency of 50% from the plasmonic slot waveguide using the same nanoantenna design, which is different than many published and experimental results. We also study the relationship between couple in efficiency and the incident light spot size, which is experimentally characterized.

  20. Prism coupling characterization of planar optical waveguides made by silver ion exchange in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, O.; Berencén, Y.; Rodríguez, J.

    2005-08-01

    A modified dark-lines method of prism-coupling technique is utilized for the experimental determination of the effective index of propagating modes in a glass planar waveguide. We use to make the waveguides a silver-sodium ion exchange in a nitrate solution and sodalime glass as substrate (microscope slides). The measurements were accomplished by direct HeNe laser beam incidence and sensing the reflected light by a Thorlabs Dec110 optical detector linked to a Protek500 digital multimeter. A LabView virtual instrument was implemented for the automation of the measurement process. The effective indexes measured have been used to calculate the refractive index profile by IWKB method. A comparison with other results shows that our experimental setup is suitable for slab waveguide modes characterization.

  1. Silver halide planar waveguides and grating couplers for middle infrared integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekel, B.; Katzir, A.

    2010-12-01

    We fabricated silver bromide (AgBr) planar waveguides with a thickness of ≈20 μm and designed reflective grating couplers for coupling the radiation of a tunable CO2 laser into these waveguides. We found that the attenuation was 6-9 dB/cm. The waveguides were used as attenuated total reflection elements for the sensing of hazardous pesticides in water in concentrations higher than 25 ppm. This work will pave the way for developing integrated optical elements and circuits which are based on silver halides and which operate in a broad spectral range in the mid-IR. These will be useful as chemical sensors and as spatial elements in nulling interferometry.

  2. Improved nanostructure reconstruction by performing data refinement in optical scatterometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinlong; Jiang, Hao; Shi, Yating; Chen, Xiuguo; Zhang, Chuanwei; Liu, Shiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have indirectly demonstrated that nanostructure reconstruction accuracy is degraded by the outliers in optical scatterometry, and we have applied the robust estimation method to suppress these outliers. However, the existence of a possible heavy masking effect could result in the risk of low measurement accuracy, since the detection of outliers is simply based on the judgment of residual value. In this work, a novel method is introduced to directly detect outliers, which can provide the intuitional display of outliers in a two-dimensional coordinate system. Moreover, a robust correction step based on the principle of least trimmed squared estimator regression is proposed to replace the conventional Gauss-Newton iteration step, by which the more reliable and accurate nanostructure reconstruction is achieved. The improved reconstruction of a one-dimensional etched Si grating has demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed methods.

  3. Electro-optical channel drop switching in a photonic crystal waveguide-cavity side-coupling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kao-Der; Liu, Cheng-Yang

    2014-04-01

    The electro-optical channel drop switching in a photonic crystal waveguide-cavity side-coupling system is reported. The line waveguide is formed by removing a single row of dielectric cylinders. The twin optical microcavities side coupled between linear waveguides is studied by solving Maxwell's equations. We determine the general characteristics of the coupling element required to achieve channel drop tunneling. By modulating the conductance of the twin microcavities, the electrical tunability of the resonant modes is observed in the transmission spectrum. The spectral characteristics suggest a potential application for this switching device as an efficient multichannel optical switch in the photonic integrated circuits.

  4. All-optical format conversion using a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide and a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Junqiang; Sun, Qizhen; Wang, Dalin; Zhou, Minjuan; Zhang, Xinliang; Huang, Dexiu; Fejer, M. M.

    2007-07-01

    In the present letter, the authors report on the realization of all-optical format conversion by using the cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide and the active mode locking in a reflective-semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based fiber ring laser. Tunable format conversions from nonreturn-to-zero pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) signal to return-to-zero PRBS idler at 10 and 20Gbit/s are observed in the experiment.

  5. Silicon-Based Optical Waveguide Modulators and Mode-Locked TITANIUM:SAPPHIRE Laser Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanming

    Single-mode deeply-etched silicon-germanium/silicon (SiGe/Si) rib waveguides have been fabricated and characterized with low propagation losses and strong guiding. Such a waveguide structure is suitable for bent waveguide devices and provides efficient field overlapping, which is needed for devices requiring strong nonlinear coupling. Using the deeply-etched waveguide technique, we have fabricated Si/SiGe/Si Mach-Zehnder modulators, which show strong single-mode waveguiding but only small electro -optic modulation has been observed so far. Another Si modulator is a Fabry-Perot interferometer. We have demonstrated all-optical modulation at 1.3 μm and 1.5 μm in the reflection mode of the asymmetric Si Fabry-Perot interferometer by a control light beam at 0.85 mum. Both switching -on and switching-off operations are demonstrated by transversely moving the etalon. In addition, we have analyzed that silicon carbide (SiC) waveguides exhibit low loss for fundamental modes and high loss for higher-order modes at wavelengths from 0.6 to 1.6 mum. Electro-optic modulation is analyzed with a SiC-on-SiO_2 waveguide structure. Such modulators are potential candidates for high-speed electro-optic modulation for silicon-based optoelectronic devices. Furthermore, we studied the dynamics of a Kerr -lens self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser, generating 40 -fs pulses and tunable from 750 nm to 920 nm. A moving mirror was first proposed as a starting mechanism for self -mode locking and the starting dynamics is studied in detail. In addition, periodic pulse-train amplitude modulations have been observed and studied. The observation of the amplitude modulation further confirms the dynamic Kerr-lens self -focusing model of self-mode locking in Ti:sapphire lasers and helps us better understand the laser performance. Furthermore, dual-wavelength mode locking is observed over a broad tuning range, which would be very useful for two-wavelength subpicosecond optical sampling, such as pump

  6. Fan-in/out polymer optical waveguide for a multicore fiber fabricated using the Mosquito method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, D.; Ishigure, T.

    2015-02-01

    A fan-in/out polymer optical waveguide is fabricated for connecting multimode multicore (7 cores) fiber with onedimensionally aligned parallel optical components such as a VCSEL/PD array or a multimode fiber ribbon, which is fabricated using the Mosquito method. The Mosquito method we have proposed is a fabrication technique for circular and graded index (GI) cores. One of the unique characteristics of the Mosquito method is a capability of forming threedimensional wirings. In the fan-in/out waveguides, high-density hexagonal alignment of 7 cores at one end is converted to one dimensional alignment with a wider pitch at the other end. For realizing the fan-in/out waveguides, we have issues about low insertion loss, low crosstalk, and the connectability with multicore fibers and optical components. In this paper, we focus in the pitch accuracy of the fan-in/out waveguide. In the Mosquito method, the viscosities of the core and cladding monomers are an important factor of the core figure and the core alignment because the viscosities have a relation to monomer liquid-flow, which could devastate the core alignment. Hence, we investigate the influence of the viscosities of the core and cladding monomers on the interchannel pitch accuracy of the fabricated fan-in/out polymer optical waveguide. With increasing the viscosities of core and cladding monomers, the pitch accuracy is improved, while the appropriate monomer viscosity conditions that can fix all the issues: core circularity and pitch accuracy in both ends still needs to be investigated.

  7. Soft lithography fabricated polymer waveguides and 45° inclined mirrors for card-to-backplane optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guomin; Baig, Sarfaraz; Wang, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer waveguides with 45° mirrors are fabricated by vacuum assisted microfluidic (VAM) soft lithographic technique for card-to-backplane optical interconnect applications. Waveguide array structures with inclined surfaces in SU-8 photoresist for PDMS mold are fabricated by prism assisted UV exposure. Sample surface reflected UV light is utilized to eliminate undercut structures and to accomplish the inclined mirror surfaces on both ends of the straight waveguide segments by one-step UV exposure. Polymer waveguides with 45° embedded mirrors demonstrated about 0.49 dB/cm propagation loss and 67% mirror coupling efficiency.

  8. Structural and optical properties of nanostructured nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, J.; Pandey, J.; Gupta, R.; Kaurav, N.; Tripathi, J.

    2016-05-01

    Metal nanoparticles are attractive because of their special structure and better optical properties. Nickel nanoparticles (Ni-Np) have been synthesized successfully by thermal decomposition method in the presence of trioctyl phosphine (TOP) and oleylamine (OAm). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Zetapotential measurement and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The size of Ni nanoparticles can be readily tuned from 13.86 nm. As-synthesized Ni nanoparticles have hexagonal closed pack (hcp) cubic structure as characterized by power X-ray diffraction (XRD) prepared at 280°C. The possible formation mechanism has also been phenomenological proposed for as synthesized Ni-Np. The value of Zeta potential was found 12.25 mV.

  9. Directional radiation of Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with plasmonic waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jineun; Roh, Young-Geun; Cheon, Sangmo; Jeong Kim, Un; Hwang, Sung Woo; Park, Yeonsang; Lee, Chang-Won

    2015-01-01

    We present a Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide. Using an integrated nanoantenna, we can couple the plasmon guide mode in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure into the resonant antenna feed directly. The resonantly excited feed slot then radiates to free space and generates a magnetic dipole-like far-field pattern. The coupling efficiency of the integrated nanoantenna is calculated as being approximately 19% using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D FDTD) simulation. By adding an auxiliary groove structure along with the feed, the radiation direction can be controlled similar to an optical Yagi-Uda antenna. We also determine, both theoretically and experimentally, that groove depth plays a significant role to function groove structure as a reflector or a director. The demonstrated Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide can be used as a “plasmonic via” in plasmonic nanocircuits. PMID:26135115

  10. Directional radiation of Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with plasmonic waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jineun; Roh, Young-Geun; Cheon, Sangmo; Jeong Kim, Un; Hwang, Sung Woo; Park, Yeonsang; Lee, Chang-Won

    2015-07-01

    We present a Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide. Using an integrated nanoantenna, we can couple the plasmon guide mode in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure into the resonant antenna feed directly. The resonantly excited feed slot then radiates to free space and generates a magnetic dipole-like far-field pattern. The coupling efficiency of the integrated nanoantenna is calculated as being approximately 19% using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D FDTD) simulation. By adding an auxiliary groove structure along with the feed, the radiation direction can be controlled similar to an optical Yagi-Uda antenna. We also determine, both theoretically and experimentally, that groove depth plays a significant role to function groove structure as a reflector or a director. The demonstrated Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide can be used as a “plasmonic via” in plasmonic nanocircuits.

  11. Mimicking the nonlinear dynamics of optical fibers with waveguide arrays: towards a spatiotemporal supercontinuum generation.

    PubMed

    Tran, Truong X; Biancalana, Fabio

    2013-07-29

    We numerically demonstrate the formation of the spatiotemporal version of the so-called diffractive resonant radiation generated in waveguide arrays with Kerr nonlinearity when a long pulse is launched into the system. The phase matching condition for the diffractive resonant radiation that we have found earlier for CW beams also works well in the spatiotemporal case. By introducing a linear potential, one can introduce a continuous shift of the central wavenumber of a linear pulse, whereas in the nonlinear case one can demonstrate that the soliton self-wavenumber shift can be compensated by the emission of diffractive resonant radiation, in a very similar fashion as it is done in optical fibers. This work paves the way for designing unique optical devices that generate spectrally broad supercontinua with a controllable directionality by taking advantage of the combined physics of optical fibers and waveguide arrays. PMID:23938625

  12. Electrical excitation of waveguided surface plasmons by a light-emitting tunneling optical gap antenna.

    PubMed

    Cazier, N; Buret, M; Uskov, A V; Markey, L; Arocas, J; Colas Des Francs, G; Bouhelier, A

    2016-02-22

    We introduce a new type of electroplasmonic interfacing component to electrically generate surface plasmons. Specifically, an electron-fed optical tunneling gap antenna is integrated on a plasmonic waveguiding platform. When electrical charges are injected in the tunneling barrier of the gap antenna, a broad-band radiation is emitted from the feed area by a process identified as a thermal emission of hot electrons. Part of the emitted photons couples to surface plasmon modes sustained by the waveguide geometry. The transducing optical antenna is thus acting as a localized electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons. The integration of electrically-activated optical antennas into a plasmonic architecture mitigates the need for complex coupling scheme and proposes a solution for realizing nanoscale units at the interface between nano-electronics and photonics. PMID:26907040

  13. Magneto-optical garnet waveguides on semiconductor platforms: Magnetics, mechanics, and photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Sang-Yeob; Sharma, Anirudh; Block, Andrew; Keuhn, Katherine; Stadler, Bethanie J. H.

    2011-04-01

    Garnet films with thicknesses of 100-1000 nm and waveguides with widths of 700-2000 nm were grown onto Si to characterize the mechanical stresses that occurred upon crystallization (700-800 °C) by rapid thermal annealing. These magneto-optical garnet films and also photonic crystals have proposed uses in magnetic flux indicator films, integrated photonic devices, such as isolators, circulators, and polarization transformers, because their Verdet constants per unit loss are orders of magnitude better than other magneto-optical materials. However, garnet does not match Si-based materials mechanically with thermal expansion coefficients of 10.4 ppm/°C. These waveguides were optimized to have low losses in the near infrared, including the telecommunication wavelengths (1.0-2.3 dB/mm at 1.3 μm and 0.9-1.7 at 1.55 μm). The waveguide losses increased with waveguide width. Finite difference time domain simulations were used to estimate the number, effective index, and profile of modes in each guide. The polarization and localization of modes near guide surfaces effectively explain the trend in losses versus width. With Faraday rotations of 0.2 dB/μm and 1.0 dB/mm loss, this integrated garnet has great potential for a multitude of photonic devices, including isolators, circulators, and mode converters.

  14. Optical properties of waveguide-coupled nanowires for sub-wavelength detection in microspectrometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgraggen, E.; Scholder, O.; Bona, G.-L.; Fontana, F.; Alberti, E.; Crespi, A.; Osellame, R.; Scharf, T.; Shorubalko, I.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we experimentally investigate optical interactions between gold nanowires and fs-laser written waveguides in a view of applications for stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometers in a movable mirror configuration. For this purpose we fabricated gold nanowires of widths in the range from 40 to 130 nm and of 25 nm in thickness directly on the surface of a borosilicate glass containing fs-laser written optical waveguides beneath. The out-coupling efficiency and the radiation pattern angular distribution were investigated at the wavelength of 850 nm, dependent on the geometrical size of the nanowires, the position of the waveguides under the surface, and the light polarization. We also report measured plasmonic scattering spectra of the nanowires in the wavelength range of 400 to 900 nm. Our findings show that the chosen geometries and material systems are promising candidates for the use in integrated focal plane array spectrometer devices. Finally, we demonstrate the successful operation of a waveguide spectrometer modified by a movable mirror with a stroke of more than 10 μm.

  15. Optical waveguide technology and its application in head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alex

    2012-06-01

    Applying optical waveguide technology to head mounted display (HMD) solutions has the key goal of providing the user with improved tactical situational awareness by providing information and imagery in an easy to use form which also maintains compatibility with current night vision devices and also enables the integration of future night vision devices. The benefits of waveguide technology in HMDs have seen a number of alternative waveguide display technologies and configurations emerge for Head mounted Display applications. BAE System's presented one such technology in 2009 [1] and this is now in production for a range of Helmet Mounted Display products. This paper outlines the key design drivers for aviators Helmet Mounted Displays, provides an update of holographic Optical Waveguide Technology and its maturation into compact, lightweight Helmet Mounted Displays products for aviation and non-aviation applications. Waveguide displays have proved too be a radical enabling technology which allows higher performance display devices solutions to be created in a revolutionary way. It has also provided the user with see through daylight readable displays, offering the combination of very large eye box and excellent real world transmission in a compact format. Holographic Optical Waveguide is an optical technology which reduces size and mass whilst liberating the designer from many of the constraints inherent in conventional optical solutions. This technology is basically a way of moving light without the need for a complex arrangement of conventional lenses. BAE Systems has exploited this technology in the Q-SightTM family of scalable Helmet Mounted Displays; allowing the addition of capability as it is required in a flexible, low-cost way The basic monocular Q-SightTM architecture has been extended to offer wide field of view, monochrome and full colour HMD solution for rotary wing, fast jet and solider system applications. In its basic form Q-SightTM now offers plug

  16. Ultra-thin low loss Si3N4 optical waveguides at 1310 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soon Thor; Gandhi, Alagappan; Png, Ching Eng; Lu, Ding; Ang, Norman Soo Seng; Teo, Ee Jin; Teng, Jinghua

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in optical waveguides have brought long-awaited technologies closer to practical realization. Although the concept of a single-mode (SM) waveguide has been around for a while, SM condition usually posed very stringent conditions in fabrication for small waveguides. Researchers have developed low loss silicon nitride (Si3N4) at 1550nm wavelength, the developments in specific application have down converted to 1310nm (O-band) so they do not have to compete with internet data for bandwidth and could share the existing optical fiber infrastructure. However, wavelengthdemultiplexer technology at this band is not readily commercial available. Custom-made O-band optical devices for wavelength-demultiplexing have typical losses. Such high losses deplete more than 75% of the already-scarce photons. We studied Si3N4 channel waveguide with ultra-thin slab for (SM) condition at 1310nm wavelength using finite element method (FEM) and 3-D imaginary beam propagation method (IDBPM). We have shown that SM condition is possible for ultra-thin slab with wide waveguide width; such condition can ease the constraint of photolithography, allowing deposition of thin Si3N4 layer to be accomplished in minutes. Studies show that for ultra-thin layer, for example, at 60nm, we can achieve a wide range of widths that fulfilled the SM condition, ranging from 2μm to 5μm. SM condition becomes more stringent when the Si3N4 layer increases. Substrate losses are estimated at 0.001 dB/cm, 0.003 dB/cm, and 0.1 dB/cm for slab height at 100nm, 80nm, and 60nm respectively.

  17. Tunable integrated optical filter made of a glass ion-exchanged waveguide and an electro-optic composite holographic grating.

    PubMed

    d'Alessandro, Antonio; Donisi, Domenico; De Sio, Luciano; Beccherelli, Romeo; Asquini, Rita; Caputo, Roberto; Umeton, Cesare

    2008-06-23

    We report the fabrication and the optical characterization of a hybrid tunable integrated optical filter. It consists of a diffused ion-exchanged channel waveguide on a borosilicate glass substrate with a cover of the same glass to form a gap filled with a holographic grating. The grating morphology, called POLICRYPS (POlymer LIquid CRYstal Polymer Slices), is made of alternating stripes of polymer and liquid crystal acting as overlayer for the underneath waveguide. The filter structure includes aluminum coplanar electrodes to electrically control the grating properties, allowing the tunability of the filter. The electric driving power required to tune the filter obtained was in the range of submilliwatts due to the efficient liquid crystal electro-optic effect. PMID:18575489

  18. Optical impedance spectroscopy with single-mode electro-active-integrated optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue; Mendes, Sergio B

    2014-02-01

    An optical impedance spectroscopy (OIS) technique based on a single-mode electro-active-integrated optical waveguide (EA-IOW) was developed to investigate electron-transfer processes of redox adsorbates. A highly sensitive single-mode EA-IOW device was used to optically follow the time-dependent faradaic current originated from a submonolayer of cytochrome c undergoing redox exchanges driven by a harmonic modulation of the electric potential at several dc bias potentials and at several frequencies. To properly retrieve the faradaic current density from the ac-modulated optical signal, we introduce here a mathematical formalism that (i) accounts for intrinsic changes that invariably occur in the optical baseline of the EA-IOW device during potential modulation and (ii) provides accurate results for the electro-chemical parameters. We are able to optically reconstruct the faradaic current density profile against the dc bias potential in the working electrode, identify the formal potential, and determine the energy-width of the electron-transfer process. In addition, by combining the optically reconstructed faradaic signal with simple electrical measurements of impedance across the whole electrochemical cell and the capacitance of the electric double-layer, we are able to determine the time-constant connected to the redox reaction of the adsorbed protein assembly. For cytochrome c directly immobilized onto the indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, we measured a reaction rate constant of 26.5 s(-1). Finally, we calculate the charge-transfer resistance and pseudocapacitance associated with the electron-transfer process and show that the frequency dependence of the redox reaction of the protein submonolayer follows as expected the electrical equivalent of an RC-series admittance diagram. Above all, we show here that OIS with single-mode EA-IOW's provide strong analytical signals that can be readily monitored even for small surface-densities of species involved in the redox

  19. Optical Impedance Spectroscopy with Single-Mode Electro-Active-Integrated Optical Waveguides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An optical impedance spectroscopy (OIS) technique based on a single-mode electro-active-integrated optical waveguide (EA-IOW) was developed to investigate electron-transfer processes of redox adsorbates. A highly sensitive single-mode EA-IOW device was used to optically follow the time-dependent faradaic current originated from a submonolayer of cytochrome c undergoing redox exchanges driven by a harmonic modulation of the electric potential at several dc bias potentials and at several frequencies. To properly retrieve the faradaic current density from the ac-modulated optical signal, we introduce here a mathematical formalism that (i) accounts for intrinsic changes that invariably occur in the optical baseline of the EA-IOW device during potential modulation and (ii) provides accurate results for the electro-chemical parameters. We are able to optically reconstruct the faradaic current density profile against the dc bias potential in the working electrode, identify the formal potential, and determine the energy-width of the electron-transfer process. In addition, by combining the optically reconstructed faradaic signal with simple electrical measurements of impedance across the whole electrochemical cell and the capacitance of the electric double-layer, we are able to determine the time-constant connected to the redox reaction of the adsorbed protein assembly. For cytochrome c directly immobilized onto the indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, we measured a reaction rate constant of 26.5 s–1. Finally, we calculate the charge-transfer resistance and pseudocapacitance associated with the electron-transfer process and show that the frequency dependence of the redox reaction of the protein submonolayer follows as expected the electrical equivalent of an RC-series admittance diagram. Above all, we show here that OIS with single-mode EA-IOW’s provide strong analytical signals that can be readily monitored even for small surface-densities of species involved in the redox

  20. Plasma-etched nanostructures for optical applications (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Ulrike; Rickelt, Friedrich; Munzert, Peter; Kaiser, Norbert

    2015-08-01

    A basic requirement for many optical applications is the reduction of Fresnel-reflections. Besides of interference coatings, nanostructures with sub-wavelength size as known from the eye of the night-flying moth can provide antireflective (AR) properties. The basic principle is to mix a material with air on a sub-wavelength scale to decrease the effective refractive index. To realize AR nanostructures on polymers, the self-organized formation of stochastically arranged antireflective structures using a low-pressure plasma etching process was studied. An advanced procedure involves the use of additional deposition of a thin oxide layer prior etching. A broad range of different structure morphologies exhibiting antireflective properties can be generated on almost all types of polymeric materials. For applications on glass, organic films are used as a transfer medium. Organic layers as thin film materials were evaluated to identify compounds suitable for forming nanostructures by plasma etching. The vapor deposition and etching of organic layers on glass offers a new possibility to achieve antireflective properties in a broad spectral range and for a wide range of light incidence.

  1. New architecture of optical interconnection using 45-deg.-ended connection rods in waveguide-embedded printed circuit boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Byung S.; Cho, Han S.; Eo, Ji-Young; Kang, Saekyoung; Park, Hyo-Hoon; Kim, Young W.; Joe, Young S.; Yang, Dok J.

    2003-06-01

    We demonstrated a new architecture of the optical interconnection system which can be applied in the waveguide-embedded optical printed circuit board (PCB). We used 45° ended optical connection rods as a medium to guide light paths perpendicularly between surface-emitting lasers (or photodiode) and waveguides. A polymer film of multimode waveguides with cores of 100μm x 65μm was sandwiched between conventional PCBs. We made through-holes with a diameter of ~140μm on the PCB, passing through the waveguide cores, using Ti-sapphire laser drill. The optical rods were made of the segment of multimode silica fiber ribbon. One end of the fiber segment was cut with 45° and the other end with 90° by using the high power laser cutting technique. These fiber rods were inserted into the through-holes formed in the PCB, adjusting the insertion depth to locate the 45°-end of rods near the waveguide core. From this interconnection system, we achieved 12channels optical transmission link through a waveguide with a channel pitch of 250μm in the optical PCB. This new interconnection structure using the optical connection rods is well compatible with the fabrication processes of conventional electronic PCB which is employing the through-hole formation by laser drill and the lamination of plastic films by compression.

  2. Evaluation of optical amplification properties using dressed photons in a silicon waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, H.; Kawazoe, T.; Ohtsu, M.; Akahane, K.; Yamamoto, N.

    2015-12-01

    We fabricated an optical waveguide having a high optical confinement effect using a silicon-on-insulator substrate, and we eliminated the difficulty involved with optical alignment for making laser light pass through a p-n homojunction that is transparent to infrared light. Laser light was introduced via one of the cleaved edges of the optical waveguide and was guided to the transparent p-n homojunction, and the power of the light emitted from the other edge was measured. As a result, we successfully evaluated the optical amplification properties with high precision. For light with a wavelength of 1.31 µm, we obtained a differential gain coefficient of g = 2.6 × 10-2 cm/A, a transparency current density of J tr = 1 mA/cm2, and a saturation optical power density of P sat = 30 kW/cm2. The observation of gain saturation due to the incident optical power shows that this measurement method was suitable for evaluating the optical amplification properties.

  3. Optical time domain reflectometry with low noise waveguide-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, C.; Pernice, W. H. P.; Ma, X.; Tang, H. X.

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate optical time domain reflectometry over 200 km of optical fiber using low-noise NbTiN superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with Si3N4 waveguides. Our small detector footprint enables high timing resolution of 50 ps and a dark count rate of 3 Hz with unshielded fibers, allowing for identification of defects along the fiber over a dynamic range of 37.4 dB. Photons scattered and reflected back from the fiber under test can be detected in free-running mode without showing dead zones or other impairments often encountered in semiconductor photon-counting optical time domain reflectometers.

  4. Ultrashort optical waveguide excitations in uniaxial silica fibers: elastic collision scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kuetche, Victor K; Youssoufa, Saliou; Kofane, Timoleon C

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the dynamics of an uniaxial silica fiber under the viewpoint of propagation of ultimately ultrashort optical waveguide channels. As a result, we unveil the existence of three typical kinds of ultrabroadband excitations whose profiles strongly depend upon their angular momenta. Looking forward to surveying their scattering features, we unearth some underlying head-on scenarios of elastic collisions. Accordingly, we address some useful and straightforward applications in nonlinear optics through secured data transmission systems, as well as laser physics and soliton theory with optical soliton dynamics. PMID:25615214

  5. Wavelength-dependent femtosecond pulse amplification in wideband tapered-waveguide quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mingjun; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H

    2015-12-10

    In this paper, we study the wavelength-dependent amplification in three different wideband quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers (QWAs) having conventional, exponentially tapered, and linearly tapered active region waveguide structures. A new theoretical model for tapered-waveguide QWAs considering the effect of lateral carrier density distribution and the strain effect in the quantum well is established based on a quantum well transmission line modeling method. The temporal and spectral characteristics of amplified femtosecond pulse are analyzed for each structure. It was found that, for the amplification of a single femtosecond pulse, the tapered-waveguide QWA provides higher saturation gain, and the output spectra of the amplified pulse in all three structures exhibit an apparent redshift and bandwidth narrowing due to the reduction of carrier density; however, the output spectrum in the tapered-waveguide amplifier is less distorted and exhibits smaller bandwidth narrowing. For the simultaneous amplification of two femtosecond pulses with different central frequencies, in all the three structures, two peaks appear in the output spectra while the peak at the frequency closer to the peak frequency of the QWA gain spectrum receives higher amplification due to the frequency (wavelength) dependence of the QWA gain. At a low peak power level of the input pulse, the bandwidth of each window in the tapered structure is larger than that of the conventional waveguide structure, which aggravates the spectrum alias in the amplification of femtosecond pulses with different central frequencies. As the peak powers of the two pulses increase, the spectrum alias in the conventional waveguide becomes more serious while there are small changes in the tapered structures. Also, we have found that in the amplification of a femtosecond pulse train, the linear-tapered QWAs exhibit the fastest gain recovery as compared with the conventional and exponentially tapered QWAs. PMID

  6. Structured light-matter interactions in optical nanostructures (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Sun, Jingbo; Shalaev, Mikhail I.; Xu, Tianboyu; Xu, Yun; Pandey, Apra

    2015-09-01

    We show that unique optical properties of metamaterials open unlimited prospects to "engineer" light itself. For example, we demonstrate a novel way of complex light manipulation in few-mode optical fibers using metamaterials highlighting how unique properties of metamaterials, namely the ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components, open new degrees of freedom in engineering complex polarization states of light. We discuss several approaches to ultra-compact structured light generation, including a nanoscale beam converter based on an ultra-compact array of nano-waveguides with a circular graded distribution of channel diameters that coverts a conventional laser beam into a vortex with configurable orbital angular momentum and a novel, miniaturized astigmatic optical element based on a single biaxial hyperbolic metamaterial that enables the conversion of Hermite-Gaussian beams into vortex beams carrying an orbital angular momentum and vice versa. Such beam converters is likely to enable a new generation of on-chip or all-fiber structured light applications. We also present our initial theoretical studies predicting that vortex-based nonlinear optical processes, such as second harmonic generation or parametric amplification that rely on phase matching, will also be strongly modified in negative index materials. These studies may find applications for multidimensional information encoding, secure communications, and quantum cryptography as both spin and orbital angular momentum could be used to encode information; dispersion engineering for spontaneous parametric down-conversion; and on-chip optoelectronic signal processing.

  7. Comparison of epoxy- and siloxane-based single-mode optical waveguides defined by direct-write lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmogi, Ahmed; Bosman, Erwin; Missinne, Jeroen; Van Steenberge, Geert

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of single-mode polymer optical waveguides at telecom and SOI compatible wavelengths; by making a comparison between an epoxy and a siloxane polymer waveguide material system (both commercially-available). The proposed waveguides can be used in short-reach optical interconnects targeting chip-to-chip communication on the interposer level or providing a coupling interface between single-mode optical fibers and photonic integrated circuits (PICs). This technology enables the integration of optoelectronic chips for photonic packaging purposes. First, the single-mode dimensions (4 × 4 μm2 and 5 × 5 μm2) for both materials at selected wavelengths (1.31 μm and 1.55 μm) were determined based on the refractive index measurements. Then, the waveguides were patterned by a direct-write lithography method. The fabricated waveguides show a high-quality surface with smooth sidewalls. The optical propagation losses were measured using the cut-back method. For the siloxane-based waveguides, the propagation losses were found to be 0.34 dB/cm and 1.36 dB/cm at 1.31 μm and 1.55 μm respectively while for the epoxy-based waveguides the losses were 0.49 dB/cm and 2.23 dB/cm at 1.31 μm and 1.55 μm respectively.

  8. All-optical multi-channel wavelength conversion of Nyquist 16 QAM signal using a silicon waveguide.

    PubMed

    Long, Yun; Liu, Jun; Hu, Xiao; Wang, Andong; Zhou, Linjie; Zou, Kaiheng; Zhu, Yixiao; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate on-chip all-optical multi-channel wavelength conversion of Nyquist 16 ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16 QAM) signal in a silicon waveguide. The measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties of wavelength conversion are ∼2  dB. The observed constellations of converted idlers indicate favorable performance of silicon-waveguide-based multi-channel wavelength conversion. We also experimentally study and compare the phase-conjugated wavelength conversion by degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) and transparent wavelength conversion by non-degenerate FWM in the silicon waveguide. PMID:26625029

  9. Facile synthesis of single-crystalline microwires based on anthracene derivative and their efficient optical waveguides and linearly polarized emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hong-Dan; Wang, Juan-Ye; Liu, Zheng-Hui; Pan, Ge-Bo

    2016-05-01

    The well-defined single-crystalline microwires of a solid-emissive organic functional molecule, 2-(anthracen-9-yl)-4, 5-diphenyl-1H-imidozole (ADPI) were successfully prepared by a facile solution process without the use of surfactant or additional templates. In addition, the optical loss coefficient is as low as 0.1 dB μm-1 for the as-prepared ADPI microwires, which is lower than most previous reported organic optical waveguides. Meanwhile, these microwires also show optically uniaxial properties as demonstrated by the linearly polarized emission, providing potentially orientation-sensitive applications as optical waveguides with low optical loss.

  10. Optical amplification of the cutoff mode in planar asymmetric polymer waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauchard, M.; Vehse, M.; Swensen, J.; Moses, D.; Heeger, A. J.; Perzon, E.; Andersson, M. R.

    2003-12-01

    Modes with low threshold for optical gain were observed at wavelengths close to the cutoff in experiments probing the amplified spontaneous emission of light-emitting polymer thin films. The polymer was the semiconductor layer in a multilayer semiconductor-insulator-metal structure that simulates the one-dimensional waveguide characteristics in the channel of a field-effect transistor. The "cutoff" mode propagates at the polymer/gate-insulator interface, has an optical gain threshold of approximately 10 kW/cm2, and is not influenced by absorption of the gate electrode. The wavelength of the amplified emission tracks the cutoff wavelength of the asymmetric double-waveguide structure and the cutoff mode is, therefore, tunable in wavelength. Our results suggest that the light-emitting field-effect transistor architecture is a promising route for the construction of an injection laser.

  11. Graphene-doped polymer nanofibers for low-threshold nonlinear optical waveguiding

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meng, Chao; Yu, Shao-Liang; Wang, Hong -Qing; Cao, Yue; Tong, Li -Min; Liu, Wei -Tao; Shen, Yuen -Ron

    2015-11-06

    Graphene-doped polymer nanofibers are fabricated by taper drawing of solvated polyvinyl alcohol doped with liquid-phase exfoliated graphene flakes. Nanofibers drawn this way typically have diameters measured in hundreds of nanometers and lengths in tens of millimeters; they show excellent uniformity and surface smoothness for optical waveguiding. Owing to their tightly confined waveguiding behavior, light–matter interaction in these subwavelength-diameter nanofibers is significantly enhanced. Using approximately 1350-nm-wavelength femto-second pulses, we demonstrate saturable absorption behavior in these nanofibers with a saturation threshold down to 0.25 pJ pulse-1 (peak power ~1.3 W). Additionally, using 1064-nm-wavelength nanosecond pulses as switching light, we show all-optical modulationmore » of a 1550-nm-wavelength signal light guided along a single nanofiber with a switching peak power of ~3.2 W.« less

  12. Graphene-doped polymer nanofibers for low-threshold nonlinear optical waveguiding

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Chao; Yu, Shao-Liang; Wang, Hong -Qing; Cao, Yue; Tong, Li -Min; Liu, Wei -Tao; Shen, Yuen -Ron

    2015-11-06

    Graphene-doped polymer nanofibers are fabricated by taper drawing of solvated polyvinyl alcohol doped with liquid-phase exfoliated graphene flakes. Nanofibers drawn this way typically have diameters measured in hundreds of nanometers and lengths in tens of millimeters; they show excellent uniformity and surface smoothness for optical waveguiding. Owing to their tightly confined waveguiding behavior, light–matter interaction in these subwavelength-diameter nanofibers is significantly enhanced. Using approximately 1350-nm-wavelength femto-second pulses, we demonstrate saturable absorption behavior in these nanofibers with a saturation threshold down to 0.25 pJ pulse-1 (peak power ~1.3 W). Additionally, using 1064-nm-wavelength nanosecond pulses as switching light, we show all-optical modulation of a 1550-nm-wavelength signal light guided along a single nanofiber with a switching peak power of ~3.2 W.

  13. Optical properties of planar polymer waveguides doped with organo-lanthanide complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynihan, S.; Van Deun, R.; Binnemans, K.; Redmond, G.

    2007-08-01

    Lanthanide complexes, Eu(dbm)3(Phen), [Et4N][Eu(nta)4] and Er(dbm)3(Phen), are employed as luminescent dopants within planar waveguides based on a UV-processable fluorinated polymer material. Thin films doped with each of the complexes are fabricated and their spectroscopic properties investigated in detail. The films act as low loss multi-mode planar waveguides capable of guiding visible and near infrared light emitted following optical excitation of the lanthanide dopants. Judd-Ofelt parameters are calculated for the europium complex dopants and effects of the polymer host environment on the photophysical properties of the chelates are identified. The radiative properties of the europium complexes are also determined viz. their potential for use in optical amplification applications.

  14. Zero-birefringence photosensitive poly(arylene ether) for optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang-Dan; Zhong, Zhen-Xin; Kim, Jang Joo; Lee, Myong-Hoon

    2005-01-01

    Novel photosensitive fluorinated poly(arylene ether) containing chalcone unit (F-PAECh) in the main chain was synthesized from decafluorinated chalcone and fluorinated bisphenol at low temperature for polymer optical waveguide application. Upon UV irradiation on the resulting polymer film, [2+2] cycloaddition of chalocone moiety induced the anisotropic decrease of the refractive indices (nTE and nTM) accompanied with crosslinking of polymer film. The decrease was more significant in in-plane direction than out-of-plane direction, and consequently, zero birefringence was obtained with 4.5 min of exposure. Zero-birefringence as well as its excellent optical properties of F-PAECh makes it a promising candidate material for use in high-performance wavelength division multiplexing components such as polarization-independent arrayed waveguide gratings and Bragg wavelength filters.

  15. Metal-clad optical waveguide fluorescence device for the detection of heavy metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margheri, Giancarlo; Giorgetti, Emilia; Marsili, Paolo; Zoppi, Angela; Lascialfari, Luisa; Cicchi, Stefano

    2014-07-01

    We developed Hg-sensing chips by decorating the external surface of metal-clad optical waveguides with a monolayer of Hg-sensitive fluorescent molecular probes. The emission properties of the original water-soluble form of the molecule were previously found to be selectively quenched in the presence of Hg ions. The fabricated samples were tested with optical waveguide fluorescence spectroscopy by putting them in contact with a 5-μM water solution of Hg ions and recording the emission spectra versus incubation time. The estimate of the limit of detection was 150 nM. A preliminary evaluation of the selectivity of the structure was also performed by using Cd as possible interfering analytes.

  16. Optical Sensors Based on Single Arm Thin Film Waveguide Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.

    1997-01-01

    All the goals of the research effort for the first year were met by the accomplishments. Additional efforts were done to speed up the process of development and construction of the experimental gas chamber which will be completed by the end of 1997. This chamber incorporates vacuum sealed multimode optical fiber lines which connect the sensor to the remote light source and signal processing equipment. This optical fiber line is a prototype of actual optical communication links connecting real sensors to a control unit within an aircraft or spacecraft. An important problem which we are planning to focus on during the second year is coupling of optical fiber line to the sensor. Currently this problem is solved using focusing optics and prism couplers. More reliable solutions are planned to be investigated.

  17. Electro-optical phenomena based on ionic liquids in an optofluidic waveguide.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaodong; Shao, Qunfeng; Cao, Pengfei; Kong, Weijie; Sun, Jiqian; Zhang, Xiaoping; Deng, Youquan

    2015-03-01

    An optofluidic waveguide with a simple two-terminal electrode geometry, when filled with an ionic liquid (IL), forms a lateral electric double-layer capacitor under a direct current (DC) electric field, which allows the realization of an extremely high carrier density in the vicinity of the electrode surface and terminals to modulate optical transmission at room temperature under low voltage operation (0 to 4 V). The unique electro-optical phenomenon of ILs was investigated at three wavelengths (663, 1330 and 1530 nm) using two waveguide geometries. Strong electro-optical modulations with different efficiencies were observed at the two near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, while no detectable modulation was observed at 663 nm. The first waveguide geometry was used to investigate the position-dependent modulation along the waveguide; the strongest modulation was observed in the vicinity of the electrode terminal. The modulation phase is associated with the applied voltage polarity, which increases in the vicinity of the negative electrode and decreases at the positive electrode. The second waveguide geometry was used to improve the modulation efficiency. Meanwhile, the electro-optical modulations of seven ILs were compared at an applied voltage ranging from ±2 V to ±3.5 V. The results reveal that the modulation amplitude and response speed increase with increasing applied voltage, as well as the electrical conductivity of ILs. Despite the fact that the response speed isn't fast due to the high ionic density of ILs, the modulation amplitude can reach up to 6.0 dB when a higher voltage (U = ±3.5 V) is applied for the IL [Emim][BF4]. Finally, the physical explanation of the phenomenon was discussed. The effect of the change in IL structure on the electro-optical phenomena was investigated in another new experiment. The results reveal that the electro-optical phenomenon is probably caused mainly by the change in carrier concentration (ion redistribution near charged

  18. Integration of polymer-based optical waveguide arrays and micro/nano-photonic devices for optical printed circuit board (O-PCB) application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, El-Hang; Lee, Seung Gol; O, Beom Hoan; Park, Se-Geun; Kim, Kyong Heon; Kang, Jin Ku; Choi, Young Wan

    2005-03-01

    We report, in the form of review, on the results of our study on the fabrication and assembly of polymer-based optical waveguide arrays and micro/nano-photonic devices for optical printed circuit boards (O-PCBs) application. The O-PCBs are designed to perform the functions of transporting, switching, routing and distributing optical signals on flat modular boards, substrates or chips. We have assembled and constructed O-PCBs using optical waveguide arrays and circuits made of polymer materials and have examined their information handling performances. We also designed power beam splitters and waveguide filters using nano-scale photonic band-gap crystals. We discuss scientific and technological issues concerning the processes of miniaturization, interconnection and integration of polymer optical waveguide devices and arrays for the O-PCBs as applicable to board-to-board, chip-to-chip, and intra-chip integration for computers, telecommunications, and transportation systems.

  19. A new electro-optic waveguide architecture and the unprecedented devices it enables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Scott R.; Rommel, Scott D.; Farca, George; Anderson, Michael H.

    2008-04-01

    A new electro-optic waveguide platform, which provides unprecedented electro-optical phase delays (> 1mm), with very low loss (< 0.5 dB/cm) and rapid response time (sub millisecond), is presented. This technology, developed by Vescent Photonics, is based upon a unique liquid-crystal waveguide geometry, which exploits the tremendous electro-optic response of liquid crystals while circumventing historic limitations of liquid crystals. The exceedingly large optical phase delays accessible with this technology enable the design and construction of a new class of previously unrealizable photonic devices. Examples include: a 1-D non-mechanical, analog beamsteerer with an 80° field of regard, a chip-scale widely tunable laser, a chip-scale Fourier transform spectrometer (< 5 nm resolution demonstrated), widely tunable micro-ring resonators, tunable lenses, ultra-low power (< 5 microWatts) optical switches, true optical time delay (up to 10 ns), and many more. All of these devices may benefit from established manufacturing technologies and ultimately may be as inexpensive as a calculator display. Furthermore, this new integrated photonic architecture has applications in a wide array of commercial and defense markets including: remote sensing, micro-LADAR, OCT, laser illumination, phased array radar, optical communications, etc. Performance attributes of several example devices are presented.

  20. Design and analysis of a silicon-based antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide chemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remley, Kate A.; Weisshaar, Andreas

    1996-08-01

    The design of a silicon-based antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) chemical sensor is presented, and its theoretical performance is compared with that of a conventional structure. The use of an ARROW structure permits incorporation of a thick guiding region for efficient coupling to a single-mode fiber. A high-index overlay is added to fine tune the sensitivity of the ARROW chemical sensor. The sensitivity of the sensor is presented, and design trade-offs are discussed.

  1. Ultrapure glass optical waveguide: Development in microgravity by the sol gel process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.; Debsikdar, J. C.; Beam, T.

    1983-01-01

    The sol-gel process for the preparation of homogeneous gels in three binary oxide systems was investigated. The glass forming ability of certain compositions in the selected oxide systems (SiO-GeO2, GeO2-PbO, and SiO2-TiO2) were studied based on their potential importance in the design of optical waveguide at longer wavelengths.

  2. Biosensor application of resonance coupling to thin film planar waveguides on side-polished optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecke, Wolfgang; Andreev, Andrey; Csaki, Andrea; Kirsch, Konstantin; Schroeder, Kerstin; Wieduwilt, Torsten; Willsch, Reinhardt

    2011-05-01

    Optical resonance coupling between a side-polished fiber and thin film waveguides has been investigated in the presence of biochemical adsorbates. The shift of the resonance wavelengths was found to be highly sensitive to the capture of target DNA recognition elements with Au nanoparticle markers, allowing for a sensitivity limit of 10 particles on the side-polished fiber core area (2000 μm²) during on-line measurements using a polychromator spectrometer.

  3. Evaporated As2S3 Luneburg lenses for LiNbO3:Ti optical waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, J. R.; Wood, V. E.; Kenan, R. P.; Verber, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Luneburg lenses of good quality were formed on high index optical waveguides by evaporation of arsenic trisulfide glass through simple masks. Using only two thin circular aperture masks, lenses with focal spots of a few times the diffraction limited width at f/4 were obtained. These lenses were designed for and tested at both visible (633 nm) and infrared wavelengths. Procedures for the design, fabrication, and testing of lenses of this type are described.

  4. Exciting fluorescence compounds on an optical fiber's side surface with a liquid core waveguide.

    PubMed

    Ray, Jason C; Almas, Muhammad S; Tao, Shiquan

    2016-01-01

    A new fiber optic fluorescence spectroscopic method using a liquid core waveguide (LCW) as an excitation element has been developed for detecting a fluorescence compound absorbed on an optical fiber's surface. A laser light beam was coupled into a multimode optical fiber. The distal end of the fiber was inserted into an LCW. The diverging light emerging from the fiber's end was collected and guided within the LCW. A tapered optical fiber was inserted into the LCW from the other side. Laser light traveling in the LCW evenly illuminates the tapered fiber surface and excites fluorescence molecules absorbed on the tapered fiber's surface. Fluorescence light emitted from the tapered fiber surface was collected with the fiber itself and delivered through the fiber to an optical fiber compatible spectrometer for detection. This new technique provides an efficient way for evenly exciting fluorescence compounds absorbed on an optical fiber's surface. PMID:26696168

  5. Structural and optical studies of CuO nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, Prakash Gaur, Anurag Kumar, Ashavani

    2014-04-24

    In the present study, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been synthesized at 140 °C for different aging periods, 1, 24, 48 and 96 hrs by hydrothermal method to investigate their effects on structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) pattern indicates the pure phase formation of CuO and the particle size, calculated from XRD data, has been found to be increasing from 21 to 36 nm for the samples synthesized at different aging periods. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis also shows that the average diameter and length of these rectangular nano flakes increases with increasing the aging periods. Moreover Raman spectrums also confirm the phase formation of CuO. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 2.92 to 2.69 eV with increase in aging periods, 1 to 96 hrs, respectively.

  6. Development of electro-optical PCBs with embedded waveguides for data center and high performance computing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immonen, M.; Wu, J.; Yan, H. J.; Zhu, L. X.; Chen, P.; Rapala-Virtanen, T.

    2014-03-01

    Power consumption and scaling the performance and quantity of electrical interconnects for data traffic inside boards and backplanes are one of the critical barriers envisaged in next-generation Data Center (DC) and High-Performance Computing (HPC) applications. In this paper, we report developments of electro-optical PCBs (EO-PCB) with embedded polymer waveguide layers. We show results for fabricating realistic product emulator test vehicles that comprise of reasonable form factor PCBs with optical and electrical layers. The optical layer comprise of multiple waveguides exhibiting a full range of geometric configurations required to meet practical optical routing functions. Test patterns include varied cross-sectional sizes, 90° bends of varying radii (40mm - 2mm), cascaded bends with varying radii, waveguide crossings with varied crossing angles (90° - 20°), splitters, tapered waveguides and waveguide interconnect to midboard interface slots. Moreover, results for fabricating electrical interconnect structures (e.g. tracing layers, vias, plated vias) top/bottom and through optical layers in OE-PCB stack are shown. The purpose of the complex routed copper layers is to enable the crucial demonstration of the fabrication and thermal robustness challenges inherent to electro-optical PCBs with optical layers. Process compatibility with accepted practices and challenges in production scale up for high volumes are key concerns to meet the yield target and cost efficiency. Results include waveguide characterization, waveguide transmission loss, misalignment tolerance, and effect of lamination. Moreover, we show results on waveguide termination by in-plane edge connector and with 90° out-of-plane couplers.

  7. High-bandwidth and low-loss multimode polymer waveguides and waveguide components for high-speed board-level optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamiedakis, N.; Chen, J.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.

    2016-03-01

    Multimode polymer waveguides are being increasingly considered for use in short-reach board-level optical interconnects as they exhibit favourable optical properties and allow direct integration onto standard PCBs with conventional methods of the electronics industry. Siloxane-based multimode waveguides have been demonstrated with excellent optical transmission performance, while a wide range of passive waveguide components that offer routing flexibility and enable the implementation of complex on-board interconnection architectures has been reported. In recent work, we have demonstrated that these polymer waveguides can exhibit very high bandwidth-length products in excess of 30 GHz×m despite their highly-multimoded nature, while it has been shown that even larger values of > 60 GHz×m can be achieved by adjusting their refractive index profile. Furthermore, the combination of refractive index engineering and launch conditioning schemes can ensure high bandwidth (> 100 GHz×m) and high coupling efficiency (<1 dB) with standard multimode fibre inputs with relatively large alignment tolerances (~17×15 μm2). In the work presented here, we investigate the effects of refractive index engineering on the performance of passive waveguide components (crossings, bends) and provide suitable design rules for their on-board use. It is shown that, depending on the interconnection layout and link requirements, appropriate choice of refractive index profile can provide enhanced component performance, ensuring low loss interconnection and adequate link bandwidth. The results highlight the strong potential of this versatile optical technology for the formation of high-performance board-level optical interconnects with high routing flexibility.

  8. Single Fiber Star Couplers. [optical waveguides for spacecraft communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asawa, C. K.

    1979-01-01

    An ion exchange process was developed and used in the fabrication of state-of-the-art planar star couplers for distribution of optical radiation between optical fibers. An 8 x 8 planar transmission star coupler was packaged for evaluation purposes with sixteen fiber connectors and sixteen pigtails. Likewise a transmission star coupler and an eight-port reflection star coupler with eight-fiber ribbons rigidly attached to these couplers, and a planar coupler with silicon guides and a parallel channel guide with pigtails were also fabricated. Optical measurements of the transmission star couplers are included with a description of the manufacturing process.

  9. Adaptive Integrated Optical Bragg Grating in Semiconductor Waveguide Suitable for Optical Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniem, T. A.

    2016-05-01

    This article presents a methodology for an integrated Bragg grating using an alloy of GaAs, AlGaAs, and InGaAs with a controllable refractive index to obtain an adaptive Bragg grating suitable for many applications on optical processing and adaptive control systems, such as limitation and filtering. The refractive index of a Bragg grating is controlled by using an external electric field for controlling periodic modulation of the refractive index of the active waveguide region. The designed Bragg grating has refractive indices programmed by using that external electric field. This article presents two approaches for designing the controllable refractive indices active region of a Bragg grating. The first approach is based on the modification of a planar micro-strip structure of the iGaAs traveling wave as the active region, and the second is based on the modification of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots of an alloy from GaAs and InGaAs with a GaP traveling wave. The overall design and results are discussed through numerical simulation by using the finite-difference time-domain, plane wave expansion, and opto-wave simulation methods to confirm its operation and feasibility.

  10. Femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in z-cut MgO:LiNbO3 crystal: Fabrication and optical damage investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jinman; Cheng, Yazhou; Lu, Qingming; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Hao, Xiaotao; Chen, Feng

    2016-07-01

    We report on the fabrication of the dual-line waveguides and cladding waveguide in z-cut MgO:LiNbO3 crystal by femtosecond laser inscription. Due to the diverse modification of refractive index along TE/TM polarization induced by femtosecond laser pulses, the two geometries exhibit different guiding performances: the dual-line waveguides only support extraordinary index polarization, whilst the depressed cladding waveguide supports guidance along both extraordinary and ordinary index polarizations. The measured optical damage of these waveguides at the wavelength of 532 nm is higher than that of the previously reported ion-implanted waveguides in Zr-doped LiNbO3. The propagation loss of depressed cladding waveguide is measured as low as 0.94 dB/cm at 632.8 nm wavelength. It is found that the optical damage threshold (∼105 W/cm2) of the dual-line waveguide is one order of magnitude higher than that of the cladding waveguide (∼104 W/cm2).

  11. Lagrangian description of Brillouin scattering and electrostriction in nanoscale optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laude, Vincent; Beugnot, Jean-Charles

    2015-12-01

    The diffraction of light by sound waves is known as Brillouin scattering. In optical waveguides, Brillouin scattering can arise from both bulk contributions, modelled by photoelasticity, and surface contributions, which are due to the waveguide boundaries being shaken by propagating sound. The reciprocal effect, electrostriction, governs the coherent generation of sound by light. The bulk photoelastic contribution to Brillouin scattering is generally nonlinear but can be limited to a first-order expansion for small strain. We investigate the moving-interface contribution to Brillouin scattering in optical waveguides and show that it is also inherently nonlinear, leading to multi-phonon processes for large deformations. Limiting the perturbation to first order, we form a Lagrangian describing the interaction of sound and light. The Lagrangian contains both surface and bulk contributions to Brillouin scattering and electrostriction, and allows the derivation of optical and acoustic equations in a single variational formula. A full electrostriction equation is then derived for the phonon distribution, with both bulk and surface effects included. Numerical simulations in the case of a silicon nanowire illustrate the different effects and their respective contributions.

  12. CO2 laser micromachining of optical waveguides for interconnection on circuit boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariyah, Shefiu S.; Conway, Paul P.; Hutt, David A.; Wang, Kai; Selviah, David R.

    2012-12-01

    The introduction of microvia and surface mount technologies into the manufacturing process for printed circuit boards (PCBs) has significantly improved the interconnection density. However, as the speed of signals for data communication on the board approaches and begins to exceed 10 Gb/s, the loss and crosstalk of copper interconnections increase. To resolve these problems, optical interconnections (OI) have been suggested as a viable solution. Literature reports have proved the photochemical nature of excimer laser ablation with its minimal thermal effect, and other ultra-violet lasers are also being investigated for the fabrication of polymer waveguides by laser ablation. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the fabrication of multimode optical polymer waveguides by using infra-red 10.6 μm CO2 laser micromachining to etch acrylate-based photopolymer (Truemode™). CO2 lasers offer a low cost and high speed fabrication route as CO2 lasers can be used to cut through various engineering materials including polymers and metals. The paper characterises the relationship between the laser ablation power, the fabrication speed and the resulting effect on the waveguide optical insertion loss for the first time.

  13. Tailored spectroscopic and optical properties in rare earth-activated glass-ceramics planar waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristic, Davor; Van Tran, Thi Thanh; Dieudonné, Belto; Cristina, Armellini; Berneschi, Simone; Chiappini, Andrea; Chiasera, Alessandro; Varas, Stefano; Carpentiero, Alessandro; Mazzola, Maurizio; Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Pelli, Stefano; Speranza, Giorgio; Feron, Patrice; Duverger Arfuso, Claire; Cibiel, Gilles; Turrell, Sylvia; Tran Ngoc, Khiem; Boulard, Brigitte; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2013-03-01

    Glass ceramic activated by rare earth ions are nanocomposite systems that exhibit specific morphologic, structural and spectroscopic properties allowing to develop interesting new physical concepts, for instance the mechanism related to the transparency, as well as novel photonic devices based on the enhancement of the luminescence. At the state of art the fabrication techniques based on bottom-up and top-down approaches appear to be viable although a specific effort is required to achieve the necessary reliability and reproducibility of the preparation protocols. In particular, the dependence of the final product on the specific parent glass and on the employed synthesis still remain an important task of the research in material science. Glass-ceramic waveguides overcome some of the efficiency problems experienced with conventional waveguides. These two-phase materials are composed of nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix. The respective volume fractions of the crystalline and amorphous phases determine the properties of the glass ceramic. They also represent a valid alternative to widely used glass hosts such as silica as an effective optical medium for light propagation and luminescence enhancement. Looking to application, the enhanced spectroscopic properties typical of glass ceramic in respect to those of the amorphous structures constitute an important point for the development of integrated optics devices, including optical amplifiers, monolithic waveguide laser, novel sensors, coating of spherical microresonators, and up and down converters for solar energy exploitation.

  14. Realizing mode conversion and optical diode effect by coupling photonic crystal waveguides with cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Han; Zhang, Jin-Qian-Nan; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Wang, Dong-Lin; Chen, Zhi-Hui

    2015-09-01

    We propose a novel two-dimensional photonic crystal structure consisting of two line defect waveguides and a cavity to realize mode conversion based on the coupling effect. The W1/cavity/W2 structure breaks the spatial symmetry and successfully converts the even (odd) mode to the odd (even) mode in the W2 waveguide during the forward (backward) transmission. When considering the incidence of only the even mode, the optical diode effect emerges and achieves approximate 35 dB unidirectionality at the resonant frequency. Moreover, owing to the narrow bandpass feature and the flexibility of the tuning cavity, utilization of the proposed structure as a wavelength filter is demonstrated in a device with a Y-branch splitter. Here, we provide a heuristic design for a mode converter, optical diode, and wavelength filter derived from the coupling effect between a cavity and adjacent waveguides, and expect that the proposed structure can be applied as a building block in future all-optical integrated circuits. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61372037 and 61307069), Beijing Excellent Ph. D. Thesis Guidance Foundation, China (Grant No. 20131001301), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013021017-3).

  15. Sensing property of thin film optical waveguide sensor based on PVC copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungho; Minamitani, Haruyuki; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Kang, Shin-Won

    1998-01-01

    In this report, an active PVC thin film waveguide sensor which can select a specific ion and measure its concentrations is proposed. In order to investigate the applicability of this sensor, we measured calcium ion. The waveguide layer was fabricated with plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) co-polymer matrix containing a neutral ionophore for calcium dioctyl phthalate, and chromoionophore, which plays important roles both in incident light propagation and in selective ion sensing. For this purpose, we applied the sensor to the sample solution whose CaCl2 was gradually altered. In this study, we found that this thin film waveguide possessed good light propagation. In addition, it showed enough chemical reaction to Ca2+ to select Ca2+ and to measure its concentration. These findings suggested that the proposed active PVC optical thin film waveguide sensor was very effective in selecting Ca2+ and measuring its concentration. Also, it will be expected that this sensor is applicable to various ions other than Ca2+.

  16. Phase engineered wavelength conversion of ultra-short optical pulses in TI:PPLN waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babazadeh, Amin; Nouroozi, Rahman; Sohler, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    A phase engineered all-optical wavelength converter for ultra-short pulses (down to 140 fs) in a Ti-diffused, periodically poled lithium niobate (Ti:PPLN) waveguide is proposed. The phase engineering, due to the phase conjugation between signal and idler (converted signal) pulses which takes place in the cascaded second harmonic generation and difference frequency generation (cSHG/DFG) based wavelength conversion, already leads to shorter idler pulses. The proposed device consists of an unpoled (passive) waveguide section beside of the PPLN waveguide section in order to compensate pulse broadening and phase distortion of the idler pulses induced by the wavelength conversion (in the PPLN section). For example numerical analysis shows that a 140 fs input signal pulse is only broadened by 1.6% in a device with a combination of 20 mm and 6 mm long periodically poled and unpoled waveguide sections. Thus, cSHG/DFG based wavelength converters of a bandwidth of several Tbits/s can be designed.

  17. Self-assembled coronene nanofibers: optical waveguide effect and magnetic alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takazawa, Ken; Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka

    2014-03-01

    To fabricate organic nanofibers that function as active optical waveguides with semiconductor properties, a facile procedure was developed to grow single crystalline nanofibers via π-π stacking of the polycyclic aromatic molecule, coronene, through solution evaporation on a substrate. The fabricated nanofibers with millimeter-scale lengths have well-defined shapes, smooth surfaces, and low-defect structures. The nanofibers are demonstrated to function as efficient active waveguides that propagate their fluorescence (FL) along the fiber axis over their entire length. We further demonstrate that the nanofibers can be highly aligned on the substrate when solution evaporation is conducted in a magnetic field of 12 T. The mechanism of the magnetic alignment can be elucidated by considering the anisotropy of the diamagnetic susceptibility of a single coronene molecule and the crystal structure of a nanofiber. Owing to the high degree of alignment, the nanofibers rarely cross each other, allowing for measurement of the waveguiding properties of single isolated nanofibers. The nanofibers propagate their FL of λ > 500 nm with a low propagation loss of 0-3 dB per 100 μm, indicating that the nanofibers function as sub-wavelength scale, low-loss waveguides. Thus, they are promising building blocks for miniaturized optoelectronic circuits.

  18. Theory of electronic and optical properties of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewageegana, Prabath S.

    "There is plenty of room at the bottom." This bold and prophetic statement from Nobel laureate Richard Feynman back in 1950s at Cal Tech launched the Nano Age and predicted, quite accurately, the explosion in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Now this is a fast developing area in both science and technology. Many think this would bring the greatest technological revolution in the history of mankind. To understand electronic and optical properties of nanostructures, the following problems have been studied. In particular, intensity of mid-infrared light transmitted through a metallic diffraction grating has been theoretically studied. It has been shown that for s-polarized light the enhancement of the transmitted light is much stronger than for p-polarized light. By tuning the parameters of the diffraction grating enhancement can be increased by a few orders of magnitude. The spatial distribution of the transmitted light is highly nonuniform with very sharp peaks, which have the spatial widths about 10 nm. Furthermore, under the ultra fast response in nanostructures, the following two related goals have been proved: (a) the two-photon coherent control allows one to dynamically control electron emission from randomly rough surfaces, which is localized within a few nanometers. (b) the photoelectron emission from metal nanostructures in the strong-field (quasistationary) regime allows coherent control with extremely high contrast, suitable for nanoelectronics applications. To investigate the electron transport properties of two dimensional carbon called graphene, a localization of an electron in a graphene quantum dot with a sharp boundary has been considered. It has been found that if the parameters of the confinement potential satisfy a special condition then the electron can be strongly localized in such quantum dot. Also the energy spectra of an electron in a graphene quantum ring has been analyzed. Furthermore, it has been shown that in a double dot system some

  19. Brain machine interfaces combining microelectrode arrays with nanostructured optical biochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Gonzalez, Timothy; Ghafer-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Chodavarapu, Vamsy; Musallam, Sam; Andrews, Mark

    2009-02-01

    Neural microelectrodes are an important component of neural prosthetic systems which assist paralyzed patients by allowing them to operate computers or robots using their neural activity. These microelectrodes are also used in clinical settings to localize the locus of seizure initiation in epilepsy or to stimulate sub-cortical structures in patients with Parkinson's disease. In neural prosthetic systems, implanted microelectrodes record the electrical potential generated by specific thoughts and relay the signals to algorithms trained to interpret these thoughts. In this paper, we describe novel elongated multi-site neural electrodes that can record electrical signals and specific neural biomarkers and that can reach depths greater than 8mm in the sulcus of non-human primates (monkeys). We hypothesize that additional signals recorded by the multimodal probes will increase the information yield when compared to standard probes that record just electropotentials. We describe integration of optical biochemical sensors with neural microelectrodes. The sensors are made using sol-gel derived xerogel thin films that encapsulate specific biomarker responsive luminophores in their nanostructured pores. The desired neural biomarkers are O2, pH, K+, and Na+ ions. As a prototype, we demonstrate direct-write patterning to create oxygen-responsive xerogel waveguide structures on the neural microelectrodes. The recording of neural biomarkers along with electrical activity could help the development of intelligent and more userfriendly neural prosthesis/brain machine interfaces as well as aid in providing answers to complex brain diseases and disorders.

  20. Experimental demonstration of highly sensitive optical sensor based on grating-assisted light coupling between strip and slot waveguides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Gu, Zhonghua; Park, Mi Kyoung; Chung, Jaehoon

    2016-06-13

    An optical sensor based on grating-assisted light coupling between a strip waveguide and a slot waveguide is demonstrated (the sensor was proposed and analyzed in [Opt. Express21, 5897-5909 (2013)]. The wavelength at which the light is strongly coupled between two waveguides is used to the measure the external medium's refractive index. The sensor was fabricated with silicon nitride waveguides and obvious grating induced band-rejection and band-pass characteristics were observed. The measured sensitivity of the fabricated sensor was -756.1 nm/RIU. Furthermore, by covering the strip waveguide with the silicon dioxide cladding, the sensitivity was measured to be as large as -1970 nm/RIU, which was 2.6 times enhanced. The experimental results agreed well with the calculated sensitivity values. PMID:27410276

  1. A stable and high resolution optical waveguide biosensor based on dense TiO2/Ag multilayer film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhao; Guan, Weiming; Liu, Chang; Xue, Tianyu; Wang, Qiyu; Zheng, Weitao; Cui, Xiaoqiang

    2016-07-01

    Optical waveguide (OWG) biosensor has attracted much attention according to the high sensitivity and resolution compared with conventional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. Nanoporous materials are usually used as the waveguide layer for absorbing analytes into the porous structure and enhancing the sensor signal. However, this kind of waveguide layer provides poor protection to the metal film and leads to the damage of the biosensor. Ag film can provide great sensitivity in SPR sensing comparing to other metal but was rarely used because of its poor chemical stability. Fabricating high stability Ag based SPR biosensor is still a challenge. In this work we produce an OWG biosensor using a dense TiO2 film as the waveguide layer which provides high resolution and remarkable protection to the metal film. This waveguide structure makes long time detection possible using Ag as the metal layer and is able to lead an enhancement of sensitivity comparing to the Au-based biosensor.

  2. An acousto-optic sensor based on resonance grating waveguide structure

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Antonio Jou; Song, Fuchuan; Seo, Sang-Woo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an acousto-optic (AO) sensor based on resonance grating waveguide structure. The sensor is fabricated using elastic polymer materials to achieve a good sensitivity to ultrasound pressure waves. Ultrasound pressure waves modify the structural parameters of the sensor and result in the optical resonance shift of the sensor. This converts into a light intensity modulation. A commercial ultrasound transducer at 20 MHz is used to characterize a fabricated sensor and detection sensitivity at different optical source wavelength within a resonance spectrum is investigated. Practical use of the sensor at a fixed optical source wavelength is presented. Ultimately, the geometry of the planar sensor structure is suitable for two-dimensional, optical pressure imaging applications such as pressure wave detection and mapping, and ultrasound imaging. PMID:25045203

  3. Optical interferometric logic gates based on metal slot waveguide network realizing whole fundamental logic operations.

    PubMed

    Pan, Deng; Wei, Hong; Xu, Hongxing

    2013-04-22

    Optical interferometric logic gates in metal slot waveguide network are designed and investigated by electromagnetic simulations. The designed logic gates can realize all fundamental logic operations. A single Y-shaped junction can work as logic gate for four logic functions: AND, NOT, OR and XOR. By cascading two Y-shaped junctions, NAND, NOR and XNOR can be realized. The working principle is analyzed in detail. In the simulations, these gates show large intensity contrast for the Boolean logic states of the output. These results can be useful for future integrated optical computing. PMID:23609666

  4. Optical Detection of Local Electric Field Dynamics in Solutions by Waveguide-integrated Graphene Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, Jason; Balch, Halleh; Feng Wang Team

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of local electric fields in ionic solutions plays a central role in various chemical and biological processes ranging from batteries technologies to neuron signaling. A non-invasive, precise detection scheme for measuring local electric fields dynamics has long been sought for. Here, we report a sensitive, high-speed, high spatial resolution optical imaging method for local electric fields based on the unique optoelectronic properties of graphene. With enhancement from a waveguide involving critical coupling concept, we show that our graphene optical sensor provides an ideal platform for studying dynamics of local electric field fluctuations in different nonequilibrium solutions.

  5. Silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide based three-input multicasted optical hexadecimal addition/subtraction

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Chengcheng; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    By exploiting multiple non-degenerate four-wave mixing in a silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide and 16-ary phase-shift keying signals, we propose and simulate three-input (A, B, C) multicasted 40-Gbaud (160-Gbit/s) optical hexadecimal addition/subtraction (A + B − C, A + C − B, B + C − A, A + B + C, A − B − C, B − A − C). The error vector magnitude (EVM) and dynamic range of signal power are analyzed to evaluate the performance of optical hexadecimal addition/subtraction. PMID:25502618

  6. Optical planar waveguide in magnesium aluminate spinel crystal using oxygen ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hong-Lian; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Lian; Wang, Tie-Jun; Qiao, Mei; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2015-07-01

    A planar optical waveguide in MgAl2O4 crystal sample was fabricated using 6.0 MeV oxygen ion implantation at a fluence of 1.5 × 1015 ions/cm2 at room temperature. The optical modes were measured at a wavelength of 633 nm using a model 2010 prism coupler. The near-field intensity files in the visible band were measured and simulated with end-face coupling and FD-BPM methods, respectively. The absorption spectra show that the implantation process has almost no effect on the visible and near-infrared band absorption.

  7. Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers: Part II: Gain media, laser systems, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grivas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The field of optically pumped planar waveguide lasers has seen a rapid development over the last two decades driven by the requirements of a range of applications. This sustained research effort has led to the demonstration of a large variety of miniature highly efficient laser sources by combining different gain media and resonator geometries. One of the most attractive features of waveguide lasers is the broad range of regimes that they can operate, spanning from continuous wave and single frequency through to the generation of femtosecond pulses. Furthermore, their technology has experienced considerable advances to provide increased output power levels, deriving benefits from the relative immunity from the heat generated in the gain medium during laser operation and the use of cladding-pumped architectures. This second part of the review on optically pumped planar waveguide lasers provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art research in this field in terms of gain materials, laser system designs, and as well as a perspective on the status of their application as real devices in various research areas.

  8. Recording of dynamic gratings in the nonlinear optical coating of a planar waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikov, N. M.; Korolev, A. E.; Koklyushkin, A. V.; Lipovskaya, M. Yu.; Nazarov, V. N.

    2003-04-01

    The possibility of controlled energy exchange between interfering waveguide modes in a singlemode planar waveguide with a nonlinear optical coating is analyzed. As the coating, a suspension of bacteriorhodopsin D96N was used, which makes it possible to realize two spectrally separated mechanisms of recording and controlling dynamic gratings, i.e., the spatial modulation of the trans-cis excitation rate and the spatial modulation of the cis-trans relaxation rate. The method of phase-modulated beams was used to implement the energy exchange. The dynamic gratings in the coating were recorded by using both radiation with a wavelength within the absorption band of the trans state (630 nm) and radiation with a wavelength within the absorption band of the cis state (440 nm). Efficient control of the energy exchange between the waveguide modes by means of uniform exposure of their interference region to radiation with another wavelength was observed. A completely integral geometrical layout for optically controlled energy exchange was realized. The results obtained are compared with known data on energy exchange between beams in the bulk of a similar nonlinear medium.

  9. Design of photonic crystal-based all-optical AND gate using T-shaped waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    haq Shaik, Enaul; Rangaswamy, Nakkeeran

    2016-05-01

    We present a new configuration of all-optical AND gate based on two-dimensional photonic crystal composed of Si rods in air. Two AND gate structures with and without probe input are proposed. The proposed structures are designed with T-shaped waveguide without using nonlinear materials and optical amplifiers. The performance of the proposed AND gate structures is analyzed and simulated by plane-wave expansion and finite difference time domain methods. The AND gate without probe input needs only one T-shaped waveguide, whereas the AND gate with probe input needs two T-shaped waveguides. The former AND gate offers a bit rate of 6.26 Tbps with a contrast ratio of 5.74 dB, whereas the latter AND gate offers a bit rate of 3.58 Tbps whose contrast ratio is 9.66 dB. It can be expected that these small size T-shaped structures are suitable for large-scale integration and can potentially be used in on-chip photonic integrated circuits.

  10. Optical and spectroscopic characterization of Er/Yb-activated planar waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelli, Stefano; Brenci, Massimo; Fossi, Matteo; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Duverger, Claire; Montagna, Maurizio; Rolli, Raffaella; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2000-04-01

    Soda-lime silicate glasses doped with different percentages of Er- and Yb-oxides were produced by melting, and both planar and channel waveguides were fabricated by diluted silver ion exchange. Their optical and spectroscopic properties have been investigated, and some results are reported here. The optical parameters such as refractive index, diffusion depth and number of modes were measured by m-line technique. Absorption and fluorescence spectra were also measured; particular attention was focused on upconversion phenomena. The upconversion luminescence spectra of an Er/Yb-activated waveguide were obtained by continuous-wave excitation at 514.5 nm, as a function of the excitation power. The weak upconversion bands are assigned to the 2H9/2 yields 4I15/2 and 4G11/2 yields 4I15/2 transitions of the Er3+ ion. The upconversion mechanism is found to be a two-photon process. Preliminary results of gain measurements in channel waveguides showed signal enhancement at 1.5 micrometers , for high input signal intensities, upon pumping at 0.98 micrometers .

  11. Optical-loss suppressed InGaN laser diodes using undoped thick waveguide structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Masao; Imafuji, Osamu; Nozaki, Shinichiro; Hagino, Hiroyuki; Takigawa, Shinichi; Katayama, Takuma; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    We propose optical-loss suppressed thick-optical-waveguide (TOW) InGaN laser diodes (LDs) without operatingvoltage increase. A record high continuous-wave (CW) output of 7.2W for a single-emitting InGaN LD is achieved without thermal peak-out in the light-current curve. The TOW enables to confine major part of the propagating light into a transparent undoped region, and thus significantly reduces the optical-loss. An electron-overflow-suppression (EOS) layer placed between the waveguide layer and a p-cladding layer plays an important role to reduce the operating voltage after introduction of the undoped TOW layer. We executed a self-consisted calculation of voltage-current characteristics taking into account Schrödinger and Poisson equations in conjunction with a carrier continuity equation. The calculation result indicates possible presence of conductivity-modulation in the waveguide filled with electrons reflected backward by the EOS layer and holes injected from the p-type cladding layer. We successfully demonstrated the optical-loss suppressed operation resulting in the slope efficiency (SE) increase from 2.0W/A to 2.5W/A. It is noted that the operating voltage of the TOW LD is nearly identical to the conventional LD thanks to the above conductivitymodulation phenomenon. The presented result suggests that our TOW structure can overcome the optical-loss drawback of the InGaN LDs, and hence will lead them to the applications requiring high wattage light sources.

  12. Multi-function all optical packet switch by periodic wavelength arrangement in an arrayed waveguide grating and wideband optical filters.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kai-Ming; Wu, Chung-Yu; Wen, Yu-Hsiang

    2012-01-16

    By utilizing the cyclic filtering function of an NxN arrayed waveguide grating (AWG), we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel multi-function all optical packet switching (OPS) architecture by applying a periodical wavelength arrangement between the AWG in the optical routing/buffering unit and a set of wideband optical filters in the switched output ports to achieve the desired routing and buffering functions. The proposed OPS employs only one tunable wavelength converter at the input port to convert the input wavelength to a designated wavelength which reduces the number of active optical components and thus the complexity of the traffic control is simplified in the OPS. With the proposed OPS architecture, multiple optical packet switching functions, including arbitrary packet switching and buffering, first-in-first-out (FIFO) packet multiplexing, packet demultiplexing and packet add/drop multiplexing, have been successfully demonstrated. PMID:22274416

  13. Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, A.; Söllner, I.; Arcari, M.; Hansen, S. Lindskov; Midolo, L.; Mahmoodian, S.; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T.; Lee, E. H.; Song, J. D.; Stobbe, S.; Lodahl, P.

    2015-01-01

    Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon–photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures. PMID:26492951

  14. High efficiency all-optical diode based on photonic crystal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Yun-Feng; Li, Shu-Jing; He, Xing-Dao

    2016-06-01

    A high efficiency all-optical diode based on photonic crystal (PC) waveguide has been proposed and numerically investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The structure is asymmetrically coupled by a Fano cavity containing nonlinear Kerr medium and a F-P cavity in PC waveguide. Because of interference between two cavities, Fano peak and F-P peak can both appear in transmission spectra. Working wavelength is set between the two peaks and approaching to Fano peak. For forward launch with suitable light intensity, nonlinear Kerr effect of micro-cavity can be excited. It would result in red shift of Fano peak and achieving forward transmission. But due to the asymmetric design, backward launch need stronger incidence light to excite Kerr effect. This design has many advantages, including high maximum transmittance (>90%), high transmittance contrast ratio, low power threshold, short response time (picosecond level), ease of integration.

  15. Phase composition and stress in LiTaO3 proton-exchanged optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuneva, M.; Christova, K.; Tonchev, S.

    2013-09-01

    The phase composition of the top layer of Li1-xHxTaO3 waveguide layers produced at different modifications of the proton exchange (PE) technology has been analyzed based on their IR reflection spectra. These spectra contain new bands within the range 850\\text{--}1050\\ \\text{cm}^{-1} , each phase having its own reflection spectrum. Since the top layer is actually the strongest proton-exchanged one of all sublayers building the waveguide layer, the recognition of the top sublayer's phase in many cases could be used to make conclusions about the phases building the rest of the entire PE layer. The intrinsic stress caused by crystal lattice deformation due to the PE was calculated by an optical integral method. An attempt to explain the level of stress is made based on the phase composition of the studied samples.

  16. Enhanced optical waveguide light mode spectroscopy via detection of fluorophore absorbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halter, Martin; Gabi, Michael; Textor, Marcus; Vörös, Janos; Grandin, H. Michelle

    2006-10-01

    A novel technique based on surface sensitive absorbance detection using an optical waveguide light mode spectroscopy (OWLS) instrument is presented. The proof of concept for this extension of a standard technique is demonstrated by painting an increasing number of ink lines on a waveguide, perpendicular to the light path, while monitoring the outcoupled light intensity. Furthermore, by the adsorption of poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) as a model system with contents of 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50% labeled polymer, the in situ performance is demonstrated, and the absorbance signal is calibrated such that it can be converted into adsorbed mass. The simultaneous detection of labeled and label-free species allows for the study of complex experimental setups whereby monitoring of adsorption, desorption, and even exchange processes becomes possible. The sensitivity of the absorbance detection exceeds standard OWLS by one to two orders of magnitude.

  17. Analysis of efficiently poled electro-optic polymer/Tio2 vertical slot waveguide modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enami, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Luo, J.; Jen, A. K.-Y.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the advantages of an electro-optic (EO) polymer/TiO2 vertical slot waveguide modulator based on a low-index EO polymer (SEO125). This modulator can realize a lower half-wave voltage (Vπ)-electrode length (Le) product (VπLe) when compared with hybrid EO polymer (EOP)/sol-gel silica waveguide modulators because of the high mode confinement of the guided light and the high poling efficiency. We show the enhancement of the poling efficiency in these devices when the EO polymers are poled with TiO2 and sol-gel silica layers. We also enhance the EO coefficient to a level of 260 pm/V at a wavelength of 1.31 μm for a high-index EOP (SEO100) deposited on TiO2, a sol-gel silica cladding layer, and an additional interfacial layer.

  18. Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide.

    PubMed

    Javadi, A; Söllner, I; Arcari, M; Hansen, S Lindskov; Midolo, L; Mahmoodian, S; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T; Lee, E H; Song, J D; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P

    2015-01-01

    Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon-photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures. PMID:26492951

  19. All-optical quantization scheme by slicing the supercontinuum in a chalcogenide horizontal slot waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Shuai; Yuan, Jinhui; Kang, Zhe; Zhang, Xianting; Kang, Xue; Guo, Zheng; Li, Feng; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Chongxiu

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an integratable spectral quantization scheme for all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AOADC) by slicing the supercontinuum, which is generated in a chalcogenide (As2S3) horizontal slot waveguide. The numerical simulation results show that a 4-bit quantization resolution is successfully achieved along with a signal-to-noise ratio of 23.96 dB and an effective number of bit (ENOB) of 3.98 bit. The required As2S3 waveguide length and input peak power are only 1.5 cm and 900 mW, respectively, owing to the high nonlinear coefficient of 115.8 W-1/m. It is believed that this proposed scheme can find important applications in the photonic integratable AOADC with low power consumption.

  20. Design and analysis of optically pumped submillimeter waveguide maser amplifiers and oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galantowicz, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    The design and experimental measurements are described of an optically pumped far-infrared (FIR) waveguide maser; preliminary measurements on a FIR waveguide amplifier are presented. The FIR maser was found to operate satisfactorily in a chopped CW mode using either methanol (CH3OH) or acetonitrile (CH3CN) as the active molecule. Two other gases, difluoroethane and difluoroethylene, produced an unstable output with high threshold and low output power when operated in the chopped CW mode. Experimental measurements include FIR output versus cavity length, output beam pattern, output power versus pressure, and input power. The FIR output was the input to an amplifier which was constructed similar to the oscillator. An increase of 10% in output power was noted on the 118.8 microns line of methanol.

  1. Fast wavelength calibration method for spectrometers based on waveguide comb optical filter

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhengang; Huang, Meizhen Zou, Ye; Wang, Yang; Sun, Zhenhua; Cao, Zhuangqi

    2015-04-15

    A novel fast wavelength calibration method for spectrometers based on a standard spectrometer and a double metal-cladding waveguide comb optical filter (WCOF) is proposed and demonstrated. By using the WCOF device, a wide-spectrum beam is comb-filtered, which is very suitable for spectrometer wavelength calibration. The influence of waveguide filter’s structural parameters and the beam incident angle on the comb absorption peaks’ wavelength and its bandwidth are also discussed. The verification experiments were carried out in the wavelength range of 200–1100 nm with satisfactory results. Comparing with the traditional wavelength calibration method based on discrete sparse atomic emission or absorption lines, the new method has some advantages: sufficient calibration data, high accuracy, short calibration time, fit for produce process, stability, etc.

  2. Electro-optic and thermo-optic measurements of birefringence of LiNbO3 waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, R.; Ulrich, R.

    1995-01-01

    We measure the birefringence Delta beta = beta TM- beta TE of LiNbO3:Ti single-mode strip waveguides at lambda =1.54 mu m by scanning a polarization-coupling perturbation along the guide and observing the variations of output polarization. With electro-optic and thermo-optic probing, beat lengths of 20 mu m to 20 mm are measured with a resolution of up to delta ( Delta beta ) \\approximately 10-3 cm -1 . Influences of temperature and strip width on Delta beta are observed.

  3. High-speed waveguide electro-optic polarization modulator.

    PubMed

    Alferness, R C; Buhl, L L

    1982-10-01

    By careful electrode design we have achieved a 1.7-GHz modulation bandwidth for a Ti:LiNbO(3) integrated-optic TE ? TM mode-converter modulator. Because of the wavelength selectivity of this modulator, it is an attractive device for simultaneously providing multiplexing and signal encoding in future wavelength-multiplexed single-mode light-wave systems. PMID:19714070

  4. Application of femtosecond-laser induced nanostructures in optical memory.

    PubMed

    Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Sakakura, Masaaki; Miura, Kiyotaka; Qiu, Jiarong; Kazansky, Peter G; Fujita, Koji; Hirao, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    The femtosecond laser induced micro- and nanostructures for the application to the three-dimensional optical data storage are investigated. We have observed the increase of refractive index due to local densification and atomic defect generation, and demonstrated the real time observation of photothermal effect after the femtosecond laser irradiation inside a glass by the transient lens (TrL) method. The TrL signal showed a damped oscillation with about an 800 ps period. The essential feature of the oscillation can be reproduced by the pressure wave creation and propagation to the outward direction from the irradiated region. The simulation based on elastodynamics has shown that a large thermoelastic stress is relaxed by the generation of the pressure wave. In the case of soda-lime glass, the velocity of the pressure wave is almost same as the longitudinal sound velocity at room temperature (5.8 microm/ns). We have also observed the localized photo-reduction of Sm3+ to Sm2+ inside a transparent and colorless Sm(3+)-doped borate glass. Photoluminescence spectra showed that some the Sm3+ ions in the focal spot within the glass sample were reduced to Sm2+ ions after femtosecond laser irradiation. A photo-reduction bit of 200 nm in three-dimensions can be recorded with a femtosecond laser and readout clearly by detecting the fluorescence excited by Ar+ laser (lambda = 488 nm). A photo-reduction bit can be also erased by photo-oxidation with a cw Ar+ laser (lambda = 514.5 nm). Since photo-reduction bits can be spaced 150 nm apart in a layer within glass, a memory capacity of as high as 1 Tbit can be achieved in a glass piece with dimensions of 10 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm. We have also demonstrated the first observation of the polarization-dependent periodic nanostructure formation by the interference between femtosecond laser light and electron acoustic waves. The observed nanostructures are the smallest embedded structures ever created by light. The period of self

  5. Toward photostable multiplex analyte detection on a single mode planar optical waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Harshini; Xei, Hongshi; Anderson, Aaron S; Grace, Wynne K; Martinez, Jennifer S; Swanson, Basil

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor for the sensitive and specific detection of biomarkers associated with disease. Our technology combines the superior optical properties of single-mode planar waveguides, the robust nature of functionalized self-assembled monolayer sensing films and the specificity of fluorescence sandwich immunoassays to detect biomarkers in complex biological samples such as serum, urine and sputum. We have previously reported the adaptation of our technology to the detection of biomarkers associated with breast cancer and anthrax. However, these approaches primarily used phospholipid bilayers as the functional film and organic dyes (ex: AlexaFluors) as the fluorescence reporter. Organic dyes are easily photodegraded and are not amenable to multiplexing because of their narrow Stokes' shift. Here we have developed strategies for conjugation of the detector antibodies with quantum dots for use in a multiplex detection platform. We have previously evaluated dihydroxylipoic acid quantum dots for the detection of a breast cancer biomarker. In this manuscript, we investigate the detection of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen using antibodies conjugated with polymer-coated quantum dots. Kinetics of binding on the waveguide-based biosensor is reported. We compare the sensitivity of quantum dot labeled antibodies to those labeled with AlexaFluor and demonstrate the photostability of the former in our assay platform. In addition, we compare sulfydryl labeling of the antibody in the hinge region to that of nonspecific amine labeling. This is but the first step in developing a multiplex assay for such biomarkers on our waveguide platform.

  6. Toward photostable multiplex analyte detection on a single mode planar optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundan, Harshini; Xie, Hongzhi; Anderson, Aaron; Grace, W. Kevin; Martinez, Jennifer S.; Swanson, Basil

    2009-02-01

    We have developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor for the sensitive and specific detection of biomarkers associated with disease. Our technology combines the superior optical properties of single-mode planar waveguides, the robust nature of functionalized self-assembled monolayer sensing films and the specificity of fluorescence sandwich immunoassays to detect biomarkers in complex biological samples such as serum, urine and sputum. We have previously reported the adaptation of our technology to the detection of biomarkers associated with breast cancer and anthrax. However, these approaches primarily used phospholipid bilayers as the functional film and organic dyes (ex: AlexaFluors) as the fluorescence reporter. Organic dyes are easily photodegraded and are not amenable to multiplexing because of their narrow Stokes' shift. Here we have developed strategies for conjugation of the detector antibodies with quantum dots for use in a multiplex detection platform. We have previously evaluated dihydroxylipoic acid quantum dots for the detection of a breast cancer biomarker. In this manuscript, we investigate the detection of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen using antibodies conjugated with polymer-coated quantum dots. Kinetics of binding on the waveguide-based biosensor is reported. We compare the sensitivity of quantum dot labeled antibodies to those labeled with AlexaFluor and demonstrate the photostability of the former in our assay platform. In addition, we compare sulfydryl labeling of the antibody in the hinge region to that of nonspecific amine labeling. This is but the first step in developing a multiplex assay for such biomarkers on our waveguide platform.

  7. Scalable nanostructuring on polymer by a SiC stamp: optical and wetting effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Lu, Weifang; Petersen, Paul M.; Ou, Haiyan

    2015-08-01

    A method for fabricating scalable antireflective nanostructures on polymer surfaces (polycarbonate) is demonstrated. The transition from small scale fabrication of nanostructures to a scalable replication technique can be quite challenging. In this work, an area per print corresponding to a 2-inch-wafer, is presented. The initial nanopatterning is performed on SiC in a 2-step process. Depending on the nanostructures the transmission of the SiC surface can be increased or suppressed (average height of nanostructures ~300nm and ~600nm, respectively) while the reflectance is decreased, when compared to a bare surface. The reflectance of SiC can be reduced down to 0.5% when the ~600nm nanostructures are applied on the surface (bare surface reflectance 25%). The texture of the green SiC color is changed when the different nanostructures are apparent. The ~600nm SiC nanostructures are replicated on polymer through a process flow that involved hot embossing and galvanization. The resulted polymer structures have similar average height and exhibit more rounded edges than the initial SiC nanostructures. The polymer surface becomes antireflective and hydrophobic after nanostructuring. The contact angle changes from 68 (bare) to 123 (nanostructured) degrees. The optical effect on the polymer surface can be maximized by applying a thin aluminum (Al) layer coating on the nanostructures (bare polymer reflectance 11%, nanostructured polymer reflectance 5%, Al coated nanostructured polymer reflectance 3%). The optical measurements were performed with an integrating sphere and a spectrometer. The contact angles were measured with a drop shape analyzer. The nanostructures were characterized with scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Multi-level single mode 2D polymer waveguide optical interconnects using nano-imprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Umar; Justice, John; Petäjä, Jarno; Korhonen, Tia; Boersma, Arjen; Wiegersma, Sjoukje; Karppinen, Mikko; Corbett, Brian

    2015-06-01

    Single and multi-layer passive optical interconnects using single mode polymer waveguides are demonstrated using UV nano-imprint lithography. The fabrication tolerances associated with imprint lithography are investigated and we show a way to experimentally quantify a small variation in index contrast between core and cladding of fabricated devices. 1x2 splitting devices based on directional couplers and multimode interference interferometers are demonstrated to have less than 0.45 dB insertion loss with 0.02 ± 0.01 dB power imbalance between the outputs. We demonstrate an 'optical via' with an insertion loss less than 0.45 dB to transfer light from one optical signal plane to another. A 1x4 two-dimensional optical port is experimentally demonstrated to spatially split the input power with an insertion loss of 1.2 dB. PMID:26072823

  9. Calculated Coupling Efficiency Between an Elliptical-Core Optical Fiber and a Silicon Oxynitride Rib Waveguide [Corrected Copy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Beheim, Glenn

    1995-01-01

    The effective-index method and Marcatili's technique were utilized independently to calculate the electric field profile of a rib channel waveguide. Using the electric field profile calculated from each method, the theoretical coupling efficiency between a single-mode optical fiber and a rib waveguide was calculated using the overlap integral. Perfect alignment was assumed and the coupling efficiency calculated. The coupling efficiency calculation was then repeated for a range of transverse offsets.

  10. Towards a biosensor based on anti resonant reflecting optical waveguide fabricated from porous silicon.

    PubMed

    Hiraoui, M; Haji, L; Guendouz, M; Lorrain, N; Moadhen, A; Oueslati, M

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that Anti Resonant Reflecting Optical Waveguide (ARROW) based on porous silicon (PS) material can be used as a transducer for the development of a new optical biosensor. Compared to a conventional biosensor waveguide based on evanescent waves, the ARROW structure is designed to allow a better overlap between the propagated optical field and the molecules infiltrated in the porous core layer and so to provide better molecular interactions sensitivity. The aim of this work is to investigate the operating mode of an optical biosensor using the ARROW structure. We reported here an extensive study where the antiresonance conditions were adjusted just before the grafting of the studied molecules for a given refractive index range. The interesting feature of the studied ARROW structure is that it is elaborated from the same material which is the porous silicon obtained via a single electrochemical anodization process. After oxidation and preparation of the inner surface of porous silicon by a chemical functionalization process, bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules, were attached essentially in the upper layer. Simulation study indicates that the proposed sensor works at the refractive index values ranging from 1.3560 to 1.3655. The experimental optical detection of the biomolecules was obtained through the modification of the propagated optical field and losses. The results indicated that the optical attenuation decreases after biomolecules attachment, corresponding to a refractive index change Δn(c) of the core. This reduction was of about 2 dB/cm and 3 dB/cm for Transverse Electric (TE) and Transverse Magnetic (TM) polarizations respectively. Moreover, at the detection step, the optical field was almost located inside the core layer. This result was in good agreement with the simulated near field profiles. PMID:22560108

  11. Vertical optical ring resonators fully integrated with nanophotonic waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, Abbas; Kleinert, Moritz; Stolarek, David; Zimmermann, Lars; Ma, Libo; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate full integration of vertical optical ring resonators with silicon nanophotonic waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates to accomplish a significant step towards 3D photonic integration. The on-chip integration is realized by rolling up 2D differentially strained TiO2 nanomembranes into 3D microtube cavities on a nanophotonic microchip. The integration configuration allows for out of plane optical coupling between the in-plane nanowaveguides and the vertical microtube cavities as a compact and mechanically stable optical unit, which could enable refined vertical light transfer in 3D stacks of multiple photonic layers. In this vertical transmission scheme, resonant filtering of optical signals at telecommunication wavelengths is demonstrated based on subwavelength thick walled microcavities. Moreover, an array of microtube cavities is prepared and each microtube cavity is integrated with multiple waveguides which opens up interesting perspectives towards parallel and multi-routing through a single cavity device as well as high-throughput optofluidic sensing schemes.

  12. Variable temperature spectroscopy of as-grown and passivated CdS nanowire optical waveguide cavities.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, Lambert K; Piccione, Brian; Cho, Chang-Hee; Aspetti, Carlos; Wirshba, Aaron D; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2011-04-28

    Semiconductor nanowire waveguide cavities hold promise for nanophotonic applications such as lasers, waveguides, switches, and sensors due to the tight optical confinement in these structures. However, to realize their full potential, high quality nanowires, whose emission at low temperatures is dominated by free exciton emission, need to be synthesized. In addition, a proper understanding of their complex optical properties, including light-matter coupling in these subwavelength structures, is required. We have synthesized very high-quality wurztite CdS nanowires capped with a 5 nm SiO(2) conformal coating with diameters spanning 100-300 nm using physical vapor and atomic layer deposition techniques and characterized their spatially resolved photoluminescence over the 77-298 K temperature range. In addition to the Fabry-Pérot resonator modulated emission from the ends of the wires, the low temperature emission from the center of the wire shows clear free excitonic peaks and LO phonon replicas, persisting up to room-temperature in the passivated wires. From laser scanning measurements we determined the absorption in the vicinity of the excitonic resonances. In addition to demonstrating the high optical quality of the nanowire crystals, these results provide the fundamental parameters for strong light-matter coupling studies, potentially leading to low threshold polariton lasers, sensitive sensors and optical switches at the nanoscale. PMID:21214218

  13. Lasing and waveguiding in smectic A liquid crystal optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Peddireddy, Karthik; Jampani, V S R; Thutupalli, Shashi; Herminghaus, Stephan; Bahr, Christian; Muševič, Igor

    2013-12-16

    We demonstrate a new class of soft matter optical fibers, which are self-assembled in a form of smectic-A liquid crystal microtubes grown in an aqueous surfactant dispersion of a smectic-A liquid crystal. The diameter of the fibers is highly uniform and the fibers are highly birefringent. They are characterized by a line topological defect in the core of the fiber with an optical axis pointing from the defect core towards the surface. We demonstrate guiding of light along the fiber and Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) lasing in a plane perpendicular to the fiber. The light guiding as well as the lasing threshold are significantly dependent on the polarization of the excitation beam. The observed threshold for WGM lasing is very low (≈ 75μJ/cm(2)) when the pump beam polarization is perpendicular to the direction of the laser dye alignment and is similar to the lasing threshold in nematic droplets. The smectic-A fibers are soft and flexible and can be manipulated with laser tweezers demonstrating a promising approach for realization of soft photonic circuits. PMID:24514602

  14. Nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahigir, A.; Dastmalchi, P.; Shin, W.; Fan, S.; Veronis, G.

    2015-02-01

    Waveguide-resonator systems are particularly useful for the development of several integrated photonic devices, such as tunable filters, optical switches, channel drop filters, reflectors, and impedance matching elements. In this paper, we introduce nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators. In particular, we investigate threedimensional nanostructures consisting of plasmonic coaxial stub resonators side-coupled to a plasmonic coaxial waveguide. We use coaxial waveguides with square cross sections, which can be fabricated using lithography-based techniques. The waveguides are placed on top of a silicon substrate, and the space between inner and outer coaxial metals is filled with silica. We use silver as the metal. We investigate structures consisting of a single plasmonic coaxial resonator, which is terminated either in a short or an open circuit, side-coupled to a coaxial waveguide. We show that the incident waveguide mode is almost completely reflected on resonance, while far from the resonance the waveguide mode is almost completely transmitted. We also show that the properties of the waveguide systems can be accurately described using a single-mode scattering matrix theory. The transmission and reflection coefficients at waveguide junctions are either calculated using the concept of the characteristic impedance or are directly numerically extracted using full-wave three-dimensional finite-difference frequency-domain simulations.

  15. Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links.

    PubMed

    Witzens, Jeremy; Baehr-Jones, Thomas; Hochberg, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Slot waveguides allow joint confinement of the driving electrical radio frequency field and of the optical waveguide mode in a narrow slot, allowing for highly efficient polymer based interferometers. We show that the optical confinement can be simply explained by a perturbation theoretical approach taking into account the continuity of the electric displacement field. We design phase matched transmission lines and show that their impedance and RF losses can be modeled by an equivalent circuit and linked to slot waveguide properties by a simple set of equations, thus allowing optimization of the device without iterative simulations. We optimize the interferometers for analog optical links and predict record performance metrics (V(pi) = 200 mV @ 10 GHz in push-pull configuration) assuming a modest second order nonlinear coefficient (r(33) = 50 pm/V) and slot width (100 nm). Using high performance optical polymers (r(33) = 150 pm/V), noise figures of state of the art analog optical links can be matched while reducing optical power levels by approximately 30 times. With required optical laser power levels predicted at 50 mW, this could be a game changing improvement by bringing high performance optical analog link power requirements in the reach of laser diodes. A modified transmitter architecture allows shot noise limited performance, while reducing power levels in the slot waveguides and enhancing reliability. PMID:20721082

  16. A portable optical waveguide resonance light-scattering scanner for microarray detection.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xuefeng; Liu, Wanyao; Li, Tao; Xing, Shu; Fu, Xueqi; Wu, Dongyang; Liu, Dianjun; Wang, Zhenxin

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, a portable and low-cost planar waveguide based resonance light scattering (RLS) scanner (termed as: PW-RLS scanner) has been developed for microarray detection. The PW-RLS scanner employs a 2 × 4 white light emitting diode array (WLEDA) as the excitation light source, a folded optical path with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) as the signal/image acquisition device and stepper motors with gear drives as the mechanical drive system. The biological binding/recognizing events on the microarray can be detected with an evanescent waveguide-directed illumination and light-scattering label (e.g., nanoparticles) while the microarray slide acts as an evanescent waveguide substrate. The performance of the as-developed PW-RLS scanner has been evaluated by analyzing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk genes. Highly selective and sensitive (less than 1% allele frequency at the attomole-level) T2DM risk gene detection is achieved using single-stranded DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles (ssDNA-GNPs) as detection probes. Additionally, the successful simultaneous analysis of 15 T2DM patient genotypes suggests that the device has great potential for the realization of a personalized diagnostic test for a given disease or patient follow-up. PMID:26567521

  17. Optical fiber waveguide sensor for the colorimetric detection of ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Katrin; Rist, Jonas; Peter, Carolin; Wöllenstein, Jürgen

    2011-06-01

    We present the development and characterization of a fiber-optic colorimetric gas sensor combined with the electronic circuitry for measurement control and RFID communication. The gas sensor detects ammonia using a 300 μm polyolefin fiber coated with a gas-sensitive polymer film. The spectral and time-dependent sensitivity of various polymer films was tested in transmission measurements. Light from a standard LED at λ = 590 nm was coupled into the polyolefin fiber through the front face. A prototype of the gas sensor with the direct coupling method was tested under realistic measurement conditions, i.e. battery-driven and in a completely autonomous mode. The sensor system showed good sensitivity to the ammonia concentrations and response times in the order of minutes. The achievable power consumption was below 100μW.The films contained the pH-sensitive dyes bromocresol purple or bromophenol blue embedded in either ethyl cellulose or polyvinyl butyral, and optionally tributyl phosphate as plasticizer. The bromophenol blue based films showed a strong reaction to ammonia, with saturation concentrations around 1000 ppm and response times of about 15 seconds to 100ppm. The colorimetric reaction was simulated using a simple kinetic model which was in good agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Dual-wavelength operation of monolithically integrated arrayed waveguide grating lasers for optical heterodyning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán M., Robinson C.; Jimenez, Álvaro; Lawniczuk, Katarzyna; Corradi, Antonio; Leijtens, Xaveer J. M.; Bente, Erwin A. J. M.; Carpintero, Guillermo

    2013-05-01

    A cost-effective solution to provide higher data rates in wireless communication system is to push carrier wave frequencies into millimeter wave (MMW) range, where the frequency bands within the E-band and F-band have been allocated. Photonics is a key technology to generate low phase noise signals, offering methods of generating continuous MMW with varying performance in terms of frequency bandwidth, tunability, and stability. Recently, we demonstrated for the first time of our knowledge the generation of a 95-GHz signal by optical heterodyning of two modes from different channels of a monolithically integrated arrayed waveguide grating multi-wavelength laser (AWGL). The device uses an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) as an intra-cavity filter. With up to 16-channel sources with independent amplifiers and a booster amplifier on the common waveguide, the laser cavity is formed between cleaved facets of the chip. The two wavelengths required for optical heterodyning are generated activating simultaneously two channel SOAs and the Boost amplifier. In this work, we analyze the effect on the dual-wavelength operation of the Boost SOA, which is shared by two wavelengths. Mapping the optical spectrum, sweeping the two channel and Boost bias currents, we show the interaction among the different SOAs two find the regions of dual wavelength operation. The size of dual wavelength operation region depends greatly on the Boost SOA bias level. Initial results of a numerical model of the AWGL will be also presented, in which a digital filter is used to implement the AWG frequency behavior.

  19. Study on compactness of planar waveguide based integrated optic couplers using tooth shaped grating assisted geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Bidyut; Dutta, Aradhana; Sahu, Partha P.

    2013-11-01

    The introduction of Photonic Integrated Devices (PID) for applications in high speed optical networks providing multiple services to more number of users is indispensable as this requires large scale integration (LSI) and the miniaturization of PID device components to microscale platform has attracted immense attention from the researchers and entrepreneurs. In this paper, we present a comparative study on compactness of basic PID components using tooth shaped grating assisted (TSGA) geometry. The basic PID components such as Directional Coupler (DC), two mode interference (TMI) coupler and multimode interference (MMI) coupler have been designed using TSGA geometry in the coupling region and the coupling characteristics for the same have been estimated using a mathematical model based on sinusoidal mode simple effective index method (SM-SEIM). The dependence of modal power in the coupling region on the waveguide separation gap and coupling gap refractive index has been studied. From the estimated dependences of beat length and access waveguide length on waveguide separation gap with permissible propagation loss ~0.15 dB/cm, it has been found that the grating assisted TMI coupler (GA-TMI) is ~0.5 times lower than that of grating assisted DC (GA-DC) and ~0.44 times lower than grating assisted MMI (GA-MMI) coupler. Further, it is seen that the device length including access waveguide length of GA-MMI coupler is less than that of GA-TMI coupler and GA-DC. The SM-SEIM based numerical results are then compared with beam propagation method (BPM) results obtained by using commercially available optiBPM software.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of straight and compact S-bend optical waveguides on a silicon-on-insulator platform.

    PubMed

    Navalakhe, Rupesh Kumar; DasGupta, Nandita; Das, Bijoy Krishna

    2009-11-01

    Straight and S-bend rib waveguide structures with a novel design have been fabricated and characterized on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. For a typical straight rib waveguide, the single-mode waveguide at lambda approximately 1550 nm has been verified by measuring the near-field output with an IR camera, and a nearly polarization-independent mode size is found to be approximately 10 microm x 4.5 microm. The waveguide loss has been estimated from low-finesse Fabry-Perot transmission characteristics, and a typical value of approximately 0.5 dB/cm is obtained. It is also shown experimentally that the bending radius of an asymmetrically etched S-bend waveguide can be ten times smaller than that of conventional symmetrically etched S-bend waveguides for similar optical losses. These bend waveguides (bending radii of approximately 1500 microm) are found to be low loss (<2.5 dB) and nearly polarization independent. PMID:19881633

  1. Optical absorption in transparent PDMS materials applied for multimode waveguides fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, D. K.; Neyer, A.; Kuckuk, R.; Heise, H. M.

    2008-03-01

    The optical properties of transparent PDMS polymer materials, which can be integrated into general printed circuit board (PCB) for data communication, are of great interest due to the substantial market expectations for the near future. For the present paper, it was found that the absorption loss in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is mainly caused by the vibrational overtone and combination bands of the CH 3-groups of the polymer in the spectral datacom region of 600-900 nm. Based on observed positions of fundamental, overtone and combination bands of the methyl-group, as recorded within the mid- and near-infrared spectra, anharmonicity constants and normal vibration frequencies were determined. Thus, an empirical equation for estimating the wavelengths with the most significant intrinsic absorption loss due to the corresponding band positions was formulated, which was found to agree well with the experimental data. In addition, PDMS multimode waveguides were fabricated and the respective optical insertion loss was measured at 850 nm, which is commercially used for optical datacom transmission and finally the thermal stability of PDMS multimode waveguides was verified as well.

  2. Tunable all-optical plasmonic diode based on Fano resonance in nonlinear waveguide coupled with cavities.

    PubMed

    Fan, Cairong; Shi, Fenghua; Wu, Hongxing; Chen, Yihang

    2015-06-01

    Tunable all-optical plasmonic diode is proposed based on the Fano resonance in an asymmetric and nonlinear system, comprising metal-insulator-metal waveguides coupled with nanocavities. The spatial asymmetry of the system gives rise to the nonreciprocity of the field localizations at the nonlinear gap between the coupled cavities and to the nonreciprocal nonlinear response. Nonlinear Fano resonance, originating from the interference between the discrete cavity mode and the continuum traveling mode, is observed and effectively tuned by changing the input power. By combining the unidirectional nonlinear response with the steep dispersion of the Fano asymmetric line shape, a transmission contrast ratio up to 41.46 dB can be achieved between forward and backward transmission. Our all-optical plasmonic diode with compact structure can find important applications in integrated optical nanocircuits. PMID:26030529

  3. Measurement of film thickness up to several hundreds of nanometers using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Picart, Catherine; Gergely, Csilla; Arntz, Youri; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Schaaf, Pierre; Cuisinier, Frédéric J G; Senger, Bernard

    2004-10-15

    Up to now, most studies based on optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) were dedicated to thin adlayers, assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous, for which data analysis was based on an approximation of the mode equations valid when the thickness is small with respect to the wavelength of the laser light. The aim of the present paper is to extend the use of OWLS to thicker deposited layers (up to approximately 400 nm). Both the simplified and extended models are compared in terms of optical parameters, i.e. the refractive index nA, the thickness dA, and the optical mass QA, for experimental data obtained with polyelectrolyte multilayer films. The deviation of these parameters can be quite large when derived using the simplified model instead of the extended model. This observation evidences that OWLS is well suited for the study of "thick" films if the appropriate model is applied to the data analysis. PMID:15494239

  4. All-channel tunable optical dispersion compensator based on linear translation of a waveguide grating router.

    PubMed

    Sinefeld, David; Ben-Ezra, Shalva; Doerr, Christopher R; Marom, Dan M

    2011-04-15

    We propose and demonstrate a compact tunable optical dispersion compensation (TODC) device with a 100 GHz free spectral range capable of mitigating chromatic dispersion impairments. The TODC is based on longitudinal movement of a waveguide grating router, resulting in chromatic dispersion compensation of ±1000 ps/nm. We employed our TODC device for compensating 42.8 Gbit/sec differential phase-shifting keying signal, transmitted over 50 km fiber with a -2 dB power penalty at 10⁻⁹. PMID:21499373

  5. Study on photonic angular momentum states in coaxial magneto-optical waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Mu; Wu, Li-Ting; Guo, Tian-Jing; Guo, Rui-Peng; Cui, Hai-Xu; Cao, Xue-Wei; Chen, Jing

    2014-10-21

    By rigorously solving Maxwell's equations, we develop a full-wave electromagnetic theory for the study of photonic angular momentum states (PAMSs) in coaxial magneto-optical (MO) waveguides. Paying attention to a metal-MO-metal coaxial configuration, we show that the dispersion curves of the originally degenerated PAMSs experience a splitting, which are determined by the off-diagonal permittivity tensor element of the MO medium. We emphasize that this broken degeneracy in dispersion relation is accompanied by modified distributions of field component and transverse energy flux. A qualitative analysis about the connection between the split dispersion behavior and the field distribution is provided. Potential applications are discussed.

  6. Polymeric waveguide electro-optic beam-steering device with DNA biopolymer conductive cladding layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aga, Roberto S.; Ouchen, Fahima; Lesko, Alyssa; Telek, Brian A.; Fehrman Cory, Emily M.; Bartsch, Carrie M.; Lombardi, Jack; Grote, James; Heckman, Emily M.

    2012-11-01

    A polymer electro-optic (EO) waveguide beam-steering device with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biopolymer conductive cladding layers and a core layer of the commercially available EO polymer SEO100 is demonstrated with 100% relative poling efficiency. This demonstration device exhibits a deflection efficiency of 99 mrad/kV with a corresponding in-device EO coefficient r33 of 124 pm/V at 1550 nm. When the DNA biopolymer bottom cladding layer is replaced by the commonly used cladding polymer UV15, the deflection efficiency and in-device r33 drop to 34 mrad/kV and 43 pm/V, respectively.

  7. High Concentrating GaAs Cell Operation Using Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Timmons, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the result of the concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) cell experiments conducted with the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System. The high concentration GaAs cells developed by Research Triangle Institute (RTI) were combined with the OW system in a "fiber-on-cell" configuration. The sell performance was tested up to the solar concentration of 327. Detailed V-I characteristics, power density and efficiency data were collected. It was shown that the CPV cells combined with the OW solar energy system will be an effective electric power generation device.

  8. Self-reflection of extremely short light pulses in nonlinear optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurasov, Alexander E.; Kozlov, Sergei A.

    2004-07-01

    An equation describing the generation of reflected radiation during the propagation of high-intensity extremely short pulses in a nonlinear optical waveguide is derived. The phenomena taking place during the strong self-inducted changes of the temporal structure of the forward wave are studied. It is shown that the duration of the backward pulse is much greater than the duration of the forward pulse and that the main part of the energy of the backward wave is carried by lower frequencies than the central frequency of the forward wave.

  9. Photobleaching of polydiacetylene waveguides: a characterization of the process and patterning of optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palchetti, Luca; Li, Qu; Giorgetti, Emilia; Grando, Daniela; Sottini, Stefano

    1997-02-01

    The photobleaching process of poly-3butoxyl-carbonyl-methyl-urethane (poly-3BCMU) waveguides by means of an UV lamp and the 488-nm line of an Ar laser is characterized and modeled. The limits of the theory are discussed in light of experimental results, and we stress the role of the oxygen diffusion rate on the process. Finally, we adopt the photobleaching method to pattern a guided-wave micro-optic device and holographic diffraction gratings on spun poly-3BCMU films.

  10. Study on photonic angular momentum states in coaxial magneto-optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mu; Wu, Li-Ting; Guo, Tian-Jing; Guo, Rui-Peng; Cui, Hai-Xu; Cao, Xue-Wei; Chen, Jing

    2014-10-01

    By rigorously solving Maxwell's equations, we develop a full-wave electromagnetic theory for the study of photonic angular momentum states (PAMSs) in coaxial magneto-optical (MO) waveguides. Paying attention to a metal-MO-metal coaxial configuration, we show that the dispersion curves of the originally degenerated PAMSs experience a splitting, which are determined by the off-diagonal permittivity tensor element of the MO medium. We emphasize that this broken degeneracy in dispersion relation is accompanied by modified distributions of field component and transverse energy flux. A qualitative analysis about the connection between the split dispersion behavior and the field distribution is provided. Potential applications are discussed.

  11. Comparison of two interactive finite-element programs for analysis of optical and microwave waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Srba R.; Fernandez, F. Anibal; Zhao, An Ping; Ettinger, Robert D.; Sewell, Granville; Davies, J. Brian

    This paper presents a comparison of two finite-element programs developed for accurate cross-sectional analysis of arbitrary optical and microwave waveguiding structures. Both techniques were developed in response to the growing demand from scientists and engineers for application-specific expert systems, and employ advanced interactive pre- and post-processing facilities. They show good agreement, strongly complement one another, and could form the core of a whole library of similar `intelligent' software for computer-assisted analysis and design, with a wide range of possible applications within both supercomputer and workstation environments.

  12. Fabrication of optically active nanostructures by chemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Cristin Erin

    A new method of fabricating long-range, planar arrays of discrete, submicron metal structures on glass or SiO2/Si surfaces has been developed without the use of resist masks or chemical etching. The approach combines microcontact printing and electroless plating for the controlled deposition of islands or lines of gold or silver. The metallic structures are varied in size, separation and shape by using a variety of commercial diffraction gratings to mold the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer stamps. An assortment of distinct geometrical patterns have been fabricated and imaged on a range of length scales using scanning probe, scanning electron, and optical microscopies. Additionally, the same chemical techniques can be used to pattern surfaces with biomolecules and ordered arrays of metal nanoshells. These arrays of metal nanostructures support surface plasmon propagation and also show plasmon-plasmon interactions dependent on the geometry of the metal features. These structures were used to investigate the effects of molecular functionalization on the excitation and propagation properties of the surface plasmons that are supported by this geometry. Distinct variations in the dispersion and energy gaps of surface plasmons on these structures due to chemical functionalization of the metal structures is observed. A second type of optically active structure, rare-earth doped silica particles, has been synthesized using wet chemistry. The polydispersity of the particles can be controlled by changing the concentration of dopant salt. These particles may be useful for microlaser or display technologies.

  13. Low-loss, high-index-contrast Si₃N₄/SiO₂ optical waveguides for optical delay lines in microwave photonics signal processing.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Marpaung, David; Burla, Maurizio; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2011-11-01

    We report the design and characterization of Si₃N₄/SiO₂ optical waveguides which are specifically developed for optical delay lines in microwave photonics (MWP) signal processing applications. The waveguide structure consists of a stack of two Si₃N₄ stripes and SiO₂ as an intermediate layer. Characterization of the waveguide propagation loss was performed in race track-shaped optical ring resonators (ORRs) with a free-spectral range of 20 GHz and a bending radius varied from 50 μm to 125 μm. A waveguide propagation loss as low as 0.095 dB/cm was measured in the ORRs with bend radii ≥ 70 μm. Using the waveguide technology two types of RF-modulated optical sideband filters with high sideband suppression and small transition band consisting of an Mach-Zehnder interferometer and ORRs are also demonstrated. These results demonstrate the potential of the waveguide technology to be applied to construct compact on-chip MWP signal processors. PMID:22109196

  14. Synthesis, electronic and optical properties of Si nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L.N.

    1996-09-01

    Silicon and silicon oxide nanostructures have been deposited on solid substrates, in an ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber, by laser ablation or thermal vaporization. Laser ablation followed by substrate post annealing produced Si clusters with average size of a few nanometers, on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces. This technique, which is based on surface diffusion, is limited to the production of less than one layer of clusters on a given surface. The low coverage of Si clusters and the possibility of nonradiative decay of excitation in the Si cores to the HOPG substrates in these samples rendered them unsuitable for many optical measurements. Thermal vaporization of Si in an Ar buffer gas, on the contrary, yielded multilayer coverage of Si nanoclusters with a fairly narrow size distribution of about 2 nm, full width at half maximum (FWHM). As a result, further study was performed only on Si nanoclusters synthesized by thermal vaporization in a buffer gas. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that these nanoclusters were crystalline. However, during synthesis, if oxygen was the buffer gas, a network of amorphous Si oxide nanostructures (an-SiO{sub x}) with occasional embedded Si dots was formed. All samples showed strong infrared and/or visible photoluminescence (PL) with varying decay times from nanoseconds to microseconds depending on synthesis conditions. There were differences in PL spectra for hydrogen and oxygen passivated nc-Si, while many common PL properties between oxygen passivated nc-Si and an SiO{sub x} were observed. The observed experimental results can be best explained by a model involving absorption between quantum confined states in the Si cores and emission for which the decay times are very sensitive to surface and/or interface states.

  15. Structural and optical properties of rare-earth doped lithium niobate waveguides formed by MeV helium ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Herreros, B.; Lifante, G.; Cusso, F.; Kling, A.; Soares, J.C.; Silva, M.F. da; Townsend, P.D.; Chandler, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    Results of investigations of optical waveguides formed by high energy helium implantation into lithium niobate codoped with 5 mol% MgO and 1 mol% Tm{sup 3+} or 1 mol% Er{sup 3+} are reported. A comparative study of structural and luminescence properties between implanted and untreated samples has been performed by means of Rutherford backscattering (RBS) combined with channeling and photoluminescence methods, respectively in order to investigate residual lattice damage and the incorporation of the optical active rare earths. For the case of Tm a full substitutional incorporation of the optical active rare earths. For the case of Tm a full substitutional incorporation on the lithium site and a high crystal quality in both bulk and implanted waveguide material has been found. For Er doped lithium niobate the channeling results show a fraction of Er randomly incorporated or forming precipitates and a deterioration of the waveguide`s lattice. The optical investigations show in both cases only a slight broadening of the emission lines of the rare earths in the waveguides compared to the bulk material.

  16. Polymer waveguides self-organized by two-photon photochemistry for self-aligned optical couplings with wide misalignment tolerances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Tetsuzo; Takeda, Daisuke; Sato, Takuya; Kinugasa, Yoshihiko; Nawata, Hideyuki

    2016-03-01

    Self-organized optical waveguides formed in a photopolymer using two-photon photochemistry is proposed for self-aligned optical couplings involving nano-scale optical devices with wide tolerances in lateral misalignments. Simulations based on the finite-difference time-domain method revealed that on introducing a 400-nm write beam and a 780-nm write beam into the two-photon photopolymer respectively from two 600-nm-wide waveguides facing each other with 32 μm gap a self-aligned coupling waveguide called a two-photon self-organized lightwave network (SOLNET) is formed between the two waveguides. The lateral misalignment tolerance was found to be 3000 nm, which is five times larger than the misalignment limit of ~600 nm in waveguides formed by conventional one-photon photochemistry. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that the two-photon SOLNETs are formed between multimode optical fibers by introducing a 448-nm write beam and a 780-nm (or 856-nm) write beam from the fibers into a photosensitive organic/inorganic hybrid material, SUNCONNECT®, with doped camphorquinone (or biacetyl).

  17. Integration of silicon-loaded nanoplasmonic waveguides onto a micro-machined characterization beam for nonlinear optics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sederberg, S.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2015-10-01

    Silicon-loaded nanoplasmonic waveguides were integrated onto a micron-scale characterization beam to allow for accurate and efficient nonlinear optical characterization. The waveguides consist of a 95 nm × 340 nm silicon core that is capped by a 60 nm thick gold film. The characterization beam is formed by precision cleaving one waveguide end facet and by deep silicon etching the substrate area adjacent to the other end facet. This configuration allows input radiation to be coupled directly to the waveguides using a microscope objective and output radiation to be out-coupled with a lensed single-mode optical fiber. The fabrication steps are characterized via scanning electron microscopy at various points throughout the process. The fabricated devices are optically characterized using an ultrafast nonlinear pump-probe time-domain spectroscopy setup. Ultrafast all-optical modulation is measured in the waveguides on two timescales: τ1 = 1.98 ± 0.40 ps and τ2 = 17.9 ± 6.8 ps.

  18. Development of neutral atom traps based on a microfabricated waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu; Lee, Jongmin; Biedermann, Grant; Siddiqui, Aleem; Eichenfield, Matt; Dougla, Erica

    2016-05-01

    Implementation of trapping neutral atoms in the evanescent fields generated by a nano-structure, such as a nanofiber or a microfabricated nano-waveguide, will naturally enable strong atom-photon interactions, which serve the key mechanisms for different type of quantum controls. At Sandia National Labs, we are aiming to develop a platform based on this concept to eventually trap cesium atoms with a microfabricated waveguide. Although, neutral atom traps using optical nanofiber has been demonstrated, there are several key issues that need to be resolved to realize trapping atoms with microfabricated structure. The subjects include the material for making the waveguide, optical power handling capability, surface adsorption of alkali-metal atoms, surface roughness of the nano-structure, cold-atom source for loading the atoms into the evanescent-field traps, etc. We will discuss our studies on these related subjects and report our latest progress.

  19. Direct laser-writing of ferroelectric single-crystal waveguide architectures in glass for 3D integrated optics.

    PubMed

    Stone, Adam; Jain, Himanshu; Dierolf, Volkmar; Sakakura, Masaaki; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Lapointe, Jerome; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Direct three-dimensional laser writing of amorphous waveguides inside glass has been studied intensely as an attractive route for fabricating photonic integrated circuits. However, achieving essential nonlinear-optic functionality in such devices will also require the ability to create high-quality single-crystal waveguides. Femtosecond laser irradiation is capable of crystallizing glass in 3D, but producing optical-quality single-crystal structures suitable for waveguiding poses unique challenges that are unprecedented in the field of crystal growth. In this work, we use a high angular-resolution electron diffraction method to obtain the first conclusive confirmation that uniform single crystals can be grown inside glass by femtosecond laser writing under optimized conditions. We confirm waveguiding capability and present the first quantitative measurement of power transmission through a laser-written crystal-in-glass waveguide, yielding loss of 2.64 dB/cm at 1530 nm. We demonstrate uniformity of the crystal cross-section down the length of the waveguide and quantify its birefringence. Finally, as a proof-of-concept for patterning more complex device geometries, we demonstrate the use of dynamic phase modulation to grow symmetric crystal junctions with single-pass writing. PMID:25988599

  20. Direct laser-writing of ferroelectric single-crystal waveguide architectures in glass for 3D integrated optics

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Adam; Jain, Himanshu; Dierolf, Volkmar; Sakakura, Masaaki; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Lapointe, Jerome; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Direct three-dimensional laser writing of amorphous waveguides inside glass has been studied intensely as an attractive route for fabricating photonic integrated circuits. However, achieving essential nonlinear-optic functionality in such devices will also require the ability to create high-quality single-crystal waveguides. Femtosecond laser irradiation is capable of crystallizing glass in 3D, but producing optical-quality single-crystal structures suitable for waveguiding poses unique challenges that are unprecedented in the field of crystal growth. In this work, we use a high angular-resolution electron diffraction method to obtain the first conclusive confirmation that uniform single crystals can be grown inside glass by femtosecond laser writing under optimized conditions. We confirm waveguiding capability and present the first quantitative measurement of power transmission through a laser-written crystal-in-glass waveguide, yielding loss of 2.64 dB/cm at 1530 nm. We demonstrate uniformity of the crystal cross-section down the length of the waveguide and quantify its birefringence. Finally, as a proof-of-concept for patterning more complex device geometries, we demonstrate the use of dynamic phase modulation to grow symmetric crystal junctions with single-pass writing. PMID:25988599

  1. Method of m-line spectroscopy, a good tool to determine and control the optical parameters of waveguide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auguściuk, ElŻbieta

    2013-01-01

    Method of spectroscopy m-line is an accurate method for determination of the optical parameters of the planar and stripe waveguides. In this method, the laser beam is coupled to the waveguide (e.g. by the prism) in the form of discrete angles. If the layer of the solid or liquid material is deposited on the waveguide, the change in the coupling angle is observed. Modified method of the m-line spectroscopy allows for determination of the optical parameters of deposited layers with high accuracy. Moreover, modification of the waveguide structure obtained via deposition of consecutive layers and changes the ability to propagate not only in the same waveguide. Modified method of m-line spectroscopy has found many potential applications in various areas such as: technological control of the applied layers quality; modification of the light propagation in the waveguide structures; utilization in the preventive medicine for diabetic diseases; food-control of the level of nutrients in vegetables (e.g. sugar level in white beets).

  2. Engineering the plasmonic optical properties of cubic silver nanostructures based on Fano resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhi; Wang, Minqiang; Song, Xiaohui; Deng, Jianping; Yao, Xi

    2013-10-01

    The plasmonic optical properties of nanostructures including a dimer, a linear chain, a T-shaped nanostructure, and a 2D array consisting of Ag nanocubes have been investigated using the discrete dipole approximation method. The simulation results indicate that both the interparticle gap and polarization have an important impact on far-field and near-field characteristics. With decreasing interparticle distance for four nanostructures, the plasmon resonance peak is monotonically red-shifted and the electric intensity enhancement factor increases rapidly due to increased interparticle coupling interaction. Moreover, we also find that a T-shaped nanostructure has the largest electric intensity enhancement factor compared with other three nanostructures due to the coupling interaction at the intersection. This coupling is caused by the radiative interference between subradiant and superradiant resulting in Fano resonance. These results show how nanostructure arrangement design, gap adjustment, and polarization control can be used to achieve high field enhancements.

  3. Engineering the plasmonic optical properties of cubic silver nanostructures based on Fano resonance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Wang, Minqiang; Song, Xiaohui; Deng, Jianping; Yao, Xi

    2013-10-28

    The plasmonic optical properties of nanostructures including a dimer, a linear chain, a T-shaped nanostructure, and a 2D array consisting of Ag nanocubes have been investigated using the discrete dipole approximation method. The simulation results indicate that both the interparticle gap and polarization have an important impact on far-field and near-field characteristics. With decreasing interparticle distance for four nanostructures, the plasmon resonance peak is monotonically red-shifted and the electric intensity enhancement factor increases rapidly due to increased interparticle coupling interaction. Moreover, we also find that a T-shaped nanostructure has the largest electric intensity enhancement factor compared with other three nanostructures due to the coupling interaction at the intersection. This coupling is caused by the radiative interference between subradiant and superradiant resulting in Fano resonance. These results show how nanostructure arrangement design, gap adjustment, and polarization control can be used to achieve high field enhancements. PMID:24182070

  4. Technique for determining the angular orientation of molecules bound to the surface of an arbitrary planar optical waveguide.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Sergio B; Bradshaw, John Thomas; Saavedra, S Scott

    2004-01-01

    A technique to determine the angular orientation of a molecular assembly bound to the surface of a planar optical waveguide of arbitrary structure is described. The approach is based on measuring the absorption dichroic ratio by using the waveguide evanescent fields with orthogonal polarizations (TE, TM) and the same mode order to probe two molecular assemblies, (i) a reference sample composed of an isotropic orientation distribution of dipoles and (ii) a sample of interest. The isotropic sample is used to characterize the waveguide structure, which then allows the orientation parameters of a molecular assembly under investigation to be determined from a measured dichroic ratio. The method developed here is particularly important for applications in gradient-index and multilayer planar waveguide platforms because in those cases the extension of previously reported approaches would require a full experimental characterization of the guiding structure, which would be problematic and may yield inaccurate results. PMID:14714646

  5. Directed assembly of hybrid nanostructures using optically resonant nanotweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, David

    2015-09-09

    This represents the final report for this project. Over the course of the project we have made significant progress in photonically driven nano-assembly including: (1) demonstrating the first direct optical tweezer based manipulation of proteins, (2) the ability to apply optical angular torques to microtubuals and other rod-shaped microparticles, (3) direct assembly of hybrid nanostructures comprising of polymeric nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes and, (4) the ability to drive biological reactions (specifically protein aggregation) that are thermodynamically unfavorable by applying localized optical work. These advancements are described in the list of papers provided in section 2.0 of the below. Summary details are provided in prior year annual reports. We have two additional papers which will be submitted shortly based on the work done under this award. An updated publication list will be provided to the program manager when those are accepted. In this report, we report on a new advancement made in the final project year, which uses the nanotweezer technology to perform direct measurements of particle-surface interactions. Briefly, these measurements are important for characterizing the stability and behavior of colloidal and nanoparticle suspensions and current techniques are limited in their ability to measure piconewton scale interaction forces on sub-micrometer particles due to signal detection limits and thermal noise. In this project year we developed a new technique called “Nanophotonic Force Microscopy” which uses the localized region of exponentially decaying, near-field, light to confine small particles close to a surface. From the statistical distribution of the light intensity scattered by the particle the technique maps out the potential well of the trap and directly quantify the repulsive force between the nanoparticle and the surface. The major advantage of the technique is that it can measure forces and energy wells below the thermal noise

  6. Integrating III-V, Si, and polymer waveguides for optical interconnects: RAPIDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, Timo; Harjanne, Mikko; Offrein, Bert-Jan; Caër, Charles; Neumeyr, Christian; Malacarne, Antonio; Guina, Mircea; Sheehan, Robert N.; Peters, Frank H.; Melanen, Petri

    2016-03-01

    We present a vision for the hybrid integration of advanced transceivers at 1.3 μm wavelength, and the progress done towards this vision in the EU-funded RAPIDO project. The final goal of the project is to make five demonstrators that show the feasibility of the proposed concepts to make optical interconnects and packet-switched optical networks that are scalable to Pb/s systems in data centers and high performance computing. Simplest transceivers are to be made by combining directly modulated InP VCSELs with 12 μm SOI multiplexers to launch, for example, 200 Gbps data into a single polymer waveguide with 4 channels to connect processors on a single line card. For more advanced transceivers we develop novel dilute nitride amplifiers and modulators that are expected to be more power-efficient and temperatureinsensitive than InP devices. These edge-emitting III-V chips are flip-chip bonded on 3 μm SOI chips that also have polarization and temperature independent multiplexers and low-loss coupling to the 12 μm SOI interposers, enabling to launch up to 640 Gbps data into a standard single mode (SM) fiber. In this paper we present a number of experimental results, including low-loss multiplexers on SOI, zero-birefringence Si waveguides, micron-scale mirrors and bends with 0.1 dB loss, direct modulation of VCSELs up to 40 Gbps, +/-0.25μm length control for dilute nitride SOA, strong band edge shifts in dilute nitride EAMs and SM polymer waveguides with 0.4 dB/cm loss.

  7. Highly Sensitive Plasmonic Optical Sensors Based on Gold Core-Satellite Nanostructures Immobilized on Glass Substrates.

    PubMed

    Ode, Kentaro; Honjo, Mai; Takashima, Yohei; Tsuruoka, Takaaki; Akamatsu, Kensuke

    2016-08-17

    Fabrication of discrete nanostructures consisting of noble metal nanoparticles immobilized on substrates is challenging because of structural complexity but important for chip-based plasmonic sensor technology. Here we report optical sensing capabilities of core-satellite nanostructures made of gold nanoparticles immobilized on glass substrate, which were fabricated by combining stepwise interconnection of gold nanoparticles through dithiol linkers and surface treatment using vacuum ultraviolet light. The nanostructures exhibit large changes in coupled plasmon resonance peak upon surrounding refractive index, with sensitibity of ca. 350 nm RIU(-1), thus providing highly sensitive optical sensors for determining the surrounding refractive index and detecting organic vapors. PMID:27482968

  8. A class of circular waveguiding structures containing cylindrically anisotropic metamaterials: Applications from radio frequency/microwave to optical frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Justin G.; Iyer, Ashwin K.; Pratap, Dheeraj; Anantha Ramakrishna, S.

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates a class of circular waveguiding structures containing anisotropic metamaterials and explores their potential benefits in applications from RF to optical frequencies. The introduction of anisotropy in these waveguides is shown to provide substantial control of the dispersion and field distributions of several supported modes. For exotic material parameters such as permittivity and permeability that are typically associated with metamaterials, intriguing propagation phenomena such as backward-wave behavior, frequency-reduced modes, monomodal propagation, and field confinement are observed and provide enabling functionalities for a wide range of RF/microwave and optical applications.

  9. Turnable Semiconductor Laser Spectroscopy in Hollow Optical Waveguides, Phase II SBIR

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory J. Fetzer, Ph.D.

    2001-12-24

    In this study a novel optical trace gas sensor based on a perforated hollow waveguide (PHW) was proposed. The sensor has been given the acronym ESHOW for Environmental Sensor using Hollow Optical Waveguides. Realizations of the sensor have demonstrated rapid response time (<2s), low minimum detection limits (typically around 3 x 10-5 absorbance). Operation of the PHW technology has been demonstrated in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid0infrared (MIR) regions of the spectrum. Simulation of sensor performance provided in depth understanding of the signals and signal processing required to provide high sensitivity yet retain rapid response to gas changes. A dedicated sensor electronics and software foundation were developed during the course of the Phase II effort. Commercial applications of the sensor are ambient air and continuous emissions monitoring, industrial process control and hazardous waste site monitoring. There are numerous other applications for such a sensor including medical diagnosis and treatment, breath analysis for legal purposes, water quality assessment, combustion diagnostics, and chemical process control. The successful completion of Phase II resulted in additional funding of instrument development by the Nations Institute of Heath through a Phase I SBIR grant and a strategic teaming relationship with a commercial manufacture of medical instrumentation. The purpose of the NIH grant and teaming relationship is to further develop the sensor to monitor NO in exhaled breath for the purposes of asthma diagnosis.

  10. Waveguide-type optical passive ring resonator gyro using frequency modulation spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ning; Lijun, Guo; Mei, Kong; Tuoyuan, Chen

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the experimental results of silica on a silicon ring resonator in a resonator micro optic gyroscope based on the frequency modulation spectroscopy technique by our research group. The ring resonator is composed of a 4 cm diameter silica waveguide. By testing at λ = 1550 nm, the FSR, FWHM and the depth of resonance are 3122 MHz, 103.07 MHz and 0.8 respectively. By using a polarization controller, the resonance curve under the TM mode can be inhibited. The depth of resonance increased from 0.8 to 0.8913, namely the finesse increase from 30.33 to 33.05. In the experiments, there is an acoustic-optical frequency shifter (AOFS) in each light loop. We lock the lasing frequency at the resonance frequency of the silica waveguide ring resonator for the counterclockwise lightwave; the frequency difference between the driving frequencies of the two AOFS is equivalent to the Sagnac frequency difference caused by gyro rotation. Thus, the gyro output is observed. The slope of the linear fit is about 0.330 mV/(°/s) based on the -900 to 900 kHz equivalent frequency and the gyro dynamic range is ±2.0 × 103 rad/s.

  11. Silicon Photonic Crystal Nanocavity-Coupled Waveguides for Error-Corrected Optical Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sudeshna; Guillermain, Elisa; Sriram, Rashmi; Miller, Benjamin L.; Fauchet, Philippe M.

    2011-01-01

    A photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide based optical biosensor capable of label-free and error-corrected sensing was investigated in this study. The detection principle of the biosensor involved shifts in the resonant mode wavelength of nanocavities coupled to the silicon PhC waveguide due to changes in ambient refractive index. The optical characteristics of the nanocavity structure were predicted by FDTD theoretical methods. The device was fabricated using standard nanolithography and reactive-ion-etching techniques. Experimental results showed that the structure had a refractive index sensitivity of 10−2 RIU. The biosensing capability of the nanocavity sensor was tested by detecting human IgG molecules. The device sensitivity was found to be 2.3 ± 0.24 × 105 nm/M with an achievable lowest detection limit of 1.5 fg for human IgG molecules. Additionally, experimental results demonstrated that the PhC devices were specific in IgG detection and provided concentration-dependent responses consistent with Langmuir behavior. The PhC devices manifest outstanding potential as microscale label-free error-correcting sensors, and may have future utility as ultrasensitive multiplex devices. PMID:21524903

  12. Low-cost fabrication of optical waveguides, interconnects and sensing structures on all-polymer-based thin foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezem, Maher; Kelb, Christian; Günther, Axel; Rahlves, Maik; Reithmeier, Eduard; Roth, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    Micro-optical sensors based on optical waveguides are widely used to measure temperature, force and strain but also to detect biological and chemical substances such as explosives or toxins. While optical micro-sensors based on silicon technology require complex and expensive process technologies, a new generation of sensors based completely on polymers offer advantages especially in terms of low-cost and fast production techniques. We have developed a process to integrate micro-optical components such as embedded waveguides and optical interconnects into polymer foils with a thickness well below one millimeter. To enable high throughput production, we employ hot embossing technology, which is capable of reel-to-reel fabrication with a surface roughness in the optical range. For the waveguide fabrication, we used the thermoplastic polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as cladding and several optical adhesives as core materials. The waveguides are characterized with respect to refractive indices and propagation losses. We achieved propagation losses are as low as 0.3 dB/cm. Furthermore, we demonstrate coupling structures and their fabrication especially suited to integrate various light sources such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) and organic light emitting diodes (OLED) into thin polymer foils. Also, we present a concept of an all-polymer and waveguide based deformation sensor based on intensity modulation, which can be fabricated by utilizing our process. For future application, we aim at a low-cost and high-throughput reel-to-reel production process enabling the fabrication of large sensor arrays or disposable single-use sensing structures, which will open optical sensing to a large variety of application fields ranging from medical diagnosis to automotive sensing.

  13. Enhancement of Goos-Hänchen effect in a prism-waveguide coupling system with magneto-optic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tingting; Deng, Longjiang; Qin, Jun; Bi, Lei

    2014-03-01

    We report a theoretical study of the enhancement of Goos-Hänchen (GH) effect in a prism-waveguide coupling system with magneto-optic materials, including dielectric waveguide (Prism/Air/Ce:YIG/SiO2) and plasmonic waveguide (Prism/Au/Ce:YIG/SiO2) structures. Giant GH shift is observed in both waveguides. By applying opposite magnetic field across the CeYIG layer, a variation of the GH shift, namely MOGH (magneto-optical Goos-Hänchen effect) is observed. Compared to the reflectivity and Goos-Hänchen effects of the structures, the MOGH effect shows higher sensitivity for index variations, therefore is very promising for chemical or biomedical index sensors. The device performance as a function of layer dimension, material refractive index and magneto-optical properties are simulated and discussed in detail. It is observed that coupling layer, MO layer thickness and prism index plays an important role in the plasmonic waveguide to control MOGH effect.

  14. Amplifier-free slab-coupled optical waveguide optoelectronic oscillator systems.

    PubMed

    Loh, William; Yegnanarayanan, Siva; Klamkin, Jonathan; Duff, Shannon M; Plant, Jason J; O'Donnell, Frederick J; Juodawlkis, Paul W

    2012-08-13

    We demonstrate a free-running 3-GHz slab-coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) with low phase-noise (<-120 dBc/Hz at 1-kHz offset) and ultra-low sidemode spurs. These sidemodes are indistinguishable from noise on a spectrum analyzer measurement (>88 dB down from carrier). The SCOW-OEO uses high-power low-noise SCOW components in a single-loop cavity employing 1.5-km delay. The noise properties of our SCOW external-cavity laser (SCOWECL) and SCOW photodiode (SCOWPD) are characterized and shown to be suitable for generation of high spectral purity microwave tones. Through comparisons made with SCOW-OEO topologies employing amplification, we observe the sidemode levels to be degraded by any amplifiers (optical or RF) introduced within the OEO cavity. PMID:23038600

  15. Terahertz spin-wave waveguides and optical magnonics in one-dimensional NiO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ranjit A; Su, Chiung-Wu; Chuang, Chin-Jung; Lai, Chien-Chih; Liou, Yung; Ma, Yuan-Ron

    2016-07-14

    The two-magnon (2M) spin waves with a magnon frequency of 43 THz, generated by a polarized laser, were first observed in one-dimensional (1D) NiO nanorods. The 1D NiO nanorods of ∼700 nm length, which have perfectly in-plane antiferromagnetic spins lying on the (200) and (100) faces, are the smallest spin-wave waveguides. Due to the magneto-optical Faraday effect (MOFE), the significant change in the Faraday intensity can show the 2M information in the NiO nanorods. There are only two 2M-on and 2M-off states at various applied alternating-current magnetic fields and laser-incident angles, which make the 1D NiO nanorods excellent optical nanomagnonics. PMID:27304863

  16. Direct measurement of the matched spot size in a slow capillary discharge optical waveguide.

    PubMed

    Antsiferov, Pavel S; Akdim, Mohamed R; van Dam, Herman T

    2007-12-01

    This communication presents direct method for experimental determining the matched spot size in a plasma optical waveguide, created in a slow capillary discharge. It can be used for Laser Wakefield Acceleration experiments in addition to interferometry for fast control of optical properties of discharge plasma. The measurements are done by means of the comparison of the laser beam size at the entrance and at the exit of the plasma channel. They are direct in the sense that the interpretation is made in terms of the refractive index without usage of the information about electron density distribution. The method can be used for matched spot size measurement in conditions of the nonlinear effects (transmission of high power laser pulses). PMID:18163720

  17. Inserting a cyclic prefix using Arrayed-Waveguide Grating Routers in all-optical OFDM transmitters.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Arthur James

    2012-04-23

    Arrayed-Waveguide Grating Routers (AWGR) can be used as multiplexers and demultiplexers in optical OFDM systems, as they provide both the serial-to-parallel converter and the optical Fourier transform in one component. This paper shows how the design of the AWGR at the transmitter can be modified to insert a cyclic prefix or postfix (CP). We use simulations of a 4-subcarrier system to compare systems without the CP, with a guard-interval, and with a CP. We show that the CP greatly improves the orthogonality of the subcarriers and resilience to timing errors. Furthermore, the CP allows for uncompensated fiber dispersion, especially if the relative timing of the subcarriers upon transmission is adjusted. PMID:22535066

  18. Radiation Losses Due to Tapering of a Double-Core Optical Waveguide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Donald R.; Khet, Myat; Pencil, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The theoretical model we designed parameterizes the power losses as a function of .the profile shape for a tapered, single mode, optical dielectric coupler. The focus of this project is to produce a working model that determines the power losses experienced by the fibers when light crosses a taper region. This phenomenon can be examined using coupled mode theory. The optical directional coupler consists of a parallel, dual-channel, waveguide with minimal spacing between the channels to permit energy exchange. Thus, power transfer is essentially a function of the taper profile. To find the fields in the fibers, the approach used was that of solving the Helmholtz equation in cylindrical coordinates involving Bessel and modified Bessel functions depending on the location.

  19. Theory and experiment of linear and nonlinear optical media and waveguides with anisotropy and dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvinis, Georgeanne M.

    Organic crystals and certain polymer films, such as ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) films, are lossy and anisotropic. These materials may have a large chi(2) nonlinear response, and thus are conceivably capable of efficient second order processes. Anomalous dispersion phase-matched second harmonic generation (ADPM-SHG) in organic media is a second order wavelength conversion process that phase matches like-order modes in a waveguide (ex: TM0o → TM02o ), thus maximizing the overlap integral. Demonstration of ADPM-SHG in economical and easily fabricated polymer ISAM film is the ultimate experimental goal of this research. In order to achieve demonstration of ADPM-SHG in an ISAM film, both theoretical and material research contributions are accomplished. The predominant analysis approaches in literature are based on the finite element method, which is approximate and computationally intensive, thus prohibiting arbitrary crystallographic media orientations in devices. This restricted treatment in the literature may be insufficient with ISAM films, as SHG occurs in a spectral region of residual absorption, the film is uniaxial, and the optic axis may not be aligned the waveguide coordinate system. Thus, the theory objectives of the dissertation research are: (1) develop an exact solution for finding the polarization states in lossy anisotropic media using a new complex orthogonal similarity transformation with the complex symmetric impermeability tensor, (2) develop a rigorous transverse resonance analysis to find the eigenmodes of general lossy anisotropic planar waveguides with arbitrary principal axes orientations, and (3) integrate the results of steps 1--2 to determine the conversion efficiency of an ISAM planar waveguide using ADPM-SHG, thus illustrating the importance of the dissertation research by highlighting the errors resulting in algorithms published in other works. Experimentally, the dissertation focuses on designing anionic and cationic

  20. Theoretical, experimental and numerical methods for investigating the characteristics of laser radiation scattered in the integrated-optical waveguide with three-dimensional irregularities

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, Alexander A

    2011-07-31

    We consider theoretical, experimental and numerical methods which make it possible to analyse the key characteristics of laser radiation scattered in the integrated-optical waveguide with three-dimensional irregularities. The main aspects of the three-dimensional vector electrodynamic problem of waveguide scattering are studied. The waveguide light scattering method is presented and its main advantages over the methods of single scattering of laser radiation are discussed. The experimental setup and results of measurements are described. Theoretical and experimental results confirming the validity of the vector theory of three-dimensional waveguide scattering of laser radiation developed by the author are compared for the first time. (fiber and integrated optics)