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Sample records for naphthoquinones

  1. A new naphthoquinone from Ceiba pentandra.

    PubMed

    Kishore, P Hari; Reddy, M Vijaya Bhaskar; Gunasekar, D; Caux, Cristelle; Bodo, Bernard

    2003-09-01

    A new naphthoquinone, 2,7-dihydroxy-8-formyl-5-isopropyl-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (1) together with a known naphthoquinone, 8-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (2), has been isolated from the heartwood of Ceiba pentandra. The structures of 1 and 2 have been elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:12931857

  2. STABILITY OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ALBUMIN ADDUCTS OF NAPHTHALENE OXIDE, 1,2-NAPHTHOQUINONE, AND 1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naphthalene is an important industrial chemical, which has recently been shown to cause tumors of the respiratory tract in rodents. It is thought that one or more reactive metabolites of naphthalene, namely, naphthalene-1,2-oxide (NPO), 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NPQ), and 1,4-na...

  3. Three different dimerizations of 2-bromo-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinones.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Shuhei; Nishio, Kazuyuki; Kubo, Konomi; Sasamori, Takahiro; Tokitoh, Norihiro; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori

    2012-05-18

    Three types of dimeric naphthoquinones, which possess structurally diverse skeletons, can be prepared in one step from 2-bromo-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinones. 2,2'-Dimeric naphthoquinones were prepared by a one-pot Stille-type reaction via vinylstannanes. Oxepines are formed by unexpected domino reactions via 1,4-dihydroxynaphthalene species. Epoxides are formed by a Michael/Darzens reaction via the o-quinone methides. PMID:22530964

  4. Further evidence that naphthoquinone inhibits Toxoplasma gondii growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luciana Lemos Rangel; Portes, Juliana de Araujo; de Araújo, Marlon Heggdorne; Silva, Jéssica Lays Sant'ana; Rennó, Magdalena Nascimento; Netto, Chaquip Daher; da Silva, Alcides José Monteiro; Costa, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro; De Souza, Wanderley; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a widely disseminated disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan parasite. Standard treatment causes many side effects, such as depletion of bone marrow cells, skin rashes and gastrointestinal implications. Therefore, it is necessary to find chemotherapeutic alternatives for the treatment of this disease. It was shown that a naphthoquinone derivative compound is active against T. gondii, RH strain, with an IC50 around 2.5 μM. Here, three different naphthoquinone derivative compounds with activity against leukemia cells and breast carcinoma cell were tested against T. gondii (RH strain) infected LLC-MK2 cell line. All the compounds were able to inhibit parasite growth in vitro, but one of them showed an IC50 activity below 1 μM after 48 h of treatment. The compounds showed low toxicity to the host cell. In addition, these compounds were able to induce tachyzoite-bradyzoite conversion confirmed by morphological changes, Dolichus biflorus lectin cyst wall labeling and characterization of amylopectin granules in the parasites by electron microscopy analysis using the Thierry technique. Furthermore, the compounds induced alterations on the ultrastructure of the parasite. Taken together, our results point to the naphthoquinone derivative (LQB 151) as a potential compound for the development of new drugs for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26335616

  5. Biomimetic synthesis of zeylanone and zeylanone epoxide by dimerization of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone.

    PubMed

    Maruo, Sayako; Nishio, Kazuyuki; Sasamori, Takahiro; Tokitoh, Norihiro; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori

    2013-04-01

    A biomimetic synthesis of zeylanone and zeylanone epoxide, which are natural dimeric naphthoquinones, has been accomplished starting from plumbagin, a natural monomeric naphthoquinone. The key features of our synthesis are cascade intermolecular and intramolecular Michael reactions, followed by epoxidation of the resultant hydroquinone with molecular oxygen. PMID:23527796

  6. Antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of plumbagin and other naphthoquinones.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2013-07-01

    The structure-function relationships of the naphthoquinone phytochemicals, plumbagin, juglone, and menadione, have been studied with regard to antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Antimutagenicity of these compounds was assessed by the Ames test and RNA polymerase B (rpoB)-based rifampicin resistance assay. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by radical scavenging assays and reducing power measurement. Protection of cells and DNA against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage was assayed by survival analysis and gel electrophoresis profiling, respectively. On the 1,4-naphthoquinone nucleus, plumbagin possesses 5-hydroxyl and 2-methyl functional groups, whereas juglone has only the 5-hydroxyl and menadione only the 2-methyl group. Plumbagin showed strong antimutagenic (against ultraviolet and ethyl methanesulfonate) and antioxidant activities, whereas juglone displayed only strong antimutagenic, and menadione only strong antioxidant activities. Thus, these two functional groups (5-OH/2-CH3) play important roles in the differential bioactivity of naphthoquinones. Escherichia coli, microarray analysis showed upregulation of the genes rep (replication/repair), ybaK (tRNA editing), speE (spermidine synthesis), and yjfC (glutathionyl spermidine synthesis) by plumbagin or juglone, and sodC (superoxide dismutase), xthA (oxidative repair), hycB (electron carrier between hydrogenase 3 and fumarate dehydrogenase), and ligA (formation of phosphodiester bond in DNA) by plumbagin or menadione. Studies with E. coli single-gene knockouts showed that ybaK and speE, reported to prevent mistranslation, are likely to be involved in the antimutagenicity displayed by juglone, and sodC to be involved in the antioxidant activity of menadione. PMID:23688616

  7. Coproduction and ecological significance of naphthoquinones in carnivorous sundews (Drosera).

    PubMed

    Egan, Paul A; van der Kooy, Frank

    2012-06-01

    While the 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives 7-methyljuglone (1) and plumbagin (2) possess a diverse and well documented array of biological activities, relatively little remains known about the functional significance of these compounds in planta and, in particular, their possible relation to carnivorous syndromes. In addition, the chemotaxonomic distribution of naphthoquinones (NQs) amongst species of Drosera L. is of phytopharmaceutical interest. Following the quantitative assessment of interspecific variation of 1 and 2 in 13 species and cultivars of Drosera, our findings demonstrate that these NQs are ubiquitously coproduced in, generally, species-specific ratios, and that 1 appears negatively associated with the occurrence of pigmentation in sundews. The prospective antifeedant function of 1 was evaluated in relation to allocation in various organs and ontogenetic phases of D. capensis L., revealing that significantly higher levels were accumulated in young and reproductive organs, most likely for defensive purposes. Investigation into the relationship between the biosynthesis of NQs and carnivory showed that production of 1 is optimally induced and localized in leaves in response to capture of insect prey. As a whole, these findings reveal the clear importance of this secondary metabolite in ecological interactions as well as holding implication for future bioactivity studies on the genus. PMID:22700223

  8. A new and efficient procedure for the synthesis of hexahydropyrimidine-fused 1,4-naphthoquinones

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Marcelo Isidoro P; Campos, Vinícius R; Resende, Jackson A L C; Silva, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Summary A new and efficient method for the synthesis of hexahydropyrimidine-fused 1,4-naphthoquinones in one step with high yields from the reaction of lawsone with 1,3,5-triazinanes was developed. PMID:26425181

  9. Biflorin: an o-naphthoquinone of clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Wisintainer, Gabrielle G N S; Simões, Evelyne R B; Lemos, Telma L G; Moura, Sidnei; Souza, Luciana G S; Fonseca, Aluisio M; Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Pessoa, Claudia; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Henriques, João A P

    2014-12-01

    Biflorin is an o-naphthoquinone with proven cytotoxic effects on tumor cells showing antimicrobial, antitumor and antimutagenic activities. Biflorin is an isolated compound taken from the roots of the plant Capraria biflora L. (Schrophulariaceae), indigenous of the West Indies and South America, which is located in temperate or tropical areas. This compound has shown to be strongly active against grampositive and alcohol-acid-resistant bacteria. It has been efficient in inhibiting the proliferation tumor cell lines CEM, HL-60, B16, HCT-8 and MCF-7. Recently, SK-Br3 cell line was treated with biflorin showing important cytotoxic effects. In this article, information related to the first structural characterization studies are presented, as well as the latest reports concerning the biological activity of this molecule. PMID:25590726

  10. Biflorin: an o-naphthoquinone of clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Wisintainer, Gabrielle G N S; Simões, Evelyne R B; Lemos, Telma L G; Moura, Sidnei; Souza, Luciana G S; Fonseca, Aluisio M; Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Pessoa, Claudia; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Henriques, João A P

    2014-10-14

    Biflorin is an o-naphthoquinone with proven cytotoxic effects on tumor cells showing antimicrobial, antitumor and antimutagenic activities. Biflorin is an isolated compound taken from the roots of the plant Capraria biflora L. (Schrophulariaceae), indigenous of the West Indies and South America, which is located in temperate or tropical areas. This compound has shown to be strongly active against grampositive and alcohol-acid-resistant bacteria. It has been efficient in inhibiting the proliferation tumor cell lines CEM, HL-60, B16, HCT-8 and MCF-7. Recently, SK-Br3 cell line was treated with biflorin showing important cytotoxic effects. In this article, information related to the first structural characterization studies are presented, as well as the latest reports concerning the biological activity of this molecule. PMID:25317728

  11. Two new dimeric naphthoquinones with neuraminidase inhibitory activity from Lithospermum erythrorhizon.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanqin; Zhao, Dapeng; Yuan, Kailong; Zhou, Guojun; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Yanmeng; Wang, Chenxu; Xu, Jingwei; Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The crude methanol extract of roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon was subjected to successive chromatographic fractionation which afforded two new dimeric naphthoquinone derivatives shikometabolin E (2) and shikometabolin F (3) as well as one known compound shikometabolin A (1). The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated by using UV, MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. The two new dimeric naphthoquinone derivatives showed significant neuraminidase inhibitory activities. PMID:25190151

  12. Modulation of Basophils' Degranulation and Allergy-Related Enzymes by Monomeric and Dimeric Naphthoquinones

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, Brígida R.; Sousa, Carla; Valentão, Patrícia; Oliveira, Jorge M. A.; Andrade, Paula B.

    2014-01-01

    Allergic disorders are characterized by an abnormal immune response towards non-infectious substances, being associated with life quality reduction and potential life-threatening reactions. The increasing prevalence of allergic disorders demands for new and effective anti-allergic treatments. Here we test the anti-allergic potential of monomeric (juglone, menadione, naphthazarin, plumbagin) and dimeric (diospyrin and diosquinone) naphthoquinones. Inhibition of RBL-2H3 rat basophils' degranulation by naphthoquinones was assessed using two complementary stimuli: IgE/antigen and calcium ionophore A23187. Additionally, we tested for the inhibition of leukotrienes production in IgE/antigen-stimulated cells, and studied hyaluronidase and lipoxidase inhibition by naphthoquinones in cell-free assays. Naphthazarin (0.1 µM) decreased degranulation induced by IgE/antigen but not A23187, suggesting a mechanism upstream of the calcium increase, unlike diospyrin (10 µM) that reduced degranulation in A23187-stimulated cells. Naphthoquinones were weak hyaluronidase inhibitors, but all inhibited soybean lipoxidase with the most lipophilic diospyrin, diosquinone and menadione being the most potent, thus suggesting a mechanism of competition with natural lipophilic substrates. Menadione was the only naphthoquinone reducing leukotriene C4 production, with a maximal effect at 5 µM. This work expands the current knowledge on the biological properties of naphthoquinones, highlighting naphthazarin, diospyrin and menadione as potential lead compounds for structural modification in the process of improving and developing novel anti-allergic drugs. PMID:24587235

  13. MEASUREMENT OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ALBUMIN ADDUCTS OF NAPHTHALENE-1,2-OXIDE, 1,2-NAPHTHOQUINONE AND 1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF NAPHTHALENE TO F344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naphthalene-1,2-oxide (NPO), 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NPQ) and 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NPQ) are the major metabolites of naphthalene that are thought to be responsible for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of this chemical. We measured cysteinyl adducts of these metabolites in ...

  14. Evaluation of Natural and Synthetic 1,4-naphthoquinones as Inhibitors of Monoamine Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Samantha; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2016-05-01

    Previous reports have documented that 1,4-naphthoquinones act as inhibitors of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes. In particular, fractionation of the extracts of cured tobacco leafs has led to the characterization of 2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, a non-selective MAO inhibitor. To derive structure-activity relationships for MAO inhibition by the 1,4-naphthoquinone class of compounds, this study investigates the human MAO inhibitory activities of fourteen structurally diverse 1,4-naphthoquinones of natural and synthetic origin. Of these, 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone was found to be the most potent inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.860 μm for the inhibition of MAO-B. A related compound, shikonin, inhibits both the MAO-A and MAO-B isoforms with IC50 values of 1.50 and 1.01 μm, respectively. It is further shown that MAO-A and MAO-B inhibition by these compounds is reversible by dialysis. In this respect, kinetic analysis suggests that the modes of MAO inhibition are competitive. This study contributes to the discovery of novel MAO inhibitors, which may be useful in the treatment for disorders such as Parkinson's disease, depressive illness, congestive heart failure and cancer. PMID:26684482

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of Hsp90 inhibitors that contain the 1,4-naphthoquinone scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Hadden, M. Kyle; Hill, Stephanie A.; Davenport, Jason; Matts, Robert L.; Blagg, Brian S. J.

    2009-01-01

    High-throughput screening of a library of diverse molecules has identified the 1,4-naphthoquinone scaffold as a new class of Hsp90 inhibitors. The synthesis and evaluation of a rationally–designed series of analogues containing the naphthoquinone core scaffold has provided key structure–activity relationships for these compounds. The most active inhibitors exhibited potent in vitro activity with low micromolar IC50 values in anti-proliferation and Her2 degradation assays. In addition, 3g, 12, and 13a induced the degradation of oncogenic Hsp90 client proteins, a hallmark of Hsp90 inhibition. The identification of these naphthoquinones as Hsp90 inhibitors provides a new scaffold upon which improved Hsp90 inhibitors can be developed. PMID:19101151

  16. Naphthoquinone spiroketal with allelochemical activity from the new endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided isolation from the culture of Edenia gomezpompae, a new endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of Callicarpa acuminata (Verbenaceae) from the ecological reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico, led to the isolation of four naphthoquinone spiroketals, including three new compounds. ...

  17. Spectral and structural characterization of 2-(fluorophenylamino)- and 2-(nitrophenylamino)-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyva, Elisa; Schmidtke Sobeck, Sarah J.; Loredo-Carrillo, Silvia E.; Magaldi-Lara, Diego A.

    2014-06-01

    Naphthoquinone amino derivatives exhibit interesting physicochemical properties and are of interest for potential medicinal purposes. The preparation of novel 2-(nitrophenylamino)-1,4-naphthoquinones derivatives was achieved by reaction of nitroanilines with 1,4-naphthoquinone with a catalytic amount of FeCl3 or by direct nitration of 2-(phenylamino)-1,4-naphthoquinone (PAN). Structural and photophysical properties of a series of NO2PANs and FPANs derivatives are examined using computational and spectroscopic methods. Absorbance and emission spectra are measured in a range of solvent environments to examine the impact of solvent-solute interactions. Additionally quantum calculations are used to evaluate the electronic nature of the spectral transitions and compare structures of the different PAN derivatives. The lowest energy electronic transitions have charge transfer character, and show the most sensitivity to solvent and substituents. Higher energy ?-?* transitions are relatively insensitive to both factors. Computational predictions are in good agreement with the experimental spectra, and provide molecular-level insight variations amongst the different aniline-substituents.

  18. Synthesis of Vitamin K and Related Naphthoquinones via Demethoxycarbonylative Annulations and a Retro-Wittig Rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Mal, Dipakranjan; Ghosh, Ketaki; Jana, Supriti

    2015-12-01

    Anionic annulations of 3-nucleofugal phthalides with ?-alkyl(aryl)acrylates involving a demethoxycarbonylation provide a succinct synthesis of vitamin K and related naphthoquinones. Also reported is a new cascade reaction stemming from a Cope-retro-Wittig rearrangement. This cascade leads to direct formation of 1-hydroxy-4-prenyloxynaphthalene-2-carboxylates from the corresponding ?-prenyl acrylate acceptors. PMID:26572315

  19. Phytotoxic action of naphthoquinone juglone demonstrated on lettuce seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Babula, Petr; Vaverkova, Veronika; Poborilova, Zuzana; Ballova, Ludmila; Masarik, Michal; Provaznik, Ivo

    2014-11-01

    Juglone, 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, is the plant secondary metabolite with allelopathic properties, which was isolated especially from the plant species belonging to family Juglandaceae A. Rich. ex Kunth (walnut family). The mechanism of phytotoxic action of juglone was investigated on lettuce seedlings Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L. cv. Merkurion by determining its effect at different levels. We have found that juglone inhibits mitosis (mitotic index 8.5 ± 0.6% for control versus 2.2 ± 0.9% for 250 μM juglone), changes mitotic phase index with accumulation of the cells in prophase (56.5 ± 2.6% for control versus 85.3 ± 5.0% for 250 μM juglone), and decreases meristematic activity in lettuce root tips (51.07 ± 3.62% for control versus 5.27 ± 2.29% for 250 μM juglone). In addition, juglone induced creation of reactive oxygen species and changed levels of reactive nitrogen species. Amount of malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, increased from 24.0 ± 4.0 ng g(-1) FW for control to 55.5 ± 5.4 ng g(-1) FW for 250 μM juglone. We observed also changes in cellular structure, especially changes in the morphology of endoplasmic reticulum. Reactive oxygen species induced damage of plasma membrane. All these changes resulted in the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in free intracellular calcium ions, and DNA fragmentation and programmed cell death that was revealed by two methods, TUNEL test and DNA electrophoresis. The portion of TUNEL-positive cells increase from 0.96 ± 0.5% for control to 7.66 ± 1.5% for 250 μM juglone. Results of the study indicate complex mechanism of phytotoxic effect of juglone in lettuce root tips and may indicate mechanism of allelopathic activity of this compound. PMID:25240266

  20. Quantification of naphthoquinone mercapturic acids in urine as biomarkers of naphthalene exposure.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Katrin; Angerer, Jürgen

    2016-02-15

    Naphthalene shows carcinogenic properties in animal experiments. As the substance is ubiquitary present in the environment and has a possibly high exposure at industrial workplaces, the determination of naphthalene metabolites in humans is of environmental-medical as well as occupational-medical importance. Here, biomarkers of 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinone, as possibly carcinogenic metabolites in the naphthalene metabolism, are of outstanding significance. We developed and validated a liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of the naphthoquinone mercapturic acids of 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinone in human urine samples as a sum of naphthoquinone- and dihydroxynaphthalene-mercapturic acid. Except for enzymatic hydrolysis and acidification, no further sample preparation is necessary. For sample clean-up, a column switching procedure is applied. The mercapturic acids are extracted from the urinary matrix on a restricted access material (RAM RP 18) and separated on a reversed phase column (Synergi Polar RP C18). The metabolites were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry using labelled D5-1,4-NQMA as internal standard. The limits of detection are 3μg/l for 1,2-NQMA and 1μg/l for 1,4-NQMA. Intraday- and interday precision for pooled urine (spiked with 10μg/l and 30μg/l of the analytes) ranges from 5.9 to 15.1% for 1,2-NQMA and from 2.0 to 10.8% for 1,4-NQMA. The developed method is suited for the sensitive and specific determination of the mercapturic acids of naphthoquinones in human urine. A good precision and low limits of detection were achieved. Application of those new biomarkers in biomonitoring studies may give deeper insights into the mechanisms of the human naphthalene metabolism. PMID:26812176

  1. DT-diaphorase-catalysed reduction of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives and glutathionyl-quinone conjugates. Effect of substituents on autoxidation rates.

    PubMed Central

    Buffinton, G D; Ollinger, K; Brunmark, A; Cadenas, E

    1989-01-01

    DT-diaphorase catalysed the reduction of 1,4-naphthoquinones with hydroxy, methyl, methoxy and glutathionyl substituents at the expense of reducing equivalents from NADPH. The initial rates of quinone reduction did not correlate with either the half-wave reduction potential (E1/2) value (determined by h.p.l.c. with electrochemical detection against an Ag/AgCl reference electrode) or the partition coefficient of the quinones. After their reduction by DT-diaphorase the 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives autoxidized at distinct rates, the extent of which was influenced by the nature of the substituents. Thus for the 1,4-naphthoquinone series the following order of rate of autoxidation was found: 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone greater than 3-glutathionyl-1,4-naphthoquinone greater than 5-hydroxy-3-glutathionyl-1,4-naphthoquinone greater than 1,4-naphthoquinone greater than 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone. For the 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione) series the following order was observed: 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone greater than 3-glutathionyl-5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone greater than 3-glutathionyl-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone greater than 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone greater than 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone. The autoxidized naphthohydroquinone derivatives were re-reduced by DT-diaphorase, thus closing a cycle of enzymic reduction in equilibrium autoxidation. This was expressed as an excess of NADPH oxidized over the initial concentration of quinone present as well as H2O2 formation. These findings demonstrate that glutathionyl conjugates of 1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and those of their respective 5-hydroxy derivatives are able to act as substrates for DT-diaphorase and that they also autoxidize at rates higher than those for the unsubstituted parent compounds. These results are discussed in terms of the cellular role of DT-diaphorase in the reduction of hydroxy- or glutathionyl-substituted naphthoquinones as well as the further conjugation of these hydroquinones with glucuronide or sulphate within the cellular milieu, thereby facilitating their disposal from the cells. PMID:2494985

  2. Thiourea-catalyzed Diels–Alder reaction of a naphthoquinone monoketal dienophile

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Carsten S

    2013-01-01

    Summary A variety of organocatalysts were screened for the catalysis of the naphthoquinone monoketal Diels–Alder reaction. In this study we found that Schreiner's thiourea catalyst 10 and Jacobson's thiourea catalyst 12 facilitate the cycloaddition of the sterically hindered naphthoquinone monoketal dienophile 3 with diene 4. The use of thiourea catalysis allowed for the first time the highly selective synthesis of the exo-product 2a in up to 63% yield. In this reaction a new quaternary center was built. The so formed cycloaddition product 2a represents the ABC tricycle of beticolin 0 (1) and is also a valuable model substrate for the total synthesis of related natural products. PMID:23946836

  3. Increased production of naphthoquinones in Impatiens balsamina root cultures by elicitation with methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Sakunphueak, Athip; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

    2010-11-01

    Impatiens balsamina root cultures were treated with yeast extract (YE), Candida albicans homogenate (CAH), Trichophyton rubrum homogenate (TRH), chitosan (CHI) and methyl jasmonate (MJ). Different elicitors, depending on concentrations used exerted differential effects on the production of the three main naphthoquinones, lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), lawsone methyl ether and methylene-3,3'-bilawsone. Treatment with MJ (400microM) was capable of increasing production of lawsone, and lawsone methyl ether up to 8.6- and 11.3-fold higher, respectively, compared to the level in untreated cultures. Treatment of 21-day-old root cultures with 300microM MJ for 36h resulted in the production of 10.0, 0.78 and 0.23mg/g DW of lawsone, its methyl ether and methylene-3,3'-bilawsone, respectively. Such levels are sufficient for commercial production. PMID:20620051

  4. A naphthoquinone/SAM-mediated biosensor for olive oil polyphenol content.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Asma; Kuliček, Jaroslav; Raouafi, Noureddine

    2016-10-15

    We report on the design of an amperometric tyrosinase-based biosensor using a self-assembled monolayer of ω-mercaptopropyl naphthoquinone on gold electrode as an electron mediator. Under optimal conditions (i.e. pH=7.4 and E=-0.35V vs. KCl), the chronoamperometric response of the naphthoquinone-modified bioelectrode to successive additions of phenol was evaluated. The biosensor exhibits sensitive bioelectrocatalytic response at a working potential of -0.35V vs. Ag/AgCl (sat.KCl), reaching the steady-state current within 40s after each addition of phenol solution with a range of 0-135μM and a limit of detection and quantification which are 0.019μM and 0.0633μM, respectively. The bioelectrode was used to determine the content in polyphenol in a local virgin olive oil. PMID:27173563

  5. The Study of Naphthoquinones and Their Complexes with DNA by Using Raman Spectroscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: New Insight into Interactions of DNA with Plant Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Vrana, Oldrich; Adam, Vojtech

    2014-01-01

    Naphthoquinones represent the group of plant secondary metabolites with cytotoxic properties based on their ability to generate reactive oxygen species and interfere with the processes of cell respiration. Due to this fact, the possible cytotoxic mechanisms on cellular and subcellular levels are investigated intensively. There are many targets of cytotoxic action on the cellular level; however, DNA is a critical target of many cytotoxic compounds. Due to the cytotoxic properties of naphthoquinones, it is necessary to study the processes of naphthoquinones, DNA interactions (1,4-naphthoquinone, binapthoquinone, juglone, lawsone, plumbagin), especially by using modern analytical techniques. In our work, the Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the possible binding sites of the naphthoquinones on the DNA and to characterize the bond of naphthoquinone to DNA. Experimental data reveals the relationships between the perturbations of structure-sensitive Raman bands and the types of the naphthoquinones involved. The modification of DNA by the studied naphthoquinones leads to the nonspecific interaction, which causes the transition of B-DNA into A-DNA conformation. The change of the B-conformation of DNA for all measured DNA modified by naphthoquinones except plumbagin is obvious. PMID:25045679

  6. Polyhalogenated benzo- and naphthoquinones are potent inhibitors of plant and bacterial ureases.

    PubMed

    Ashiralieva, Ainura; Kleiner, Diethelm

    2003-12-01

    Polyhalogenated benzo- and naphthoquinones were found to be potent inhibitors of pure ureases from Bacillus pasteurii and Canavalia ensiformis. They also inhibited ureases in whole cells of Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella oxytoca and Proteus mirabilis. Inhibition was non-competitive with K(i) values in the micromolar range or below. Inhibition was irreversible as shown by equilibrium dialysis. Inhibitory power decreased considerably when halogens were replaced by -OH, -CN, alkoxy or alkyl groups. PMID:14644444

  7. Specific effects of a polar solvent in optical absorption spectra of 1,2-naphthoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseplin, E. E.; Tseplina, S. N.; Khvostenko, O. G.

    2016-02-01

    The optical absorption spectra of 1,2-naphthoquinone in polar (methanol) and nonpolar ( n-hexane) solvents are recorded. It is found that the specific effect of a polar solvent, which manifests itself in a hypsochromic shift of the first nπ* band and in a bathochromic shift of the second and third ππ* bands, is caused by the formation of hydrogen bonds between solvent molecules and the molecule under study and, as a result, by a change in the energy gap between the corresponding occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals. This result is obtained by TDDFT B3LYP/6-311+G(d, p) calculations of electronic spectra, which, in the case of an isolated 1,2-naphthoquinone molecule, reproduce its experimental optical absorption spectra in n-hexane and, in the case of the same molecule forming a complex with methanol molecules by means of hydrogen bonds, reproduce the spectrum of 1,2-naphthoquinone in methanol.

  8. Naphthoquinone derivative PPE8 induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in p53 null H1299 cells.

    PubMed

    Lien, Jin-Cherng; Huang, Chien-Chun; Lu, Te-Jung; Tseng, Chih-Hsiang; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Lee, Hong-Zin; Bao, Bo-Ying; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lu, Te-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a key role in synthesizing secretory proteins and sensing signal function in eukaryotic cells. Responding to calcium disturbance, oxidation state change, or pharmacological agents, ER transmembrane protein, inositol-regulating enzyme 1 (IRE1), senses the stress and triggers downstream signals. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) dissociates from IRE1 to assist protein folding and guard against cell death. In prolonged ER stress, IRE1 recruits and activates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) as well as downstream JNK for cell death. Naphthoquinones are widespread natural phenolic compounds. Vitamin K3, a derivative of naphthoquinone, inhibits variant tumor cell growth via oxygen uptake and oxygen stress. We synthesized a novel naphthoquinone derivative PPE8 and evaluated capacity to induce ER stress in p53 null H1299 and p53 wild-type A549 cells. In H1299 cells, PPE8 induced ER enlargement, GRP78 expression, and transient IER1 activation. Activated IRE1 recruited ASK1 for downstream JNK phosphorylation. IRE1 knockdown by siRNA attenuated PPE8-induced JNK phosphorylation and cytotoxicity. Prolonged JNK phosphorylation may be involved in PPE8-induced cytotoxicity. Such results did not arise in A549 cells, but p53 knockdown by siRNA restored PPE8-induced GRP78 expression and JNK phosphorylation. We offer a novel compound to induce ER stress and cytotoxicity in p53-deficient cancer cells, presenting an opportunity for treatment. PMID:25685256

  9. Naphthoquinone Derivative PPE8 Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in p53 Null H1299 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Jin-Cherng; Lu, Te-Jung; Tseng, Chih-Hsiang; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Lee, Hong-Zin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lu, Te-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a key role in synthesizing secretory proteins and sensing signal function in eukaryotic cells. Responding to calcium disturbance, oxidation state change, or pharmacological agents, ER transmembrane protein, inositol-regulating enzyme 1 (IRE1), senses the stress and triggers downstream signals. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) dissociates from IRE1 to assist protein folding and guard against cell death. In prolonged ER stress, IRE1 recruits and activates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) as well as downstream JNK for cell death. Naphthoquinones are widespread natural phenolic compounds. Vitamin K3, a derivative of naphthoquinone, inhibits variant tumor cell growth via oxygen uptake and oxygen stress. We synthesized a novel naphthoquinone derivative PPE8 and evaluated capacity to induce ER stress in p53 null H1299 and p53 wild-type A549 cells. In H1299 cells, PPE8 induced ER enlargement, GRP78 expression, and transient IER1 activation. Activated IRE1 recruited ASK1 for downstream JNK phosphorylation. IRE1 knockdown by siRNA attenuated PPE8-induced JNK phosphorylation and cytotoxicity. Prolonged JNK phosphorylation may be involved in PPE8-induced cytotoxicity. Such results did not arise in A549 cells, but p53 knockdown by siRNA restored PPE8-induced GRP78 expression and JNK phosphorylation. We offer a novel compound to induce ER stress and cytotoxicity in p53-deficient cancer cells, presenting an opportunity for treatment. PMID:25685256

  10. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 1,4-Naphthoquinones and Quinoline-5,8-diones as Antimalarial and Schistosomicidal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Cesar-Rodo, Elena; Bertrand, Benoît; Huang, Hsin-Hung; Day, Latasha; Johann, Laure; Elhabiri, Mourad; Becker, Katja; Williams, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the solubility of polysubstituted 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives was achieved by introducing nitrogen in two different positions of the naphthoquinone core, at C-5 and at C-8 of menadione through a two-step, straightforward synthesis based on the regioselective hetero-Diels-Alder reaction. The antimalarial and the antischistosomal activities of these polysubstituted aza-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives were evaluated and led to the selection of distinct compounds for antimalarial versus antischistosomal action. The AgII-assisted oxidative radical decarboxylation of the phenyl acetic acids using AgNO3 and ammonium peroxodisulfate was modified to generate the 3-picolinyl-menadione with improved pharmacokinetic parameters, high antimalarial effects and capacity to inhibit the formation of β-hematin. PMID:22777178

  11. Studies of C-terminal naphthoquinone dipeptides as 20S proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Alessandra; Trapella, Claudio; Ferretti, Valeria; Gallerani, Eleonora; Gavioli, Riccardo; Marastoni, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome pathway is crucial in regulating many processes in the cell. Modulation of proteasome activities has emerged as a powerful strategy for potential therapies against much important pathologies. In particular, specific inhibitors may represent a useful tool for the treatment of tumors. Here, we report studies of a new series of peptide-based analogues bearing a naphthoquinone pharmacophoric unit at the C-terminal position. Some derivatives showed inhibition in the µM range of the post-acidic-like and chymotrypsin-like active sites of the proteasome. PMID:25942361

  12. In vitro cultures of Drosera aliciae as a source of a cytotoxic naphthoquinone: ramentaceone.

    PubMed

    Kawiak, Anna; Królicka, Aleksandra; Łojkowska, Ewa

    2011-11-01

    A protocol for the in vitro propagation of Drosera aliciae to increase the yield of the naphthoquinone, ramentaceone, was developed. The highest micropropagation coefficient was obtained using half-strength Murashige-Skoog medium supplemented with 0.4 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA). The genetic fidelity and stability of the regenerated plants was confirmed with RAPD markers. The activity of the isolated ramentaceone was determined against four human tumor cell lines: U937, HeLa, MCF-7, HCT-116 with the highest cytotoxic activity towards the leukemic U937 cell line with an IC(50) value of 3.2 μM. PMID:21761256

  13. Induced production of antifungal naphthoquinones in the pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes khasiana

    PubMed Central

    Eilenberg, Haviva; Pnini-Cohen, Smadar; Rahamim, Yocheved; Sionov, Edward; Segal, Esther; Carmeli, Shmuel; Zilberstein, Aviah

    2010-01-01

    Nepenthes spp. are carnivorous plants that have developed insect capturing traps, evolved by specific modification of the leaf tips, and are able to utilize insect degradation products as nutritional precursors. A chitin-induced antifungal ability, based on the production and secretion to the trap liquid of droserone and 5-O-methyldroserone, is described here. Such specific secretion uniquely occurred when chitin injection was used as the eliciting agent and probably reflects a certain kind of defence mechanism that has been evolved for protecting the carnivory-based provision of nutritional precursors. The pitcher liquid containing droserone and 5-O-methyldroserone at 3:1 or 4:1 molar ratio, as well as the purified naphthoquinones, exerted an antifungal effect on a wide range of plant and human fungal pathogens. When tested against Candida and Aspergillus spp., the concentrations required for achieving inhibitory and fungicidal effects were significantly lower than those causing cytotoxicity in cells of the human embryonic kidney cell line, 293T. These naturally secreted 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives, that are assumed to act via semiquinone enhancement of free radical production, may offer a new lead to develop alternative antifungal drugs with reduced selectable pressure for potentially evolved resistance. PMID:20018905

  14. Insight into naphthoquinone metabolism: beta-glucosidase-catalysed hydrolysis of hydrojuglone beta-D-glucopyranoside.

    PubMed Central

    Duroux, L; Delmotte, F M; Lancelin, J M; Kravis, G; Jay-Allemand, C

    1998-01-01

    In plants, the naphthoquinone juglone is known to be involved in pathogenic defence mechanisms, but it may also take part in plant developmental processes. This naphthoquinone can accumulate in a glycosylated form, namely hydrojuglone beta-d-glucopyranoside. The structural configuration of this compound was shown to be 1, 5-dihydroxy-4-naphthalenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside by means of MS, NMR and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy analyses. A hydrojuglone beta-d-glucopyranoside beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) was purified to homogeneity from Juglans regia L. The enzyme catalysed the release of juglone from hydrojuglone beta-d-glucopyranoside with high specificity and showed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Km=0.62 mM and Vmax=14.5 microkat/mg of protein. This enzyme also showed a higher activity towards beta-d-fucosyl than beta-d-glucosyl bonds. The purified enzyme had an apparent Mr of 64000 by SDS/PAGE and a pI 8.9 by isoelectrofocusing PAGE. The purified enzyme was inhibited by several bivalent cations, such as Cu2+, Fe2+, Hg2+, and by d-glucono-1,5-lactone, showing non-competitive inhibition of the mixed type. PMID:9657966

  15. Induced production of antifungal naphthoquinones in the pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes khasiana.

    PubMed

    Eilenberg, Haviva; Pnini-Cohen, Smadar; Rahamim, Yocheved; Sionov, Edward; Segal, Esther; Carmeli, Shmuel; Zilberstein, Aviah

    2010-03-01

    Nepenthes spp. are carnivorous plants that have developed insect capturing traps, evolved by specific modification of the leaf tips, and are able to utilize insect degradation products as nutritional precursors. A chitin-induced antifungal ability, based on the production and secretion to the trap liquid of droserone and 5-O-methyldroserone, is described here. Such specific secretion uniquely occurred when chitin injection was used as the eliciting agent and probably reflects a certain kind of defence mechanism that has been evolved for protecting the carnivory-based provision of nutritional precursors. The pitcher liquid containing droserone and 5-O-methyldroserone at 3:1 or 4:1 molar ratio, as well as the purified naphthoquinones, exerted an antifungal effect on a wide range of plant and human fungal pathogens. When tested against Candida and Aspergillus spp., the concentrations required for achieving inhibitory and fungicidal effects were significantly lower than those causing cytotoxicity in cells of the human embryonic kidney cell line, 293T. These naturally secreted 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives, that are assumed to act via semiquinone enhancement of free radical production, may offer a new lead to develop alternative antifungal drugs with reduced selectable pressure for potentially evolved resistance. PMID:20018905

  16. Targeting of Helicobacter pylori thymidylate synthase ThyX by non-mitotoxic hydroxy-naphthoquinones

    PubMed Central

    Skouloubris, Stéphane; Djaout, Kamel; Lamarre, Isabelle; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Anger, Karine; Briffotaux, Julien; Liebl, Ursula; de Reuse, Hilde; Myllykallio, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    ThyX is an essential thymidylate synthase that is mechanistically and structurally unrelated to the functionally analogous human enzyme, thus providing means for selective inhibition of bacterial growth. To identify novel compounds with anti-bacterial activity against the human pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori, based on our earlier biochemical and structural analyses, we designed a series of eighteen 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones (2-OH-1,4-NQs) that target HpThyX. Our lead-like molecules markedly inhibited the NADPH oxidation and 2′-deoxythymidine-5′-monophosphate-forming activities of HpThyX enzyme in vitro, with inhibitory constants in the low nanomolar range. The identification of non-cytotoxic and non-mitotoxic 2-OH-1,4-NQ inhibitors permitted testing their in vivo efficacy in a mouse model for H. pylori infections. Despite the widely assumed toxicity of naphthoquinones (NQs), we identified tight-binding ThyX inhibitors that were tolerated in mice and can be associated with a modest effect in reducing the number of colonizing bacteria. Our results thus provide proof-of-concept that targeting ThyX enzymes is a highly feasible strategy for the development of therapies against H. pylori and a high number of other ThyX-dependent pathogenic bacteria. We also demonstrate that chemical reactivity of NQs does not prevent their exploitation as anti-microbial compounds, particularly when mitotoxicity screening is used to prioritize these compounds for further experimentation. PMID:26040760

  17. Designing Light-Activated Charge-Separating Proteins with a Naphthoquinone Amino Acid.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Bruce R; Bialas, Chris; Cerda, José F; Fry, Bryan A; Dutton, P Leslie; Moser, Christopher C

    2015-11-01

    The first principles design of manmade redox-protein maquettes is used to clarify the physical/chemical engineering supporting the mechanisms of natural enzymes with a view to recapitulate and surpass natural performance. Herein, we use intein-based protein semisynthesis to pair a synthetic naphthoquinone amino acid (Naq) with histidine-ligated photoactive metal-tetrapyrrole cofactors, creating a 100 μs photochemical charge separation unit akin to photosynthetic reaction centers. By using propargyl groups to protect the redox-active para-quinone during synthesis and assembly while permitting selective activation, we gain the ability to employ the quinone amino acid redox cofactor with the full set of natural amino acids in protein design. Direct anchoring of quinone to the protein backbone permits secure and adaptable control of intraprotein electron-tunneling distances and rates. PMID:26366882

  18. QSAR on antiproliferative naphthoquinones based on a conformation-independent approach.

    PubMed

    Duchowicz, Pablo R; Bennardi, Daniel O; Bacelo, Daniel E; Bonifazi, Evelyn L; Rios-Luci, Carla; Padrón, José M; Burton, Gerardo; Misico, Rosana I

    2014-04-22

    The antiproliferative activities of a series of 36 naphthoquinone derivatives were subjected to a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) study. For this purpose a panel of four human cancer cell lines was used, namely HBL-100 (breast), HeLa (cervix), SW-1573 (non-small cell lung) and WiDr (colon). A conformation-independent representation of the chemical structure was established in order to avoid leading with the scarce experimental information on X-ray crystal structure of the drug interaction. The 1179 theoretical descriptors derived with E-Dragon and Recon software were simultaneously analyzed through linear regression models based on the Replacement Method variable subset selection technique. The established models were validated and tested through the use of external test sets of compounds, the Leave-One-Out Cross Validation method, Y-Randomization and Applicability Domain analysis. PMID:24631897

  19. A Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Naphthoquinone Derivatives as Antitubercular Agents Using Molecular Modeling Techniques.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh C

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the leading causative agent of TB, is responsible for the morbidity and mortality of a large population worldwide. In view of above and as a part of our effort to develop new and potent anti-TB agents, a series of substituted naphthoquinone derivatives were subjected to molecular modeling using various feature selection methods. The statistically significant best 2D-QSAR model having correlation coefficient [Formula: see text] and cross-validated squared correlation coefficient [Formula: see text] with external predictive ability of [Formula: see text] was developed by SA-PLS, and group-based QSAR model having [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] was developed by SA-PLS. Further analysis using three-dimensional QSAR technique identifies a suitable model obtained by SA-partial least square method leading to antitubercular activity prediction. k-nearest neighbor molecular field analysis was used to construct the best 3D-QSAR model using SA-PLS method, showing good correlative and predictive capabilities in terms of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. The pharmacophore analysis results obtained from this study show that the distance between the aromatic/hydrophobic and the naphthoquinone moiety sites to the aliphatic and acceptor groups should be connected with almost the same distance for significant antitubercular activity. The information rendered by QSAR models may lead to a better understanding of structural requirements of antitubercular activity and also can help in the design of novel potent antitubercular activity. PMID:26159131

  20. Naphthalene and Naphthoquinone: Distributions and Human Exposure in the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, R.; Wu, J.; Turco, R.; Winer, A. M.; Atkinson, R.; Paulson, S.; Arey, J.; Lurmann, F.

    2003-12-01

    Naphthalene is the simplest and most abundant of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Naphthalene is found primarily in the gas-phase and has been detected in both outdoor and indoor samples. Evaporation from naphthalene-containing products (including gasoline), and during refining operations, are important sources of naphthalene in air. Naphthalene is also emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels and wood, and is a component of vehicle exhaust. Exposure to high concentrations of naphthalene can damage or destroy red blood cells, causing hemolytic anemia. If inhaled over a long period of time, naphthalene may cause kidney and liver damage, skin allergy and dermatitis, cataracts and retinal damage, as well as attack the central nervous system. Naphthalene has been found to cause cancer as a result of inhalation in animal tests. Naphthoquinones are photooxidation products of naphthalene and the potential health effects of exposure to these quinones are a current focus of research. We are developing and applying models that can be used to assess human exposure to naphthalene and its photooxidation products in major air basins such as California South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The work utilizes the Surface Meteorology and Ozone Generation (SMOG) airshed model, and the REgional Human EXposure (REHEX) model, including an analysis of individual exposure. We will present and discuss simulations of basin-wide distributions of, and human exposures to, naphthalene and naphthoquinone, with emphasis on the uncertainties in these estimates of atmospheric concentrations and human exposure. Regional modeling of pollutant sources and exposures can lead to cost-effective and optimally health-protective emission control strategies.

  1. Cytotoxicity Mechanism of Two Naphthoquinones (Menadione and Plumbagin) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Frederico Augusto Vieira; Mariani, Diana; Panek, Anita Dolly; Eleutherio, Elis Cristina Araújo; Pereira, Marcos Dias

    2008-01-01

    Background Quinones are compounds extensively used in studies of oxidative stress due to their role in plants as chemicals for defense. These compounds are of great interest for pharmacologists and scientists, in general, because several cancer chemotherapeutic agents contain the quinone nucleus. However, due to differences in structures and diverse pharmacological effects, the exact toxicity mechanisms exerted by quinones are far from elucidatation. Methodology/Principal Findings Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we evaluated the main mechanisms of toxicity of two naphthoquinones, menadione and plumbagin, by determining tolerance and oxidative stress biomarkers such as GSH and GSSG, lipid peroxidation levels, as well as aconitase activity. The importance of glutathione transferases (GST) in quinone detoxification was also addressed. The GSSG/GSH ratio showed that menadione seemed to exert its toxicity mainly through the generation of ROS while plumbagin acted as an electrophile reacting with GSH. However, the results showed that, even by different pathways, both drugs were capable of generating oxidative stress through their toxic effects. Our results showed that the control strain, BY4741, and the glutathione transferase deficient strains (gtt1Δ and gtt2Δ) were sensitive to both compounds. With respect to the role of GST isoforms in cellular protection against quinone toxicity, we observed that the Gtt2 deficient strain was unable to overcome lipid peroxidation, even after a plumbagin pre-treatment, indicating that this treatment did not improve tolerance when compared with the wild type strain. Cross-tolerance experiments confirmed distinct cytotoxicity mechanisms for these naphthoquinones since only a pre-treatment with menadione was able to induce acquisition of tolerance against stress with plumbagin. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest different responses to menadione and plumbagin which could be due to the fact that these compounds use different mechanisms to exert their toxicity. In addition, the Gtt2 isoform seemed to act as a general protective factor involved in quinone detoxification. PMID:19098979

  2. The toxicity of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) and two thioether conjugates studied with isolated renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Brown, P C; Dulik, D M; Jones, T W

    1991-02-15

    Menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) was used as a model compound to test the hypothesis that thioether conjugates of quinones can be toxic to tissues associated with their elimination through a mechanism involving oxidative stress. Unlike menadione, the glutathione (2-methyl-3-(glutathion-S-yl)-1,4-naphthoquinone; MGNQ) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (2-methyl-3-(N-acetylcysteine-S-yl)-1,4-naphthoquinone; M(NAC)NQ) thioether conjugates were not able to arylate protein thiols but were still able to redox cycle with cytochrome c reductase/NADH and rat kidney microsomes and mitochondria. Interestingly, menadione and M(NAC)NQ were equally toxic to isolated rat renal epithelial cells (IREC) while MGNQ was nontoxic. The toxicity of both menadione and M(NAC)NQ was preceded by a rapid depletion of soluble thiols and was associated with a depletion of soluble thiols and was associated with a depletion of protein thiols. Treatment of IREC with the glutathione reductase inhibitor, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, potentiated the thiol depletion and toxicity observed with menadione and M(NAC)NQ indicating the involvement of oxidative stress in this model of renal cell toxicity. The lack of MGNQ toxicity can be attributed to an intramolecular cyclization reaction which destroys the quinone nucleus and therefore eliminates its ability to redox cycle. These findings have important implications with regard to our understanding of the toxic potential of quinone thioether conjugates and of quinone toxicity in general. PMID:1990978

  3. Biarylmethane and Fused Heterocyclic Arene Synthesis via in Situ Generated o- and/or p-Naphthoquinone Methides.

    PubMed

    Sawama, Yoshinari; Kawajiri, Takahiro; Asai, Shota; Yasukawa, Naoki; Shishido, Yuko; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao

    2015-06-01

    o- and/or p-naphthoquinone methides (NQMs) can be selectively prepared by the ring opening of 1-(siloxymethyl)-1,4-epoxy-1,4-dihydronaphthalene derivatives based on a substituent effect at the 4 position of the substrates. The 4-alkyl- or silyl-substituted 1-(siloxymethyl)-1,4-epoxy-1,4-dihydronaphthalene was transformed to o-NQM (1-naphthoquinone-2-methide), which underwent Friedel-Crafts 1,4-addition of the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety to provide the 2-benzyl-1-naphthol as the biarylmethane and [4 + 2]-cycloaddition with a dienophile to give the fused heterocyclic arene. Meanwhile, the 4-unsubstituted 1-(siloxymethyl)-1,4-epoxy-1,4-dihydronaphthalene could be converted to the corresponding 4-benzyl-1-naphthol by the Friedel-Crafts 1,6-addition of p-NQM (1-naphthoquinone-4-methide) generated by the site-selective ring opening of the 1,4-epoxy moiety. Furthermore, the 4-(siloxymethyl)-(1,4-bis(siloxymethyl))-1,4-epoxy-1,4-dihydronaphthalene was transformed into a 2,4-bisbenzyl-1-naphthol or pentacyclic derivative via both the o- and p-NQM intermediates. PMID:25938963

  4. Synthesis and pharmacophore modeling of naphthoquinone derivatives with cytotoxic activity in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell line.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sacau, Elisa; Díaz-Peñate, Raquel G; Estévez-Braun, Ana; Ravelo, Angel G; García-Castellano, Jose M; Pardo, Leonardo; Campillo, Mercedes

    2007-02-22

    Catalyst/HypoGen pharmacophore modeling approach and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR)/comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) methods have been successfully applied to explain the cytotoxic activity of a set of 51 natural and synthesized naphthoquinone derivatives tested in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell line. The computational models have facilitated the identification of structural elements of the ligands that are key for antitumoral properties. The four most salient features of the highly active beta-cycled-pyran-1,2-naphthoquinones [0.1 microM < IC50 < 0.6 microM] are the hydrogen-bond interactions of the carbonyl groups at C-1 (HBA1) and C-2 (HBA2), the hydrogen-bond interaction of the oxygen atom of the pyran ring (HBA3), and the interaction of methyl groups (HYD) at the pyran ring with a hydrophobic area at the receptor. The moderately active 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives accurately fulfill only three of these features. The results of our study provide a valuable tool in designing new and more potent cytotoxic analogues. PMID:17249647

  5. Production and secretion of naphthoquinones is mediated by the MFS transporter MFS1 in the entomopathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps sp. BCC1869.

    PubMed

    Khaokhajorn, Pratoomporn; Samipak, Sompid; Nithithanasilp, Sutichai; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Amnuaykanjanasin, Alongkorn

    2015-10-01

    Naphthoquinones are deep red polyketide pigments produced by the ant-pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps sp. BCC1869. In culture, biosynthesis of these naphthoquinones remains at a low level during the first 20 days and reaches its maximum production level at approximately 50 days. The MFS transporter gene MFS1 was previously identified in Ophiocordyceps sp. BCC1869 from a subtractive EST library between the fungus grown under naphthoquinone-inductive and naphthoquinone-repressive conditions. We cloned and sequenced this transporter gene, which has an open reading frame of 1505 bp and three introns (48, 52, and 58 bp). Phylogenetic analysis showed this MFS transporter was tightly clustered with fungal riboflavin transporters. Functional analysis of this gene was performed by overexpression of MFS1 under the control of a strong, constitutive promoter. We successfully transformed the fungus with this overexpression plasmid using PEG-protoplast transformation, which generated nine transformants per µg of plasmid. RT-PCR indicated that the MFS1 expression level in the overexpressing strains increased 3- to 10-fold compared to the wild type. HPLC analysis of crude extracts of mutants and wild type demonstrated that four naphthoquinone derivatives, erythrostominone, epierythrostominol, deoxyerythrostominone, and deoxyerythrostominol, were the major naphthoquinones produced and excreted in staggering quantities (20- to 2300-fold) in 7-day old liquid cultures by the mutant C7, compared to the wild type. High resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry verified mass spectra of these purified metabolites. Three other naphthoquinone derivatives, whose structures have not been identified, were also detected in high amount in the mutant liquid cultures. PMID:26193948

  6. Structure/antileishmanial activity relationship study of naphthoquinones and dependency of the mode of action on the substitution patterns.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmad; Assimopoulou, Andreana Nikolaos; Papageorgiou, Vassilios Peter; Kolodziej, Herbert

    2011-12-01

    A series of naphthoquinones was tested for activity against both extracellular promastigote and intracellular amastigote Leishmania major GFP in vitro. In parallel, the compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic effects against bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM Φ) as a mammalian host cell control. Most of the compounds noticeably inhibited the growth of extracellular parasites (IC (50) 0.5 to 6 µM) and the intracellular survival of L. major GFP amastigotes (IC (50) 1 to 7 µM) when compared with the antileishmanial drug amphotericin B (IC (50) of 2.5 and 0.2 µM, respectively). In general, antiprotozoal activity and host cell cytotoxicity seemed to increase in parallel. Conspicuously, the cytotoxic effect was less pronounced on infected host cells when compared with that on noninfected cells. Concerning structure/activity relationships for the tested naphthoquinones, some interesting structural features emerged from this study. Introduction of a methyl or methoxyl group at C-2 of the parent 1,4-naphthoquinone slightly increased the antileishmanial activity against clinically relevant amastigotes, while the presence of a hydroxyl function in this position dramatically reduced the effectiveness. In contrast, hydroxylation at C-5 and dihydroxy substitution at C-5 and C-8 significantly enhanced the antiprotozoal activity. Similarly, the presence of a side chain hydroxyl group PERI to a carbonyl function as represented in the series of shikonin/alkannin derivatives increased the activity when compared with substituted analogs. Within the series of naphthoquinones tested, the dimeric mixture of vaforhizin and isovaforhizin showed the highest activity IN VITRO against the clinically relevant intracellular amastigote with an IC (50) of 1.1 µM. With IC (50) values mostly in the range of 1-3 µM, the shikonin/alkannin derivatives proved to be similarly considerably leishmanicidal. None of the compounds tested was capable to induce NO production known to play a crucial role in the host resistance against intracellular pathogens, excluding activation of microbicidal mechanisms in macrophages. The mode of action apparently depended on the substitution pattern, associated with the electrophilicity of the naphthoquinone or the efficiency of redox cycling. Conspicuously, members oxygenated in the quinone ring proved to be leishmanicidal when coincubated with glutathione, while the majority of the remaining compounds lost activity. PMID:21800278

  7. A Rare Class of New Dimeric Naphthoquinones from Diospyros lotus have Multidrug Reversal and Antiproliferative Effects

    PubMed Central

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Siddiqui, Bina S.; Molnár, Joseph; Csonka, Ákos; Ahmad, Bashir; Szabó, Diana; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Ajmal

    2015-01-01

    Three new dimeric naphthoquinones, 5,4′-dihydroxy-1′-methoxy-6,6′-dimethyl-7,3′-binaphthyl-1,4,5′,8′-tetraone (1), 5′,8′-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-6,6′-dimethyl-7,3′-binaphthyl-1,4,1′,4′-tetraone (2) and 8,5′,8′-trihydroxy-6,6′-dimethyl-7,3′-binaphthyl-1,4,1′,4′-tetraone (3), were isolated from the roots of Diospyros lotus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, such as HSQC, HMBS, NOESY, and J-resolved. Compounds 1–3 were evaluated for their effects on the reversion of multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein through use of the rhodamine-123 exclusion screening test on human ABCB1 gene transfected L5178Y mouse T-cell lymphoma. Compounds 1–3 were also assessed for their antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on L5178 and L5178Y mouse T-cell lymphoma lines. Both 1 and 2 exhibited promising antiproliferative and MDR-reversing effects in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of the tested compounds on the activity of doxorubicin were observed to vary from slight antagonism to antagonism. PMID:26732580

  8. Diospyrone, crassiflorone and plumbagin: three antimycobacterial and antigonorrhoeal naphthoquinones from two Diospyros spp.

    PubMed

    Kuete, Victor; Tangmouo, Jean G; Meyer, J J Marion; Lall, Namrita

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimycobacterial and antigonorrhoeal activities of three naphthoquinones (diospyrone, crassiflorone and plumbagin) from Diospyros canaliculata and Diospyros crassiflora as well as the crude extracts from these plants. The agar disk diffusion assay, broth microdilution method, microplate Alamar blue assay (MABA) and radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 TB system were used. Results of the antimycobacterial assays indicated that the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations ranged from 1.22 microg/mL to 39.06 microg/mL for Mycobacterium smegmatis and all studied Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains for the crude extract from D. crassiflora, diospyrone and crassiflorone. Results of the killing rate experiment revealed that a total inhibition effect on M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain was observed at Day 18 for D. crassiflora and Day 21 for the crude extract from D. canaliculata and diospyrone at 4x MIC as determined by MABA. Results of the antigonorrhoeal assay indicated that diospyrone was able to prevent the growth of all studied strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The overall results of this work provide evidence that the studied plant extracts (diospyrone, crassiflorone and plumbagin) might be potential sources of new antimicrobial drugs against tuberculosis and gonorrhoea. PMID:19505805

  9. A Rare Class of New Dimeric Naphthoquinones from Diospyros lotus have Multidrug Reversal and Antiproliferative Effects.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Siddiqui, Bina S; Molnár, Joseph; Csonka, Ákos; Ahmad, Bashir; Szabó, Diana; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Ajmal

    2015-01-01

    Three new dimeric naphthoquinones, 5,4'-dihydroxy-1'-methoxy-6,6'-dimethyl-7,3'-binaphthyl-1,4,5',8'-tetraone (1), 5',8'-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-6,6'-dimethyl-7,3'-binaphthyl-1,4,1',4'-tetraone (2) and 8,5',8'-trihydroxy-6,6'-dimethyl-7,3'-binaphthyl-1,4,1',4'-tetraone (3), were isolated from the roots of Diospyros lotus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, such as HSQC, HMBS, NOESY, and J-resolved. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their effects on the reversion of multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein through use of the rhodamine-123 exclusion screening test on human ABCB1 gene transfected L5178Y mouse T-cell lymphoma. Compounds 1-3 were also assessed for their antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on L5178 and L5178Y mouse T-cell lymphoma lines. Both 1 and 2 exhibited promising antiproliferative and MDR-reversing effects in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of the tested compounds on the activity of doxorubicin were observed to vary from slight antagonism to antagonism. PMID:26732580

  10. Proteomics Analyses of Bacillus subtilis after Treatment with Plumbagin, a Plant-Derived Naphthoquinone

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Ray, Sandipan; Sathe, Gajanan J.; Prasad, T.S. Keshava; Rapole, Srikanth; Panda, Dulal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infectious diseases and increasing antibiotic resistance among diverse classes of microbes are global health concerns and a prime focus of omics systems science applications in novel drug discovery. Plumbagin is a plant-derived naphthoquinone, a natural product that exhibits antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the antimicrobial effects of plumbagin against Bacillus subtilis using two complementary proteomics techniques: two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Comparative quantitative proteomics analysis of plumbagin treated and untreated control samples identified differential expression of 230 proteins (1% FDR, 1.5 fold-change and ≥2 peptides) in B. subtilis after plumbagin treatment. Pathway analysis involving the differentially expressed proteins suggested that plumbagin effectively increases heme and protein biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid synthesis was significantly reduced. Gene expression and metabolic activity assays further corroborated the proteomics findings. We anticipate that plumbagin blocks the cell division by altering the membrane permeability required for energy generation. This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, offering new insights, at proteome level, for the putative mode(s) of action of plumbagin and attendant cellular targets in B. subtilis. The findings also suggest new ways forward for the modern omics-guided drug target discovery, building on traditional plant medicine. PMID:25562197

  11. Methylations of tryptophan-modified naphthoquinone affect its inhibitory potential toward Aβ aggregation.

    PubMed

    Scherzer-Attali, Roni; Convertino, Marino; Pellarin, Riccardo; Gazit, Ehud; Segal, Daniel; Caflisch, Amedeo

    2013-02-14

    Aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Small molecules inhibiting Aβ can be valuable therapeutics for AD. We have previously reported that 1,4-naphthoquinon-2-yl-l-tryptophan (NQTrp), reduces aggregation and oligomerization of Aβ in vitro and in vivo. In silico analysis further showed that certain functional groups of NQTrp, not in the aromatic rings, are also involved in binding and inhibiting Aβ. To better understand the exact mode of action and identify the groups crucial for NQTrp inhibitory activity, we conducted structure-activity analysis. Four derivatives of NQTrp were studied in silico: a D-isomer, two single-methylated and one double-methylated derivative. In silico results showed that the NQTrp groups involved in hydrogen bonds are the anilinic NH (i.e., the NH linker between the quinone and tryptophan moieties), the quinonic carbonyls, and the carboxylic acid. These predictions were supported by in vitro results. Our results should aid in designing improved small-molecule inhibitors of Aβ aggregation for treating AD. PMID:23259849

  12. pH-Dependent rectification in redox polymers: Characterization of electrode-confined siloxane polymers containing naphthoquinone and benzylviologen subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Palmore, G.T.R.; Smith, D.K.; Wrighton, M.S.

    1997-04-03

    This paper describes the electrochemical characterization of electrode-confined siloxane polymers that contain both naphthoquinone (NQ) and benzylviologen (BV{sup 2}{sup +}) subunits. These `homopolymers,` abbreviated (NQ-BV{sup 3+}){sub n} and (NQ-BV-BV{sup 5+}){sub n}, are derived from monomers, 2-chloro-3-[[2-(dimethyl[[[N`-[[4-(trimethoxysilyl)phenyl]methyl]-4, 4`-bipyridiniumyl]methyl]phenyl]methyl]ammonium)-ethyl]amino]-1,4-naphthoquinone, 1a, and 2-chloro-3-[[2-(dimethyl[[[[[[[[N`-[N`-[[4-(trimethoxysilyl)phenyl]methy]-4,4`-bipyridiniumyl]methyl]-phenyl]methyl]-4, 4`-bipyridiniumyl]methyl]phenyl]methyl]ammonium)ethyl]amino]-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2a, respectively. Particular to these types of surface-confined homopolymers is the ability to `trap` charge at low pH in the form of reduced quinone. The flexibility of these monolayers apparently allows direct contact of the NQ subunit with the electrode surface. Less flexible and more robust surface-confined polymers, abbreviated (NQ-BV{sup 3+}/siloxane){sub n} and (NQH{sub 2}-BV-BV{sup 5+}siloxane){sub n}, can be prepared by copolymerization of 1a or 2a with 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane. Charge trapped in (NQH{sub 2}-BV{sup 3+}/siloxane){sub n} or (NQH{sub 2}-BV-BV{sup 5+}/siloxane){sub n} can be released and delivered to the surface of the electrode via chemical mediation or by an increase in solution pH. 26 refs., 13 figs.

  13. The anti-sickling drug lawsone (2-OH-1,4-naphthoquinone) protects sickled cells against membrane damage.

    PubMed

    Clarke, D T; Jones, G R; Martin, M M

    1986-09-14

    The ability of an anti-sickling drug lawsone, 2-OH-1,4-naphthoquinone, and two related compounds to inhibit the haematoporphyrin-sensitised photohaemolysis of normal and sickle cell erythrocytes has been investigated. The compounds appear to protect the erythrocyte membranes by reaction with transient oxidative species. Differential effects between normal and sickle cells are shown and these are attributed to the different membrane composition of irreversibly sickled erythrocytes. This report describes a possible basis for the decreased formation of irreversibly sickled cells in the presence of lawsone. PMID:3767985

  14. O-naphthoquinone isolated from Capraria biflora L. induces selective cytotoxicity in tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    de S Wisintainer, G G N; Scola, G; Moura, S; Lemos, T L G; Pessoa, C; de Moraes, M O; Souza, L G S; Roesch-Ely, M; Henriques, J A P

    2015-01-01

    Biflorin is an o-naphthoquinone isolated from the roots of the plant Capraria biflora L. (Scrophulariaceae). In this study, the cytotoxic effects of biflorin were verified, and late apoptosis was detected in various cancer cell lines by in situ analysis. The cytotoxicity was further evaluated exclusively for 48 h of treatment in different tumor and non-tumor cell lines (Hep-2, HeLa, HT-29, A-375, and A-549, and HEK-293, respectively). The results indicated that biflorin induced selective cytotoxicity in tumor cells. HeLa cells were more susceptible to biflorin, followed by HT-29, A-549, A-375, and Hep-2 at all concentrations (range 5-50 μg/mL), and the highest half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 (56.01 ± 1.17 μg/mL) was observed in HEK-293 cells. Late apoptotic/necrotic events, observed by in situ immunostaining with Annexin V, varied with each cell line; an increase in late apoptotic events was observed corresponding to the increase in biflorin dosage. Hep-2 cells showed a greater percentage of late apoptotic events among the tumor cell lines when treated with higher concentrations of biflorin (69.63 ± 2.28%). The non-tumor HEK-293 line showed greater resistance to late apoptotic events, as well as a lower level of cytotoxicity (77.69 ± 6.68%) than the tested tumor lines. The data presented indicate that biflorin showed an important, possibly selective, cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines, thereby revealing a promising novel substance with potential anticancer activity for tumor therapy. PMID:26782390

  15. Naphthoquinone-tyrptophan reduces neurotoxic Aβ*56 levels and improves cognition in Alzheimer's disease animal model.

    PubMed

    Scherzer-Attali, R; Farfara, D; Cooper, I; Levin, A; Ben-Romano, T; Trudler, D; Vientrov, M; Shaltiel-Karyo, R; Shalev, D E; Segev-Amzaleg, N; Gazit, E; Segal, D; Frenkel, D

    2012-06-01

    An increasing body of evidence indicates a role for oligomers of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in the neurotoxicity of this peptide and the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several neurotoxic oligomeric forms of Aβ have been noted ranging from the larger Amyloid β-Derived Diffusible Ligands (ADDLs) to smaller trimers and dimers of Aβ. More recently a dodecameric form of Aβ with a 56 kDa molecular weight, denoted Aβ*56, was shown to cause memory impairment in AD model mice. Here, we present for the first time a potential therapeutic strategy for AD that targets the early stages in the formation of neurotoxic Aβ*56 oligomers using a modified quinone-Tryptophan small molecule N-(3-chloro-1,4-dihydro-1,4-dioxo-2-naphthalenyl)-L-Tryptophan (Cl-NQTrp). Using NMR spectroscopy we show that this compound binds the aromatic recognition core of Aβ and prevents the formation of oligomers. We assessed the effect of Cl-NQTrp in vivo in transgenic flies expressing Aβ(1-42) in their nervous system. When these flies were fed with Cl-NQTrp a marked alleviation of their Aβ-engendered reduced life span and defective locomotion was observed. Finally, intraperitoneal injection of Cl-NQTrp into an aggressive AD mouse model reduced the level of the Aβ*56 species in their brain and reversed their cognitive defects. Further experiments should assess whether this is a direct effect of the drug in the brain or an indirect peripheral effect. This is the first demonstration that targeted reduction of Aβ*56 results in amelioration of AD symptoms. This second generation of tryptophan-modified naphthoquinones could therefore serve as potent disease modifying therapeutic for AD. PMID:22449754

  16. Naphthoquinone based chemosensor 2-(2‧-aminomethylpyridine)-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone for metal ions: Single crystal X-ray structure, experimental and TD-DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Anuja P.; Patil, Amit; Khomane, Sonali; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Pingale, Subhash S.; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2015-08-01

    Naphthoquinone based redox active chemosensor 1; 2-(2‧-aminomethylpyridine)-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone ligand has been synthesized and characterized. Chemosensor 1 crystallizes in monoclinic space group P21/n. Molecules showed intramolecular N-H⋯O and N-H⋯N, intermolecular N-H⋯O, C-H⋯O and slipped π-π stacking interactions. Chemosensor 1 showed orange colored solution in methanol and specifically detects Cu2+ ions by deprotonation of N-H. The deprotonation of amino N-H can also be achieved by mild base viz. triethylamine and chemosensor 1 can be used to detect several metal ions for example Ni2+, Mn2+ etc. that could observed by naked eye. Color changes observed were monitored by UV-visible and fluorescence spectra. Chemosensor 1 could provide either bidentate or tridentate coordination sites to metal ions. Redox nature of chemosensor 1 was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry studies. Electronic transition wavelengths of chemosensor 1 ligand have been evaluated in methanol, water and triethylamine by TD-DFT studies and comparative studies were performed with experimental results.

  17. Naphthoquinone-mediated inhibition of lysine acetyltransferase KAT3B/p300, basis for non-toxic inhibitor synthesis.

    PubMed

    Vasudevarao, Mohankrishna Dalvoy; Mizar, Pushpak; Kumari, Sujata; Mandal, Somnath; Siddhanta, Soumik; Swamy, Mahadeva M M; Kaypee, Stephanie; Kodihalli, Ravindra C; Banerjee, Amrita; Naryana, Chandrabhas; Dasgupta, Dipak; Kundu, Tapas K

    2014-03-14

    Hydroxynaphthoquinone-based inhibitors of the lysine acetyltransferase KAT3B (p300), such as plumbagin, are relatively toxic. Here, we report that free thiol reactivity and redox cycling properties greatly contribute to the toxicity of plumbagin. A reactive 3rd position in the naphthoquinone derivatives is essential for thiol reactivity and enhances redox cycling. Using this clue, we synthesized PTK1, harboring a methyl substitution at the 3rd position of plumbagin. This molecule loses its thiol reactivity completely and its redox cycling ability to a lesser extent. Mechanistically, non-competitive, reversible binding of the inhibitor to the lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) domain of p300 is largely responsible for the acetyltransferase inhibition. Remarkably, the modified inhibitor PTK1 was a nearly non-toxic inhibitor of p300. The present report elucidates the mechanism of acetyltransferase activity inhibition by 1,4-naphthoquinones, which involves redox cycling and nucleophilic adduct formation, and it suggests possible routes of synthesis of the non-toxic inhibitor. PMID:24469461

  18. Naphthoquinone-mediated Inhibition of Lysine Acetyltransferase KAT3B/p300, Basis for Non-toxic Inhibitor Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevarao, Mohankrishna Dalvoy; Mizar, Pushpak; Kumari, Sujata; Mandal, Somnath; Siddhanta, Soumik; Swamy, Mahadeva MM; Kaypee, Stephanie; Kodihalli, Ravindra C; Banerjee, Amrita; Naryana, Chandrabhas; Dasgupta, Dipak; Kundu, Tapas K.

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxynaphthoquinone-based inhibitors of the lysine acetyltransferase KAT3B (p300), such as plumbagin, are relatively toxic. Here, we report that free thiol reactivity and redox cycling properties greatly contribute to the toxicity of plumbagin. A reactive 3rd position in the naphthoquinone derivatives is essential for thiol reactivity and enhances redox cycling. Using this clue, we synthesized PTK1, harboring a methyl substitution at the 3rd position of plumbagin. This molecule loses its thiol reactivity completely and its redox cycling ability to a lesser extent. Mechanistically, non-competitive, reversible binding of the inhibitor to the lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) domain of p300 is largely responsible for the acetyltransferase inhibition. Remarkably, the modified inhibitor PTK1 was a nearly non-toxic inhibitor of p300. The present report elucidates the mechanism of acetyltransferase activity inhibition by 1,4-naphthoquinones, which involves redox cycling and nucleophilic adduct formation, and it suggests possible routes of synthesis of the non-toxic inhibitor. PMID:24469461

  19. Sequential synthesis of amino-1,4-naphthoquinone-appended triazoles and triazole-chromene hybrids and their antimycobacterial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Devi Bala, Balasubramanian; Muthusaravanan, Sivasubramanian; Choon, Tan Soo; Ashraf Ali, Mohamed; Perumal, Subbu

    2014-10-01

    A general method for the synthesis of a library of hitherto unreported amino-1,4-naphthoquinone-appended triazoles was accomplished via a sequential three-component reaction of substituted N-propargylaminonaphthoquinones with variously substituted alkyl bromides/2-bromonaphthalene-1,4-dione and sodium azide in the presence of Et3N/CuI in water. Aminonaphthoquinone-appended iminochromene-triazole hybrid heterocycles were also synthesized from the amino-1,4-naphthoquinone-appended-1,2,3-triazolylacetonitriles. All the triazole hybrids were screened for their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MTB). Among the triazoles, 2-(((1-benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)amino)naphthalene-1,4-dione (7d) emerged as the most active one with IC50 = 1.87 μM, being more potent than the anti-TB drugs, cycloserine (6 times), pyrimethamine (20 times) and equipotent as the drug ethambutol (IC50 < 1.56 μM). PMID:25129868

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of aminomethylbenzoic acid using sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate as the chemical derivative chromogenic reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quan-Min; Yang, Zhan-Jun

    2007-03-01

    A new method has been established for the determination of aminomethylbenzoic acid using sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate as the chemical derivative chromogenic reagent. This method is based on the formation of a pink compound from the reaction of aminomethylbenzoic acid and sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate. The nucleophilic substitution reaction proceeds quantitatively in pH 12.0 buffer solution. The stoichiometric ratio of the reaction, maximum absorption wavelength and the value of ɛ430 were 1:1, 430 nm, and 2.87 × 10 3 L mol -1 cm -1, respectively. Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 0.80-80 mg/L of aminomethylbenzoic acid. The data have been filled to a linear regression equation A = 0.03183 + 0.01658 C (mg/L), with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The detection limit is 0.11 mg/L, R.S.D. is 0.54%, and average recovery is over 99.6%. This paper further improves the determination of aminomethylbenzoic acid compared to the previous methods. The kinetic property and reaction mechanism have also been discussed. This proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of aminomethylbenzoic acid in injection of aminomethylbenzoic acid with satisfactory results.

  1. Evaluation of selected benzoquinones, naphthoquinones, and anthraquinones as replacements for phylloquinone in the A sub 1 acceptor site of the photosystem I reaction center

    SciTech Connect

    Biggins, J. )

    1990-08-07

    Selected substituted 1,4-benzoquinones, 1,4-naphthoquinones, and 9,10-anthraquinones were investigated as possible replacement quinones in spinach photosystem I (PSI) preparations that had been depleted of endogenous phylloquinone by extraction with hexane/methanol. As a criterion for successful biochemical reconstitution, the restoration of electron transfer was determined by measuring P-430 turnover at room temperature from flash-induced absorbance transients. Restoration of complete electron transfer between A{sub 0}{sup {minus}} and P-430 (terminal iron-sulfur centers, F{sub A}F{sub B}) was demonstrated by using phylloquinone, 2-methyl-3-decyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-methyl-3-(isoprenyl){sub 2}-1,4-naphthoquinone, and 2-methyl-3-(isoprenyl){sub 4}-1,4-naphthoquinone. All other quinones tested did not restore P-430 turnover but acted as electron acceptors and oxidized A{sub 0}{sup {minus}}. It is concluded that the specificity of the replacement quinone for interaction with the primary acceptor, A{sub 0}{sup {minus}}, is low but additional structural constraints are required for the quinone occupying the A{sub 1} site to donate to the iron-sulfur center, F{sub x}. It is suggested that the 3-phytyl side chain of phylloquinone and the 3-alkyl tails of the three naphthoquinones that restored P-430 turnover may be required for interaction with a hydrophobic domain of the A{sub 1} site in the PSI core to promote electron transfer to F{sub x} and then to F{sub A}F{sub B}.

  2. Anti-proliferative actions of 2-decylamino-5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Institute of Drug Research and Development, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 ; Zhang, Wei-Yun; Yi, Hyoseok; Kim, Yohan; Kim, In-Su; Shen, Gui-Nan; Song, Gyu-Yong; Myung, Chang-Seon; Institute of Drug Research and Development, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} 2-Decylamino-DMNQ inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with no apparent cytotoxicity. {yields} 2-Decylamino-DMNQ inhibited PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and PLC{gamma}1. {yields} 2-Decylamino-DMNQ arrested a G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle progression in association with pRb phosphorylation and PCNA expression. {yields} Both U0126, an Erk inhibitor, and U73122, a PLC{gamma} inhibitor, arrested a G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle. -- Abstract: Naphthoquinone derivatives have been reported to possess various pharmacological activities, such as antiplatelet, anticancer, antifungal, and antiviral properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of a newly-synthesized naphthoquinone derivative, 2-decylamino-5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-decylamino-DMNQ), on VSMC proliferation and examined the molecular basis of the underlying mechanism. In a dose-dependent manner, 2-decylamino-DMNQ inhibited PDGF-stimulated VSMC proliferation with no apparent cytotoxic effect. While 2-decylamino-DMNQ did not affect PDGF-R{beta} or Akt, it did inhibit the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and PLC{gamma}1 induced by PDGF. Moreover, 2-decylamino-DMNQ suppressed DNA synthesis through the arrest of cell cycle progression at the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase, including the suppression of pRb phosphorylation and a decrease in PCNA expression, which was related to the downregulation of cell cycle regulatory factors, such as cyclin D1/E and CDK 2/4. It was demonstrated that both U0126, an Erk1/2 inhibitor, and U73122, a PLC{gamma} inhibitor, increased the proportion of cells in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle. Thus, these results suggest that 2-decylamino DMNQ has an inhibitory effect on PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation and the mechanism of this action is through cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase. This may be a useful tool for studying interventions for vascular restenosis in coronary revascularization procedures and stent implantation.

  3. Griseusins F and G, spiro-naphthoquinones from a tin mine tailings-derived alkalophilic Nocardiopsis species.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhang-Gui; Zhao, Jiang-Yuan; Li, Ming-Gang; Huang, Rong; Li, Qing-Ming; Cui, Xiao-Long; Zhu, Hua-Jie; Wen, Meng-Liang

    2012-11-26

    Griseusins F (1) and G (2), two 2a-hydro-8a-(2-oxopropyl)-substituted spiro-naphthoquinones with a previously undescribed C23 polyketide skeleton, were isolated from a Yunnan tin mine tailings-derived alkalophilic actinomycete, Nocardiopsis sp. YIM DT266. Their complete structure assignments with the absolute stereochemistry were elucidated by spectroscopic data, X-ray crystal diffraction, calculation of optical rotation, and CD spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited strong cytotoxicity (IC50 0.37-0.82 μM) and antibacterial activity (MIC 0.80-1.65 μg/mL) against Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in vitro. PMID:23095059

  4. Naphthoquinone-Tryptophan Hybrid Inhibits Aggregation of the Tau-Derived Peptide PHF6 and Reduces Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Frenkel-Pinter, Moran; Tal, Sharon; Scherzer-Attali, Roni; Abu-Hussien, Malak; Alyagor, Idan; Eisenbaum, Tal; Gazit, Ehud; Segal, Daniel

    2016-01-20

    Tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), are a group of disorders characterized neuropathologically by intracellular toxic accumulations of abnormal protein aggregates formed by misfolding of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Since protein self-assembly appears to be an initial key step in the pathology of this group of diseases, intervening in this process can be both a prophylactic measure and a means for modifying the course of the disease for therapeutic purposes. We and others have shown that aromatic small molecules can be effective inhibitors of aggregation of various protein assemblies, by binding to the aromatic core in aggregation-prone motifs and preventing their self-assembly. Specifically, we have designed a series of small aromatic naphthoquinone-tryptophan hybrid molecules as candidate aggregation inhibitors of β -sheet based assembly and demonstrated their efficacy toward inhibiting aggregation of the amyloid-β peptide, another culprit of AD, as well as of various other aggregative proteins involved in other protein misfolding diseases. Here we tested whether a leading naphthoquinone-tryptophan hybrid molecule, namely NQTrp, can be repurposed as an inhibitor of the aggregation of the tau protein in vitro and in vivo. We show that the molecule inhibits the in vitro assembly of PHF6, the aggregation-prone fragment of tau protein, reduces hyperphosphorylated tau deposits and ameliorates tauopathy-related behavioral defect in an established transgenic Drosophila model expressing human tau. We suggest that NQTrp, or optimized versions of it, could act as novel disease modifying drugs for AD and other tauopathies. PMID:26836184

  5. Using of liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector for determination of naphthoquinones in plants and for investigation of influence of pH of cultivation medium on content of plumbagin in Dionaea muscipula.

    PubMed

    Babula, Petr; Mikelova, Radka; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Havel, Ladislav; Sladky, Zdenek

    2006-09-14

    The interest of many investigators in naphthoquinones is due to their broad-range of biological actions from phytotoxic to fungicidal. The main aim of this work was to investigate the influence of different pH values of cultivation medium on naphthoquinone content in Dionaea muscipula. For this purpose, we optimized the simultaneous analysis of the most commonly occurring naphthoquinones (1,4-naphthoquinone, lawsone, juglone and plumbagin) by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The most suitable chromatographic conditions were as follows: mobile phase: 0.1 mol l-1 acetic acid:methanol in ratio of 33:67 (%, v/v), flow rate: 0.75 ml min-1 and temperature: 42 degrees C. Moreover, we looked for the most suitable technique for preparation of plant samples (D. muscipula, Juglans regia, Paulownia tomentosa, Impatience glandulifera, Impatience parviflora, Drosera rotundifolia, Drosera spathulata and Drosera capensis) due to their consequent analysis by HPLC-DAD. It clearly follows from the results obtained that sonication were the most suitable technique for preparation of J. regia plants. We also checked the recoveries of the determined naphthoquinones, which were from 96 to 104%. Finally, we investigated the changes in content of plumbagin in D. muscipula plants according to different pH of cultivation medium. The content increased with increasing pH up to 5 and, then, changed gradually. The lower content of plumbagin at lower pH values was of interest to us. Therefore, we determined the content of this naphthoquinone in the cultivation medium, what has not been studied before. We discovered that the lower tissue content of plumbagin was due to secretion of this naphthoquinone into the cultivation medium. PMID:16765109

  6. Effects of quinone derivatives, such as 1,4-naphthoquinone, on DNA polymerase inhibition and anti-inflammatory action.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuki; Nishiumi, Shin; Nishida, Masayuki; Hirai, Midori; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we reported that vitamin K(3), which consists of a quinone component, inhibits the activity of human DNA polymerase γ (pol γ). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of 4 quinone derivatives (1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) and 5,12-naphthacenequinone (NCQ)) on the activity of mammalian pols. BQ and NQ potently inhibited the activity of all the pol species: pols α, β, γ, δ, ε and λ, and NQ was a stronger pol inhibitor than BQ. Because we previously found a positive relationship between pol l inhibition and anti-inflammatory action, we examined whether these quinone derivatives could inhibit inflammatory responses. BQ and NQ caused a marked reduction in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced acute inflammation in mouse ear, although AQ and NCQ did not. In a cell culture system using mouse macrophages, NQ displayed the strongest suppression in the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) among the quinone derivatives tested. Moreover, NQ was found to inhibit the action of nuclear factor (NF)-κ. In an in vivo mouse model of LPS-evoked acute inflammation, intraperitoneal injection of BQ and NQ to mice led to suppression of TNF-α production in serum. These anti-inflammatory responses of NQ were more potent than those of BQ. In conclusion, this study has identified several quinone derivatives, such as NQ, that are promising anti-inflammatory candidates. PMID:21235518

  7. Novel spectrophotometric method for determination of some macrolide antibiotics in pharmaceutical formulations using 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Safwan; Bayram, Roula

    2012-12-01

    New, simple and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the assay of two macrolide drugs, azithromycin (AZT) and erythromycin (ERY) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method was based on the reaction of AZT and ERY with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) in alkaline medium at 25 °C to form an orange-colored product of maximum absorption peak at 452 nm. All variables were studied to optimize the reaction conditions and the reaction mechanism was postulated. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 1.5-33.0 and 0.92-8.0 μg mL(-1) with limit of detection values of 0.026 and 0.063 μg mL(-1) for AZT and ERY, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivity values are 4.3 × 10(4) and 12.3 × 10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) for AZT and ERY, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of AZT and ERY in formulations and the results tallied well with the label claim. The results were statistically compared with those of an official method by applying the Student's t-test and F-test. No interference was observed from the concomitant substances normally added to preparations. PMID:23041925

  8. Novel spectrophotometric method for determination of some macrolide antibiotics in pharmaceutical formulations using 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, Safwan; Bayram, Roula

    2012-12-01

    New, simple and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the assay of two macrolide drugs, azithromycin (AZT) and erythromycin (ERY) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method was based on the reaction of AZT and ERY with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) in alkaline medium at 25 °C to form an orange-colored product of maximum absorption peak at 452 nm. All variables were studied to optimize the reaction conditions and the reaction mechanism was postulated. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 1.5-33.0 and 0.92-8.0 μg mL-1 with limit of detection values of 0.026 and 0.063 μg mL-1 for AZT and ERY, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivity values are 4.3 × 104 and 12.3 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 for AZT and ERY, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of AZT and ERY in formulations and the results tallied well with the label claim. The results were statistically compared with those of an official method by applying the Student's t-test and F-test. No interference was observed from the concomitant substances normally added to preparations.

  9. 1,2-Naphthoquinone activates vanilloid receptor 1 through increased protein tyrosine phosphorylation, leading to contraction of guinea pig trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuno, Shota; Taguchi, Keiko; Iwamoto, Noriko; Yamano, Shigeru; Cho, Arthur K.; Froines, John R.; Kumagai, Yoshito . E-mail: yk-em-tu@md.tsukuba.ac.jp

    2006-01-15

    1,2-Naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) has recently been identified as an environmental quinone in diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and atmospheric PM{sub 2.5}. We have found that this quinone is capable of causing a concentration-dependent contraction of tracheal smooth muscle in guinea pigs with EC{sub 5} value of 18.7 {mu}M. The contraction required extracellular calcium and was suppressed by L-type calcium channel blockers nifedipine and diltiazem. It was found that 1,2-NQ activated phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/lipoxygenase (LO)/vanilloid receptor (VR1) signaling. Additionally, 1,2-NQ was capable of transactivating protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in guinea pig trachea, suggesting that phosphorylation of PTKs contributes to 1,2-NQ-induced tracheal contraction. Consistent with this notion, this action was blocked by the PTKs inhibitor genistein and the EGFR antagonist PD153035, indicating that contraction was, at least in part, attributable to PTKs phosphorylation that activates VR1, resulting in increased intracellular calcium content in the smooth muscle cells.

  10. Synthesis, spectral characterization, molecular structure and pharmacological studies of N'-(1, 4-naphtho-quinone-2yl) isonicotinohyWdrazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavitha Rani, P. R.; Fernandez, Annette; George, Annie; Remadevi, V. K.; Sudarsanakumar, M. R.; Laila, Shiny P.; Arif, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient procedure was employed for the synthesis of N'-(1,4-naphtho-quinone-2-yl) isonicotinohydrazide (NIH) by the reaction of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthaquinone (lawsone) and isonicotinoyl hydrazine in methanol using ultrasonic irradiation. Lawsone is the principal dye, isolated from the leaves of henna (Lawsonia inermis). Structural modification was done on the molecule aiming to get a more active derivative. The structure of the parent compound and the derivative was characterized by elemental analyses, infrared, electronic, 1H, 13C NMR and GC-MS spectra. The fluorescence spectral investigation of the compound was studied in DMSO and ethanol. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that NIH crystallizes in monoclinic space group. The DNA cleavage study was monitored by gel electrophoresis method. The synthesized compound was found to have significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radical (IC50 = 58 μM). The in vitro cytotoxic studies of the derivative against two human cancer cell lines MCF-7 (human breast cancer) and HCT-15 (human colon carcinoma cells) using MTT assay revealed that the compound exhibited higher cytotoxic activity with a lower IC50 value indicating its efficiency in killing the cancer cells even at low concentrations. These results suggest that the structural modifications performed on lawsone could be considered a good strategy to obtain a more active drug.

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of dapsone in pharmaceutical products using sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic as the chromogenic reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huai You; Xu, Li Xiao; Xiao, Yan; Han, Juan

    2004-10-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of dapsone is described. The dapsone reacts with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic in pH 6.98 buffer solution to form a salmon pink compound, and its maximum absorption wavelength is at 525 nm, ɛ525=3.68×10 4 l mol -1 cm -1. The absorbance of dapsone from 0.40 to 10 μg ml -1 obeys Beer's law. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is C=0.2334 A+0.01288, with a linear regression correlation coefficient of 0.9998, the detection limit is 0.24 μg ml -1, and recovery is from 99.2 to 102.4%. Effects of pH, surfactant, organic solvents, foreign ions, and standing time on the determination of dapsone have been examined. This method is simple and can be used for the determination of dapsone in injection solution of dapsone. The results obtained by this method agreed with those by the official method (dead-stop titration method [The Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Pharmacopoeia Commission, Ministry of Health, vol. 2, fifth ed., PRC Chemical Industry Press, Beijing, 2000, p.720]).

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of procaine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical products using 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid as the chromogenic reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li Xiao; Shen, Yun Xiu; Wang, Huai You; Jiang, Ji Gang; Xiao, Yan

    2003-11-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of procaine hydrochloride is described. The procaine hydrochloride reacts with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid in pH 3.60 buffer solution to form a salmon pink compound, and its maximum absorption wavelength is at 484 nm, ɛ 484=5.22×10 3.The absorbance for procaine hydrochloride from 0.30 to 100 μg ml -1 obeys Beer's law. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is C=19.23A-0.03, with a linear regression correlative coefficient is 0.9996, the detection limit is 0.28 μg ml -1; recovery is from 98.0 to 105.2%. Effects of pH, surfactant, organic solvent, foreign ions, and standing time on the determination of procaine hydrochloride have been examined. This method is rapid and simple, and can be used for the determination of procaine hydrochloride in injection solution of procaine hydrochloride. The results obtained by this method agreed with those by the official method (dead-stop titration).

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of ampicillin sodium in pharmaceutical products using sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic as the chromogentic reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lixiao; Wang, Huaiyou; Xiao, Yan

    2004-11-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of ampicillin sodium is described. The ampicillin sodium reacts with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic in pH 9.00 buffer solution to form a salmon pink compound, and its maximum absorption wavelength is at 463 nm, ɛ463=1.14×10 4. The absorbance of ampicillin sodium from 2.0-80 μg ml -1 obeys Beer's law. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is C=40.24 A-2.603, with a linear regression correlation coefficient is 0.9997, the detection limit is 1.5 μg ml -1, recovery is from 97.23 to 104.5%. Effects of pH, surfactant, organic solvents, and foreign ions on the determination of ampicillin sodium have been examined. This method is rapid and simple, and can be used for the determination of ampicillin sodium in the injection solution of ampicillin sodium. The results obtained by this method agreed with those by the official method (HPLC).

  14. 1,4-Naphthoquinones and Others NADPH-Dependent Glutathione Reductase-Catalyzed Redox Cyclers as Antimalarial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Belorgey, Didier; Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The homodimeric flavoenzyme glutathione reductase catalyzes NADPH-dependent glutathione disulfide reduction. This reaction is important for keeping the redox homeostasis in human cells and in the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. Different types of NADPH-dependent disulfide reductase inhibitors were designed in various chemical series to evaluate the impact of each inhibition mode on the propagation of the parasites. Against malaria parasites in cultures the most potent and specific effects were observed for redox-active agents acting as subversive substrates for both glutathione reductases of the Plasmodium-infected red blood cells. In their oxidized form, these redox-active compounds are reduced by NADPH-dependent flavoenzyme-catalyzed reactions in the cytosol of infected erythrocytes. In their reduced forms, these compounds can reduce molecular oxygen to reactive oxygen species, or reduce oxidants like methemoglobin, the major nutrient of the parasite, to indigestible hemoglobin. Furthermore, studies on a fluorinated suicide-substrate of the human glutathione reductase indicate that the glutathione reductase-catalyzed bioactivation of 3-benzylnaphthoquinones to the corresponding reduced 3-benzoyl metabolites is essential for the observed antimalarial activity. In conclusion, the antimalarial lead naphthoquinones are suggested to perturb the major redox equilibria of the targeted cells. These effects result in development arrest of the parasite and contribute to the removal of the parasitized erythrocytes by macrophages. PMID:23116403

  15. Determination of lapachol in the presence of other naphthoquinones using 3MPA-CdTe quantum dots fluorescent probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucélio, Ricardo Q.; Peréz-Cordovés, Ana I.; Xavier Lima, Juliano L.; Ferreira, Aurélio Baird B.; Esteva Guas, Ana M.; da Silva, Andrea R.

    3MPA-CdTe QDs in aqueous dispersion was used as a fluorescent probe for the determination of lapachol, a natural naphthoquinone found in plants of the Bignoniaceae family genus Tabebuia. Working QDs dispersions (4.5 × 10-8 mol L-1 of QDs) was prepared in aqueous media containing Tris-HCl buffer pH 7.4 and methanol (10% in volume). The excitation was made at 380 nm with signal measurement at 540 nm. To establish a relationship between fluorescence (corrected to inner filter effect) and concentration of lapachol, a Stern-Volmer model was used. The linear range obtained was from 1.0 × 10-5 to 1.0 × 10-4 mol L-1. The limit of detection (xb - 3 sb) was 8.0 × 10-6 mol L-1. The 3MPA-CdTe QDs probe was tested in the determination of lapachol in urine, previously cleansed in an acrylic polymer. The average recovery was satisfactory.

  16. Repurposing of antiparasitic drugs: the hydroxy-naphthoquinone buparvaquone inhibits vertical transmission in the pregnant neosporosis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Manser, Vera; Wong, Ho Ning; Haynes, Richard K; Hemphill, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The three anti-malarial drugs artemiside, artemisone, and mefloquine, and the naphthoquinone buparvaquone known to be active against theileriosis in cattle and Leishmania infections in rodents, were assessed for activity against Neospora caninum infection. All four compounds inhibited the proliferation of N. caninum tachyzoites in vitro with IC50 in the sub-micromolar range, but artemisone and buparvaquone were most effective (IC50 = 3 and 4.9 nM, respectively). However, in a neosporosis mouse model for cerebral infection comprising Balb/c mice experimentally infected with the virulent isolate Nc-Spain7, the three anti-malarial compounds failed to exhibit any activity, since treatment did not reduce the parasite burden in brains and lungs compared to untreated controls. Thus, these compounds were not further evaluated in pregnant mice. On the other hand, buparvaquone, shown earlier to be effective in reducing the parasite load in the lungs in an acute neosporosis disease model, was further assessed in the pregnant mouse model. Buparvaquone efficiently inhibited vertical transmission in Balb/c mice experimentally infected at day 7 of pregnancy, reduced clinical signs in the pups, but had no effect on cerebral infection in the dams. This demonstrates proof-of-concept that drug repurposing may lead to the discovery of an effective compound against neosporosis that can protect offspring from vertical transmission and disease. PMID:26883424

  17. Exploring the DNA binding/cleavage, cellular accumulation and topoisomerase inhibition of 2-hydroxy-3-(aminomethyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone Mannich bases and their platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Neves, Amanda P; Pereira, Michelle X G; Peterson, Erica J; Kipping, Ralph; Vargas, Maria D; Silva-Jr, Floriano P; Carneiro, J Walkimar M; Farrell, Nicholas P

    2013-02-01

    Several chlorido and amino Pt(2+) complexes of 2-hydroxy-3-(aminomethyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone Mannich bases HL exhibiting moderate to high cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines were studied in order to investigate their modes of DNA binding, in vitro DNA strand breaks, mechanism of topoisomerase (Topo I) inhibition and cellular accumulation. DNA model base studies have shown that complex 1a [Pt(HL1)Cl(2)] was capable of binding covalently to 9-ethylguanine (9-EtG) and 5'-GMP. (1)H NMR and mass spectrometry studies have shown that both chlorides were substituted by 9-EtG ligands, whereas 5'-GMP was able to replace only one chlorido ligand, due to steric hindrance. The chlorido Pt(2+) complexes [Pt(HL)Cl(2)] highly accumulate in prostate (PC-3) and melanoma (MDA-MB-435) cell lines, being able to induce DNA strand breaks in vitro and inhibit Topo I by a catalytic mode. On the other hand, the free 2-hydroxy-3-(aminomethyl)-1,4-naphthoquinones HL and the amino Pt(2+) complexes [Pt(L(-))(NH(3))(2)]NO(3) neither cause DNA strand breakage nor exhibit strong DNA interaction, nevertheless the latter were also found to be catalytic inhibitors of Topo I at 100μM. Thus, coordination of the Mannich bases HL to the "PtCl(2)" fragment substantially affects the chemical and biophysical properties of the pro-ligands, leading to an improvement of their DNA binding properties and generating compounds that cleave DNA and catalytically inhibit Topo I. Finally, the high cytotoxicity exhibited by the free (uncomplexed) 2-hydroxy-3-(aminomethyl)-1,4-naphthoquinones might be associated with their decomposition in solution, which is not observed for the Pt(2+) complexes. PMID:23186648

  18. Distribution of naphthoquinones, plumbagin, droserone, and 5-O-methyl droserone in chitin-induced and uninduced Nepenthes khasiana: molecular events in prey capture.

    PubMed

    Raj, Gopan; Kurup, Rajani; Hussain, Abdul Azeez; Baby, Sabulal

    2011-11-01

    Prey capture and digestion in Nepenthes spp. through their leaf-evolved biological traps involve a sequence of exciting events. Sugar-rich nectar, aroma chemicals, narcotic alkaloid secretions, slippery wax crystals, and other biochemicals take part in attracting, capturing, and digesting preys in Nepenthes pitchers. Here we report the distribution of three potent naphthoquinones in Nepenthes khasiana and their roles in prey capture. Plumbagin was first detected in N. khasiana, and its content (root: 1.33 ± 0.02%, dry wt.) was the highest found in any natural source. Chitin induction enhanced plumbagin levels in N. khasiana (root: 2.17 ± 0.02%, dry wt.). Potted N. khasiana plants with limited growth of roots and aerial parts, showed higher levels of plumbagin accumulation (root: 1.92 ± 0.02%; root, chitin induction: 3.30 ± 0.21%, dry wt.) compared with field plants. Plumbagin, a known toxin, insect ecdysis inhibitor, and antimicrobial, was also found embedded in the waxy layers at the top prey capture region of N. khasiana pitchers. Chitin induction, mimicking prey capture, produced droserone and 5-O-methyl droserone in N. khasiana pitcher fluid. Both these naphthoquinone derivatives provide antimicrobial protection to the pitcher fluid from visiting preys. A two-way barrier was found between plumbagin and its two derivatives. Plumbagin was never detected in the pitcher fluid whereas both its derivatives were only found in the pitcher fluid on chitin induction or prey capture. The three naphthoquinones, plumbagin, droserone, and 5-O-methyl droserone, act as molecular triggers in prey capture and digestion in the carnivorous plant, N. khasiana. PMID:21862483

  19. CHNQ, a novel 2-Chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone derivative of quercetin, induces oxidative stress and autophagy both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Enayat, Shabnam; Şeyma Ceyhan, M; Taşkoparan, Betül; Stefek, Milan; Banerjee, Sreeparna

    2016-04-15

    Quercetin (Qc) shows strong antitumor effects but has limited clinical application due to poor water solubility and bioavailability. In a screening of novel semi-synthetic derivatives of Qc, 3,7-dihydroxy-2-[4-(2-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone-3-yloxy)-3-hydroxyphenyl]-5-hydroxychromen-4-one (CHNQ) could ameliorate acetic acid induced acute colitis in vivo more efficiently than Qc. Since inflammation contributes to colorectal cancer (CRC), we have hypothesized that CHNQ may have anti-cancer effects. Using CRC cell lines HCT-116 and HT-29, we report that CHNQ was three-fold more cytotoxic than Qc along with a robust induction of apoptosis. As expected from naphthoquinones such as CHNQ, a strong induction of oxidative stress was observed. This was accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced autophagy marked by a dramatic increase in the lipidation of LC3, decreased activation of Akt/PKB, acidic vesicle accumulation and puncta formation in HCT-116 cells treated with CHNQ. Interestingly, an incomplete autophagy was observed in HT-29 cells where CHNQ treatment led to LC3 lipidation, but not the formation of acidic vacuoles. CHNQ-induced cytotoxicity, ROS formation and autophagy were also detected in vivo in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain RDKY3615 (WinstonS288C background). Overall, we propose that CHNQ can induce cancer cell death through the induction of oxidative stress, and may be examined further as a potential chemotherapeutic drug. PMID:26946942

  20. An assessment of the genotoxicity of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, the natural dye ingredient of Henna.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Marzin, Daniel

    2003-06-01

    2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (HNQ; Lawsone; CAS 83-72-7) is the principal natural dye ingredient contained in the leaves of Henna (Lawsonia inermis). Published genotoxicity studies on HNQ suggested it was a weak bacterial mutagen for Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 or was more clearly mutagenic for strain TA 2637, both in the presence of metabolic activation. HNQ was unable to induce sex-linked recessive lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. However, a small increase in micronucleus frequency was reported in the bone marrow of mice at a single mid-range dose level, 24h after intraperitoneal injection. In view of the wide use of Henna hair dyes it was deemed necessary to conduct a thorough investigation, under Good Laboratory Practice conditions, of the genotoxicity of HNQ. HNQ was non-mutagenic in bacterial (Ames test) or mammalian (V79 hprt) assays. It was borderline positive in a mouse lymphoma tk mutation assay and a chromosome aberration test (CHO cells), results that may reflect a similar clastogenic mechanism. Negative in vivo genotoxicity results were noted in the rat hepatocyte in vivo/in vitro UDS test, in peripheral lymphocytes (chromosome aberrations) of rats receiving repeated oral doses of HNQ at the MTD for 28 days, and in mouse and hamster bone marrow chromosome aberration tests. However small, but statistically significant increases in the incidence of bone marrow micronuclei were observed in two out of five tests at 72 h after dosing, but not at 24 or 48 h. There was evidence of haematotoxicity at 72 h, which may have been enhanced by the vehicle (DMSO) used in the positive tests. As erythropoiesis and administration of haematotoxic agents are known to induce small increases in the frequency of bone marrow micronuclei, typically at delayed sampling times, the data suggest that the positive 72 h response produced by HNQ is consistent with stimulation of haematopoiesis subsequent to haematological toxicity of HNQ, and not due to a DNA-reactive mechanism. Overall, the weight of evidence suggests that Henna and HNQ pose no genotoxic risk to the consumer. PMID:12787822

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi mitochondrial swelling and membrane potential collapse as primary evidence of the mode of action of naphthoquinone analogues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Naphthoquinones (NQs) are privileged structures in medicinal chemistry due to the biological effects associated with the induction of oxidative stress. The present study evaluated the activities of sixteen NQs derivatives on Trypanosoma cruzi. Results Fourteen NQs displayed higher activity against bloodstream trypomastigotes of T. cruzi than benznidazole. Further assays with NQ1, NQ8, NQ9 and NQ12 showed inhibition of the proliferation of axenic epimastigotes and intracelulluar amastigotes interiorized in macrophages and in heart muscle cells. NQ8 was the most active NQ against both proliferative forms of T. cruzi. In epimastigotes the four NQs induced mitochondrial swelling, vacuolization, and flagellar blebbing. The treatment with NQs also induced the appearance of large endoplasmic reticulum profiles surrounding different cellular structures and of myelin-like membranous contours, morphological characteristics of an autophagic process. At IC50 concentration, NQ8 totally disrupted the ΔΨm of about 20% of the parasites, suggesting the induction of a sub-population with metabolically inactive mitochondria. On the other hand, NQ1, NQ9 or NQ12 led only to a discrete decrease of TMRE + labeling at IC50 values. NQ8 led also to an increase in the percentage of parasites labeled with DHE, indicative of ROS production, possibly the cause of the observed mitochondrial swelling. The other three NQs behaved similarly to untreated controls. Conclusions NQ1, NQ8, NQ9 and NQ12 induce an autophagic phenotype in T. cruzi epimastigoted, as already observed with others NQs. The absence of oxidative stress in NQ1-, NQ9- and NQ12-treated parasites could be due to the existence of more than one mechanism of action involved in their trypanocidal activity, leaving ROS generation suppressed by the detoxification system of the parasite. The strong redox effect of NQ8 could be associated to the presence of the acetyl group in its structure facilitating quinone reduction, as previously demonstrated by electrochemical analysis. Further experiments using biochemical and molecular approaches are needed to better characterize ROS participation in the mechanism of action of these NQs. PMID:24004461

  2. On-line continuous sampling dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatographic separation for the determination of lignans in Wuweizi and naphthoquinones in Zicao.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shiqian; You, Jingyan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Hanqi

    2012-03-01

    The on-line continuous sampling dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (on-line CSDMAE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatographic separation and determination of the lignans in Wuweizi and naphthoquinones in Zicao was developed. The extraction, separation and determination of target analytes were simultaneously carried out. The experimental parameters, including type of extraction solvent, microwave extraction power, solvent flow rate, amount of sample and particle size of the sample, were evaluated by the univariate method and orthogonal screening. The detection limits for schisandrin A, schisantherin A, deoxyschizandrin, shikonin and β,β'-dimethylacrylshikonin are 0.86, 0.90, 0.27, 0.42 and 0.92 μg mL⁻¹, respectively. Compared with the conventional extraction methods, such as off-line continuous microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction, the proposed method is quicker and more effective. PMID:22321410

  3. The effect of Na+ and K+ doping on the properties of sol-gel deposited 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Omari, Mahmoud; Sel, Kivanc; Mueller, Anja; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga

    2013-05-01

    We describe the use of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (HNQ) thin films as a potential water vapor and electrolyte sensing material towards the goal of non-invasive relative humidity and sweat detection. We have successfully made HNQ sol-gel thin films and studied the effects of sodium and potassium ions on their optical and electrical characteristics. Ultraviolet-visible absorbance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements along with scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that we were able to dope HNQ thin films with Na+ and K+ ions, which are the main electrolyte contents in sweat. While the conductivity of thin films increased by at least an order of magnitude, energy band gaps decreased by doping HNQ with Na+ and K+ ions. Relative humidity test results showed that HNQ-based thin-films can be used as a sensing material for water vapor. Room temperature current-voltage measurements were also performed to determine the surface conductivity.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of n-alkylamino derivatives of vitamin K3: Molecular structure of 2-propylamino-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and antibacterial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadar, Dattatray; Camilles, Maria; Patil, Rishikesh; Khan, Ayesha; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2015-04-01

    We would like to introduce eight analogues of n-alkylamino derivatives of vitamin K3 (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) viz, 2-(n-alkylamino)-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (where n-alkyl is methyl; LM-1, ethyl; LM-2, propyl; LM-3, butyl; LM-4, pentyl; LM-5, hexyl; LM-6, heptyl; LM-7, octyl; LM-8). All the above analogues have been successfully synthesized from vitamin K3 and characterized using different analytical techniques. Furthermore, in order to understand the mechanistic aspects of formation of LM-1 to LM-8 compounds, we could propose the mechanism. The FT-IR analysis of LM-1 to LM-8 indicate the presence of characteristic band of Nsbnd H group ∼3287-3364 cm-1, the variation was attributed to extensive intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction. The molecular structure of LM-3 compound has been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. LM-3 compound crystallises in triclinic space group P1. There were four independent molecules in asymmetric unit cell and their molecular interactions observed via Nsbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯O and π-π stacking of quinonoid rings. Pharmacological potential of all compounds has been evaluated in terms of their antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. All the compounds were active against both the strains while LM-2 was found to be more effective with a minimum inhibition concentration of 0.3125 μg/mL and 0.156 μg/mL respectively.

  5. Hydroxylated Dimeric Naphthoquinones Increase the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species, Induce Apoptosis of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells and Are Not Substrates of the Multidrug Resistance Proteins ABCB1 and ABCG2

    PubMed Central

    Lapidus, Rena G.; Carter-Cooper, Brandon A.; Sadowska, Mariola; Choi, Eun Yong; Wonodi, Omasiri; Muvarak, Nidal; Natarajan, Karthika; Pidugu, Lakshmi S.; Jaiswal, Anil; Toth, Eric A.; Rassool, Feyruz V.; Etemadi, Arash; Sausville, Edward A.; Baer, Maria R.; Emadi, Ashkan

    2016-01-01

    Selective targeting of the oxidative state, which is a tightly balanced fundamental cellular property, is an attractive strategy for developing novel anti-leukemic chemotherapeutics with potential applications in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a molecularly heterogeneous disease. Dimeric naphthoquinones (BiQs) with the ability to undergo redox cycling and to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells are a novel class of compounds with unique characteristics that make them excellent candidates to be tested against AML cells. We evaluated the effect of two BiQ analogues and one monomeric naphthoquinone in AML cell lines and primary cells from patients. All compounds possess one halogen and one hydroxyl group on the quinone cores. Dimeric, but not monomeric, naphthoquinones demonstrated significant anti-AML activity in the cell lines and primary cells from patients with favorable therapeutic index compared to normal hematopoietic cells. BiQ-1 effectively inhibited clonogenicity and induced apoptosis as measured by Western blotting and Annexin V staining and mitochondrial membrane depolarization by flow cytometry. BiQ-1 significantly enhances intracellular ROS levels in AML cells and upregulates expression of key anti-oxidant protein, Nrf2. Notably, systemic exposure to BiQ-1 was well tolerated in mice. In conclusion, we propose that BiQ-induced therapeutic augmentation of ROS in AML cells with dysregulation of antioxidants kill leukemic cells while normal cells remain relatively intact. Further studies are warranted to better understand this class of potential chemotherapeutics. PMID:26797621

  6. Effect of l-phenylalanine on PAL activity and production of naphthoquinone pigments in suspension cultures of Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnst.

    PubMed

    Sykłowska-Baranek, Katarzyna; Pietrosiuk, Agnieszka; Naliwajski, Marcin R; Kawiak, Anna; Jeziorek, Małgorzata; Wyderska, Sylwia; Lojkowska, Ewa; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-10-01

    The effects of l-phenylalanine (PHE) on cell growth and production of shikonin and its derivatives, acetylshikonin (ACS) and isobutyrylshikonin (IBS), in suspension cultures of Arnebia euchroma were examined. Supplementing media using PHE have been successfully utilized to enhance shikonin production in cell cultures of other species of Boraginaceae. l-Phenylalanine, the key compound in the phenylpropanoid pathway, is converted by phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) to trans-cinnamic acid, which is the precursor of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB). Coupling of PHB and geranyl pyrophosphate (derived from mevalonate pathway) by p-hydroxybenzoate-m-geranyltransferase leads later to biosynthesis of shikonins. The addition of 0.01 or 0.1 mM PHE to the culture medium stimulated cell proliferation, where the highest observed increase in fresh cell biomass (measured as a ratio of final weight to initial weight) was 12-fold, in contrast to an eightfold increase in control cultures. Whereas, growth media supplemented with 1 mM PHE markedly reduced the rate of cell growth (to only twofold). Precursor feeding had detrimental effects on both ACS and IBS production in all PHE-supplemented media. The highest total content (intracellular + extracellular) of the investigated red pigments (9.5 mg per flask) was detected in the control culture without PHE. ACS was the major component of the naphthoquinone fraction determined in cells and post-culture media. Shikonin itself was found only in the post-culture media from cultures supplemented with 0.01 or 0.1 mM PHE. Increases in PAL activity corresponded well with the accumulation of investigated naphthoquinones in control culture. However, peak PAL activity did not directly correlate with maximum production of shikonin derivatives. Cytotoxicity of extracts, prepared from the cells cultivated in the presence of PHE or in control cultures, was tested on three cancer cell lines: HL-60, HeLa, and MCF-7. The extracts prepared from the untreated control cultures proved to be the most potent against the examined cancer cell lines. The mean inhibitory concentration values were 0.3, 13, and 8 μg ml(-1) for the HL-60, HeLa, and MCF-7 cells, respectively. PMID:23049233

  7. Validated spectrophotometric method for the determination, spectroscopic characterization and thermal structural analysis of duloxetine with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar; Elmali, Fikriye Tuncel

    2012-03-01

    A novel, selective, sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of the antidepressant duloxetine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation. The method was based on the reaction of duloxetine hydrochloride with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) in alkaline media to yield orange colored product. The formation of this complex was also confirmed by UV-visible, FTIR, 1H NMR, Mass spectra techniques and thermal analysis. This method was validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. Beer's law is obeyed in a range of 5.0-60 μg/mL at the maximum absorption wavelength of 480 nm. The detection limit is 0.99 μg/mL and the recovery rate is in a range of 98.10-99.57%. The proposed methods was validated and applied to the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation. The results were statistically analyzed and compared to those of a reference UV spectrophotometric method.

  8. A Novel Color Change Mechanism for Breast Cancer Biomarker Detection: Naphthoquinones as Specific Ligands of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1

    PubMed Central

    Varney, Amy; Thinnes, Cyrille C.; Quevedo, Camilo E.; Seden, Peter T.; Thompson, Sam; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dairou, Julien; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Russell, Angela J.; Sim, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (hNAT1) has become an attractive potential biomarker for estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancers. We describe here the mechanism of action of a selective non-covalent colorimetric biosensor for the recognition of hNAT1 and its murine homologue, mNat2, over their respective isoenzymes, leading to new opportunities in diagnosis. On interaction with the enzyme, the naphthoquinone probe undergoes an instantaneous and striking visible color change from red to blue. Spectroscopic, chemical, molecular modelling and biochemical studies reported here show that the color change is mediated by selective recognition between the conjugate base of the sulfonamide group within the probe and the conjugate acid of the arginine residue within the active site of both hNAT1 and mNat2. This represents a new mechanism for selective biomarker sensing and may be exploited as a general approach to the specific detection of biomarkers in disease. PMID:23940600

  9. Nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations of Cdc25B and its complex with a 1,4-naphthoquinone inhibitor: implications for rational inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sungmin; Lee, Woojin; Lee, Sangyoub; Park, Hwangseo

    2008-08-01

    Cdc25 phosphatases have been considered as attractive drug targets for anticancer therapies due to the correlation of their overexpression with a wide variety of cancers. To gain insight into designing new potent inhibitors, we investigate the dynamic properties of Cdc25B and its complex with a 1,4-naphtoquinone inhibitor NSC 95397 by means of molecular dynamics simulations in aqueous solution. It is shown from the calculated dynamic properties that the malleability of the residues 530-532 residing at the start of C-terminal region around the active site should be responsible for the catalytic action of Cdc25B. However, binding of the inhibitor in the active site leads to a substantial decrease in the motional amplitude of the flexible residues, due to the hydrophobic interactions with the side chain of Met531. The simulation results also indicate that at least four hydrogen bonds are involved in the enzyme-inhibitor complex. Among them, the hydrogen bond between the side chain carboxylate group of Glu478 and one of the hydroxyl groups of the inhibitor is found to be the most significant binding force stabilizing the inhibitor in the active site. This result supports the previous experimental implication that the possession of a single hydroxyl group is sufficient for the inhibitory activity of 1,4-naphthoquinone inhibitors. PMID:18359256

  10. Development of sensitivity-improved fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay using a fluorescent single-domain antibody against the bioactive naphthoquinone, plumbagin.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Taura, Futoshi; Pongkitwitoon, Benyakan; Putalun, Waraporn; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Kinjo, Junei; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2010-04-01

    A fluorescent single-domain antibody (fluobody), a fusion protein of a green fluorescent protein extracted from Aequorea coerulescens (AcGFP), a mutant that has been codon-optimized for mammalian expression, and a single-chain variable fragment antibody (scFv), against plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone; PL) was successfully constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed fluobody was purified, refolded, and characterized to develop a speedy, simple, and sensitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) for the determination of PL. In this study, two kinds of fluobody containing PL-scFv at the N-terminus of AcGFP (N fluobody) or the C-terminus of AcGFP (C fluobody) were constructed with flexible amino acid linker (Gly(4)Ser)(2) between PL-scFv and AcGFP for comparative purposes. Characterization of the fluobodies revealed that the C fluobody has better properties as a probe for FLISA than the N fluobody because the fluorescence intensity of C fluobody was 18-fold higher than that of N fluobody. Moreover, C fluobody exhibited a fourfold-higher binding affinity than the N fluobody. More interestingly, the limit of detection for PL measurement in FLISA (24 ng mL(-1)) was improved to eightfold higher than that in conventional ELISA (0.2 microg mL(-1)), indicating that a sensitive immunoassay could be developed by using fluobody instead of monoclonal antibody or scFv. PMID:20217398

  11. Spectrophotometric study for the reaction between fluvoxamine and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate: Kinetic, mechanism and use for determination of fluvoxamine in its dosage forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Ibrahim A.; Abdine, Heba H.; Amer, Sawsan M.; Al-Rayes, Lama I.

    2009-05-01

    Spectrophotometric study was carried out, for the first time, to investigate the reaction between the antidepressant fluvoxamine (FXM) and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) reagent. In alkaline medium (pH 9), an orange-colored product exhibiting maximum absorption peak ( λmax) at 470 nm was produced. The kinetics of the reaction was investigated and its activation energy was found to be 2.65 kcal mol -1. Because of this low activation energy, the reaction proceeded easily. The stoichiometry of the reaction was determined and the reaction mechanism was postulated. This color-developing reaction was successfully employed in the development of simple and rapid spectrophotometric method for determination of FXM in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. Under the optimized reaction conditions, Beer's law correlating the absorbance ( A) with FXM concentration ( C) was obeyed in the range of 0.6-8 μg ml -1. The regression equation for the calibration data was A = 0.0086 + 0.1348 C, with good correlation coefficient (0.9996). The molar absorptivity ( ɛ) was 5.9 × 10 4 l mol -1 cm -1. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.2 and 0.6 μg ml -1, respectively. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviations did not exceed 2%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of FXM in its pharmaceutical tablets with good accuracy and precisions; the label claim percentage was 100.47 ± 0.96%. The results obtained by the proposed method were comparable with those obtained by the official method. The proposed method is superior to all the previously reported spectrophotometric methods for determination of FXM in terms of its simplicity and sensitivity. The method is practical and valuable for its routine application in quality control laboratories for analysis of FXM.

  12. Experimental Chemotherapy for Chagas Disease: A Morphological, Biochemical, and Proteomic Overview of Potential Trypanosoma cruzi Targets of Amidines Derivatives and Naphthoquinones

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Solange L.; Batista, Denise G. J.; Batista, Marcos M.; Batista, Wanderson; Daliry, Anissa; de Souza, Elen M.; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. S.; Oliveira, Gabriel M.; Salomão, Kelly; Silva, Cristiane F.; Silva, Patricia B.; Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré C.

    2011-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, affects approximately eight million individuals in Latin America and is emerging in nonendemic areas due to the globalisation of immigration and nonvectorial transmission routes. Although CD represents an important public health problem, resulting in high morbidity and considerable mortality rates, few investments have been allocated towards developing novel anti-T. cruzi agents. The available therapy for CD is based on two nitro derivatives (benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox (Nf)) developed more than four decades ago. Both are far from ideal due to substantial secondary side effects, limited efficacy against different parasite isolates, long-term therapy, and their well-known poor activity in the late chronic phase. These drawbacks justify the urgent need to identify better drugs to treat chagasic patients. Although several classes of natural and synthetic compounds have been reported to act in vitro and in vivo on T. cruzi, since the introduction of Bz and Nf, only a few drugs, such as allopurinol and a few sterol inhibitors, have moved to clinical trials. This reflects, at least in part, the absence of well-established universal protocols to screen and compare drug activity. In addition, a large number of in vitro studies have been conducted using only epimastigotes and trypomastigotes instead of evaluating compounds' activities against intracellular amastigotes, which are the reproductive forms in the vertebrate host and are thus an important determinant in the selection and identification of effective compounds for further in vivo analysis. In addition, due to pharmacokinetics and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion characteristics, several compounds that were promising in vitro have not been as effective as Nf or Bz in animal models of T. cruzi infection. In the last two decades, our team has collaborated with different medicinal chemistry groups to develop preclinical studies for CD and investigate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy, toxicity, selectivity, and parasite targets of different classes of natural and synthetic compounds. Some of these results will be briefly presented, focusing primarily on diamidines and related compounds and naphthoquinone derivatives that showed the most promising efficacy against T. cruzi. PMID:22091400

  13. Charge transfer interaction of 4-acetamidophenol (paracetamol) with 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone: A study in aqueous ethanol medium by UV-vis spectroscopic and DFT methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Avijit; Tiwary, Amit S.; Mukherjee, Asok K.

    2008-12-01

    4-Acetamidophenol (paracetamol) is shown to form charge transfer complex with 2,3-dichloro1,4-naphthoquinone in aqueous ethanol media exhibiting the unusual 2:1 (paracetamol:quinone) stoichiometry. The complexation enthalpy and entropy have been estimated from the formation constant ( K) determined spectrophotometrically at five different temperatures. In aqueous ethanol mixtures of varying composition K increases with increasing dielectric constant of the medium. This has been rationalized by calculating the electronic charge distribution in paracetamol molecule and its conjugate base at the DFT/B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level. The theoretically calculated vertical ionization potential of paracetamol also agrees with reported experimental value.

  14. Charge transfer interaction of 4-acetamidophenol (paracetamol) with 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone: a study in aqueous ethanol medium by UV-vis spectroscopic and DFT methods.

    PubMed

    Saha, Avijit; Tiwary, Amit S; Mukherjee, Asok K

    2008-12-01

    4-Acetamidophenol (paracetamol) is shown to form charge transfer complex with 2,3-dichloro1,4-naphthoquinone in aqueous ethanol media exhibiting the unusual 2:1 (paracetamol:quinone) stoichiometry. The complexation enthalpy and entropy have been estimated from the formation constant (K) determined spectrophotometrically at five different temperatures. In aqueous ethanol mixtures of varying composition K increases with increasing dielectric constant of the medium. This has been rationalized by calculating the electronic charge distribution in paracetamol molecule and its conjugate base at the DFT/B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level. The theoretically calculated vertical ionization potential of paracetamol also agrees with reported experimental value. PMID:18343717

  15. Effects of sodium ascorbate (vitamin C) and 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3) treatment on human tumor cell growth in vitro. I. Synergism of combined vitamin C and K3 action.

    PubMed

    Noto, V; Taper, H S; Jiang, Y H; Janssens, J; Bonte, J; De Loecker, W

    1989-03-01

    The effects of sodium ascorbate (vitamin C) and 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3) administered separately or in combination on the in vitro cultured human neoplastic cell lines MCF-7 (breast carcinoma), KB (oral epidermoid carcinoma), and AN3-CA (endometrial adenocarcinoma) have been examined. When given separately, vitamin C or K3 had a growth inhibiting action only at high concentrations (5.10(3) mumol/1 and 10(5) nmol/l, respectively). Combined administration of both vitamins demonstrated a synergistic inhibition of cell growth at 10 to 50 times lower concentrations. At this level separately given vitamins are not toxic. The sensitivity to this treatment was somewhat different in the three cell lines, being slightly higher for KB line. This tumor cell growth inhibitory effect was completely suppressed by the addition of catalase to the culture medium containing vitamins C and K3, suggesting an excessive production of hydrogen peroxide as being implied in mechanisms responsible for the above-mentioned effects. PMID:2914296

  16. Atomic and dynamic insights into the beneficial effect of the 1,4-naphthoquinon-2-yl-L-tryptophan inhibitor on Alzheimer's Aβ1-42 dimer in terms of aggregation and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Xu, Weixin; Mu, Yuguang; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2014-02-19

    Aggregation of the amyloid β protein (Aβ) peptide with 40 or 42 residues is one key feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The 1,4-naphthoquinon-2-yl-L-tryptophan (NQTrp) molecule was reported to alter Aβ self-assembly and reduce toxicity. Though nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and various simulations provided atomic information about the interaction of NQTrp with Aβ peptides spanning the regions of residues 12-28 and 17-42, none of these studies were conducted on the full-length Aβ1-42 peptide. To this end, we performed extensive atomistic replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of Aβ1-42 dimer with two NQTrp molecules in explicit solvent, by using a force field known to fold diverse proteins correctly. The interactions between NQTrp and Aβ1-42, which change the Aβ interface by reducing most of the intermolecular contacts, are found to be very dynamic and multiple, leading to many transient binding sites. The most favorable binding residues are Arg5, Asp7, Tyr10, His13, Lys16, Lys18, Phe19/Phe20, and Leu34/Met35, providing therefore a completely different picture from in vitro and in silico experiments with NQTrp with shorter Aβ fragments. Importantly, the 10 hot residues that we identified explain the beneficial effect of NQTrp in reducing both the level of Aβ1-42 aggregation and toxicity. Our results also indicate that there is room to design more efficient drugs targeting Aβ1-42 dimer against AD. PMID:24246047

  17. Atomic and Dynamic Insights into the Beneficial Effect of the 1,4-Naphthoquinon-2-yl-l-tryptophan Inhibitor on Alzheimer’s Aβ1–42 Dimer in Terms of Aggregation and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation of the amyloid β protein (Aβ) peptide with 40 or 42 residues is one key feature in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The 1,4-naphthoquinon-2-yl-l-tryptophan (NQTrp) molecule was reported to alter Aβ self-assembly and reduce toxicity. Though nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and various simulations provided atomic information about the interaction of NQTrp with Aβ peptides spanning the regions of residues 12–28 and 17–42, none of these studies were conducted on the full-length Aβ1–42 peptide. To this end, we performed extensive atomistic replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of Aβ1–42 dimer with two NQTrp molecules in explicit solvent, by using a force field known to fold diverse proteins correctly. The interactions between NQTrp and Aβ1–42, which change the Aβ interface by reducing most of the intermolecular contacts, are found to be very dynamic and multiple, leading to many transient binding sites. The most favorable binding residues are Arg5, Asp7, Tyr10, His13, Lys16, Lys18, Phe19/Phe20, and Leu34/Met35, providing therefore a completely different picture from in vitro and in silico experiments with NQTrp with shorter Aβ fragments. Importantly, the 10 hot residues that we identified explain the beneficial effect of NQTrp in reducing both the level of Aβ1–42 aggregation and toxicity. Our results also indicate that there is room to design more efficient drugs targeting Aβ1–42 dimer against AD. PMID:24246047

  18. Charge–transfer reaction of 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone with crizotinib: Spectrophotometric study, computational molecular modeling and use in development of microwell assay for crizotinib

    PubMed Central

    Alzoman, Nourah Z.; Alshehri, Jamilah M.; Darwish, Ibrahim A.; Khalil, Nasr Y.; Abdel-Rahman, Hamdy M.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (DCNQ) with crizotinib (CZT; a novel drug used for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer) was investigated in different solvents of varying dielectric constants and polarity indexes. The reaction produced a red-colored product. Spectrophotometric investigations confirmed that the reaction proceeded through charge–transfer (CT) complex formation. The molar absorptivity of the complex was found to be linearly correlated with the dielectric constant and polarity index of the solvent; the correlation coefficients were 0.9567 and 0.9069, respectively. The stoichiometric ratio of DCNQ:CZT was found to be 2:1 and the association constant of the complex was found to be 1.07 × 102 l/mol. The kinetics of the reaction was studied; the order of the reaction, rate and rate constant were determined. Computational molecular modeling for the complex between DCNQ and CZT was conducted, the sites of interaction on CZT molecule were determined, and the mechanism of the reaction was postulated. The reaction was employed as a basis in the development of a novel 96-microwell assay for CZT in a linear range of 4–500 μg/ml. The assay limits of detection and quantitation were 2.06 and 6.23 μg/ml, respectively. The assay was validated as per the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) and successfully applied to the analysis of CZT in its bulk and capsules with good accuracy and precision. The assay has high throughput and consumes a minimum volume of organic solvents thus it reduces the exposures of the analysts to the toxic effects of organic solvents, and significantly reduces the analysis cost. PMID:25685046

  19. In Vitro Activity of 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and Stigmasta-7,22-diene-3β-ol from Impatiens balsamina L. against Multiple Antibiotic-Resistant Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Li, Wan-Yu; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Wang, Jeh-Jeng; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Liao, Jyun-Ji; Lin, Cheng-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori is strongly associated with gastric cancer and gastric adenocarcinoma. WHO classified H. pylori as a group 1 carcinogen in 1994. Impatiens balsamina L. has been used as indigenous medicine in Asia for the treatment of rheumatism, fractures and fingernail inflammation. In this study, we isolated anti-H. pylori compounds from this plant and investigated their anti- and bactericidal activity. Compounds of 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MeONQ) and stigmasta-7,22-diene-3β-ol (spinasterol) were isolated from the pods and roots/stems/leaves of I. balsamina L., respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for MeONQ were in the ranges of 0.156–0.625 and 0.313–0.625 μg mL−1, respectively, and in the ranges of 20–80 μg mL−1 both of MICs and MBCs for spinasterol against antibiotic (clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin) resistant H. pylori. Notably, the activity of MeONQ was equivalent to that of amoxicillin (AMX). The bactericidal H. pylori action of MeONQ was dose-dependent. Furthermore, the activity of MeONQ was not influenced by the environmental pH values (4–8) and demonstrated good thermal (121°C for 15 min) stability. MeONQ abounds in the I. balsamina L. pod at the level of 4.39% (w/w db). In conclusion, MeONQ exhibits strong potential to be developed as a candidate agent for the eradication of H. pylori infection. PMID:19773391

  20. Plumbagin, a medicinal plant (Plumbago zeylanica)-derived 1,4-naphthoquinone, inhibits growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer PC-3M-luciferase cells in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Zhong, Weixiong; Fischer, Joseph W; Mustafa, Ala; Shi, Xudong; Meske, Louise; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo; Havighurst, Thomas; Kim, Kyungmann; Verma, Ajit K

    2013-06-01

    We present here first time that Plumbagin (PL), a medicinal plant-derived 1,4-naphthoquinone, inhibits the growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer (PCa) cells in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. In this study, human PCa PC-3M-luciferase cells (2 × 10(6)) were injected into the prostate of athymic nude mice. Three days post cell implantation, mice were treated with PL (2 mg/kg body wt. i.p. five days in a week) for 8 weeks. Growth and metastasis of PC-3M-luciferase cells was examined weekly by bioluminescence imaging of live mice. PL-treatment significantly (p = 0.0008) inhibited the growth of orthotopic xenograft tumors. Results demonstrated a significant inhibition of metastasis into liver (p = 0.037), but inhibition of metastasis into the lungs (p = 0.60) and lymph nodes (p = 0.27) was not observed to be significant. These results were further confirmed by histopathology of these organs. Results of histopathology demonstrated a significant inhibition of metastasis into lymph nodes (p = 0.034) and lungs (p = 0.028), and a trend to significance in liver (p = 0.075). None of the mice in the PL-treatment group showed PCa metastasis into the liver, but these mice had small metastasis foci into the lymph nodes and lungs. However, control mice had large metastatic foci into the lymph nodes, lungs, and liver. PL-caused inhibition of the growth and metastasis of PC-3M cells accompanies inhibition of the expression of: 1) PKCε, pStat3Tyr705, and pStat3Ser727, 2) Stat3 downstream target genes (survivin and Bcl(xL)), 3) proliferative markers Ki-67 and PCNA, 4) metastatic marker MMP9, MMP2, and uPA, and 5) angiogenesis markers CD31 and VEGF. Taken together, these results suggest that PL inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of human PCa PC3-M-luciferase cells, which could be used as a therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of human PCa. PMID:23273564

  1. Plumbagin, a medicinal plant (Plumbago zeylanica) - derived 1,4-naphthoquinone, inhibits growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer PC-3M-luciferase cells in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Zhong, Weixiong; Fischer, Joseph W.; Mustafa, Ala; Shi, Xudong Daniel; Meske, Louise; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo; Havighurst, Thomas; Kim, KyungMann; Verma, Ajit. K

    2012-01-01

    We present here first time that Plumbagin (PL), a medicinal plant-derived 1,4-naphthoquinone, inhibits the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer (PCa) in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. In this study, human PCa PC-3M-luciferase cells (2X106) were injected into the prostate of athymic nude mice. Three days post cell implantation, mice were treated with PL (2 mg/kg body wt. i.p five days in a week) for 8 weeks. Growth and metastasis of PC-3M-luciferase cells was examined weekly by bioluminescence imaging of live mice. PL-treatment significantly (p=0.0008) inhibited the growth of orthotopic xenograft tumors. PCa metastasis into the liver, lungs and lymph nodes was determined by bioluminescence imaging and histopathology. Results demonstrated a significant inhibition of metastasis into liver (p=0.037), but inhibition of metastasis into the lungs (p=0.60) and liver (p=0.27) was not observed to be significant. These results were further confirmed by histopathology of these organs. Results of histopathology demonstrated a significant inhibition of metastasis into lymph nodes (p=0.034) and lungs (p=0.028), and a trend to significance in liver (p=0.075). None of the mice in the PL-treatment group showed PCa metastasis into the liver, but these mice had small metastasis foci into the lymph nodes and lungs. However, control mice had large metastatic foci into the lymph nodes, lungs, and liver. PL-caused inhibition of the growth and metastasis of PC-3M cells accompanies inhibition of the expression of: 1) PKCε, pStat3Tyr705, and pStat3Ser727, 2) Stat3 downstream target genes (survivin and BclxL), 3) proliferative markers Ki-67 and PCNA, 4) metastatic marker MMP9, MMP2, and uPA, and 5) angiogenesis markers CD31 and VEGF. Taken together, these results suggest that PL inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of human PCa PC3-M-luciferase cells, which could be used as a therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of human PCa. PL: Plumbagin, PCa: Prostate cancer. PMID:23273564

  2. Evidences for leishmanicidal activity of the naphthoquinone derivative epoxy-α-lapachone.

    PubMed

    Souza-Silva, Franklin; do Nascimento, Samara Braga; Bourguignon, Saulo Cabral; Pereira, Bernardo Acácio Santini; Carneiro, Paula Fernandes; da Silva, Wellington Seguis; Alves, Carlos Roberto; de Pinho, Rosa Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we analyze the leishmanicidal effects of epoxy-α-lapachone on Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. Promasigotes and amastigotes (inhabiting human macrophages) from both species were assayed to verify the compound's activity over the distinct morphological stages. The incubation with epoxy-α-lapachone led to a significant decrease in the numbers of promastigotes from both species in the cultures, in a dose-and time-dependent fashion. The survival of amastigotes inhabiting human macrophages was also drastically affected by the compound, as shown by the variations in the endocytic index. Our results indicate that the epoxy-α-lapachone has an antiparasitic effect over Leishmania in both morphological stages and may potentially affect a range of species in two distinct subgenera of this parasite. PMID:25307687

  3. In Vitro Induction of Erythrocyte Phosphatidylserine Translocation by the Natural Naphthoquinone Shikonin

    PubMed Central

    Lupescu, Adrian; Bissinger, Rosi; Jilani, Kashif; Lang, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Shikonin, the most important component of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has previously been shown to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiviral, antimicrobial and anticancer effects. The anticancer effect has been attributed to the stimulation of suicidal cell death or apoptosis. Similar to the apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may experience eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and by phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include the increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and ceramide formation. The present study explored whether Shikonin stimulates eryptosis. To this end, Fluo 3 fluorescence was measured to quantify [Ca2+]i, forward scatter to estimate cell volume, annexin V binding to identify phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes, hemoglobin release to determine hemolysis and antibodies to quantify ceramide abundance. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to Shikonin (1 µM) significantly increased [Ca2+]i, increased ceramide abundance, decreased forward scatter and increased annexin V binding. The effect of Shikonin (1 µM) on annexin V binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by the removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, Shikonin stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect at least partially due to the stimulation of Ca2+ entry and ceramide formation. PMID:24828755

  4. In vitro induction of erythrocyte phosphatidylserine translocation by the natural naphthoquinone shikonin.

    PubMed

    Lupescu, Adrian; Bissinger, Rosi; Jilani, Kashif; Lang, Florian

    2014-05-01

    Shikonin, the most important component of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has previously been shown to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiviral, antimicrobial and anticancer effects. The anticancer effect has been attributed to the stimulation of suicidal cell death or apoptosis. Similar to the apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may experience eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and by phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include the increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and ceramide formation. The present study explored whether Shikonin stimulates eryptosis. To this end, Fluo 3 fluorescence was measured to quantify [Ca2+]i, forward scatter to estimate cell volume, annexin V binding to identify phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes, hemoglobin release to determine hemolysis and antibodies to quantify ceramide abundance. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to Shikonin (1 µM) significantly increased [Ca2+]i, increased ceramide abundance, decreased forward scatter and increased annexin V binding. The effect of Shikonin (1 µM) on annexin V binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by the removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, Shikonin stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect at least partially due to the stimulation of Ca2+ entry and ceramide formation. PMID:24828755

  5. Substituent-enabled oxidative dehydrogenative cross-coupling of 1,4-naphthoquinones with alkenes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Wang, Meining; Fan, Zhoulong; Sun, Li-Ping; Zhang, Ao

    2014-08-15

    A Rh-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative cross-coupling of 1,4-naphthquinones with alkenes was achieved by using a substituent-enabled C(sp(2))-H functionalization (SEF) strategy. The method shows high functional group tolerance, broad substrate scope, and great potential for further functional transformations. PMID:25075553

  6. Biopolymeric film containing bioactive naphthoquinone (shikonin) in combined therapy of inflammatory destructive lesions in the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zagorodnyaya, E B; Oskol'skii, G I; Basharov, A Ya; Lushnikova, E L; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Zagorodnii, A S

    2013-12-01

    Clinical morphological efficiency of local application of a new biopolymeric film was studied. The film was based on methylcellulose derivatives and contained shikonin (preparation of plant origin) and its esters isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon L. cell culture. Combined therapy of 30 patients (34-72 years) with erosive ulcerative lichen planus and leukoplakia of the buccal mucosa was carried out. Local application of the new drug led to more rapid pain relief, epithelialization of the inflammatory destructive foci in the buccal mucosa, and reduced the intensity of morphological signs of lesions in the studied patient population. PMID:24319756

  7. Potent and specific bactericidal effect of juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) on the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Thilo Christopher; Gosch, Christian; Mirbeth, Beate; Gselmann, Markus; Thallmair, Veronika; Stich, Karl

    2012-12-12

    A screening of plant quinones for inhibiting effects on the bacterial fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora was performed. The most active compound, juglone from walnuts, has a potent and specific bactericidal effect on E. amylovora and minimal inhibitory concentrations of only 2.5-10 μM, with stronger effects at lower, but still physiological, pH values. In vitro tests with juglone and inoculated flowers of apple (Malus domestica) showed an efficacy of 67% in preventing infection. In two years of field tests juglone had variable degrees of efficacy ranging from 40 to 82%, seemingly due to environmental conditions. A phytotoxic reaction to juglone, which is known for its allelopathic effect on plants, was restricted to browning of petals; later fruit russeting was not observed. Juglone is a promising candidate for the development of a new environmentally friendly plant protectant to replace the antibiotic streptomycin currently used in fire blight control. PMID:23163769

  8. Ramentaceone, a Naphthoquinone Derived from Drosera sp., Induces Apoptosis by Suppressing PI3K/Akt Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kawiak, Anna; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway plays an important role in processes critical for breast cancer progression and its upregulation confers increased resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiation. The present study aimed at determining the activity of ramentaceone, a constituent of species in the plant genera Drosera, toward breast cancer cells and defining the involvement of PI3K/Akt inhibition in ramentaceone-mediated cell death induction. The results showed that ramentaceone exhibited high antiproliferative activity toward breast cancer cells, in particular HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. The mode of cell death induced by ramentaceone was through apoptosis as determined by cytometric analysis of caspase activity and Annexin V staining. Apoptosis induction was found to be mediated by inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling and through targeting its downstream anti-apoptotic effectors. Ramentaceone inhibited PI3-kinase activity, reduced the expression of the PI3K protein and inhibited the phosphorylation of the Akt protein in breast cancer cells. The expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was decreased and the levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax and Bak, were elevated. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K and silencing of Akt expression increased the sensitivity of cells to ramentaceone-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our results indicate that ramentaceone induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through PI3K/Akt signaling inhibition. These findings suggest further investigation of ramentaceone as a potential therapeutic agent in breast cancer therapy, in particular HER2-positive breast cancer. PMID:26840401

  9. Ramentaceone, a Naphthoquinone Derived from Drosera sp., Induces Apoptosis by Suppressing PI3K/Akt Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kawiak, Anna; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway plays an important role in processes critical for breast cancer progression and its upregulation confers increased resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiation. The present study aimed at determining the activity of ramentaceone, a constituent of species in the plant genera Drosera, toward breast cancer cells and defining the involvement of PI3K/Akt inhibition in ramentaceone-mediated cell death induction. The results showed that ramentaceone exhibited high antiproliferative activity toward breast cancer cells, in particular HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. The mode of cell death induced by ramentaceone was through apoptosis as determined by cytometric analysis of caspase activity and Annexin V staining. Apoptosis induction was found to be mediated by inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling and through targeting its downstream anti-apoptotic effectors. Ramentaceone inhibited PI3-kinase activity, reduced the expression of the PI3K protein and inhibited the phosphorylation of the Akt protein in breast cancer cells. The expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was decreased and the levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax and Bak, were elevated. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K and silencing of Akt expression increased the sensitivity of cells to ramentaceone-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our results indicate that ramentaceone induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through PI3K/Akt signaling inhibition. These findings suggest further investigation of ramentaceone as a potential therapeutic agent in breast cancer therapy, in particular HER2-positive breast cancer. PMID:26840401

  10. Reactive Sulfur Species-Mediated Activation of the Keap1-Nrf2 Pathway by 1,2-Naphthoquinone through Sulfenic Acids Formation under Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Abiko, Yumi; Ida, Tomoaki; Miura, Takashi; Kakehashi, Hidenao; Ishii, Isao; Nishida, Motohiro; Sawa, Tomohiro; Akaike, Takaaki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2015-05-18

    Sulfhydration by a hydrogen sulfide anion and electrophile thiolation by reactive sulfur species (RSS) such as persulfides/polysulfides (e.g., R-S-SH/R-S-Sn-H(R)) are unique reactions in electrophilic signaling. Using 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene-4-thioacetate (1,2-NQH2-SAc) as a precursor to 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene-4-thiol (1,2-NQH2-SH) and a generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we demonstrate that protein thiols can be modified by a reactive sulfenic acid to form disulfide adducts that undergo rapid cleavage in the presence of glutathione (GSH). As expected, 1,2-NQH2-SAc is rapidly hydrolyzed and partially oxidized to yield 1,2-NQ-SH, resulting in a redox cycling reaction that produces ROS through a chemical disproportionation reaction. The sulfenic acid forms of 1,2-NQ-SH and 1,2-NQH2-SH were detected by derivatization experiments with dimedone. 1,2-NQH2-SOH modified Keap1 at Cys171 to produce a Keap1-S-S-1,2-NQH2 adduct. Subsequent exposure of A431 cells to 1,2-NQ or 1,2-NQH2-SAc caused an extensive chemical modification of cellular proteins in both cases. Protein adduction by 1,2-NQ through a thio ether (C-S-C) bond slowly declined through a GSH-dependent S-transarylation reaction, whereas that originating from 1,2-NQH2-SAc through a disulfide (C-S-S-C) bond was rapidly restored to the free protein thiol in the cells. Under these conditions, 1,2-NQH2-SAc activated Nrf2 and upregulated its target genes, which were enhanced by pretreatment with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), to deplete cellular GSH. Pretreatment of catalase conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol) suppressed Nrf2 activation by 1,2-NQH2-SAc. These results suggest that RSS-mediated reversible electrophilic signaling takes place through sulfenic acids formation under oxidative stress. PMID:25807370

  11. Antimicrobial activities of active component isolated from Lawsonia inermis leaves and structure-activity relationships of its analogues against food-borne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2015-04-01

    The antimicrobial activities of Lawsonia inermis leaf extract and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone analogues against food-borne bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of five fractions derived from the methanol extract of Lawsonia inermis leaves were evaluated against 7 food-borne bacteria. 2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone was isolated by chromatographic analyses. 2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone showed the strong activities against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and S. intermedius, but exerted no growth-inhibitory activities against S. typhimurium. The antimicrobial activities of the 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone analogues were tested against 7 food-borne bacteria to establish structure-activity relationships. Hydroxyl (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), methoxy (2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), and methyl (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, and 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) functional groups on the 1,4-naphthoquinone skeleton possessed potent activities, whereas bromo (2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquione) and chloro (2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone) exhibited no activity against 7 food-borne bacteria. The L. inermis leaf extract and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone analogues should be useful as natural antimicrobial agents against food-borne bacteria. PMID:25829631

  12. DIFFERENTIATING MECHANISMS OF REACTIVE CHEMICAL TOXICITY IN ISOLATED TROUT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of four quinones, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMONQ), 2-methyl 1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ ),1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), and 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), which redox cycle or arlyate in mammalian cells, was determined in isolated trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. Mor...

  13. Evidence of Polymorphism on the Antitrypanosomal Naphthoquinone (4E)-2-(1H-Pyrazol-3-ylamino)-4-(1H-pyrazol-3-ylimino)naphthalen-1(4H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Sperandeo, Norma R.; Faudone, Sonia N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the solid state properties of (4E)-2-(1H-pyrazol-3-ylamino)-4-(1H-pyrazol-3-ylimino)naphthalen-1(4H)-one (BiPNQ), a compound with a significant inhibitory activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis). Methods used included Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry (TG), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), Hot Stage, and Confocal Microscopy. Two BiPNQ samples were obtained by crystallization from absolute methanol and 2-propanol-water that exhibited different thermal behaviours, PXRD patterns, and FTIR spectra, indicating the existence of an anhydrous form (BiPNQ-I) and a solvate (BIPNQ-s), which on heating desolvated leading to the anhydrous modification BiPNQ-I. It was determined that FTIR, DSC, and PXRD are useful techniques for the characterization and identification of the crystalline modifications of BiPNQ. PMID:24106678

  14. One- and two-electron reduction of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone bioreductive alkylating agents: kinetic studies, free-radical production, thiol oxidation and DNA-strand-break formation.

    PubMed Central

    Giulivi, C; Cadenas, E

    1994-01-01

    The one- and two-electron enzymic reduction of the bioreductive alkylating agents 2-methylmethoxynaphthoquinone (quinone I) and 2-chloromethylnaphthoquinone (quinone II) was studied with purified NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase and DT-diaphorase respectively, and characterized in terms of kinetic constants, oxyradical production, thiol oxidation and DNA-strand-break formation. The catalytic-centre activity values indicated that DT-diaphorase catalysed the reduction of quinone I far more efficiently than NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, although the Km values of the two enzymes for this quinone were similar (1.2-3.0 microM). The one-electron-transfer flavoenzyme also catalysed the reduction of quinone II, but the behaviour of DT-diaphorase towards this quinone did not permit calculation of kinetic constants. A salient feature of the redox transitions caused by the one- and two-electron catalysis of these quinones was the different contributions of disproportionation and autoxidation reactions respectively. In the former case, about 26% of NADPH consumed was accounted for in terms of autoxidation (as H2O2 formation), whereas in the latter, the autoxidation component accounted for most (98%) of the NADPH consumed. This difference was abrogated by superoxide dismutase, which enhanced autoxidation during NADPH-cytochrome P-450 catalysis to a maximal value. E.s.r. analysis indicated the formation of superoxide radicals, the signal of which was suppressed by superoxide dismutase and unaffected by catalase. The one- and two-electron reduction of these quinones in the presence of GSH was accompanied by formation of thiyl radicals. Although superoxide dismutase suppressed the thiol radical e.s.r. signal in both instances, the enzyme enhanced GSSG accumulation during NADPH-cytochrome P-450 catalysis of quinone I, whereas it inhibited GSSG formation during reduction of the quinone by DT-diaphorase. One- and two-electron reduction of quinone I led to calf thymus DNA-strand-break formation, a process that (a) was substantially decreased in experiments performed with dialysed DNA and in the presence of desferal and (b) was partially sensitive to superoxide dismutase and/or catalase. These findings are rationalized in terms of the occurrence of metal ions ligated to DNA, protecting against the toxic effects of superoxide radicals generated during enzymic reduction of quinones. PMID:8037673

  15. ACTIVITY OF QUINONES ON COLLETOTRICHUM SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antifungal activity of 1,4-naphthoquinones, 1,2-naphthoquinones, 1,4-benzoquinones, anthraquinones, and other miscellaneous compounds from our natural products collection were tested by bioautography. Quinones demonstrated good to moderate antifungal activity against Colletotrichum spp. Collet...

  16. Complexes of Lapachol and Lawsone with Lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Salvatore; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena

    2015-11-01

    Naturally occurring 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones are well known to form readily stable complexes with transition metals. In this short communication we describe for the first time the synthesis and preliminary data about structural characterization of complexes between two naturally widespread 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones, namely lapachol (1) and lawsone (2), with selected lanthanides like lanthanum, gadolinium, and ytterbium. When tested as cytotoxic compounds, such complexes exhibited an activity that was either higher or equal to that of the parent naphthoquinone. PMID:26749803

  17. The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequin-Frey, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

  18. Time-resolved visible and infrared absorption spectroscopy data obtained using photosystem I particles with non-native quinones incorporated into the A1 binding site

    PubMed Central

    Makita, Hiroki; Hastings, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Time-resolved visible and infrared absorption difference spectroscopy data at both 298 and 77 K were obtained using cyanobacterial menB− mutant photosystem I particles with several non-native quinones incorporated into the A1 binding site. Data was obtained for photosystem I particles with phylloquinone (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone, and 9,10-anthraquinone incorporated. Transient absorption data were obtained at 487 and 703 nm in the visible spectral range, and 1950–1100 cm−1 in the infrared region. Time constants obtained from fitting the time-resolved infrared and visible data are in good agreement. The measured time constants are crucial for the development of appropriate kinetic models that can describe electron transfer processes in photosystem I, “Modeling Electron Transfer in Photosystem I” Makita and Hastings (2016) [1]. PMID:27182540

  19. Time-resolved visible and infrared absorption spectroscopy data obtained using photosystem I particles with non-native quinones incorporated into the A1 binding site.

    PubMed

    Makita, Hiroki; Hastings, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Time-resolved visible and infrared absorption difference spectroscopy data at both 298 and 77 K were obtained using cyanobacterial menB (-) mutant photosystem I particles with several non-native quinones incorporated into the A1 binding site. Data was obtained for photosystem I particles with phylloquinone (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone, and 9,10-anthraquinone incorporated. Transient absorption data were obtained at 487 and 703 nm in the visible spectral range, and 1950-1100 cm(-1) in the infrared region. Time constants obtained from fitting the time-resolved infrared and visible data are in good agreement. The measured time constants are crucial for the development of appropriate kinetic models that can describe electron transfer processes in photosystem I, "Modeling Electron Transfer in Photosystem I" Makita and Hastings (2016) [1]. PMID:27182540

  20. Biologically Active Metabolites Produced by the Basidiomycete Quambalaria cyanescens

    PubMed Central

    Stodůlková, Eva; Císařová, Ivana; Kolařík, Miroslav; Chudíčková, Milada; Novák, Petr; Man, Petr; Kuzma, Marek; Pavlů, Barbora; Černý, Jan; Flieger, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Four strains of the fungus Quambalaria cyanescens (Basidiomycota: Microstromatales), were used for the determination of secondary metabolites production and their antimicrobial and biological activities. A new naphthoquinone named quambalarine A, (S)-(+)-3-(5-ethyl-tetrahydrofuran-2-yliden)-5,7,8-trihydroxy-2-oxo-1,4-naphthoquinone (1), together with two known naphthoquinones, 3-hexanoyl-2,5,7,8-tetrahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (named here as quambalarine B, 2) and mompain, 2,5,7,8-tetrahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (3) were isolated. Their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography, NMR and MS spectrometry. Quambalarine A (1) had a broad antifungal and antibacterial activity and is able inhibit growth of human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and fungi co-occurring with Q. cyanescens in bark beetle galleries including insect pathogenic species Beauveria bassiana. Quambalarine B (2) was active against several fungi and mompain mainly against bacteria. The biological activity against human-derived cell lines was selective towards mitochondria (2 and 3); after long-term incubation with 2, mitochondria were undetectable using a mitochondrial probe. A similar effect on mitochondria was observed also for environmental competitors of Q. cyanescens from the genus Geosmithia. PMID:25723150

  1. Metabolism of naphthalene by Cunninghamella elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Cerniglia, C E; Gibson, D T

    1977-01-01

    Cunninghamella elegans grown on Sabouraud dextrose broth in the presence of naphthalene produced six metabolites. Each product was isolated and identified by conventional chemical techniques. The major metabolites were 1-naphthol (67.9%) and 4-hydroxy-1-tetralone (16.7%). Minor products isolated were 1,4-naphthoquinone (2.8%), 1,2-naphthoquinone (0.2%), 2-naphthol (6.3%), and trans-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (5.3%). C. elegans oxidized both 1-naphthol and 1,4-naphthoquinone to 4-hydroxy-1-tetralone. The results suggest that C. elegans oxidizes naphthalene by a sequence of reactions similar to those reported for the mammalian metabolism of this hydrocarbon. PMID:921262

  2. Directionality of electron transfer in cyanobacterial photosystem I at 298 and 77K.

    PubMed

    Makita, Hiroki; Hastings, Gary

    2015-06-01

    Electron transfer processes in cyanobacterial photosystem I particles from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 with a high potential naphthoquinone (2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone) incorporated into the A1 binding site have been studied at 298 and 77K using time-resolved visible and infrared difference spectroscopy. The high potential naphthoquinone inhibits electron transfer past A1, and biphasic P700(+)A1(-) radical pair recombination is observed. The two phases are assigned to P700(+)A1B(-) and P700(+)A1A(-) recombination. Analyses of the transient absorption changes indicate that the ratio of A- and B-branch electron transfer is 95:5 at 77 K and 77:23 at 298 K. PMID:25962848

  3. An efficient synthesis of novel fused cycloheptatrienes through Mn(II)-mediated formal intermolecular [2 + 2 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Shu, Wen-Ming; Ma, Jun-Rui; Yang, Yan; Wu, An-Xin

    2014-03-01

    A new method for manganous acetate tetrahydrate mediated formal intermolecular [2 + 2 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition was developed for the synthesis of fused cycloheptatriene derivatives from N-(acylmethyl)pyridinium iodides and naphthoquinone. This method provides an innovative route for the efficient and convenient construction of fused seven-membered carbocycles from simple starting materials. PMID:24564369

  4. Quantum-chemical calculations and electron diffraction study of the equilibrium molecular structure of vitamin K3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaikin, L. S.; Tikhonov, D. S.; Grikina, O. E.; Rykov, A. N.; Stepanov, N. F.

    2014-05-01

    The equilibrium molecular structure of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3) having C s symmetry is experimentally characterized for the first time by means of gas-phase electron diffraction using quantum-chemical calculations and data on the vibrational spectra of related compounds.

  5. Chemistry of 5,8-dihydroxy-[1,4]-naphtoquinone, a key chromophore in aged cellulosics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    5,8-Dihydroxy-[1,4]-naphthoquinone (DHNQ) is one of the key chromophores found in aged cellulosics. Cellulose aging and yellowing as well as bleaching of cellulosic materials are key processes in the pulp and paper industries and have considerable economic importance: the knowledge of the general re...

  6. Vitamin K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K was identified in the early 1930’s when it was shown to be essential for normal blood coagulation. Phylloquinone (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) found in green plants is the major source of the vitamin. Large amounts of menaquinones with lengthy side chains are also synthesized in...

  7. Comparative study of three Plumbago L. species (Plumbaginaceae) by microscopy, UPLC–UV and HPTLC analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a comparative study of anatomy of leaves, stems and roots of three species of Plumbago, namely P. auriculata Lam., P. indica L. and P. zeylanica L. by light microscopy. The paper also provides qualitative and quantitative analysis of the naphthoquinone, plumbagin, a major constit...

  8. DEFICIENCY IN PHYLLOQUINONE (VITAMIN K1) METHYLATION AFFECTS PRENYL QUINONE DISTRIBUTION PHOTOSYSTEM I ABUNDANCE AND ANTHOCYANIN ACCUMULATION IN THE ARABIDOPSIS AtmenG MUTANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) is synthesized in cyanobacteria and in chloroplasts of higher plants where it serves as electron carrier of photosystem I. The last step of phylloquinone synthesis in cyanobacteria is the methylation of 2-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone by the menG gene product. The gene encodin...

  9. Design and synthesis of propellane derivatives and oxa-bowls via ring-rearrangement metathesis as a key step

    PubMed Central

    Gunta, Rama

    2015-01-01

    Summary Various intricate propellane derivatives and oxa-bowls have been synthesized via a ring-rearrangement metathesis (RRM) as a key step starting from readily accessible starting materials such as p-benzoquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone and 1,4-anthraquinone. PMID:26664592

  10. Plumbagin, Juglone, and Boropinal as Novel TRPA1 Agonists.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kerstin; Fiorito, Serena; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Schulze, Anja; Leonhardt, Marion; Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore

    2016-04-22

    A series of seven oxyprenylated phenylpropanoids and naphthoquinones were tested regarding their ability to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin subtype 1 channel (TRPA1). Three of the assayed compounds, namely, boropinal (3), juglone (5), and plumbagin (7), acted as strong modulators of TRPA1 channels with EC50 values of 9.8, 1.7, and 0.5 μM, respectively, as assessed by Ca(2+) assays. Moreover, the compounds elicited TRPA1 currents in electrophysiological whole cell recordings. We additionally provide evidence that plumbagin activated TRPA1-positive neurons isolated from mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons but did not affect sensory neurons from TRPA1-deficient mice. The high potencies of plumbagin and juglone to activate TRPA1 channels may explain the molecular basis of the mucosal irritant properties of these compounds as well as of related naphthoquinones and phytopreparations, as widely reported in the literature. PMID:26905390

  11. Effects of different quinoid redox mediators on the removal of sulphide and nitrate via denitrification.

    PubMed

    Aranda-Tamaura, Clicerio; Estrada-Alvarado, María Isabel; Texier, Anne-Claire; Cuervo, Flor; Gómez, Jorge; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2007-11-01

    The impact of different quinoid redox mediators on the simultaneous conversion of sulphide and nitrate in a denitrifying culture was evaluated. All quinones evaluated, including anthraquinone-2,6-disulphonate (AQDS), 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) were reduced by sulphide under abiotic conditions. NQS showed the highest reduction rate by sulphide (132 micromol h(-1)) and promoted the maximum rate of sulphide oxidation (87 micromol h(-1)) by denitrifying sludge, which represents an increase of 44% compared to the control lacking quinones. The reduced form of AQDS (AH(2)QDS) served as an electron donor for the microbial reduction of nitrite and N(2)O, which represents the first demonstration of hydroquinones supporting the microbial reduction of denitrifying intermediates. The results taken as a whole suggest that some quinones may significantly increase the rate of removal of S and N under denitrifying conditions. PMID:17624404

  12. Protection or cytotoxicity mediated by a novel quinonoid-polyphenol compound?

    PubMed

    Milackova, Ivana; Rackova, Lucia; Majekova, Magdalena; Mrvova, Natasa; Stefek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Many natural and synthetic quinones and naphthoquinones possess a variety of beneficial pharmacological properties. In plants, the cytotoxic properties of quinones serve in their defensive roles against invading bacteria, fungi and parasites. In this regard many quinones as well as polyphenols, exerting generally toxicity at high dosages, are able to induce favorable hormetic responses at a low dosage. The novel chloronaphthoquinone derivative of quercetin (CHNQ) showed a profound cytotoxicity followed by enhancement of intracellular generation of oxidants in human neonatal B-HNF-3 fibroblasts. Its synthetic precursors, quercetin and 2-chloro-3-hydroxy-[1,4]naphthoquinone, failed to induce these effects, and paradoxically, only CHNQ at a low concentration provided partial protection of the cells against oxidative challenge. Thus, the novel quinonoid-polyphenol CHNQ might have a merit in the search for new prospective agents in prevention and management of ageing and ageing-related pathologies. PMID:25367759

  13. Acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitory activities of mansorins and mansonones.

    PubMed

    Changwong, Nisa; Sabphon, Chalisa; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Sawasdee, Pattara

    2012-03-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitory activities of three coumarins (mansorins A-C) and five naphthoquinones (mansonone C, E, G and H) were evaluated to determine the relationships between the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory effects and the core structures of these compounds. Among the tested compounds, mansonone E exhibited the highest ChE inhibitory activities, with IC₅₀ values in the low micromolar levels. In addition to revealing the ChE inhibitory activities of naphthoquinones for the first time, the results also revealed structure-activity relationship information that could be useful for further modification. Furthermore, the study also supports the hypothesis that mansonones are the active component in Thespesia populnea, a plant that previously has been shown to enhance memory activity in an in vivo study. PMID:21780212

  14. Cytotoxic quinones from the roots of Aloe dawei.

    PubMed

    Abdissa, Negera; Induli, Martha; Fitzpatrick, Paul; Alao, John Patrick; Sunnerhagen, Per; Landberg, Göran; Yenesew, Abiy; Erdélyi, Máté

    2014-01-01

    Seven naphthoquinones and nine anthraquinones were isolated from the roots of Aloe dawei by chromatographic separation. The purified metabolites were identified by NMR and MS analyses. Out of the sixteen quinones, 6-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone is a new compound. Two of the isolates, 5,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione and 1-hydroxy-8-methoxy-3-methylanthraquinone showed high cytotoxic activity (IC₅₀ 1.15 and 4.85 µM) on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, whereas the others showed moderate to low cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (ER Negative) and MCF-7 (ER Positive) cancer cells. PMID:24642911

  15. Enantioselective synthesis of 4H-pyranonaphthoquinones via sequential squaramide and silver catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Uğur; Chauhan, Pankaj; Hack, Daniel; Deckers, Kristina; Puttreddy, Rakesh; Rissanen, Kari; Enders, Dieter

    2016-01-28

    An enantioselective one-pot Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation reaction between 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones and alkyne-tethered nitroalkenes catalyzed by a cinchona-derived squaramide and a silver(I) salt has been developed. The sequential protocol provides a direct access to 4H-pyranonaphthoquinones in moderate to very good yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities at a very low catalyst loading (0.5 mol%) of the squaramide. PMID:26660230

  16. F420H2: quinone oxidoreductase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Characterization of a membrane-bound multisubunit complex containing FAD and iron-sulfur clusters.

    PubMed

    Kunow, J; Linder, D; Stetter, K O; Thauer, R K

    1994-07-15

    Archaeoglobus fulgidus, a hyperthermophilic sulfate-reducing archaeon, was found to contain a membrane-bound F420H2: quinone oxidoreductase complex presumed to be involved in energy conservation during growth on lactate plus sulfate. After solubilization with dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside the complex was purified 32-fold with a yield of 24%. Using both gel filtration and native PAGE, an apparent molecular mass of approximately 270 kDa was determined. SDS/PAGE revealed the presence of at least seven polypeptides with apparent molecular masses 56, 45, 41, 39, 37, 33, and 32 kDa. The purified complex contained 1.6 mol FAD, 9 mol non-heme iron and 7 mol acid-labile sulfur/mol complex. It did not contain cytochromes, which were, however, present in the membrane fraction of A. fulgidus (3 nmol/mg membrane protein). The purified F420H2: quinone oxidoreductase complex catalyzed the reduction of 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (apparent Km 190 microM) with reduced coenzyme F420 (apparent Km 50 microM) exhibiting a specific activity of 500 U/mg (apparent Vmax) at pH 8.0 (pH optimum) and 65 degrees C (temperature optimum). 2-Methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione), 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone, 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4- benzoquinone, and 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-decyl-1,4-benzoquinone (decyl-ubiquinone) were also reduced with F420H2, albeit with lower rates. The physiological electron acceptor of the F420H2: quinone oxidoreductase complex is most likely the menaquinone found in the membrane fraction of A. fulgidus. PMID:8055920

  17. Growth inhibitory activity for cancer cell lines of lapachol and its natural and semi-synthetic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, Serena; Epifano, Francesco; Bruyère, Céline; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert; Genovese, Salvatore

    2014-01-15

    A series of 17 selected natural and semisynthetic 1,4-naphthoquinones were synthesized, and their growth inhibitory activity was evaluated in vitro. The compounds were tested on six human cancer cell lines using the MTT colorimetric assay. The data revealed that of the chemicals under study only lapachol, its acetate and 3-geranyllawsone displayed the highest activity, recording mean IC50 values ranging from 15 to 22 μM. PMID:24374273

  18. Bioactive Constituents of Brazilian Red Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Trusheva, Boryana; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya; Simova, Svetlana; Marcucci, Maria Cristina; Miorin, Patricia Laguna; da Rocha Pasin, Flavia; Tsvetkova, Iva

    2006-01-01

    In a new propolis type, red Brazilian propolis, 14 compounds were identified (six of them new for propolis), among them simple phenolics, triterepenoids, isoflavonoids, prenylated benzophenones and a naphthoquinone epoxide (isolated for the first time from a natural source). Three of the major components demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity, and two (obtained as inseparable mixture) possessed radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). PMID:16786055

  19. Study of methanol catalyzed reaction between sodium 1,2-naphthoquine-4-sulfonate and hydroxyl ion and its application in the determination of methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quanmin; Zhang, Huanhuan

    2008-11-01

    A novel and simple spectrophotometric method for the direct determination of methanol with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS) is developed in this paper. It is based on the fact that methanol can catalyze the reaction between 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate and hydroxyl ion to form 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in buffer solution of pH 13.00. Beer's law is obeyed in a range of 0.26-15.8 mg/ml at the maximal absorption wavelength of 454 nm. The equation of linear regression is A = 0.01998 + 0.05944 C (mg/ml), with a linear regression correlation coefficient of 0.9977. The detection limit is 0.25 mg/ml (3 σ/ k), while R.S.D. is 2.0% and the recovery rate is in a range of 96.5-103%. The detailed mechanism for the formation of the products is proposed and discussed.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of the human relevance of respiratory tumors observed in rodents exposed to naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Piccirillo, Vincent J; Bird, Michael G; Lewis, R Jeffrey; Bover, W James

    2012-04-01

    Inhalation bioassays in mice and rats exposed to naphthalene (NA) show incidences of lung and nasal cancer, respectively. This paper describes a preliminary mode of action (MOA)/human relevance (HR) framework for NA. Species differences in both carcinogenic and cytotoxic responses between the rodent and human have been noted based on qualitative and quantitative differences in metabolism. Some occur at the initial oxidation of NA in the rat through CYP2F, versus CYP2A13 metabolism in the human respiratory system and which results in a difference in the specific naphthoquinone formed. Normally, subsequent reactive metabolites are then conjugated through glutathione, but high dose exposures, as in the rat bioassay, result in glutathione depletion, and the availability of 1,2-naphthoquinone for other conjugation. In the rat nose, it is proposed that a naphthoquinone imine is formed via a species and site-specific aryl amidase acting on an amino acid conjugate of the quinone. Such a quinone imine is believed to be the active agent in Alachlor and phenacetin, resulting in the same profile of respiratory tumors in the rat as NA. Based on the MOA and the limited epidemiological data indicating no human evidence of nasal or lung tumor risk, the carcinogenic response observed in rats does not appear relevant to the human. PMID:22342949

  1. Characterization of Model Peptide Adducts with Reactive Metabolites of Naphthalene by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Nathalie T.; Jewell, William T.; Morin, Dexter; Jones, A. Daniel; Buckpitt, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Naphthalene is a volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon generated during combustion and is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment. Short term exposures of rodents to air concentrations less than the current OSHA standard yielded necrotic lesions in the airways and nasal epithelium of the mouse, and in the nasal epithelium of the rat. The cytotoxic effects of naphthalene have been correlated with the formation of covalent protein adducts after the generation of reactive metabolites, but there is little information about the specific sites of adduction or on the amino acid targets of these metabolites. To better understand the chemical species produced when naphthalene metabolites react with proteins and peptides, we studied the formation and structure of the resulting adducts from the incubation of model peptides with naphthalene epoxide, naphthalene diol epoxide, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 1,4-naphthoquinone using high resolution mass spectrometry. Identification of the binding sites, relative rates of depletion of the unadducted peptide, and selectivity of binding to amino acid residues were determined. Adduction occurred on the cysteine, lysine, and histidine residues, and on the N-terminus. Monoadduct formation occurred in 39 of the 48 reactions. In reactions with the naphthoquinones, diadducts were observed, and in one case, a triadduct was detected. The results from this model peptide study will assist in data interpretation from ongoing work to detect peptide adducts in vivo as markers of biologic effect. PMID:22870282

  2. Synthesis and microbiological evaluation of new 2- and 2,3-diphenoxysubstituted naphthalene-1,4-diones with 5-oxopyrrolidine moieties.

    PubMed

    Voskienė, Aušra; Sapijanskaitė, Birutė; Mickevičius, Vytautas; Jonuškienė, Ilona; Stasevych, Maryna; Komarovska-Porokhnyavets, Olena; Musyanovych, Rostyslav; Novikov, Volodymyr

    2012-01-01

    New 3-substituted 1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-5-oxopyrrolidine derivatives containing hydrazone, azole, diazole, oxadiazole fragments, as well as 2-phenoxy- and 2,3-diphenoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives were synthesized. The structure of all compounds has been confirmed by NMR, IR, mass spectra, and elemental analysis data. Methyl 1-{3-[(3-chloro-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydro-2-naphthalenyl)oxy]phenyl}-5-oxo-3-pyrrolidinecarboxylate demonstrated potential antibacterial and antifungal activities as determined by diffusion and serial dilution methods, while N'-[(4-bromophenyl)methylidene]-1-{3-[(3-chloro-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydro-2-naphthalenyl)oxy]phenyl}-5-oxo-3-pyrrolidinecarbohydrazide and 2-{3-[4-(1,2,3-oxadiazol-5-yl)-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl]phenoxy}-3-{3-[4-(1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo- 1-pyrrolidinyl]phenoxy}naphthoquinone showed antifungal activity against Candida tenuis and Aspergillus niger at low concentrations, as determined by the serial dilution method. The substitution of the methoxy fragment by N-containing substituents in monophenoxy substituted naphthoquinones was found to decrease their activity against Mycobacterium luteum. Besides, introduction of the second phenoxy substituted fragment increased the antifungal activity against Candida tenuis and Aspergillus niger at lower concentrations. PMID:23519244

  3. Development of a test system for screening toxic substances: a comparison using organic substances

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a test system for screening toxic substances by predicting their aquatic ecosystem effects. The system studied was a static, one liter microcosm with a diverse species assemblage. The microcosm was composed of biotic inoculum, chemically defined medium and sediment. The biotic inoculum contained primary producers, grazers, carnivores and decomposers. Three different types of sediment were studied: sand, clay, and clay plus sand. Four organic chemicals: phenol, triethylene glycol (TEG), quinoline and naphthoquinone were evaluated with this test system. The toxicities of TEG, quinoline and naphthoquinone were compared for each sediment type. Toxicity was evaluated in terms of the chemical's effects on primary productivity and heterotrophic activity though other effects are also noted. Naphthoquinone concentration exhibited no correlation between ecosystem property values and therefore, could not be ranked. Phenol exhibited the greatest toxicity to net production immediately after the toxicant addition. Quinoline was most toxic to net production over the longer time scale. TEG exhibited the least toxicity to net production, however, TEG exhibited higher toxicity to heterotrophic activity than either quinoline or phenol. Although the type of sediment used in the microcosms did not change the relative toxicities of the chemicals, the microcosms with clay sediment always were observed to exhibit lower net production and higher variability.

  4. The Tumor-Selective Cytotoxic Agent β-Lapachone is a Potent Inhibitor of IDO1

    PubMed Central

    Flick, Hollie E.; LaLonde, Judith M.; Malachowski, William P.; Muller, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    β-lapachone is a naturally occurring 1,2-naphthoquinone-based compound that has been advanced into clinical trials based on its tumor-selective cytotoxic properties. Previously, we focused on the related 1,4-naphthoquinone pharmacophore as a basic core structure for developing a series of potent indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) enzyme inhibitors. In this study, we identified IDO1 inhibitory activity as a previously unrecognized attribute of the clinical candidate β-lapachone. Enzyme kinetics-based analysis of β-lapachone indicated an uncompetitive mode of inhibition, while computational modeling predicted binding within the IDO1 active site consistent with other naphthoquinone derivatives. Inhibition of IDO1 has previously been shown to breach the pathogenic tolerization that constrains the immune system from being able to mount an effective anti-tumor response. Thus, the finding that β-lapachone has IDO1 inhibitory activity adds a new dimension to its potential utility as an anti-cancer agent distinct from its cytotoxic properties, and suggests that a synergistic benefit can be achieved from its combined cytotoxic and immunologic effects. PMID:24023520

  5. Blood shizonticidal activities of phenazines and naphthoquinoidal compounds against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and in mice malaria studies

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Nicolli Bellotti; de Andrade, Isabel M; Carneiro, Paula F; Jardim, Guilherme AM; de Melo, Isadora MM; da Silva, Eufrânio N; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent advances of atovaquone, a naphthoquinone, through clinical trials as treatment for malarial infection, 19 quinone derivatives with previously reported structures were also evaluated for blood schizonticide activity against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. These compounds include 2-hydroxy-3-methylamino naphthoquinones (2-9), lapachol (10), nor-lapachol (11), iso-lapachol (12), phthiocol (13) and phenazines (12-20). Their cytotoxicities were also evaluated against human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cell lines. Compounds 2 and 5 showed the highest activity against P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant blood-stage parasites (clone W2), indicated by their low inhibitory concentration for 50% (IC50) of parasite growth. The therapeutic potential of the active compounds was evaluated according to the selectivity index, which is a ratio of the cytotoxicity minimum lethal dose which eliminates 50% of cells and the in vitro IC50. Naphthoquinones 2 and 5, with activities similar to the reference antimalarial chloroquine, were also active against malaria in mice and suppressed parasitaemia by more than 60% in contrast to compound 11 which was inactive. Based on their in vitro and in vivo activities, compounds 2 and 5 are considered promising molecules for antimalarial treatment and warrant further study. PMID:25099332

  6. A new approach to evaluating the extent of Michael adduct formation to PAH quinones: tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis with GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Mary K; Desavis, Emmanuel; Mazzer, Paula A; Sunoj, R B; Hatcher, Susan A; Hadad, Christopher M; Hatcher, Patrick G

    2003-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants that are converted to cytotoxic and carcinogenic metabolites, quinones, by detoxifying enzyme systems in animals. PAH metabolites such as the quinones can form Michael adducts with biological macromolecules containing reactive nucleophiles, making detection of exposure to PAHs difficult using conventional techniques. A technique has been developed for detecting exposure to PAHs. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis coupled with GC/MS is proposed as an assay method for PAH quinones that have formed Michael adducts with biological molecules. Three PAH quinones (1,4-naphthoquinone, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 1,4-anthraquinone) and 1,4-benzoquinone were reacted with cysteine, and the TMAH thermochemolysis method was used to assay for both thiol and amine adduction between the quinones and the cysteine. Additional studies with 1,4-naphthoquinone adducts to glutathione and bovine serum albumin showed the same thiol and amine TMAH thermochemolysis products with larger peptides as was observed with cysteine adducts. The TMAH GC/MS method clearly shows great promise for detecting PAH quinones, produced by enzymatic conversion of PAHs in biological systems, that have been converted to respective Michael adducts. PMID:14615976

  7. Computational Optimization of Bioanalytical Parameters for the Evaluation of the Toxicity of the Phytomarker 1,4 Napthoquinone and its Metabolite 1,2,4-trihydroxynapththalene

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Velmani; AL Rashid, Mohammad Harun; Majumder, Sayani; Maiti, Partha Pratim; Mandal, Subhash C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Lawsone (1,4 naphthoquinone) is a non redox cycling compound that can be catalyzed by DT diaphorase (DTD) into 1,2,4-trihydroxynaphthalene (THN), which can generate reactive oxygen species by auto oxidation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the phytomarker 1,4 naphthoquinone and its metabolite THN by using the molecular docking program AutoDock 4. Methods: The 3D structure of ligands such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH) were drawn using hyperchem drawing tools and minimizing the energy of all pdb files with the help of hyperchem by MM+ followed by a semi-empirical (PM3) method. The docking process was studied with ligand molecules to identify suitable dockings at protein binding sites through annealing and genetic simulation algorithms. The program auto dock tools (ADT) was released as an extension suite to the python molecular viewer used to prepare proteins and ligands. Grids centered on active sites were obtained with spacings of 54 × 55 × 56, and a grid spacing of 0.503 was calculated. Comparisons of Global and Local Search Methods in Drug Docking were adopted to determine parameters; a maximum number of 250,000 energy evaluations, a maximum number of generations of 27,000, and mutation and crossover rates of 0.02 and 0.8 were used. The number of docking runs was set to 10. Results: Lawsone and THN can be considered to efficiently bind with NOS, CAT, GSH, GR, G6PDH and NADPH, which has been confirmed through hydrogen bond affinity with the respective amino acids. Conclusion: Naphthoquinone derivatives of lawsone, which can be metabolized into THN by a catalyst DTD, were examined. Lawsone and THN were found to be identically potent molecules for their affinities for selected proteins. PMID:26120483

  8. Selective laser excitation of oriented molecules in polymer matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Nekrasov, V.V.; Nurmukhametov, R.N.; Starukhin, A.S.; Stanishevskii, I.V.; Shigorin, D.N.; Shul'ga, A.M.

    1987-06-01

    The features of the fine-structure spectra and polarization fluorescence were studied in selective laser excitation of molecules imbedded in orienting polyethylene (PE) films in this article. Hydroxy derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone, naphthoquinone, thioindigo and some porphyrins were investigated. The studies were conducted at a temperature of 4.2 K on a DFS-24 spectrometer. Fluorescence was excited by radiation from a tunable dye laser in the region of the purely electron transition. The halfwidth of the exciting laser line was approximately 1 A. The compounds studied exhibit emission band spectra even at 4.2 K with normal excitation in the PE matrices.

  9. The structure of the menaquinones with a tetrahydrogenated isoprenoid side-chain.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Inouye, G; Tahara, Y; Kondo, K

    1977-08-24

    Menaquinones with a tetrahydrogenated isoprenoid side-chain of Oerskovia turbata and Brevibacterium lipolyticum were cyclized to the chromenyl acetate derivatives, which were then submitted to ozonolysis, followed by reduction with dimethylsulfide. The mass-spectrometric analyses of the ozonolysis products revealed the ion peaks at m/e 464 (M+), 449, 422, 407, 267 and 225. These results suggest that the two saturated double bonds are located continuously in the second and third units of the chain starting from the quinone ring, and the menaquinones are designated as 2-methyl-3-II,III-tetrahydromultiprenyl-1,4-naphthoquinone. PMID:889867

  10. Bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Dame, Zerihun T; Silima, Beauty; Gryzenhout, Marieka; van Ree, Teunis

    2016-06-01

    The crude extract of an endophytic fungus isolated from Syzygium cordatum and identified as Fusarium proliferatum showed 100% cytotoxicity against the brine shrimp Artemia salina at 100 μg/mL. Seven coloured, biologically active metabolites - including ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol, nectriafurone-8-methyl ether, 9-O-methyl fusarubin, bostrycoidin, bostrycoidin-9-methyl ether and 8-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3-(2-oxo-propyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone- were isolated from the extract. PMID:26158312

  11. Enaminones in heterocyclic synthesis: a novel route to tetrahydropyrimidines, dihydropyridines, triacylbenzenes and naphthofurans under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Al-Mousawi, Saleh Mohammed; El-Apasery, Morsy Ahmed; Elnagdi, Mohamed H

    2010-01-01

    Condensation of phthalimidoacetone (1) with DMFDMA (N,N-Dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal) has afforded enaminone 2. Refluxing 2 with equimolecular amounts of benzaldehyde and urea in acetic acid afforded a mixture of tetrahydropyrimidine 5 and the dihydropyridine 6. Compound 2 undergoes self-condensation on heating in acetic acid or under microwave irradiation in presence of acidic zeolite to give 1,3,5-triacylbenzene 9. Reacting enaminone 11a with naphthoquinone 15 afforded the naphthofuran 18. The possible formation of the aldehyde 19 was excluded based on an HMQC experiment, which revealed that the carbonyl carbon is not linked to any hydrogen. PMID:20110871

  12. Tigloylshikonin, a new minor Shikonin derivative, from the roots and the commercial root extract of lithospermum erythrorhizon.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yusai; Onobori, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Tigloylshikonin, a new shikonin derivative esterified with tiglic acid ((E)-2-methylbut-2-enoic acid), was isolated as a minor pigment from a food colorant "Shikon color," a commercial root extract from Lithospermum erythrorhizon SIEBOLD et ZUCCARINI. The structure of tigloylshikonin was elucidated using (1)H, (13)C, the difference nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE), and 2D NMR techniques. Its stereochemistry was determined by chiral-phase HPLC analysis. Tigloylshikonin was also found in the roots of L. erythrorhizon, which indicated that this new shikonin derivative is a typical component of naphthoquinone pigments in the roots of L. erythrorhizon. PMID:21212559

  13. Analysis of Diazofluorene DNA Binding and Damaging Activity. DNA Cleavage by a Synthetic Monomeric Diazofluorene

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Christina M.; Ranjan, Nihar; Arya, Dev P.; Herzon, Seth B.

    2014-01-01

    The lomaiviticins and kinamycins are complex DNA damaging natural products that contain a diazofluorene functional group. Herein, we elucidate the influence of skeleton structure, ring and chain isomerization, D-ring oxidation state, and naphthoquinone substitution on DNA binding and damaging activity. We show that the electrophilicity of the diazofluorene appears to be the most significant determinant of DNA damaging activity. These studies identify the monomeric diazofluorene 11 as a potent DNA cleavage agent in tissue culture. The simpler structure of 11 relative to the natural products establishes it as a useful lead for translational studies. PMID:25044348

  14. Spiro annulation of cage polycycles via Grignard reaction and ring-closing metathesis as key steps

    PubMed Central

    Saifuddin, Mohammad; Ali, Rashid; Sreevani, Gaddamedi

    2015-01-01

    Summary A simple synthetic strategy to C 2-symmetric bis-spiro-pyrano cage compound 7 involving ring-closing metathesis is reported. The hexacyclic dione 10 was prepared from simple and readily available starting materials such as 1,4-naphthoquinone and cyclopentadiene. The synthesis of an unprecedented octacyclic cage compound through intramolecular Diels–Alder (DA) reaction as a key step is described. The structures of three new cage compounds 7, 12 and 18 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. PMID:26425191

  15. Novel naphtho[2,1-d]oxazole-4,5-diones as NQO1 substrates with improved aqueous solubility: Design, synthesis, and in vivo antitumor evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Bian, Jinlei; Wang, Nan; Qian, Xue; Gu, Jing; Mu, Tong; Fan, Jun; Yang, Xiuwen; Li, Shangzhen; Yang, Tingting; Sun, Haopeng; You, Qidong; Zhang, Xiaojin

    2016-03-01

    A new series of ortho-naphthoquinone analogs of ?-lapachone were designed, synthesized and evaluated. The biological results indicated that most of our compounds were efficient substrates for NQO1. The new scaffold with water-soluble side chain resulted in greater solubility under acidic condition compared to ?-lapachone. Thus avoiding the use of hydroxylpropyl ?-cyclodextrin which would finally cause the rapid drug clearance from the blood and dose-limiting toxicity in the form of hemolytic anemia. The most soluble and promising compound in this series was 2-((4-benzylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)naphtho[2,1-d]oxazole-4,5-dione (3k), which inhibited cancer cell (NQO1-rich A549 cell line) growth at IC50 values of 4.61.0?molL(-1). Furthermore, compound 3k had in vivo antitumor activity in an A549 tumor xenografts mouse model comparable to the activity obtained with ?-lapachone. The results indicated that these ortho-naphthoquinones could serve as promising leads for further optimization as novel substrates for NQO1. PMID:26803578

  16. Microbial electricity generation of diversified carbonaceous electrodes under variable mediators.

    PubMed

    Park, In Ho; In Ho, Park; Gnana Kumar, G; Kim, A R; Kim, Pil; Suk Nahm, Kee

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate a suitable electrode material for the efficient green energy generation of a bio-fuel cell, carbonaceous based carbon cloth, carbon paper, and carbon felt electrodes were investigated under different mediators. The larger surface area, low resistance, and open network of interwoven fibers of the carbon felt electrode facilitated higher electron transfer from the microbial organisms to the electrode surface than that of other carbonaceous electrodes. Carbon paper electrode exhibited lower fuel cell performances due to its lower roughness and high tortuous nature. The green power generation experiments were also carried out under different mediators such as 2-hydroxy-l,4-naphthoquinone and thionin. The electrons mitigation and power generation was augmented by 2-hydroxy-l,4-naphthoquinone than thionin due to its high solubility, stability, and minimal adsorption characteristic to the electrodes. By the combined efforts of extended electrons generation and transportation, bio-fuel cell performances were extended and endorsed its doable applications in bio-fuel cells. PMID:20655812

  17. 5-O-Acyl plumbagins inhibit DNA polymerase activity and suppress the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takefumi; Kuriyama, Isoko; Sakamoto, Yuka; Kawamura, Moe; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori; Tabata, Atsushi; Naganune, Hideaki; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2015-05-01

    We previously found that vitamin K3 (menadione, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) inhibits the activity of human mitochondrial DNA polymerase (pol) γ. In this study, we focused on plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), and chemically synthesized novel plumbagins conjugated with C2:0 to C22:6 fatty acids (5-O-acyl plumbagins). These chemically modified plumbagins displayed enhanced mammalian pol inhibition, with plumbagin conjugated to docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6-acyl plumbagin) exhibiting the strongest inhibition of pol λ among the ten 5-O-acyl plumbagins synthesized. C22:6-acyl plumbagin selectively inhibited the activities of mammalian pol species, but did not influence the activities of other pols or DNA metabolic enzymes tested. The inhibition of pol λ, a DNA repair/recombination pol, by these compounds was significantly correlated with both their suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production by mouse RAW264.7 macrophages and the reduction of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation in the mouse ear. These data indicate that 5-O-acyl plumbagins act as anti-inflammatory agents by inhibiting mammalian pol λ. These results further suggest that C22:6-acyl plumbagin is a promising anti-inflammatory candidate and that acylation could be an effective chemical modification to improve the anti-inflammatory activity of vitamin K3 derivatives, such as plumbagin. PMID:25748000

  18. Effects of different quinoid redox mediators on the simultaneous removal of p-cresol and sulphide in a denitrifying process.

    PubMed

    Meza-Escalante, Edna R; Texier, Anne-Claire; Cuervo-López, Flor; Gómez, Jorge; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2009-01-01

    The catalytic effects of different quinoid redox mediators (RM) on the simultaneous removal of sulphide and p-cresol in a denitrifying process were evaluated in batch studies. 2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (LAW) and anthraquinone-2,6-disulphonate (AQDS) did not significantly affect the sulphide oxidation rate, which, in contrast, was increased 14% in the presence of 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS). The input of NQS on the oxidation of sulphide was also favourably reflected in a 13% higher sulphate production. All RM promoted a higher (up to 34% compared to the control lacking RM) degree of mineralization of p-cresol. LAW also supported a 47% higher denitrifying yield (Y(N2)), compared to the control lacking quinones. Nevertheless, AQDS and NQS decreased the Y(N2) by 12-13%. Our results suggest that a proper scrutiny should be conducted before deciding the sort of quinone to be applied in denitrifying processes. The heterogeneous effects observed also advise to consider both the respiratory rates and the yields as important parameters for deciphering the impact of RM on denitrifying processes. PMID:19474488

  19. Inhibition of in vitro leukotriene B4 biosynthesis in human neutrophil granulocytes and docking studies of natural quinones.

    PubMed

    Landa, Premysl; Kutil, Zsofia; Temml, Veronika; Malik, Jan; Kokoska, Ladislav; Widowitz, Ute; Pribylova, Marie; Dvorakova, Marcela; Marsik, Petr; Schuster, Daniela; Bauer, Rudolf; Vanek, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Quinones are compounds frequently contained in medicinal plants used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the impact of plant-derived quinones on the arachidonic acid metabolic pathway is worthy of investigation. In this study, twenty-three quinone compounds of plant origin were tested in vitro for their potential to inhibit leukotriene B4 (LTB4) biosynthesis in activated human neutrophil granulocytes with 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity. The benzoquinones primin (3) and thymohydroquinone (4) (IC50 = 4.0 and 4.1 microM, respectively) showed activity comparable with the reference inhibitor zileuton (1C50 = 4.1 microM). Moderate activity was observed for the benzoquinone thymoquinone (2) (1C50 = 18.2 microM) and the naphthoquinone shikonin (1) (IC50 = 24.3 microM). The anthraquinone emodin and the naphthoquinone plumbagin (5) displayed only weak activities (IC50 > 50 microM). The binding modes of the active compounds were further evaluated in silico by molecular docking to the human 5-LOX crystal structure. This process supports the biological data and suggested that, although the redox potential is responsible for the quinone's activity on multiple targets, in the case of 5-LOX the molecular structure plays a vital role in the inhibition. The obtained results suggest primin as a promising compound for the development of dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitors. PMID:23472470

  20. Biosynthesis of Fusarubins Accounts for Pigmentation of Fusarium fujikuroi Perithecia

    PubMed Central

    Studt, Lena; Wiemann, Philipp; Kleigrewe, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium fujikuroi produces a variety of secondary metabolites, of which polyketides form the most diverse group. Among these are the highly pigmented naphthoquinones, which have been shown to possess different functional properties for the fungus. A group of naphthoquinones, polyketides related to fusarubin, were identified in Fusarium spp. more than 60 years ago, but neither the genes responsible for their formation nor their biological function has been discovered to date. In addition, although it is known that the sexual fruiting bodies in which the progeny of the fungus develops are darkly colored by a polyketide synthase (PKS)-derived pigment, the structure of this pigment has never been elucidated. Here we present data that link the fusarubin-type polyketides to a defined gene cluster, which we designate fsr, and demonstrate that the fusarubins are the pigments responsible for the coloration of the perithecia. We studied their regulation and the function of the single genes within the cluster by a combination of gene replacements and overexpression of the PKS-encoding gene, and we present a model for the biosynthetic pathway of the fusarubins based on these data. PMID:22492438

  1. Selective and slow-binding inhibition of shikonin derivatives isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon on glycosyl hydrolase 33 and 34 sialidases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Hyung Jae; Park, Ji-Young; Kim, Young Min; Park, Su-Jin; Cho, Jung Keun; Park, Ki Hun; Ryu, Young Bae; Lee, Woo Song

    2012-03-01

    Sialidases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sialic acid residues from various glycoconjugates, which are widely found in a number of viral and microbial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the biological evaluation of isolated six shikonins (1-6) and three shikonofurans (7-9) from Lithospermum erythrorhizon. The nine isolated compounds 1-9 showed strong and selective inhibition of glycosyl hydrolase (GH) 33 and -34 sialidases activities. In GH33 bacterial-sialidase inhibition assay, the inhibitory activities against GH33 siadliase of all shikonofuran derivatives (7-9) were greater than shikonin derivatives (1-6). Shikonofuran E (8) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity toward GH33 sialidases (IC(50)=0.24μM). Moreover, our detailed kinetic analysis of these species unveiled that they are all competitive and simple reversible slow-binding inhibitors. Otherwise, they showed different inhibitory capacities and kinetic modes to GH34 viral-sialidase activity. All the naphthoquinone derivatives (1-6) were of almost equal efficiency with IC(50) value of 40μM and shikonofurans (7-9) did not show the significant inhibitory effect to GH34 sialidase. Kinetic analyses indicated that naphthoquinones acted via a noncompetitive mechanism. PMID:22300884

  2. Quinone emissions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Jakober, Chris A; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Destaillats, Hugo; Charles, M Judith; Green, Peter G; Kleeman, Michael J

    2007-07-01

    Gas- and particle-phase emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers were collected using annular denuders, quartz filters, and PUF substrates. Quinone species were measured using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine quinones were observed, ranging from C6 to C16. New species identified in motor vehicle exhaust include methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQN), and aceanthrenequinone. Gas-phase motor vehicle emissions of quinones are also reported for the first time. Six gas-phase quinones were quantified with emission rates of 2-28 000 microg L(-1) fuel consumed. The most abundant gas-phase quinones were 1,4-benzoquinone (BON) and MNQN. The gas-phase fraction was > or = 69% of quinone mass for light-duty gasoline emissions, and > or = 84% for heavy-duty diesel emissions. Eight particle-phase quinones were observed between 2 and 1600 microg L(-1), with BQN the most abundant species followed by 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and 1,2-naphthoquinone. Current particle-phase quinone measurements agree well with the few available previous results. Further research is needed concerning the gas-particle partitioning behavior of quinones in ambient and combustion source conditions. PMID:17695895

  3. Improved understanding of bimolecular reactions in deceptively simple homogeneous media: From laboratory experiments to Lagrangian quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Qian, Jiazhong; Papelis, Charalambos; Sun, Pengtao; Yu, Zhongbo

    2014-02-01

    Medium heterogeneity affects reaction kinetics by controlling the mixing of reactant particles, but the linkage between medium properties and reaction kinetics is difficult to build, even for simple, relatively homogeneous media. This study aims to explore the dynamics of bimolecular reactions, aniline + 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid ? 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-aminobenzene, in relatively homogeneous flow cells. Laboratory experiments were conducted to monitor the transport of both conservative and reactive tracers through columns packed with silica sand of specific diameters. The measured tracer breakthrough curves exhibit subdiffusive behavior with a late-time tail becoming more pronounced with decreasing sand size, probably due to the segregated flow regions formed more easily in columns packed with smaller size sand. Numerical analysis using a novel Lagrangian model shows that subdiffusion has a twofold effect on bimolecular reactions. While subdiffusion enhances the power-law growth rate of product mass by prolonging the exposure of reactant particles in the depletion zone, the global reaction rate is constrained because subdiffusion constrains the mobility of reactant particles. Reactive kinetics in deceptively simple homogeneous media is therefore controlled by subdiffusion, which is sensitive to the dimensions of packed sand.

  4. Pigment cell differentiation in sea urchin blastula-derived primary cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Ageenko, Natalya V; Kiselev, Konstantin V; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2014-07-01

    The quinone pigments of sea urchins, specifically echinochrome and spinochromes, are known for their effective antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumor activities. We developed in vitro technology for inducing pigment differentiation in cell culture. The intensification of the pigment differentiation was accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in cell proliferation. The number of pigment cells was two-fold higher in the cells cultivated in the coelomic fluids of injured sea urchins than in those intact. The possible roles of the specific components of the coelomic fluids in the pigment differentiation process and the quantitative measurement of the production of naphthoquinone pigments during cultivation were examined by MALDI and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Echinochrome A and spinochrome E were produced by the cultivated cells of the sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis in all tested media, while only spinochromes were found in the cultivated cells of another sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The expression of genes associated with the induction of pigment differentiation was increased in cells cultivated in the presence of shikimic acid, a precursor of naphthoquinone pigments. Our results should contribute to the development of new techniques in marine biotechnology, including the generation of cell cultures producing complex bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential. PMID:24979272

  5. Evaluation of some organic compounds on bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Silva, J S; Ferrioli-Filho, F; Kanesiro, M M; Ferreira, V F; Santos, S C; Pinto, C N; Fonseca, J L; Mizrahy, H E; Gilbert, B; Pinto, M C

    1992-01-01

    Accidental transmission of Chagas' disease to man by blood transfusion is a serious problem in Latin-America. This paper describes the testing of several synthetic, semi-synthetic, and natural compounds for their activity against blood trypomastigotes in vitro at 4 degrees C. The compounds embody several types of chemical structures: benzoquinone, naphthoquinone, anthracenequinone, phenanthrenequinone, imidazole, piperazine, quinoline, xanthene, and simple benzenic and naphthalenic derivatives. Some of them are for the first time tested against Trypanosoma cruzi. The toxic effect of these compounds on this parasite was done by two quite distinct sets of experiments. In one set, the compounds were added to infected blood as ethanolic solution. In this situation the most active one was a furan-1,2-naphthoquinone, in the same range as gentian violet, a new fact to be considered in the assessment of structure-activity relationships in this class of compounds. In other set, we tentatively evaluated the biological activity of water insoluble compounds by adding them in a pure form without solvent into infected blood. In this way some appear to be very active and it was postulated that the effectiveness of such compounds must result from interactions between them and specific blood components. PMID:1343643

  6. Highly sensitive detection of α-naphthol based on G-DNA modified gold electrode by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gang; Liu, Xinhui; Li, Xiaohong

    2013-07-15

    A highly sensitive, reusable G-rich DNA sensor was reported for the detection of α-naphthol by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Specifically, a single-stranded G-rich DNA was self-assembled on the electrode and transformed into K(+)-stabilized G-quadruplex, which could catalyze H2O2-mediated oxidation of α-naphthol (with hemin as a cofactor) to 1, 4-naphthoquinone precipitated on the DNA films. Due to the insolubility of 1, 4-naphthoquinone, the charge transfer resistance (RCT) was increased to maximum within 15 min. Depending on the difference in charge transfer resistance change (ΔRCT), the α-naphthol could be detected with the detection limit of 0.1 nM in Tris-ClO4 buffer solution (20mM, pH=7.4). Moreover, the sensor demonstrated a high selectivity over other selected phenolic compounds. The performance of the sensor in the real lake water was also explored with the detection limit of 0.8 nM. Finally, the regeneration of the sensor was investigated, which allowed for reuse more than 4 cycles with a mean recovery of 94% of the original signal. PMID:23454342

  7. A Dedicated Type II NADPH Dehydrogenase Performs the Penultimate Step in the Biosynthesis of Vitamin K1 in Synechocystis and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Latimer, Scott; Schmollinger, Stefan; Block, Anna; Dussault, Patrick H; Vermaas, Wim F J; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Basset, Gilles J

    2015-06-01

    Mutation of Arabidopsis thaliana NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE C1 (NDC1; At5g08740) results in the accumulation of demethylphylloquinone, a late biosynthetic intermediate of vitamin K1. Gene coexpression and phylogenomics analyses showed that conserved functional associations occur between vitamin K biosynthesis and NDC1 homologs throughout the prokaryotic and eukaryotic lineages. Deletion of Synechocystis ndbB, which encodes for one such homolog, resulted in the same defects as those observed in the cyanobacterial demethylnaphthoquinone methyltransferase knockout. Chemical modeling and assay of purified demethylnaphthoquinone methyltransferase demonstrated that, by virtue of the strong electrophilic nature of S-adenosyl-l-methionine, the transmethylation of the demethylated precursor of vitamin K is strictly dependent on the reduced form of its naphthoquinone ring. NDC1 was shown to catalyze such a prerequisite reduction by using NADPH and demethylphylloquinone as substrates and flavine adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. NDC1 displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was markedly inhibited by dicumarol, a competitive inhibitor of naphthoquinone oxidoreductases. These data demonstrate that the reduction of the demethylnaphthoquinone ring represents an authentic step in the biosynthetic pathway of vitamin K, that this reaction is enzymatically driven, and that a selection pressure is operating to retain type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in this process. PMID:26023160

  8. [Preparation and application of the quinonyl chloromethylation polystyrene in biological treatment of wastewater].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-Yu; Xu, Qing; Niu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Ya-Jun; Hou, Zheng-Hao; Li, Shao-Ying; Chen, Yan-Ming; Lian, Jing; Wu, Shi-Bin; Guo, Jian-Bo

    2014-05-01

    The technology of non-water-soluble mediator anaerobic biological catalysis has attracted more and more attention in the field of environment technology. In this study, five kinds of quinonly compounds were grafted on the chloromethylation polystyrene macromolecular carrier by Friedel-Crafts reaction. Reaction factors of temperature and molar ratio for the 1,4-naphthoquinone grafting carrier were optimized, and the optimal temperature was 78 degreesC while the optimal molar ratio of 1, 4-naphthoquinone and chloromethylation polystyrene was 2: 1. Fourier infrared spectrum analysis confirmed that the quinone groups were successfully grafted on the macromolecular backbone chloromethylation polystyrene. Catalysis using the five kinds of quinonly materials as non-water-soluble redox mediators enhanced the biological denitrification rate and the decoloration of azo dyes, meanwhile these materials showed good reusability in the biodegradation of azo dye. This study developed a new method for the preparation of quinonly materials and revealed a new field in the technology of mediator catalysis. PMID:25055675

  9. Spectrophotometric kinetic and determination of quinones and barbiturates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medien, H. A. A.; Zahran, A. A.

    2001-10-01

    The kinetics of 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid with some quinones, namely 1,4-benzoquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone and p-chloranil in 50% methyl alcohol-water mixture have been investigated spectrophotometrically at 30-50°C. The reaction follows overall second-order kinetics, first order each in reactant. From the dependence of the rate constants on temperature, activation parameters have been calculated. A plot of Δ H# versus Δ S# for the reaction gave a good straight line with an isokinetic temperature of 387.66 K. The rate of reaction increases with increasing dielectric constant of the medium. Based on this reaction, a spectrophotometric determination method of quinones is described. Beer's law was obeyed within the concentration range 2.7-61.5 μg ml -1 quinone. The method was applied for determination of barbituric, thiobarbituric and 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acids with 1,4-naphthoquinone within a concentration range of 3.2-39.5 μg ml -1 barbiturate. The reaction mechanism and reactivity have been discussed.

  10. In-situ study under direct coal liquefaction conditions of the surface interaction between iron sulfides and selected number of model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Montano, P.A.; Bommannavar, A.S.; Lee, Y.C.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of iron sulfides in direct coal liquefaction has been noted by several investigators; an increase in coal conversion and quality of the products has been observed in their studies. In order to gain a better understanding of the role of iron sulfides in coal liquefaction this study investigated in-situ the interaction of FeS/sub 2/, and Fe/sub 7/S/sub 8/ with a series of model compounds. In the experiments 10% catalysts by weight were added to the model compounds. The model compounds studied were dibenzothiophene, pyrene, phenanthrene, 1,4-naphthoquinone, phenothiazine, and quinoline. The experiments were performed in nitrogen and hydrogen atmospheres. Evidence was found of interaction between the pyrrhotites and some of the model compounds. The formation of intermediate iron oxides in 1,4-naphthoquinone indicates a strong interaction between the iron on the pyrrhotite surface and oxygen. The surface composition of pyrrhotite at 450/sup 0/C was also studied in a UHV reaction chamber and the interaction with H/sub 2/, O/sub 2/ and CO was investigated using electron energy loss spectroscopy. (3 tables, 11 figures, 16 refs.)

  11. In-situ study under direct coal liquefaction conditions of the surface interaction between iron sulfides and selected number of model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Montano, P.A.; Bommannavar, A.S.; Lee, Y.C.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of iron sulfides in direct coal liquefaction has been noted by several investigators; an increase in coal conversion and quality of the products has been observed in their studies. In order to gain a better understanding of the role of iron sulfides in coal liquefaction, we have investigated ''in-situ'' the interaction of FeS/sub 2/ and Fe/sub 7/S/sub 8/ with a series of model compounds. In our experiments 10% catalyst by weight were added to the model compounds. The model compounds studied were dibenzothiophene, pyrene, phenanthrene, 1,4-naphthoquinone, phenothiazine, and quinoline. The experiments were performed in nitrogen and hydrogen atmospheres. The authors find evidence of interaction between the pyrrhotites and some of the model compounds. The formation of intermediate iron oxides in 1,4-naphthoquinone indicates a strong interaction between the iron on the pyrrhotite surface and oxygen. The surface composition of pyrrhotite at 450/sup 0/C was also studied in a UHV reaction chamber and the interaction with H/sub 2/, O/sub 2/ and CO was investigated using electron energy loss spectroscopy.

  12. Reaction mechanism of naphthyl radicals with molecular oxygen. 1. Theoretical study of the potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chong-Wen; Kislov, Vadim V; Mebel, Alexander M

    2012-02-16

    Potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the reactions of 1- and 2-naphthyl radicals with molecular oxygen have been investigated at the G3(MP2,CC)//B3LYP/6-311G** level of theory. Both reactions are shown to be initiated by barrierless addition of O(2) to the respective radical sites of C(10)H(7). The end-on O(2) addition leading to 1- and 2-naphthylperoxy radicals exothermic by 45-46 kcal/mol is found to be more preferable thermodynamically than the side-on addition. At the subsequent reaction step, the chemically activated 1- and 2-C(10)H(7)OO adducts can eliminate an oxygen atom leading to the formation of 1- and 2-naphthoxy radical products, respectively, which in turn can undergo unimolecular decomposition producing indenyl radical + CO via the barriers of 57.8 and 48.3 kcal/mol and with total reaction endothermicities of 14.5 and 10.2 kcal/mol, respectively. Alternatively, the initial reaction adducts can feature an oxygen atom insertion into the attacked C(6) ring leading to bicyclic intermediates a10 and a10' (from 1-naphthyl + O(2)) or b10 and b10' (from 2-naphthyl + O(2)) composed from two fused six-member C(6) and seven-member C(6)O rings. Next, a10 and a10' are predicted to decompose to C(9)H(7) (indenyl) + CO(2), 1,2-C(10)H(6)O(2) (1,2-naphthoquinone) + H, and 1-C(9)H(7)O (1-benzopyranyl) + CO, whereas b10 and b10' would dissociate to C(9)H(7) (indenyl) + CO(2), 2-C(9)H(7)O (2-benzopyranyl) + CO, and 1,2-C(10)H(6)O(2) (1,2-naphthoquinone) + H. On the basis of this, the 1-naphthyl + O(2) reaction is concluded to form the following products (with the overall reaction energies given in parentheses): 1-naphthoxy + O (-15.5 kcal/mol), indenyl + CO(2) (-123.9 kcal/mol), 1-benzopyranyl + CO (-97.2 kcal/mol), and 1,2-naphthoquinone + H (-63.5 kcal/mol). The 2-naphthyl + O(2) reaction is predicted to produce 2-naphthoxy + O (-10.9 kcal/mol), indenyl + CO(2) (-123.7 kcal/mol), 2-benzopyranyl + CO (-90.7 kcal/mol), and 1,2-naphthoquinone + H (-63.2 kcal/mol). Simplified kinetic calculations using transition-state theory computed rate constants at the high-pressure limit indicate that the C(10)H(7)O + O product channels are favored at high temperatures, while the irreversible oxygen atom insertion first leading to the a10 and a10' or b10 and b10' intermediates and then to their various decomposition products is preferable at lower temperatures. Among the decomposition products, indenyl + CO(2) are always most favorable at lower temperatures, but the others, 1,2-C(10)H(6)O(2) (1,2-naphthoquinone) + H (from a10 and b10'), 1-C(9)H(7)O (1-benzopyranyl) + CO (from a10'), and 2-C(10)H(7)O (2-benzopyranyl) + O (from b10 and minor from b10'), may notably contribute or even become major products at higher temperatures. PMID:22239650

  13. Inhibition of the mutagenicity of 2-nitrofluorene, 3-nitrofluoranthene and 1-nitropyrene by flavonoids, coumarins, quinones and other phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Edenharder, R; Tang, X

    1997-01-01

    When 56 flavonoids, 32 coumarins, five naphthoquinones, 12 anthraquinones and five structurally-related compounds were tested for their antimutagenic potencies with respect to mutagenicities induced by 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NFA) and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 distinct structure-activity relationships were detected. First, the tetracyclic nitroarenes 3-NFA and 1-NP were in general more effectively antagonized by potent antimutagenic flavonoids and coumarins than the tricyclic 2-NF, while there were only minor differences with quinones. Secondly, antimutagenicity of natural compounds of plant origin correlated with the aglyconic nature 10 of a total of 15 glycosides were inactive, four flavonoid glycosides exerted antimutagenicity but to a distinctly lower degree than the corresponding aglycones. Thirdly, within flavonoids, coumarins and anthraquinones positive correlations were found between antimutagenic potency and the polarity of a molecule with the existence of an optimum of activity within flavonols and anthraquinones. However, polarity seemed to be unimportant within the chalcone and naphthoquinone series. Among flavonoids, the parent compounds flavone and flavanone were inactive, but all flavones and many flavonoids with phenolic hydroxyl groups exerted antimutagenicity. Antimutagenic potency reached a maximum with the presence of four hydroxyl functions-luteolin, kaempferol-though the position of hydroxyls was also a determinant of antimutagenic potency. Methylation of phenolic hydroxyl groups, however, always reduced antimutagenicity. A carbonyl group at carbon 4 was essential for antimutagenicity: two catechins and anthocyanidins each were inactive. On the other hand, ring C of the flavane nucleus was not essential for antimutagenicity: chalcones and dihydrochalcones were potent antimutagens. Among coumarins, the parent compound showed antimutagenicity against 1-NP and 3-NFA, although dihydrocoumarin, methylcoumarins and compounds with bulky substituents were inactive. Otherwise, antimutagenic activity depended on the presence of polar hydroxyl, amino or carboxyl groups at carbons 3, 4 or 7 but was diminished by interactions of hydroxyl groups vicinal to carbon 7. Again, antimutagenic potencies were reduced by alkylation or acetylation. Among furanocoumarins xanthotoxin exerted strong and bergapten moderate antimutagenicity, while psoralen (except against 3-NFA), isopimpinellin and the furanochromanones visnagin and khellin were inactive. Among anthraquinones, the principles delineated here were valid again, resulting in potent antimutagenicity of most phenolic compounds and inactivity of anthraquinone itself. Among compounds structurally related to anthraquinones, anthrone, acridone and xanthone exerted antimutagenicity, anthrone being the most potent one, while thioxanthone and 9-fluorenone were inactive. All naphthoquinones were potent antimutagens irrespective of the presence of methyl or hydroxyl functions. Plumbagin, 2-methyl-5-hydroxynaphthoquinone, however, showed exceptional antimutagenicity. PMID:9207898

  14. Cross-dehydrogenative coupling of α-C(sp(3))-H of ethers/alkanes with C(sp(2))-H of heteroarenes under metal-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Ambala, Srinivas; Thatikonda, Thanusha; Sharma, Shweta; Munagala, Gurunadham; Yempalla, Kushalava Reddy; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Singh, Parvinder Pal

    2015-12-14

    Here we have developed an effective metal-free dehydrogenative coupling method wherein α-oxyalkyl and alkyl radicals were generated from various ethers and alkanes to undergo coupling with a variety of electron-deficient heteroarenes such as un/substituted iso-quinolones, quinolines, pyridines, pyrazines and pyrimidines. The persulfate-acetone-water system was optimized for the dehydrogenative coupling with cyclic ethers which gave moderate to excellent yields of α-oxyalkyl containing heteroarenes. We have also optimized the conditions for coupling with cyclic alkanes and alicyclic ethers and demonstrated by conducting the reactions with a variety of electron-deficient heteroarenes. Further, the present method is also applicable to electron deficient arenes like naphthoquinones and moreover, it didn't require any external acid. PMID:26419479

  15. Synthesis, Photochemical Properties, and Cytotoxicities of 2H-Naphtho[1,2-b]pyran and Its Photodimers.

    PubMed

    Ota, Motohiro; Sasamori, Takahiro; Tokitoh, Norihiro; Onodera, Takefumi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori

    2015-06-01

    A 2H-naphtho[1,2-b]pyran, prepared by dimerization of 2-bromo-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and O-methylation, readily undergoes solid-state [2 + 2] photodimerization to give a photodimer in excellent yield and with excellent selectivity. Retro [2 + 2] cycloaddition can be achieved by irradiation of a solution of the photodimer in chloroform. Interestingly, the 2H-naphtho[1,2-b]pyran dimerizes with a skeletal rearrangement to afford 2,5-dihydro-1-benzoxepin dimers upon irradiation in methanol or via irradiation with hexamethylditin. Furthermore, treatment of the resulting dimers with triethylamine regenerates the 2H-naphtho[1,2-b]pyran monomer. Significant differences in the color, fluorescence, and cytotoxic properties of the monomer and dimers were observed. PMID:25927340

  16. Quinone reduction by Rhodothermus marinus succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase is not stimulated by the membrane potential

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Andreia S.; Konstantinov, Alexander A.; Teixeira, Miguel; Pereira, Manuela M. . E-mail: mpereira@itqb.unl.pt

    2005-05-06

    Succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), a di-haem enzyme purified from Rhodothermus marinus, reveals an HQNO-sensitive succinate:quinone oxidoreductase activity with several menaquinone analogues as electron acceptors that decreases with lowering the redox midpoint potential of the quinones. A turnover with the low-potential 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone that is the closest analogue of menaquinone, although low, can be detected in liposome-reconstituted SQR. Reduction of the quinone is not stimulated by an imposed K{sup +}-diffusion membrane potential of a physiological sign (positive inside the vesicles). Nor does the imposed membrane potential increase the reduction level of the haems in R. marinus SQR poised with the succinate/fumarate redox couple. The data do not support a widely discussed hypothesis on the electrogenic transmembrane electron transfer from succinate to menaquinone catalysed by di-haem SQRs. The role of the membrane potential in regulation of the SQR activity is discussed.

  17. Phytochemical and biological study of radal Lomatia hirsuta (Proteaceae).

    PubMed

    Erazo, S; García, R; Backhouse, N; Lemus I 1st; Delporte, C; Andrade, C

    1997-07-01

    The anti-inflammatory property of Lomatia hirsuta (Lam.) Diels ex Macbr. (Proteaceae), leaves (radal), a plant used in Chilean traditional medicine for bronchial troubles and asthma, was evaluated. The biological assays showed infusion of L. hirsuta leaves inhibits the inflammation induced by lambda-carrageenan corresponding to a 29.2% anti-inflammatory effect, and to 53.5% of the maximum effect observed with sodium naproxen (4 mg/kg) in the same experimental conditions. The coumarins, umbelliferone and scopoletin, were the major compounds isolated, along with quercetine, rhamnetin and iso-rhamnetin, with minor quantities or quercitrine and no presence of toxic naphthoquinone derivates. These results supported the folk use of L. hirsuta. PMID:9254109

  18. Onosma L.: A review of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Neeraj; Kumar, Rajnish; Kishore, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The genus Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) includes about 150 species distributed world-wide in which only about 75 plants has been described for its morphology and less than 10 plants for their chemical constituents and clinical potential. The phytochemical reports of this genus revels that it comprise mainly aliphatic ketones, lipids, naphthazarins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, naphthoquinones, flavones while most important are shikonins and onosmins. The plants are traditionally used as laxative, anthelmintic and for alexipharmic effects. The plants are also equally use in eye, blood diseases, bronchitis, abdominal pain, stangury, thirst, itch, lecoderma, fever, wounds, burns, piles and urinary calculi. The flowers of various plants are prescribed as stimulants, cardiotonic, in body swelling while leaves are used as purgative and in cutaneous eruptions. The roots are used for coloring food stuffs, oils and dying wool and in medicinal preparations. This review emphasizes the distribution, morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnopharmacology, which may help in future research. PMID:24347922

  19. Extensive phytochemical investigation of the polar constituents of Diospyros bipindensis Gürke traditionally used by Baka pygmies.

    PubMed

    Cesari, Ilaria; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; Favre-Godal, Quentin; Marcourt, Laurence; Caccialanza, Gabriele; Moundipa, Paul F; Brusotti, Gloria; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2013-12-01

    The water maceration and methanolic extract of the stem barks of Diospyros bipindensis, which is a medicinal plant used in Cameroon by Baka pygmies, revealed a complex high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile primarily composed of coumarin and naphthoquinone glycosides. The methanolic and apolar extracts also exhibited significant antifungal activity on a TLC bioautography assay against Candida albicans. HPLC-microfractionation in 96-well plates combined with bioautography enabled the rapid localization of the antifungal compound that was identified by HPLC-PDA and HPLC-MS analysis as plumbagin. These on-line structural information were also used to dereplicate four known compounds. The isolation of the polar constituents from the methanolic extract enabled the identification of eleven other compounds also present in the traditional preparation, nine of which are reported for the first time. The structures of those compounds were elucidated by UV, NMR and HR-MS analysis. PMID:24070618

  20. Comparison of the antiinflammatory effects of Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera madagascariensis in the HET-CAM assay.

    PubMed

    Paper, Dietrich H; Karall, Elisabeth; Kremser, Michaela; Krenn, Liselotte

    2005-04-01

    The antiinflammatory effects of ethanol and aqueous extracts from Drosera rotundifolia and from Drosera madagascariensis were compared in vivo in the HET-CAM assay. Both extracts from D. rotundifolia and the ethanol extract from D. madagascariensis showed remarkable efficacy at doses of 500 microg/pellet. The inhibition of the inflammation by the extracts was stronger than that by 50 microg hydrocortisone/pellet. In contrast, there was only a very weak effect observed at a dose of 500 microg/pellet of the water extract from D. madagascariensis. The chemical analyses of the extracts showed that the effect cannot be attributed to naphthoquinones, but might be due to flavonoids. Ellagic acid obviously plays an important role in the antiangiogenic effect of the Drosera extracts. PMID:16041727

  1. Secondary metabolites in in vitro cultured plants of the genus Drosera.

    PubMed

    Marczak, L; Kawiak, A; Lojkowska, E; Stobiecki, M

    2005-01-01

    Extracts from plantlets of different species of the genus Drosera, grown as in vitro cultures, were evaluated for the level of phenolic secondary metabolites from the group of naphthoquinones and flavonols. The profiles of natural products in the extracts obtained from different species were monitored by HPLC with UV detection at 260 and 330 nm. On the basis of the data obtained, Drosera binata, the species with the highest amount of plumbagin, was selected for further studies. The most effective method of extraction of quinones was established and the composition of phenolic secondary metabolites in the tissues was determined. For the identification of phenolic compounds, HPLC-UV and HPLC-ESI/MS were applied. PMID:15997845

  2. In vitro antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory effects of Drosera rotundifolia.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Liselotte; Beyer, Gabriele; Pertz, Heinz H; Karall, Elisabeth; Kremser, Michaela; Galambosi, Bertalan; Melzig, Matthias F

    2004-01-01

    In investigations of the anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic effects of Drosera rotundifolia two extracts were tested in different in vitro assays. An aqueous and an ethanolic extract inhibited human neutrophil elastase, achieving IC50 values of 5 and 1 microg/mL, respectively. The very low naphthoquinone concentrations in the extracts seem not to be responsible for the effect, as the pure compounds were not effective in the test system used. Thus, flavonoids like hyperoside, quercetin and isoquercitrin, which were detected in the extracts in considerable concentrations, may contribute to the activity. These substances showed activity in the assay. Ellagic acid, detected especially in the ethanolic extract in higher amounts, was substantially less active than the flavonoids. In guinea-pig ileum the extracts led to an antispasmodic effect possibly by affecting an allosteric binding site of the muscarinic M3 receptors. PMID:15344845

  3. Antimicrobial activity and chemical investigation of Brazilian Drosera.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Dalva Trevisan; Andrei, César Cornélio; Saridakis, Halha Ostrensky; Faria, Terezinha de Jesus; Vinhato, Elisângela; Carvalho, Kátia Eliane; Daniel, Juliana Feijó Souza; Machado, Sílvio Luiz; Saridakis, Dennis Panayotis; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2004-11-01

    The antimicrobial activity of three different extracts (hexanic, ethyl acetate, methanol) obtained from Brazilian Drosera species (D. communis, D. montana var. montana, D. brevifolia, D. villosa var. graomogolensis, D. villosa var. villosa, Drosera sp. 1, and Drosera sp. 2 ) were tested against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC23212), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), Escherichia coli (ATCC11229), Salmonella choleraesuis (ATCC10708), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC13883), and Candida albicans (a human isolate). Better antimicrobial activity was observed with D. communis and D. montana var. montana ethyl acetate extracts. Phytochemical analyses from D. communis, D. montana var. montana and D. brevifolia yielded 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (plumbagin); long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons were isolated from D. communis and from D. villosa var. villosa, a mixture of long chain aliphatic alcohols and carboxylic acids, was isolated from D. communis and 3b-O-acetylaleuritolic acid from D. villosa var. villosa. PMID:15654434

  4. Laser flash photolysis and magnetic-field-effect studies on interaction of thymine and thymidine with menadione: role of sugar in controlling reaction pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Adity; Dey, Debarati; Basu, Samita

    2008-04-01

    The magnetic field effect (MFE) in conjunction with laser flash photolysis has been used for the study of the interaction of one of the small drug like quinone molecules, 2-methyl, 1,4-naphthoquinone, commonly known as menadione (MQ), with one of the DNA bases, thymine (THN), and its corresponding nucleoside, thymidine (THDN), in acetonitrile (ACN) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelles. It has been observed that THN undergoes electron transfer (ET) and hydrogen (H) abstraction with MQ, while THDN undergoes only H abstraction in both the media. However, our earlier studies showed that a purine base, adenine (ADN), and its nucleoside, 2'-deoxyadenosine (ADS), undergo ET in ACN and H abstraction in SDS. Here we have attempted to explain the differences in the reactions of these DNA bases with MQ. We also reveal the crucial role of a sugar unit in altering the behavior of purine and pyrimidine bases with respect to ET and H abstraction.

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of copper in alloys using naphthazarin.

    PubMed

    Chaisuksant, R; Palkawong-Na-Ayuthaya, W; Grudpan, K

    2000-12-01

    Naphthazarin (5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone; Naph) is proposed as a chromogenic reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of copper(II). The polynuclear complex has a mole ratio of Cu:Naph=4:6 in a 50% v/v ethanol/water medium containing 0.1 M ammonium acetate and 1.5% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate. The copper-naphthazarin complex shows an absorption maximum at 330 nm with a molar absorptivity of 1.84x10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1). Beer's law is obeyed up to 4.5 ppm of copper(II). The method was applied for copper determination in alloy samples with satisfactory results. PMID:18968145

  6. Naphthazarin protects against glutamate-induced neuronal death via activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Tae Gen; Kawamoto, Elisa M.; Yu, Qian-Sheng; Greig, Nigel H.; Mattson, Mark P.; Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD ; Camandola, Simonetta

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Naphthazarin activates the Nrf2/ARE pathway. •Naphthazarin induces Nrf2-driven genes in neurons and astrocytes. •Naphthazarin protects neurons against excitotoxicity. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is an important cellular stress response pathway involved in neuroprotection. We previously screened several natural phytochemicals and identified plumbagin as a novel activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway that can protect neurons against ischemic injury. Here we extended our studies to natural and synthetic derivatives of plumbagin. We found that 5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin) is a potent activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, up-regulates the expression of Nrf2-driven genes in primary neuronal and glial cultures, and protects neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity.

  7. Pharmacological properties of shikonin - a review of literature since 2002.

    PubMed

    Andújar, Isabel; Ríos, José Luis; Giner, Rosa María; Recio, María Carmen

    2013-12-01

    The naphthoquinone shikonin is the main active principle of Zicao, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine made from the dried root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Studies carried out over the past 30 years have provided a scientific basis for the use of Zicao which has been long employed in folk medicine to treat a variety of inflammatory and infectious diseases. In particular, shikonin has been shown to possess many diverse properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antimicrobial, and wound healing effects. The fact that shikonin shows so many beneficial properties has increased the interest in this molecule dramatically, especially in the past few years. The aim of this review is to provide an update of the new data published on shikonin, whose wide spectrum of pharmacological effects as well as pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity make it a highly interesting target molecule. PMID:24155261

  8. Lithospermum erythrorhizon suppresses high-fat diet-induced obesity, and acetylshikonin, a main compound of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Ji Yun; Chung, Chang Hwa; Moon, BoKyung; Ha, Tae Youl

    2012-09-12

    Lithospermum erythrorhizon, which has traditionally been used as a vegetable and to make the liquor Jindo Hongju, contains several naphthoquinone pigments, including shikonin. This study aimed to evaluate the antiobesity effects of Lithospermum erythrorhizon ethanol extract (LE) and elucidate the underlying mechanism. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal or high-fat diet with or without LE supplementation for 8 weeks. LE reduced high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight, white adipose tissue mass, serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels, and hepatic lipid levels while decreasing lipogenic and adipogenic gene expression. Furthermore, acetylshikonin suppressed adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner and significantly attenuated adipogenic transcription factor expression in 3T3-L1 cells. These findings suggest that Lithospermum erythrorhizon prevents obesity by inhibiting adipogenesis through downregulation of genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway and may be a useful dietary supplement for the prevention of obesity. PMID:22900585

  9. Interactions between manganese oxides and multiple-ringed aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Sims, R.C.

    1992-08-01

    Objective is to determine whether Mn reductive dissolution can oxidize multiple-ringed aromatics, such as PAHs, in an oxic environment? Research indicated that certain PAHs (eg, dihydrodiols and diones that form free-radical intermediates) are susceptible to oxidation and polymerization. Over 14 days, 83, 76, 54, 70, and 20% of the Mn was reduced by 2,3-, 1,3-, and 1,4-naphthalenediol, quinizarin, and 1,4-naphthoquinone, respectively. 100, 100, and 65% of the first three PAHs were oxidized, respectively. Aromatics with diol functional groups were more easily oxidized than those with only dione groups. Relatively insoluble compounds like quinizarin can be oxidized; insoluble ``humic-like`` material precipitated, indicating a polymerization-humification process. Results suggest that electron transfer/organic release from the oxide surface is the rate-limiting step.

  10. Interactions between manganese oxides and multiple-ringed aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G. ); Sims, R.C. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    1992-08-01

    Objective is to determine whether Mn reductive dissolution can oxidize multiple-ringed aromatics, such as PAHs, in an oxic environment Research indicated that certain PAHs (eg, dihydrodiols and diones that form free-radical intermediates) are susceptible to oxidation and polymerization. Over 14 days, 83, 76, 54, 70, and 20% of the Mn was reduced by 2,3-, 1,3-, and 1,4-naphthalenediol, quinizarin, and 1,4-naphthoquinone, respectively. 100, 100, and 65% of the first three PAHs were oxidized, respectively. Aromatics with diol functional groups were more easily oxidized than those with only dione groups. Relatively insoluble compounds like quinizarin can be oxidized; insoluble ''humic-like'' material precipitated, indicating a polymerization-humification process. Results suggest that electron transfer/organic release from the oxide surface is the rate-limiting step.

  11. Antioxidant and immunomodulatory constituents of henna leaves.

    PubMed

    Mikhaeil, Botros R; Badria, Farid A; Maatooq, Galal T; Amer, Mohamed M A

    2004-01-01

    The immunomodulatory bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract of henna (Lawsonia inermis L.; syn. Lawsonia alba L.) leaves resulted in the isolation of seven compounds; three have been isolated for the first time from the genus, namely p-coumaric acid, 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and apiin, along with the previously isolated compounds: lawsone, apigenin, luteolin, and cosmosiin. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was based upon their physical, chemical as well as spectroscopic characters. Their immuomodulatory profile was studied using an in vitro immunoassay, the lymphocyte transformation assay. The ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)], free radical scavenging assay depicted that all isolated compounds exhibited antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. PMID:15813363

  12. Inhibition of the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase: the effect of zinc(II) ions and chelating ligand fragments on enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Thorson, Megan K; Puerta, David T; Cohen, Seth M; Barrios, Amy M

    2014-08-15

    A 96-member chelator fragment library (CFL-1.1) was screened to identify inhibitors of the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase in the absence and presence of zinc acetate. Fragments that inhibit LYP activity more potently in the presence of zinc, fragments that rescue LYP activity in the presence of inhibitory concentrations of zinc, and fragments that inhibit LYP activity independent of zinc concentration were identified. Of these, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene was the most potent inhibitor with an IC50 value of 2.52±0.06 μM after 2 h of incubation. LYP inhibition by 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene was very similar to inhibition by 1,2-naphthoquinone (IC50=1.10±0.03 µM), indicating that the oxidized quinone species is likely the active inhibitor. The inhibition was time-dependent, consistent with covalent modification of the enzyme. PMID:24997687

  13. Flow-injection determination of amine contaminants in cyclamate samples based on temperature for controlling selectivity.

    PubMed

    Saurina, Javier; Hlabangana, Leah; Garcia-Milla, Daniel; Hernandez-Cassou, Santiago

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes a flow-injection (FI) method for the simultaneous determination of aniline and cyclohexylamine impurities in cyclamate products. The method consists of the derivatization of amines with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate under selective and non-selective conditions. Here, the selectivity is achieved by working at 20 degree C, at which only aniline reacts, whilst higher temperatures (80 degree C) lead to a non-selective reaction of the two analytes. The FI manifold is composed of two flow cells for the spectrophotometric detection of derivatives at 480 nm. Experimental conditions have been optimized by factorial design and multicriteria making approach. Quantification is accomplished by differential analysis of the analyte contributions in the double peaks generated when the sample reaches cell 1 and cell 2. Results obtained with the proposed method are in satisfactory agreement with those provided by the standard method for the analysis of cyclamate samples. PMID:15116242

  14. Characterization of wines through the biogenic amine contents using chromatographic techniques and chemometric data analysis.

    PubMed

    García-Villar, Natividad; Hernandez-Cassou, Santiago; Saurina, Javier

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a new method for wine characterization based on the analysis of the biogenic amine composition and the chromatographic profiles using chemometric methods such as principal component analysis and partial least-squares regression. Amine contents have been determined by liquid chromatography with a precolumn derivatization with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate. The corresponding chromatographic data have been advantageously exploited for extracting relevant information regarding some wine features such as elaboration procedure, vintage, or origin region. Results indicate that amines might be used as descriptors of the certain enological practices. Besides, younger wines can be reasonably distinguished from aged ones on the basis of the amine contents. The wine characterization through the analysis of raw chromatographic profiles is proven to be also effective, and patterns dealing with aging processes have also been encountered. PMID:17676870

  15. Inhibition of the HIF1α-p300 interaction by quinone- and indandione-mediated ejection of structural Zn(II)

    PubMed Central

    Jayatunga, Madura K. P.; Thompson, Sam; McKee, Tawnya C.; Chan, Mun Chiang; Reece, Kelie M.; Hardy, Adam P.; Sekirnik, Rok; Seden, Peter T.; Cook, Kristina M.; McMahon, James B.; Figg, William D.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Hamilton, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions between the hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF) and the transcriptional coactivators p300/CBP are potential cancer targets due to their role in the hypoxic response. A natural product based screen led to the identification of indandione and benzoquinone derivatives that reduce the tight interaction between a HIF-1α fragment and the CH1 domain of p300. The indandione derivatives were shown to fragment to give ninhydrin, which was identified as the active species. Both the naphthoquinones and ninhydrin were observed to induce Zn(II) ejection from p300 and the catalytic domain of the histone demethylase KDM4A. Together with previous reports on the effects of reated compounds on HIF-1α and other systems, the results suggest that care should be taken in interpreting biological results obtained with highly electrophilic/ thiol modifying compounds. PMID:25023609

  16. REGIOSELECTIVE MULTICOMPONENT DOMINO REACTIONS PROVIDING RAPID AND EFFICIENT ROUTES TO FUSED ACRIDINES

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-Peng; Fan, Wei; Ding, Jie; Jiang, Bo; Tu, Shu-Jiang; Li, Guigen

    2014-01-01

    Regioselective three-component reactions of aromatic aldehydes with indazol-5-amine and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in HOAc under microwave irradiation have been developed. In this one-pot reaction, a series of new pyrazole-fused benzo[h]acridine derivatives with 1,2-diketone unit were synthesized with high chemical yields. The resulting pyrazole-fused acridines were employed to further react with aldehydes and ammonium acetate to give polycyclic oxazole-fused pyrazolo[3,4-j]acridines. The present green synthesis shows several advantages including operational simplicity and fast reaction rates, which makes it a useful and attractive process of library generation for drug discovery. PMID:25364095

  17. REGIOSELECTIVE MULTICOMPONENT DOMINO REACTIONS PROVIDING RAPID AND EFFICIENT ROUTES TO FUSED ACRIDINES.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Peng; Fan, Wei; Ding, Jie; Jiang, Bo; Tu, Shu-Jiang; Li, Guigen

    2013-12-17

    Regioselective three-component reactions of aromatic aldehydes with indazol-5-amine and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in HOAc under microwave irradiation have been developed. In this one-pot reaction, a series of new pyrazole-fused benzo[h]acridine derivatives with 1,2-diketone unit were synthesized with high chemical yields. The resulting pyrazole-fused acridines were employed to further react with aldehydes and ammonium acetate to give polycyclic oxazole-fused pyrazolo[3,4-j]acridines. The present green synthesis shows several advantages including operational simplicity and fast reaction rates, which makes it a useful and attractive process of library generation for drug discovery. PMID:25364095

  18. Langkolide, a 32-membered macrolactone antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp. Acta 3062.

    PubMed

    Helaly, Soleiman E; Kulik, Andreas; Zinecker, Heidi; Ramachandaran, Kamalanathan; Tan, Geok Yuan Annie; Imhoff, Johannes F; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-06-22

    A new 32-membered macrolactone antibiotic, named langkolide, was isolated from the mycelium of Streptomyces sp. Acta 3062. The langkolide structure was determined by HR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR as a 32-membered macrolactone connected from an overhanging polyketide tail to a naphthoquinone unit mediated by two carbohydrate moieties. The producing strain was isolated from a rhizosphere soil of Clitorea sp. collected at Burau Bay, Langkawi, Malaysia, and was characterized by its morphological and chemotaxonomic features in addition to its 16S rRNA gene sequence. It was identified as a member of the Streptomyces galbus clade. Langkolide exhibited various bioactivities including antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, langkolide inhibited human recombinant phosphodiesterase 4 with an IC(50) value of 0.48 μM. PMID:22642587

  19. Inhibition of the Lymphoid Tyrosine Phosphatase: The Effect of Zinc(II) ions and Chelating Ligand Fragments on Enzymatic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Thorson, Megan K.; Puerta, David T.; Cohen, Seth M.; Barrios, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    A 96-member chelator fragment library (CFL-1.1) was screened to identify inhibitors of the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase in the absence and presence of zinc acetate. Fragments that inhibit LYP activity more potently in the presence of zinc, fragments that rescue LYP activity in the presence of inhibitory concentrations of zinc, and fragments that inhibit LYP activity independent of zinc concentration were identified. Of these, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene was the most potent inhibitor with an IC50 value of 2.52 ± 0.06 μM after 2 h of incubation. LYP inhibition by 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene was very similar to inhibition by 1,2-naphthoquinone (IC50 = 1.10 ± 0.03), indicating that the oxidized quinone species is likely the active inhibitor. The inhibition was time- dependent, consistent with covalent modification of the enzyme. PMID:24997687

  20. New method for spectrophotometric determination of quinones and barbituric acid through their reaction. A kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medien, H. A. A.

    1996-11-01

    A new and sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of p-benzoquinone, p-chloranil and 1.4-naphthoquinone. The method is based on the reaction between quinones and barbituric acid, by which a color is developed with maximum absorption between 485 and 555 nm in 50% methyl alcohol-water mixture. The absorption of the product obeys Beer's law within the concentration range 0.025-05 mM of orginal quinone. The kinetics of the reaction between p-benzoquinone and barbituric acid was studied in a range of methyl alcohol-water mixtures. The reaction follows overall second order kinetics, first order in each of the reactants. The rate increases with increasing dielectric constant. The method was applied for determination of barbituric acid with p-benzoquinone in the concentration range of 0.025-0.345 mM. Other barbiturates do not interfere.

  1. Reaction of N-arylsulfonylquinonimines and quinones with N-chloramides

    SciTech Connect

    Bezverkhii, N.P.; Protashchuk, S.I.; Borodavko, N.D.

    1987-11-10

    N-chloro derivatives of formamide, chloroacetamide and N-substituted ureas in the presence of triethylamine or potassium acetate amidate N-arylsulfonylquinonimines. Quantum chemical calculations of the electronic structure of anions of N-chloramides of carboxylic and sulfonic acids show that the amidation of quinoid systems by N-chloramides is subject to orbital control. In the framework of the frontier molecular orbital theory, the inactivity of benzoquinones and naphthoquinones and N,N/sup 1/-bis(benzoyl)-1,4-benzoquinonediimine in the amidation reaction is attributed to the level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, which is higher than that in N-arylsulfonylquinonimines. The quantum chemical calculations showed that the major contribution to the reaction of quinonimines with N-chloramide anions is made by an orbital interaction. Thus, the electrophilic reactivity of quinoid compounds should depend on the level of their LUMO, whose energy is approximately equal to the electron affinity of the molecule.

  2. Juglone induces cell death of Acanthamoeba through increased production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Jha, Bijay Kumar; Jung, Hui-Jung; Seo, Incheol; Suh, Seong-Il; Suh, Min-Ho; Baek, Won-Ki

    2015-12-01

    Juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a major chemical constituent of Juglans mandshruica Maxim. Recent studies have demonstrated that juglone exhibits anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-parasitic properties. However, its effect against Acanthamoeba has not been defined yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of juglone on Acanthamoeba. We demonstrate that juglone significantly inhibits the growth of Acanthamoeba castellanii at 3-5 μM concentrations. Juglone increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caused cell death of A. castellanii. Inhibition of ROS by antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) restored the cell viability. Furthermore, our results show that juglone increased the uptake of mitochondrial specific dye. Collectively, these results indicate that ROS played a significant role in the juglone-induced cell death of Acanthamoeba. PMID:26358271

  3. Profiling the NIH Small Molecule Repository for Compounds That Generate H2O2 by Redox Cycling in Reducing Environments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We have screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Small Molecule Repository (SMR) libraries in a horseradish peroxidasephenol red (HRP-PR) H2O2 detection assay to identify redox cycling compounds (RCCs) capable of generating H2O2 in buffers containing dithiothreitol (DTT). Two RCCs were identified in the LOPAC set, the ortho-naphthoquinone ?-lapachone and the para-naphthoquinone NSC 95397. Thirty-seven (0.02%) concentration-dependent RCCs were identified from 195,826 compounds in the NIH SMR library; 3 singleton structures, 9 ortho-quinones, 2 para-quinones, 4 pyrimidotriazinediones, 15 arylsulfonamides, 2 nitrothiophene-2-carboxylates, and 2 tolyl hydrazides. Sixty percent of the ortho-quinones and 80% of the pyrimidotriazinediones in the library were confirmed as RCCs. In contrast, only 3.9% of the para-quinones were confirmed as RCCs. Fifteen of the 251 arylsulfonamides in the library were confirmed as RCCs, and since we screened 17,868 compounds with a sulfonamide functional group we conclude that the redox cycling activity of the arylsulfonamide RCCs is due to peripheral reactive enone, aromatic, or heterocyclic functions. Cross-target queries of the University of Pittsburgh Drug Discovery Institute (UPDDI) and PubChem databases revealed that the RCCs exhibited promiscuous bioactivity profiles and have populated both screening databases with significantly higher numbers of active flags than non-RCCs. RCCs were promiscuously active against protein targets known to be susceptible to oxidation, but were also active in cell growth inhibition assays, and against other targets thought to be insensitive to oxidation. Profiling compound libraries or the hits from screening campaigns in the HRP-PR H2O2 detection assay significantly reduce the timelines and resources required to identify and eliminate promiscuous nuisance RCCs from the candidates for lead optimization. PMID:20070233

  4. Plumbagin suppresses epithelial to mesenchymal transition and stemness via inhibiting Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Qin, Yiru; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Yang, Yin-Xue; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Qiu, Jia-Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is the most common malignancy in oral and maxillofacial tumors with highly metastatic characteristics. Plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone; PLB), a natural naphthoquinone derived from the roots of Plumbaginaceae plants, exhibits various bioactivities, including anticancer effects. However, the potential molecular targets and underlying mechanisms of PLB in the treatment of TSCC remain elusive. This study employed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomic approach to investigate the molecular interactome of PLB in human TSCC cell line SCC25 and elucidate the molecular mechanisms. The proteomic data indicated that PLB inhibited cell proliferation, activated death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway, remodeled epithelial adherens junctions pathway, and manipulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated oxidative stress response signaling pathway in SCC25 cells with the involvement of a number of key functional proteins. Furthermore, we verified these protein targets using Western blotting assay. The verification results showed that PLB markedly induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and extrinsic apoptosis, and inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness in SCC25 cells. Of note, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and l-glutathione (GSH) abolished the effects of PLB on cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, EMT inhibition, and stemness attenuation in SCC25 cells. Importantly, PLB suppressed the translocation of Nrf2 from cytosol to nucleus, resulting in an inhibition in the expression of downstream targets. Taken together, these results suggest that PLB may act as a promising anticancer compound via inhibiting Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress signaling pathway in SCC25 cells. This study provides a clue to fully identify the molecular targets and decipher the underlying mechanisms of PLB in the treatment of TSCC. PMID:26491260

  5. Anti-Tumor Effects of Novel 5-O-Acyl Plumbagins Based on the Inhibition of Mammalian DNA Replicative Polymerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Moe; Kuriyama, Isoko; Maruo, Sayako; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    We previously found that vitamin K3 (menadione, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) inhibits the activity of human mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (pol γ). In this study, we focused on plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), and chemically synthesized novel plumbagins conjugated with C2:0 to C22:6 fatty acids (5-O-acyl plumbagins). These chemically modified plumbagins enhanced mammalian pol inhibition and their cytotoxic activity. Plumbagin conjugated with chains consisting of more than C18-unsaturated fatty acids strongly inhibited the activities of calf pol α and human pol γ. Plumbagin conjugated with oleic acid (C18:1-acyl plumbagin) showed the strongest suppression of human colon carcinoma (HCT116) cell proliferation among the ten synthesized 5-O-acyl plumbagins. The inhibitory activity on pol α, a DNA replicative pol, by these compounds showed high correlation with their cancer cell proliferation suppressive activity. C18:1-Acyl plumbagin selectively inhibited the activities of mammalian pol species, but did not influence the activities of other pols and DNA metabolic enzymes tested. This compound inhibited the proliferation of various human cancer cell lines, and was the cytotoxic inhibitor showing strongest inhibition towards HT-29 colon cancer cells (LD50 = 2.9 µM) among the nine cell lines tested. In an in vivo anti-tumor assay conducted on nude mice bearing solid tumors of HT-29 cells, C18:1-acyl plumbagin was shown to be a promising tumor suppressor. These data indicate that novel 5-O-acyl plumbagins act as anti-cancer agents based on mammalian DNA replicative pol α inhibition. Moreover, the results suggest that acylation of plumbagin is an effective chemical modification to improve the anti-cancer activity of vitamin K3 derivatives, such as plumbagin. PMID:24520419

  6. Anti-tumor effects of novel 5-O-acyl plumbagins based on the inhibition of mammalian DNA replicative polymerase activity.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Moe; Kuriyama, Isoko; Maruo, Sayako; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    We previously found that vitamin K3 (menadione, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) inhibits the activity of human mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (pol γ). In this study, we focused on plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), and chemically synthesized novel plumbagins conjugated with C2:0 to C22:6 fatty acids (5-O-acyl plumbagins). These chemically modified plumbagins enhanced mammalian pol inhibition and their cytotoxic activity. Plumbagin conjugated with chains consisting of more than C18-unsaturated fatty acids strongly inhibited the activities of calf pol α and human pol γ. Plumbagin conjugated with oleic acid (C18:1-acyl plumbagin) showed the strongest suppression of human colon carcinoma (HCT116) cell proliferation among the ten synthesized 5-O-acyl plumbagins. The inhibitory activity on pol α, a DNA replicative pol, by these compounds showed high correlation with their cancer cell proliferation suppressive activity. C18:1-Acyl plumbagin selectively inhibited the activities of mammalian pol species, but did not influence the activities of other pols and DNA metabolic enzymes tested. This compound inhibited the proliferation of various human cancer cell lines, and was the cytotoxic inhibitor showing strongest inhibition towards HT-29 colon cancer cells (LD50 = 2.9 µM) among the nine cell lines tested. In an in vivo anti-tumor assay conducted on nude mice bearing solid tumors of HT-29 cells, C18:1-acyl plumbagin was shown to be a promising tumor suppressor. These data indicate that novel 5-O-acyl plumbagins act as anti-cancer agents based on mammalian DNA replicative pol α inhibition. Moreover, the results suggest that acylation of plumbagin is an effective chemical modification to improve the anti-cancer activity of vitamin K3 derivatives, such as plumbagin. PMID:24520419

  7. Direct charge recombination from D +Q AQ B- to DQ AQ B in bacterial reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides containing low potential quinone in the Q A site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labahn, A.; Bruce, J. M.; Okamura, M. Y.; Feher, G.

    1995-08-01

    In native RCs from Rb. sphaeroides the recombination D +Q AQ B- → DQ AQ B proceeds via an indirect path involving the intermediate state D +Q A-Q B. To observe the direct recombination rate, kBD, the energy difference between the D +Q A-Q B and D +Q AQ B- states has to be increased. This had been accomplished in mutant RCs (DN(L213)) by lowering the energy of the D +Q AQ B- state [A. Labahn, M.L. Paddock, P.H. McPherson, M.Y. Okamura and G. Feher, J. Phys. Chem. 98 (1994) 3417] or, as presented in this work, by arising the energy of the D +Q A-Q B state through substitution of Q 10 by the low potential quinones: (2,3,5-trimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2,3,6,7-tetramethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-chloro-9,10-anthraquinone) while retaining the native Q 10 in the Q B site. The recombination rates kBD in these hybrid RCs were fitted with the Marcus theory giving a reorganization energy, λBD = 1.1 ± 0.1 eV and an electronic matrix element V( r) = (1.2 ± 0.5) × 10 -8 eV. The larger value of λBD compared to λAD (1.1 versus 0.6 eV) is consistent with the more polar environment of Q B- and is believed to be the main contributor to the large observed ratio of kAD/ kBD ≈ 100.

  8. The comparative toxicity to soil invertebrates of natural chemicals and their synthetic analogues.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, J; Chaplow, J S; Potter, E; Scott, W A; Hopkin, S; Harman, M; Sims, I; Sorokin, N

    2009-07-01

    The introduction of Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH), requires companies to register and risk assess all substances produced or imported in volumes of >1 tonne per year. Extrapolation methods which use existing data for estimating the effects of chemicals are attractive to industry, and comparative data are therefore increasingly in demand. Data on natural toxic chemicals could be used for extrapolation methods such as read-across. To test this hypothesis, the toxicity of natural chemicals and their synthetic analogues were compared using standardised toxicity tests. Two chemical pairs: the napthoquinones, juglone (natural) and 1,4-naphthoquinone (synthetic); and anthraquinones, emodin (natural) and quinizarin (synthetic) were chosen, and their comparative effects on the survival and reproduction of collembolans, earthworms, enchytraeids and predatory mites were assessed. Differences in sensitivity between the species were observed with the predatory mite (Hypoaspis aculeifer) showing the least sensitivity. Within the chemical pairs, toxicity to lethal and sub-lethal endpoints was very similar for the four invertebrate species. The exception was earthworm reproduction, which showed differential sensitivity to the chemicals in both naphthoquinone and anthraquinone pairs. Differences in toxicity identified in the present study may be related to degree of exposure and/or subtle differences in the mode of toxic action for the chemicals and species tested. It may be possible to predict differences by identifying functional groups which infer increased or decreased toxicity in one or other chemical. The development of such techniques would enable the use of read-across from natural to synthetic chemicals for a wider group of compounds. PMID:19398118

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their quinones modulate the metabolic profile and induce DNA damage in human alveolar and bronchiolar cells.

    PubMed

    Gurbani, Deepak; Bharti, Santosh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pandey, Alok K; Ana, Godson R E E; Verma, Ambrish; Khan, Altaf Husain; Patel, Devendra K; Mudiam, M K R; Jain, Swatantra K; Roy, Raja; Dhawan, Alok

    2013-08-01

    The release of particulate pollutants into the air through burning of coal, crude oil, diesel, coal tar, etc. raises concerns of potential health hazards to the exposed human population. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major toxic constituents of particulate matter (PM), which upon ingestion get metabolized to even more toxic metabolites such as quinones. The PAHs levels were assessed in both respirable particulate matter (RSPM, <10μM size) and suspended particulate matter (SPM, >10μM size) of urban ambient air (UAA) and that of major contributors viz. diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and coal tar combustions emissions (CTCE). Seven US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) prioritized PAHs in RSPM and 10 in SPM were detected in UAA. Ten and 15 prioritized PAHs, respectively, were also detected in diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and coal tar combustion emission (CTCE) evidencing their release in the air. These PM associated PAHs for UAA, DEP and CTCE showed significant increase (p<0.05) in mutagenicity and mammalian genotoxicity in the order CTCE>DEP>UAA. Human lung alveolar (A549) and bronchiolar (BEAS-2B) cells when treated with PAH-metabolites viz. 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), hydroquinone (HQ), 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ), 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) and 9,10-phenanthroquinone (9,10-PQ) showed metabolic modulation in these cell lines with significant depletion of principal cellular metabolites viz. NADP, uracil, asparagines, glutamine, and histidine and accumulation of di-methyl amine and beta-hydroxybutyrate, identified using (1)H NMR spectroscopy. These results suggest that PAH-quinones induce genotoxic effects by modulating the metabolic machinery inside the cells by a combined effect of oxidative stress and energy depletion. Our data for metabolic profiling of human lung cells could also help in understanding the mechanism of toxicity of other xenobiotics. PMID:23735462

  10. Glanduliferins A and B, two new glucosylated steroids from Impatiens glandulifera, with in vitro growth inhibitory activity in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Mathieu, Véronique; Evidente, Marco; Ferderin, Marlène; Moreno Y Banuls, Laetitia; Masi, Marco; De Carvalho, Annelise; Kiss, Robert; Evidente, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Impatiens glandulifera has been imported from Himalaya in Europe and is considered as an invasive alien plant whose spreading arouses increasing interest among scientific literature. Via anti-cancer bioguiding, two new glucosylated steroids, named glanduliferins A and B, were isolated from the dried stem of I. glandulifera plants, together with the well-known α-spinasterol and 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, which are also isolated from roots and leaves. They were characterized as 17-(2-hydroxy-2-pentamethylcyclopropyl-ethyl)-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,6,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopents[a]phenathren-3-O-(4-O-acetyl)-α-d-glucopyranoside and 17-(4-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-hex-2-enyl)-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,6,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopents[a]phenathren-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside using various NMR and HRESIMS techniques and chemical methods. In vitro determination of the growth inhibitory activity of the four isolated compounds using the MTT colorimetric assay revealed mean IC50 growth inhibitory value of ~30μM for glanduliferin A while glanduliferin B and α-spinasterol were poorly active till 100μM. 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone revealed to be active in the single micromolar digit range as previously described. Quantitative videomicroscopy analyses of the effects of glanduliferins A and B suggested cytostatic rather than cytotoxic activity in U373 glioblastoma (GBM) cells. PMID:26732071

  11. [Tobacco--once a medicinal plant. Does it contain substances with medicinal properties?].

    PubMed

    Budzianowski, Jaromir

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco and its use was discovered by Christopher Columbus in parallel with the discovery of America. Soon after, tobacco became a known medicinal plant in Europe. Its harmful effects were gradually discovered, especially those of tobacco smoke, and now it is considered a toxic plant. Tobacco leaf has a monograph in German "Hagers Enzyklopädie derArzneistoffe und Drogen", which describes its old, already not valid, medicinal use and clearly shows the toxic effects. Epidemiological studies indicate about 50% lower incidence of Parkinson's disease in smokers than in non-smokers. In turn, studies of the brains of smokers using positron emission tomography showed significantly decreased level of monoamine oxidase B--an enzyme which degrades dopamine--the neurotransmitter which the significant insufficiency of about 80-85%, is responsible for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. From the tobacco leaves there were isolated MAO-B inhibitors--naphthoquinone--2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and diterpenoid -trans,trans-farnesol, which occur also in tobacco smoke. In the last decade many papers have appeared on the neuroprotective activity of nicotine, the best known component of tobacco. through the effect of this compound on specific nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs), which interacts with nigrostriatal dopaminergic system as well as the possibility of using nicotine for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, tobacco was also found to contain inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Tobacco cannot be considered a medicinal plant, but some compounds occurring in that plant may find therapeutic use. PMID:24501813

  12. Environmental fate and toxicology of carbaryl.

    PubMed

    Gunasekara, Amrith S; Rubin, Andrew L; Goh, Kean S; Spurlock, Frank C; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2008-01-01

    Carbaryl is an agricultural and garden insecticide that controls a broad spectrum of insects. Although moderately water soluble, it neither vaporizes nor volatilizes readily. However, upon spray application the insecticide is susceptible to drift. It is unstable under alkaline conditions, thus easily hydrolyzed. Carbaryl has been detected in water at ppb concentrations but degradation is relatively rapid, with 1-naphthol identified as the major degradation product. Indirect and direct photolysis of carbaryl produces different naphthoquinones as well as some hydroxyl substituted naphthoquinones. Sorption of the insecticide to soil is kinetically rapid. However, although both the mineral and organic fractions contribute, because of its moderate water solubility it is only minimally sorbed. Also, sorption to soil minerals strongly depends on the presence of specific exchangeable cations and increases with organic matter aromaticity and age. Soil microbes (bacteria and fungi) are capable of degrading carbaryl; the process is more rapid in anoxic than aerobic systems and with increased temperature and moisture. Carbaryl presents a significant problem to pregnant dogs and their offspring, but some have questioned the applicability of these data to humans. In addition, for toxicokinetic and/or physiological reasons, it has been argued that dogs are more sensitive than humans to carbaryl-induced reproductive or developmental toxicity. However, these arguments are based on either older pharmacokinetic studies or on speculation about possible reproductive differences between dogs on the one hand and rats and humans on the other. In view of the wider evidence from both human epidemiological and laboratory animal studies, the question of the possible developmental and reproductive toxicity of carbaryl should be considered open and requiring further study. PMID:19025094

  13. Effect of Simultaneous Administration of Dihydroxyacetone on the Diffusion of Lawsone Through Various In Vitro Skin Models.

    PubMed

    Munt, Daniel J; Grana, Anne; Hulce, Martin; Fusaro, Ramon M; Dash, Alekha K

    2015-12-01

    Unprotected sunlight exposure is a risk factor for a variety of cutaneous cancers. Topically used dihydroxyacetone (DHA) creates, via Maillard reaction, chemically fixed keratin sunscreen in the stratum corneum with significant protection against UVA/Soret radiation. When used in conjunction with naphthoquinones a naphthoquinone-modified DHA Maillard reaction is produced that provides protection across the UVB/UVA/Soret spectra lasting up to 1 week, resisting sweating and contact removal. The aim of this study was to examine a simplified version of this formulation for effect on UV transmission and to determine if penetration levels merit toxicity concerns. Permeability was demonstrated for freshly prepared DHA (30 mg/mL) and lawsone (0.035 mg/mL) alone and in combination using a side-by-side diffusion apparatus at 37°C over 48 h across shed snake skin and dermatomed pig skin. These samples were then examined for effectiveness and safety. Concentrations were determined by HPLC and UPLC monitored from 250-500 nm. Lawsone flux significantly decreased across pig skin (20.8 (± 4.8) and 0.09 (± 0.1) mg/cm(2) h without and with DHA, respectively) but did not change across shed snake skin in the presence of DHA. Significantly reduced lawsone concentration was noted in donor chambers of combined solutions. Damage was not observed in any skins. Darker coloration with greater UV absorbance was observed in skins exposed to the combined solution versus individual solutions. This study confirmed that combined DHA and lawsone provided effective blocking of ultraviolet light through products bound in keratinized tissue. DHA permeation levels in pig skin suggest further in vitro and in vivo study is required to determine the safety of this system. PMID:25986597

  14. Fractionating ambient humic-like substances (HULIS) for their reactive oxygen species activity - Assessing the importance of quinones and atmospheric aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Vishal; Wang, Ying; El-Afifi, Rawan; Fang, Ting; Rowland, Janessa; Russell, Armistead G.; Weber, Rodney J.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present a technique to identify the redox-active components of fine organic aerosols by fractionating humic-like substances (HULIS). We applied this technique to a dithiothreitol (DTT) assay - a measure of the capability of PM to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and assessed the contribution of quinones to the DTT activity of ambient water-soluble PM. Filter samples from the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution & Epidemiology (SCAPE) were extracted in water and then passed-through a C-18 column to isolate the HULIS fraction by retention on the column. The HULIS was then eluted with a sequence of solvents of increasing polarity, i.e., hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and then methanol. Each of these eluted fractions was analyzed for DTT activity. The methanol fraction was found to possess most of the DTT activity (>70%), while the hexane fraction had the least activity (<5%), suggesting that the ROS-active compounds of ambient water-soluble PM2.5 HULIS are mostly polar in nature. A number of quinones thought to contribute to ambient PM DTT activity were also tested. 1,4 Naphthoquinone (1,4 NQ), 1,2 Naphthoquinone (1,2 NQ), 9,10 Phenanthrenequinone (PQ), and 5-hydroxy-1,4 NQ were analyzed by the same protocol. The hexane fraction of two quinones (PQ, and 1,4 NQ) was the most-DTT active, while methanol was the least, confirming that PQ, 1,4 NQ, and 1,2 NQ (which could not be recovered from the column) do not contribute significantly to the water-soluble DTT activity of ambient PM2.5. However, an oxygenated derivative of 1,4 NQ, (5-hydroxy-1,4 NQ), which is also intrinsically more DTT-active than 1,4 NQ, was mostly (>60%) eluted in methanol. The results demonstrate the importance of atmospheric aging (oxidation) of organic aerosols in enhancing the ROS activity of ambient PM.

  15. Plumbagin induces G2/M arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy via p38 MAPK- and PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated pathways in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Qin, Yiru; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Yang, Yin-Xue; Wang, Dong; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone; PLB), a naturally occurring naphthoquinone isolated from the roots of Plumbaginaceae plants, has been reported to possess anticancer activities in both in vitro and in vivo studies, but the effect of PLB on tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PLB on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and autophagy, and the underlying mechanisms in the human TSCC cell line SCC25. The results have revealed that PLB exerted potent inducing effects on cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy in SCC25 cells. PLB arrested SCC25 cells at the G2/M phase in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with a decrease in the expression level of cell division cycle protein 2 homolog (Cdc2) and cyclin B1 and increase in the expression level of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53 in SCC25 cells. PLB markedly induced apoptosis and autophagy in SCC25 cells. PLB decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl) while increasing the expression level of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in SCC25 cells. Furthermore, PLB inhibited phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathways as indicated by the alteration in the ratio of phosphorylation level over total protein expression level, contributing to the autophagy inducing effect. In addition, we found that wortmannin (a PI3K inhibitor) and SB202190 (a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK) strikingly enhanced PLB-induced autophagy in SCC25 cells, suggesting the involvement of PI3K- and p38 MAPK-mediated signaling pathways. Moreover, PLB induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and this effect was attenuated by l-glutathione (GSH) and n-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Taken together, these results indicate that PLB promotes cellular apoptosis and autophagy in TSCC cells involving p38 MAPK- and PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated pathways with contribution from the GSK3β and ROS-mediated pathways. PMID:25834400

  16. Chemoprevention of skin cancer: effect of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) leaf powder and its pigment artifact, lawsone in the Epstein- Barr virus early antigen activation assay and in two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis models.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Govind J; Rao, G Subba; Sridhar, Rajagopalan; Ichiishi, Eiichiro; Takasaki, Midori; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Konoshima, Takao; Iida, Akira; Tokuda, Harukuni

    2013-12-01

    In continuation of our studies with chemoprevention potential of plant-derived naphthoquinone derivatives, leaf powder of the medicinal plant Lawsonia inermis L, commonly known as 'henna', was evaluated by its inhibition of the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. Lawsone (2-hydroxy- 1,4-naphthoquinone), the reddish orange pigment artifact formed during the extraction or preparation of the dye from henna leaves and believed to be the active component, was also assessed in this in vitro assay. Both showed a profound inhibition (>88%) of EBV-EA activation. In the in vivo two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis study using UV-B radiation for initiation and TPA for tumor promotion, oral feeding of henna (0.0025%) in drinking water ad libitum decreased tumor incidence by 66% and multiplicity by 40% when compared to the positive control at 10 weeks of treatment. Similarly, in the above mouse model, orally fed lawsone (0.0025%) decreased tumor incidence by 72% and multiplicity by 50%. The tumor inhibitory trend continued throughout the 20-week test period. Similar antitumor activities were observed when henna (0.5 mg/ml) was applied topically on the back skin in the UV-B initiated, TPA promoted and peroxynitrite initiated, TPA promoted mouse skin carcinogenesis models. Topically applied lawsone (0.015 mg/ml) also exhibited similar protection against tumor formation in the 7,12-dimtehylbenz(a)anthracene induced and TPA promoted skin cancer in mice. Also, there was a delay of 1 to 2 weeks in tumor appearance in both henna and lawsone treated groups compared to control in all three test models. This study ascertains the skin cancer chemopreventive activity of henna leaf powder and lawsone when administered by either oral (through drinking water) or topical (by application on the back skin) routes. Further, it emphasizes the need for the evaluation of these henna-derived green chemopreventive candidates in combination with currently used sunscreen agents for complementary anticancer potential against UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. PMID:23848207

  17. Vibrational spectroscopy of photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy (FTIR DS) has been widely used to study the structural details of electron transfer cofactors (and their binding sites) in many types of photosynthetic protein complexes. This review focuses in particular on work that has been done to investigate the A₁cofactor in photosystem I photosynthetic reaction centers. A review of this subject area last appeared in 2006 [1], so only work undertaken since then will be covered here. Following light excitation of intact photosystem I particles the P700⁺A⁻(1) secondary radical pair state is formed within 100ps. This state decays within 300ns at room temperature, or 300μs at 77K. Given the short-lived nature of this state, it is not easily studied using "static" photo-accumulation FTIR difference techniques at either temperature. Time-resolved techniques are required. This article focuses on the use of time-resolved step-scan FTIR DS for the study of the P700⁺A⁻(1) state in intact photosystem I. Up until now, only our group has undertaken studies in this area. So, in this article, recent work undertaken in our lab is described, where we have used low-temperature (77K), microsecond time-resolved step-scan FTIR DS to study the P700⁺A⁻(1) state in photosystem I. In photosystem I a phylloquinone molecule occupies the A₁binding site. However, different quinones can be incorporated into the A1 binding site, and here work is described for photosystem I particles with plastoquinone-9, 2-phytyl naphthoquinone and 2-methyl naphthoquinone incorporated into the A₁binding site. Studies in which ¹⁸O isotope labeled phylloquinone has been incorporated into the A1 binding site are also discussed. To fully characterize PSI particles with different quinones incorporated into the A1 binding site nanosecond to millisecond visible absorption spectroscopy has been shown to be of considerable value, especially so when undertaken using identical samples under identical conditions to that used in time-resolved step-scan FTIR measurements. In this article the latest work that has been undertaken using both visible and infrared time resolved spectroscopies on the same sample will be described. Finally, vibrational spectroscopic data that has been obtained for phylloquinone in the A1 binding site in photosystem I is compared to corresponding data for ubiquinone in the QA binding site in purple bacterial reaction centers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vibrational spectroscopies and bioenergetic systems. PMID:25086273

  18. Lateral extension of π conjugation along the bay regions of bisanthene through a Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinling; Jiao, Chongjun; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Wu, Jishan

    2011-12-16

    Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions at the bay regions of bisanthene (1) with dienophiles such as 1,4-naphthoquinone have been investigated. The products were submitted to nucleophilic addition followed by reductive aromatization reactions to afford the laterally extended bisanthene derivatives 2 and 3. Attempted synthesis of a larger expanded bisanthene 4 revealed an unexpected hydrogenation reaction at the last reductive aromatization step. Unusual Michael addition was observed on quinone 14, which was obtained by Diels-Alder reaction between 1 and 1,4-anthraquinone. Compounds 1-3 exhibited near-infrared (NIR) absorption and emission with high-to-moderate fluorescent quantum yields. Their structures and absorption spectra were studied by density function theory and non-planar twisted structures were calculated for 2 and 3. All compounds showed amphoteric redox behavior with multiple oxidation/reduction waves. Oxidative titration with SbCl(5) gave stable radical cations, and the process was followed by UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopic measurements. Their photostability was measured and correlated to their different geometries and electronic structures. PMID:22083876

  19. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and apoptosis in endothelial cells mediated by endogenous generation of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Anup; Moellering, Douglas; Go, Young-Mi; Shiva, Sruti; Levonen, Anna-Liisa; Jo, Hanjoong; Patel, Rakesh P.; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.

    2002-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the activation of signal transduction pathways. However, extracellular addition of oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) often requires concentrations that cannot be readily achieved under physiological conditions to activate biological responses such as apoptosis. Explanations for this discrepancy have included increased metabolism of H2O2 in the extracellular environment and compartmentalization within the cell. We have addressed this issue experimentally by examining the induction of apoptosis of endothelial cells induced by exogenous addition of H2O2 and by a redox cycling agent, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, that generates H2O2 in cells. Here we show that low nanomolar steady-state concentrations (0.1-0.5 nmol x min(-1) x 10(6) cells) of H2O2 generated intracellularly activate c-Jun N terminal kinase and initiate apoptosis in endothelial cells. A comparison with bolus hydrogen peroxide suggests that the low rate of intracellular formation of this reactive oxygen species results in a similar profile of activation for both c-Jun N terminal kinase and the initiation of apoptosis. However, a detailed analysis reveals important differences in both the duration and profile for activation of these signaling pathways.

  20. Ability of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to detoxify juglone, the main secondary metabolite of the non-host plant walnut.

    PubMed

    Piskorski, Rafal; Ineichen, Simon; Dorn, Silvia

    2011-10-01

    Many plant species produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit attacks by herbivorous insects, and may thereby constrain insect expansion to new hosts. Walnut is a host for the codling moth Cydia pomonella, which efficiently detoxifies the main walnut defensive compound juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, which also belongs to the tribe Grapholitini, does not feed on walnut. We tested the performance of G. molesta, a highly invasive species, on artificial diets containing juglone at levels mimicking those found in walnut over the growing season. Juglone-fed G. molesta survived relatively well to adulthood, but larval and adult body weights were reduced, and larval developmental time was prolonged in a dose-dependent fashion. Chemical analysis of frass from larvae that had been fed a juglone-containing diet suggests that G. molesta reduces juglone to non-toxic 1,4,5-trihydroxynaphthalene in its gut. This unexpected tolerance of G. molesta to high levels of juglone may facilitate expansion of the host range beyond the current rosacean fruit trees used by this invasive pest. PMID:21901444

  1. How the oligophage codling moth Cydia pomonella survives on walnut despite its secondary metabolite juglone.

    PubMed

    Piskorski, Rafal; Dorn, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Besides apple, its primary host, the codling moth Cydia pomonella uses walnut as a secondary host. Abundance of toxic naphthoquinones, among which juglone prevails, does not restrain this economically important pest insect from infesting walnut, but processes underlying the suitability of this host were yet unknown. Larvae feeding on an artificial diet supplemented with juglone at naturally occurring concentrations survived to adulthood at a similarly high proportion as those in the juglone-devoid control. However, their development time was prolonged, their weight gain was reduced, and adult sex ratio was distorted. Results from the natural system with walnut and apple fruits were in line with data gained on artificial diet. Remarkably, a twofold increase of the maximal juglone content reported from the walnut husk was lethal to the larvae. Chemical analyses showed that larvae feeding on the artificial diet supplemented with juglone concentrations present in walnut contained 1,4,5-trihydroxynaphthalene and excreted it in their frass, whereas the hemolymph contained neither detectable amounts of juglone nor the product of its reduction. Hence, effective metabolism of juglone in the intestinal system of the larvae underlies their survival on host plants containing this defensive compound. PMID:21356213

  2. A Quantitative High-Throughput In Vitro Splicing Assay Identifies Inhibitors of Spliceosome Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Michael G.; Wan, Lili; Younis, Ihab; Diem, Michael D.; Soo, Michael; Wang, Congli

    2012-01-01

    Despite intensive research, there are very few reagents with which to modulate and dissect the mRNA splicing pathway. Here, we describe a novel approach to identify such tools, based on detection of the exon junction complex (EJC), a unique molecular signature that splicing leaves on mRNAs. We developed a high-throughput, splicing-dependent EJC immunoprecipitation (EJIPT) assay to quantitate mRNAs spliced from biotin-tagged pre-mRNAs in cell extracts, using antibodies to EJC components Y14 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4aIII (eIF4AIII). Deploying EJIPT we performed high-throughput screening (HTS) in conjunction with secondary assays to identify splicing inhibitors. We describe the identification of 1,4-naphthoquinones and 1,4-heterocyclic quinones with known anticancer activity as potent and selective splicing inhibitors. Interestingly, and unlike previously described small molecules, most of which target early steps, our inhibitors represented by the benzothiazole-4,7-dione, BN82685, block the second of two trans-esterification reactions in splicing, preventing the release of intron lariat and ligation of exons. We show that BN82685 inhibits activated spliceosomes' elaborate structural rearrangements that are required for second-step catalysis, allowing definition of spliceosomes stalled in midcatalysis. EJIPT provides a platform for characterization and discovery of splicing and EJC modulators. PMID:22252314

  3. Electron shuttling across the interface of CdSe nanoparticles monitored by femtosecond laser spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Burda, C.; Green, T.C.; Link, S.; El-Sayed, M.A.

    1999-03-18

    The formation and decay of the optical hole (bleach) for 4 nm CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) with adsorbed electron acceptors (1,4-benzoquinone and 1,2-naphthoquinone) and the rise and decay of the reduced electron acceptors formed after interfacial electron transfer from the CdSe NPs were investigated by femtosecond laser spectroscopy. The ultrashort (200--400 fs) rise times of the bleach at the band-gap energy of the CdSe NP as well as of the acceptor radical anion are found to increase with increasing the excitation energy. This suggests that the electron transfer from the CdSe NP to the quinone electron acceptor occurs after thermalization of the excited hot electrons. The decay times of the transient absorption for the electron acceptor radical anions are found to be comparable to that of the CdSe NP bleach recovery time (3 ps). This suggests that the surface quinones shuttle the electron from the conduction band to the valence band of the excited NP. The authors contrast this behavior with the excited-state dynamics of the recently investigated CdS-MV{sup 2+} system in which the electron acceptor does not shuttle the accepted electron back to the hole in CdS.

  4. Synthesis, Photochemical and Photoinduced Antibacterial Activity Studies of meso-Tetra(pyren-1-yl)porphyrin and its Ni, Cu and Zn Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Zoltan, Tamara; Vargas, Franklin; Rivas, Carlos; López, Verónica; Perez, Jhackelym; Biasutto, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of the meso-tetra(pyren-1-yl)porphyrin (1) was successfully accomplished by means of the pyrrole condensation with pyrene-1-carb-aldehyde in acidic media. Its metallization was carried out in an almost quantitative yield to obtain the corresponding complexes of Ni(II) (2), Cu(II) (3) and Zn (4). Their photophysical properties such as fluorescence quantum yield and energy transfer to oxygen for an efficient generation of singlet oxygen were determined. Their photophysical and photochemical properties were compared with those of other similar porphyrin derivatives such as tetraphenylporphyrin and tetranaphthylporphyrin. Photochemical studies on their effectiveness as photosensitizer were carried out by means of the photoinduced oxidation of aromatic alcohols like α-naphthol to naphthoquinone. The antibacterial photoactivity assay for compounds 1–4 was testeted against Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) and its proliferation and viability were measured by chemiluminescence. An efficient inactivation of E. coli was observed. This was more efficient for compounds 2 and 3, following the direct relationship to high generation of singlet oxygen by these compounds. PMID:21179316

  5. Stimulation of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Naphthazarin.

    PubMed

    Aljanadi, Omar; Alzoubi, Kousi; Bissinger, Rosi; Lang, Florian

    2015-12-01

    The 1,4-naphthoquinone derivative naphthazarin may trigger apoptosis and is thus considered for the treatment of malignancy. On the other hand, naphthazarin decreases neurotoxicity. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and by cell membrane scrambling with translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Signalling leading to triggering of eryptosis include increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) -activity ([Ca(2+) ]i ), ceramide and oxidative stress. The present study explored whether naphthazarin impacts on eryptosis and, if so, to unravel underlying mechanisms. To this end, erythrocyte volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine abundance at the erythrocyte surface from FITC-annexin-V-binding, [Ca(2+) ]i from Fluo3 fluorescence, reactive oxidant species (ROS) from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence and ceramide abundance at the erythrocyte surface from binding of fluorescent antibodies in flow cytometry. As a result, a 24-hr exposure of human erythrocytes to naphthazarin (10 μm) significantly decreased erythrocyte forward scatter, significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, significantly increased ceramide abundance at the erythrocyte surface and significantly increased ROS. The effect of naphthazarin on annexin-V-binding was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca(2+) . In conclusion, naphthazarin stimulates eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to oxidative stress and enhanced ceramide abundance at the erythrocyte surface. PMID:26013059

  6. Biological activity and photostability of biflorin micellar nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Santana, Edson R B; Ferreira-Neto, João P; Yara, Ricardo; Sena, Kêsia X F R; Fontes, Adriana; Lima, Cláudia S A

    2015-01-01

    Capraria biflora L. is a shrub from the Scrophulariaceae family which produces in its roots a compound named biflorin, an o-naphthoquinone that shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi and also presents antitumor and antimetastatic activities. However, biflorin is hydrophobic and photosensitive. These properties make its application difficult. In this work we prepared biflorin micellar nanostructures looking for a more effective vehiculation and better preservation of the biological activity. Biflorin was obtained, purified and characterized by UV-Vis, infrared (IR) and 1H- and 13C-NMR. Micellar nanostructures of biflorin were then assembled with Tween 80®, Tween 20® and saline (0.9%) and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results showed that the micellar nanostructures were stable and presented an average size of 8.3 nm. Biflorin micellar nanostructures' photodegradation was evaluated in comparison with biflorin in ethanol. Results showed that the biflorin in micellar nanostructures was better protected from light than biflorin dissolved in ethanol, and also indicated that biflorin in micelles were efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast species. In conclusion, the results showed that the micellar nanostructures could ensure the maintenance of the biological activity of biflorin, conferring photoprotection. Moreover, biflorin vehiculation in aqueous media was improved, favoring its applicability in biological systems. PMID:25985360

  7. Grafting of a peptide probe for Prostate-Specific Antigen detection using diazonium electroreduction and click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Strzemińska, I; Sainte Rose Fanchine, S; Anquetin, G; Reisberg, S; Noël, V; Pham, M C; Piro, B

    2016-07-15

    The main objective of this work was to validate a label-free electrochemical method of protein detection using peptides as capture probes. As a proof-of-concept, we used a 7 amino acids sequence (HSSKLQL) specific for Prostate Specific Antigen. We investigated various electrografting conditions of two anilines (2-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfanyl]-8-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 4-azidoaniline) further converted in situ into their corresponding diazonium salts on glassy carbon electrodes. It was demonstrated that the best method to obtain a mixed layer is the simultaneous electroreduction of the two diazonium salts. 4-azidoaniline was used to covalently immobilize the ethynyl-functionalized peptide probe by click coupling, and the hydroxynaphthoquinone derivative plays the role of electrochemical transducer of the peptide-protein recognition. The proteolytic activity of PSA towards a small peptide substrate carrying streptavidin at its distal end was also investigated to design an original sensing architecture leading to a reagentless, label free, and "signal-on" PSA sensor. Without optimization, the limit of quantification can be estimated in the nM to pM range. PMID:26938492

  8. Diversity of ABBA Prenyltransferases in Marine Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509: Promiscuous Enzymes for the Biosynthesis of Mixed Terpenoid Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Leipoldt, Franziska; Zeyhle, Philipp; Kulik, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Heide, Lutz; Kaysser, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoids are arguably the largest and most diverse family of natural products, featuring prominently in e.g. signalling, self-defence, UV-protection and electron transfer. Prenyltransferases are essential players in terpenoid and hybrid isoprenoid biosynthesis that install isoprene units on target molecules and thereby often modulate their bioactivity. In our search for new prenyltransferase biocatalysts we focused on the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509, a particularly rich source of meroterpenoid chemistry. Sequencing and analysis of the genome of Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509 revealed seven putative phenol/phenazine-specific ABBA prenyltransferases, and one putative indole-specific ABBA prenyltransferase. To elucidate the substrate specificity of the ABBA prenyltransferases and to learn about their role in secondary metabolism, CnqP1 –CnqP8 were produced in Escherichia coli and incubated with various aromatic and isoprenoid substrates. Five of the eight prenyltransferases displayed enzymatic activity. The efficient conversion of dihydroxynaphthalene derivatives by CnqP3 (encoded by AA958_24325) and the co-location of AA958_24325 with genes characteristic for the biosynthesis of THN (tetrahydroxynaphthalene)-derived natural products indicates that the enzyme is involved in the formation of debromomarinone or other naphthoquinone-derived meroterpenoids. Moreover, CnqP3 showed high flexibility towards a range of aromatic and isoprenoid substrates and thus represents an interesting new tool for biocatalytic applications. PMID:26659564

  9. Development of a functional assay to detect inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum glutathione reductase utilizing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Burkard, Lexi; Scheuermann, Alexis; Simithy, Johayra; Calderón, Angela I

    2016-04-01

    Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) like most other organisms, has a sophisticated antioxidant system, part of which includes glutathione reductase (GR). GR works by recycling toxic glutathione disulfide to glutathione, thereby reducing reactive oxygen species and making a form of glutathione (GSH) the parasite can use. Inhibition of this enzyme in Pf impedes parasite growth. In addition, it has been confirmed that PfGR is not identical to human GR. Thus, PfGR is an excellent target for antimalarial drug development. A functional assay utilizing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed to specifically identify and evaluate inhibitors of PfGR. Using recombinant PfGR enzyme and 1,4-naphthoquinone (1) as a reference compound and 4-nitrobenzothiadiazole (2) and methylene blue (3) as additional compounds, we quantified the concentration of GSH produced compared with a control to determine the inhibitory effect of these compounds. Our results coincide with that presented in literature: compounds 1-3 inhibit PfGR with IC50 values of 2.71, 8.38, and 19.23 µm, respectively. Good precision for this assay was exhibited by low values of intraday and interday coefficient of variation (3.1 and 2.4%, respectively). Thus, this assay can be used to screen for other potential inhibitors of PfGR quickly and accurately. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26257195

  10. Organic acids enhanced decoloration of azo dye in gas phase surface discharge plasma system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Ren, Jingyu; Sun, Qiuhong; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-01-25

    A gas phase surface discharge plasma combined with organic acids system was developed to enhance active species mass transfer and dye-containing wastewater treatment efficacy, with Acid Orange II (AO7) as the model pollutant. The effects of discharge voltage and various organic acid additives (acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid) on AO7 decoloration efficiency were evaluated. The experimental results showed that an AO7 decoloration efficiency of approximately 69.0% was obtained within 4 min of discharge plasma treatment without organic acid addition, which was improved to 82.8%, 83.5% and 88.6% within the same treatment time with the addition of acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid, respectively. The enhancement effects on AO7 decoloration efficiency could be attributed to the decrease in aqueous surface tension, improvement in bubble distribution and shape, and increase in ozone equivalent concentration. The AO7 wastewater was biodegradable after discharge plasma treatment with the addition of organic acid. AO7 decomposition intermediates were analyzed by UV-vis spectrometry and GC-MS; 2-naphthol, 1,4-benzoquinone, phthalic anhydride, coumarin, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 2-formyl-benzoic acid were detected. A possible pathway for AO7 decomposition in this system was proposed. PMID:26444488

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of an ointment based on Alkannins/Shikonins on second intention wound healing in the dog.

    PubMed

    Karayannopoulou, Maria; Tsioli, Vassiliki; Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Anagnostou, Tilemahos L; Giannakas, Nikolaos; Savvas, Ioannis; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Kaldrymidou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The enantiomeric naphthoquinones alkannins and shikonins (A/S) have been established as potent wound healing agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an A/S based ointment for humans on second intention wound healing in the dog, as compared to wound flushing with Lactated Ringer's solution (LRS). Ten mixed breed dogs, aged 2 to 5 y, were used. One 2.5 × 2.5 cm full-thickness skin defect was created on the lateral aspect of each arm for subjective evaluation, laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF), and planimetry. Additionally, 3 matching 2 × 2 cm wounds were created on opposite sides of the dorsal midline for histologic evaluation. Wounds were treated once daily with the A/S based ointment on the right side and by flushing with LRS on the left until healed (about 20 d). During the healing process, tissue perfusion (mean LDF value) was found to be significantly higher on the side treated with the A/S based ointment compared with the LRS-treated side. Histologically, angiogenesis (on days 4 and 11), collagen production score (on days 4, 11, and 20), and epithelial thickness score (on day 11) were significantly higher in the wounds treated with the A/S based ointment. Wound size, as evaluated by planimetry, decreased significantly from day 0 to day 20 on both sides, but no significant differences were found between the A/S based ointment and LRS-treated wounds. PMID:21461194

  12. Colorimetric cell proliferation assay for microorganisms in microtiter plate using water-soluble tetrazolium salts.

    PubMed

    Tsukatani, Tadayuki; Suenaga, Hikaru; Higuchi, Tomoko; Akao, Tetsuyuki; Ishiyama, Munetaka; Ezoe, Kimitoshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2008-09-01

    A colorimetric method to assay cell proliferation of microorganisms in 96-well microtiter plates using water-soluble tetrazolium salts and electron mediators was developed. Combinations of 6 kinds of water-soluble tetrazolium salts and 27 kinds of electron mediators that considered the metabolic efficiency of microorganisms and the influence with medium components were investigated. 2-Methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ) was reduced most effectively by various species of microorganisms, and a combination of WST-8 as a water-soluble tetrazolium salt with 2-methyl-1,4-NQ repressed the increase in background due to medium components. In the presence of 2-methyl-1,4-NQ, WST-8 was reduced by microbial cells to formazan, which exhibited maximum absorbance at 460 nm. The proposed tetrazolium method could be applied to measure proliferations of various microbial cells including 3 kinds of yeast, 9 kinds of Gram-positive bacteria, and 10 kinds of Gram-negative bacteria. Linear relationships between the absorbance and viable microbial cell density were obtained in all microorganisms, suggesting that the absorbance change reflected the microbial cell proliferation. PMID:18586343

  13. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    A major goal of this project is to isolate unique microbial strains that catalyze a variety of biochemical transformations of low molecular weight coal substructure model compounds and then to determine if these strains will carry out similar reactions with coal. We have several enrichments underway using suitable model compounds such as pyrogallol (2,3-dihydroxyphenol) and gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) to isolate organisms that reductively dehydroxylate phenolic hydroxyl groups. We are also using various naphthoquinone and antrhaquinone dyes as substrates in isolation procedures. The most promising results so far are with hydroxynaphthoquinone. The purple non-sulfur bacteria belonging to the genus Rhodobacter are also of interest to us because some of them degrade numerous aromatic compounds by way of reductive pathways. In addition, Rhodobacter species are not sensitive to air. Thus far, enrichment cultures with benzoate have yielded two isolates. Lowering the carboxyl content of lignite coal has been suggested as one means of improving its fuel value. We have isolated a bacterium from soil, tentatively identified as a Bacillus species, that nonoxidatively decarboxylates vanillic acid to guaicol. This bacterium also decarboxylated p-hydroxycinnimates to p-hydroxystyrenes. We are now attempting to get measurable decarboxylation of base-solubilized Vermont lignite coal using this organism. 1 tab.

  14. Antiallergic effects of pigments isolated from green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) shells.

    PubMed

    Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Shikov, Alexander N; Makarova, Marina N; Ivanova, Svetlana A; Kosman, Vera M; Makarov, Valery G; Bazgier, Václav; Berka, Karel; Otyepka, Michal; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2013-12-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate possible antiallergic effects of an extract of pigments from green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) shells. Effects were studied on animal models - guinea pig ileum contraction, rabbit eyes allergic conjunctivitis, and rabbit local skin irritation. The extract significantly reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the histamine-induced contractions of the isolated guinea pig ileum with ID50 =1.2 µg/mL (in equivalents of spinochrome B), had an inhibitory effect on the model of ocular allergic inflammation surpassing the reference drug olopatadine, and did not show any irritating effect in rabbits. The extract predominantly contained polyhydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone which would be responsible for the pharmacological activity. The active compounds of the extract were evaluated in silico with molecular docking. Molecular docking into H1R receptor structures obtained from molecular dynamic simulations showed that all spinochrome derivatives bind to the receptor active site, but spinochrome monomers fit better to it. The results of the present study suggest possibilities for the development of new agents for treating allergic diseases on the base of pigments from sea urchins shells. PMID:24288292

  15. Exploration of industrially important pigments from soil fungi.

    PubMed

    Akilandeswari, P; Pradeep, B V

    2016-02-01

    The worldwide interest of the current era is to increase tendency towards the use of natural substances instead of synthetic ones. So, alternative and effective environment friendly sustainable technologies are highly needed. Due to a broad range of biological activities, fungi are considered as a significant source of pigments. Among the fungal species in the soil, the genera of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, and Trichoderma are dominant. The pigments commonly produced by fungi belong to aromatic polyketide groups such as melanins, quinones, flavins, ankaflavin, anthraquinone, and naphthoquinone. The use of fungal pigments has benefits which comprise easy and fast growth in the cheap culture medium and different color shades being independent of weather conditions and would be useful in various industrial applications. In relation to the toxic effects of the synthetic dyes, the natural dyes are easily degradable since they cause no detrimental effects. Thus, the study of pigments produced by soil fungi has tremendous use in medical, textile coloring, food coloring, and cosmetics. PMID:26701360

  16. AhR sensing of bacterial pigments regulates antibacterial defence.

    PubMed

    Moura-Alves, Pedro; Faé, Kellen; Houthuys, Erica; Dorhoi, Anca; Kreuchwig, Annika; Furkert, Jens; Barison, Nicola; Diehl, Anne; Munder, Antje; Constant, Patricia; Skrahina, Tatsiana; Guhlich-Bornhof, Ute; Klemm, Marion; Koehler, Anne-Britta; Bandermann, Silke; Goosmann, Christian; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Hurwitz, Robert; Brinkmann, Volker; Fillatreau, Simon; Daffe, Mamadou; Tümmler, Burkhard; Kolbe, Michael; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Krause, Gerd; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2014-08-28

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a highly conserved ligand-dependent transcription factor that senses environmental toxins and endogenous ligands, thereby inducing detoxifying enzymes and modulating immune cell differentiation and responses. We hypothesized that AhR evolved to sense not only environmental pollutants but also microbial insults. We characterized bacterial pigmented virulence factors, namely the phenazines from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the naphthoquinone phthiocol from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as ligands of AhR. Upon ligand binding, AhR activation leads to virulence factor degradation and regulated cytokine and chemokine production. The relevance of AhR to host defence is underlined by heightened susceptibility of AhR-deficient mice to both P. aeruginosa and M. tuberculosis. Thus, we demonstrate that AhR senses distinct bacterial virulence factors and controls antibacterial responses, supporting a previously unidentified role for AhR as an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, and identify bacterial pigments as a new class of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. PMID:25119038

  17. Enhancement of doxorubicin cytotoxicity by polyunsaturated fatty acids in the human breast tumor cell line MDA-MB-231: relationship to lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Germain, E; Chajès, V; Cognault, S; Lhuillery, C; Bougnoux, P

    1998-02-01

    Exogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the cytotoxic activity of anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we examined whether lipid peroxidation is a potential mechanism through which fatty acids enhance drug cytotoxicity. We measured cell viability in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 exposed to doxorubicin in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of various polyunsaturated fatty acids for 6 days. To determine the role of lipid peroxidation, the hydroperoxide level was measured in cell extracts. Among all polyunsaturated fatty acids tested, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) was the most potent in increasing doxorubicin cytotoxicity: cell viability decreased from 54% in the presence of 10(-7) M doxorubicin alone to 21% when cells were incubated with doxorubicin and DHA. After addition of an oxidant system (sodium ascorbate/2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) to cells incubated with doxorubicin and DHA, cell viability further decreased to 12%. Cell hydroperoxides increased commensurately. The effect of DHA on doxorubicin activity and lipid hydroperoxide formation was abolished by a lipid peroxidation inhibitor (dl-alpha-tocopherol) or when oleic acid (a non-peroxidizable fatty acid) was used in place of DHA. No effect was observed with mitoxantrone, a drug with a low peroxidation-generating potential. Thus, DHA may increase the efficacy of oxyradical-producing drugs through a mechanism involving a generation of lipoperoxides. This may lead in vivo to a modulation of tumor cell chemosensitivity by DHA and oxidant agents. PMID:9466659

  18. New spectrofluorimetric method for determination of cephalosporins in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Elbashir, Abdalla A; Ahmed, Shazalia M Ali; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2012-05-01

    Simple, accurate and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method has been proposed for the determination of three cephalosporins, namely; cefixime (cefi), cephalexine (ceph), cefotaxime sodium (cefo) in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on a reaction between cephalosporins with 1, 2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic (NQS) in alkaline medium, at pH values of 12.0 for cefi and 13.0 for ceph and cefo to give highly fluorescent derivatives extracted with chloroform and subsequently measured at 600,580 and 580 nm after excitation at 520,455 and 490 nm for cefi, ceph and cefo respectively. The optimum experimental conditions have been studied. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentrations of 10-35 ng/mL, 10-60 ng/mL and 20-45 ng/mL for cefi,ceph and cefo, respectively. The detection limits were 2.02 ng/mL, 2.09 ng/mL and 2.30 ng/mL for cefi, ceph and cefo, respectively, with a linear regression correlation coefficient of 0.9987, 0.9995 and 0.9991 and recoveries in range from 98.5-107.04, 95.17-101.00 and 95.00-109.55% for cefi, ceph and cefo, respectively. This method is simple and can be applied for the determination of cefi, ceph and cefo in pharmaceutical formulations in quality control laboratories. PMID:22160361

  19. Involvement of the cell-specific pigment genes pks and sult in bacterial defense response of sea urchins Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, Konstantin V; Ageenko, Natalya V; Kurilenko, Valeria V

    2013-03-26

    Bacterial infections are one of the most important problems in mass aquaculture, causing the loss of millions of juvenile organisms. We isolated 22 bacterial strains from the cavity fluid of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus pallidus and used phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences to separate the bacterial strains into 9 genera (Aliivibrio, Bizionia, Colwellia, Olleya, Paenibacillus, Photobacterium, Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella, and Vibrio). Incubating Strongylocentrotus intermedius larvae with a strain from each of the 9 bacterial genera, we investigated the viability of the larvae, the amount of pigment cells, and the level of polyketide synthase (pks) and sulfotransferase (sult) gene expression. Results of the assay on sea urchin development showed that all bacterial strains, except Pseudoalteromonas and Bizionia, suppressed sea urchin development (resulting in retardation of the embryos' development with cellular disorders) and reduced cell viability. We found that pks expression in the sea urchin larvae after incubation with the bacteria of 9 tested genera was significantly increased, while the sult expression was increased only after the treatment with Pseudoalteromonas and Shewanella. Shikimic acid, which is known to activate the biosynthesis of naphthoquinone pigments, increased the tolerance of the sea urchin embryos to the bacteria. In conclusion, we show that the cell-specific pigment genes pks and sult are involved in the bacterial defense response of sea urchins. PMID:23548362

  20. Synthesis of 2,3-dihydronaphtho[2,3-d][1,3]thiazole-4,9-diones and 2,3-dihydroanthra[2,3-d][1,3]thiazole-4,11-diones and novel ring contraction and fusion reaction of 3H-spiro[1,3-thiazole-2,1'-cyclohexanes] into 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-6,11-diones

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinova, Lidia S; Lysov, Kirill A; Souvorova, Ljudmila I

    2013-01-01

    Summary Treatment of N-substituted 2-(methylamino)naphthoquinones 3 and -anthracene-1,4-diones 4 with S2Cl2 and DABCO in chlorobenzene gave the corresponding 2,3-dihydronaphtho[2,3-d][1,3]thiazole-4,9-diones 1 and 2,3-dihydroanthra[2,3-d][1,3]thiazole-4,11-diones 2 by triethylamine addition, in high to moderate yields. The DABCO replacement for N-ethyldiisopropylamine in the reaction of anthracene-1,4-diones 4 led unexpectedly to the corresponding 2-thioxo-2,3-dihydroanthra[2,3-d][1,3]thiazole-4,11-diones 10. The reaction of 3H-spiro[1,3-thiazole-2,1'-cyclohexanes] 1d, 2d with Et3N in chlorobenzene under reflux yielded 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-6,11-diones 15, 16, i.e., ring contraction and fusion products. A plausible mechanism was proposed for the formation of the products. PMID:23616798

  1. Conjugated polymer and drug co-encapsulated nanoparticles for Chemo- and Photo-thermal Combination Therapy with two-photon regulated fast drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Youyong; Wang, Zuyong; Cai, Pingqiang; Liu, Jie; Liao, Lun-De; Hong, Minghui; Chen, Xiaodong; Thakor, Nitish; Liu, Bin

    2015-02-01

    The spatial-temporal synchronization of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy is highly desirable for an efficient cancer treatment with synergistic effect. Herein, we developed a chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) and photothermal conjugated polymer (CP) co-loaded nanoplatform using a near-infrared (NIR) laser responsive amphiphilic brush copolymer as the encapsulation matrix. The obtained nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit good monodispersity and excellent stability, which can efficiently convert laser energy into thermal energy for photothermal therapy. Moreover, the hydrophobic polymer matrix bearing a number of 2-diazo-1,2-naphthoquinones (DNQ) moieties could be transformed to a hydrophilic one upon NIR two-photon laser irradiation, which leads to fast drug release. Furthermore, the surface modification of the NPs with cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) tripeptide significantly enhances the accumulation of the NPs within integrin αvβ3 overexpressed cancer cells. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the combination therapy is 13.7 μg mL-1, while the IC50 for chemotherapy and photothermal therapy alone is 147.8 μg mL-1 and 36.2 μg mL-1, respectively. The combination index (C.I.) is 0.48 (<1), which indicates the synergistic effect for chemotherapy and PTT. These findings provide an excellent NIR laser regulated nanoplatform for combined cancer treatment with synergistic effect due to the synchronous chemo- and photo-thermal therapy.

  2. Human Vitamin K 2,3-Epoxide Reductase Complex Subunit 1-like 1 (VKORC1L1) Mediates Vitamin K-dependent Intracellular Antioxidant Function*

    PubMed Central

    Westhofen, Philipp; Watzka, Matthias; Marinova, Milka; Hass, Moritz; Kirfel, Gregor; Müller, Jens; Bevans, Carville G.; Müller, Clemens R.; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Human vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase complex subunit 1-like 1 (VKORC1L1), expressed in HEK 293T cells and localized exclusively to membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, was found to support both vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) and vitamin K reductase enzymatic activities. Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters for dithiothreitol-driven VKOR activity were: Km (μm) = 4.15 (vitamin K1 epoxide) and 11.24 (vitamin K2 epoxide); Vmax (nmol·mg−1·hr−1) = 2.57 (vitamin K1 epoxide) and 13.46 (vitamin K2 epoxide). Oxidative stress induced by H2O2 applied to cultured cells up-regulated VKORC1L1 expression and VKOR activity. Cell viability under conditions of no induced oxidative stress was increased by the presence of vitamins K1 and K2 but not ubinquinone-10 and was specifically dependent on VKORC1L1 expression. Intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in cells treated with 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone were mitigated in a VKORC1L1 expression-dependent manner. Intracellular oxidative damage to membrane intrinsic proteins was inversely dependent on VKORC1L1 expression and the presence of vitamin K1. Taken together, our results suggest that VKORC1L1 is responsible for driving vitamin K-mediated intracellular antioxidation pathways critical to cell survival. PMID:21367861

  3. The first naphthosemiquinone complex of K+ with vitamin K3 analog: Experiment and density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathawate, Laxmi; Gejji, Shridhar P.; Yeole, Sachin D.; Verma, Prakash L.; Puranik, Vedavati G.; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2015-05-01

    Synthesis and characterization of potassium complex of 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (phthiocol), the vitamin K3 analog, has been carried out using FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR, EPR, cyclic voltammetry and single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments combined with the density functional theory. It has been observed that naphthosemiquinone binds to two K+ ions extending the polymeric chain through bridging oxygens O(2) and O(3). The crystal network possesses hydrogen bonding interactions from coordinated water molecules showing water channels along the c-axis. 13C NMR spectra revealed that the complexation of phthiocol with potassium ion engenders deshielding of C(2) signals, which appear at δ = ∼14.6 ppm whereas those of C(3) exhibit up-field signals near δ ∼ 6.9 ppm. These inferences are supported by the M06-2x based density functional theory. Electrochemical experiments further suggest that reduction of naphthosemiquinone results in only a cathodic peak from catechol. A triplet state arising from interactions between neighboring phthiocol anion lead to a half field signal at g = 4.1 in the polycrystalline X-band EPR spectra at 133 K.

  4. The metabolism of 9-chloro-β-lapachone and its effects in isolated hepatocytes. The involvement of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1).

    PubMed

    Fernandez Villamil, Silvia H; Carrizo, Patricia H; Di Rosso, Maria E; Molina Portela, Maria P; Dubin, Marta

    2012-12-01

    A β-lapachone analogue (3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-9-chloro-2H-naphtho[1,2b]pyran-5,6-dione) (9-chloro β-lapachone), named CGQ, with antitumoral, antiviral and antitrypanocidal activities was assayed for cytotoxic effects on isolated rat hepatocytes. The incubation of hepatocytes with this o-naphthoquinone showed (a) decreased adenylate energy charge, as a result of a decrease in ATP, and an increase in AMP levels; (b) increased NADP(+) content, with a concomitant decrease of NADPH, NADH and NAD(+) content; (c) decreased GSH content, accompanied by an increase in GSSG formation; (d) stimulated oxygen uptake as well as increased superoxide anion production and hydrogen peroxide formation; (e) inhibited lipid peroxidation; (f) hepatocyte viability was not reduced unless the NQO1 inhibitor dicoumarol was present. We hypothesize that the cytotoxicity of CGQ in dicoumarol-treated hepatocytes was the result of inhibition of the NQO1 detoxification pathway, thus allowing more quinone to be metabolized towards the one-electron pathway to form reactive semiquinones and/or reactive oxygen species. The results obtained indicate a protective role of NQO1 in preventing CGQ cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes. PMID:23047025

  5. Combined experimental and simulation studies suggest a revised mode of action of the anti-Alzheimer disease drug NQ-Trp.

    PubMed

    Berthoumieu, Olivia; Nguyen, Phuong H; Castillo-Frias, Maria P Del; Ferre, Sabrina; Tarus, Bogdan; Nasica-Labouze, Jessica; Noël, Sabrina; Saurel, Olivier; Rampon, Claire; Doig, Andrew J; Derreumaux, Philippe; Faller, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Inhibition of the aggregation of the monomeric peptide β-amyloid (Aβ) into oligomers is a widely studied therapeutic approach in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many small molecules have been reported to work in this way, including 1,4-naphthoquinon-2-yl-L-tryptophan (NQ-Trp). NQ-Trp has been reported to inhibit aggregation, to rescue cells from Aβ toxicity, and showed complete phenotypic recovery in an in vivo AD model. In this work we investigated its molecular mechanism by using a combined approach of experimental and theoretical studies, and obtained converging results. NQ-Trp is a relatively weak inhibitor and the fluorescence data obtained by employing the fluorophore widely used to monitor aggregation into fibrils can be misinterpreted due to the inner filter effect. Simulations and NMR experiments showed that NQ-Trp has no specific "binding site"-type interaction with mono- and dimeric Aβ, which could explain its low inhibitory efficiency. This suggests that the reported anti-AD activity of NQ-Trp-type molecules in in vivo models has to involve another mechanism. This study has revealed the potential pitfalls in the development of aggregation inhibitors for amyloidogenic peptides, which are of general interest for all the molecules studied in the context of inhibiting the formation of toxic aggregates. PMID:26179053

  6. Development of quinone analogues as dynamin GTPase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Kylie A; Abdel-Hamid, Mohammed K; Odell, Luke R; Chau, Ngoc; Whiting, Ainslie; Robinson, Phillip J; McCluskey, Adam

    2014-10-01

    Virtual screening of the ChemDiversity and ChemBridge compound databases against dynamin I (dynI) GTPase activity identified 2,5-bis-(benzylamino)-1,4-benzoquinone 1 as a 273 ± 106 μM inhibitor. In silico lead optimization and focused library-led synthesis resulted in the development of four discrete benzoquinone/naphthoquinone based compound libraries comprising 54 compounds in total. Sixteen analogues were more potent than lead 1, with 2,5-bis-(4-hydroxyanilino)-1,4-benzoquinone (45) and 2,5-bis(4-carboxyanilino)-1,4-benzoquinone (49) the most active with IC50 values of 11.1 ± 3.6 and 10.6 ± 1.6 μM respectively. Molecular modelling suggested a number of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions were involved in stabilization of 49 within the dynI GTP binding site. Six of the most active inhibitors were evaluated for potential inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Quinone 45 was the most effective CME inhibitor with an IC50(CME) of 36 ± 16 μM. PMID:25084145

  7. Plumbagin alters telomere dynamics, induces DNA damage and cell death in human brain tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Khaw, Aik Kia; Sameni, Safoura; Venkatesan, Shriram; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Hande, M Prakash

    2015-11-01

    Natural plant products may possess much potential in palliative therapy and supportive strategies of current cancer treatments with lesser cytotoxicity to normal cells compared to conventional chemotherapy. In the current study, anti-cancer properties of plumbagin, a plant-derived naphthoquinone, on brain cancer cells were determined. Plumbagin treatment resulted in the induction of DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, followed by suppression of the colony forming ability of the brain tumour cells. These effects were substantiated by upregulation of PTEN, TNFRSF1A and downregulation of E2F1 genes, along with a drop in MDM2, cyclin B1, survivin and BCL2 protein expression. Plumbagin induced elevated levels of caspase-3/7 activity as well. For the first time, we show here that plumbagin inhibits telomerase in brain tumour cells and results in telomere shortening following chronic long-term treatment. This observation implies considerable cytotoxicity of plumbagin towards cancer cells with higher telomerase activity. Collectively, our findings suggest plumbagin as a potential chemotherapeutic phytochemical in brain tumour treatment modalities. PMID:26520377

  8. Characteristics of Ca2+ transport by Trypanosoma cruzi mitochondria in situ.

    PubMed

    Docampo, R; Vercesi, A E

    1989-07-01

    The use of digitonin to permeabilize Trypanosoma cruzi plasma membrane has allowed the study of Ca2+ transport and oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria in situ (R. Docampo and A. E. Vercesi (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 108-111). The present results show that these mitochondria are able to build up and retain a membrane potential as indicated by a tetraphenylphosphonium-sensitive electrode. Ca2+ uptake caused membrane depolarization compatible with the existence of an electrogenically mediated Ca2+ transport mechanism in these mitochondria. Addition of Ca2+ or ethylene glycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether) N-N'-tetraacetic acid to these preparations under steady-state conditions was followed by Ca2+ uptake or release, respectively, tending to restore the original Ca2+ "set point" at about 0.9 microM. In addition, large amounts of Ca2+ were retained by T. cruzi mitochondria even after addition of thiols and NAD(P)H oxidants such as t-butyl hydroperoxide, diamide, and the 1,2-naphthoquinone beta-lapachone. However, when ascorbate plus N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine in the presence of antimycin A was used as subtrate, beta-lapachone caused pyridine nucleotide oxidation, and Ca2+ accumulation by these mitochondria was considerably lower than in control preparations, this effect being dose-dependent. PMID:2500059

  9. Plumbagin inhibits tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth through the Ras signalling pathway following activation of the VEGF receptor-2

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Li; Liu, Junchen; Zhai, Dong; Lin, Qingxiang; He, Lijun; Dong, Yanmin; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Binbin; Chen, Yihua; Yi, Zhengfang; Liu, Mingyao

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Angiogenesis-based therapy is an effective anti-tumour strategy and previous reports have shown some beneficial effects of a naturally occurring bioactive compound plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone). Here, we sought to determine the biological effects of plumbagin on signalling mechanisms during tumour angiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of plumbagin were evaluated in various in vitro assays which utilised human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation, migration and tube formation. Plumbagin was also evaluated in vivo using chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and mouse corneal micropocket models., Human colon carcinoma and prostate cancer xenograft mouse models were used to evaluate the effects of plumbagin on angiogenesis. Immunofluorescence, GST pull-down and Western blotting were employed to explore the underlying mechanisms of VEGF receptor (VEGFR)2-mediated Ras signalling pathways. KEY RESULTS Plumbagin not only inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation but also suppressed chicken chorioallantoic membrane neovascularzation and VEGF-induced mouse corneal angiogenesis. Moreover, plumbagin suppressed tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth in human colon carcinoma and prostate cancer xenograft mouse models. At a molecular level, plumbagin blocked the Ras/Rac/cofilin and Ras/MEK signalling pathways mediated by VEGFR2 in HUVECs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Plumbagin inhibited tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth by interference with the VEGFR2-mediated Ras signalling pathway in endothelial cells. Our findings demonstrate a molecular basis for the effects of plumbagin and suggest that this compound might have therapeutic ant-tumour effects. PMID:21658027

  10. Interaction of chlorinated phenolics and quinones with the mitochondrial respiration: a comparison of the o- and p-chlorinated quinones and hydroquinones

    SciTech Connect

    Pritsos, C.A.; Pointon, M.; Pardini, R.S.

    1987-05-01

    Interest in the environmental toxicology of chlorinated catechols and their analogous quinones was prompted by their acute toxicity towards fish and other aquatic organisms. Chlorophenols, such as pentachlorophenol, as well as tetrachlorocatechol have been suggested to uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation while chloranil and tetrachloro-o-benzoquinone have been shown to inhibit liver mitochondrial respiration, which may be related to their cytotoxicity. Another chlorinated quinone fungicide, 2,3 dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (CNQ) has been studied and shown to both uncouple oxidative phosphorylation and inhibit respiration in liver and heart mitochondria. CNQ was shown to undergo redox cycling with mitochondria, with a concomitant production of toxic oxygen species including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. These reactive oxygen species were associated with the generation of mitochondrial oxidative stress, and were related to the toxic action of CNQ. Based upon these previous findings, the authors examined the interaction of both the ortho and para isomers of tetrachloro-benzoquinone and their corresponding hydroquinones with mitochondria in order to prove their mechanism of actions and compare the reactions of the various isomers.

  11. Re2O7-catalyzed formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition for diverse naphtho[1,2-b]furan-3-carboxamides and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Likai; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-02-01

    Diverse naphtho[1,2-b]furan-3-carboxamide derivatives 12a-12q were synthesized in high yield via the novel Re2O7-catalyzed formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition of 1,4-naphthoquinones with β-ketoamides as the key step. This methodology offers several advantages, such as environmentally benign character, the use of a mild catalyst, high yields, and ease of handling. The synthesized compounds were screened for their tyrosinase inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities. The results showed that compound 12c exhibited excellent tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 13.48 μg/mL, which is comparable to that of kojic acid (IC50 = 19.45 μg/mL). Compounds 12a, 12b, and 12i displayed moderate antioxidant activities in a DPPH assay. Compound 12m showed good activity against S. aureus (MIC = 16 μg/mL), and compound 12p was found to be active against E. coli (MIC = 16 μg/mL). PMID:26260267

  12. The Combination of Vitamin K3 and Vitamin C Has Synergic Activity against Forms of Trypanosoma cruzi through a Redox Imbalance Process

    PubMed Central

    Cristina Desoti, Vânia; Lazarin-Bidóia, Danielle; Martins Ribeiro, Fabianne; Cardoso Martins, Solange; da Silva Rodrigues, Jean Henrique; Ueda-Nakamura, Tania; Vataru Nakamura, Celso; Farias Ximenes, Valdecir; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli

    2015-01-01

    Chagas’ disease is an infection that is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affecting millions of people worldwide. Because of severe side effects and variable efficacy, the current treatments for Chagas’ disease are unsatisfactory, making the search for new chemotherapeutic agents essential. Previous studies have reported various biological activities of naphthoquinones, such as the trypanocidal and antitumor activity of vitamin K3. The combination of this vitamin with vitamin C exerted better effects against various cancer cells than when used alone. These effects have been attributed to an increase in reactive oxygen species generation. In the present study, we evaluated the activity of vitamin K3 and vitamin C, alone and in combination, against T. cruzi. The vitamin K3 + vitamin C combination exerted synergistic effects against three forms of T. cruzi, leading to morphological, ultrastructural, and functional changes by producing reactive species, decreasing reduced thiol groups, altering the cell cycle, causing lipid peroxidation, and forming autophagic vacuoles. Our hypothesis is that the vitamin K3 + vitamin C combination induces oxidative imbalance in T. cruzi, probably started by a redox cycling process that leads to parasite cell death. PMID:26641473

  13. Mechanistic and structural basis for inhibition of thymidylate synthase ThyX

    PubMed Central

    Basta, Tamara; Boum, Yap; Briffotaux, Julien; Becker, Hubert F.; Lamarre-Jouenne, Isabelle; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Skouloubris, Stephane; Liebl, Ursula; Graille, Marc; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Myllykallio, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Nature has established two mechanistically and structurally unrelated families of thymidylate synthases that produce de novo thymidylate or dTMP, an essential DNA precursor. Representatives of the alternative flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase family, ThyX, are found in a large number of microbial genomes, but are absent in humans. We have exploited the nucleotide binding pocket of ThyX proteins to identify non-substrate-based tight-binding ThyX inhibitors that inhibited growth of genetically modified Escherichia coli cells dependent on thyX in a manner mimicking a genetic knockout of thymidylate synthase. We also solved the crystal structure of a viral ThyX bound to 2-hydroxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone at a resolution of 2.6 Å. This inhibitor was found to bind within the conserved active site of the tetrameric ThyX enzyme, at the interface of two monomers, partially overlapping with the dUMP binding pocket. Our studies provide new chemical tools for investigating the ThyX reaction mechanism and establish a novel mechanistic and structural basis for inhibition of thymidylate synthesis. As essential ThyX proteins are found e.g. in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Helicobacter pylori, our studies have also potential to pave the way towards the development of new anti-microbial compounds. PMID:23155486

  14. Discovery and Development of Natural Product-derived Chemotherapeutic Agents Based on a Medicinal Chemistry Approach⊥†

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants have long been an excellent source of pharmaceutical agents. Accordingly, the long term objectives of the author's research program are to discover and design new chemotherapeutic agents based on plant-derived compound leads by using a medicinal chemistry approach, which is a combination of chemistry and biology. Different examples of promising bioactive natural products and their synthetic analogs, including sesquiterpene lactones, quassinoids, naphthoquinones, phenylquinolones, dithiophenediones, neo-tanshinlactone, tylophorine, suksdorfin, DCK, and DCP, will be presented with respect to their discovery and preclinical development as potential clinical trial candidates. Research approaches include bioactivity- or mechanism of action-directed isolation and characterization of active compounds, rational drug design-based modification and analog synthesis, as well as structure-activity relationship and mechanism of action studies. Current clinical trials agents discovered by the Natural Products Research Laboratories, University of North Carolina, include bevirimat (dimethyl succinyl betulinic acid), which is now in Phase IIb trials for treating AIDS. Bevirimat is also the first in a new class of HIV drug candidates called “maturation inhibitors”. In addition, an etoposide analog, GL-331, progressed to anticancer Phase II clinical trials, and the curcumin analog JC-9 is in Phase II clinical trials for treating acne and in development for trials against prostate cancer. The discovery and development of these clinical trials candidates will also be discussed. PMID:20187635

  15. A solid device based on doped hybrid composites for controlling the dosage of the biocide N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-dodecyl-1,3-propanediamine in industrial formulations.

    PubMed

    Argente-Garca, A; Muoz-Ortuo, M; Molins-Legua, C; Moliner-Martnez, Y; Campns-Falc, P

    2016-01-15

    A colorimetric composite device is proposed to determine the widely used biocide N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-dodecyl-1,3-propanediamine (ADP).This sensing device is based on a film of 1,2-Naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS) embedded into polydimethylsiloxane-tetraethylortosilicate-SiO2 nanoparticles composite (PDMS-TEOS-SiO2NPs). Semiquantitative analysis can be performed by visual inspection. Digitalized image or diffuse reflectance (DR) measurements can be carried out for quantitative analysis. Satisfactory detection limit (0.018%, w/v) and relative standard deviations <12% were achieved. The proposed device has been applied for the determination of ADP in detergent industrial formulations with recovery values between 80% and 112%. The method has been successfully validated, showing its high potential to control and monitor this compound because the device is easy to prepare and use, robust, portable, stable over time and cost effective. This device allows a green, simple and rapid approach for the analysis of samples without pretreatment and does not require highly trained personnel. These advantages give the proposed kit good prospects for implementation in several industries. PMID:26592589

  16. Manganese, superoxide dismutase, and oxygen tolerance in some lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, F S; Fridovich, I

    1981-01-01

    A previous study of the aerotolerant bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, which lacks superoxide dismutase (SOD), demonstrated that it possesses a novel substitute for this defensive enzyme. Thus, L. plantarum contains 20 to 25 mM Mn(II),m in a dialyzable form, which is able to scavenge O2- apparently as effectively as do the micromolar levels of SOD present in most other organisms. This report describes a survey of the lactic acid bacteria. The substitution of millimolar levels of Mn(II) for micromolar levels of SOD is a common occurrence in this group of microorganisms, which contained either SOD or high levels of Mn(II), but not both. Two strains were found which had neither high levels of Mn(II) nor SOD, and they were, as was expected, very oxygen intolerant. Lactic acid bacteria containing SOD grew better aerobically than anaerobically, whereas the organisms containing Mn(II) in place of SOD showed aerobic growth which was best, at best, equal to anaerobic growth. Plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) increases the rate of O2- production in these organisms. Lactobacillus strains containing high intracellular Mn(II) were more resistant to the oxygen-dependent toxicity of plumbagin than were strains containing lower levels of Mn(II). The results support the conclusion that a high internal level of Mn(II) provides these organisms with an important defence against endogenous O2-. PMID:6263860

  17. Phytochemistry of the carnivorous sundew genus Drosera (Droseraceae) - future perspectives and ethnopharmacological relevance.

    PubMed

    Egan, Paul A; van der Kooy, Frank

    2013-10-01

    Species of the carnivorous genus Drosera L. have long been a source of valuable natural products. The various phytochemicals characteristic of these species, particularly 1,4-naphthoquinones and flavonoids, have contributed to the diverse utilization of sundews in traditional medicine systems worldwide. A growing number of studies have sought to investigate the comparative phytochemistry of Drosera species for improved sources of pharmaceutically important compounds. The outcomes of these studies are here collated, with emergent trends discussed in detail. Important factors which affect production of secondary metabolites in plants are critically examined, such as environmental influences and in vitro culture, and recommendations subsequently presented based on this. Explicitly, the current review aims to i) present an updated, comprehensive listing of the phytochemical constituents of the genus (including quantitative data where available), ii) summarize important factors which may influence the production of phytopharmaceuticals in plants, and iii) recommend guidelines for future research based on the above, including improved standardization and quality control. We have also included a section discussing future perspectives of research on Drosera spp. based on three different research lines i) the potential to produce much needed lead compounds for treatment of tuberculosis, ii) the potential role of anthocyanins in nitrogen transport, and iii) research into 'Natural Deep Eutectic' solvents produced by Drosera spp. in the droplets or 'dew' employed to capture insect prey. PMID:24130022

  18. Induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cells through the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway by ramentaceone from Drosera aliciae.

    PubMed

    Kawiak, Anna; Zawacka-Pankau, Joanna; Wasilewska, Aleksandra; Stasilojc, Grzegorz; Bigda, Jacek; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2012-01-27

    Ramentaceone (1) is a naphthoquinone constituent of Drosera aliciae that exhibits potent cytotoxic activity against various tumor cell lines. However, its molecular mechanism of cell death induction has still not been determined. The present study demonstrates that 1 induces apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Typical morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis were observed in 1-treated cells. Compound 1 induced a concentration-dependent increase in the sub-G1 fraction of the cell cycle. A decrease in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) was also observed. Furthermore, 1 reduced the ratio of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 to pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak, induced cytochrome c release, and increased the activity of caspase 3. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected in 1-treated HL-60 cells, which was attenuated by the pretreatment of cells with a free radical scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). NAC also prevented the increase of the sub-G1 fraction induced by 1. These results indicate that ramentaceone induces cell death through the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. PMID:22250825

  19. Combined chemoassay and mass spectrometric approach to study the reactive potential of electrophiles towards deoxynucleosides as model for DNA.

    PubMed

    Schmied-Tobies, Maria I H; Paschke, Heidrun; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2016-05-01

    The modification of DNA by adduct formation is a potential molecular initiating event of genotoxicity. A chemoassay was established to study adduct formation of electrophiles with deoxynucleosides. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the reactivity of the model electrophiles para-benzoquinone, hydroquinone, and 1,4-naphthoquinone with deoxynucleoside (deoxyadenosine (dA), deoxyguanosine (dG), deoxycytidine (dC) and thymidine (dT)) to detect formation of adducts via constant neutral loss scan of deoxyribose (116 Da), and to elucidate adduct structures using high resolution mass spectrometry. Of the four deoxynucleosides dG was most susceptible, followed by dC and para-benzoquinone was the most reactive electrophile. With this approach five dG and four dC adducts were detected, formed by Michael addition and subsequent condensation. Also oxidation occurred with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Three of the adducts formed by benzoquinone have not been reported before. This chemoassay combined with mass spectrometry offers a way (a) to screen a large number of chemicals for their genotoxic potential, (b) to determine novel adducts that may be searched for in in vitro and in vivo studies and thus (c) to better understand the reaction of electrophiles with nucleobases. PMID:26945242

  20. Effects of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris on oxidant-induced DNA damage and antioxidant status in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kozics, Katarna; Klusov, Veronika; Sran?kov, Annamria; Mu?aji, Pavol; Slame?ov, Darina; Hunkov, Lubica; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Horvthov, Eva

    2013-12-01

    Salvia officinalis (SO) and Thymus vulgaris (TV) are medicinal plants well known for their curative powers. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these abilities of sage and thyme have not been fully understood yet. In this study we investigated the composition and the quantitative estimation of plant extracts, the protective effects of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide- and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone-induced DNA damage, and levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione) in human HepG2 cells. To measure antioxidative activity of plant extracts we used three assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). The results showed that the oxidant-induced DNA lesions were significantly reduced in cells pre-treated with the plant extracts studied. The observed DNA-protective activity could be explained by both elevation of GPx activity in cells pre-treated with SO and TV and antioxidant activity of SO and TV. PMID:23870948

  1. A simple, comprehensive, and miniaturized solvent extraction method for determination of particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic compounds in air.

    PubMed

    Santos, Aldenor G; Regis, Ana Carla D; da Rocha, Gisele O; Bezerra, Marcos de A; de Jesus, Robson M; de Andrade, Jailson B

    2016-02-26

    The method allowed simultaneous characterization of PAHs, nitro-PAHs and quinones in atmospheric particulate matter. This method employs a miniaturized micro-extraction step that uses 500μL of an acetonitrile-dichloromethane mix and instrumental analysis by means of a high-resolution GC-MS. The method was validated using the SRM1649b NIST standard reference material as well as deuterated internal standards. The results are in good agreement with the certified values and show recoveries between 75% and 145%. Limit of detection (LOD) values for PAHs were found to be between 0.5pg (benzo[a]pyrene) to 2.1pg (dibenzo[a,h]anthracene), for nitro-PAHs ranged between 3.2pg (1-nitrobenzo[e]pyrene) and 22.2pg (3-nitrophenanthrene), and for quinones ranged between 11.5pg (1,4-naphthoquinone) and 458pg (9,10-phenanthraquinone). The validated method was applied to real PM10 samples collected on quartz fiber filters. Concentrations in the PM10 samples ranged from 0.06 to 15ngm(-3) for PAHs, from

  2. Evaluation of the effectiveness of an ointment based on Alkannins/Shikonins on second intention wound healing in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Karayannopoulou, Maria; Tsioli, Vassiliki; Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Anagnostou, Tilemahos L.; Giannakas, Nikolaos; Savvas, Ioannis; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G.; Kaldrymidou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The enantiomeric naphthoquinones alkannins and shikonins (A/S) have been established as potent wound healing agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an A/S based ointment for humans on second intention wound healing in the dog, as compared to wound flushing with Lactated Ringer’s solution (LRS). Ten mixed breed dogs, aged 2 to 5 y, were used. One 2.5 × 2.5 cm full-thickness skin defect was created on the lateral aspect of each arm for subjective evaluation, laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF), and planimetry. Additionally, 3 matching 2 × 2 cm wounds were created on opposite sides of the dorsal midline for histologic evaluation. Wounds were treated once daily with the A/S based ointment on the right side and by flushing with LRS on the left until healed (about 20 d). During the healing process, tissue perfusion (mean LDF value) was found to be significantly higher on the side treated with the A/S based ointment compared with the LRS-treated side. Histologically, angiogenesis (on days 4 and 11), collagen production score (on days 4, 11, and 20), and epithelial thickness score (on day 11) were significantly higher in the wounds treated with the A/S based ointment. Wound size, as evaluated by planimetry, decreased significantly from day 0 to day 20 on both sides, but no significant differences were found between the A/S based ointment and LRS-treated wounds. PMID:21461194

  3. An organic indicator functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite-based colorimetric assay for the detection of sarcosine.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhonghua; Yin, Bo; Wang, Hui; Li, Mengqian; Rao, Honghong; Liu, Xiuhui; Zhou, Xinbin; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2016-03-01

    Rapid detection of sarcosine is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of disease. We report here a simple yet sensitive colorimetric nanocomposite platform for rapid detection of sarcosine in alkaline media. The approach exploited the benefits of a rapid color-producing reaction between an organic indicator, 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid sodium salt (NQS), and the analyte of sarcosine species as well as the good catalytic ability of graphene oxide (GO) to the formation of highly colored products due to its good water dispersibility, extremely large surface area and facile surface modification. As a result, a NQS functionalized GO nanocomposite through π-π stacking has been demonstrated to be useful as a highly efficient catalyst system for the selective and sensitive colorimetric determination of sarcosine by providing a nanocomposite-amplified colorimetric response. Meanwhile, the strategy offered excellent selectivity toward sarcosine species against other amino acids as well as a satisfying detection limit of 0.73 μM. More importantly, by using an electrochemical method, a credible sensing mechanism of GO nanocomposite-based colorimetric platform for a special analyte determination can be easily verified and elucidated, which also provides an attractive alternative to conventional characterization strategies. PMID:26902537

  4. New Spectrophotometric and Fluorimetric Methods for Determination of Fluoxetine in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Ibrahim A.; Amer, Sawsan M.; Abdine, Heba H.; Al-Rayes, Lama I.

    2009-01-01

    New simple and sensitive spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods have been developed and validated for the determination of fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) in its pharmaceutical formulations. The spectrophotometric method was based on the reaction of FLX with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) in an alkaline medium (pH 11) to form an orange-colored product that was measured at 490 nm. The fluorimetric method was based on the reaction of FLX with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl) in an alkaline medium (pH 8) to form a highly fluorescent product that was measured at 545 nm after excitation at 490 nm. The variables affecting the reactions of FLX with both NQS and NBD-Cl were carefully studied and optimized. The kinetics of the reactions were investigated, and the reaction mechanisms were presented. Under the optimum reaction conditions, good linear relationships were found between the readings and the concentrations of FLX in the ranges of 0.3–6 and 0.035–0.5 μg mL−1 for the spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods, respectively. The limits of detection were 0.1 and 0.01 μg mL−1 for the spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods, respectively. Both methods were successfully applied to the determination of FLX in its pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:20107560

  5. Colorimetric microbial viability assay based on reduction of water-soluble tetrazolium salts for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and screening of antimicrobial substances.

    PubMed

    Tsukatani, Tadayuki; Higuchi, Tomoko; Suenaga, Hikaru; Akao, Tetsuyuki; Ishiyama, Munetaka; Ezoe, Takatoshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2009-10-01

    The applicability of a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on reduction of a tetrazolium salt {2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt [WST-8]} via 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-methyl-1,4-NQ) as an electron mediator for determining the susceptibility of various bacteria to antibiotics and screening antimicrobial substances was investigated. The measurement conditions, which include the effects of the concentration of 2-methyl-1,4-NQ, were optimized for proliferation assays of gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and pathogenic yeast. In antimicrobial susceptibility testing, there was excellent agreement between the minimum inhibitory concentrations determined after 8 h using the WST-8 colorimetric method and those obtained after 22 h using conventional methods. The results suggest that the WST-8 colorimetric assay is a useful method for rapid determination of the susceptibility of various bacteria to antibiotics. In addition, the current method was applied to the screening of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria and its efficiency was demonstrated. PMID:19560434

  6. A novel o-naphtoquinone inhibits N-cadherin expression and blocks melanoma cell invasion via AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; de Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho; Barbosa, Gleyce Dos Santos; Burbano, Rommel M R; Souza, Luciana G S; Lemos, Telma L G; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico

    2013-10-01

    The down-regulation or loss of epithelial markers is often accompanied by the up-regulation of mesenchymal markers. E-cadherin generally suppresses invasiveness, whereas N-cadherin promotes invasion and metastasis in vitro. The aim of this work is to investigate the role of biflorin, a naphthoquinone with proven anticancer properties, on the expression of N-cadherin and AKT proteins in MDA-MB-435 invasive melanoma cancer cells after 12h of exposure to 1, 2.5 and 5 μM biflorin. Biflorin inhibited MDA-MB-435 invasion in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01). Likewise, biflorin down-regulated N-cadherin and AKT-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Biflorin did not inhibit the adhesion of MDA-MB-435 cells to any tested substrates. Additionally, biflorin blocked the invasiveness of cells by down-regulating N-cadherin, most likely via AKT-1 signaling. As such, biflorin may be a novel anticancer agent and a new prototype for drug design. PMID:23912027

  7. The organotelluride catalyst (PHTE)₂NQ prevents HOCl-induced systemic sclerosis in mouse.

    PubMed

    Marut, Wioleta K; Kavian, Niloufar; Servettaz, Amélie; Nicco, Carole; Ba, Lalla A; Doering, Mandy; Chéreau, Christiane; Jacob, Claus; Weill, Bernard; Batteux, Frédéric

    2012-04-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by skin and visceral fibrosis, microvascular damage, and autoimmunity. HOCl-induced mouse SSc is a murine model that mimics the main features of the human disease, especially the activation and hyperproliferation rate of skin fibroblasts. We demonstrate here the efficiency of a tellurium-based catalyst 2,3-bis(phenyltellanyl)naphthoquinone ((PHTE)(2)NQ) in the treatment of murine SSc, through its selective cytotoxic effects on activated SSc skin fibroblasts. SSc mice treated with (PHTE)(2)NQ displayed a significant decrease in lung and skin fibrosis and in alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in the skin compared with untreated mouse SSc animals. Serum concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products, nitrate, and anti-DNA topoisomerase I autoantibodies were increased in SSc mice, but were significantly reduced in SSc mice treated with (PHTE)(2)NQ. To assess the mechanism of action of (PHTE)(2)NQ, the cytotoxic effect of (PHTE)(2)NQ was compared in normal fibroblasts and in mouse SSc skin fibroblasts. ROS production is higher in mouse SSc fibroblasts than in normal fibroblasts, and was still increased by (PHTE)(2)NQ to reach a lethal threshold and kill mouse SSc fibroblasts. Therefore, the effectiveness of (PHTE)(2)NQ in the treatment of mouse SSc seems to be linked to the selective pro-oxidative and cytotoxic effects of (PHTE)(2)NQ on hyperproliferative fibroblasts. PMID:22277946

  8. Plumbagin inhibits prostate carcinogenesis in intact and castrated PTEN knockout mice via targeting PKCε, Stat3 and epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers

    PubMed Central

    Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Fischer, Joseph W.; Singh, Ashok; Zhong, Weixiong; Mustafa, Ala; Meske, Louise; Sheikhani, Mohammad Ozair; Verma, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) continues to remain the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American males. The Pten deletions and/or mutations are frequently observed in both primary prostate cancers and metastatic prostate tissue samples. Pten deletion in prostate epithelium in mice results in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), followed by progression to invasive adenocarcinoma. The Pten conditional knockout mice (Ptenloxp/loxp:PB-Cre4) ((Pten-KO) ) provide a unique preclinical model to evaluate agents for efficacy for both the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). We present here for the first time that dietary plumbagin (PL), a medicinal plant-derived naphthoquinone (200 or 500 ppm) inhibits tumor development in intact as well as castrated Pten-KO mice. PL has shown no signs of toxicity at either of these doses. PL treatment resulted in a decrease expression of PKCε, AKT, Stat3 and COX2 compared to the control mice. PL treatment also inhibited the expression of vimentin and slug, the markers of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in prostate tumors. In summary, the results indicate that dietary PL inhibits growth of both primary and castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in Pten-KO mice, possibly via inhibition of PKCε, Stat3, AKT, and EMT markers (vimentin and slug), which are linked to the induction and progression of PCa. PMID:25627799

  9. Shikonin exerts anti-inflammatory effects in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dejie; Sun, Yong; Shen, Yongbin; Li, Fengyang; Song, Xiaojing; Zhou, Ershun; Zhao, Fuyi; Liu, Zhicheng; Fu, Yunhe; Guo, Mengyao; Zhang, Naisheng; Yang, Zhengtao; Cao, Yongguo

    2013-08-01

    Shikonin, an analog of naphthoquinone pigments isolated from the root of Lithospermum erythrorhyzon, was recently reported to exert beneficial anti-inflammatory effects both in vivo and in vitro. The present study aimed to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of shikonin in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Dexamethasone was used as a positive control to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of shikonin in the study. Pretreatment with shikonin (intraperitoneal injection) significantly inhibited LPS-induced increases in the macrophage and neutrophil infiltration of lung tissues and markedly attenuated myeloperoxidase activity. Furthermore, shikonin significantly reduced the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid induced by LPS. Compared with the LPS group, lung histopathologic changes were less pronounced in the shikonin-pretreated mice. Additionally, Western blotting results showed that shikonin efficiently decreased nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation by inhibiting the degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα. These results suggest that shikonin exerts anti-inflammatory properties in LPS-mediated ALI, possibly through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway, which mediates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Shikonin may be a potential agent for the prophylaxis of ALI. PMID:23651796

  10. Shikonin protects mouse brain against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenhua; Liu, Ting; Gan, Lu; Wang, Ting; Yuan, Xuan; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Hanying; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2010-09-25

    The aim of our study was to investigate the neuroprotective properties of shikonin, a naphthoquinone pigment isolated from the roots of the traditional Chinese herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon. In the present study, mice were divided randomly into sham, model, shikonin and edaravone-treated groups. Shikonin (50, 25, and 12.5mg/kg, i.g.) or maize oil was administered three times before ischemia and once at 2h after the onset of ischemia. Mice were anesthetized with chloral hydrate and subjected to middle cerebral artery 2h of occlusion and then 22h of reperfusion. Different antioxidant assays were employed in order to evaluate the antioxidant activities of shikonin in vitro. Neurological deficit, infarct size, histopathology changes and oxidative stress markers were evaluated after 22h of reperfusion. In comparison with the model group, treatment with shikonin significantly decreased neurological deficit scores, infarct size, the levels of malondialdehyde(MDA), carbonyl and reactive oxygen species, and attenuated neuronal damage, up-regulated superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio. Taken together, these results suggested that the neuroprotective effects of shikonin against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury may be attributed to its antioxidant effects. PMID:20599918

  11. Apoptosis induced by β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin is associated with Bcl-2 and NF-κB in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yao; Ma, Xiu-Ying; Zhang, Ziran; Shao, Zhen-Jun; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Li-Ming

    2013-12-01

    β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin (DA) is a natural naphthoquinone derivative compound of Lithospermum erythrorhizon with various biological activities. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects and underlying mechanisms of DA in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that DA inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of DA with regard to the proliferation of MCF-7 cells was 0.050±0.016 mM. The characteristics of cell apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and chromatin condensation, were all observed in DA-treated cells. DA decreased the expression levels of Bcl-2 and increased the expression of Bax and caspase-3 compared with those in the control. DA inhibited the activity of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway, by downregulating the expression of the p65 subunit, and inhibited the Iκb phosphorylation. DA inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis through the downregulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax and partial inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. PMID:24260077

  12. Beneficial effect of shikonin on experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Andújar, Isabel; Ríos, José Luis; Giner, Rosa María; Miguel Cerdá, José; Recio, María Del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The naphthoquinone shikonin, a major component of the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, now is studied as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Acute UC was induced in Balb/C mice by oral administration of 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The disease activity index was evaluated, and a histologic study was carried out. Orally administered shikonin reduces induced UC in a dose-dependent manner, preventing the shortening of the colorectum and decreasing weight loss by 5% while improving the appearance of feces and preventing bloody stools. The disease activity index score was much lower in shikonin-treated mice than in the colitic group, as well as the myeloperoxidase activity. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was reduced by 75%, activation of NF-κB was reduced by 44%, and that of pSTAT-3 by 47%, as well as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production. Similar results were obtained in primary macrophages culture. This is the first report of shikonin's ability to attenuate acute UC induced by DSS. Shikonin acts by blocking the activation of two major targets: NF-κB and STAT-3, and thus constitutes a promising potential therapeutic agent for the management of the inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23346196

  13. Shikonin inhibits adipogenic differentiation via regulation of mir-34a-FKBP1B.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Jin; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ahn, Jiyun; Gwon, So Young; Ha, Tae Youl

    2015-11-27

    Shikonin is a naturally occurring naphthoquinone pigment and a major constituent present in Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the key post-transcriptional regulators of adipogenesis, their manipulation represents a potential new strategy to inhibit adipogenesis. Our aim was to investigate shikonin-dependent inhibition of adipogenesis with an emphasis on miRNA-related processes. Mir-34a increased during induced adipogenesis, and this was suppressed in the presence of shikonin. mRNA expression of FKBP1B, a suggested target of mir-34a according to bioinformatics studies, decreased during adipogenesis, but was recovered by shikonin treatment, which reversely correlated with mir-34a expression. A mir-34a inhibitor suppressed MDI-induced adipogenesis by blocking PPARγ and C/EBPα expression, while suppression of mir-34a recovered MDI-induced down-regulation of FKBP1B expression. A mir-34a mimic decreased FKBP1B mRNA expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. We also observed that mir-34a bound directly to the 3'-untranslated region of FKBP1B. Finally, FKBP1B overexpression attenuated MDI-induced adipogenesis, PPARγ, and C/EBPα expression. These results suggest that mir-34a regulates adipogenesis by targeting FKBP1B expression. Our findings reveal that shikonin prevents adipogenesis by blocking the mir-34a-FKBP1B pathway which represents a promising potential target for preventing obesity. PMID:26471303

  14. The Mechanism Underlying the Antibacterial Activity of Shikonin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Seob; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Yeon Bok; Lee, Sang-Won; Cha, Seon-Woo; Park, Hong-Woo; Kim, Geum-Soog; Kwon, Dong-Yeul; Lee, Min-Ho; Han, Sin-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin (SKN), a highly liposoluble naphthoquinone pigment isolated from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, is known to exert antibacterial, wound-healing, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and antitumor effects. The aim of this study was to examine SKN antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The SKN was analyzed in combination with membrane-permeabilizing agents Tris and Triton X-100, ATPase inhibitors sodium azide and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and S. aureus-derived peptidoglycan; the effects on MRSA viability were evaluated by the broth microdilution method, time-kill test, and transmission electron microscopy. Addition of membrane-permeabilizing agents or ATPase inhibitors together with a low dose of SKN potentiated SKN anti-MRSA activity, as evidenced by the reduction of MRSA cell density by 75% compared to that observed when SKN was used alone; in contrast, addition of peptidoglycan blocked the antibacterial activity of SKN. The results indicate that the anti-MRSA effect of SKN is associated with its affinity to peptidoglycan, the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane, and the activity of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. This study revealed the potential of SKN as an effective natural antibiotic and of its possible use to substantially reduce the use of existing antibiotic may also be important for understanding the mechanism underlying the antibacterial activity of natural compounds. PMID:26265924

  15. Inhibitory effects of β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin on hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-ying; Wan, Li-hong; Zheng, Xiao-wei; Shao, Zhen-jun; Chen, Jian; Chen, Xia-jing; Liu, Li-tao; Kuang, Wen-juan; Tan, Xian-shu; Zhou, Li-ming

    2012-05-01

    β,β-Dimethylacrylshikonin is one of the most abundant naphthoquinones in the root extracts of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc. (Boraginaceae), which have been reported to have antitumor effects. This study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the MTT assay showed that β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin inhibited the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells in both dose- and time-dependent manners with its 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) at 48 h being 15.01 ± 0.76 µg/mL. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and Hoechst staining detected the characteristics of cell apoptosis in β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin-treated cells and the apoptotic rates of treated groups were increased in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin could block the cell cycle arrest at G2 phase. Furthermore, β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2 but up-regulated that of Bax. The cleaved caspase-3 protein was also detected in treated cells. The experiment in vivo showed that β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin significantly suppressed the growth of H(22) transplantable hepatoma, and induced the activation of caspase-3 determined by immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin has significant antitumor effects on hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22109831

  16. Acetylshikonin Inhibits Human Pancreatic PANC-1 Cancer Cell Proliferation by Suppressing the NF-κB Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seok-Cheol; Choi, Bu Young

    2015-01-01

    Acetylshikonin, a natural naphthoquinone derivative compound, has been used for treatment of inflammation and cancer. In the present study, we have investigated whether acetylshikonin could regulate the NF-κB signaling pathway, thereby leading to suppression of tumorigenesis. We observed that acetylshikonin significantly reduced proliferation of several cancer cell lines, including human pancreatic PANC-1 cancer cells. In addition, acetylshikonin inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or tumor necrosis-α (TNF-α)-induced NF-κB reporter activity. Proteome cytokine array and real-time RT-PCR results illustrated that acetylshikonin inhibition of PMA-induced production of cytokines was mediated at the transcriptional level and it was associated with suppression of NF-κB activity and matrix metalloprotenases. Finally, we observed that an exposure of acetylshikonin significantly inhibited the anchorage-independent growth of PANC-1 cells. Together, our results indicate that acetylshikonin could serve as a promising therapeutic agent for future treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26336582

  17. Shikonin induces apoptosis and inhibits migration of ovarian carcinoma cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of Src and FAK

    PubMed Central

    HAO, ZHENFENG; QIAN, JING; YANG, JISHI

    2015-01-01

    The present study identified that shikonin, a naphthoquinone extracted from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, inhibits the migration of ovarian cancer cells and induces their apoptosis by impairing the phosphorylation of two kinases, proto-oncogene tyrosine protein kinase Src (Src) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Ovarian carcinoma SKOV-3 cells were treated with various concentrations of shikonin and analyzed for the effects on cell migration, invasion and apoptosis via Transwell assays and flow cytometry. In addition, the effects of shikonin administration on the expression and phosphorylation of Src and FAK in the SKOV-3 cells were analyzed by western blotting. Shikonin appeared to induce apoptosis and decrease cell migration in the SKOV-3 ovarian cells. Furthermore, the present study provides evidence that shikonin may exert these effects on human ovarian carcinoma cells via the inhibition of the protein tyrosine kinases, Src and FAK. Thus, shikonin should be considered for additional investigation as a candidate agent for the prevention and treatment of human ovarian cancer. PMID:25621031

  18. Integration of Different "-omics" Technologies Identifies Inhibition of the IGF1R-Akt-mTOR Signaling Cascade Involved in the Cytotoxic Effect of Shikonin against Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Wiench, Benjamin; Chen, Yet-Ran; Paulsen, Malte; Hamm, Rebecca; Schröder, Sven; Yang, Ning-Sun; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Hematological malignancies frequently have a poor prognosis and often remain incurable. Drug resistance, severe side effects, and relapse are major problems of currently used drugs, and new candidate compounds are required for improvement of therapy success. The naphthoquinone shikonin derived from the Chinese medicinal herb, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, is a promising candidate for the next generation of chemotherapy. The basal cellular mechanism of shikonin is the direct targeting of mitochondria. Cytotoxicity screenings showed that the compound is particularly effective against leukemia cells suggesting an additional cellular mechanism. mRNA and miRNA microarrays were used to analyze changes in gene expression in leukemia cells after shikonin treatment and combined with stable-isotope dimethyl labeling for quantitative proteomics. The integration of bioinformatics and the three "-omics" assays showed that the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was affected by shikonin. Deregulations of this pathway are frequently associated with cancerogenesis, especially in a wide range of hematological malignancies. The effect on the PI3K-Akt-mTOR axis was validated by demonstrating a decreased phosphorylation of Akt and a direct inhibition of the IGF1R kinase activity after shikonin treatment. Our results indicate that inhibiting the IGF1R-Akt-mTOR signaling cascade is a new cellular mechanism of shikonin strengthening its potential for the treatment of hematological malignancies. PMID:23861714

  19. Shikonin Induces Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Premature Senescence of Human A549 Lung Cancer Cells through Upregulation of p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yueh-Chiao; Liu, Tsun-Jui; Lai, Hui-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone pigment isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been reported to suppress growth of various cancer cells. This study was aimed to investigate whether this chemical could also inhibit cell growth of lung cancer cells and, if so, works via what molecular mechanism. To fulfill this, A549 lung cancer cells were treated with shikonin and then subjected to microscopic, biochemical, flow cytometric, and molecular analyses. Compared with the controls, shikonin significantly induced cell apoptosis and reduced proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Specially, lower concentrations of shikonin (1–2.5 μg/mL) cause viability reduction; apoptosis and cellular senescence induction is associated with upregulated expressions of cell cycle- and apoptotic signaling-regulatory proteins, while higher concentrations (5–10 μg/mL) precipitate both apoptosis and necrosis. Treatment of cells with pifithrin-α, a specific inhibitor of p53, suppressed shikonin-induced apoptosis and premature senescence, suggesting the role of p53 in mediating the actions of shikonin on regulation of lung cancer cell proliferation. These results indicate the potential and dose-related cytotoxic actions of shikonin on A549 lung cancer cells via p53-mediated cell fate pathways and raise shikonin a promising adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of lung cancer in clinical practice. PMID:25737737

  20. Shikonin Induces Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Premature Senescence of Human A549 Lung Cancer Cells through Upregulation of p53 Expression.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yueh-Chiao; Liu, Tsun-Jui; Lai, Hui-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone pigment isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been reported to suppress growth of various cancer cells. This study was aimed to investigate whether this chemical could also inhibit cell growth of lung cancer cells and, if so, works via what molecular mechanism. To fulfill this, A549 lung cancer cells were treated with shikonin and then subjected to microscopic, biochemical, flow cytometric, and molecular analyses. Compared with the controls, shikonin significantly induced cell apoptosis and reduced proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Specially, lower concentrations of shikonin (1-2.5 μg/mL) cause viability reduction; apoptosis and cellular senescence induction is associated with upregulated expressions of cell cycle- and apoptotic signaling-regulatory proteins, while higher concentrations (5-10 μg/mL) precipitate both apoptosis and necrosis. Treatment of cells with pifithrin-α, a specific inhibitor of p53, suppressed shikonin-induced apoptosis and premature senescence, suggesting the role of p53 in mediating the actions of shikonin on regulation of lung cancer cell proliferation. These results indicate the potential and dose-related cytotoxic actions of shikonin on A549 lung cancer cells via p53-mediated cell fate pathways and raise shikonin a promising adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of lung cancer in clinical practice. PMID:25737737

  1. Homogeneous purification and characterization of LePGT1--a membrane-bound aromatic substrate prenyltransferase involved in secondary metabolism of Lithospermum erythrorhizon.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Kazuaki; Mito, Koji; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2013-06-01

    Membrane-bound type prenyltransferases for aromatic substrates play crucial roles in the biosynthesis of various natural compounds. Lithospermum erythrorhizon p-hydroxybenzoate: geranyltransferase (LePGT1), which contains multiple transmembrane α-helices, is involved in the biosynthesis of a red naphthoquinone pigment, shikonin. Taking LePGT1 as a model membrane-bound aromatic substrate prenyltransferase, we utilized a baculovirus-Sf9 expression system to generate a high yield LePGT1 polypeptide, reaching ~ 1000-fold higher expression level compared with a yeast expression system. Efficient solubilization procedures and biochemical purification methods were developed to extract LePGT1 from the membrane fraction of Sf9 cells. As a result, 80 μg of LePGT1 was purified from 150 mL culture to almost homogeneity as judged by SDS/PAGE. Using purified LePGT1, enzymatic characterization, e.g. substrate specificity, divalent cation requirement and kinetic analysis, was done. In addition, inhibition experiments revealed that aromatic compounds having two phenolic hydroxyl groups effectively inhibited LePGT1 enzyme activity, suggesting a novel recognition mechanism for aromatic substrates. As the first example of solubilization and purification of this membrane-bound protein family, the methods established in this study will provide valuable information for the precise biochemical characterization of aromatic prenyltransferases as well as for crystallographic analysis of this novel enzyme family. PMID:23490165

  2. Comparative study on enantiomeric excess of main akannin/shikonin derivatives isolated from the roots of three endemic Boraginaceae plants in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen; Jiang, Hu Da Gu La; Peng, Ying; Li, Shao Shun

    2011-10-01

    This work systematically investigated the enantiomeric excess (e.e.) of main components isolated from the roots of three endemic Boraginaceae plants distributed extensively in China, named Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnst (A.e.), Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc. (L.e.) and Onosma confertum W. W. Smith (O.c.), and the optical purity of their hydrolysis products separately, by means of three different approaches. The influence of HCl on the e.e. values of the major constituents was also studied. Analysis of the absolute configurations and e.e. values of all the derivatives acquired was performed by CD and chiral-HPLC respectively. The results of the main constituents demonstrated that A.e. mainly yields S-form naphthoquinone derivatives, while the R-form is predominant in the derivatives of L.e. and O.c. The optical purity of alkannin and shikonin and their derivatives was not influenced by acid treatment in the course of separation and hydrolysis. Additionally, it was found that 100% e.e. of shikinon could be acquired from a specific shikinon ester derivative, β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin occurring in the roots of O.c., as did 100% e.e. of alkannin from β,β-dimethylacrylalkannin contained in the roots of A.e. PMID:21308700

  3. Cbl-b-regulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling is involved in the shikonin-induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    QU, DAN; CHEN, YU; XU, XIAO-MAN; ZHANG, MENG; ZHANG, YI; LI, SHENG-QI

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin (SK), a naturally occurring naphthoquinone, exhibits antitumor activity. However, its precise mechanisms of action are unknown. In the present study, the effects of SK on NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells were investigated. It was found that SK reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in the NCI-H460 cells. Additionally, SK inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity, which indicates that inhibition of the ERK pathway is probably one of the mechanisms by which SK induced NCI-H460 cell apoptosis. The expression of Cbl-b was significantly increased by treatment with SK for 4 h, and gradually increased to a maximal level at 24 h; the time taken for the upregulation of Cbl-b protein was in accordance to that required for the downregulation of phospho (p)-ERK protein. The Cbl inhibitor Ps341 reversed the SK-induced downregulation of p-ERK and apoptosis of NCI-H460 cells. These results indicate that Cbl-b potentiates the apoptotic action of SK by inhibiting the ERK pathway in lung cancer cells. PMID:25780420

  4. Shikonin shortens the circadian period: possible involvement of Top2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yoshikatsu; Kawano, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Yoshimitsu; Onishi, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    The naphthoquinone pigment, shikonin, is a natural product derived from Lithospermum erythrorhizon and an active component of a Chinese traditional herbal therapeutic. We identified shikonin as a candidate for shortening the circadian period using real-time reporter gene assays based on NIH3T3-derived stable reporter cells. Period length that became shortened in cells incubated with shikonin or etoposide reverted to that of control cells after continued incubation without these compounds. These findings indicated that shikonin and etoposide shorten the circadian period reversibly and through similar mechanisms. Topoisomerase II (Top2)-specific decatenation assays confirmed that shikonin, liker etoposide, is a Top2 inhibitor. Shikonin was incorporated into the nucleus and Top2 was located in the Bmal1 promoter, suggesting the relationship between Bmal1 transcription and Top2 inhibition. Top2a siRNA also shortened period length, suggesting that Top2 is involved in this process. Promoter assays showed that Top2a siRNA, etoposide and shikonin reduce Bmal1 promoter activity. These findings indicated that Top2 is involved in Bmal1 transcription and influences the circadian period, and that shikonin is a novel contributor to the control of period length in mammalian cells. PMID:24321095

  5. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase, receptor interacting protein, and reactive oxygen species regulate shikonin-induced autophagy in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ke; Zhang, Zhenxing; Chen, Yicheng; Shu, Hong-Bing; Li, Wenhua

    2014-09-01

    Shikonin, a naphthoquinone derived from the Chinese medicinal plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, shows potential to be a cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Our previous data demonstrate that high doses (about 6 μM) of shikonin induce apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Here, we discovered that a low dose of shikonin (2.5 μM) and a short treatment time (12h) induced autophagy, as evidenced by the upregulation of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)-II, the formation of acidic autophagic vacuoles (AVOs), and the punctate fluorescence pattern of GFP-LC3 protein. Next, we investigated the mechanism and found reactive oxygen species accumulation after shikonin treatment. The reactive oxygen species scavengers NAC and Tiron completely blocked autophagy. We further found activation of ERK by generation of reactive oxygen species and inhibition of RIP pathway, which are at least partially connected to shikonin-induced autophagy. Moreover, experiments in vivo revealed similar results: shikonin caused the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and phospho-ERK and thus induced autophagy in a tumor xenograft model. These findings suggest that shikonin is an inducer of autophagy and may be a promising clinical antitumor drug. PMID:24886888

  6. Menadione-induced DNA fragmentation without 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine formation in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Corcoran, G B; Poulsen, H E; Kamendulis, L M; Loft, S

    1995-05-17

    Menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) induces oxidative stress in cells causing perturbations in the cytoplasm as well as nicking of DNA. The mechanisms by which DNA damage occurs are still unclear, but a widely discussed issue is whether menadione-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly damage DNA. In the present study, we measured the effect of menadione on formation of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), an index of oxidative DNA base modifications, and on DNA fragmentation. Isolated hepatocytes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats were exposed to menadione, 25-400 microM, for 15, 90 or 180 min with or without prior depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) by diethyl maleate. Menadione caused profound GSH depletion and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which was demonstrated by a prominent fragmentation ladder on agarose gel electrophoresis. We found no oxidative modification of DNA in terms of increased 8-oxodG formation. In contrast, the positive control of sunlamp light increased 8-oxodG 5-fold in rat hepatocytes. We conclude that oxidative modification of DNA bases is unlikely to be important in menadione-induced DNA damage. PMID:7763290

  7. Effects of glutathione depletion on the cytotoxicity of agents toward a human colonic tumour cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, J.; d'Arcy Doherty, M.; Cohen, G. M.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of glutathione (GSH) in tumour tissue may be important in determining the clinical response to certain anticancer agents. Recent reports have suggested that D,L-buthionine-S,R-sulphoximine (BSO), a specific inhibitor of GSH synthesis, may be used to deplete tumour cell GSH and thus increase the therapeutic ratio of these agents. We have previously shown that 1-naphthol is a potential antitumour agent, and that its possible metabolite 1,4-naphthoquinone is thiol reactive and capable of redox cycling. It was therefore of interest to investigate the effect of pretreatment with BSO, on the toxicity of these agents, to tumour cells. For comparison we included three other cytotoxic agents, melphalan, helenalin and menadione, the toxicities of which are reported to be modulated by intracellular GSH. Depletion of GSH using BSO did not effect the toxicity of 1-naphthol, or 1,4-NQ but did produce slight potentiation of the cytotoxicities of menadione, helanalin and melphalan. The lack of effect of BSO on 1-naphthol and 1,4-NQ is not easily explained but if one also considers the modest potentiation of cytotoxicity+ achieved with the other agents studied, the potential use of BSO in combined chemotherapy is at best rather modest. PMID:3620304

  8. Effect of nitrogen source on end products of naphthalene degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Aranha, H.G.; Brown, L.R.

    1981-07-01

    Soil cultures, enrichment cultures, and pure culture isolates produced substantial quantities of salicylic acid from naphthalene in a mineral salts medium containing NH/sub 4/Cl as the nitrogen source. However, when KNO/sub 3/ was substituted for NH/sub 4/Cl, these same cultures failed to accumulate detectable quantities of salicylic acid but did not turn the medium yellow. When an isolate identified as a Pseudomonas species was used, viable cell numbers were much greater in the medium containing KNO/sub 3/ but up to 94% of the naphthalene was utilized in both media. The differences between nitrogen sources could not be accounted for by pH alone since results obtained using buffered media were similar. Growth with NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ displayed a pattern similar to that obtained when NH/sub 4/Cl was used. The yellow coloration in the medium containing KNO/sub 3/ was apparently due to more than one compound, none of which were 1,2-naphthoquinone or acidic in nature, as suggested by other investigators. Further attempts to identify the yellow compounds by high-pressure liquid chromatography, infrared analysis, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry have been unsuccessful thus far.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of biogenic amines in wines with an experimental design optimization procedure.

    PubMed

    García-Villar, Natividad; Saurina, Javier; Hernández-Cassou, Santiago

    2006-08-01

    A novel and sensitive HPLC method for determining biogenic amines in wine samples is described. It involves pre-column labeling of the analytes with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS) and liquid-liquid extraction of derivatives with chloroform for analyte preconcentration and sample clean-up. A linear gradient elution consisting of a mixture of 2% of acetic acid aqueous solution and methanol is used to separate the amine derivatives in a C18 column. The eluted compounds are detected spectrophotometrically at 270 nm. The optimization of both derivatization and separation conditions is accomplished by means of factorial and central composite designs and multicriteria decision functions. The analytical parameters of the method are established using red wine samples. Detection limits range from 0.006 to 0.315 mg L(-1). The run-to-run repeatabilities of retention times and peak areas are around 0.6 and 5.6%, respectively. Recoveries ranging from 91.9 to 105% prove the accuracy of the method for determining histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine and serotonin in red wines. The proposed method has been applied to the analysis of commercial wines from different Spanish regions. PMID:17723577

  10. Determination of histamine in wines with an on-line pre-column flow derivatization system coupled to high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    García-Villar, Natividad; Saurina, Javier; Hernández-Cassou, Santiago

    2005-09-01

    A new rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determining histamine in red wine samples, based on continuous flow derivatization with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS), is proposed. In this system, samples are derivatized on-line in a three-channel flow manifold for reagent, buffer and sample. The reaction takes place in a PTFE coil heated at 80 degrees C and with a residence time of 2.9 min. The reaction mixture is injected directly into the chromatographic system, where the histamine derivative is separated from other aminated compounds present in the wine matrix in less than ten minutes. The HPLC procedure involves a C18 column, a binary gradient of 2% acetic acid-methanol as a mobile phase, and UV detection at 305 nm. Analytical parameters of the method are evaluated using red wine samples. The linear range is up to 66.7 mg L(-1) (r = 0.9999), the precision (RSD) is 3%, the detection limit is 0.22 mg L(-1), and the average histamine recovery is 101.5% +/- 6.7%. Commercial red wines from different Spanish regions are analyzed with the proposed method. PMID:16096675

  11. Un nouveau film conducteur poly(aminoquinone) pour le stockage de l'énergie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, B.; Pham, M. C.; Bazzaoui, E. A.; Lacroix, J.-C.; Lacaze, P.-C.; Novak, P.; Hass, O.

    1998-06-01

    The electrooxidation of 5-amino-1,4-naphthoquinone (ANQ) in acetonitrile leads to conducting (10-1 S.cm-1) functionalized polymer films of polyaniline- type bearing one quinone group per ANQ moiety, electroactive in organic or aqueous solvents. The polymer exchanges cations during the redox process of quinones and is therefore interesting for lithium ions batteries devices. The measured specific charge is particularly hight with about 290 Ah/kg. L'oxydation électrochimique du 5-amino-1,4-naphtoquinone (ANQ) dans l'acétonitrile conduit à la formation de films conducteurs (10-1 S.cm-1) fonctionnalisés de structure type polyaniline portant une fonction quinone par motif ANQ, qui sont électroactifs en milieu aqueux comme en milieu organique. Le polymère échange des cations au cours du processus rédox des quinones et est ainsi intéressant pour les applications dans les accumulateurs au lithium. La charge spécifique mesurée de ce polymère est particulièrement élevée avec environ 290 Ah/kg.

  12. Mediators-assisted reductive biotransformation of tetrabromobisphenol-A by Shewanella sp. XB.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Fu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Guangfei; Guo, Ning; Lu, Hong; Zhan, Yaoyao

    2013-08-01

    The anaerobic biotransformation of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) was mainly observed in the consortia so far. The role of redox mediators in anaerobic TBBPA biotransformation by Shewanella sp. distributed widely in environments was investigated for the first time. The results showed the flavins secretion of Shewanella sp. XB was highly dependent on initial TBBPA concentration. The corresponding first-order rate constants (k) of TBBPA transformation decreased to 0.007 d(-1) when TBBPA concentration increased up to 80 mg/L. Moreover, the removal rate of TBBPA (80 mg/L) was significantly enhanced in treatments amended with cyanocobalamin, riboflavin, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and Aldrich humic acid with k values of 0.42, 0.19, 0.16, and 0.07 d(-1), respectively. In addition, some redox proteins were secreted and played a role in flavins-mediated extracellular biotransformation of TBBPA by Shewanella sp. XB. These findings are beneficial to better understand TBBPA fate in natural environments and to develop efficient biotreatment strategies of TBBPA pollutions. PMID:23735802

  13. A portable optical human sweat sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-omari, Mahmoud; Liu, Gengchen; Mueller, Anja; Mock, Adam; Ghosh, Ruby N.; Smith, Kyle; Kaya, Tolga

    2014-11-01

    We describe the use of HNQ (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone or Lawsone) as a potential sweat sensor material to detect the hydration levels of human beings. We have conducted optical measurements using both artificial and human sweat to validate our approach. We have determined that the dominant compound that affects HNQ absorbance in artificial sweat is sodium. The presence of lactate decreases the reactivity of HNQ while urea promotes more interactions of sodium and potassium ions with HNQ. The interactions between the hydroxyl group of HNQ and the artificial sweat components (salts, lactic acid, and urea) were investigated comprehensively. We have also proposed and developed a portable diode laser absorption sensor system that converts the absorbance at a particular wavelength range (at 455 ± 5 nm, where HNQ has an absorbance peak) into light intensity measurements via a photocell. The absorbance intensity values obtained from our portable sensor system agrees within 10.4% with measurements from a laboratory based ultraviolet-visible spectrometer. Findings of this research will provide significant information for researchers who are focusing on real-time, in-situ hydration level detection.

  14. Vitamin K catabolite inhibition of ovariectomy-induced bone loss: Structure–activity relationship considerations

    PubMed Central

    Soper, Robin J.; Oguz, Cenk; Emery, Roger; Pitsillides, Andrew A.; Hodges, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Scope The potential benefit of vitamin K as a therapeutic in osteoporosis is controversial and the vitamin K regimen being used clinically (45 mg/day) employs doses that are many times higher than required to ensure maximal gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent bone proteins. We therefore tested the hypothesis that vitamin K catabolites, 5-carbon (CAN5C) and 7-carbon carboxylic acid (CAN7C) aliphatic side-chain derivatives of the naphthoquinone moiety exert an osteotrophic role consistent with the treatment of osteoporosis. Methods and results Osteoblast-like MG63 cell cultures were challenged with lipopolysaccharide and the levels of interleukin-6, an osteoclastogenic cytokine, measured with and without catabolites; low concentrations of CAN7C significantly inhibited interleukin-6 release, but CAN5C did not. In models of bone loss induced by ovariectomy or sciatic neurectomy in C57BL/6 mice, we found that the rarer CAN7C catabolite markedly restricted ovariectomy-induced bone loss and possibly limited sciatic neurectomy-induced bone loss. CAN7C activity depends on a free carboxylic acid and its particular side-chain structure. Conclusion These in vivo data indicate for the first time that the clinical utility of vitamin K for osteoporosis may reside in an unusual catabolite. PMID:25044634

  15. Vitamin K 3 family members - Part II: Single crystal X-ray structures, temperature-induced packing polymorphism, magneto-structural correlations and probable anti-oncogenic candidature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, Sandhya; Ahmed, Khursheed; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita; Zaware, Santosh B.; Srinivas, D.; Gonnade, Rajesh; Bhadbhade, Mohan

    2008-12-01

    Temperature-induced packing polymorphism is observed for vitamin K 3 (menadione, 3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 1). Form 1a crystallizes at 300 K and 1b at 277 K both in the same space group P2 1/ c. Form 1b contains one molecule per asymmetric unit, performing anisotropy in g-factor viz. g z = 2.0082, g y = 2.0055 and g x = 2.0025, whereas form 1a contains two molecules in its asymmetric unit. Vitamin K 3 family members 2, [2-hydroxy vitamin K 3] and 3, [2-hydroxy-1-oximino vitamin K 3] also perform intrinsic neutral active naphthosemiquinone valence tautomers even in dark having spin concentrations due to hydrogen bonding and aromatic stacking interactions which are compared to vitamin K 3. The significant lateral C-H⋯O and O-H⋯π bifurcated or π-π ∗ interactions are discussed for molecular associations and radical formations. X-ray structure of 3 revealed π-π ∗ stack dimers as radicals signatured in EPR as triplet with five hyperfine splits [ Ā( 14N) = 11.9 G]. The centrosymmetric biradicals in 3 show diamagnetism at high temperature but below 10 K it shows paramagnetism with μeff as 0.19 B.M. Vitamin K 3 and its family members inhibit biological activities of acid phosphatase ( APase), which are proportional to their spin concentrations. This may relate to their probable anti-oncogenic candidature in future.

  16. Bioactive compounds from Stuhlmannia moavi from the Madagascar dry forest☆

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yixi; Harinantenaina, Liva; Brodie, Peggy J.; Bowman, Jessica D.; Cassera, Maria B.; Slebodnick, Carla; Callmander, Martin W.; Randrianaivo, Richard; Rakotobe, Etienne; Rasamison, Vincent E.; Applequist, Wendy; Birkinshaw, Chris; Lewis, Gwilym P.; Kingston, David G. I.

    2013-01-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of the leaf and root extracts of the antiproliferative Madagascar plant Stuhlmannia moavi afforded 6-acetyl-5,8-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-7-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (stuhlmoavin, 1) as the most active compound, with an IC50 value of 8.1 µM against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line, as well as the known homoisoflavonoid bonducellin (2) and the stilbenoids 3,4,5'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxy-trans-stilbene (3), piceatannol (4), resveratrol (5), rhapontigenin (6), and isorhapontigenin (7). The structure elucidation of all compounds was based on NMR and mass spectroscopic data, and the structure of 1 was confirmed by a single crystal X-ray analysis. Compounds 2–5 showed weak A2780 activities, with IC50 values of 10.6, 54.0, 41.0, and 74.0 µM, respectively. Compounds 1–3 also showed weak antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 23, 26, and 27 µM, respectively. PMID:24239390

  17. Electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton degradations of the drug beta-blocker propranolol using a Pt anode: identification and evolution of oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Isarain-Chávez, Eloy; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Centellas, Francesc; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Arias, Conchita; Garrido, José Antonio; Brillas, Enric

    2011-01-30

    The beta-blocker propranolol hydrochloride has been degraded by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes like electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) using a single cell with a Pt anode and an air diffusion cathode (ADE) for H(2)O(2) electrogeneration and a combined system containing the above Pt/ADE pair coupled in parallel to a Pt/carbon-felt (CF) cell. Organics are mainly oxidized with hydroxyl radical (OH) formed from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and electrogenerated H(2)O(2). The PEF treatment in Pt/ADE-Pt/CF system yields almost total mineralization because OH production is enhanced by Fe(2+) regeneration from Fe(3+) reduction at the CF cathode and Fe(III) complexes with generated carboxylic acids are rapidly photodecarboxylated under UVA irradiation. Lower mineralization degree is found for PEF in Pt/ADE cell due to the little influence of UVA light on Fe(2+) regeneration. The homologous EF processes are much less potent as a result of the persistence of Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes. Aromatic intermediates such as 1-naphthol, 1,4-naphthoquinone and phthalic acid and generated carboxylic acids such as pyruvic, glycolic, malonic, maleic, oxamic, oxalic and formic are identified. While chloride ion remains stable, NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) ions are released to the medium. A reaction sequence for propranolol hydrochloride mineralization is proposed. PMID:21056539

  18. Vitamin K3 (menadione) redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and inhibits parathion intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Richardson, Jason R; Baker, Angela A; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2015-10-01

    Parathion, a widely used organophosphate insecticide, is considered a high priority chemical threat. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a cytotoxic metabolite. As an effective inhibitor of cholinesterases, paraoxon causes the accumulation of acetylcholine in synapses and overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, leading to characteristic signs of organophosphate poisoning. Inhibition of parathion metabolism to paraoxon represents a potential approach to counter parathion toxicity. Herein, we demonstrate that menadione (methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, vitamin K3) is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of parathion. Menadione is active in redox cycling, a reaction mediated by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase that preferentially uses electrons from NADPH at the expense of their supply to the P450s. Using human recombinant CYP 1A2, 2B6, 3A4 and human liver microsomes, menadione was found to inhibit the formation of paraoxon from parathion. Administration of menadione bisulfite (40mg/kg, ip) to rats also reduced parathion-induced inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity, as well as parathion-induced tremors and the progression of other signs and symptoms of parathion poisoning. These data suggest that redox cycling compounds, such as menadione, have the potential to effectively mitigate the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides including parathion which require cytochrome P450-mediated activation. PMID:26212258

  19. 2-Phenylaminonaphthoquinones and related compounds: synthesis, trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Sieveking, Ivan; Thomas, Pablo; Estévez, Juan C; Quiñones, Natalia; Cuéllar, Mauricio A; Villena, Juan; Espinosa-Bustos, Christian; Fierro, Angélica; Tapia, Ricardo A; Maya, Juan D; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo; Cassels, Bruce K; Estévez, Ramon J; Salas, Cristian O

    2014-09-01

    A series of new 2-aminonaphthoquinones and related compounds were synthesized and evaluated in vitro as trypanocidal and cytotoxic agents. Some tested compounds inhibited epimastigote growth and trypomastigote viability. Several compounds showed similar or higher activity and selectivity as compared with current trypanocidal drug, nifurtimox. Compound 4l exhibit higher selectivity than nifurtimox against Trypanosoma cruzi in comparison with Vero cells. Some of the synthesized quinones were tested against cancer cells and normal fibroblasts, showing that certain chemical modifications on the naphthoquinone moiety induce and excellent increase the selectivity index of the cytotoxicity (4g and 10). The results presented here show that the anti-T. cruzi activity of 2-aminonaphthoquinones derivatives can be improved by the replacement of the benzene ring by a pyridine moiety. Interestingly, the presence of a chlorine atom at C-3 and a highly lipophilic alkyl group or aromatic ring are newly observed elements that should lead to the discovery of more selective cytotoxic and trypanocidal compounds. PMID:25127463

  20. CYP76AH1 catalyzes turnover of miltiradiene in tanshinones biosynthesis and enables heterologous production of ferruginol in yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Juan; Zhou, Yongjin J.; Hillwig, Matthew L.; Shen, Ye; Yang, Lei; Wang, Yajun; Zhang, Xianan; Liu, Wujun; Peters, Reuben J.; Chen, Xiaoya; Zhao, Zongbao K.; Huang, Luqi

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play major roles in generating highly functionalized terpenoids, but identifying the exact biotransformation step(s) catalyzed by plant CYP in terpenoid biosynthesis is extremely challenging. Tanshinones are abietane-type norditerpenoid naphthoquinones that are the main lipophilic bioactive components of the Chinese medicinal herb danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). Whereas the diterpene synthases responsible for the conversion of (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate into the abietane miltiradiene, a potential precursor to tanshinones, have been recently described, molecular characterization of further transformation of miltiradiene remains unavailable. Here we report stable-isotope labeling results that demonstrate the intermediacy of miltiradiene in tanshinone biosynthesis. We further use a next-generation sequencing approach to identify six candidate CYP genes being coregulated with the diterpene synthase genes in both the rhizome and danshen hairy roots, and demonstrate that one of these, CYP76AH1, catalyzes a unique four-electron oxidation cascade on miltiradiene to produce ferruginol both in vitro and in vivo. We then build upon the previous establishment of miltiradiene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with incorporation of CYP76AH1 and phyto-CYP reductase genes leading to heterologous production of ferruginol at 10.5 mg/L. As ferruginol has been found in many plants including danshen, the results and the approaches that were described here provide a solid foundation to further elucidate the biosynthesis of tanshinones and related diterpenoids. Moreover, these results should facilitate the construction of microbial cell factories for the production of phytoterpenoids. PMID:23812755

  1. Immobilized redox mediators on anion exchange resins and their role on the reductive decolorization of azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Francisco J; Garcia-Espinosa, Alberto; Moreno-Reynosa, M Antonieta; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene

    2010-03-01

    Quinoid redox mediators (RM), including 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS) and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), were adsorbed on anion exchange resins (AER) in order to explore their catalytic effects on the reductive decolorization of azo dyes by anaerobic granular sludge. Immobilized quinones preserved their catalytic properties once adsorbed on the surface of AER. Addition of different concentrations of immobilized quinones to sludge incubations increased up to 8.8-fold the rate of decolorization of azo dyes compared to controls lacking quinones. The catalytic effects of immobilized quinones also resulted in a greater extent of decolorization in quinone-amended incubations compared to controls lacking external RM. Spectrophotometric screening did not show any detachment of either AQDS or NQS during decolorization assays confirming that the enhanced decolorization accomplished was exclusively attributed to quinones immobilized on AER. Sterile controls including the maximum concentration of immobilized quinones supplied (4.8 mM) did not show any removal of azo dyes suggesting that physical-chemical processes, such as adsorption or chemical reduction, were not responsible for the enhanced decolorization reached. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the catalytic contribution of RM immobilized on AER on the reductive (bio)transformation of azo dyes. PMID:20136089

  2. Detection of relative [Na+] and [K+] levels in sweat with optical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-omari, Mahmoud; Sel, Kivanc; Mueller, Anja; Edwards, Jeffery; Kaya, Tolga

    2014-05-01

    We describe the use of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (HNQ, Lawsone) as a potential sweat electrolyte measurement marker. We use ultraviolet-visible absorbance measurements to determine the absorbance energy in a particular wavelength range (400 nm-500 nm). This novel approach allows us to eliminate the importance of the exact wavelength of the absorbance peak but find the integral of the range of interest. Although we numerically calculate the absorbance energy, it is imperative to use photodiodes to measure the intensity of the transmitted light that is fabricated particularly for the range of interest for future device implementations. We explored various mixing ratios of water and acetone to find the optimum solvent that would give the most sensitive and accurate relative electrolyte sensing. The pH value was also modified to see the effect on the absorbance energy and intensity. A representative group of subjects were used to collect sweat from the dehydration and hyperhydration cases. The results are convincing that HNQ solutions can be used as a wearable, continuous sweat sensor.

  3. Biotechnological approaches to the production of shikonins: a critical review with recent updates.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sonia; Bhushan, Shashi; Sharma, Madhu; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2016-04-01

    Shikonins are commercially important secondary compounds, known for array of biological activities such as antimicrobial, insecticidal, antitumor, antioxidants, etc. These compounds are usually colored and therefore have application in food, textiles and cosmetics. Shikonin and its derivatives, which are commercially most important of the naphthoquinone pigments, are distributed among members of the family Boraginaceae. These include different species of Lithospermum, Arnebia, Alkanna, Anchusa, Echium and Onosma. The growing demand for plant-based natural products has made this group of compounds one of the enthralling targets for their in vitro production. The aim of this review is to highlight the recent progress in production of shikonins by various biotechnological means. Different methods of increasing the levels of shikonins in plant cells such as selection of cell lines, optimization of culture conditions, elicitation, in situ product removal, genetic transformation and metabolic engineering are discussed. The experience of different researchers working worldwide on this aspect is also considered. Further, to meet market demand, the needs for continuous and reliable production systems, as well as future prospects, are included. PMID:25319455

  4. YNL134C from Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a novel protein with aldehyde reductase activity for detoxification of furfural derived from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xianxian; Tang, Juan; Wang, Xu; Yang, Ruoheng; Zhang, Xiaoping; Gu, Yunfu; Li, Xi; Ma, Menggen

    2015-05-01

    Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are the two main aldehyde compounds derived from pentoses and hexoses, respectively, during lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment. These two compounds inhibit microbial growth and interfere with subsequent alcohol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the in situ ability to detoxify furfural and HMF to the less toxic 2-furanmethanol (FM) and furan-2,5-dimethanol (FDM), respectively. Herein, we report that an uncharacterized gene, YNL134C, was highly up-regulated under furfural or HMF stress and Yap1p and Msn2/4p transcription factors likely controlled its up-regulated expression. Enzyme activity assays showed that YNL134C is an NADH-dependent aldehyde reductase, which plays a role in detoxification of furfural to FM. However, no NADH- or NADPH-dependent enzyme activity was observed for detoxification of HMF to FDM. This enzyme did not catalyse the reverse reaction of FM to furfural or FDM to HMF. Further studies showed that YNL134C is a broad-substrate aldehyde reductase, which can reduce multiple aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Although YNL134C is grouped into the quinone oxidoreductase family, no quinone reductase activity was observed using 1,2-naphthoquinone or 9,10-phenanthrenequinone as a substrate, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is genetically distant to quinone reductases. Proteins similar to YNL134C in sequence from S. cerevisiae and other microorganisms were phylogenetically analysed. PMID:25656244

  5. Decontamination of chemical-warfare agent simulants by polymer surfaces doped with the singlet oxygen generator zinc octaphenoxyphthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Gephart, Raymond T; Coneski, Peter N; Wynne, James H

    2013-10-23

    Using reactive singlet oxygen (1O2), the oxidation of chemical-warfare agent (CWA) simulants has been demonstrated. The zinc octaphenoxyphthalocyanine (ZnOPPc) complex was demonstrated to be an efficient photosensitizer for converting molecular oxygen (O2) to 1O2 using broad-spectrum light (450-800 nm) from a 250 W halogen lamp. This photosensitization produces 1O2 in solution as well as within polymer matrices. The oxidation of 1-naphthol to naphthoquinone was used to monitor the rate of 1O2 generation in the commercially available polymer film Hydrothane that incorporates ZnOPPc. Using electrospinning, nanofibers of ZnOPPc in Hydrothane and polycarbonate were formed and analyzed for their ability to oxidize demeton-S, a CWA simulant, on the surface of the polymers and were found to have similar reactivity as their corresponding films. The Hydrothane films were then used to oxidize CWA simulants malathion, 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide (CEPS), and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Through this oxidation process, the CWA simulants are converted into less toxic compounds, thus decontaminating the surface using only O2 from the air and light. PMID:24060426

  6. The Mechanism Underlying the Antibacterial Activity of Shikonin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Seob; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Yeon Bok; Lee, Sang-Won; Cha, Seon-Woo; Park, Hong-Woo; Kim, Geum-Soog; Kwon, Dong-Yeul; Lee, Min-Ho; Han, Sin-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin (SKN), a highly liposoluble naphthoquinone pigment isolated from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, is known to exert antibacterial, wound-healing, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and antitumor effects. The aim of this study was to examine SKN antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The SKN was analyzed in combination with membrane-permeabilizing agents Tris and Triton X-100, ATPase inhibitors sodium azide and N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and S. aureus-derived peptidoglycan; the effects on MRSA viability were evaluated by the broth microdilution method, time-kill test, and transmission electron microscopy. Addition of membrane-permeabilizing agents or ATPase inhibitors together with a low dose of SKN potentiated SKN anti-MRSA activity, as evidenced by the reduction of MRSA cell density by 75% compared to that observed when SKN was used alone; in contrast, addition of peptidoglycan blocked the antibacterial activity of SKN. The results indicate that the anti-MRSA effect of SKN is associated with its affinity to peptidoglycan, the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane, and the activity of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. This study revealed the potential of SKN as an effective natural antibiotic and of its possible use to substantially reduce the use of existing antibiotic may also be important for understanding the mechanism underlying the antibacterial activity of natural compounds. PMID:26265924

  7. Multivariate curve resolution and trilinear decomposition methods in the analysis of stopped-flow kinetic data for binary amino Acid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Saurina, J; Hernández-Cassou, S; Tauler, R

    1997-07-01

    A stopped-flow method is proposed to carry out the kinetic development of the reaction between amino acids and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate by mixing analytes and reagent in a three-channel continuous-flow system. The process is monitored using a diode array spectrophotometer. Thus, every sample produces a data matrix built up from the spectra registered at regular steps of time. As the reaction is faster for secondary amino acids than for primary ones, it is possible to distinguish between the kinetic formation of their corresponding derivatives. The method is applied to the simultaneous determination of phenylalanine and proline by using second-order multivariate curve resolution. The derivatives of these two amino acids present some differences in both orders of measure, i.e., their spectra and kinetic profiles, which can be exploited advantageously to quantify one of the analytes in the presence of the other as interference, without including any information about this interference in the modeling of the system. PMID:21639365

  8. Effect of biogenic photochromic electron acceptors on chlorophyll fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, A. V.; Klimenko, I. V.; Nevrova, O. V.; Zhuravleva, T. S.

    2014-05-01

    It is shown that the photophysical properties of chlorophyll a (Chl) depend on the nature and relative amounts of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Photoinduced charge separation occurs in aqueous ethanol solutions of Chl (1 × 10-5 M) and NADP (5 × 10-6-5 × 10-4 M), resulting in the dynamic quenching of Chl fluorescence. Coordination interaction between Chl and NADP is established at an NADP concentration of ≥5 × 10-4 M. The nonlinear Stern-Volmer dependence in this range is due to the input from static quenching. It is shown that the quenching of Chl fluorescence in an MNQ solution at Chl and MNQ concentrations of 1 × 10-5 M and 6.7 × 10-5-1 × 10-4 M, respectively, is described by a linear dependence in the Stern-Volmer coordinates; no complex formation is observed for Chl and MNQ under these conditions, and electron transfer is of the dynamic type. Static or mixed-type energy transfer from MNQ to Chl dominates at elevated MNQ concentrations.

  9. Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Armillaria sp. F022.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Aris, Azmi; Kristanti, Risky Ayu

    2012-01-01

    Armillaria sp. F022, a white rot fungus isolated from tropical rain forest (Samarinda, Indonesia) was used to biodegrade naphthalene in cultured medium. Transformation of naphthalene by Armillaria sp. F022 which is able to use naphthalene, a two ring-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) as a source of carbon and energy was investigated. The metabolic pathway was elucidated by identifying metabolites, biotransformation studies and monitoring enzyme activities in cell-free extracts. The identification of metabolites suggests that Armillaria sp. F022 initiates its attack on naphthalene by dioxygenation at its C-1 and C-4 positions to give 1,4-naphthoquinone. The intermediate 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and salicylic acid, and the characteristic of the meta-cleavage of the resulting diol were identified in the long-term incubation. A part from typical metabolites of naphthalene degradation known from mesophiles, benzoic acid was identified as the next intermediate for the naphthalene pathway of this Armillaria sp. F022. Neither phthalic acid, catechol and cis,cis-muconic acid metabolites were detected in culture extracts. Several enzymes (manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase) produced by Armillaria sp. F022 were detected during the incubation. PMID:22894109

  10. Medium-dependent interactions of quinones with cytosine and cytidine: a laser flash photolysis study with magnetic field effect.

    PubMed

    Bose, Adity; Basu, Samita

    2009-03-01

    Laser flash photolysis and an external magnetic field have been used for the study of the interaction of two quinone molecules, namely, 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) and 2-methyl 1,4-naphthoquinone (or menadione, MQ) with a DNA base, cytosine (C) and its nucleoside cytidine (dC) in two media, a homogeneous one composed of acetonitrile/water (ACN/H(2)O, 9:1, v/v) and a SDS micellar heterogeneous one. We have applied an external magnetic field for the proper identification of the transients formed during the interactions in micellar media. Cytosine exhibits electron transfer (ET) followed by hydrogen abstraction (HA) while dC reveals a reduced ET compared to C, with both quinones in organic homogeneous medium (ACN/H(2)O). Due to a higher electron affinity, AQ supports more faciler ET than MQ with dC in ACN/H(2)O but observations in SDS have been just the reverse. In SDS, ET from dC is completely quenched and a dominant HA is all that could be discerned. This work reveals two main findings: first, a drop in ET on addition of a ribose unit to C, which has been attributed to a role of keto-enol tautomerism in inducing ET from electron-rich nucleus and second, the effect of medium in controlling reaction mechanism by favoring HA with AQ although it is intrinsically more prone towards ET. PMID:19121557

  11. Quinone-mediated microbial synthesis of reduced graphene oxide with peroxidase-like activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangfei; Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Jiti; Wang, Aijie; Wang, Jing; Jin, Ruofei; Lv, Hong

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different quinones on graphene oxide (GO) reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and the peroxidase activity of the resultant reduced graphene oxide (QRGO) were studied. The presence of 100 μM anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS), anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone could lead to 1.6-2.8-fold increase in GO reduction rate, whereas anthraquinone-2-carboxylate slowed down the reduction. The stimulating effects of AQS increased with the increase of its concentration (10-100 μM). The mediated effects were proved by direct GO reduction by microbially reduced AQS. The mediated reduction of GO to QRGO was characterized by UV-vis, XRD, FTIR, Raman spectra, XPS, TEM and AFM, respectively. The as-prepared QRGO possessed peroxidase-like activity, which could catalyze the oxidation of 3,3'5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine by H2O2, and followed Michealis-Menten kinetics. A colorimetric sensor for quantitative determination of glucose based on the peroxidase activity of QRGO was developed over a range of 1-120 μM with a detection limit of 1 μM. PMID:24140856

  12. Cytotoxic constituents from the stems of Diospyros maritima.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Y H; Chang, C I; Li, S Y; Chou, C J; Chen, C F; Kuo, Y H; Lee, K H

    1997-08-01

    One novel coumaric acid ester of lupeol, dioslupecin A (1), three naphthoquinones, 8'-hydroxyisodiospyrin (2), isodiospyrin (3), and plumbagin (4), three triterpenes, lupeol, lupenone and taraxerone, and four sterols, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmast-4-en-3-one and ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one were isolated from the n-hexane extract of the stems of Diospyros maritima Blume. The structural determination of 1 was based on 1D and 2D NMR spectra (including 1H-1H COSY, 1H-13C COSY, and HMBC). All compounds were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity in 4 cancer cell lines. Compound 2 showed similar cytotoxicity against hepatoma (HEPA-3B, ED50 = 1.72 micrograms/ml), nasopharynx carcinoma (KB, ED50 = 1.85 micrograms/ml), colon carcinoma (COLO-205, ED50 = 2.24 micrograms/ml) and cervical carcinoma (HELA, ED50 = 1.92 micrograms/ml). Compounds 3 and 4 exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HEPA-3B, KB, COLO-205 and HELA (ED50 = 0.25, 1.81, 0.13 and 0.27 micrograms/ml for 3; ED50 = 0.87, 3.27, 0.56 and 0.35 micrograms/ml for 4, respectively. PMID:9270382

  13. [Development and application of electroanalytical methods in biomedical fields].

    PubMed

    Kusu, Fumiyo

    2015-01-01

    To summarize our electroanalytical research in the biomedical field over the past 43 years, this review describes studies on specular reflection measurement, redox potential determination, amperometric acid sensing, HPLC with electrochemical detection, and potential oscillation across a liquid membrane. The specular reflection method was used for clarifying the adsorption of neurotransmitters and their related drugs onto a gold electrode and the interaction between dental alloys and compound iodine glycerin. A voltammetric screening test using a redox potential for the antioxidative effect of flavonoids was proposed. Amperometric acid sensing based on the measurement of the reduction prepeak current of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (VK3) or 3,5-di-tert-buty1-1,2-benzoquinone (DBBQ) was applied to determine acid values of fats and oils, titrable acidity of coffee, and enzyme activity of lipase, free fatty acids (FFAs) in serum, short-chain fatty acids in feces, etc. The electrode reactions of phenothiazines, catechins, and cholesterol were applied to biomedical analysis using HPLC with electrochemical detection. A three-channel electrochemical detection system was utilized for the sensitive determination of redox compounds in Chinese herbal medicines. The behavior of barbituric acid derivatives was examined based on potential oscillation measurements. PMID:25759051

  14. Screening of Potential anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Candidates: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré C; de Castro, Solange Lisboa

    2011-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD), caused by the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a parasitic illness endemic in Latin America. In the centennial after CD discovery by Carlos Chagas (1909), although it still represents an important public health problem in these affected areas, the existing chemotherapy, based on benznidazole and nifurtimox (both introduced more than four decades ago), is far from being considered ideal due to substantial toxicity, variable effect on different parasite stocks and well-known poor activity on the chronic phase. CD is considered one of the major “neglected” diseases of the world, as commercial incentives are very limited to guarantee investments for developing and discovering novel drugs. In this context, our group has been pursuing, over the last years, the efficacy, selectivity, toxicity, cellular targets and mechanisms of action of new potential anti-T. cruzi candidates screened from an in-house compound library of different research groups in the area of medicinal chemistry. A brief review regarding these studies will be discussed, mainly related to the effect on T. cruzi of (i) diamidines and related compounds, (ii) natural naphthoquinone derivatives, and (iii) megazol derivatives. PMID:21629508

  15. Modulatory effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae) on doxorubicin-induced somatic mutation and recombination in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The wing Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in D. melanogaster was used to study genotoxicity of the medicinal plant Tabebuia impetiginosa. Lapachol (naphthoquinone) and β-lapachone (quinone) are the two main chemical constituents of T. impetiginosa. These compounds have several biological properties. They induce apoptosis by generating oxygen-reactive species, thereby inhibiting topoisomerases (I and II) or inducing other enzymes dependent on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, thus affecting cell cycle checkpoints. The SMART was used in the standard (ST) version, which has normal levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, to check the direct action of this compound, and in the high bioactivation (HB) version, which has a high constitutive level of CYP enzymes, to check for indirect action in three different T. impetiginosa concentrations (10%, 20% or 40% w/w). It was observed that T. impetiginosa alone did not modify the spontaneous frequencies of mutant spots in either cross. The negative results observed prompted us to study this phytotherapeuticum in association with the reference mutagen doxorubicin (DXR). In co-treated series, T. impetiginosa was toxic in both crosses at higher concentration, whereas in the HB cross, it induced a considerable potentiating effect (from ~24.0 to ~95.0%) on DXR genotoxity. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the possible risks associated with the exposure of living organisms to this complex mixture. PMID:21637695

  16. Physicochemical characteristics, oxidative capacities and cytotoxicities of sulfate-coated, 1,4-NQ-coated and ozone-aged black carbon particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Shang, Jing; Liu, Jia; Xu, Weiwei; Feng, Xiang; Li, Rui; Zhu, Tong

    2015-02-01

    Black carbon (BC) particles play important roles in climate change, visibility impairment, atmospheric reaction process, and health effect. The aging processes of BC alter not only atmospheric composition, but also the physicochemical characteristics of BC itself, thus impacting the environment and health effects. Here, three types of BC including sulfate-coated, 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ)-coated, and O3-aged BC are presented. The morphologies, structures, extraction components, the amount of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and free radical intensities of the three types of BC particles are examined by transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, total organic carbon detector and electron paramagnetic resonance, respectively. Dithiothreitol (DTT) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assays are utilized to assess the changes in oxidative capacity and cytotoxicity towards murine alveolar macrophage cells. The orders of DTT activities and cytotoxicities of the particles are both arranged as follows: BC/1,4-NQ > BC/O3 > BC > BC/sulfate, mainly because 1,4-NQ owned high oxidative potential and cytotoxicity, while sulfate did not exhibit oxidative capacity and cytotoxicity. The insoluble components of particles contribute most of the total DTT activity, whereas either water or methanol extract is minor contributor. DTT activity was positively correlated with both WSOC content and free radical intensity, with the correlation between DTT activity and WSOC content was stronger than that between DTT activity and free radical intensity.

  17. An organic indicator functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite-based colorimetric assay for the detection of sarcosine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhonghua; Yin, Bo; Wang, Hui; Li, Mengqian; Rao, Honghong; Liu, Xiuhui; Zhou, Xinbin; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2016-03-01

    Rapid detection of sarcosine is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of disease. We report here a simple yet sensitive colorimetric nanocomposite platform for rapid detection of sarcosine in alkaline media. The approach exploited the benefits of a rapid color-producing reaction between an organic indicator, 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid sodium salt (NQS), and the analyte of sarcosine species as well as the good catalytic ability of graphene oxide (GO) to the formation of highly colored products due to its good water dispersibility, extremely large surface area and facile surface modification. As a result, a NQS functionalized GO nanocomposite through π-π stacking has been demonstrated to be useful as a highly efficient catalyst system for the selective and sensitive colorimetric determination of sarcosine by providing a nanocomposite-amplified colorimetric response. Meanwhile, the strategy offered excellent selectivity toward sarcosine species against other amino acids as well as a satisfying detection limit of 0.73 μM. More importantly, by using an electrochemical method, a credible sensing mechanism of GO nanocomposite-based colorimetric platform for a special analyte determination can be easily verified and elucidated, which also provides an attractive alternative to conventional characterization strategies.Rapid detection of sarcosine is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of disease. We report here a simple yet sensitive colorimetric nanocomposite platform for rapid detection of sarcosine in alkaline media. The approach exploited the benefits of a rapid color-producing reaction between an organic indicator, 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid sodium salt (NQS), and the analyte of sarcosine species as well as the good catalytic ability of graphene oxide (GO) to the formation of highly colored products due to its good water dispersibility, extremely large surface area and facile surface modification. As a result, a NQS functionalized GO nanocomposite through π-π stacking has been demonstrated to be useful as a highly efficient catalyst system for the selective and sensitive colorimetric determination of sarcosine by providing a nanocomposite-amplified colorimetric response. Meanwhile, the strategy offered excellent selectivity toward sarcosine species against other amino acids as well as a satisfying detection limit of 0.73 μM. More importantly, by using an electrochemical method, a credible sensing mechanism of GO nanocomposite-based colorimetric platform for a special analyte determination can be easily verified and elucidated, which also provides an attractive alternative to conventional characterization strategies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Raman characterization of GO, SEM images of GO and NQS/GO modified GCE with and without addition of sarcosine. The proposed reaction scheme of amines with NQS, electrochemical parameters of redox probe on different electrodes and at NQS/GO GCE with addition of different amount sarcosine. The solution colors of NQS/GO with sarcosine at different pH values and the competition experiments. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00005c

  18. Biopesticides from plants: Calceolaria integrifolia s.l.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Salazar, Juan R; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Yamaguchi, Lydia; Avila, José G; Aqueveque, Pedro; Kubo, Isao; Alarcón, Julio

    2014-07-01

    The effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on humans and biodiversity are multiple and varied. Nowadays environmentally-friendly pesticides are strongly preferred to POPs. It is noteworthy that the crop protection role of pesticides and other techniques, i.e. biopesticides, plant extracts, prevention methods, organic methods, evaluation of plant resistance to certain pests under an integrated pest management (IPM), could improve the risks and benefits which must be assessed on a sound scientific basis. For this directive it is crucial to bring about a significant reduction in the use of chemical pesticides, not least through the promotion of sustainable alternative solutions such as organic farming and IPM. Biopesticides are derived from natural materials such as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. Most of them are biodegradable in relatively short periods of time. On this regard, substances from Calceolaria species emerge as a strong alternative to the use of POPs. The American genus Calceolaria species are regarded both as a notorious weeds and popular ornamental garden plants. Some have medicinal applications. Other taxa of Calceolaria are toxic to insects and resistant to microbial attack. These properties are probably associated with the presence of terpenes, iridoids, flavonoids, naphthoquinones and phenylpropanoids previously demonstrated to have interesting biological activities. In this article a comprehensive evaluation of the potential utilization of Calceolaria species as a source of biopesticides is made. The chemical profile of selected members of the Chilean Calceolaria integrifolia sensu lato complex represents a significant addition to previous studies. New secondary metabolites were isolated, identified and tested for their antifeedant, insect growth regulation and insecticidal activities against Spodoptera frugiperda and Drosophila melanogaster. These species serve as a model of insect pests using conventional procedures. Additionally, bactericidal and fungicidal activity were determined. Dunnione mixed with gallic acid was the most active fungistatic and fungicidal combination encountered. Several compounds as isorhamnetin, combined with ferulic and gallic acid quickly reduced cell viability, but cell viability was recovered quickly and did not differ from that of the control. The effect of these mixtures on cultures of Aspergillus niger, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium sporotrichum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, was sublethal. However, when fungistatic isorhamnetin and dunnione were combined with sublethal amounts of both ferulic and gallic acid, respectively, strong fungicidal activity against theses strains was observed. Thus, dunnione combined with gallic acid completely restricted the recovery of cell viability. This apparent synergistic effect was probably due to the blockade of the recovery process from induced-stress. The same series of phenolics (iridoids, flavonoids, naphthoquinones and phenylpropanoids) were also tested against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Enterobacter agglomerans, and Salmonella typhi, and against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Sarcinia lutea, and Staphylococcus aureus and their effects compared with those that of kanamycin. Mixtures of isorhamnetin/dunnione/kaempferol/ferulic/gallic acid in various combinations were found to have the most potent bactericidal and fungicidal activity with MFC between 10 and 50 μg/ml. Quercetin was found to be the most potent fungistatic single compound with an MIC of 15 µg/ml. A time-kill curve study showed that quercetin was fungicidal against fungi assayed at any growth stage. This antifungal activity was slightly enhanced by combination with gallic acid. The primary antifungal action of the mixtures assayed likely comes from their ability to act as nonionic surfactants that disrupt the function of native membrane-associated proteins. Hence, the antifungal activity of isorhamnetin and other O-methyl flavonols appears to be mediated by biophysical processes. Maximum activity is obtained when the balance between hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions of the molecules of the mixtures becomes the most appropriate. Diterpenes, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, iridoids and phenolic acids were identified by chromatographic procedures (HPLC-DAD), ESI-MS, and NMR hyphenated techniques. PMID:24893349

  19. Electron transfer of quinone self-assembled monolayers on a gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Morio; Kondo, Masaharu; Suemori, Yoshiharu; Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Dewa, Takehisa; Ohtsuka, Toshiaki; Nango, Mamoru

    2008-06-15

    Dialkyl disulfide-linked naphthoquinone, (NQ-Cn-S)2, and anthraquinone, (AQ-Cn-S)2, derivatives with different spacer alkyl chains (Cn: n=2, 6, 12) were synthesized and these quinone derivatives were self-assembled on a gold electrode. The formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of these derivatives on a gold electrode was confirmed by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IR-RAS). Electron transfer between the derivatives and the gold electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry. On the cyclic voltammogram a reversible redox reaction between quinone (Q) and hydroquinone (QH2) was clearly observed under an aqueous condition. The formal potentials for NQ and AQ derivatives were -0.48 and -0.58 V, respectively, that did not depend on the spacer length. The oxidation and reduction peak currents were strongly dependent on the spacer alkyl chain length. The redox behavior of quinone derivatives depended on the pH condition of the buffer solution. The pH dependence was in agreement with a theoretical value of E 1/2 (mV)=E'-59pH for 2H+/2e(-) process in the pH range 3-11. In the range higher than pH 11, the value was estimated with E 1/2 (mV)=E'-30pH , which may correspond to H+/2e(-) process. The tunneling barrier coefficients (beta) for NQ and AQ SAMs were determined to be 0.12 and 0.73 per methylene group (CH2), respectively. Comparison of the structures and the alkyl chain length of quinones derivatives on these electron transfers on the electrode is made. PMID:18282692

  20. Enhancement of DMNQ-induced hepatocyte toxicity by cytochrome P450 inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Shiba, Dai; Shimamoto, Norio . E-mail: n-shimamoto@kph.bunri-u.ac.jp

    2006-07-15

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain quinone cytotoxicity: oxidative stress via the redox cycle and the arylation of intracellular nucleophiles. As the redox cycle is catalyzed by NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome P450 systems are expected to be related to the cytotoxicity induced by redox-cycling quinones. Thus, we investigated the relationship between cytochrome P450 systems and quinone toxicity for rat primary hepatocytes using an arylator, 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), and a redox cycler, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ). The hepatocyte toxicity of both BQ and DMNQ increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with cytochrome P450 inhibitors, such as SKF-525A (SKF), ketoconazole and 2-methy-1,2-di-3-pyridyl-1-propanone, enhanced the hepatocyte toxicity induced by DMNQ but did not affect BQ-induced hepatocyte toxicity. The production of superoxide anion and the levels of glutathione disulfide and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances were increased by treatment with DMNQ, and SKF pretreatment further enhanced their increases. In addition, NADPH oxidation in microsomes was increased by treatment with DMNQ and further augmented by pretreatment with SKF, and a NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride completely suppressed NADPH oxidations increased by treatment with either DMNQ- or DMNQ + SKF. Pretreatment with antioxidants, such as {alpha}-tocopherol, reduced glutathione, N-acetyl cysteine or an iron ion chelator deferoxamine, totally suppressed DMNQ- and DMNQ + SKF-induced hepatocyte toxicity. These results indicate that the hepatocyte toxicity of redox-cycling quinones is enhanced under cytochrome P450 inhibition, and that this enhancement is caused by the potentiation of oxidative stress.

  1. Protein Sulfenylation: A Novel Readout of Environmental Oxidant Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wages, Phillip A.; Lavrich, Katelyn S.; Zhang, Zhenfa; Cheng, Wan-Yun; Corteselli, Elizabeth; Gold, Avram; Bromberg, Philip; Simmons, Steven O.; Samet, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a commonly cited mechanism of toxicity of environmental agents. Ubiquitous environmental chemicals such as the diesel exhaust component 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) induce oxidative stress by redox cycling, which generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Cysteinyl thiolate residues on regulatory proteins are subjected to oxidative modification by H2O2 in physiological contexts and are also toxicological targets of oxidant stress induced by environmental contaminants. We investigated whether exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of 1,2-NQ can induce H2O2-dependent oxidation of cysteinyl thiols in regulatory proteins as a readout of oxidant stress in human airway epithelial cells. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 0–1000 μM 1,2-NQ for 0–30 min, and levels of H2O2 were measured by ratiometric spectrofluorometry of HyPer. H2O2-dependent protein sulfenylation was measured using immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and isotopic mass spectrometry. Catalase overexpression was used to investigate the relationship between H2O2 generation and protein sulfenylation in cells exposed to 1,2-NQ. Multiple experimental approaches showed that exposure to 1,2-NQ at concentrations as low as 3 μM induces H2O2-dependent protein sulfenylation in BEAS-2B cells. Moreover, the time of onset and duration of 1,2-NQ-induced sulfenylation of the regulatory proteins GAPDH and PTP1B showed significant differences. Oxidative modification of regulatory cysteinyl thiols in human lung cells exposed to relevant concentrations of an ambient air contaminant represents a novel marker of oxidative environmental stress. PMID:26605980

  2. Toxicological effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives on respiratory cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Eiko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found in ambient aerosols and particulate matter. Experimental studies have shown that PAHs and related chemicals can induce toxicological effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of PAHs and their derivatives on the respiratory and immune systems and the underlying mechanisms. The human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was exposed to PAHs and their derivatives, and the cytotoxicity and proinflammatory protein expression were then investigated. A cytotoxic effect was observed in BEAS-2B exposed to PAH derivatives such as naphthoquinone (NQ), phenanthrenequinone (PQ), 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), and 1-aminopyrene (1-AP). In addition, 1,2-NQ and 9,10-PQ showed more effective cytotoxicity than 1,4-NQ and 1,4-PQ, respectively. Pyrene showed a weak cytotoxic effect. On the other hand, naphthalene and phenanthrene showed no significant effects. Pyrene, 1-NP, and 1-AP also increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and interleukin-6 production in BEAS-2B. The increase was partly suppressed by protein kinase inhibitors such as the epidermal growth factor receptor-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor and nuclear receptor antagonists such as the thyroid hormone receptor antagonist. The present study suggests that the toxicological effects of chemicals may be related to the different activities resulting from their structures, such as numbers of benzene rings and functional groups. Furthermore, the chemical-induced increase in proinflammatory protein expression in bronchial epithelial cells was possibly a result of the activation of protein kinase pathways and nuclear receptors. The increase may partly contribute to the adverse health effects of atmospheric PAHs.

  3. Buparvaquone is active against Neospora caninum in vitro and in experimentally infected mice

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martinez, Adriana; Manser, Vera; Balmer, Vreni; Winzer, Pablo; Ritler, Dominic; Hostettler, Isabel; Arranz-Solís, David; Ortega-Mora, Luis; Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The naphthoquinone buparvaquone is currently the only drug used against theileriosis. Here, the effects of buparvaquone were investigated in vitro and in an experimental mouse model for Neospora caninum infection. In 4-day proliferation assays, buparvaquone efficiently inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite replication (IC50 = 4.9 nM; IC100 = 100 nM). However, in the long term tachyzoites adapted and resumed proliferation in the presence of 100 nM buparvaquone after 20 days of cultivation. Parasiticidal activity was noted after 9 days of culture in 0.5 µM or 6 days in 1 µM buparvaquone. TEM of N. caninum infected fibroblasts treated with 1 µM buparvaquone showed that the drug acted rather slowly, and ultrastructural changes were evident only after 3–5 days of treatment, including severe alterations in the parasite cytoplasm, changes in the composition of the parasitophorous vacuole matrix and a diminished integrity of the vacuole membrane. Treatment of N. caninum infected mice with buparvaquone (100 mg/kg) either by intraperitoneal injection or gavage prevented neosporosis symptoms in 4 out of 6 mice in the intraperitoneally treated group, and in 6 out of 7 mice in the group receiving oral treatment. In the corresponding controls, all 6 mice injected intraperitoneally with corn oil alone died of acute neosporosis, and 4 out of 6 mice died in the orally treated control group. Assessment of infection intensities in the treatment groups showed that, compared to the drug treated groups, the controls showed a significantly higher parasite load in the lungs while cerebral parasite load was higher in the buparvaquone-treated groups. Thus, although buparvaquone did not eliminate the parasites infecting the CNS, the drug represents an interesting lead with the potential to eliminate, or at least diminish, fetal infection during pregnancy. PMID:25941626

  4. Plumbagin shows anticancer activity in human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells via the inhibition of S-Phase checkpoints and down-regulation of c-myc

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chao-Hua; Li, Feng; Ma, Yuan-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Plumbagin, a naphthoquinone constituent of Plumbago zeylanica L. (Plumbaginaceae), has been extensively studied for its pharmacological activities and reported to show a good anti-cancer activity in different human cancer cell lines. It is known to exhibit proapoptotic, antiangiogenic and antimetastatic effects in cancer cells. Plumbagin is also known to inhibit NF-κB, JNK (Hsu), PKCε, and STAT-3. However, the anti-proliferatory activity and their core molecular mechanisms have been poorly determined. Methods: Human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells were exposed to plumbagin and the anti-proliferative activity was evaluated by MTT assay. The mechanism of action for the growth inhibitory activity of plumbagin on MG-63 cells was evaluated using flow cytometry for cell cycle distribution, and western blot for assessment of accumulation and phosphorylation of potential target proteins. Furthermore, morphology of MG-63 cells was assessed after treatment with Plumbagin. Results: Plumbagin has significantly induced growth inhibition against osteosarcoma MG-63 cells, primarily by S-phase cell cycle arrest which is confirmed by the down regulation of cyclin A and CDK2 protein levels determined by western blot analysis. It was also found that plumbagin has triggered the DNA damage in MG-63 cells, subsequently initiating the arrest in S-phase, which is evident by the up-regulation of phosphorylated p53 and histone. Furthermore, plumbagin resulted in the down-regulation of c-myc protein expression in the MG-63 cells. Conclusion: Plumbagin has triggered DNA damage and had induced S-phase arrest in MG-63 cells, suggesting it to be a potential compound in treatment against malignant human osteosarcoma. PMID:26550431

  5. Tumour-promoting activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated or nitrated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Misaki, Kentaro; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji; Yanagida, Mitsuaki

    2016-03-01

    Various types of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in diesel exhaust particles are thought to contribute to carcinogenesis in mammals. Although the carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and tumour-initiating activity of these compounds have been evaluated, their tumour-promoting activity is unclear. In the present study, to determine the tumour-inducing activity of PACs, including previously known mutagenic compounds in atmospheric environments, a transformation assay for promoting activity mediated by the release of contact inhibition was conducted for six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) and seven nitrated PAHs (nitro-PAHs) using mouse embryonic fibroblast cells transfected with the v-Ha-ras gene (Bhas 42 cells). Of these, two PAHs [benzo[k]fluoranthene (B[k]FA) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]FA)], one oxy-PAH [6H-benzo[cd]pyren-6-one (BPO)] and two nitro-PAHs (3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one and 6-nitrochrysene) were found to exhibit particularly powerful tumour-promoting activity (?10 foci following exposure to <100nM). In addition, clear mRNA expression of CYP1A1, which is associated with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activation, was observed following the exposure of cells to two PAHs (B[k]FA and B[b]FA) and three oxy-PAHs (1,2-naphthoquinone, 11H-benzo[b]fluoren-11-one and BPO). Further, an HO-1 antioxidant response activation was observed following exposure to B[k]FA, B[b]FA and BPO, suggesting that the induction of tumour-promoting activity in these compounds is correlated with the dysfunction of signal transduction via AhR-mediated responses and/or oxidative stress responses. PMID:26656082

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of 1,2-furanonaphthoquinones tethered to 1,2,3-1H-triazoles in myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Mariana F C; Rodrigues, Patrícia C; Oliveira, Maria Eduarda I M; Gama, Ivson L; da Silva, Illana M C B; Santos, Isabela O; Rocha, David R; Pinho, Rosa T; Ferreira, Vitor F; de Souza, Maria Cecília B V; da Silva, Fernando de C; Silva-Jr, Floriano Paes

    2014-09-12

    Leukemia is the most common blood cancer, and its development starts at diverse points, leading to distinct subtypes that respond differently to therapy. This heterogeneity is rarely taken into account in therapies, so it is still essential to look for new specific drugs for leukemia subtypes or even for therapy-resistant cases. Naphthoquinones (NQ) are considered privileged structures in medicinal chemistry due to their plethora of biological activities, including antimicrobial and anticancer effects. Nitrogen-containing heterocycles such as 1,2,3-1H-triazoles have been identified as general scaffolds for generating glycosidase inhibitors. In the present study, the NQ and 1,2,3-1H-triazole cores have been combined to chemically synthesize 18 new 1,2-furanonaphthoquinones tethered to 1,2,3-1H-triazoles (1,2-FNQT). Their cytotoxicities were evaluated against four different leukemia cell lines, including MOLT-4 and CEM (lymphoid cell lines) and K562 and KG1 (myeloid cell lines), as well as normal human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs). The new 1,2-FNQT series showed high cytotoxic potential against all leukemia cell lines tested, and some compounds (12o and 12p) showed even better results than the classical therapeutic compounds such as doxorubicin or cisplatin. Others compounds, such as 12b, are promising because of their high selectivity against lymphoblastic leukemia and their low activity against normal hematopoietic cells. The cells of lymphoid origin (MOLT and CEM) were generally more sensitive than the myeloid cell lines to this series of compounds, and most of the compounds that showed the highest cytotoxicity were similarly active against both cell lines. PMID:25064348

  7. YY1 positively regulates human UBIAD1 expression.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Nobuaki; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Nakagawa, Kimie; Sawada, Natumi; Watanabe, Masato; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Okano, Toshio

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin K is involved in bone formation and blood coagulation. Natural vitamin K compounds are composed of the plant form phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and a series of bacterial menaquionones (MK-n; vitamin K2). Menadione (vitamin K3) is an artificial vitamin K compound. MK-4 contains 4-isoprenyl as a side group in the 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone common structure and has various bioactivities. UbiA prenyltransferase domain containing 1 (UBIAD1 or TERE1) is the menaquinone-4 biosynthetic enzyme. UBIAD1 transcript expression significantly decreases in patients with prostate carcinoma and overexpressing UBIAD1 inhibits proliferation of a tumour cell line. UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, heart, kidneys and pancreas. Several functions of UBIAD1 have been reported; however, regulation of the human UBIAD1 gene has not been elucidated. Here we report cloning and characterisation of the human UBIAD1 promoter. A 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis revealed that the main transcriptional start site was 306 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon. Deletion and mutation analyses revealed the functional importance of the YY1 consensus motif. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. In addition, YY1 small interfering RNA decreased endogenous UBIAD1 mRNA expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity. These results suggest that YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1 promoter. PMID:25772619

  8. Inhibition of c-MYC with involvement of ERK/JNK/MAPK and AKT pathways as a novel mechanism for shikonin and its derivatives in killing leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiaoli; Assimopoulou, Andreana N.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Damianakos, Harilaos; Chinou, Ioanna; Kretschmer, Nadine; Rios, José-Luis; Papageorgiou, Vassilios P.; Bauer, Rudolf; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia remains life-threatening despite remarkable advances in chemotherapy. The poor prognosis and drug resistance are challenging treatment. Novel drugs are urgently needed. Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone, has been previously shown by us to be particularly effective towards various leukemia cell lines compared to solid tumors. However, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated shikonin and 14 derivatives on U937 leukemia cells. Four derivatives (isobutyrylshikonin, 2-methylbutyrylshikonin, isovalerylshikonin and β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin) were more active than shikonin. AnnexinV-PI analysis revealed that shikonins induced apoptosis. Cell cycle G1/S check point regulation and the transcription factor c-MYC, which plays a vital role in cell cycle regulation and proliferation, were identified as the most commonly down-regulated mechanisms upon treatment with shikonins in mRNA microarray hybridizations. Western blotting and DNA-binding assays confirmed the inhibition of c-MYC expression and transcriptional activity by shikonins. Reduction of c-MYC expression was closely associated with deregulated ERK, JNK MAPK and AKT activity, indicating their involvement in shikonin-triggered c-MYC inactivation. Molecular docking studies revealed that shikonin and its derivatives bind to the same DNA-binding domain of c-MYC as the known c-MYC inhibitors 10058-F4 and 10074-G5. This finding indicates that shikonins bind to c-MYC. The effect of shikonin on U937 cells was confirmed in other leukemia cell lines (Jurkat, Molt4, CCRF-CEM, and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000), where shikonin also inhibited c-MYC expression and influenced phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, and SAPK/JNK. In summary, inhibition of c-MYC and related pathways represents a novel mechanism of shikonin and its derivatives to explain their anti-leukemic activity. PMID:26472107

  9. Population dynamics and current-generation mechanisms in cassette-electrode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Miyahara, Morio; Shimoyama, Takefumi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2011-12-01

    Cassette-electrode microbial fuel cells (CE-MFCs) have been demonstrated useful to treat biomass wastes and recover electric energy from them. In order to reveal electricity-generation mechanisms in CE-MFCs, the present study operated a bench-scale reactor (1 l in capacity; approximately 1,000 cm(2) in anode and cathode areas) for treating a high-strength model organic wastewater (comprised of starch, peptone, and fish extract). Approximately 1 month was needed for the bench reactor to attain a stable performance, after which volumetric maximum power densities persisted between 120 and 150 mW/l throughout the experiment (for over 2 months). Temporal increases in the external resistance were found to induce subsequent increases in power outputs. After electric output became stable, electrolyte and anode were sampled from the reactor for evaluating their current-generation abilities; it was estimated that most of current (over 80%) was generated by microbes in the electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry of an electrolyte supernatant detected several electron shuttles with different standard redox potentials at high concentrations (equivalent to or more than 100 μM 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative real-time PCR of 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments showed that bacteria related to the genus Dysgonomonas occurred abundantly in association with the increases in power outputs. These results suggest that mediated electron transfer was the main mechanism for electricity generation in CE-MFC, where high-concentration electron shuttles and Dysgonomonas bacteria played important roles. PMID:21983705

  10. Novel Vitamin K analogs suppress seizures in zebrafish and mouse models of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Rahn, J J; Bestman, J E; Josey, B J; Inks, E S; Stackley, K D; Rogers, C E; Chou, C J; Chan, S S L

    2014-02-14

    Epilepsy is a debilitating disease affecting 1-2% of the world's population. Despite this high prevalence, 30% of patients suffering from epilepsy are not successfully managed by current medication suggesting a critical need for new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). In an effort to discover new therapeutics for the management of epilepsy, we began our study by screening drugs that, like some currently used AEDs, inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs) using a well-established larval zebrafish model. In this model, 7-day post fertilization (dpf) larvae are treated with the widely used seizure-inducing compound pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) which stimulates a rapid increase in swimming behavior previously determined to be a measurable manifestation of seizures. In our first screen, we tested a number of different HDAC inhibitors and found that one, 2-benzamido-1 4-naphthoquinone (NQN1), significantly decreased swim activity to levels equal to that of valproic acid, 2-n-propylpentanoic acid (VPA). We continued to screen structurally related compounds including Vitamin K3 (VK3) and a number of novel Vitamin K (VK) analogs. We found that VK3 was a robust inhibitor of the PTZ-induced swim activity, as were several of our novel compounds. Three of these compounds were subsequently tested on mouse seizure models at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Anticonvulsant Screening Program. Compound 2h reduced seizures particularly well in the minimal clonic seizure (6Hz) and corneal-kindled mouse models of epilepsy, with no observable toxicity. As VK3 affects mitochondrial function, we tested the effects of our compounds on mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in a mouse hippocampal cell line. We demonstrate that these compounds affect ATP metabolism and increase total cellular ATP. Our data indicate the potential utility of these and other VK analogs for the prevention of seizures and suggest the potential mechanism for this protection may lie in the ability of these compounds to affect energy production. PMID:24291671

  11. From body art to anticancer activities: perspectives on medicinal properties of henna.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Rohan; Dandawate, Prasad; Vyas, Alok; Padhye, Subhash; Biersack, Bernhard; Schobert, Rainer; Ahmad, Aamir; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2012-12-01

    Nature has been a rich source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years and an impressive number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources based on the uses of these plants in traditional medicine. Henna is one such plant commonly known as Persian Henna or Lawsonia inermis, a bushy, flowering tree, commonly found in Australia, Asia and along the Mediterranean coasts of Africa. Paste made from the leaves of Henna plant has been used since the Bronze Age to dye skin, hairs and fingernails especially at the times of festivals. In recent times henna paste has been used for body art paintings and designs in western countries. Despite such widespread use in dyeing and body art painting, Henna extracts and constituents possess numerous biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anticancer activities. The active coloring and biologically active principle of Henna is found to be Lawsone (2- hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone) which can serve as a starting building block for synthesizing large number of therapeutically useful compounds including Atovaquone, Lapachol and Dichloroallyl lawsone which have been shown to possess potent anticancer activities. Some other analogs of Lawsone have been found to exhibit other beneficial biological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitubercular and antimalarial. The ability of Lawsone to undergo the redox cycling and chelation of trace metal ions has been thought to be partially responsible for some of its biological activities. Despite such diverse biological properties and potent anticancer activities the compound has remained largely unexplored and hence in the present review we have summarized the chemistry and biological activities of Lawsone along with its analogs and metal complexes. PMID:23140289

  12. Placement and characterization of pairs of luminescent molecules in spatially separated regions of nanostructured thin films.

    PubMed

    Minoofar, Payam N; Hernandez, Raquel; Chia, Shinye; Dunn, Bruce; Zink, Jeffrey I; Franville, Anne-Christine

    2002-12-01

    Methods of making mesostructured sol-gel silicate thin films containing two different molecules deliberately placed in two different spatially separated regions in a one-step, one-pot preparation are developed and demonstrated. When the structure-directing agent is the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, the structure is 2-D hexagonal with lattice spacings between 31.6 and 42.1 angstroms depending on the dopant molecules and their concentrations. The three general strategies that are used to place the molecules are philicity (like dissolves like), bonding, and bifunctionality. These strategies take advantage of the different chemical and physical properties of the regions of the films. These regions are the inorganic silicate framework, the hydrophobic organic interior of the micelles, and the ionic interface between them. Luminescent molecules that possess the physical and chemical properties appropriate for the desired strategies are chosen. Lanthanide and ruthenium complexes with condensable trialkoxysilane groups are incorporated into the silicate framework. 1,4-Naphthoquinone, pyrene, rhodamine 6G and coumarin 540A, and lanthanides with no condensable trialkoxysilanes occupy the hydrophobic core of micelles by virtue of their hydrophobicity. The locations of the molecules are determined by luminescence spectroscopy and by luminescence lifetime measurements. In all cases, the long-range order templated into the thin film is verified by X-ray diffraction. The simultaneous placement of two molecules in the structured film and the maintenance of long-range order require a delicate balance among film preparation methodology, design of the molecules to be incorporated in specific regions, and concentrations of all of the species. PMID:12452713

  13. Antileishmanial, antitrypanosomal, and cytotoxic screening of ethnopharmacologically selected Peruvian plants.

    PubMed

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Reina, Matías; Sáenz, Claudia; Lacret, Rodney; Ruiz-Mesia, Lastenia; Arán, Vicente J; Sanz, Jesús; Martínez-Díaz, Rafael A

    2012-04-01

    Extracts (34) from eight plant species of the Peruvian Amazonia currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine, mostly as antileishmanial remedies and also as painkiller, antiseptic, antipyretic, anti-inflamatory, antiflu, astringent, diuretic, antipoison, anticancerous, antiparasitic, insecticidal, or healing agents, have been tested for their antileishmanial, antitrypanosomal, and cytotoxic activity. Plant species were selected based on interviews conducted with residents of rural areas. The different plant parts were dried, powdered, and extracted by maceration with different solvents (hexane, chloroform, and 70% ethanol-water). These extracts were tested on promastigote forms of Leishmania infantum strain PB75, epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi strain Y, and the mammalian CHO cell line. Parasite viability and nonspecific cytotoxicity were analyzed by a modified MTT colorimetric assay method. The isolation and identification of pure compounds from selected extracts were performed by column chromatography, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS; mixtures), spectroscopic techniques [MS, infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV)], and mono and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR; COSY, HSQC, NOESY) experiments. Chondodendron tomentosum bark and Cedrela odorata were the most active extracts against Leishmania, while C. odorata and Aristoloquia pilosa were the most active against Trypanosoma, followed by Tabebuia serratifolia, Tradescantia zebrina, and Zamia ulei. Six compounds and two mixtures were isolated from Z. ulei [cycasin (1)], T. serratifolia {mixtures 1-2, and naphthoquinones 2-acetyl-4H,9H-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (2) and 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)-4H,9H-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (3)}, and C. tomentosum [chondrocurine (4); (S,S')-12-O-methyl(+)-curine (5); and cycleanine (6)]. Four compounds and the two mixtures exhibited significant activity. PMID:21922239

  14. Light microscopic and ultrastructural features of the Harderian gland of the nine-banded armadillo.

    PubMed Central

    Weaker, F J

    1981-01-01

    The Harderian gland of the nine-banded armadillo is a mixed, compound tubuloacinar gland located in the medioposterior aspect of the orbit. The gland is lobulated and appears homogeneous in colour and texture. Harderian glands of both male and female fluoresce a pale yellow-green, indicating the lack of porphyrins. At the light microscopic level, the gland contains lobules which synthesize different secretory products. The lobules of the gland adjacent to the eyeball (the proximal point) contain predominantly mucus-secreting acini which empty into a well developed system of intralobular ducts. The lobules of the major portion of the gland (the distal part) contain lipid-secreting acini. The cells contain numerous lipid vacuoles which are colourless when fixed with osmium tetroxide and stain blue with the perchloric acid-naphthoquinone technique for cholesterol. The duct system of this portion of the gland is less developed than the mucous portion; however, these lobules contain a well developed network of fenestrated capillaries. At the ultrastructural level, the secretory cells of the lipid acini are characterized by an expansive network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and numerous lipid vacuoles. Additionally, these cells contain a well developed Golgi apparatus with associated vesicles, condensing vacuoles, and secretory granules. The free surface of the cells possess microvilli; however, the microvilli appear longer and more concentrated on the surface of the cells adjacent to the fenestrated capillaries. The possible functions of this gland in the armadillo, which possesses a rudimentary pineal gland, are discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 PMID:7319899

  15. Evidence for a chemiosmotic model of dehalorespiration in Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB-1.

    PubMed

    Louie, T M; Mohn, W W

    1999-01-01

    Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB-1, a sulfate-reducing bacterium, conserves energy for growth from reductive dehalogenation of 3-chlorobenzoate by an uncharacterized chemiosmotic process. Respiratory electron transport components were examined in D. tiedjei cells grown under conditions for reductive dehalogenation, pyruvate fermentation, and sulfate reduction. Reductive dehalogenation was inhibited by the respiratory quinone inhibitor 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, suggesting that a respiratory quinoid is a component of the electron transport chain coupled to reductive dehalogenation. Moreover, reductive dehalogenation activity was dependent on 1, 4-naphthoquinone, a possible precursor for a respiratory quinoid. However, no ubiquinone or menaquinone could be extracted from D. tiedjei. Rather, a UV-absorbing quinoid which is different from common respiratory quinones in chemical structure according to mass spectrometric and UV absorption spectroscopic analyses was extracted. ATP sulfurylase, adenosine phosphosulfate reductase, and desulfoviridin sulfite reductase, enzymes involved in sulfate reduction, were constitutively expressed in the cytoplasm of D. tiedjei cells grown under all three metabolic conditions. A periplasmic hydrogenase was detected in cells grown under reductive-dehalogenating and pyruvate-fermenting conditions. A membrane-bound, periplasm-oriented formate dehydrogenase was detected only in cells grown with formate as electron donor, while a cytoplasmic formate dehydrogenase was detected in cells grown under reductive-dehalogenating and pyruvate-fermenting conditions. Results from dehalogenation assays with D. tiedjei whole-cell suspensions and cell extracts suggest that the membrane-bound reductive dehalogenase is cytoplasm oriented. The data clearly demonstrate an enzyme topology in D. tiedjei which produces protons directly in the periplasm, generating a proton motive force by a scalar mechanism. PMID:9864310

  16. Evidence for a Chemiosmotic Model of Dehalorespiration in Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB-1

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Tai Man; Mohn, William W.

    1999-01-01

    Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB-1, a sulfate-reducing bacterium, conserves energy for growth from reductive dehalogenation of 3-chlorobenzoate by an uncharacterized chemiosmotic process. Respiratory electron transport components were examined in D. tiedjei cells grown under conditions for reductive dehalogenation, pyruvate fermentation, and sulfate reduction. Reductive dehalogenation was inhibited by the respiratory quinone inhibitor 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, suggesting that a respiratory quinoid is a component of the electron transport chain coupled to reductive dehalogenation. Moreover, reductive dehalogenation activity was dependent on 1,4-naphthoquinone, a possible precursor for a respiratory quinoid. However, no ubiquinone or menaquinone could be extracted from D. tiedjei. Rather, a UV-absorbing quinoid which is different from common respiratory quinones in chemical structure according to mass spectrometric and UV absorption spectroscopic analyses was extracted. ATP sulfurylase, adenosine phosphosulfate reductase, and desulfoviridin sulfite reductase, enzymes involved in sulfate reduction, were constitutively expressed in the cytoplasm of D. tiedjei cells grown under all three metabolic conditions. A periplasmic hydrogenase was detected in cells grown under reductive-dehalogenating and pyruvate-fermenting conditions. A membrane-bound, periplasm-oriented formate dehydrogenase was detected only in cells grown with formate as electron donor, while a cytoplasmic formate dehydrogenase was detected in cells grown under reductive-dehalogenating and pyruvate-fermenting conditions. Results from dehalogenation assays with D. tiedjei whole-cell suspensions and cell extracts suggest that the membrane-bound reductive dehalogenase is cytoplasm oriented. The data clearly demonstrate an enzyme topology in D. tiedjei which produces protons directly in the periplasm, generating a proton motive force by a scalar mechanism. PMID:9864310

  17. Phospholipid Furan Fatty Acids and Ubiquinone-8: Lipid Biomarkers That May Protect Dehalococcoides Strains from Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    White, David C.; Geyer, Roland; Peacock, Aaron D.; Hedrick, David B.; Koenigsberg, Stephen S.; Sung, Youlboong; He, Jianzhong; Lffler, Frank E.

    2005-01-01

    Dehalococcoides species have a highly restricted lifestyle and are only known to derive energy from reductive dehalogenation reactions. The lipid fraction of two Dehalococcoides isolates, strains BAV1 and FL2, and a tetrachloroethene-to-ethene-dechlorinating Dehalococcoides-containing consortium were analyzed for neutral lipids and phospholipid fatty acids. Unusual phospholipid modifications, including the replacement of unsaturated fatty acids with furan fatty acids, were detected in both Dehalococcoides isolates and the mixed culture. The following three furan fatty acids are reported as present in bacterial phospholipids for the first time: 9-(5-pentyl-2-furyl)-nonanoate (Fu18:2?6), 9-(5-butyl-2-furyl)-nonanoate (Fu17:2?5), and 8-(5-pentyl-2-furyl)-octanoate (Fu17:2?6). The neutral lipids of the Dehalococcoides cultures contained unusually large amounts of benzoquinones (i.e., ubiquinones [UQ]), which is unusual for anaerobes. In particular, the UQ-8 content of Dehalococcoides was 5- to 20-fold greater than that generated in aerobically grown Escherichia coli cultures relative to the phospholipid fatty acid content. Naphthoquinone isoprenologues (MK), which are often found in anaerobically grown bacteria and archaea, were also detected. Dehalococcoides shows a difference in isoprenologue pattern between UQ-8 and MK-5 that is atypical of other bacteria capable of producing both quinone types. The difference in UQ-8 and MK-5 isoprenologue patterns strongly suggests a special function for UQ in Dehalococcoides, and Dehalococcoides may utilize structural modifications in its lipid armamentarium to protect against free radicals that are generated in the process of reductive dechlorination. PMID:16332831

  18. Posttranslational Regulation of Human DNA Polymerase ι.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Justyna; McLenigan, Mary P; Frank, Ekaterina G; Dai, Xiaoxia; Yang, Wei; Wang, Yinsheng; Woodgate, Roger

    2015-11-01

    Human DNA polymerases (pols) η and ι are Y-family DNA polymerase paralogs that facilitate translesion synthesis past damaged DNA. Both polη and polι can be monoubiquitinated in vivo. Polη has been shown to be ubiquitinated at one primary site. When this site is unavailable, three nearby lysines may become ubiquitinated. In contrast, mass spectrometry analysis of monoubiquitinated polι revealed that it is ubiquitinated at over 27 unique sites. Many of these sites are localized in different functional domains of the protein, including the catalytic polymerase domain, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen-interacting region, the Rev1-interacting region, and its ubiquitin binding motifs UBM1 and UBM2. Polι monoubiquitination remains unchanged after cells are exposed to DNA-damaging agents such as UV light (generating UV photoproducts), ethyl methanesulfonate (generating alkylation damage), mitomycin C (generating interstrand cross-links), or potassium bromate (generating direct oxidative DNA damage). However, when exposed to naphthoquinones, such as menadione and plumbagin, which cause indirect oxidative damage through mitochondrial dysfunction, polι becomes transiently polyubiquitinated via Lys(11)- and Lys(48)-linked chains of ubiquitin and subsequently targeted for degradation. Polyubiquitination does not occur as a direct result of the perturbation of the redox cycle as no polyubiquitination was observed after treatment with rotenone or antimycin A, which both inhibit mitochondrial electron transport. Interestingly, polyubiquitination was observed after the inhibition of the lysine acetyltransferase KATB3/p300. We hypothesize that the formation of polyubiquitination chains attached to polι occurs via the interplay between lysine acetylation and ubiquitination of ubiquitin itself at Lys(11) and Lys(48) rather than oxidative damage per se. PMID:26370087

  19. Molecular structures and antiproliferative activity of side-chain saturated and homologated analogs of 2-chloro-3-(n-alkylamino)-1,4-napthoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sanjima; Jadhav, Mahesh; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Patil, Yogesh; Nethaji, M.; Kasabe, Umesh; Kathawate, Laxmi; Konkimalla, V. Badireenath; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2013-10-01

    Side chain homologated derivatives of 2-chloro-3-(n-alkylamino)-1,4-naphthoquinone {n-alkyl: pentyl; L-5, hexyl; L-6, heptyl; L-7 and octyl; L-8} have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-visible spectroscopy and LC-MS. Compounds, L-4, {n-alkyl: butyl; L-4}, L-6 and L-8 have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The single crystal X-ray structures reveal that L-4 and L-8 crystallizes in P21 space group, while L-6 in P21/c space group. Molecules of L-4 and L-8 from polymeric chains through Csbnd H⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯O close contacts. L-6 is a dimer formed by Nsbnd H⋯O interaction. Slipped π-π stacking interactions are observed between quinonoid and benzenoid rings of L-4 and L-8. Orientations of alkyl group in L-4 and L-8 is on same side of the chain and polymeric chains run opposite to one another to form zip like structure to the alkyl groups. Antiproliferative activities of L-1 to L-8{n-alkyl: methyl; L-1, ethyl; L-2, propyl; L-3 and butyl; L-4} were studied in cancer cells of colon (COLO205), brain (U87MG) and pancreas (MIAPaCa2) where L-1, L-2 and L-3 were active in MIAPaCa2 (L-1 = L-2 > L-3) and COLO205 (L-2 = L-3 > L-1) and inactive in U87MG. From antiproliferative studies with compounds L-1 to L-8 it can be concluded that homologation of 2-chloro-3-(n-alkylamino)-1,4-napthoquinone with saturated methyl groups yielded tissue specific compounds such as L-2 (for MIAPaCa2) and L-3 (for COLO205) with optimal activity.

  20. Induction of apoptosis by plumbagin through reactive oxygen species-mediated inhibition of topoisomerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Kawiak, Anna; Piosik, Jacek; Stasilojc, Grzegorz; Gwizdek-Wisniewska, Anna; Marczak, Lukasz; Stobiecki, Maciej; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2007-09-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been recognized as key molecules, which can selectively modify proteins and therefore regulate cellular signalling including apoptosis. Plumbagin, a naphthoquinone exhibiting antitumor activity, is known to generate ROS and has been found to inhibit the activity of topoisomerase II (Topo II) through the stabilization of the Topo II-DNA cleavable complex. The objective of this research was to clarify the role of ROS and Topo II inhibition in the induction of apoptosis mediated by plumbagin. As determined by the comet assay, plumbagin induced DNA cleavage in HL-60 cells, whereas in a cell line with reduced Topo II activity-HL-60/MX2, the level of DNA damage was significantly decreased. The onset of DNA strand break formation in HL-60 cells was delayed in comparison with the generation of intracellular ROS. In HL-60/MX2 cells, ROS were generated at a similar rate, whereas a significant reduction in the level of DNA damage was detected. The pretreatment of cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuated plumbagin-induced DNA damage, pointing out to the involvement of ROS generation in cleavable complex formation. These results suggest that plumbagin-induced ROS does not directly damage DNA but requires the involvement of Topo II. Furthermore, experiments carried out using light spectroscopy indicated no direct interactions between plumbagin and DNA. The induction of apoptosis was significantly delayed in HL-60/MX2 cells indicating the involvement of Topo II inhibition in plumbagin-mediated apoptosis. Thus, these findings strongly suggest ROS-mediated inhibition of Topo II as an important mechanism contributing to the apoptosis-inducing properties of plumbagin.

  1. Assessing the oxidative potential of isoprene-derived epoxides and secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Amanda J.; Rattanavaraha, Weruka; Zhang, Zhenfa; Gold, Avram; Surratt, Jason D.; Lin, Ying-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is known to contribute to adverse health effects, such as asthma, cardiopulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a major component of PM2.5 and can be enhanced by atmospheric oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the presence of anthropogenic pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide. However, whether biogenic SOA contributes to adverse health effects remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of isoprene-derived epoxides and SOA for generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in light of the recent recognition that atmospheric oxidation of isoprene in the presence of acidic sulfate aerosol is a major contributor to the global SOA burden. The dithiothreitol (DTT) assay was used to characterize the ROS generation by the isoprene-derived epoxides, trans-β-isoprene epoxydiol (trans-β-IEPOX) and methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE), and their hydrolysis products, the 2-methyltetrol diastereomers (2-MT), 2-methylglyceric acid (2-MG), their organosulfate derivatives, as well as an isoprene-derived hydroxyhydroperoxide (ISOPOOH). In addition, ROS generation potential was evaluated for total SOA produced from photooxidation of isoprene and methacrolein (MACR) as well as from the reactive uptake of trans-β-IEPOX and MAE onto acidified sulfate aerosol. The high-NOx regime, which yields 2-MG-, MAE- and MACR-derived SOA has a higher ROS generation potential than the low-NOx regime, which yields 2-MT, IEPOX- and isoprene-derived SOA. ISOPOOH has an ROS generation potential similar to 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ), suggesting a significant contribution of aerosol-phase organic peroxides to PM oxidative potential. MAE- and MACR-derived SOA show equal or greater ROS generation potential than reported in studies on diesel exhaust PM, highlighting the importance of a comprehensive investigation of the toxicity of isoprene-derived SOA.

  2. 2-Methoxystypandrone represses RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis by down-regulating formation of TRAF6–TAK1 signalling complexes

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, WF; Liao, JF; Huang, CY; Chen, CC

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 2-Methoxystypandrone (2-MS) is a naphthoquinone isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum, a Chinese herb used to treat bone diseases. Here we have determined whether 2-MS antagonised osteoclast development and bone resorption. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH RAW264.7 cells were treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) to induce differentiation into osteoclasts. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to analyse osteoclast-associated gene expression and signalling pathways. KEY RESULTS The number of multinuclear osteoclasts, actin rings and resorption pit formation were markedly inhibited by 2-MS, targeting osteoclast differentiation at an early stage and without significant cytotoxicity. The anti-resorption effect of 2-MS was accompanied by decreasing dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mRNA expression. RANKL-increased MMP-9 gelatinolytic activity was also attenuated by concurrent, but not by subsequent addition of 2-MS. 2-MS markedly inhibited not only the RANKL-triggered nuclear translocations of NF-κB, c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), but also the subsequent NFATc1 induction. Degradation of IκB and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases were also suppressed. RANKL facilitated the formation of singaling complexes of tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 and transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TRAF6–TAK1), important for osteoclastogenesis and formation of such signalling complexes was prevented by 2-MS. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The anti-osteoclastogenic effects of 2-MS could reflect the block of RANKL-induced association of TRAF6–TAK1 complexes with consequent decrease of IκB-mediated NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases-mediated c-Fos activation pathways and suppression of NFATc1 and other gene expression, essential for bone resorption. PMID:20735418

  3. A mediator-adapted diaphorase variant for a glucose dehydrogenase-diaphorase biocatalytic system.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Taiki; Goto, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Ryuhei; Sakai, Hideki; Tokita, Yuichi; Hatazawa, Tsuyonobu

    2010-10-15

    Biofuel cell is an energy conversion device of the next generation which enables use of safer and higher energy-density fuels such as glucose. We have been developing a biofuel cell that comprises the three enzymes: glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and diaphorase (DI) on anode, and bilirubin oxidase (BOD) on cathode. In this work, we have developed a DI variant suitable for our biofuel cell by using directed molecular evolution method. A gene library of DI variants was constructed by using error-prone PCR and the variant proteins were expressed in an Escherichia coli system. 8000 isolated variants have been screened with activity against 2-amino-1,4-naphthoquinone (ANQ), and 10 of them have been qualified which were then purified and examined their activities against ANQ. A highest activity was observed in G122D variant of which glycine residue at position 122 is substituted to aspartate. Enzymatic kinetic analyses show that KM for ANQ in G122D is 1/3 of that in wild type (G122D: 356 μM, wild type: 1.08 mM), whereas kcat and KM for NADH is almost the same, clearly showing that G122D mutation has given DI an improvement in enzymatic activity at lower ANQ concentration. The effect of this mutation was considered electrochemically in solution and in immobilized layer. The results show that G122D variant DI gave a higher current at lower ANQ concentration in solution, as well as in immobilized condition where GDH is co-immobilized within. PMID:20739172

  4. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Extracted from Tobacco Smoke as Neuroprotective Factors for Potential Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sari, Youssef; Khalil, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of mainly the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, which leads to motor dysfunction. Although, most of the drugs are currently used for symptomatic treatment, there are at least three FDA-approved drugs for the treatment of PD that have been suggested preclinically to have neuroprotective effects. Among these drugs are monoamine oxidase (MAO) type B inhibitors such as selegiline and rasagiline, and non-ergot derivative dopamine agonist, pramipexole. In this review article, we focused on the potential uses of non-selective reversible MAO inhibitor, 2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, from flue-cured tobacco leaves extract and two β- carboline alkaloids (harman and norharman) as potent, reversible and non-selective MAO inhibitors for the treatment of PD. In addition, we discussed the potential uses of farnesol as a potent inhibitor of MAO-B and farnesylacetone as a less potent selective MAO-B inhibitor. Furthermore, adducts of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline have shown to have competitive inhibitory effects for both MAO-A and MAO-B. These inhibitors have potential neuroprotective effects, which might be mediated at least through nerve growth factor, neurotrophin 3, brain derived neurotrophic factor, and glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor. We suggest here the neuroprotective implication of extracted MAO inhibitors from smoke tobacco; however, it is important to note that there are several existing compounds in tobacco smoke that have toxic effects in the brain, these include and not limited to the induction of neuropathological features observed in individuals suffering from Alzheimer's disease and dementia. PMID:25808895

  5. Remarkable in vitro and in vivo activities of the hydroxynaphthoquinone 566C80 against tachyzoites and tissue cysts of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, F G; Huskinson, J; Remington, J S

    1991-01-01

    Compound 566C80, 2-[trans-4-(4-chlorophenyl)cyclohexyl]-3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, was studied for its in vitro and in vivo activities against Toxoplasma gondii. Replication within human foreskin fibroblasts of tachyzoites of seven different strains, five of them isolated from AIDS patients, was inhibited by concentrations as low as 4.8 x 10(-9) M. In vivo, a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight per day, administered by gavage for 10 days, protected 100% of mice against death due to infection with five different strains of T. gondii, including the highly virulent RH strain. A dose of 50 mg/kg/day protected at least 80% of mice infected with the same inoculum, and a dose as low as 9.3 mg/kg/day protected 40 to 60% of mice. Treatment with 50 mg/kg/day for 30 days completely eradicated parasites from mice infected with four of five strains of T. gondii. 566C80 was active in vitro against the cyst stage of T. gondii at concentrations of 50 to 100 micrograms/ml. In vivo activity against this form of T. gondii was examined in mice infected for 6 weeks with strain ME49 and then treated orally with 100 mg of 566C80 per kg per day for 8 weeks. Treated mice sacrificed at 2-week intervals revealed a steady decline in the numbers of cysts in their brains compared with untreated controls. In addition, mortality as well as clinical signs of brain infection was absent from treated mice, whereas control mice had a high mortality rate and showed clinical signs of central nervous system infection. These results reveal remarkable in vitro and in vivo activities of 566C80 against T. gondii. PMID:2024964

  6. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the secondary metabolites from in vitro cultures of the Alice sundew (Drosera aliciae).

    PubMed

    Krolicka, Aleksandra; Szpitter, Anna; Maciag, Monika; Biskup, Edyta; Gilgenast, Ewelina; Wegrzyn, Grazyna; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant as well as the antibacterial properties of secondary metabolites obtained from Drosera aliciae (Alice sundew) plants grown in vitro and to examine the mechanism of their antimicrobial action. Bactericidal activity of extracts from D. aliciae, as well as pure ramentaceone (naphthoquinone), which is present in this plant, were examined against human pathogenic strains of micro-organisms that are both resistant and susceptible to antibiotics. A chloroform extract proved to be more effective than a methanol preparation against all of the tested strains, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. The lowest minimal-bactericidal-concentration value was in the case of Staphylococcus aureus (25-50 mg fresh weight·ml(-1)). The influence of D. aliciae extracts and ramentaceone on the synthesis of DNA, RNA or proteins in cultures of Enterococcus faecalis was estimated by measurement of the incorporation of the radioactively labelled precursors [3H]thymidine, [3H]uridine or [3H]leucine respectively. The methanol extract of D. aliciae, except for a moderate effect on DNA synthesis, had no influence on RNA and protein synthesis. The chloroform preparation caused about a 75% decrease in [3H]uridine incorporation in comparison with the control after 60 min and a significant diminution in DNA and protein synthesis (44 and 30% respectively). Ramentaceone also decreased DNA and RNA synthesis, but less efficiently than did the chloroform extract, and it caused no changes in [3H]leucine incorporation. The methanol extract from D. aliciae proved to be an effective antioxidant in both the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-10-picrylhydrazyl free radical) and the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assay, with the activities exceeding those of well-known antioxidants, namely the flavonoids. The chloroform extract and ramentaceone showed no antioxidative properties. PMID:18782083

  7. Induction of apoptosis by plumbagin through reactive oxygen species-mediated inhibition of topoisomerase II.

    PubMed

    Kawiak, Anna; Piosik, Jacek; Stasilojc, Grzegorz; Gwizdek-Wisniewska, Anna; Marczak, Lukasz; Stobiecki, Maciej; Bigda, Jacek; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2007-09-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been recognized as key molecules, which can selectively modify proteins and therefore regulate cellular signalling including apoptosis. Plumbagin, a naphthoquinone exhibiting antitumor activity, is known to generate ROS and has been found to inhibit the activity of topoisomerase II (Topo II) through the stabilization of the Topo II-DNA cleavable complex. The objective of this research was to clarify the role of ROS and Topo II inhibition in the induction of apoptosis mediated by plumbagin. As determined by the comet assay, plumbagin induced DNA cleavage in HL-60 cells, whereas in a cell line with reduced Topo II activity-HL-60/MX2, the level of DNA damage was significantly decreased. The onset of DNA strand break formation in HL-60 cells was delayed in comparison with the generation of intracellular ROS. In HL-60/MX2 cells, ROS were generated at a similar rate, whereas a significant reduction in the level of DNA damage was detected. The pretreatment of cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuated plumbagin-induced DNA damage, pointing out to the involvement of ROS generation in cleavable complex formation. These results suggest that plumbagin-induced ROS does not directly damage DNA but requires the involvement of Topo II. Furthermore, experiments carried out using light spectroscopy indicated no direct interactions between plumbagin and DNA. The induction of apoptosis was significantly delayed in HL-60/MX2 cells indicating the involvement of Topo II inhibition in plumbagin-mediated apoptosis. Thus, these findings strongly suggest ROS-mediated inhibition of Topo II as an important mechanism contributing to the apoptosis-inducing properties of plumbagin. PMID:17618663

  8. Naphthalene--an environmental and occupational toxicant.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Ralf; Angerer, Jürgen; Drexler, Hans

    2003-10-01

    For many years naphthalene had been considered as a non-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Airborne naphthalene concentrations have always been observed to be below the limit values of various national committees, such as the threshold limit value (TLV) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and the MAK of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) (10 ppm). Since 2000, when the US National Toxicology Program revealed clear evidence of the carcinogenic activity of naphthalene in rats, international agencies [the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), DFG] have reclassified naphthalene as a potential human carcinogen, and the European Union (EU) is currently preparing a new risk assessment report. It is presently unknown how to protect humans from health risks resulting from occupational and environmental naphthalene exposure. Knowledge about the external and internal exposure of humans serves as the key determinant in a comprehensive risk assessment. We review here ambient monitoring studies concerning the external naphthalene exposure that results from ubiquitous environmental sources (indoor and outdoor air, water, soil, food) and from a variety of critical workplaces (coking plants, creosote impregnation, distillation of coal tar and naphthalene, manufacture of refractories, graphite electrodes, aluminium and mothballs). Based on results of ambient monitoring studies published so far, a new hygiene-based exposure limit of 1.5 mg naphthalene per cubic metre of air (0.3 ppm) is proposed. Furthermore, results from biological monitoring studies are summarised in this article. The internal burden was almost exclusively determined by means of the urinary metabolites 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol, but it is currently not possible for one to evaluate a biological tolerance level (BAT) or a biological exposure index (BEI). Based on the toxicokinetics and metabolism of naphthalene, the central question on its carcinogenicity is briefly sketched. Naphthoquinones play an important role in this context. Their adducts with macromolecules may be the parameters of choice for the estimation of effects to human health. PMID:12920524

  9. The Lipids of Pneumocystis carinii

    PubMed Central

    Kaneshiro, Edna S.

    1998-01-01

    Information about a number of Pneumocystis carinii lipids obtained by the analyses of organisms isolated and purified from infected lungs of corticosteroid-immunosuppressed rats has been reported in recent years. Of the common opportunistic protists associated with AIDS (Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and the microsporidia), more is currently known about the lipids of P. carinii than the others. Lipids that are synthesized by the organism but not by humans are attractive targets for drug development. Thus, the elucidation of Δ7C-24-alykylated sterol and cis-9,10-epoxystearic acid biosyntheses in P. carinii is currently being examined in detail, since these have been identified as P. carinii-specific lipids. The development of low-toxicity drugs that prevent sterol C-24 alkylation and the specific inhibition of the lipoxygenase that forms cis-9,10-epoxystearic acid might prove fruitful. Although humans can synthesize coenzyme Q10, the anti-P. carinii activity and low toxicity of ubiquinone analogs such as atovaquone suggest that the electron transport chain in the pathogen may differ importantly from that in the host. Although resistance to atovaquone has been observed, development of other naphthoquinone drugs would provide a broader armamentarium of drugs to treat patients with P. carinii pneumonia. Studies of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and of infected lungs have demonstrated that the infection causes a number of chemical abnormalities. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained after the removal of lung cellular material and the organisms has been shown to contain larger amounts of surfactant proteins and smaller amounts of phospholipids than do comparable samples from P. carinii-free lungs. Increased phospholipase activity, inhibition of surfactant secretion by type II cells, and uptake and catabolism of lipids by the pathogen may explain this phenomenon related to P. carinii pneumonia. Although not yet thoroughly examined, initial studies on the uptake and metabolism of lipids by P. carinii suggest that the organism relies heavily on exogenous lipid nutrients. PMID:9457427

  10. The proton/electron ration of the menaquinone-dependent electron transport from dihydrogen to tetrachloroethene in "Dehalobacter restrictus".

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, W; Holliger, C

    1996-01-01

    In the anaerobic respiration chain of "Dehalobacter restrictus," dihydrogen functioned as the electron donor and tetrachloroethene (PCE) functioned as the electron acceptor. The hydrogenase faced the periplasm, and the PCE reductase faced the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. Both activities were associated with the cytoplasmic membrane. UV spectroscopy showed that membrane-bound menaquinone (MQ) was reduced by oxidation of H2 and reoxidized by reduction of PCE, indicating that MQ functions as an electron mediator. Fast proton liberation (t1/2 = 6 +/- 2 s) during electron transport from H2 to PCE and to trichloroethene (TCE) after addition of either PCE or TCE to H2-saturated cells resulted in an extrapolated H+/e- ratio of 1.25 +/- 0.2. This ratio indicated that besides the formation of protons upon oxidation of H2, vectorial translocation of protons from the inside to the outside could also occur. Proton liberation was inhibited by carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HOQNO), and CuCl2. Fast proton liberation with an H+/e- ratio of 0.65 +/- 0.1 was obtained after addition of the MQ analog 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMN) as an oxidant pulse. This acidification was also inhibited by CCCP, HOQNO, and CuCl2. Oxidation of reduced DMN by PCE was not associated with fast acidification. The results with DMN indicate that the consumption and release of protons associated with redox reactions of MQ during electron transfer from H2 to PCE both occurred at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. The PCE reductase was photoreversibly inactivated by 1-iodopropane, indicating that a corrinoid was involved in the PCE reduction. PMID:8636034

  11. Modeling Bimolecular Reactions and Transport in Porous Media Via Particle Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ding; David Benson; Amir Paster; Diogo Bolster

    2012-01-01

    We use a particle-tracking method to simulate several one-dimensional bimolecular reactive transport experiments. In this numerical method, the reactants are represented by particles: advection and dispersion dominate the flow, and molecular diffusion dictates, in large part, the reactions. The particle/particle reactions are determined by a combination of two probabilities dictated by the physics of transport and energetics of reaction. The first is that reactant particles occupy the same volume over a short time interval. The second is the conditional probability that two collocated particles favorably transform into a reaction. The first probability is a direct physical representation of the degree of mixing in an advancing displacement front, and as such lacks empirical parameters except for the user-defined number of particles. This number can be determined analytically from concentration autocovariance, if this type of data is available. The simulations compare favorably to two physical experiments. In one, the concentration of product, 1,2-naphthoquinoe-4-aminobenzene (NQAB) from reaction between 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid (NQS) and aniline (AN), was measured at the outflow of a column filled with glass beads at different times. In the other, the concentration distribution of reactants (CuSO_4 and EDTA^{4-}) and products (CuEDTA^{4-}) were quantified by snapshots of transmitted light through a column packed with cryloite sand. The thermodynamic rate coefficient in the latter experiment was 10^7 times greater than the former experiment, making it essentially instantaneous. When compared to the solution of the advection-dispersion-reaction equation (ADRE) with the well-mixed reaction coefficient, the experiments and the particle-tracking simulations showed on the order of 20% to 40% less overall product, which is attributed to poor mixing. The poor mixing also leads to higher product concentrations on the edges of the mixing zones, which the particle model simulates more accurately than the ADRE.

  12. Antiparasitic activities of novel ruthenium/lapachol complexes.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Marília I F; Corrêa, Rodrigo S; de Oliveira, Katia Mara; Rodrigues, Claudia; Ellena, Javier; Nascimento, Otaciro R; Rocha, Vinícius P C; Nonato, Fabiana R; Macedo, Taís S; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Soares, Milena B P; Batista, Alzir A

    2014-07-01

    The present study describes the synthesis, characterization, antileishmanial and antiplasmodial activities of novel diimine/(2,2'-bipyridine (bipy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 4,4'-methylbipyridine (Me-bipy) and 4,4'-methoxybipyridine (MeO-bipy)/phosphine/ruthenium(II) complexes containing lapachol (Lap, 2-hydroxy-3-(3-33 methyl-2-buthenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone) as bidentate ligand. The [Ru(Lap)(PPh3)2(bipy)]PF6 (1), [Ru(Lap)(PPh3)2(Me-bipy)]PF6 (2), [Ru(Lap)(PPh3)2(MeO-bipy)]PF6(3) and[Ru(Lap)(PPh3)2(phen)]PF6 (4) complexes, PPh3=triphenylphospine, were synthesized from the reactions of cis-[RuCl2(PPh3)2(X-bipy)] or cis-[RuCl2(PPh3)2(phen)], with lapachol. The [RuCl2(Lap)(dppb)] (5) [dppb=1,4-bis(diphenylphosphine)butane] was synthesized from the mer-[RuCl3(dppb)(H2O)] complex. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, infrared and UV-vis spectroscopy, (31)P{(1)H} and (1)H NMR, and cyclic voltammetry. The Ru(III) complex, [RuCl2(Lap)(dppb)], was also characterized by the EPR technique. The structure of the complexes [Ru(Lap)(PPh3)2(bipy)]PF6 and [RuCl2(Lap)(dppb)] was elucidated by X-ray diffraction. The evaluation of the antiparasitic activities of the complexes against Leishmania amazonensis and Plasmodium falciparum demonstrated that lapachol-ruthenium complexes are more potent than the free lapachol. The [RuCl2(Lap)(dppb)] complex is the most potent and selective antiparasitic compound among the five new ruthenium complexes studied in this work, exhibiting an activity comparable to the reference drugs. PMID:24727183

  13. Cytotoxicity of lawsone and cytoprotective activity of antioxidants in catalase mutant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sauriasari, Rani; Wang, Da-Hong; Takemura, Yoko; Tsutsui, Ken; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Sano, Kuniaki; Horita, Masako; Wang, Bing-Ling; Ogino, Keiki

    2007-06-01

    Lawsone is an active naphthoquinone derivative isolated from henna (Lawsonia inermis L.), a widely used hair dye. Previous study on the toxicity of lawsone remains unclear since the involvement of oxidative stress and the kind of ROS (reactive oxygen species) involved have not been fully resolved yet. This present study reports the cytotoxic effects of lawsone and henna. We carried out CAT assay (a zone of inhibition test of bacterial growth and colony-forming efficiency test of transformant Escherichia coli strains that express mammalian catalase gene derived from normal catalase mice (Cs(a)) and catalase-deficient mutant mice (Cs(b))), Ames mutagenicity assay and H(2)O(2) generation assay. Lawsone generated H(2)O(2) slightly in phosphate buffer system and was not mutagenic in Ames assay using TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102, both in the absence and presence of metabolic activation. Lawsone exposure inhibited the growth of both Cs(a) and Cs(b) strains in a dose-dependent manner. Mean zone diameter for Cs(a) was 9.75+/-0.96 mm and 12.75+/-1.5 mm for Cs(b). Natural henna leaves did not show toxic effects, whereas two out of four samples of marketed henna products were shown toxicity effects. Catalase abolished zone of inhibition (ZOI) of marketed henna products, eliminated ZOI of lawsone in a dose-dependent manner and low concentration of exogenous MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD eliminated the toxicity. Histidine and DTPA, the metal chelator; BHA and low concentration of capsaicin, the inducer of NADH-quinone reductase, effectively protected Cs(a) and Cs(b) against lawsone in this study. We suggest that lawsone cytotoxicity is probably mediated, at least in part, by the release of O(2)(-), H(2)O(2) and OH(-). PMID:17442476

  14. A fluorescent single domain antibody against plumbagin expressed in silkworm larvae for fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA).

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Pongkitwitoon, Benyakan; Sasaki-Tabata, Kaori; Putalun, Waraporn; Maenaka, Katsumi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2011-05-21

    A fluorescent single-domain antibody (fluobody), a chimera of a green fluorescent protein (AcGFP) with a single chain variable fragment antibody (scFv), against plumbagin (5-hydorxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone; PL) was successfully expressed in the hemolymph of silkworm larvae using a Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid DNA system to develop a rapid, simple, and sensitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA). In this study, two kinds of fluobody, in which the PL-scFv was fused at the N-terminus (N-fluobody) or C-terminus of AcGFP (C-fluobody), were expressed in silkworm larvae for comparative purposes. Interestingly, both fluobodies expressed in the BmNPV bacmid DNA system retained both of their original functions as an AcGFP and a PL-scFv, although the functions of the N-fluobody were found to be inferior to those of C-fluobody when they were expressed in Escherichia coli. Moreover, an improvement in the limit of quantification for PL measurement was observed in FLISA (24 ng mL(-1)) compared with conventional ELISA (0.2 µg mL(-1)). Since both the C-fluobody and N-fluobody are useful probes for FLISA and the time-, cost-consuming refolding step required in the conventional bacterial expression system can be avoided when they are expressed in the BmNPV bacmid DNA system, the silkworm expression system is useful for expressing fluobodies when developing FLISA. PMID:21442099

  15. Shikonin causes cell-cycle arrest and induces apoptosis by regulating the EGFR–NF-κB signalling pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Rong; Li, You; Gao, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin, a naphthoquinone pigment isolated from the Chinese herbal Zicao, has been shown to exhibit antioxidant and anticancer effects. In the present study, we investigated the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of shikonin on A431 cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. In the present study, our results showed that shikonin significantly inhibited the growth of A431 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and caused cell cycle arrest by upregulation of p21 and p27, and downregulation of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. In addition, shikonin evidently induced apoptosis due to decreasing Bcl-2 expression, increasing Bax expression, activating caspase and inactivating NF-κB, while pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor Z-Asp-CH2-DCB abrogated shikonin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, EGF could significantly increase the NF-κB DNA-binding activity and reversed the shikonin-induced inactivation of NF-κB. As anticipated AG1478 (EGFR inhibitor) and Bay11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor) blocked EGF-reversed the inactivation of NF-κB induced by shikonin. Our data also showed that EGF could evidently reverse the shikonin-induced decreases in cell viability and increases in apoptosis. Then, the NF-κB inhibitors such as Bay11-7082, SN50, Helenalin and the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 and its downstream inhibitor such as PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and STAT3 inhibitor Stattic dramatically blocked EGF-reversed decreases in cell viability and increases in apoptosis induced by shikonin. Collectively, our findings indicated that shikonin inhibited cell growth and caused cell cycle arrest of the A431 cells through the regulation of apoptosis. Moreover, these effects were mediated at least partially by suppressing the activation of the EGFR–NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:25720435

  16. Evaluation of radical scavenging properties of shikonin

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Lucia S.; Kohri, Shunji; Tsunawaki, Shohko; Kakegawa, Tomohito; Taniguchi, Taizo; Takano-Ohmuro, Hiromi; Fujii, Hirotada

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of developing effective anti-inflammatory drugs, we have been investigating the biochemical effects of shikonin of “Shikon” roots, which is a naphthoquinone with anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. Shikonin scavenged reactive oxygen species like hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion (O2•−) and singlet oxygen in previous studies, but its reactivity with reactive oxygen species is not completely understood, and comparison with standard antioxidants is lacking. This study aimed elucidation of the reactivity of shikonin with nitric oxide radical and reactive oxygen species such as alkyl-oxy radical and O2•−. By using electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry, shikonin was found unable of reacting with nitric oxide radical in a competition assay with oxyhemoglobin. However, shikonin scavenged alkyl-oxy radical from 2,2'-azobis(2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride with oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC of 0.25 relative to Trolox, and showed a strong O2•−-scavenging ability (42-fold of Trolox; estimated reaction rate constant: 1.7 × 105 M−1s−1) in electron paramagnetic resonance assays with CYPMPO as spin trap. Concerning another source of O2•−, the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (Nox2), shikonin inhibited the Nox2 activity by impairing catalysis when added before enzyme activation (IC50: 1.1 µM; NADPH oxidation assay). However, shikonin did not affect the preactivated Nox2 activity, although having potential to scavenge produced O2•−. In conclusion, shikonin scavenged O2•− and alkyl-oxy radical, but not nitric oxide radical. PMID:25320455

  17. The molecular mechanisms and gene expression profiling for shikonin-induced apoptotic and necroptotic cell death in U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Piao, Jin-Lan; Cui, Zheng-Guo; Furusawa, Yukihiro; Ahmed, Kanwal; Rehman, Mati Ur; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kadowaki, Makoto; Kondo, Takashi

    2013-09-25

    Shikonin (SHK), a natural naphthoquinone derived from the Chinese medical herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon, induces both apoptosis and necroptosis in several cancer cell lines. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms involved in the initiation of cell death are still unclear. In the present study, caspase-dependent apoptosis was induced by SHK treatment at 1μM after 6h in U937 cells, with increase in DNA fragmentation, generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), fraction of cells with low mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and in the expression of BH3 only proteins Noxa and tBid. Interestingly, caspase-independent cell death was also detected with SHK treatment at 10μM, observed as increase in SYTOX® Green staining and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) completely inhibited the SHK-induced leakage of LDH and SYTOX® Green staining. Cell permeable exogenous glutathione (GSH) completely inhibited 1μM SHK-induced apoptosis and converted 10μM SHK-induced necroptosis to apoptosis. Gene expression profiling revealed that 353 genes were found to be significantly regulated by 1μM and 85 genes by 10μM of SHK treatment, respectively. Among these genes, the transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) were highly expressed at 1μM of SHK treatment, while tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expression mainly increased at 10μM treatment. These findings provide novel information for the molecular mechanism of SHK-induced apoptosis and necroptosis. PMID:23811387

  18. Composition of Secondary Organic Aerosol from the Photolysis of 1-Nitronaphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, J.; Healy, R.; Chen, Y.; Kalberer, M.; Kourtchev, I.

    2012-12-01

    Nitro-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are of interest due to their associated mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. 1-Nitronaphthalene is emitted directly from combustion processes such as vehicle exhaust, but is also formed through the reaction of naphthalene with the hydroxyl or nitrate radical in the presence of NOx. Photolysis has previously been demonstrated to be the major degradation pathway for 1-nitronaphthalene in the troposphere. In this study, a series of simulation chamber experiments has been performed to investigate the chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed through the direct photolysis of 1-nitronaphthalene using an Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS, TSI). SOA forms rapidly with a yield of up to 50% depending on precursor concentration and photolysis rate. Along with expected products such as naphthoquinone and nitronaphthol, condensed species exhibiting mass spectra consistent with the presence of four aromatic rings were also observed. It is proposed that these species may be formed through dimerization of naphthoxy radicals generated during the photolysis process. Further evidence to support this mechanism was obtained when 1-nitronaphthalene was photolyzed in the presence of excess nitrobenzene. Dimers were then formed containing three aromatic rings, consistent with the reaction of phenoxy and naphthoxy radicals. The molecular formulae of the dimers were also confirmed by collecting SOA on filters and analysing the extracts off-line using an LTQ Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer (Thermo-Fisher Scientific), fitted with a TriVersa NanoMate chip-based electrospray ionization source (Advion Biosystems). The rapid formation of condensable dimers through the self-reaction of naphthoxy radicals represents a previously unreported potential pathway to SOA formation. Analogous mechanisms may also be important for other nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  19. Decolorization of azo dyes by Geobacter metallireducens.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Liu G; Zhou J; Chen C; Wang J; Jin R; Lv H

    2013-09-01

    Geobacter metallireducens was found to be capable of decolorizing several azo dyes with different structures to various extents. Pyruvate, ethanol, acetate, propionate, and benzoate could support 66.3 ± 2.6-93.7 ± 2.1 % decolorization of 0.1 mM acid red 27 (AR27) in 40 h. The dependence of the specific decolorization rate on AR27 concentration (25 to 800 μM) followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K m = 186.9 ± 1.4 μΜ, V max = 0.65 ± 0.02 μmol mg protein(-1) h(-1)). Enhanced AR27 decolorization was observed with the increase of cell concentrations ranging from 7.5 to 45 mgL(-1). AR27 decolorization by G. metallireducens was retarded by the presence of goethite, which competed electrons with AR27 and was reduced to Fe(II). The addition of low concentrations of humic acid (1-100 mgL(-1)) or 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (0.5-50 μM) could improve the decolorization performance of G. metallireducens. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis suggested reductive pathway to be responsible for decolorization. This was the first study on azo dye decolorization by Geobacter strain and might improve our understanding of natural attenuation and bioremediation of environments polluted by azo dyes.

  20. Decolorization of azo dyes by Geobacter metallireducens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Chen, Congcong; Wang, Jing; Jin, Ruofei; Lv, Hong

    2013-09-01

    Geobacter metallireducens was found to be capable of decolorizing several azo dyes with different structures to various extents. Pyruvate, ethanol, acetate, propionate, and benzoate could support 66.3 ± 2.6-93.7 ± 2.1 % decolorization of 0.1 mM acid red 27 (AR27) in 40 h. The dependence of the specific decolorization rate on AR27 concentration (25 to 800 μM) followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K m = 186.9 ± 1.4 μΜ, V max = 0.65 ± 0.02 μmol mg protein(-1) h(-1)). Enhanced AR27 decolorization was observed with the increase of cell concentrations ranging from 7.5 to 45 mgL(-1). AR27 decolorization by G. metallireducens was retarded by the presence of goethite, which competed electrons with AR27 and was reduced to Fe(II). The addition of low concentrations of humic acid (1-100 mgL(-1)) or 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (0.5-50 μM) could improve the decolorization performance of G. metallireducens. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis suggested reductive pathway to be responsible for decolorization. This was the first study on azo dye decolorization by Geobacter strain and might improve our understanding of natural attenuation and bioremediation of environments polluted by azo dyes. PMID:23132348

  1. A functional description of CymA, an electron-transfer hub supporting anaerobic respiratory flexibility in Shewanella.

    PubMed

    Marritt, Sophie J; Lowe, Thomas G; Bye, Jordan; McMillan, Duncan G G; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim; Zachara, John; Richardson, David J; Cheesman, Myles R; Jeuken, Lars J C; Butt, Julea N

    2012-06-15

    CymA (tetrahaem cytochrome c) is a member of the NapC/NirT family of quinol dehydrogenases. Essential for the anaerobic respiratory flexibility of shewanellae, CymA transfers electrons from menaquinol to various dedicated systems for the reduction of terminal electron acceptors including fumarate and insoluble minerals of Fe(III). Spectroscopic characterization of CymA from Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 identifies three low-spin His/His co-ordinated c-haems and a single high-spin c-haem with His/H(2)O co-ordination lying adjacent to the quinol-binding site. At pH 7, binding of the menaquinol analogue, 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide, does not alter the mid-point potentials of the high-spin (approximately -240 mV) and low-spin (approximately -110, -190 and -265 mV) haems that appear biased to transfer electrons from the high- to low-spin centres following quinol oxidation. CymA is reduced with menadiol (E(m) = -80 mV) in the presence of NADH (E(m) = -320 mV) and an NADH-menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) oxidoreductase, but not by menadiol alone. In cytoplasmic membranes reduction of CymA may then require the thermodynamic driving force from NADH, formate or H2 oxidation as the redox poise of the menaquinol pool in isolation is insufficient. Spectroscopic studies suggest that CymA requires a non-haem co-factor for quinol oxidation and that the reduced enzyme forms a 1:1 complex with its redox partner Fcc3 (flavocytochrome c3 fumarate reductase). The implications for CymA supporting the respiratory flexibility of shewanellae are discussed. PMID:22458729

  2. Promotion or suppression of experimental metastasis of B16 melanoma cells after oral administration of lapachol

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Masayo; Murakami, Manabu; Takegami, Tsutomu; Ota, Takahide

    2008-06-01

    Lapachol [2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone] is a vitamin K antagonist with antitumor activity. The effect of lapachol on the experimental metastasis of murine B16BL6 melanoma cells was examined. A single oral administration of a high toxic dose of lapachol (80-100 mg/kg) 6 h before iv injection of tumor cells drastically promoted metastasis. This promotion of metastasis was also observed in T-cell-deficient mice and NK-suppressed mice. In vitro treatment of B16BL6 cells with lapachol promoted metastasis only slightly, indicating that lapachol promotes metastasis primarily by affecting host factors other than T cells and NK cells. A single oral administration of warfarin, the most commonly used vitamin K antagonist, 6 h before iv injection of tumor cells also drastically promoted the metastasis of B16BL6 cells. The promotion of metastasis by lapachol and warfarin was almost completely suppressed by preadministration of vitamin K3, indicating that the promotion of metastasis by lapachol was derived from vitamin K antagonism. Six hours after oral administration of lapachol or warfarin, the protein C level was reduced maximally, without elongation of prothrombin time. These observations suggest that a high toxic dose of lapachol promotes metastasis by inducing a hypercoagulable state as a result of vitamin K-dependent pathway inhibition. On the other hand, serial oral administration of low non-toxic doses of lapachol (5-20 mg/kg) weakly but significantly suppressed metastasis by an unknown mechanism, suggesting the possible use of lapachol as an anti-metastatic agent.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of redox active polymers at surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Palmore, G.T.R.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 1. This chapter presents the basic elements of cyclic voltammetry of electroactive solution and surface confined species, surface attachment of siloxane reagents, the electrochemistry of quinones and viologens, and charge trapping phenomenon associated with molecular reagents confined at electrode surfaces. Chapter II. Electrochemical characterization of electrode-confined siloxane polymers (NQ-BV[sup 3+])[sub n] and (NQ-BV-BV[sup 5+])[sub n], derived from monomers which contain both napthoquinone (NQ) and benzyl viologen (BV[sup 2+]) subunits, is presented. Chapter III. The author reports the studies of chemical mechanisms for release of charge trapped in the pH-dependence rectifying polymers, (NQ-BV[sup 3+]/siloxane)[sub n] and (NQ-BV-BV[sup 5+]/siloxane)[sub n]. The polymers are derived from monomers which contain both naphthoquinone (NQ) and benzyl viologen (BV[sup 2+]) subunits. Particular to these types of surface confined homopolymers is the ability to trap charge at low pH in the form of reduced quinone. Chapter IV. A methylene linked chromophore-acceptor complex consisting of a rhenium tricarbonyl bipyridine chromophore and a benzylviologen acceptor, BV[sup 2+], were confined to a metal oxide surface via a trimethoxysilyl functional group at the BC[sup 2+] terminus. Photocurrent quantum yield was determined for irradiated electrodes derivatized with either the linked chromophore-acceptor complex, SRe(CO)[sub 3] [4-methyl-4'-[l brace]N-methyl-N'-(4 trimethoxysilyl phenylmethyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium[r brace]-2,2'-bipyridine][sup 2+] [Br[sup [minus

  4. Molecular structures and biological evaluation of 2-chloro-3-(n-alkylamino)-1,4-napthoquinone derivatives as potent antifungal agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Omkar; Patekar, Ashwini; Khan, Ayesha; Kathawate, Laxmi; Haram, Santosh; Markad, Ganesh; Puranik, Vedavati; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2014-02-01

    Derivatives of 2-chloro-3-(n-alkylamino)-1,4-naphthoquinone {n-alkyl: methyl; L-1, ethyl; L-2, propyl; L-3 and butyl; L-4} have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-visible spectroscopy, LC-MS and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Antifungal activity of L-1 to L-4 has been evaluated against Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans and Cladosporium herbarum. The intramolecular hydrogen bonding affects the N-H vibrational frequency in L-2 (3273 cm-1). The single crystal X-ray structure reveal that L-1 and L-3 crystallizes in triclinic P-1, whereas L-2 crystallizes in orthorhombic Pca21 space group. An extensive intra and intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions were observed in L-1 to L-3 which leads to molecular association. Intramolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding were observed in L-1 to L-3. Moreover π-π stacking interactions were observed between the quinonoid rings of L-1 and L-3, however no such interactions were observed in L-2. An electrochemical study showed molecular association of L-1 to L-4 in DMSO solution. Compounds L-1 to L-4 were found to be potent antifungal agents against all the three strains, especially against C. tropicalis. Amongst these promising antifungal candidates, L-1 showed better activity compared to the clinically administered antifungal drug Amphotericin B and Nitrofurantoin with MIC = 1.25 μg ml-1 and MIC = 0.025 μg ml-1 respectively against C. albicans. Structure and activity relationship (SAR) study suggest a Log P value of ˜2.0 and the cyclic voltammetry studies reveals additional chemical processes for L-1, which exhibits maximum activity against all fungal strains.

  5. Complete phenotypic recovery of an Alzheimer's disease model by a quinone-tryptophan hybrid aggregation inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Scherzer-Attali, Roni; Pellarin, Riccardo; Convertino, Marino; Frydman-Marom, Anat; Egoz-Matia, Nirit; Peled, Sivan; Levy-Sakin, Michal; Shalev, Deborah E; Caflisch, Amedeo; Gazit, Ehud; Segal, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The rational design of amyloid oligomer inhibitors is yet an unmet drug development need. Previous studies have identified the role of tryptophan in amyloid recognition, association and inhibition. Furthermore, tryptophan was ranked as the residue with highest amyloidogenic propensity. Other studies have demonstrated that quinones, specifically anthraquinones, can serve as aggregation inhibitors probably due to the dipole interaction of the quinonic ring with aromatic recognition sites within the amyloidogenic proteins. Here, using in vitro, in vivo and in silico tools we describe the synthesis and functional characterization of a rationally designed inhibitor of the Alzheimer's disease-associated beta-amyloid. This compound, 1,4-naphthoquinon-2-yl-L-tryptophan (NQTrp), combines the recognition capacities of both quinone and tryptophan moieties and completely inhibited Abeta oligomerization and fibrillization, as well as the cytotoxic effect of Abeta oligomers towards cultured neuronal cell line. Furthermore, when fed to transgenic Alzheimer's disease Drosophila model it prolonged their life span and completely abolished their defective locomotion. Analysis of the brains of these flies showed a significant reduction in oligomeric species of Abeta while immuno-staining of the 3(rd) instar larval brains showed a significant reduction in Abeta accumulation. Computational studies, as well as NMR and CD spectroscopy provide mechanistic insight into the activity of the compound which is most likely mediated by clamping of the aromatic recognition interface in the central segment of Abeta. Our results demonstrate that interfering with the aromatic core of amyloidogenic peptides is a promising approach for inhibiting various pathogenic species associated with amyloidogenic diseases. The compound NQTrp can serve as a lead for developing a new class of disease modifying drugs for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20559435

  6. Complete Phenotypic Recovery of an Alzheimer's Disease Model by a Quinone-Tryptophan Hybrid Aggregation Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Scherzer-Attali, Roni; Pellarin, Riccardo; Convertino, Marino; Frydman-Marom, Anat; Egoz-Matia, Nirit; Peled, Sivan; Levy-Sakin, Michal; Shalev, Deborah E.; Caflisch, Amedeo; Gazit, Ehud; Segal, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The rational design of amyloid oligomer inhibitors is yet an unmet drug development need. Previous studies have identified the role of tryptophan in amyloid recognition, association and inhibition. Furthermore, tryptophan was ranked as the residue with highest amyloidogenic propensity. Other studies have demonstrated that quinones, specifically anthraquinones, can serve as aggregation inhibitors probably due to the dipole interaction of the quinonic ring with aromatic recognition sites within the amyloidogenic proteins. Here, using in vitro, in vivo and in silico tools we describe the synthesis and functional characterization of a rationally designed inhibitor of the Alzheimer's disease-associated β-amyloid. This compound, 1,4-naphthoquinon-2-yl-L-tryptophan (NQTrp), combines the recognition capacities of both quinone and tryptophan moieties and completely inhibited Aβ oligomerization and fibrillization, as well as the cytotoxic effect of Aβ oligomers towards cultured neuronal cell line. Furthermore, when fed to transgenic Alzheimer's disease Drosophila model it prolonged their life span and completely abolished their defective locomotion. Analysis of the brains of these flies showed a significant reduction in oligomeric species of Aβ while immuno-staining of the 3rd instar larval brains showed a significant reduction in Aβ accumulation. Computational studies, as well as NMR and CD spectroscopy provide mechanistic insight into the activity of the compound which is most likely mediated by clamping of the aromatic recognition interface in the central segment of Aβ. Our results demonstrate that interfering with the aromatic core of amyloidogenic peptides is a promising approach for inhibiting various pathogenic species associated with amyloidogenic diseases. The compound NQTrp can serve as a lead for developing a new class of disease modifying drugs for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20559435

  7. Secondary Metabolites from Plants Inhibiting ABC Transporters and Reversing Resistance of Cancer Cells and Microbes to Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wink, Michael; Ashour, Mohamed L.; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Fungal, bacterial, and cancer cells can develop resistance against antifungal, antibacterial, or anticancer agents. Mechanisms of resistance are complex and often multifactorial. Mechanisms include: (1) Activation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-gp, which pump out lipophilic compounds that have entered a cell, (2) Activation of cytochrome p450 oxidases which can oxidize lipophilic agents to make them more hydrophilic and accessible for conjugation reaction with glucuronic acid, sulfate, or amino acids, and (3) Activation of glutathione transferase, which can conjugate xenobiotics. This review summarizes the evidence that secondary metabolites (SM) of plants, such as alkaloids, phenolics, and terpenoids can interfere with ABC transporters in cancer cells, parasites, bacteria, and fungi. Among the active natural products several lipophilic terpenoids [monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes (including saponins), steroids (including cardiac glycosides), and tetraterpenes] but also some alkaloids (isoquinoline, protoberberine, quinoline, indole, monoterpene indole, and steroidal alkaloids) function probably as competitive inhibitors of P-gp, multiple resistance-associated protein 1, and Breast cancer resistance protein in cancer cells, or efflux pumps in bacteria (NorA) and fungi. More polar phenolics (phenolic acids, flavonoids, catechins, chalcones, xanthones, stilbenes, anthocyanins, tannins, anthraquinones, and naphthoquinones) directly inhibit proteins forming several hydrogen and ionic bonds and thus disturbing the 3D structure of the transporters. The natural products may be interesting in medicine or agriculture as they can enhance the activity of active chemotherapeutics or pesticides or even reverse multidrug resistance, at least partially, of adapted and resistant cells. If these SM are applied in combination with a cytotoxic or antimicrobial agent, they may reverse resistance in a synergistic fashion. PMID:22536197

  8. Shikonin attenuates lung cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and metastasis by inhibiting integrin β1 expression and the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heyong; Wu, Chunlian; Wan, Shengbang; Zhang, Huijun; Zhou, Songwen; Liu, Gentao

    2013-06-01

    Integrin β1 facilitates cancer cell adhesion, migration and metastasis by activating intracellular signaling pathways including the ERK and PI3K signaling pathways. In previous studies, shikonin, an active naphthoquinone isolated from the Chinese medicine Zi Cao (gromwell), showed effective anticancer activity both in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanisms underlying shikonin's anticancer activity are not fully elucidated. Increasing evidence indicates that shikonin inhibits tumor metastasis, but little is known about the effect of shikonin on lung cancer cells. To better understand the anti-metastatic role of shikonin in lung cancer, in this study we sought to investigate the effect of shikonin on lung cancer cell proliferation, adhesion to extracellular matrices (ECM), migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. We also sought to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying shikonin's anticancer effects. Here we showed that when non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells were treated with shikonin for 24h, 8.0μM shikonin significantly inhibited cell proliferation, while cells treated with less than 2.0μM shikonin for 24h significantly suppressed cell adhesion to the ECM, invasion and migration in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that shikonin led to a reduction in the expression of integrin β1 at the mRNA and protein levels. Further elucidation of the mechanisms involved revealed that shikonin repressed the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Taken together, our findings provide new evidence that shikonin suppresses lung cancer invasion and metastasis by inhibiting integrin β1 expression and the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:23562787

  9. Isolation and characterization of photosynthetic reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas capsulata and Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides

    SciTech Connect

    Worland, S.T.

    1984-09-01

    Reaction centers were isolated by affinity chromatography on equine cytochrome C. Peripheral proteins were removed with 0.05% LDAO. Absorption and EPR spectra and bleaching assays indicate that the reaction centers retained their electron donors and acceptors in the native environment. Three reaction center polypeptides were isolated and submitted for amino-terminal sequence determination. By comparing these sequences to those deduced from DNA, it was established that the M and L subunits are post-translationally modified to remove the aminoterminal Met, whereas the H subunit is not. Inhibition of O/sub 2/ evolution in photosystem II particles from spinach by naphthoquinone derivatives show O/sub 2/ inhibition by bromomethyl and acetoxymethyl derivatives but not with hydroxymethyl derivatives. Inhibition by acetoxymethyl derivatives in irreversible and dependent on illumination suggesting that reduction of the quinone is necessary. Therefore acetoxymethyl derivatives may be useful as suicide reagents for labelling quinone binding sites. Procedures were developed to extract one or both of the quinones present in reaction centers and preserve the integrity of the co-factor binding sites. The H and M subunits were cleaned using furmic acid. Both fragments were isolated from the H subunit, while the larger fragment was isolated from the M subunit. Electrophoretic mobilities of the isolated fragments agrees well with the expected molecular weights. The L subunit was digested with Staphylococcus areus vs protease. The pattern obtained was consistant with the potential sites of cleavage, but it was not possible to assign cleavage sites unambiguously. 112 references, 37 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Phytochemical screening and anti-inflammatory activity of Cnidoscolus quercifolius (Euphorbiaceae) in mice

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo Gomes, Leandra Macedo; de Andrade, Thayne Mayra; Silva, Juliane Cabral; de Lima, Julianeli Tolentino; Quintans-Junior, Lucindo José; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cnidoscolus quercifolius is a species popularly known as favela and faveleira, and belonging to the Caatinga biome (semi-arid vegetation, Brazil), where is used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolic extract from barks (Cqb-EtOH) and leaves (Cql-EtOH) of C. quercifolius in mice using experimental models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract was performed. The activity was evaluated by paw edema induced by carrageenan and leukocytes migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan methods. Results: A preliminary analysis of Cqb-EtOH revealed that it contained coumarins, flavonoids, monoterpenes/diterpenes and naphthoquinones, while the Cql-EtOH showed positive reaction to coumarins, anthracene derivatives, flavonoids, lignans and triterpenes/steroids. Cqb-EtOH and Cql-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) inhibited significantly (P < 0.01) the increase in the edema volume after administration of carrageenan. In the peritonitis test, acute pretreatment with Cqb-EtOH and Cql-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) inhibited the leukocyte migration. Conclusions: It can be concluded that extracts from the barks and leaves of C. quercifolius have anti-inflammatory activity, which supports the popular use of this plant to treat inflammation. Thus, extracts has significant anti-inflammatory properties, which are related probably to inhibition of release of mediators of the inflammatory process. PMID:25276074

  11. Identification and characterization of the enzymatic activity of zeta-crystallin from guinea pig lens. A novel NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Rao, P V; Krishna, C M; Zigler, J S

    1992-01-01

    zeta-Crystallin is a major protein in the lens of certain mammals. In guinea pigs it comprises 10% of the total lens protein, and it has been shown that a mutation in the zeta-crystallin gene is associated with autosomal dominant congenital cataract. As with several other lens crystallins of limited phylogenetic distribution, zeta-crystallin has been characterized as an "enzyme/crystallin" based on its ability to reduce catalytically the electron acceptor 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol. We report here that certain naturally occurring quinones are good substrates for the enzymatic activity of zeta-crystallin. Among the various quinones tested, the orthoquinones 1,2-naphthoquinone and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone were the best substrates whereas menadione, ubiquinone, 9,10-anthraquinone, vitamins K1 and K2 were inactive as substrates. This quinone reductase activity was NADPH specific and exhibited typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Activity was sensitive to heat and sulfhydryl reagents but was very stable on freezing. Dicumarol (Ki = 1.3 x 10(-5) M) and nitrofurantoin (Ki = 1.4 x 10(-5) M) inhibited the activity competitively with respect to the electron acceptor, quinone. NADPH protected the enzyme against inactivation caused by heat, N-ethylmaleimide, or H2O2. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the reaction products showed formation of a semiquinone radical. The enzyme activity was associated with O2 consumption, generation of O2- and H2O2, and reduction of ferricytochrome c. These properties indicate that the enzyme acts through a one-electron transfer process. The substrate specificity, reaction characteristics, and physicochemical properties of zeta-crystallin demonstrate that it is an active NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase distinct from quinone reductases described previously. PMID:1370456

  12. Shikonin and its derivatives inhibit the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling and synergistically kill glioblastoma cells in combination with erlotinib.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiaoli; Kretschmer, Nadine; Bauer, Rudolf; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-09-15

    Overexpression and mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene play a causal role in tumorigenesis and resistance to treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib are currently used for the treatment of GBM; however, their efficacy has been limited due to drug resistance. New treatment strategies are therefore urgently needed. Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone, induces both apoptosis and necroptosis in human glioma cells, but the effectiveness of erlotinib-shikonin combination treatment as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms is unknown yet. In this study, we investigated erlotinib in combination with shikonin and 14 shikonin derivatives in parental U87MG and transfected U87MG.ΔEGFR GBM cells. Most of the shikonin derivatives revealed strong cytotoxicity. Shikonin together with five other derivatives, namely deoxyshikonin, isobutyrylshikonin, acetylshikonin, β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin and acetylalkannin showed synergistic cytotoxicity toward U87MG.ΔEGFR in combination with erlotinib. Moreover, the combined cytotoxic effect of shikonin and erlotinib was further confirmed with another three EGFR-expressing cell lines, BS153, A431 and DK-MG. Shikonin not only dose-dependently inhibited EGFR phosphorylation and decreased phosphorylation of EGFR downstream molecules, including AKT, P44/42MAPK and PLCγ1, but also together with erlotinib synergistically inhibited ΔEGFR phosphorylation in U87MG.ΔEGFR cells as determined by Loewe additivity and Bliss independence drug interaction models. These results suggest that the combination of erlotinib with shikonin or its derivatives might be a potential strategy to overcome drug resistance to erlotinib. PMID:25688715

  13. Kinetics of naphthalene metabolism in target and non-target tissues of rodents and in nasal and airway microsomes from the Rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Buckpitt, Alan; Morin, Dexter; Murphy, Shannon; Edwards, Patricia; Van Winkle, Laura

    2013-07-15

    Naphthalene produces species and cell selective injury to respiratory tract epithelial cells of rodents. In these studies we determined the apparent K{sub m}, V{sub max}, and catalytic efficiency (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) for naphthalene metabolism in microsomal preparations from subcompartments of the respiratory tract of rodents and non-human primates. In tissues with high substrate turnover, major metabolites were derived directly from naphthalene oxide with smaller amounts from conjugates of diol epoxide, diepoxide, and 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinones. In some tissues, different enzymes with dissimilar K{sub m} and V{sub max} appeared to metabolize naphthalene. The rank order of V{sub max} (rat olfactory epithelium > mouse olfactory epithelium > murine airways ≫ rat airways) correlated well with tissue susceptibility to naphthalene. The V{sub max} in monkey alveolar subcompartment was 2% that in rat nasal olfactory epithelium. Rates of metabolism in nasal compartments of the monkey were low. The catalytic efficiencies of microsomes from known susceptible tissues/subcompartments are 10 and 250 fold higher than in rat airway and monkey alveolar subcompartments, respectively. Although the strong correlations between catalytic efficiencies and tissue susceptibility suggest that non-human primate tissues are unlikely to generate metabolites at a rate sufficient to produce cellular injury, other studies showing high levels of formation of protein adducts support the need for additional studies. - Highlights: • Naphthalene is metabolized with high catalytic efficiency in susceptible tissue. • Naphthalene is metabolized at low catalytic efficiency in non-susceptible tissue. • Respiratory tissues of the non human primate metabolize naphthalene slowly.

  14. Ultrasonic nebulization extraction/low pressure photoionization mass spectrometry for direct analysis of chemicals in matrices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengyuan; Zhu, Yanan; Zhou, Zhongyue; Yang, Jiuzhong; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2015-09-01

    A novel ultrasonic nebulization extraction/low-pressure photoionization (UNE-LPPI) system has been designed and employed for the rapid mass spectrometric analysis of chemicals in matrices. An ultrasonic nebulizer was used to extract the chemicals in solid sample and nebulize the solvent in the nebulization cell. Aerosols formed by ultrasonic were evaporated by passing through a transferring tube, and desolvated chemicals were ionized by the emitted light (10.6 eV) from a Krypton discharge lamp at low pressure (∼68 Pa). First, a series of semi/non-volatile compounds with different polarities, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), amino acids, dipeptides, drugs, nucleic acids, alkaloids, and steroids were used to test the system. Then, the quantification capability of UNE-LPPI was checked with: 1) pure chemicals, such as 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone dissolved in solvent; 2) soil powder spiked with different amounts of phenanthrene and pyrene. For pure chemicals, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) for the standard curve of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in the range of 3 ng-20 μg mL(-1) was 0.9922, and the measured limits of detection (LOD) was 1 ng ml(-1). In the case of soil powder, linear relationships for phenanthrene and pyrene from 10 to 400 ng mg(-1) were obtained with correlation coefficients of 0.9889 and 0.9893, respectively. At last, the feasibility of UNE-LPPI for the detection of chemicals in real matrices such as tablets and biological tissues (tea, Citrus aurantium peel and sage (Salvia officinalis) leaf) were successfully demonstrated. PMID:26388379

  15. Secreted pitfall-trap fluid of carnivorous Nepenthes plants is unsuitable for microbial growth

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Franziska; Rott, Matthias; Rottloff, Sandy; Paetz, Christian; Hilke, Ines; Raessler, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes possess modified leaves that form pitfall traps in order to capture prey, mainly arthropods, to make additional nutrients available for the plant. These pitchers contain a digestive fluid due to the presence of hydrolytic enzymes. In this study, the composition of the digestive fluid was further analysed with regard to mineral nutrients and low molecular-weight compounds. A potential contribution of microbes to the composition of pitcher fluid was investigated. Methods Fluids from closed pitchers were harvested and analysed for mineral nutrients using analytical techniques based on ion-chromatography and inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy. Secondary metabolites were identified by a combination of LC-MS and NMR. The presence of bacteria in the pitcher fluid was investigated by PCR of 16S-rRNA genes. Growth analyses of bacteria and yeast were performed in vitro with harvested pitcher fluid and in vivo within pitchers with injected microbes. Key Results The pitcher fluid from closed pitchers was found to be primarily an approx. 25-mm KCl solution, which is free of bacteria and unsuitable for microbial growth probably due to the lack of essential mineral nutrients such as phosphate and inorganic nitrogen. The fluid also contained antimicrobial naphthoquinones, plumbagin and 7-methyl-juglone, and defensive proteins such as the thaumatin-like protein. Challenging with bacteria or yeast caused bactericide as well as fungistatic properties in the fluid. Our results reveal that Nepenthes pitcher fluids represent a dynamic system that is able to react to the presence of microbes. Conclusions The secreted liquid of closed and freshly opened Nepenthes pitchers is exclusively plant-derived. It is unsuitable to serve as an environment for microbial growth. Thus, Nepenthes plants can avoid and control, at least to some extent, the microbial colonization of their pitfall traps and, thereby, reduce the need to vie with microbes for the prey-derived nutrients. PMID:23264234

  16. Evaluation of radical scavenging properties of shikonin.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Lucia S; Kohri, Shunji; Tsunawaki, Shohko; Kakegawa, Tomohito; Taniguchi, Taizo; Takano-Ohmuro, Hiromi; Fujii, Hirotada

    2014-09-01

    With the aim of developing effective anti-inflammatory drugs, we have been investigating the biochemical effects of shikonin of "Shikon" roots, which is a naphthoquinone with anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. Shikonin scavenged reactive oxygen species like hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion (O2 (•-)) and singlet oxygen in previous studies, but its reactivity with reactive oxygen species is not completely understood, and comparison with standard antioxidants is lacking. This study aimed elucidation of the reactivity of shikonin with nitric oxide radical and reactive oxygen species such as alkyl-oxy radical and O2 (•-). By using electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry, shikonin was found unable of reacting with nitric oxide radical in a competition assay with oxyhemoglobin. However, shikonin scavenged alkyl-oxy radical from 2,2'-azobis(2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride with oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC of 0.25 relative to Trolox, and showed a strong O2 (•-)-scavenging ability (42-fold of Trolox; estimated reaction rate constant: 1.7 × 10(5) M(-1)s(-1)) in electron paramagnetic resonance assays with CYPMPO as spin trap. Concerning another source of O2 (•-), the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (Nox2), shikonin inhibited the Nox2 activity by impairing catalysis when added before enzyme activation (IC50: 1.1 µM; NADPH oxidation assay). However, shikonin did not affect the preactivated Nox2 activity, although having potential to scavenge produced O2 (•-). In conclusion, shikonin scavenged O2 (•-) and alkyl-oxy radical, but not nitric oxide radical. PMID:25320455

  17. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Korać, Radava R; Khambholja, Kapil M

    2011-07-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  18. Buparvaquone is active against Neospora caninum in vitro and in experimentally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martinez, Adriana; Manser, Vera; Balmer, Vreni; Winzer, Pablo; Ritler, Dominic; Hostettler, Isabel; Arranz-Solís, David; Ortega-Mora, Luis; Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The naphthoquinone buparvaquone is currently the only drug used against theileriosis. Here, the effects of buparvaquone were investigated in vitro and in an experimental mouse model for Neospora caninum infection. In 4-day proliferation assays, buparvaquone efficiently inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite replication (IC50 = 4.9 nM; IC100 = 100 nM). However, in the long term tachyzoites adapted and resumed proliferation in the presence of 100 nM buparvaquone after 20 days of cultivation. Parasiticidal activity was noted after 9 days of culture in 0.5 µM or 6 days in 1 µM buparvaquone. TEM of N. caninum infected fibroblasts treated with 1 µM buparvaquone showed that the drug acted rather slowly, and ultrastructural changes were evident only after 3-5 days of treatment, including severe alterations in the parasite cytoplasm, changes in the composition of the parasitophorous vacuole matrix and a diminished integrity of the vacuole membrane. Treatment of N. caninum infected mice with buparvaquone (100 mg/kg) either by intraperitoneal injection or gavage prevented neosporosis symptoms in 4 out of 6 mice in the intraperitoneally treated group, and in 6 out of 7 mice in the group receiving oral treatment. In the corresponding controls, all 6 mice injected intraperitoneally with corn oil alone died of acute neosporosis, and 4 out of 6 mice died in the orally treated control group. Assessment of infection intensities in the treatment groups showed that, compared to the drug treated groups, the controls showed a significantly higher parasite load in the lungs while cerebral parasite load was higher in the buparvaquone-treated groups. Thus, although buparvaquone did not eliminate the parasites infecting the CNS, the drug represents an interesting lead with the potential to eliminate, or at least diminish, fetal infection during pregnancy. PMID:25941626

  19. Laser flash photolysis and magnetic field effect studies on the interaction of uracil and its derivatives with menadione and 9,10-anthraquinone.

    PubMed

    Bose, Adity; Basu, Samita

    2008-11-27

    Laser flash photolysis and an external magnetic field have been used to study the interaction of two quinone molecules, namely, 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) and 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, commonly known as menadione (MQ), with the RNA base uracil (U) and two of its derivatives, 1,3-dimethyluracil (dmU) and uridine (dU). We have conducted our studies in homogeneous organic and heterogeneous micellar media in order to investigate the effect of media on the molecules and any change in reactivity on account of substitution. In organic homogeneous medium, both the quinones have behaved similarly with the bases. Here U has undergone both electron transfer (ET) and hydrogen (H) transfer, while dU and dmU have failed to exhibit any ET. Failure to support ET has been attributed to keto-enol tautomerism, which has been found to have a significant role in determining the occurrence of ET from these pyrimidine bases. However, in SDS micelles some variations regarding the reactivity of these molecules have been discerned. The variations are 2-fold. Here ET from U has been found to get completely eclipsed by a dominant H abstraction with both the quinones, and AQ reveals a difference in the extent of H abstraction with the bases in SDS. With U and dU, the prevailing H abstraction with AQ has succeeded in formation of only AQH(*), while dmU has produced both AQH(*) and AQH(2), the latter being formed by two successive H abstraction. Explanations of this intriguing behavior with U and its derivatives with quinone molecules have been the main concern in this work. PMID:18975876

  20. Development of Enantioselective Synthetic Routes to (–)-Kinamycin F and (–)-Lomaiviticin Aglycon

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Christina M.; Gholap, Shivajirao L.; Lu, Liang; Kaneko, Miho; Li, Zhenwu; Ravikumar, P. C.; Herzon, Seth B.

    2012-01-01

    The development of enantioselective synthetic routes to (–)-kinamycin F (9) and (–)-lomaiviticin aglycon (6) is described. The diazotetrahydrobenzo[b]fluorene (diazofluorene) functional group of the targets was prepared by fluoride-mediated coupling of a β-trimethylsilylmethyl-α,β-unsaturated ketone (38) with an oxidized naphthoquinone (19), palladium-catalyzed cyclization (39→37), and diazo transfer (37→53). The D-ring precursors 60 and 68 were prepared from m-cresol and 3-ethylphenol, respectively. Coupling of the β-trimethylsilylmethyl-α,β-unsaturated ketone 60 with the juglone derivative 61, cyclization, and diazo transfer, provided the advanced diazofluorene 63, which was elaborated to (–)-kinamycin F (9) in three steps. The diazofluorene 87 was converted to the C2-symmetric lomaiviticin aglycon precursor 91 by enoxysilane formation and oxidative dimerization with manganese tris(hexafluoroacetylacetonate) (94, 26%). The stereochemical outcome is attributed to the steric bias engendered by the mesityl acetal of 87 and contact ion pairing of the intermediates. The coupling product 91 was deprotected (tert-butylhydrogen peroxide, trifluoroacetic acid–dichloromethane) to form the chain isomer of lomaiviticin aglycon 98, which cyclizes to (–)-lomaiviticin aglycon (6, 39–41% overall). The scope of the fluoride-mediated coupling process is delineated (nine products, average yield = 72%, Table 2); a related enoxysilane quinonylation reaction is also described (10 products, average yield = 77%, Table 1). We establish that dimeric diazofluorenes undergo hydrodediazotization 3-fold faster then related monomeric diazofluorenes (Table 6). The simple diazofluorene 103 is a potent inhibitor of ovarian cancer stem cells (IC50 = 500 nM). PMID:23030272

  1. Formation of environmentally persistent free radicals from the heterogeneous reaction of ozone and polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Borrowman, Cuyler K; Zhou, Shouming; Burrow, Timothy E; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2016-01-01

    In the 1980s long-lived radical species were identified in cigarette tar. Since then, environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been observed in ambient particulate matter, and have been generated in particulate matter generated from internal combustion engines. For the first time, we measure in situ the formation and decay of EPFRs through the heterogeneous reaction of ozone and several polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC). Solid anthracene (ANT), pyrene (PY), benzo[a]pyrene (BAP), benzo[ghi]perylene (BGHIP), 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4NQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) were reacted with gas-phase ozone in a flow system placed in the active cavity of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer, and the formation of radicals was measured on the timescale of tens of minutes at ambient levels of ozone down to 30 ppb. For most substrates the net radical production is initially rapid, slows at intermediate times, and is followed by a slow decay. For oxidized solid BAP, radical signal persists for many days in the absence of ozone. To evaluate the effect of substrate phase, the solid PAHs were also dissolved in squalane, an organic oil inert to ozone, which yielded a much higher maximum radical concentration and faster radical decay when exposed to ozone. With higher mobility, reactants were apparently able to more easily diffuse and react with each other, yielding the higher radical concentrations. The EPR spectra exhibit three radicals types, two of which have been assigned to semiquinone species and one to a PAH-derived, carbon-centered radical. Although our system uses levels of PAC not typically found in the environment it is worth noting that the amounts of radical formed, on the order of 10(18) radicals per g, are comparable to those observed in ambient particulate matter. PMID:26603953

  2. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    PubMed Central

    Korać, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

    2011-01-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  3. Naphthalene cytotoxicity in microsomal epoxide hydrolase deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Carratt, S A; Morin, D; Buckpitt, A R; Edwards, P C; Van Winkle, L S

    2016-03-30

    Naphthalene (NA) is a ubiquitous pollutant to which humans are widely exposed. 1,2-Dihydro-1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene (NA-dihydrodiol) is a major metabolite of NA generated by microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH). To investigate the role of the NA-dihydrodiol and subsequent metabolites (i.e. 1,2-naphthoquinone) in cytotoxicity, we exposed both male and female wild type (WT) and mEH null mice (KO) to NA by inhalation (5, 10, 20ppm for 4h). NA-dihydrodiol was ablated in the KO mice. High-resolution histopathology was used to study site-specific cytotoxicity, and formation of naphthalene metabolites was measured by HPLC in microdissected airways. Swollen and vacuolated airway epithelial cells were observed in the intra- and extrapulmonary airways of all mice at and below the current OSHA standard (10ppm). Female mice may be more susceptible to this acute cytotoxicity. In the extrapulmonary airways, WT mice were more susceptible to damage than KO mice, indicating that the metabolites associated with mEH-mediated metabolism could be partially responsible for cytotoxicity at this site. The level of cytotoxicity in the mEH KO mice at all airway levels suggests that non-mEH metabolites are contributing to NA cellular damage in the lung. Our results indicate that the apparent contribution of mEH-dependent metabolites to toxicity differs by location in the lung. These studies suggest that metabolites generated through the mEH pathway may be of minor importance in distal airway toxicity and subsequent carcinogenesis from NA exposure. PMID:26840748

  4. Posttranslational Regulation of Human DNA Polymerase ι*

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Justyna; McLenigan, Mary P.; Frank, Ekaterina G.; Dai, Xiaoxia; Yang, Wei; Wang, Yinsheng; Woodgate, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Human DNA polymerases (pols) η and ι are Y-family DNA polymerase paralogs that facilitate translesion synthesis past damaged DNA. Both polη and polι can be monoubiquitinated in vivo. Polη has been shown to be ubiquitinated at one primary site. When this site is unavailable, three nearby lysines may become ubiquitinated. In contrast, mass spectrometry analysis of monoubiquitinated polι revealed that it is ubiquitinated at over 27 unique sites. Many of these sites are localized in different functional domains of the protein, including the catalytic polymerase domain, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen-interacting region, the Rev1-interacting region, and its ubiquitin binding motifs UBM1 and UBM2. Polι monoubiquitination remains unchanged after cells are exposed to DNA-damaging agents such as UV light (generating UV photoproducts), ethyl methanesulfonate (generating alkylation damage), mitomycin C (generating interstrand cross-links), or potassium bromate (generating direct oxidative DNA damage). However, when exposed to naphthoquinones, such as menadione and plumbagin, which cause indirect oxidative damage through mitochondrial dysfunction, polι becomes transiently polyubiquitinated via Lys11- and Lys48-linked chains of ubiquitin and subsequently targeted for degradation. Polyubiquitination does not occur as a direct result of the perturbation of the redox cycle as no polyubiquitination was observed after treatment with rotenone or antimycin A, which both inhibit mitochondrial electron transport. Interestingly, polyubiquitination was observed after the inhibition of the lysine acetyltransferase KATB3/p300. We hypothesize that the formation of polyubiquitination chains attached to polι occurs via the interplay between lysine acetylation and ubiquitination of ubiquitin itself at Lys11 and Lys48 rather than oxidative damage per se. PMID:26370087

  5. Plumbagin, Vitamin K3 Analogue, Suppresses STAT3 Activation Pathway through Induction of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, SHP-1: Potential Role in Chemosensitization

    PubMed Central

    Sandur, Santosh K.; Pandey, Manoj K; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2009-01-01

    The activation of STAT3 has been linked with carcinogenesis through survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. Agents that can suppress STAT3 activation have potential not only for prevention but also for treatment of cancer. In the present report, we investigated whether plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), an analogue of Vitamin K and isolated from chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica), an Ayurvedic medicinal plant, can modulate the STAT3 pathway. We found that plumbagin inhibited both constitutive and IL-6-inducible STAT3 phosphorylation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and this correlated with the inhibition of c-Src, JAK1, and JAK2 activation. Vanadate, however, reversed the plumbagin-induced downregulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, we found that plumbagin induced the expression of the protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1; and silencing of the SHP-1 abolished the effect of plumbagin. This agent also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated cyclin D1, Bcl-xL, and VEGF, activated caspase-3, induced PARP cleavage, and increased the sub-G1 population of MM cells. Consistent with these results, overexpression of constitutive active STAT3 significantly reduced the plumbagin-induced apoptosis. When compared with AG490, a rationally designed STAT3/JAK2 inhibitor, plumbagin was found more potent in suppressing proliferation of cells. Plumbagin also significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of thalidomide and bortezomib in MM cells. Overall, these results suggest that the plumbagin inhibits STAT3 activation pathway through induction of SHP-1 and this may mediate sensitization of STAT3 overexpressing cancers to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:20068065

  6. Effective Antibiofilm Polyketides against Staphylococcus aureus from the Pyranonaphthoquinone Biosynthetic Pathways of Streptomyces Species

    PubMed Central

    San Martin Galindo, Paola; Taguchi, Takaaki; Manner, Suvi; Vuorela, Pia M.; Ichinose, Koji; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces bacteria are renowned for their ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Recently, synthetic biology has enabled the production of intermediates and shunt products, which may have altered biological activities compared to the end products of the pathways. Here, we have evaluated the potential of recently isolated alnumycins and other closely related pyranonaphthoquinone (PNQ) polyketides against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. The antimicrobial potency of the compounds against planktonic cells and biofilms was determined by redox dye-based viability staining, and the antibiofilm efficacy of the compounds was confirmed by viable counting. A novel antistaphylococcal polyketide, alnumycin D, was identified. Unexpectedly, the C-ribosylated pathway shunt product alnumycin D was more active against planktonic and biofilm cells than the pathway end product alnumycin A, where a ribose unit has been converted into a dioxane moiety. The evaluation of the antibiofilm potential of other alnumycins revealed that the presence of the ribose moiety in pyranose form is essential for high activity against preformed biofilms. Furthermore, the antibiofilm potential of other closely related PNQ polyketides was examined. Based on their previously reported activity against planktonic S. aureus cells, granaticin B, kalafungin, and medermycin were also selected for testing, and among them, granaticin B was found to be the most potent against preformed biofilms. The most active antibiofilm PNQs, alnumycin D and granaticin B, share several structural features that may be important for their antibiofilm activity. They are uncharged, glycosylated, and also contain a similar oxygenation pattern of the lateral naphthoquinone ring. These findings highlight the potential of antibiotic biosynthetic pathways as a source of effective antibiofilm compounds. PMID:26195520

  7. Details in the catalytic mechanism of mammalian thioredoxin reductase 1 revealed using point mutations and juglone-coupled enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianqiang; Cheng, Qing; Arnér, Elias S J

    2016-05-01

    The mammalian selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is a key enzyme in redox regulation, antioxidant defense, and cellular growth. TrxR1 can catalyze efficient reduction of juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone; walnut toxin) in a reaction which, in contrast to reduction of most other substrates of TrxR1, is not dependent upon an intact selenocysteine (Sec, U) residue of the enzyme. Using a number of TrxR1 mutant variants, we here found that a sole Cys residue at the C-terminal tail of TrxR1 is required for high-efficiency juglone-coupled NADPH oxidase activity of Sec-deficient enzyme, occurring with mixed one- and two-electron reactions producing superoxide. The activity also utilizes the FAD and the N-terminal redox active disulfide/dithiol motif of TrxR1. If a sole Cys residue at the C-terminal tail of TrxR1, in the absence of Sec, was moved further towards the C-terminal end of the protein compared to its natural position at residue 497, juglone reduction was, surprisingly, further increased. Ala substitutions of Trp407, Asn418 and Asn419 in a previously described "guiding bar", thought to mediate interactions of the C-terminal tail of TrxR1 with the FAD/dithiol site at the N-terminal domain of the other subunit in the dimeric enzyme, lowered turnover with juglone about 4.5-fold. Four residues of Sec-deficient TrxR1 were found to be easily arylated by juglone, including the Cys residue at position 497. Based upon our observations we suggest a model for involvement of the juglone-arylated C-terminal motif of TrxR1 to explain its high activity with juglone. This study thus provides novel insights into the catalytic mechanisms of TrxR1. One-electron juglone reduction by TrxR1 producing superoxide should furthermore contribute to the well-known prooxidant cytotoxicity of juglone. PMID:26898501

  8. Seasonal nutrient dynamics in the Anacostia River (D.C., USA): geochemistry and hydrocarbon biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraino, S.; Frantz, D. E.; Macavoy, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    The seasonal biogeochemistry of the urban Anacostia River (Washington D.C. USA) was investigated. Chemical parameters examined include: inorganics (Ca, Mg, Na, S, K, P, NO3, NH4, PO4, B, Ba, Ni, Co); fatty acids and other hydrocarbons; C, N and S stable isotopes; and other water chemistry indicators (hardness, salinity, alkalinity, soluble salts, SAR, TDS). Between April and July 2010, water and sediment were sampled from three tidal freshwater sites along the Anacostia River (UP, MID, and DWN). Two of the selected sites, UP and DWN, are located next to a combined sewage outflow. Water column nutrient analysis shows increasing availability of ammonium (NH4) and nitrate (NO3) at all sites between April and July. At MID, the site showing the highest rates of nutrient growth over the sampling period, NH4 concentrations increase from 0.13 to 1.49 µg/L and NO3 concentrations increase from 0.71 to 2.88 mg/L. A marked NO3 pulse is observed at the DWN site in early May; NO3 concentrations jump from 0.68 to 3.36 mg/L between April 5 and May 6, decreasing to 1.22 mg/L by May 20. Unlike UP and MID, which show NH4 and NO3 increasing concurrently, this NO3 pulse at DWN is accompanied with a decline in NH4 levels, suggestive of an allochthonous NO3 source. Forthcoming stable isotope data are expected to characterize the source of such nitrogen inputs, as well as organic material, throughout the year. Preliminary GC-MS analysis of isolated fatty acids does not explicitly suggest bacterial or higher plant dominance in the spring; however, some notable compounds were identified, such as the PAH fluoranthene, naphthoquinone, and testosterone, as well as a number of cholesterols and other steroids. Higher proportions of bacterial fatty acid biomarkers are expected during the summer. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the chemistry data suggests geochemical variables, rather than nutrients, are the driving forces of observed trends. PCA, along with fatty acid characterization and nutrient analysis, is expected to demonstrate an increasing role of bacterial production and nutrient variables later in the season, while stable isotope values will facilitate organic material source identification.

  9. Taurine reduction in anaerobic respiration of Bilophila wadsworthia RZATAU.

    PubMed Central

    Laue, H; Denger, K; Cook, A M

    1997-01-01

    Organosulfonates are important natural and man-made compounds, but until recently (T. J. Lie, T. Pitta, E. R. Leadbetter, W. Godchaux III, and J. R. Leadbetter. Arch. Microbiol. 166:204-210, 1996), they were not believed to be dissimilated under anoxic conditions. We also chose to test whether alkane- and arenesulfonates could serve as electron sinks in respiratory metabolism. We generated 60 anoxic enrichment cultures in mineral salts medium which included several potential electron donors and a single organic sulfonate as an electron sink, and we used material from anaerobic digestors in communal sewage works as inocula. None of the four aromatic sulfonates, the three unsubstituted alkanesulfonates, or the N-sulfonate tested gave positive enrichment cultures requiring both the electron donor and electron sink for growth. Nine cultures utilizing the natural products taurine, cysteate, or isethionate were considered positive for growth, and all formed sulfide. Two clearly different pure cultures were examined. Putative Desulfovibrio sp. strain RZACYSA, with lactate as the electron donor, utilized sulfate, aminomethanesulfonate, taurine, isethionate, and cysteate, converting the latter to ammonia, acetate, and sulfide. Strain RZATAU was identified by 16S rDNA analysis as Bilophila wadsworthia. In the presence of, e.g., formate as the electron donor, it utilized, e.g., cysteate and isethionate and converted taurine quantitatively to cell material and products identified as ammonia, acetate, and sulfide. Sulfite and thiosulfate, but not sulfate, were utilized as electron sinks, as was nitrate, when lactate was provided as the electron donor and carbon source. A growth requirement for 1,4-naphthoquinone indicates a menaquinone electron carrier, and the presence of cytochrome c supports the presence of an electron transport chain. Pyruvate-dependent disappearance of taurine from cell extracts, as well as formation of alanine and release of ammonia and acetate, was detected. We suspected that sulfite is an intermediate, and we detected desulfoviridin (sulfite reductase). We thus believe that sulfonate reduction is one aspect of a respiratory system transferring electrons from, e.g., formate to sulfite reductase via an electron transport system which presumably generates a proton gradient across the cell membrane. PMID:9143131

  10. YY1 positively regulates human UBIAD1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Funahashi, Nobuaki; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Nakagawa, Kimie; Sawada, Natumi; Watanabe, Masato; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Okano, Toshio

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin K is involved in bone formation and blood coagulation. Natural vitamin K compounds are composed of the plant form phylloquinone (vitamin K{sub 1}) and a series of bacterial menaquionones (MK-n; vitamin K{sub 2}). Menadione (vitamin K{sub 3}) is an artificial vitamin K compound. MK-4 contains 4-isoprenyl as a side group in the 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone common structure and has various bioactivities. UbiA prenyltransferase domain containing 1 (UBIAD1 or TERE1) is the menaquinone-4 biosynthetic enzyme. UBIAD1 transcript expression significantly decreases in patients with prostate carcinoma and overexpressing UBIAD1 inhibits proliferation of a tumour cell line. UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, heart, kidneys and pancreas. Several functions of UBIAD1 have been reported; however, regulation of the human UBIAD1 gene has not been elucidated. Here we report cloning and characterisation of the human UBIAD1 promoter. A 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis revealed that the main transcriptional start site was 306 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon. Deletion and mutation analyses revealed the functional importance of the YY1 consensus motif. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. In addition, YY1 small interfering RNA decreased endogenous UBIAD1 mRNA expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity. These results suggest that YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1 promoter. - Highlights: • We cloned the human UBIAD1 promoter. • The functional importance of the YY1 motif was identified in the UBIAD1 promoter. • YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. • Knockdown of YY1 significantly decreased UBIAD1 expression. • YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1 promoter.

  11. Shikonin suppresses ERK 1/2 phosphorylation during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The naphthoquinone pigment, shikonin, is a major component of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and has been shown to have various biological functions, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation and its mechanism of action in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods To investigate the effects of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate using 3-isobutyl-1-methylzanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI) for 8 days in the presence of 0–2 μM shikonin. Oil Red O staining was performed to determine the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. To elucidate the anti-adipogenic mechanism of shikonin, adipogenic transcription factors, the phosphorylation levels of ERK, and adipogenic gene expression were analyzed by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. To further confirm that shikonin inhibits adipogenic differentiation through downregulation of ERK 1/2 activity, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with shikonin in the presence of FGF-2, an activator, or PD98059, an inhibitor, of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Results Shikonin effectively suppressed adipogenesis and downregulated the protein levels of 2 major transcription factors, PPARγ and C/EBPα, as well as the adipocyte specific gene aP2 in a dose-dependent manner. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that shikonin inhibited mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related genes, such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, and aP2. Adipocyte differentiation was mediated by ERK 1/2 phosphorylation, which was confirmed by pretreatment with PD98059 (an ERK 1/2 inhibitor) or FGF-2 (an ERK 1/2 activator). The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 during the early stages of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was inhibited by shikonin. We also confirmed that FGF-2-stimulated ERK 1/2 activity was attenuated by shikonin. Conclusions These results demonstrate that shikonin inhibits adipogenic differentiation via suppression of the ERK signaling pathway during the early stages of adipogenesis. PMID:23919458

  12. Neural stem cells and cell death.

    PubMed

    Ceccatelli, S; Tamm, C; Sleeper, E; Orrenius, S

    2004-04-01

    Neural stem cells (NSC) undergo apoptotic cell death as an essential component of neural development. Here, we present the results of our studies on the mechanisms by which NSC undergo cell death in response to neurotoxic insults. As experimental models we used primary culture of adult NSC from the subventricular zone of the rat brain, and the neural stem cell line C17.2 initially derived from developing mouse cerebellum. NSC undergo apoptosis in response to staurosporine (0.25 microM) as well as agents inducing oxidative stress such as 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ). Exposed cells demonstrate an apoptotic morphology, positive TUNEL staining and phosphatidyl serine exposure as labeled with Annexin V. Using an antibody specific for cytochrome c, we found that cells exposed to staurosporine or DMNQ exhibited diffuse fluorescence throughout the cytosol, implying a release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. In addition to positive immunoreactivity against the active fragment (p17) of caspase-3, the administration of the pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk (40 microM), prevents apoptosis. Both NSC and C17.2 express the Fas receptor, and procaspase-8, but exposure to agonistic Fas mAb (250 ng/ml) fails to induce apoptosis. Pretreatment with cycloheximide or actinomycin D does not influence the cell response to Fas mAb, suggesting that the endogenous inhibitor of caspase-8 FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP) is not responsible for the inhibition of the Fas pathway. Thus, it appears that the Fas dependent cell death pathway is not operative in these cells, while the mitochondrial pathway is active and caspase-3 serves as an executioner caspase in the apoptotic machinery. It is known that Fas not only induces apoptosis, but can also deliver growth stimulatory signals through activation of the extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. The Fas-induced ERK phosphorylation that we detect in C17.2 cells suggests that in NSC Fas may function as a mediator of growth rather than death. PMID:15093249

  13. Bioactive compounds from northern plants.

    PubMed

    Hohtola, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Northern conditions are characterised by long days with much light and low temperatures during the growing season. It has been chimed that herbs and berries grown in the north are stronger tasting compared to those of southern origin. The compounds imparting aroma and color to berries and herbs are secondary metabolites which in plants mostly act as chemical means of defense. Recently, the production of secondary metabolites using plant cells has been the subject of expanding research. Light intensity, photoperiod and temperature have been reported to influence the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. Native wild aromatic and medicinal plant species of different families are being studied to meet the needs of raw material for the expanding industry of e.g., health-promoting food products known as nutraceutics. There are already a large number of known secondary compounds produced by plants, but the recent advances in modern extraction and analysis should enable many more as yet unknown compounds to be found, characterised and utilised. Rose root (Rhodiola rosea) is a perennial herbaceous plant which inhabits mountain regions throughout Europe, Asia and east coastal regions of North America. The extract made from the rhizomes acts as a stimulant like the Ginseng root. Roseroot has been categorized as an adaptogen and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. The biologically active components of the extract are salitroside tyrosol and cinnamic acid glycosides (rosavin, rosarin, rosin). Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) has circumboreal distribution. It inhabits nutrient-poor, moist and sunny areas such as peat bogs and wetlands. Sundew leaves are collected from the wild-type for various medicinal preparations and can be utilized in treating e.g., as an important "cough-medicine" for different respiratory diseases. The antimicrobial activity of extracts of aerial parts against various bacteria has been investigated. Drosera produces various secondary metabolites. The most abundant, among these compounds, are the naphthoquinones. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) is a characteristic field layer species in boreal forests. Bilberry and other northern Vaccinium species, berries and leaves, contain high amounts of phenolic compounds. Bilberries are known for its exceptionally high amounts ofanthocyanins with powerful antioxidant capacity. They have been shown to possess beneficial health effects, like having a protective role in cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Many flavonoids also seem to have antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiallergenic properties. The effect of ingested cranberry (V. oxycoccus) juice has been shown to prevent urinary tract infections in women. PMID:21520706

  14. Paramphistomum cervi: the in vitro effect of plumbagin on motility, survival and tegument structure.

    PubMed

    Saowakon, Naruwan; Lorsuwannarat, Natcha; Changklungmoa, Narin; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

    2013-02-01

    Paramphistomiasis causes enteritis and anemia in livestocks and result in substantial production and economic losses. It is considered a neglected tropical disease, with no effective trematodicidal compound for treatment. Plumbagin (PB), a compound founds to be rich in the roots of Plumbago indica, is a naphthoquinone derivatives which can induce oxidative stress in parasites. In this study we have evaluated the anthelmintic activity of PB against adult Paramphistomum cervi by incubating the parasites in M-199 medium containing 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 μg/ml of the PB, and albendazole (ABZ) at the concentration of 100 μg/ml as the positive control, for 3, 6, 12 and 24 h, using relative motility (RM) assay and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 12 h exposure with 100 μg/ml ABZ, flukes showed decreased contraction and motility. At 24 h incubation they showed only active movement of some part of the body. The PB-treated flukes at all concentrations showed rapid decrease of motility at 3 h incubation. In 0.1, 1.0 and 10 μg/ml of PB, the RM values were decreased sharply from 3 to 12 h, and then they were killed since 12 h in the incubation with 10 μg/ml of PB. The highest parasite mortality was found as early as 3h when they were incubated with 100 μg/ml of PB. The morphological changes on the tegumental surface were similar in both flukes treated with ABZ and PB, which sequentially comprised of swelling, followed by blebbings that later ruptured, leading to the erosion and desquamation of the tegument syncytium. As the result, lesions were formed which exposed the basal lamina. The damage appeared more severe on the ventral than the dorsal surface, and earlier on the anterior part and lateral margins of middle third when compared to the posterior part of the parasites's bodies. The severity and rapidity of the damages were enhanced with increasing concentration of PB, which showed stronger activity than ABZ. Hence, PB has a potential to be an anthelmintic drug against adult P.cervi. PMID:23206952

  15. Nonphotochemical quenching of excitation energy in photosystem II. A picosecond time-resolved study of the low yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence induced by single-turnover flash in isolated spinach thylakoids.

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, S; Bruce, D

    1998-08-01

    Chlorophyll a fluorescence emission is widely used as a noninvasive measure of a number of parameters related to photosynthetic efficiency in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. The most important component for the estimation of photochemistry is the relative increase in fluorescence yield between dark-adapted samples which have a maximal capacity for photochemistry and a minimal fluorescence yield (F0) and light-saturated samples where photochemistry is saturated and fluorescence yield is maximal (Fm). However, when photosynthesis is saturated with a short (less than 50 micro(s)) flash of light, which induces only one photochemical turnover of photosystem II, the maximal fluorescence yield is significantly lower (Fsat) than when saturation is achieved with a millisecond duration multiturnover flash (Fm). To investigate the origins of the difference in fluorescence yield between these two conditions, our time-resolved fluorescence apparatus was modified to allow collection of picosecond time-resolved decay kinetics over a short time window immediately following a saturating single-turnover flash (Fsat) as well as after a multiturnover saturating pulse (Fm). Our data were analyzed with a global kinetic model based on an exciton radical pair equilibrium model for photosystem II. The difference between Fm and Fsat was modeled well by changing only the rate constant for quenching of excitation energy in the antenna of photosystem II. An antenna-based origin for the quenching was verified experimentally by the observation that addition of the antenna quencher 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone to thylakoids under Fm conditions resulted in decay kinetics and modeled kinetic parameters very similar to those observed under Fsat conditions in the absence of added quinone. Our data strongly support the origin of low fluorescence yield at Fsat to be an antenna-based nonphotochemical quenching of excitation energy in photosystem II which has not usually been considered explicitly in calculations of photochemical and nonphotochemical quenching parameters. The implications of our data with respect to kinetic models for the excited-state dynamics of photosystem II and the practical applications of the fluorescence yield parameters Fm and Fsat to calculations of photochemical yield are discussed. PMID:9693000

  16. Naphthalene distributions and human exposure in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Rong; Wu, Jun; Turco, Richard P.; Winer, Arthur M.; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet; Paulson, Suzanne E.; Lurmann, Fred W.; Miguel, Antonio H.; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu

    The regional distribution of, and human exposure to, naphthalene are investigated for Southern California. A comprehensive approach is taken in which advanced models are linked for the first time to quantify population exposure to the emissions of naphthalene throughout Southern California. Naphthalene is the simplest and most abundant of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in polluted urban environments, and has been detected in both outdoor and indoor air samples. Exposure to high concentrations of naphthalene may have adverse health effects, possibly causing cancer in humans. Among the significant emission sources are volatilization from naphthalene-containing products, petroleum refining, and combustion of fossil fuels and wood. Gasoline and diesel engine exhaust, with related vaporization from fuels, are found to contribute roughly half of the daily total naphthalene burden in Southern California. As part of this study, the emission inventory for naphthalene has been verified against new field measurements of the naphthalene-to-benzene ratio in a busy traffic tunnel in Los Angeles, supporting the modeling work carried out here. The Surface Meteorology and Ozone Generation (SMOG) airshed model is used to compute the spatial and temporal distributions of naphthalene and its photooxidation products in Southern California. The present simulations reveal a high degree of spatial variability in the concentrations of naphthalene-related species, with large diurnal and seasonal variations as well. Peak naphthalene concentrations are estimated to occur in the early morning hours in the winter season. The naphthalene concentration estimates obtained from the SMOG model are employed in the Regional Human Exposure (REHEX) model to calculate population exposure statistics. Results show average hourly naphthalene exposures in Southern California under summer and winter conditions of 270 and 430 ng m -3, respectively. Exposure to significantly higher concentrations may occur for individuals close to local sources, or in naphthalene "hotspots" revealed by simulations and observations. Such levels of naphthalene exposure may be used to gauge the potential health impacts of long-term naphthalene exposure. Results are also given for the distributions of 1,4-naphthoquinone, a naphthalene reaction product that may have significant health effects.

  17. Shikonin, a constituent of Lithospermum erythrorhizon exhibits anti-allergic effects by suppressing orphan nuclear receptor Nr4a family gene expression as a new prototype of calcineurin inhibitors in mast cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Hayashi, Shusaku; Umezaki, Masahito; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Kondo, Takashi; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2014-10-29

    Over the last few decades, food allergy (FA) has become a common disease in infants in advanced countries. However, anti-allergic medicines available in the market have no effect on FA, and consequently effective drug therapies for FA are not yet available. We have already demonstrated that mucosal mast cells play an essential role in the development of FA in a murine model. Thus, we screened many constituents from medicinal herbs for the ability to inhibit rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 mast-like cell degranulation, and found that shikonin, a naphthoquinone dye from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, exhibited the most potent inhibitory effect among them. Furthermore, shikonin extremely inhibited the IgE/antigen-induced and calcium ionophore-induced upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA expression in mucosal-type bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMCs). Global gene expression analysis confirmed by real-time PCR revealed that shikonin drastically inhibited the IgE/antigen-induced and calcium ionophore-induced upregulation of mRNA expression of the nuclear orphan receptor 4a family (Nr4a1, Nr4a2 and Nr4a3) in mBMMCs, and knockdown of Nr4a1 or Nr4a2 suppressed the IgE/antigen-induced upregulation of TNF-α mRNA expression. Computational docking simulation of a small molecule for a target protein is a useful technique to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of drugs. Therefore, the simulation revealed that the predicted binding sites of shikonin to immunophilins (cyclophilin A and FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 12) were almost the same as the binding sites of immunosuppressants (cyclosporin A and FK506) to immunophilins. Indeed, shikonin inhibited the calcineurin activity to a similar extent as cyclosporin A that markedly suppressed the IgE/antigen-enhanced mRNA expression of TNF-α and the Nr4a family in mBMMCs. These findings suggest that shikonin suppresses mucosal mast cell activation by reducing Nr4a family gene expression through the inhibition of calcineurin activity. Therefore, shikonin has therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic diseases as a new calcineurin inhibitor. PMID:25451590

  18. High glucose-induced oxidative stress represses sirtuin deacetylase expression and increases histone acetylation leading to neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingwen; Wu, Yanqing; Yang, Peixin

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant epigenetic modifications are implicated in maternal diabetes-induced neural tube defects (NTDs). Because cellular stress plays a causal role in diabetic embryopathy, we investigated the possible role of the stress-resistant sirtuin (SIRT) family histone deacetylases. Among the seven sirtuins (SIRT1-7), pre-gestational maternal diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro significantly reduced the expression of SIRT 2 and SIRT6 in the embryo or neural stem cells, respectively. The down-regulation of SIRT2 and SIRT6 was reversed by superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) over-expression in the in vivo mouse model of diabetic embryopathy and the SOD mimetic, tempol and cell permeable SOD, PEGSOD in neural stem cell cultures. 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ), a superoxide generating agent, mimicked high glucose-suppressed SIRT2 and SIRT6 expression. The acetylation of histone 3 at lysine residues 56 (H3K56), H3K14, H3K9, and H3K27, putative substrates of SIRT2 and SIRT6, was increased by maternal diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro, and these increases were blocked by SOD1 over-expression or tempol treatment. SIRT2 or SIRT6 over-expression abrogated high glucose-suppressed SIRT2 or SIRT6 expression, and prevented the increase in acetylation of their histone substrates. The potent sirtuin activator (SRT1720) blocked high glucose-increased histone acetylation and NTD formation, whereas the combination of a pharmacological SIRT2 inhibitor and a pan SIRT inhibitor mimicked the effect of high glucose on increased histone acetylation and NTD induction. Thus, diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro suppresses SIRT2 and SIRT6 expression through oxidative stress, and sirtuin down-regulation-induced histone acetylation may be involved in diabetes-induced NTDs. The mechanism underlying pre-gestational diabetes-induced neural tube defects (NTDs) is still elusive. Our study unravels a new epigenetic mechanism in which maternal diabetes-induced oxidative stress represses sirtuin deacetylase 2 (SIRT2) and 6 (SIRT6) expression leading to histone acetylation and gene expression. SIRT down-regulation mediates the teratogenicity of diabetes leading to (NTD) formation. The study provides a mechanistic basis for the development of natural antioxidants and SIRT activators as therapeutics for diabetic embryopathy. PMID:26896748

  19. Identification of natural inhibitors of Entamoeba histolytica cysteine synthase from microbial secondary metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Mihoko; Jeelani, Ghulam; Masuda, Yui; Sakai, Kazunari; Tsukui, Kumiko; Waluyo, Danang; Tarwadi; Watanabe, Yoshio; Nonaka, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Ōmura, Satoshi; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Shiomi, Kazuro

    2015-01-01

    Amebiasis is a common worldwide diarrheal disease, caused by the protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica. Metronidazole has been a drug of choice against amebiasis for decades despite its known side effects and low efficacy against asymptomatic cyst carriers. E. histolytica is also capable of surviving sub-therapeutic levels of metronidazole in vitro. Novel drugs with different mode of action are therefore urgently needed. The sulfur assimilatory de novo L-cysteine biosynthetic pathway is essential for various cellular activities, including the proliferation and anti-oxidative defense of E. histolytica. Since the pathway, consisting of two reactions catalyzed by serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and cysteine synthase (CS, O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase), does not exist in humans, it is a rational drug target against amebiasis. To discover inhibitors against the CS of E. histolytica (EhCS), the compounds of Kitasato Natural Products Library were screened against two recombinant CS isozymes: EhCS1 and EhCS3. Nine compounds inhibited EhCS1 and EhCS3 with IC50 values of 0.31–490 μM. Of those, seven compounds share a naphthoquinone moiety, indicating the structural importance of the moiety for binding to the active site of EhCS1 and EhCS3. We further screened >9,000 microbial broths for CS inhibition and purified two compounds, xanthofulvin and exophillic acid from fungal broths. Xanthofulvin inhibited EhCS1 and EhCS3. Exophillic acid showed high selectivity against EhCS1, but exhibited no inhibition against EhCS3. In vitro anti-amebic activity of the 11 EhCS inhibitors was also examined. Deacetylkinamycin C and nanaomycin A showed more potent amebicidal activity with IC50 values of 18 and 0.8 μM, respectively, in the cysteine deprived conditions. The differential sensitivity of trophozoites against deacetylkinamycin C in the presence or absence of L-cysteine in the medium and the IC50 values against EhCS suggest the amebicidal effect of deacetylkinamycin C is due to CS inhibition. PMID:26441896

  20. Search for constituents with neurotrophic factor-potentiating activity from the medicinal plants of paraguay and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Li, Yushan; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2004-07-01

    20 medicinal plants of Paraguay and 3 medicinal plants of Thailand were examined on nerve growth factor (NGF)-potentiating activities in PC12D cells. The trail results demonstrated that the methanol extracts of four plants, Verbena littoralis, Scoparia dulcis, Artemisia absinthium and Garcinia xanthochymus, markedly enhanced the neurite outgrowth induced by NGF from PC12D cells. Furthermore, utilizing the bioactivity-guided separation we successfully isolated 32, 4 and 5 constituents from V. littoralis, S. dulcis and G. xanthochymus, respectively, including nine iridoid and iridoid glucosides (1-9), two dihydrochalcone dimers (10 and 11), two flavonoids and three flavonoid glycosides (12-16), two sterols (17 and 18), ten triterpenoids (19-28), five xanthones (29-33), one naphthoquinone (34), one benzenepropanamide (35), four phenylethanoid glycosides (36-39) and two other compounds (40 and 41). Among which, 15 compounds (1-4, 10-11, 14-18, 29-31 and 34) were new natural products. The results of pharmacological trails verified that littoralisone (1), gelsemiol (5), 7a-hydroxysemperoside aglucone (6), verbenachalcone (10), littorachalcone (11), stigmast-5-ene 3beta,7alpha,22alpha-triol (18), ursolic acid (19), 3beta-hydroxyurs-11-en-28,13beta-olide (24), oleanolic acid (25), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (26), 1,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-7,8-di(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (29), 1,2,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (30), 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-4,7,8-tri(3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthone (31), 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerrin A (32), garciniaxanthone E (33) and (4R)-4,9-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-alpha-lapachone (34) elicited marked enhancement of NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells. These substances may contribute to the basic study and the medicinal development for the neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:15235225

  1. Interaction of ascorbate with photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Trubitsin, Boris V; Mamedov, Mahir D; Semenov, Alexey Yu; Tikhonov, Alexander N

    2014-11-01

    Ascorbate is one of the key participants of the antioxidant defense in plants. In this work, we have investigated the interaction of ascorbate with the chloroplast electron transport chain and isolated photosystem I (PSI), using the EPR method for monitoring the oxidized centers [Formula: see text] and ascorbate free radicals. Inhibitor analysis of the light-induced redox transients of P700 in spinach thylakoids has demonstrated that ascorbate efficiently donates electrons to [Formula: see text] via plastocyanin. Inhibitors (DCMU and stigmatellin), which block electron transport between photosystem II and Pc, did not disturb the ascorbate capacity for electron donation to [Formula: see text]. Otherwise, inactivation of Pc with CN(-) ions inhibited electron flow from ascorbate to [Formula: see text]. This proves that the main route of electron flow from ascorbate to [Formula: see text] runs through Pc, bypassing the plastoquinone (PQ) pool and the cytochrome b 6 f complex. In contrast to Pc-mediated pathway, direct donation of electrons from ascorbate to [Formula: see text] is a rather slow process. Oxidized ascorbate species act as alternative oxidants for PSI, which intercept electrons directly from the terminal electron acceptors of PSI, thereby stimulating photooxidation of P700. We investigated the interaction of ascorbate with PSI complexes isolated from the wild type cells and the MenB deletion strain of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. In the MenB mutant, PSI contains PQ in the quinone-binding A1-site, which can be substituted by high-potential electron carrier 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (Cl2NQ). In PSI from the MenB mutant with Cl2NQ in the A1-site, the outflow of electrons from PSI is impeded due to the uphill electron transfer from A1 to the iron-sulfur cluster FX and further to the terminal clusters FA/FB, which manifests itself as a decrease in a steady-state level of [Formula: see text]. The addition of ascorbate promoted photooxidation of P700 due to stimulation of electron outflow from PSI to oxidized ascorbate species. Thus, accepting electrons from PSI and donating them to [Formula: see text], ascorbate can mediate cyclic electron transport around PSI. The physiological significance of ascorbate-mediated electron transport is discussed. PMID:24965848

  2. Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activities of Cobalt(II)-Titanium dioxide nanorods, and electrophoretic deposition of Titanium dioxide nanoparticle/nanorod composite films for self-cleaning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wonjun

    This dissertation consists of two projects. The first project is synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activities of Co(II)-TiO2 nanorods. We modified brookite TiO2 nanorods with cobalt(II) ions to design new photocatalysts with visible light absorption. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data indicated that the local structure of Co(II)-TiO2 nanorods was shown as tetrahedral and octahedral Co(II) sites at TiO2 nanorod surface. Dimethylglyoxime (DMG) has been used to remove surface Co(II) from Co(II)-TiO2 nanorods to determine single-site Co(II) ions selectively attached to the TiO 2 nanorod surface. We proposed a mechanism that the Co-Co bond of the precursor Co2(CO)8 undergoes heterolysis followed by disproportionation of Co(I) to produce Co(II) and Co(0) precipitate. Finally, the Co(II)-TiO2 nanorods showed greater activity than TiO 2 nanorods in the degradation of 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DHNQ) dye under visible light irradiation. The second project is electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composite films for self-cleaning applications. We developed novel electrolyte system for EPD of TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composites for self-cleaning coatings. A mixture of TiO2 powder and TiO2 nanorods was used as EPD suspension in a mixture of THF and acetone. TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composite films were fabricated on aluminium substrates via the EPD method, and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM images showed that TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composite films had a uniform pore structure. The hydrophobic properties of surfaces in TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composite films were evaluated by water contact angle measurements. It was found that the surfaces of TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composite films were hydrophobic with contact angle of 103°. These hydrophobic surfaces are expected to have potential applications for self-cleaning.

  3. Mode-of-Action Uncertainty for Dual-Mode Carcinogens: A Bounding Approach for Naphthalene-Induced Nasal Tumors in Rats Based on PBPK and 2-Stage Stochastic Cancer Risk Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2007-05-11

    A relatively simple, quantitative approach is proposed to address a specific, important gap in the appr approach recommended by the USEPA Guidelines for Cancer Risk Assessment to oach address uncertainty in carcinogenic mode of action of certain chemicals when risk is extrapolated from bioassay data. These Guidelines recognize that some chemical carcinogens may have a site-specific mode of action (MOA) that is dual, involving mutation in addition to cell-killing induced hyperplasia. Although genotoxicity may contribute to increased risk at all doses, the Guidelines imply that for dual MOA (DMOA) carcinogens, judgment be used to compare and assess results obtained using separate 'linear' (genotoxic) vs. 'nonlinear' (nongenotoxic) approaches to low low-level risk extrapolation. However, the Guidelines allow the latter approach to be used only when evidence is sufficient t to parameterize a biologically based model that reliably o extrapolates risk to low levels of concern. The Guidelines thus effectively prevent MOA uncertainty from being characterized and addressed when data are insufficient to parameterize such a model, but otherwise clearly support a DMOA. A bounding factor approach - similar to that used in reference dose procedures for classic toxicity endpoints - can address MOA uncertainty in a way that avoids explicit modeling of low low-dose risk as a function of administere administered or internal dose. Even when a 'nonlinear' toxicokinetic model cannot be fully validated, implications of DMOA uncertainty on low low-dose risk may be bounded with reasonable confidence when target tumor types happen to be extremely rare. This concept was i illustrated llustrated for a likely DMOA rodent carcinogen naphthalene, specifically to the issue of risk extrapolation from bioassay data on naphthalene naphthalene-induced nasal tumors in rats. Bioassay data, supplemental toxicokinetic data, and related physiologically based p pharmacokinetic and 2 harmacokinetic 2-stage stochastic carcinogenesis modeling results all clearly indicate that naphthalene is a DMOA carcinogen. Plausibility bounds on rat rat-tumor tumor-type specific DMOA DMOA-related uncertainty were obtained using a 2-stage model adapted to reflec reflect the empirical link between genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of t the most potent identified genotoxic naphthalene metabolites, 1,2 1,2- and 1,4 1,4-naphthoquinone. Bound Bound-specific 'adjustment' factors were then used to reduce naphthalene risk estimated by linear ex extrapolation (under the default genotoxic MOA assumption), to account for the DMOA trapolation exhibited by this compound.

  4. Investigations of solvent properties and solvent effects on chemical equilibria and reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Laura Lynn Thomas

    Thermodynamic and structural properties computed via simulations of pure liquids and dilute solutions are routinely used as a metric of accuracy for condensed-phase force fields and in the development and testing of new methodology. Additionally, reliable modeling of solvent systems is critical to investigations of physical phenomena, such as the elucidation of solvent effects on chemical equilibria and reaction rates. This dissertation highlights a series of studies that span these topics. The Lennard-Jones 12-6 functional form, often invoked to model van der Waals interactions, has been argued to be too repulsive at short internuclear separations. Monte Carlo simulations of organic liquids at various temperatures and pressures show that this function, in conjunction with OPLS parameters, is capable of reproducing experimental densities. In order to address potential cumulative deviations of computed properties and conformational differences between the gas phase and pure liquids, Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out for the homologous n-alkane series C4H10-C12H26 using the OPLS-AA force field. Favorable structural motifs of longer alkanes were also investigated to study self solvation in the gas phase. Next, an overview of the computation of free energy changes in solution using perturbation theory, overlap sampling, and related approximate methods is presented. Results are provided for free energies of hydration of OPLS-AA substituted benzenes in TIP4P water. For comparable amounts of computer time, the double-wide and overlap sampling methods yield very similar results. QM/MM simulations of the Diels-Alder reactions of cyclopentadiene with 1,4-naphthoquinone, methyl vinyl ketone, and acrylonitrile have been carried out at the water-vacuum interface and in the gas phase. The relative free energies of activation and transition structure geometries at the interface were intermediate between those calculated in the gas phase and in bulk water, consistent with estimated experimental rate constants. Energy pair distributions reveal a loss of slightly favorable solute-solvent pair contacts but retention of stronger interactions upon transition from bulk to surface hydration. These strong interactions cause the methyl vinyl ketone transition structure to preferentially orient its carbonyl toward the surface, while the other transition structures prefer orientations parallel to the surface.

  5. Major differences exist in the function and tissue-specific expression of human aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase and the principal human aldo-keto reductase AKR1 family members.

    PubMed Central

    O'connor, T; Ireland, L S; Harrison, D J; Hayes, J D

    1999-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones encoding human aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase (AKR7A2), aldehyde reductase (AKR1A1), aldose reductase (AKR1B1), dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 1 (AKR1C1) and chlordecone reductase (AKR1C4) have been expressed in Escherichia coli. These members of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily have been purified from E. coli as recombinant proteins. The recently identified AKR7A2 was shown to differ from the AKR1 isoenzymes in being able to catalyse the reduction of 2-carboxybenzaldehyde. Also, AKR7A2 was found to exhibit a narrow substrate specificity, with activity being restricted to succinic semialdehyde (SSA), 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, pyridine-2-aldehyde, isatin, 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone. In contrast, AKR1A1 reduces a broad spectrum of carbonyl-containing compounds, displaying highest specific activity for SSA, 4-carboxybenzaldehyde, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, pyridine-3-aldehyde, pyridine-4-aldehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal, phenylglyoxal, methylglyoxal, 2,3-hexanedione, 1, 2-NQ, 16-ketoestrone and d-glucuronic acid. Comparison between the kinetic properties of AKR7A2 and AKR1A1 showed that both recombinant enzymes exhibited roughly similar k(cat)/K(m) values for SSA, 1,2-NQ and 16-ketoestrone. Many of the compounds which are substrates for AKR1A1 also serve as substrates for AKR1B1, though the latter enzyme was shown to display a specific activity significantly less than that of AKR1A1 for most of the aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes studied. Neither AKR1C1 nor AKR1C4 was found to possess high reductase activity towards aliphatic aldehydes, aromatic aldehydes, aldoses or dicarbonyls. However, unlike AKR1A1 and AKR1B1, both AKR1C1 and AKR1C4 were able to catalyse the oxidation of 1-acenaphthenol and, in addition, AKR1C4 could oxidize di- and tri-hydroxylated bile acids. Specific antibodies raised against AKR7A2, AKR1A1, AKR1B1, AKR1C1 and AKR1C4 have been used to show the presence of all of the reductases in human hepatic cytosol; the levels of AKR1B1 and AKR1C1 were markedly elevated in livers with alcohol-associated injury, and indeed AKR1B1 was only detectable in livers with evidence of alcoholic liver disease. Western blotting of extracts from brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, prostate, skeletal muscle, small intestine, spleen and testis showed that AKR7A2 is present in all of the organs examined, and AKR1B1 is similarly widely distributed in human tissues. These experiments revealed however, that the expression of AKR1A1 is restricted primarily to brain, kidney, liver and small intestine. The AKR1C family members proved not to be as widely expressed as the other reductases, with AKR1C1 being observed in only kidney, liver and testis, and AKR1C4 being found in liver alone. As human kidney is a rich source of AKR, the isoenzymes in this organ have been studied further. Anion-exchange chromatography of human renal cytosol on Q-Sepharose allowed resolution of AKR1A1, AKR1B1, AKR1C1 and AKR7A2, as identified by substrate specificity and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry of human kidney demonstrated that AKR7A2 is expressed in a similar fashion to the AKR1 family members in proximal and distal convoluted renal tubules. Furthermore, both AKR7A2 and AKR1 members were expressed in renal carcinoma cells, suggesting that these groups of isoenzymes may be engaged in related physiological functions. PMID:10510318