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An agency-communion model of narcissism distinguishes between agentic narcissists (individuals satisfying self-motives of grandiosity, esteem, entitlement, and power in agentic domains) and communal narcissists (individuals satisfying the same self-motives in communal domains). Five studies supported the model. In Study 1, participants listed their grandiose self-thoughts. Two distinct types emerged: agentic ("I am the most intelligent person") and communal ("I am the most helpful person"). In Study 2, we relied on the listed communal grandiose self-thoughts to construct the Communal Narcissism Inventory. It was psychometrically sound, stable over time, and largely independent of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-the standard measure of agentic narcissism. In Studies 3 and 4, agentic and communal narcissists shared the same self-motives, while crucially differing in their means for need satisfaction: Agentic narcissists capitalized on agentic means, communal narcissists on communal means. Study 5 revisited the puzzle of low self-other agreement regarding communal traits and behaviors. Attesting to the broader significance of our model, this low self-other agreement was partly due to communal narcissists: They saw themselves as high, but were seen by others as low, in communion. PMID:22889074
Gebauer, Jochen E; Sedikides, Constantine; Verplanken, Bas; Maio, Gregory R
|Narcissism--a strong need to be admired for a grandiose self--is a problematic personality trait for children as well as adults. This study of 236 preadolescents (M age = 11.3 years; 129 girls, 107 boys) evaluated 2 intrapersonal (cognitive) pathways by which narcissism might contribute to maladjustment. The first was that narcissism combines…
Pauletti, Rachel E.; Menon, Madhavi; Menon, Meenakshi; Tobin, Desiree D.; Perry, David G.
The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order. PMID:9148293
Two studies investigated narcissists' persistence in attempting impossible tasks framed as intelligence tests. Narcissism predicted more task persistence when no alternative paths to self-enhancement were available (Study 1) and less persistence when alternative routes to self-enhancement were provided (Study 2). Overall, the results suggest that narcissists can maintain confidence and tolerate setbacks in pursuit of a goal, but may quickly
|Responds to criticisms of his article, "Unmasking the Face of Narcissism," recognizing a difference between "positive narcissism," or mastering one's own reality, and "negative narcissism." Suggests the Copernican Model, involving longer class periods and fewer major courses, as a means of incorporating analyses of narcissism into literature,…
The author attempts a selective review of the concept of narcissism from Freud and its development from the theorists of objects relationships. He also describes the religiosity in the psychopathology and in every day life and at last he discusses how the defense structure of narcissism and religiosity interweaved and restrained the capability of the subject to love and create. There are used vignettes from the psychoanalysis of three patients and an allegory from the New Testament. The author suggests that the passing through the paranoid-schizoid to the depressive position helps the narcissistic personality to free itself not only of persecutory anxieties but also of depressive anxieties and to complete mourning. In this position he no needs any more to use the religion to protect himself from his pain but he can use it to "know" the other. PMID:22466629
Lack of a suitable measuring device hampered the empirical study of narcissism until Raskin and Hall (1979) developed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). The NPI possesses desirable psychometric properties, and in this article I used the scale in a variety of studies. Factor analysis of the scale replicated the four-factor solution found by Emmons (1984): Leadership\\/Authority, Self-Absorption\\/Self-Admiration, Superiority\\/Arrogance, and Exploitiveness\\/Entitlement.
|The author reviews Freud's (1914) seminal paper "On narcissism: an introduction". Freud's paper is briefly set in the historical context of the evolution of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic theories, and Freud's metapsychology up to the publication of his Narcissism paper is outlined. A detailed and comprehensive description of the content of…
The author reviews Freud's (1914) seminal paper "On narcissism: an introduction". Freud's paper is briefly set in the historical context of the evolution of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic theories, and Freud's metapsychology up to the publication of his Narcissism paper is outlined. A detailed and comprehensive description of the content of the…
|Examines the relationship between gender, sex role, and narcissism. Data indicated that males and masculine individuals were not higher in their levels of maladaptive narcissism, that an adjusted narcissism was more obvious in males and in masculine subjects, and that femininity appeared to inhibit the display of an unhealthy exploitative…
Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children represents an attempt to provide a therapeutic understanding of history and its traumas in a manner that places individualized psychoanalytic constructions in juxtaposition to those of larger collectives. Following Rushdie's lead, I recuperate the problematic Freudian concepts of paranoia, narcissism and fetishism and offer them as models for the functioning of state power. I postulate interdependent
|This paper argues that the adolescent process needs to be accorded its own particularity of reference, especially where narcissism is concerned. The paper draws on literary and clinical examples to describe what is termed the "adolescent organisation". In many ways, this organisation reflects post-Kleinian theory of what constitutes narcissistic…
The aim of the current report was to investigate the relationship between narcissism, self-esteem and conduct problems in\\u000a a British community sample of pre-adolescent and young adolescent children (n = 659; 7–11 year olds). We demonstrated that narcissism is associated with conduct problems, but no evidence for an interaction\\u000a between low self-esteem and high narcissism in the prediction of conduct problems was found.
Narcissism is characterized in part by an acute concern for one’s appearance. Despite this fundamental aspect of narcissism, little is known about whether narcissism is manifested in features of physical appearance. Can you tell if someone is narcissistic just by looking at them? Our results indicate that snap judgments of narcissism based on full-body photographs are at least as accurate
Simine Vazire; Laura P. Naumann; Peter J. Rentfrow; Samuel D. Gosling
This study examined the relationship between gender, sex role, and narcissism. Two hundred and three students completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale, along with several measures of self-esteem and depression. Overall, the data indicated that males and masculine individuals were not higher in their levels of maladaptive narcissism, that an
We review the literature on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and describe a significant criterion problem related to four inconsistencies in phenotypic descriptions and taxonomic models across clinical theory, research, and practice; psychiatric diagnosis; and social\\/personality psychology. This impedes scientific synthesis, weakens narcissism's nomological net, and contributes to a discrepancy between low prevalence rates of NPD and higher
Comments on the article by Miller and Campbell (see record 2010-17135-004). The expression of narcissism spans the continuum from normal to pathological and has meaningful correlates in clinical and nonclinical populations. There is growing speculation that narcissism also contributes to major societal concerns (e.g., terrorism and corporate malfeasance). Improving our understanding of the psychological, interpersonal, and social expressions of narcissism should be one of the most important areas in behavioral science research. Unfortunately, the study of narcissism is fragmented and underpursued. Pathological narcissism (PN), primarily narcissistic personality disorder (NPD; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), has been studied mainly through clinical case reports and psychodynamic theory (Ronningstam, 2005), whereas the study of trait narcissism has utilized more empirical methods. Miller and Campbell contend that the current understanding of PN is speculative and empirically lacking. His proposed remedy is for psychiatric and clinical researchers to incorporate the strategies and tools used to study trait narcissism. Although research on PN should be more empirically based, the uncritical adoption of the trait narcissism paradigm seems ill advised. Rather, an integrative research perspective incorporating knowledge and methodologies across disciplines would seem more promising. PMID:22448638
Pathological narcissism is associated with maladaptive interpersonal behavior, although less is known regarding the internal relational representations of narcissistic patients. The authors examined the relationship between pathological narcissism and two constructs that reflect internal representations of relational patterns: quality of object relations and attachment style. Patients attending a psychiatric day treatment program (N = 218) completed measures of narcissism, general psychiatric distress, and attachment style in terms of attachment avoidance and anxiety. A semistructured interview was used to assess quality of object relations. Multiple regression analysis was conducted, controlling for general psychiatric distress. Pathological narcissism was associated with anxious attachment, but not with avoidant attachment. Narcissism was also associated with lower levels of quality of object relations. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of internal representations of self-other relations. PMID:23398104
Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Joyce, Anthony S; Steinberg, Paul I; Piper, William E
This article introduces the concept of collective narcissism--an emotional investment in an unrealistic belief about the in group's greatness--aiming to explain how feelings about an ingroup shape a tendency to aggress against outgroups. The results of 5 studies indicate that collective, but not individual, narcissism predicts intergroup aggressiveness. Collective narcissism is related to high private and low public collective self-esteem and low implicit group esteem. It predicts perceived threat from outgroups, unwillingness to forgive outgroups, preference for military aggression over and above social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, and blind patriotism. The relationship between collective narcissism and aggressiveness is mediated by perceived threat from outgroups and perceived insult to the ingroup. In sum, the results indicate that collective narcissism is a form of high but ambivalent group esteem related to sensitivity to threats to the ingroup's image and retaliatory aggression. PMID:19968420
de Zavala, Agnieszka Golec; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Eidelson, Roy; Jayawickreme, Nuwan
The myth of Narcissus is a myth of death resulting from the absence of desire in a love relationship, and a metaphor of the symbolic and imaginary death of the narcissistic person. Four of Freud's dreams are analysed in terms of their narcissistic structure. They reveal some important features in the implicit relationship between the feminine nature of the narcissistic body and the counterpart. They lead to a better formulation of the narcissistic state in terms of the relationship between the self and the counterpart. The narcissistic relationship is based on wishes and not desires. The object of the wish is not essential for the wish to emerge or to be sustained. As a result, the narcissistic relation is characterized by the absence of its aim and the impossibility of its satisfaction; and consequently it symbolizes death of the world or the self and is an imaginary death of both. In that sense, Freud's introduction of the concept of narcissism and his concept of the death instinct should be seen as connected, as they constitute a stage in psychoanalytic knowledge. It is difficult to understand narcissism detached from the concept of the death instinct without rendering the issues of meaning and interpretation irrelevant to the psychoanalytic act. PMID:6168597
An objective scale to measure narcissism or selfism was developed. Discriminant and convergent validity of the scale appears adequate. A construct validity study showed a correlation of .50 between subjects' own selfism scores and friends' estimates of th...
In this article, we test psychodynamic assumptions about envy and narcissism by examining malicious envy in the context of narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability. In Study 1, students (N?=?192) and community adults (N?=?161) completed trait measures of narcissism, envy, and schadenfreude. In Study 2 (N?=?121), participants relived an episode of envy, and cognitive-affective components of envy were examined in the context of both self- and informant reports of their envy and narcissism. In Study 3 (N?=?69), narcissism was linked to reports of envy covertly induced in the laboratory. Vulnerable narcissism was strongly and consistently related to dispositional envy and schadenfreude (Studies 1-2), as well as to all cognitive-affective components of envy (Study 2). Furthermore, it facilitated envy and schadenfreude toward a high-status peer (Study 3). Grandiose narcissism was slightly negatively related to dispositional envy (Studies 1-2), and it did not predict informant reports of envy or cognitive-affective components of the emotion (Study 2). Finally, it did not exacerbate envy, hostility, or resentment toward a high-status peer (Study 3). The results suggest envy is a central emotion in the lives of those with narcissistic vulnerability and imply that envy should be reconsidered as a symptom accompanying grandiose features in the diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder. PMID:22224975
Extreme narcissistic traits have been proposed to be part of the “core” personality features of psychopathy. This view has some theoretical and experimental support but some inconsistencies remain that might be clarified by examining the differential relationship between narcissism subtypes and psychopathy factors. Skeem, Poythress, Edens, Lilienfeld & Cale, (2003) hypothesized that a subtype of narcissism dubbed grandiose may be
|Narcissistic leadership can benefit organizational performance. Aberrant narcissism can destroy the psychosocial health of groups, limiting performance. This article examines Dependent Organizational Disorder, a common form of narcissism, which infects leadership, thwarts performance, and interrupts organizational learning. Dependent…
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition appears likely to eliminate the diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder. There are significant problems with the discriminant validity of the current narcissistic personality disorder critiera set; furthermore, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition's narrow focus on “grandiosity” probably contributes to the wide disparity between low narcissistic personality disorder prevalence rates in epidemiological studies and high rates of narcissistic personality disorder in clinical practice. Nevertheless, the best course of action may be to refine the narcissistic personality disorder criteria, followed by careful field testing and a search for biomarkers, rather than wholesale elimination of the narcissistic personality disorder category. The construct of “malignant narcissism” is also worthy of more intense empirical investigation.
This paper presents a detailed theoretical discussion of destructive narcissism in relation to Freud and Rosenfeld and later theorists. In destructive narcissism, the destructiveness is itself idealised and overrides "the vital functions which serve the purpose of self-preservation" (Freud, S., 1914, "On narcissism" S.E. 14: 87)--a feature which…
This study examines the relationships between shame, guilt, narcissism, and depression and the gender differences connected with these states. We hypothesize that shame would be a more powerful contributor to narcissism and depression than guilt and that women would score higher in shame, higher in depression, and lower in narcissism than men. The Adapted Shame\\/Guilt Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory,
This study investigated the relation between two types of narcissism and boredom in a group of 106 women undergraduates. As expected, MMPI-based measures of overt and covert narcissism both correlated positively with the Boredom Proneness Scale (BPS) (Farmer & Sundberg, 1986) and its subscale measuring a need for challenge and excitement. Only Overt Narcissism, which is characterized by extroversion and
The present research examines the link between narcissistic personality and sexuality. Additionally, it explores how sexu- ality may inform the operation of narcissism within the context of close relationships. Two theoretical models, each addressing one of these issues, were evaluated empirically. Our first proposed model suggests that the agentic nature of narcissism explains why narcissism is linked to less restricted
|This paper presents a detailed theoretical discussion of destructive narcissism in relation to Freud and Rosenfeld and later theorists. In destructive narcissism, the destructiveness is itself idealised and overrides "the vital functions which serve the purpose of self-preservation" (Freud, S., 1914, "On narcissism" S.E. 14: 87)--a feature which…
Narcisse is a graphics package developed by our French colleagues at Centre d`Etudes de Limeil Valenton of the Commissariat d`Energie Atomique. Narcisse is quite comprehensive; it can do two-, three-, and four-dimensional plots (the latter meaning that the surface is colored according to the values of an arbitrary function). One can open and send plots to a Narcisse window on a distant machine. Narcisse has a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) which, once a graph has appeared, allows the user to change its characteristics interactively. This enables one to find the best appearance for a particular plot without having to graph it repeatedly from the user program. Previously created files in various formats can also be imported directly into the Narcisse GUI and manipulated from there. Narcisse runs independently, as a graphics server. The user program communicates with Narcisse via Unix sockets. This communication is quite low level and very complex. The appearance of a plot is controlled by nearly 150 parameters for determining such things as the color palette, type of shading, axis scales, curve and surface labels, titles, angle and distance of view (for three- and four-dimensional graphs), hidden line removal, etc. Most end users do not wish to spend time learning the tedious details of such interfaces; they would just like to specify data and ask to have it plotted. This paper describes a high level, easy to use graphics interface which hides (as much as possible) the low level details of whatever graphics system is actually being used, so that the low level can be essentially ``plug-and-play.`` Then, whenever a better system becomes available, it should only be necessary to change low level interface routines not normally accessed by ordinary users. Python, with its easy extendability, was ideally suited for this job.
|We examined the predictive utility of narcissism among a community sample of children and adolescents (N=98) longitudinally. Analyses focused on the differential utility between maladaptive and adaptive narcissism for predicting later delinquency. Maladaptive narcissism significantly predicted self-reported delinquency at one-, two-, and…
Barry, Christopher T.; Frick, Paul J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Grafeman, Sarah J.
The role of parenting styles in the development of young adult narcissism is investigated with individuals from the Block and Block (1980) longitudinal study. At age 3, participants were assessed for the presence of narcissism precursors, and mothers and fathers provided information about their parenting styles. At age 23, the presence of both healthy and maladaptive narcissism was assessed, along
Narcissism research is poorly calibrated across fields of study in part due to confusion over how to integrate normal and pathological descriptions of narcissism. We argue that pathological and normal narcissism can be integrated in a single model that organizes around self-regulation mechanisms. We present theoretical and empirical support for this interpretation, and demonstrate that modeling pathological and normal narcissism as 2 dimensions underlying the narcissistic character can help to resolve some of the inconsistencies in the field regarding how to best assess adaptive and maladaptive expressions of narcissism. PMID:23451709
Roche, Michael J; Pincus, Aaron L; Lukowitsky, Mark R; Ménard, Kim S; Conroy, David E
Alfred Adler's significance for the concept of narcissism is presented with reference to four aspects: 1) Adler's theory of masculine protest was evidently a factor influencing Freud to turn toward the phenomenon of narcissism. 2) Present-day understanding of narcissism shows remarkable similarity to Adler's views on psychodynamics and neurotic egocentricity. 3) Some contemporary criticisms of Freud's theory of narcissism are very similar to Adler's criticism. 4) Adler's theory of social interest permits subsumption of narcissism under lack of social interest rather than acceptance of it as an expression of innate socially negative tendencies. PMID:3882001
Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction). PMID:19130204
|Argues that Francis Ryan's article, "Unmasking the Face of Narcissism: A Prerequisite for Moral Education," holds a mistaken view of morality and moral reasoning. Suggests that moral principles have not necessarily been based on self-denial and self-discipline. Argues that the literature on moral education discussed in the article is actually…
Several theorists have argued in favor of a distinction between overt and covert narcissism, and factor analytic studies have supported this distinction. In this paper I demonstrate that overt narcissists report higher self-esteem and higher satisfaction with life, whereas covert narcissists report lower self-esteem and lower satisfaction with life. I also present mediational models to explain why overt narcissists are
Having been largely unknown as a clinical entity, the narcissistic personality has recently come into the limelight. It is argued that one critical component in the orientation of leaders is the quality and intensity of their narcissistic development. In this paper, the relationship between narcissism and leadership is explored. Using concepts taken from psychoanalytic object relations theory, three narcissistic configurations
|The relationship among three personal fables ("omnipotence," "invulnerability," "personal uniqueness"), narcissism, and mental health variables was assessed in a large, cross-sectional sample of adolescents drawn from Grades 6 (n = 94), 8 (n = 223), 10 (n = 142), and 12 (n = 102). Participants responded to the New Personal Fable Scale, the…
Aalsma, Matthew C.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Flannery, Daniel J.
This study was conducted in two parts. In the first part, which investigated if university football players are perceived to be narcissistic, 30 undergraduates completed the Narcissism Personality Inventory (NPI) as themselves and as they thought a university football player would. Their scores were much higher when they responded as a football player. In the second part, which investigated self-reported
In contemporary culture, narcissism is an important and common personality trait. It colours people's attitudes towards themselves and others, and plays an important role in their performance and success in relational occupations, including the pastorate. A survey among Dutch pastors was used as the basis for developing a typology of four narcissistic styles: balanced, vulnerable, undisguised, and masking. The implications
|The psychological construct of narcissism and the diagnostic label Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) have gained considerable attention in the literature in recent years, leading to the addition of the diagnostic category for NPD in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III) (1980). The DSM III diagnostic criteria,…
|Sought to clarify the intrinsic narcissistic relationship with religiosity using the Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale, the Allport-Ross religious Orientation Scale and the Machiavellian Scale. Intrinsic religiosity correlated negatively and specifically with the maladaptive exploitiveness dimension of narcissism. Data are discussed in…
Virtually any short story by Flannery O'Connor could serve as a poignant case study of narcissism. While narcissism in the guises of ambition and hubris is an ancient literary theme, O'Connor's protagonists vividly exemplify a syndrome of covert and hypervigilant narcissism that has been well characterized in the literature. Her work also strongly implies that narcissism and spirituality (particularly Christianity) are antithetical, and two of her stories--"The Enduring Chill" and "The Lame Shall Enter First"--are analyzed with respect to this belief. The characters of Asbury and Sheppard exhibit classic narcissistic signs and symptoms as delineated by Kohut and Kernberg. The complex relationship of narcissism to evil, spirituality, and contemporary culture is explored, and it is argued that narcissism has a prominent spiritual dimension that raises questions about the role of values in psychotherapy. PMID:14735879
A new measure of hypersensitive narcissism was derived by correlating the items of H. A. Murray's (1938) Narcism Scale with an MMPI-based composite measure of covert narcissism. In three samples of college students (totalN= 403), 10 items formed a reliable measure: the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS). The new HSNS and the MMPI-based composite showed similar patterns of correlations with the
Narcissists describe themselves as narcissistic (e.g., arrogant). Do they have self-insight, or do they simply misunderstand the behavioral manifestations or consequences of narcissism? With two samples (undergraduates N = 86, 65% female, Mage = 20; MTurk N = 234, 62% female, Mage = 35), the current paper investigates whether narcissism is associated with genuine self-insight. Findings suggest that individuals higher in narcissism: (a) agree with close others
In this article, we describe the development and validation of a short (10 item) but comprehensive self-report measure of childhood narcissism. The Childhood Narcissism Scale (CNS) is a 1-dimensional measure of stable individual differences in childhood narcissism with strong internal consistency reliability (Studies 1–4). The CNS is virtually unrelated to conventional measures of self-esteem but is positively related to self-appraised
Previous theorizing by clinical psychologists suggests that adolescent narcissism may be related to parenting practices (Kernb- erg, 1975; Kohut, 1977). Two studies investigated the relations between parenting dimensions (i.e., warmth, monitoring, and psychological con- trol) and narcissism both with and without removing from narcissism variance associated with trait self-esteem. Two hundred and twenty-two college students (Study 1) and 212 high
The current study explored the relationship between courtship violence and the exploitativeness\\/entitlement factor of overt\\u000a narcissism, covert narcissism, and sexual narcissism. Data were analyzed from 63 currently dating couples on their own and\\u000a partner’s aggression using the CTS2. All were white, heterosexual students from a small US college in Central Pennsylvania.\\u000a An interdependence analysis showed that correlations were entirely explained
|Argues for a redefinition of narcissism as pathological communication, rather than egoism or individualism. Contends that such a definition has heuristic advantages. Suggests directions for further research. (MS)|
This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social\\/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical theories of narcissism spanning 35 years consistently describe variations in the expression of pathological narcissism that emphasize either grandiosity or vulnerable affects and self-states. Recent research in social\\/personality psychology examining the structure of narcissistic personality traits consistently finds
We examined the predictive utility of narcissism among a community sample of children and adolescents (N=98) longitudinally. Analyses focused on the differential utility between maladaptive and adaptive narcissism for predicting\\u000a later delinquency. Maladaptive narcissism significantly predicted self-reported delinquency at one-, two-, and three-year\\u000a follow-ups. This pattern held even when considering other intrapersonal risk factors for conduct problems (i.e., callous-unemotional\\u000a traits,
Christopher T. Barry; Paul J. Frick; Kristy K. Adler; Sarah J. Grafeman
There is a lack of consensus surrounding the conceptual- ization of narcissism. The present study compared two measures of narcissism—one used in clinical settings (Personality Diagnostic Ques- tionnaire, PDQ-41; Hyler, 1994) and one used in social-personality re- search (Narcissistic Personality Inventory, NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988)— across two samples. Sample 1 (N 5 271) was composed of undergradu- ates, whereas
The relationships among Marcia?s (1980) identity status, the components of narcissism, and three ego defense mechanisms (denial, projection, and identification) were studied in a group of late adolescents as they began college. The results indicated that experiencing an identity crisis (statuses of Moratorium and Diffusion\\/Moratorium) was associated with the use of all three defenses, but not with narcissism. Commitment to
|Argues that moral and values clarification education encourages narcissism in youths through a focus on individualism and the personal. Finds similar tendencies in adolescent literature. Describes a moral education program designed to counter narcissism through a focus on cooperative relationships. Provides instructional techniques to counter…
|We investigated narcissism as a moderator of social loafing on a physical performance task. High and low narcissistic individuals twice performed a cycling task in same-sex teams of three: once when identifiability was low; and once when identifiability was high. A significant interaction between narcissism and identifiability was revealed, F(1,…
|The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…
Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.
There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs. PMID:23297145
The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…
Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.
|Despite the fact that it has long been recognised that narcissism can contribute to depression, we have become accustomed to referring to depression mostly in terms of a neurotic disturbance. The author highlights the difference between the narcissistic elements in depression, which is based on guilt, and the graver narcissistic depression, which…
Despite the fact that it has long been recognised that narcissism can contribute to depression, we have become accustomed to referring to depression mostly in terms of a neurotic disturbance. The author highlights the difference between the narcissistic elements in depression, which is based on guilt, and the graver narcissistic depression, which…
Impairments in self and interpersonal functioning are core features of personality pathology. Clinical theory and research indicate that compromised self-awareness and distorted interpersonal perceptions are particularly prominent in individuals exhibiting pathological narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Therefore we conducted a study to gain a better understanding of interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. A large sample (N=437) of moderately acquainted individuals assigned to 1 of 93 small mixed-sex groups completed self- and informant ratings on the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) in a round-robin design. The social relations model (SRM) was used to partition the variance in dyadic ratings to investigate several hypotheses about interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. SRM analyses demonstrated evidence of assimilation (the tendency to perceive and rate others similarly) and consensus (the extent to which multiple observers form similar impressions of another person) in interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. Results also indicated modest self-other agreement and assumed similarity (the tendency for people to perceive others as similar to themselves) for PNI higher order factors and subscale ratings. Finally, results suggested that individuals high in pathological narcissism had some awareness of how peers would rate them (metaperception) but believed that others would rate them similarly to how they rated themselves. PMID:23406324
The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing\\u000a and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism\\u000a was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational aggression. Maladaptive narcissism\\u000a showed unique positive associations with aggression and delinquency variables, while adaptive narcissism showed unique negative\\u000a associations with
Katherine S. L. LauMonica; Monica A. Marsee; Melissa M. KunimatsuGregory; Gregory M. Fassnacht
The present investigation examined associations among narcissism, age, ethnicity, world region, and gender, using a large (n=3445) sample of participants representing several different world regions and ethnicities. The results suggest that (1) reported narcissism declines in older participants, (2) consistent with previous findings, males report being more narcissistic than females, (3) that ethnic differences in reported narcissism are generally comparable
Joshua D. Foster; W. Keith Campbell; Jean M. Twenge
|Examined effect of narcissism and locus of control on prisoner ability to complete family life psycho-educational program. Data from 63 inmates and 2 sex offender groups indicated significant correlation between locus of control, narcissism, and final examination scores. No significant correlations were found between narcissism and locus of…
|Overt narcissism correlated negatively with emotional distress and interpersonal difficulties among female, but not male, students. After controlling for self-esteem, overt narcissism correlated positively with depression among female students and with emotional distress and interpersonal difficulties among male students. Covert narcissism…
Weikel, Kim A.; Avara, Renee Mowery; Hanson, Chad A.; Kater, Hope
Through his work “On Narcissism” Freud was to bequeath an intellectual legacy in which the problems of subject and object were described, and in a sense delimited, by the classical iconology inherited with the very naming of “narcissism” itself. Studies of the double in literature are frequently informed by this model. Using Freud's standard formulation of narcissism as a point
Overt narcissism correlated negatively with emotional distress and interpersonal difficulties among female, but not male, students. After controlling for self-esteem, overt narcissism correlated positively with depression among female students and with emotional distress and interpersonal difficulties among male students. Covert narcissism…
Weikel, Kim A.; Avara, Renee Mowery; Hanson, Chad A.; Kater, Hope
Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally involved individuals. In this study, we examined the pattern of relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory–16 and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, respectively, and the four facets of psychopathy (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial) assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening
|The construct of narcissism has a lengthy history and has been operationalized and measured by a variety of instruments. In this study, five narcissism scales were compared in terms of alternative conceptualizations of narcissism offered by C. C. Morf and F. Rhodewalt (2001), D. L. Paulhus (2001), and S. Vazire and D. C. Funder (2006), using the…
|The present study explores the relation between narcissism and delinquency among 372 at-risk 16-18-year-olds. The study also considered the relation between narcissism and self-esteem, as well as the potential interaction between narcissism and self-esteem for predicting delinquency in this age group. Narcissism and self-esteem were positively…
Barry, Christopher T.; Grafeman, Sarah J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Pickard, Jessica D.
|Discusses narcissism, child-rearing practices that lead to child-centeredness, and social insensitivity and their implications for instruction. Considers moral education and the moral sense; cultivating the moral sense through technology; and idea and product technologies. Also includes a commentary on the article by Jonathan Ross and a response…
|This paper describes a study that examined the relationship between two forms of adolescent narcissism and indicators of self-worth (positive adjustment and psychopathology) in a sample of 561 adolescents. School structure, academic performance, and school participation were also examined and mental health functioning was assessed by measures of…
Aalsma, Matthew C.; Varshney, Nicole M.; Arens, Daniel; Lapsley, Daniel K.
|Purpose: This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are…
This study investigates the extent to which the Rorschach was able to identify accurately pathological expressions of narcissism according to the methodological recommendations offered by T. Nezworski and J. Wood (1995). Ninety-one patients who were found to meet DSM–IV criteria for an Axis II disorder (Cluster A personality disorders = 10; antisocial = 20, borderline = 25, histrionic = 5,
Mark J. Hilsenroth; J. Christopher Fowler; Justin R. Padawer; Leonard Handler
Purpose – This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are applied to interruptions in organizational learning and an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning is suggested.
Of the offensive yet non-pathological personalities in the literature, three are especially prominent: Machiavellianism, subclinical narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy. We evaluated the recent contention that, in normal samples, this ‘Dark Triad’ of constructs are one and the same. In a sample of 245 students, we measured the three constructs with standard measures and examined a variety of laboratory and self-report
|Whether the Rorschach test was able to identify pathological expressions of narcissism was studied in 91 patients with Axis II mental disorder. Results suggest that the Rorschach can differentiate narcissistic personality disorder patients from a nonclinical sample and a sample from Cluster A ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) features two conceptions of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), one based on the retained DSM-IV's categorical diagnosis and the other based on a model that blends impairments in personality functioning with a specific trait profile intended to recapture DSM-IV NPD. Nevertheless, the broader literature contains a richer array of potential conceptualizations of narcissism, including distinguishable perspectives from psychiatric nosology, clinical observation and theory, and social/personality psychology. This raises questions about the most advantageous pattern of traits to use to reflect various conceptions of narcissistic pathology via the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5). In this study, we examine the associations of the Personality Disorder Questionnaire-Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale, Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16, and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory and the PID-5 dimensions and facets in a large sample (N = 1,653) of undergraduate student participants. Results point to strong associations with PID-5 Antagonism scales across narcissism measures, consistent with the DSM-5's proposed representation of NPD. However, additional notable associations emerged with PID-5 Negative Affectivity and Psychoticism scales when considering more clinically relevant narcissism measures. PMID:23610234
Wright, Aidan G C; Pincus, Aaron L; Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F
The links among narcissism, explicit (deliberate, controllable) self-esteem, and implicit (automatic, uncontrollable) self-esteem are unclear despite numerous attempts to illuminate these links. Some investigations suggest that narcissism reflects high explicit self-esteem that masks low implicit self-esteem, but other investigations fail to replicate this pattern. Here, we place the 'mask' model of narcissism in historical context and review the existing empirical
Jennifer K. Bosson; Chad E. Lakey; W. Keith Campbell; Virgil Zeigler-Hill; Christian H. Jordan; Michael H. Kernis
The present study explores the relation between narcissism and delinquency among 372 at-risk 16-18-year-olds. The study also considered the relation between narcissism and self-esteem, as well as the potential interaction between narcissism and self-esteem for predicting delinquency in this age group. Narcissism and self-esteem were positively interrelated; however, only narcissism was significantly correlated with delinquency. The results suggested that low self-esteem was actually associated with delinquency when controlling for narcissism. So-called adaptive narcissism was positively correlated with self-esteem, but maladaptive narcissism was not related to self-esteem. Limitations and directions for future research in this area are discussed. PMID:17316782
Barry, Christopher T; Grafeman, Sarah J; Adler, Kristy K; Pickard, Jessica D
|The authors investigate whether narcissism levels are significantly higher in undergraduate business students than psychology students, whether business schools are reinforcing narcissism in the classroom, and whether narcissism is influencing student salary and career expectations. Data were collected from Millennial students (n = 536) and…
Westerman, James W.; Bergman, Jacqueline Z.; Bergman, Shawn M.; Daly, Joseph P.
This study focused on the functional aspects of narcissism in regulating self-conscious emotions (guilt, shame, hubristic pride, and achievement-oriented pride) as well as two other attribution styles (externalization and detachment). The authors investigated Japanese university students (N = 452) with regard to their self-conscious emotions using the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 (TOSCA-3) and their narcissistic personality using the short version of Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-S). Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis. The authors found that narcissism led individuals to feel achievement-oriented pride, hubristic pride, externalization, and detachment, but inhibited feelings of shame. It did not have a significant effect on guilt. Shame-proneness prompted hubristic pride and externalization. Guilt-proneness inclined an individual toward achievement-oriented pride, but deterred externalization. In this article, the authors present and interpret these results in detail and then discuss how they can be utilized in psychotherapy. PMID:22988899
This article introduces a special issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session focused on the conceptualization and treatment of narcissism. Obscured by an ongoing debate about how best to define pathological narcissism, clinicians have often lost sight of the fact that narcissistic investment in the self is a normal developmental trend that can be disturbed to varying degrees by environmental stresses and failures of nurturing. Using case presentations, contributing authors demonstrate the following: the importance of understanding the closely interrelated grandiosity and vulnerability associated with narcissistic difficulties; variation in the expression of narcissistic "types"; the role of perfectionism and sadomasochism; and the possibility that narcissistic issues are present across all types of personality psychopathology. Specific alliance-building recommendations are offered, and the greater utility of defining narcissism dimensionally rather than categorically is explored. A clinical case in the current article illustrates each of these central ideas. Together, the discussions presented in this issue invite greater insight into, and appreciation of, narcissistic phenomena, along with examples of effective and empathic treatment approaches. PMID:22729995
|Agrees that Ryan's article highlights an important problem in moral education, but describes Ryan's view of narcissism as narrow and his account of the past idealized. Argues that a school program combating narcissism is not sufficient because individualism is so deeply rooted in our culture. (10 citations) (AJL)|
|This paper addresses issues of infantile gender identity as they are demonstrated through group processes amongst the carers of disturbed adolescents. It uses this and other clinical material to explore gender narcissism--both male and female. It examines how such narcissism is linked to sado-masochism, and how it can impede a healthy development…
|The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…
Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.
Laboratory analog studies investigated the theory that narcissism and reactance contribute to causing rape. In Study 1, narcissism correlated positively with rape-supportive beliefs and negatively with empathy for rape victims. In Study 2, narcissists reported more enjoyment than other men of film depictions that presented consensual, affectionate activity followed by rape (but not in response to either affection or rape
Brad J. Bushman; Angelicca M. Bonacci; Mirjam van Dijk; Roy F. Baumeister
BACKGROUND: The objective was to examine various aspects of narcissism in patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards and to compare their level of narcissism to that of an age- and gender-matched sample from the general population (NORM). METHODS: This cross-sectional study interviewed 186 eligible acute psychiatric patients with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning
Marit F Svindseth; Jim Aage Nøttestad; Juliska Wallin; John Olav Roaldset; Alv A Dahl
The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…
Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.
When combined with Lasch's (1979, 1984) speculations about the narcissism of consumerist society, Sorokin's (1992) analysis of ideational freedom suggests that the Intrinsic Religious Orientation Scale should predict a reduced desire for money and lower narcissism with opposite relationships expected for the Extrinsic Scale. Confirmation of these hypotheses appeared in a sample of 418 undergraduates who responded to the Religious
P. J. Watson; Nathaniel D. Jones; Ronald J. Morris
This article examines what is at stake in the attribution of narcissism to femininity and feminism and the routes through which arguments about ‘feminist narcissism’ became central to the popular abjection of feminism. It emphasizes the central role of narcissistic theories of identity in enabling feminist theory to prise open the mechanisms of feminine identity and thereby expose and critique
|Renewed interest in the effects of narcissism in the media has generated a closer examination of the phenomenon. This coupled with an increase in academic misbehavior among both high school and university students has provided an opportunity to scrutinize the effects of narcissism on attitudes toward academic dishonesty. The authors investigated…
|The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a…
Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.
|This study reports the development of a measure of narcissism within the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data set. In Study 1, items were selected from Wave III to form the Add Health Narcissism Scale (AHNS). These were factor analyzed, yielding a single factor comprised of five subscales. We correlated the AHNS and…
Building upon past research about the guiding values and self-regulation difficulties of people with narcissistic personalities, this study tested a model of the association between narcissism and compulsive consumption. In data obtained from a sample of undergraduate consumers (N = 238) with varying degrees of spending problems, positive associations emerged between narcissism, materialism, and compulsive buying. Impulse control was negatively
Research indicates that narcissism can be manifested both by healthy and by pathological behaviours and attitudes, and that women's body esteem tends to be associated with the former. This study set out to assess the joint impact on body esteem of the two aspects of narcissism. Regression analyses (controlling for body mass and general neuroticism) indicated that the adaptive and
This research was aimed to provide a comprehensive test of the classic notion that narcissistic individuals are appealing as short-term romantic or sexual partners. In three studies, we tested the hypotheses that narcissism exerts a positive effect on an individual's mate appeal and that this effect is mediated by high physical attractiveness and high social boldness. We implemented a multimethod approach and used ratings of opposite sex persons (Study 1), ratings of friends (Study 2), and records of courtship outcomes in naturalistic interactions (Study 3) as indicators of mate appeal. In all cases, narcissism had a positive effect on mate appeal, which was mainly due to the agentic self-enhancement aspects of narcissism (rather than narcissists' lacking communion). As predicted, physical attractiveness and social boldness mediated the positive effect of narcissism on mate appeal. Findings further indicated that narcissism was more strongly linked to mate appeal than to friend appeal. PMID:23554177
Dufner, Michael; Rauthmann, John F; Czarna, Anna Z; Denissen, Jaap J A
This study examined the association of ringleader bullying with psychopathic traits and theory of mind among 100 youth aged 10-15 (62 boys and 38 girls) receiving inpatient psychiatric services at a state facility. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated a positive association between ringleader bullying and psychopathic narcissism, and a significant interaction effect between narcissism and theory of mind. More specifically, narcissism moderated the relationship between theory of mind and ringleader bullying such that theory of mind was positively associated with ringleader bullying when levels of narcissism were high, and theory of mind was negatively associated ringleader bullying when levels of narcissism were low. The discussion of these results focuses on the importance of developing effective treatment techniques for youth whose bullying behavior is associated with narcissistic features and social acuity. PMID:23271677
This study examined the connections that the facets of narcissism captured by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Hall, 1979) and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009) have with self-esteem. This was accomplished by asking 372 participants to complete measures of narcissism and self-esteem level as well as daily diary measures concerning their state self-esteem and daily experiences. Our analyses found that the facets of narcissism differed in their associations with average level of self-esteem, fluctuations in state self-esteem over time, and self-esteem reactions following daily events. These results suggest that it is important to consider specific facets of narcissism when examining feelings of self-worth rather than relying on broader composite measures of narcissistic personality features. Implications of these results for our understanding of the dynamics of the narcissistic personality are discussed. PMID:22946774
Results of 4 experiments demonstrated that under in-group image threat collective narcissism predicts retaliatory intergroup hostility. Under in-group criticism (vs. praise) collective narcissists expressed intention to harm the offending out-group but not other, nonoffending out-groups. This effect was specific to collective narcissism and was replicated in studies that accounted for the overlap between collective narcissism and individual narcissism, in-group positivity (in-group identification, blind and constructive patriotism), social dominance orientation, and right wing authoritarianism. The link between collective narcissism and retaliatory intergroup hostility under in-group image threat was found in the context of national identity and international relations and in the context of a social identity defined by university affiliation. Study 4 demonstrated that the relationship between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility was mediated by the perception of in-group criticism as personally threatening. The results advance our understanding of the mechanism driving the link between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility. They indicate that threatened egotism theory can be extended into the intergroup domain. PMID:23586408
Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Iskra-Golec, Irena
The rising popularity of social networking sites raises the question of whether and how personality differences are manifested on them. The present study explores this topic through an analysis of the relationship between narcissism and motivations behind Facebook profile picture selection. A survey that assesses motivations emphasizing physical attractiveness, personality, and social ties was conducted with 288 undergraduate students. The study found narcissism to be a significant predictor of the motivation for selecting profile pictures that emphasize attractiveness and personality for both men and women. The findings are discussed in terms of the dynamic self-regulatory processing model of narcissism. PMID:23249240
Clinicians have long noted overlap in some of the key features of narcissism and bipolar disorder, including excessively high goals and impulsivity. In addition, empirical findings consistently document high levels of comorbidity between the two conditions. To better understand the similarities and differences in psychological qualities associated with mania- and narcissism-related vulnerabilities, we administered to 233 undergraduates a broad range of measures pertaining to goals and affects (both their experience and their dysregulation) and impulsivity. As hypothesized, tendencies toward both narcissism and hypomania related to elevations on measures of affective and goal dysregulation. In addition, hypomania tendencies were related to higher impulsivity, but that association did not appear for narcissistic tendencies. Results highlight key commonalities and differences between those at risk for mania versus narcissism. Future research should examine these relationships in clinically diagnosed samples.
Fulford, Daniel; Johnson, Sheri L.; Carver, Charles S.
The present study examined predictors of siblings' relations in 202 young adults (aged 21-32 years), who completed the Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Results indicate that warmth between siblings is explained by gender (with women feeling closer), perceived paternal favoritism, low levels of narcissism, and an interaction suggesting that paternal favoritism moderates the link between narcissism and sibling warmth. Conflict between siblings was explained by gender (sisters), age, parental favoritism, high levels of narcissism, extreme levels of similarity or dissimilarity between siblings, and interactions indicating that older age is a predictor of conflict between siblings among women but not among men. The impact of parental favoritism and narcissism on sibling relationships in young adulthood was discussed. PMID:21290927
High self-esteem individuals in previous studies have tended to deny the credibility of negative evaluators. The present research examined possible explanations for this finding and compared the effects of self-esteem and narcissism on evaluations of negative feedback sources. Following bogus negative feedback, self-esteem predicted negative evaluations of a nonperson feedback source and positive affect, as expected from consistency theory; narcissism
Previous research reveals a substantial degree of variability in the extent to which narcissism (as measured by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory or NPI; Emmons, 1987) and self-esteem (measured using a variety of self-report scales) are associated. Data from 329 college students provided support for the hypothesis that the variability in associations between narcissism and different measures of self-esteem may be
This article focuses on the relevance of attachment theory and research in the conceptualization and treatment of pathological\\u000a narcissism. It is proposed that the relational context of individual development and the interpersonal interpretative capacities\\u000a that emerge as part of the attachment system may be salient factors in the etiology and treatment of narcissism. Included\\u000a is an overview of research on
Do individuals with high self-esteem enjoy positive interpersonal relationships, or are they aggressive and antisocial? Does narcissism reflect an abundance of self-worth, or inflated self-views driven by an overcompensation for low self-esteem? The present research addresses the apparently two-sided nature of self-esteem and narcissism by distinguishing between two distinct self-regulatory processes (narcissistic self-aggrandizement and genuine self-esteem), and proposing that two
Jessica L. Tracy; Joey T. Cheng; Richard W. Robins; Kali H. Trzesniewski
Social networking sites such as Facebook have become extremely popular recently. In this research, we studied how Facebook browsing affects self-awareness and social well-being. Our results show that after Facebook browsing, individuals high in narcissism raised their public self-awareness while those low in narcissism reduced their public self-awareness. We also found that individuals low in narcissism perceived their friends' lives
Purpose – This paper seeks to explore the relationships between organization-based self-esteem and narcissism, and their correlates. It aims to distinguish the two constructs, as well as to examine the degree to which organization-based self-esteem is contaminated by “false self-esteem” (namely, narcissism). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Participants completed questionnaires containing measures of organization-based self-esteem, narcissism, and a variety of motivational, attitudinal, and
According to the agency model of narcissism (Campbell, Brunell, & Finkel, 2006) narcissists view themselves as high on agentic traits but low on communal traits. To test if this self-view extends to recall, two experiments examined the extent to which narcissism was associated with self-ratings and recall of agentic and communal traits that varied in valence. Across both experiments a trait description task was followed by a surprise recall task for the trait words and then completion of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988). Within the self-reference condition narcissism was related to higher selection in the trait description task and to higher recall of positive-agentic (e.g., clever) traits. This general pattern of results occurred for narcissism even while controlling for the related personality variables of self-esteem, agency, and communion. In contrast to narcissism, within the self-referent group self-esteem predicted higher recall for positive-communal traits (e.g., kind) but lower recall for negative-communal traits, a finding consistent with mnemic neglect. Overall, results supported the agency model of narcissism and extended this model to suggest that narcissists rate themselves more highly not only on positive-agentic traits but also on negative-communal traits. PMID:23547686
Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally-involved individuals. The present study examined the pattern of relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, respectively, and the four facets of psychopathy (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial) assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). As predicted, grandiose and vulnerable narcissism showed differential relationships to psychopathy facets, with grandiose narcissism relating positively to the interpersonal facet of psychopathy and vulnerable narcissism relating positively to the lifestyle facet of psychopathy. Paralleling existing psychopathy research, vulnerable narcissism showed stronger associations than grandiose narcissism to 1) other forms of psychopathology, including internalizing and substance use disorders, and 2) self- and other-directed aggression, measured using the Life History of Aggression and the Forms of Aggression Questionnaire. Grandiose narcissism was nonetheless associated with social dysfunction marked by a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style and unprovoked aggression. Potentially important implications for uncovering etiological pathways and developing treatment interventions for these disorders in externalizing adults are discussed.
The cognitive-affective processing system (CAPS) has been proposed as a useful metaframework for integrating contextual differences in situations with individual differences in personality pathology. In this article, we evaluated the potential of combining the CAPS metaframework and contemporary interpersonal theory to investigate how individual differences in pathological narcissism influenced interpersonal functioning in daily life. University students (N = 184) completed event-contingent reports about interpersonal interactions across a 7-day diary study. Using multilevel regression models, we found that combinations of narcissistic expression (grandiosity, vulnerability) were associated with different interpersonal behavior patterns reflective of interpersonal dysfunction. These results are among the first to empirically demonstrate the usefulness of the CAPS model to conceptualize personality pathology through the patterning of if-then interpersonal processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23205698
Roche, Michael J; Pincus, Aaron L; Conroy, David E; Hyde, Amanda L; Ram, Nilam
|The present study investigated the relations of self-reported and peer-nominated relational aggression (RA) with self-esteem and narcissism among 43 at-risk 16- to 18-year-olds. Self-reported and peer-nominated RA were positively intercorrelated, and each was positively correlated with narcissism. An interaction between self-esteem and narcissism…
A new model of narcissism is presented, the contextual reinforcement model. This model describes an area where narcissism will be largely beneficial to the self and, to a lesser extent, to others. This “emerging zone” includes situations involving unacquainted individuals, early-stage relationships, and short-term contexts. The costs of narcissism are seen primarily in the “enduring zone.” These are situations involving
Background The objective was to examine various aspects of narcissism in patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards and to compare their level of narcissism to that of an age- and gender-matched sample from the general population (NORM). Methods This cross-sectional study interviewed 186 eligible acute psychiatric patients with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). The patients filled in the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-21 item version (NPI-21), The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. High and low narcissism was defined by the median of the total NPI-21 score. An age- and gender-matched control sample from the general population also scored the NPI-21 (NORM). Results Being male, involuntary admitted, having diagnosis of schizophrenia, higher self-esteem, and severe violence were significantly associated with high narcissism, and so were also low levels of suicidality, depression, anxiety and GAF scores. Severe violence and high self-esteem were significantly associated with high narcissism in multivariable analyses. The NPI-21 and its subscales showed test-retest correlations ?0.83, while the BPRS and the HADS showed lower correlations, confirming the trait character of the NPI-21. Depression and suicidality were negatively associated with the NPI-21 total score and all its subscales, while positive association was observed with grandiosity. No significant differences were observed between patients and NORM on the NPI-21 total score or any of the NPI subscales. Conclusion Narcissism in the psychiatric patients was significantly associated with violence, suicidality and other symptoms relevant for management and treatment planning. Due to its trait character, use of the NPI-21 in acute psychiatric patients can give important clinical information. The similar level of narcissism found in patients and NORM is in need of further examination.
Svindseth, Marit F; N?ttestad, Jim Aage; Wallin, Juliska; Roaldset, John Olav; Dahl, Alv A
This study examined social goals of interpersonal agency (status, power) and communion (affiliation, closeness) in association with narcissism, empathy, and generalized perceptions of self and others in two studies of undergraduates. In Study 1 (N = 504) as well as Study 2 (N = 225), narcissism was positively and empathy negatively associated with agentic goals, whereas self-esteem, empathy, and generalized perception of others were
Positive and negative implications of two types of college-age narcissism on psychosocial functioning at midlife were studied in a longitudinal sample of women. Both types were scored with self-report measures when the women were, on the average, age 21. Throughout the first half of their adult life, high scorers on covert narcissism presented themselves as lacking in confidence and having
We examined changes in and correlates of 3 kinds of narcissism--hypersensitivity, willfulness, and autonomy--during middle adulthood. Few studies have examined narcissistic personality traits beyond young adulthood, and none has assessed longitudinal changes in narcissism during midlife. In a sample of 70 college-educated women, we found that observer ratings of hypersensitive narcissism were associated with more negative outcomes at ages 43 and 53 (i.e., more depressive symptoms and physical health problems, lower life satisfaction and well-being). Ratings of willfulness and autonomy predicted more positive outcomes. All 3 kinds of narcissism showed considerable rank-order stability over 10 years, but there were also mean-level changes: Hypersensitivity and autonomy decreased, whereas willfulness increased. More positive outcomes were associated with decreases in hypersensitivity and increases in willfulness and autonomy. However, in multivariate analyses, autonomy did not show any significant associations with women's health and well-being outcomes, suggesting that it may have less predictive utility compared to hypersensitivity and willfulness. Our findings highlight developmental changes in and correlates of women's narcissistic personality traits and the importance of assessing different aspects of narcissism in midlife. PMID:22092045
Edelstein, Robin S; Newton, Nicola J; Stewart, Abigail J
In this study we evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (Ns = 299, 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability with established indices of normal personality traits, psychopathology and clinical concerns, and pathological personality traits. Overall, the pattern of correlations supported the convergent and discriminate validity of grandiose and vulnerable conceptualizations of pathological narcissism as measured by the PNI. Clinical utility was assessed by evaluating the extent to which clinicians without specific training in pathological narcissism as well as clinicians with expertise in pathological narcissism could accurately predict the correlates of PNI grandiosity and vulnerability with normal and pathological personality traits and psychopathology. The rcontrast-cv coefficient (Westen & Rosenthal, 2003) provided a global index of accuracy in clinicians’ predictions that was more fully elaborated by examining systematic discrepancies across groups. Overall, novice and expert clinicians were generally able to predict criterion correlations, with some exceptions (e.g., counter to predictions, pathological narcissism was negatively associated with treatment resistance). These results provide further evidence regarding the validity and utility of the narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability constructs as measured by the PNI.
Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.
The present study was aimed to extend the self-orientation model (Campbell, 1999) to vulnerable narcissism in a collectivistic culture. Two hundred and twenty-seven college students were recruited from China. Participants reported their ratings on measures of vulnerable and grandiose narcissism, attractions to different (caring vs perfect) targets, and their choices of potential romantic partners. Results indicated that those participants classified as grandiose or vulnerable narcissists were more attracted to perfect targets than non-narcissists. In addition, grandiose narcissists preferred to choose perfect targets as their romantic partners, while vulnerable narcissists did not show such a preference when choosing potential partners. These results suggested that culture could influence the function of narcissism. The self-orientation model could not fully explain the choices of vulnerable narcissists. PMID:23045842
Narcissists' sensitivity to social evaluation should increase their physiological reactivity to evaluative stressors. However, very few studies have assessed the physiological correlates of narcissism. In this study, participants completed an evaluative laboratory stressor or a non-evaluative control task. Cortisol reactivity—a marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response—and negative affect (NA) were higher in the stress versus control condition. However, men showed larger cortisol responses and, among men, higher narcissism scores predicted greater cortisol reactivity and larger increases in NA. Narcissism was unrelated to cortisol reactivity and NA among women and in the control condition. These findings highlight the influence of defensive personality traits on HPA reactivity and suggest a pathway through which narcissistic traits might influence long-term health outcomes.
Little is known about narcissists’ everyday behavior. The goal of this study was to describe how narcissism is manifested in everyday life. Using the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), we obtained naturalistic behavior from participants’ everyday lives. The results suggest that the defining characteristics of narcissism that have been established from questionnaire and laboratory-based studies are borne out in narcissists’ day-to-day behaviors. Narcissists do indeed behave in more extraverted and less agreeable ways than non-narcissists, skip class more (among narcissists high in exploitativeness/entitlement only), and use more sexual language. Furthermore, we found that the link between narcissism and disagreeable behavior is strengthened when controlling for self-esteem, thus extending prior questionnaire-based findings (Paulhus, Robins, Trzesniewski, & Tracy, 2004) to observed, real-world behavior.
Holtzman, Nicholas S.; Vazire, Simine; Mehl, Matthias R.
Two studies examined narcissism and behavior in a commons dilemma. Study 1 used a four-person, laboratory-based task and Study 2 used a dyadic task. Participants were told that they represented one of four (Study 1) or two (Study 2) forestry companies and then were asked to harvest timber from a renewable forest. Narcissism was found to be positively related to acquisitive goals and harvesting more timber in the initial round. The more narcissists harvesting in the competitive group of four (Study 1) or dyad (Study 2), the less timber was harvested overall and the more rapidly the forest was depleted. Within competitive groups and dyads, however, narcissists harvested more than the nonnarcissists competing with them. In all, narcissism provided a benefit to the self, but at a long-term cost to other individuals and to the commons. PMID:16143668
Campbell, W Keith; Bush, Carrie Pierce; Brunell, Amy B; Shelton, Jeremy
|A two-step cluster analytic strategy was used in two studies to identify an empirically derived typology of narcissism in late adolescence. In Study 1, late adolescents (N=204) responded to the profile of narcissistic dispositions and measures of grandiosity (''superiority'') and idealization (''goal instability'') inspired by Kohut's theory,…
The identity status, narcissism, and use of defense mechanisms of 89 college seniors who had previously been assessed as they entered college (Cramer, 1995) was determined. As compared to earlier follow-up studies, fewer students were found in the Foreclosed status, and more students remained in Moratorium. Support was found for the previously made predictions that change in identity status would
|This experiment tested how self-views influence shame-induced aggression. One hundred and sixty-three young adolescents (M = 12.2 years) completed measures of narcissism and self-esteem. They lost to an ostensible opponent on a competitive task. In the shame condition, they were told that their opponent was bad, and they saw their own name at the…
|In this article the author discusses some of the indications for short- or long-term parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions in terms of what he defines as "problems of parenthood" and "problems of parental narcissism". Brief parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions are most frequently indicated in the case of the former: more neurotic…
There is an increased risk of aggression amongst a small proportion of the mentally disordered population. This is not fully explained by illness factors, and both personality and cognitive bias might contribute to aggressive thinking in this sub-population. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the personality constructs of narcissism and self-concept clarity and aggressively biased
The goal of the present research was to examine antecedents of uncivil behaviour towards coworkers and supervisors. Based on Spector's model (e.g., Spector & Fox, 2005a), we investigated the role of work characteristics (lack of reciprocity in the relationship with one's organization), personality (narcissism), and work-related anger simultaneously. We predicted that anger mediates the relationship between lack of reciprocity and
A two-step cluster analytic strategy was used in two studies to identify an empirically derived typology of narcissism in late adolescence. In Study 1, late adolescents (N=204) responded to the profile of narcissistic dispositions and measures of grandiosity (''superiority'') and idealization (''goal instability'') inspired by Kohut's theory,…
|In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…
Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.
The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) has dominated research on narcissism in the field of social and personality psychology. Surprisingly, it is unclear whether the NPI is useful for identifying pathological narcissism in patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). The goal of this study was to close this research gap. We used an extreme-group approach by including NPD patients and healthy controls and comparing their narcissism scores. We further investigated whether explicit self-esteem (assessed with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) suppressed the relationship between group membership and NPI narcissism. According to our results, NPD patients do not score higher on the NPI in comparison to healthy controls. Analysis of indirect effects revealed that differences in NPI scores are suppressed by NPD patients' low self-esteem. Our results indicate that the NPI is not a valid indicator of NPD, unless one controls for self-esteem. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23101721
Vater, Aline; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Ritter, Kathrin; Renneberg, Babette; Schulze, Lars; Bosson, Jennifer K; Roepke, Stefan
The fragile self-esteem view of narcissism suggests that narcissism is rooted in insecurity of the self that is disguised by grandiosity and arrogance. This conceptualization was initially developed from a psychoanalytic perspective and remains largely overlooked in empirical investigations. The current study empirically tested the fragile self-esteem hypothesis using two established measures of implicit self-esteem. It was proposed that implicit
Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement.
Tamborski, Michael; Brown, Ryan P.; Chowning, Karolyn
Abstract The current study examines,the relationship between narcissism and aggression. The link between narcissistic personalities and heightened aggressive response to ego threat has been substantiated in the literature (Twenge & Campbell, 2003), but it is unclear whether this response is driven by a self -repairing mechanism,to restore damaged,self -esteem or by an ego -promoting mechanism,to vent frustration at not being
Two studies examined how narcissism, a personality trait marked by self-promotion, vanity, and grandiosity, related to how people communicate information about themselves online. We predicted that narcissists communicate in ways that draw attention to themselves. Specifically, we predicted that narcissistic people who used relatively few first-person singular pronouns (e.g., “I,” and “me”) would display more self-promoting and sexy images of
C. Nathan DeWall; Laura E. Buffardi; Ian Bonser; W. Keith Campbell
This study compared 80 gay and straight Australian males on self report measures of body satisfaction, masculinity, femininity,\\u000a narcissism, and reasons for exercising at gyms to explore factors related to excessive exercise. Gay males are less satisfied\\u000a with their bodies compared to straight males. Improving appearance was more important for gay men, while fun was considered\\u000a more important for straight
This study obtained teacher ratings of impulsivity, callous-unemotional traits, narcissism, and Machiavellianism for a sample\\u000a of 252 middle school children, and investigated the extent to which these variables were related to reactive versus proactive\\u000a aggression and physical versus relational aggression. Results showed a main effect for gender, with boys rated highest on\\u000a all measures of psychopathy and aggression, with the
Larger or more prominent male body attributes—increased muscularity, penis size, height, etc.—may be associated with differences in narcissism in men who have sex with men (MSM). This may be due, in part, to physical appearance, which tends to be disproportionately revered by MSM. An Internet survey (N=649) was employed to test this and other hypotheses. Our results indicated that MSM
David Andrew Moskowitz; Gerulf Rieger; David Wyatt Seal
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Personality Disorders (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 2000) personality disorders (PDs) that will be included in the DSM-5 will be diagnosed in an entirely different manner; the explicit criterion sets will be replaced with impairments in self and interpersonal functioning and personality traits from a 25-trait dimensional model of personality pathology. From a trait perspective, narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), the focus of this study, is assessed using 2 specific traits: grandiosity and attention seeking. Using a sample collected online from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk; N=306), we examined the relations among traits from a new measure of DSM-5's trait model--the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, in press)--and grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. The 25 traits from PID5 captured a significant portion of the variance in grandiose and vulnerable factors, although the 2 specific facets designated for the assessment of NPD fared substantially better in the assessment of grandiose rather than vulnerable narcissism. These results are discussed in the context of improving the DSM-5's ability to capture both narcissism dimensions. PMID:22594764
Miller, Joshua D; Gentile, Brittany; Wilson, Lauren; Campbell, W Keith
The present study investigated the relations of self-reported and peer-nominated relational aggression (RA) with self-esteem and narcissism among 43 at-risk 16- to 18-year-olds. Self-reported and peer-nominated RA were positively intercorrelated, and each was positively correlated with narcissism. An interaction between self-esteem and narcissism predicted peer-nominated RA, such that narcissism was related to peer-nominated RA particularly for individuals with high self-esteem. Maladaptive, but not adaptive, narcissism uniquely predicted peer-nominated RA. The implications and limitations of this study for research on adolescent self-perception and RA are discussed. PMID:20390804
The impact of pathological narcissism on psychotherapy has seldom been investigated empirically, despite extensive clinical theory proposing that highly narcissistic individuals should be reluctant to engage in treatment and derive smaller benefits from therapy. In this study, we investigate the relationship between scores on the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009), which assesses both narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability, and clinical variables in a sample of outpatients (N=60) at a community mental health center. Results indicated that grandiosity, but not vulnerability, was negatively related to the use of adjunctive services and positively predicted client-initiated termination of psychotherapy. In addition, grandiosity and vulnerability were related to initial levels of different symptoms in multilevel models using a subsample (n=41) but not generally related to the linear rate of symptom change in early psychotherapy. The results highlight the clinical utility of assessing pathological narcissism in a real-world psychotherapeutic context. PMID:23186259
Ellison, William D; Levy, Kenneth N; Cain, Nicole M; Ansell, Emily B; Pincus, Aaron L
Various conceptualizations of subtypes, levels, and dimensions of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) are considered with a particular focus on overt grandiose presentations and covert vulnerable presentations. Evidence supporting this distinction and clinical vignettes to illustrate it are presented as well as their implications for clinical work with NPD patients. The research and clinical evidence points to the conclusion that these broad categorical subtypes are better conceptualized as dimensions on which individual patients vary on relative levels, thus suggesting that grandiose and vulnerable presentations represent two sides of the same coin. A case example and clinical implications are provided and discussed. PMID:22740389
In 4 studies we examine the association between narcissism, self-construal, and cognitive-perceptual style, hypothesizing that high self-focus in combination with low other-focus (i.e., social atomization) is related to an analytic cognitive-perceptual style. Participants completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, the Self-Construal Scale, and measures of cognitive-perceptual style such as the Analysis-Holism Scale, the Embedded Figures Test, a visual illusion test, and a measure of the representativeness heuristic. We found evidence for a decontextualized cognitive-perceptual style in socially atomized participants, which included those high in narcissism and also those who had a combination of high independent and low interdependent self-construal. A meta-analytic integration of our findings found that narcissism was positively related to independent and negatively related to interdependent self-construal, and mediation analyses found some evidence that the relationship between self-construal and cognitive-perceptual style is partially mediated by narcissism. PMID:19558438
In Heinz Kohut's (1977, 1984) theory of the psychology of the self, good parenting provides a child with optimal frustration and just the right amount of loving empathic concern. In the present study, the authors examined the relations of perceived parental empathy and love inconsistency with measures of narcissism, self-esteem, and depression. In…
Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Watson, P. J.; O'Leary, Brian J.; Weathington, Bart L.
|The purpose of this essay is to explore contemporary early childhood educational practices related to self-esteem and to distinguish self-esteem from narcissism. After discussing practices and materials that are intended to foster self-esteem but may contribute to self-preoccupation, the essay examines some of the distinctions between self-esteem…
|In Heinz Kohut's (1977, 1984) theory of the psychology of the self, good parenting provides a child with optimal frustration and just the right amount of loving empathic concern. In the present study, the authors examined the relations of perceived parental empathy and love inconsistency with measures of narcissism, self-esteem, and depression.…
Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Watson, P. J.; O'Leary, Brian J.; Weathington, Bart L.
The empirical literature on narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is quite sparse with only a small number of studies singularly devoted to this important construct. Of the published articles on NPD, the majority (approximately 80%) are either of a theoretical nature or present data from a case study perspective. There is, however, a thriving and growing literature on trait narcissism. In
Areas of convergence and divergence between the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988) and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009) were evaluated in a sample of 586 college students. Summary scores for the NPI and PNI were not strongly correlated (r=.22) but correlations between certain subscales of these two inventories were larger (e.g., r=.71 for
Kendal Maxwell; M. Brent Donnellan; Christopher J. Hopwood; Robert A. Ackerman
The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a multidimensional measure of narcissistic pathology. This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the PNI in a sample of Chinese university students in Hong Kong. Eight hundred and thirty-one students completed an online battery of questionnaires assessing narcissistic pathology, self-esteem, unstable sense of self, and maladaptive self-defense strategies. Results replicated the 7 first-order factors and the 2 second-order factors of the PNI. Each of the 7 first-order factors and the 2 second-order factors had good internal consistency. Preliminary findings also supported the concurrent validity of the PNI. The PNI appeared to be a valid measure of narcissistic pathology among Chinese. Findings of this study suggest that the core pathology of pathological narcissism might involve an inflated sense of self-importance that is not substantiated by actual achievement, and bearing this unsubstantiated sense of self-importance renders narcissists highly susceptible to self-deflation when their narcissistic needs are not met. PMID:22966841
The clinical implications of the term narcissism are a matter of continuous debate. This article critically examines pertinent literature of the last 12 years using a set of validators and attempting to identify narcissism as a trait, a domain, a dimension, or a personality disorder/type. Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD)-specific literature (particularly in epidemiological, developmental, and laboratory-testing areas) is scarce when compared with other personality disorders. A tendency to ideologically dominated clinical reports is observed with individual cases or small samples of nonclinical populations. Clinical descriptions of the condition vary within a wide range of descriptors, superficial or ambiguous conceptualizations, different subtypes, and inconclusive meta-analytical findings. Comorbidity with many Axes I and II conditions and the presence of narcissistic behavioral and emotional manifestations in other DSM conditions were frequent findings. The reintroduction of NPD in the personality disorders DSM-5 proposal seems to be related to nonclinical or heuristic considerations. It is concluded that NPD as such shows nosological inconsistency and that its consideration as a trait domain with needed further research would be strongly beneficial to the field. PMID:22210358
The present study investigated links between heterosexual men’s narcissism and attitudes toward heterosexual and non-heterosexual\\u000a women and men. Male narcissism was predicted to be associated with hostility toward heterosexual women more than toward other\\u000a groups, indicating investment in patriarchal power more than in conservative gender ideology or nonspecific disdain toward\\u000a all people. Hierarchical regression analyses of responses from 104 male
Research supports the validity of the dimensional approach to psychopathy in both children and adults. The occurrence of severe aggressive and antisocial behavior in combination with callous-unemotional traits (CU traits) designates a group of children that is particularly at risk to develop psychopathy. However, most studies did not investigate the role of the remaining psychopathy dimensions (i.e. narcissism and impulsivity) in comparison. The present text reviews the newest developments in the dimensional study of psychopathy in relation to cognition, behavior and affect in clinical and detained child and adolescent samples. Findings support the role of the callous-unemotional dimension (CU traits) in the development of psychopathy. Additionally, they also underscore the importance of the narcissistic and impulsive dimensions for the understanding of psychopathy in children and adolescents and for the identification of different psychopathy profiles. Understanding differential correlates of the underlying dimensions of psychopathy is an important step in formulating interventions for those most at risk. PMID:23149319
We investigated the relations of the “Dark Triad” personality traits—Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism—with the variables of the Five-Factor Model and the HEXACO model of personality structure. Results (N=164) indicated that all three Dark Triad traits were strongly negatively correlated (rs=?0.72, ?0.57, and ?0.53, respectively) with the HEXACO Honesty–Humility factor. Psychopathy and Machiavellianism showed moderate negative correlations with Big Five Agreeableness
A traditional view holds that low self-esteem causes aggression, but recent work has not confirmed this. Although aggressive people typically have high self-esteem, there are also many nonaggressive people with high self-esteem, and so newer constructs such as narcissism and unstable self-esteem are most effective at predicting aggression. The link between self-regard and aggression is best captured by the theory
Roy F. Baumeister; Brad J. Bushman; W. Keith Campbell
Each subscale of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Hewitt & Flett, 1991) was factor analyzed in an attempt to determine whether perfectionism is best described as a categorical or as a dimensional construct. Relationships with Self-Esteem, Narcissism, Self-Control, and Self-Criticism confirmed the existence of relatively more adaptive and maladaptive elements within each subscale. Partial correlations looking at the adaptive while controlling
Multi-sample analysis of the Emmons factor modelof the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) was usedto test the prediction that exploitive tendencies andfeelings of entitlement are less central to the construct of narcissism among females thanthey are among males. As predicted, the hypothesis ofcross-gender equivalence of the Emmons factorvariance\\/covariance matrixwas rejected. Follow-upanalyses confirmed thatthis hypothesis was rejectedprimarily because Exploitiveness\\/Entitlement showedweaker correlations with
Brian T. Tschanz; Carolyn C. Morf; Charles W. Turner
This article discusses the central roles of issues of narcissism, omnipotence and limits in early sequences of human development, as well as how these issues are dealt with in the psychotherapeutic process developed by Al Pesso and Diane Boyden-Pesso (Pesso Boyden System Psychomotor, PBSP). The article describes practical steps for strengthening the client's ability to contain omnipotent forces and wishes,
Laboratory evidence about whether students' evaluations of teaching (SETs) are valid is lacking. Results from three (3) independent studies strongly confirm that "professors" who were generous with their grades were rewarded for their favor with higher SETs, while professors who were frugal were punished with lower SETs (Study 1, d = 1.51; Study 2, d = 1.59; Study 3, partial ?(2) = .26). This result was found even when the feedback was manipulated to be more or less insulting (Study 3). Consistent with laboratory findings on direct aggression, results also indicated that, when participants were given a poorer feedback, higher self-esteem (Study 1 and Study 2) and higher narcissism (Study 1) were associated with them giving lower (more aggressive) evaluations of the "professor." Moreover, consistent with findings on self-serving biases, participants higher in self-esteem who were in the positive grade/feedback condition exhibited a self-enhancing bias by giving their "professor" higher evaluations (Study 1 and Study 2). The aforementioned relationships were not moderated by the professor's sex or rank (teaching assistant vs.professor). Results provide evidence that (1) students do aggress against professors through poor teaching evaluations, (2) threatened egotism among individuals with high self-esteem is associated with more aggression, especially when coupled with high narcissism, and (3) self-enhancing biases are robust among those with high self-esteem. PMID:22997048
People with narcissistic vulnerabilities often relate to others sadomasochistically-either exerting power, or submitting to others, or both-in order to manage their vulnerabilities and protect themselves from feelings of abandonment. Sadomasochistic experience often involves concrete thinking and limited playfulness or ability to use metaphor. In therapy, these difficulties are often actualized in the patient-therapist relationship so that usual verbal interpretations may be of limited value, and the therapist needs to work to maintain a mutually respectful relationship even as the patient tries to draw him/her into sadomasochistic interactions. Because these difficulties have roots in early childhood and are repeatedly reinforced by later experience, long-term treatment that provides ongoing opportunities for new experience and understanding will be most helpful. These ideas are illustrated with two case examples. PMID:22729454
Many of the phenomena we associate with violence and rage seem to be connected with narcissistic wounding. In this study, the narcissistic dimension of personality is regarded as a phylogenetic derivative of a territorial instinct. The establishment of a self-territory is experienced as a form of personal space, and an effort is made to distinguish various regions in this space. In particular, there is envisaged a narcissistic core consisting of the multiplicity of affiliations to which a given person belongs. These include gender identity, body self, religion, patriotism, lineage, profession, and other such self-defining attachments. In addition, there is a periphery to this space, a point of contact with the boundaries of others where much vulnerability can develop in people with narcissistic problems. It is in connection with such vulnerabilities and the immense reactivity to the invasion of core narcissistic territory that the nature of violence in interpersonal reactions needs to be studied. PMID:6711707
Baumrind's authoritative, permissive, and authoritarian parenting styles were analyzed within the context of Kohut's psychology of the self. College student perceptions of their parents were correlated with measures of self-functioning in order to test the hypotheses that perceived parental authoritativeness would be associated with less narcissistic maladjustment, that permissiveness would be associated with immature grandiosity, and that authoritarianism would correlate
Why would a leader in the Army or in any organization choose to micro-manage subordinates; show a lack of respect for them; choose not to listen to or value their input; or be rude, mean-spirited, and threatening. Most leaders would not. Most people do no...
The present research addresses whether narcissists are more overconfident than others and whether this overconfidence leads to deficits in decision making. In Study 1, nar- cissism predicted overconfidence. This was attributable to narcissists' greater confi- dence despite no greater accuracy. In Study 2, participants were offered fair bets on their answers. Narcissists lost significantly more points in this betting task
W. Keith Campbell; Adam S. Goodie; Joshua D. Foster
|Background/Context: Scholars have described American culture in recent decades as narcissistic, manifested by displays of self-absorption tantamount to a pathological syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions. An education reform movement that is highly critical of public schools, teachers, and students has simultaneously emerged, espousing…
It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make a help meet for him. —Genesis 2:18 In the planetarium of negative feelings and difficult-to-bear emotional states that provide a large part of the motivation needed to undergo psychoanalytic treatment, loneliness has its own stellar position. As an experienced feeling state, it differs from other central human
|One of the most enduring images from Wilson's "The Social Conquest of Earth" (2012) is the campfire, the place of warmth and community around which gathered early humankind. It seems an ideal metaphor for teaching and learning, with mentors and learners gathered around an enterprise of mutual society: No one at the core, but all warmed and…
[Twenge, J. M., Konrath, S., Foster, J. D., Campbell, W. K., & Bushman, B. J. (2008a). Egos inflating over time: A cross-temporal meta-analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality, 76, 875–901.] found that Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) scores increased between 1982 and 2006 among college students nationwide, but [Trzesniewski, K. H., Donnellan, M. B., & Robins, R. W.
Recent theory and research have suggested that the disposition to forgive and the tendency to seek vengeance are related but distinguishable characteristics. Although highly forgiving individuals cannot be simultaneously high in vengeance, those who are low in forgiveness could be either vengeful or not. The present study tested the hypothesis that what distinguishes unforgiving people who are highly vengeful from
|The fact that religiosity has been consistently associated with positive mental health outcomes is a warrant for counselors to explore the resources of one's religious tradition for therapeutic change. Argues that pastoral counseling is particularly suited for addressing the ego development needs of adolescents, and that the vicissitudes of…
To many observers, the world is entering a new age with the advent of electronic communication technology, particularly television and computers. This mental revolution will probably cause as many changes as did the industrial revolution; mental energy will be extended as physical energy has been extended. These changes will come to all societies, developed and underdeveloped. One of the effects
The purpose of this article was to explore the complex issues surrounding the behaviors exhibited by students who have Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) and the role the disorder may play in school violence. Students with NPD are often characterized by arrogance, grandiosity, and self-importance; a preoccupation with fantasies of success and…
The cave walls of prehistoric man record two contrasting hand impressions: the one positive - a direct imprint; the other negative - a blank defined by a halo of colour. Jung's disturbed, displaced contact with his mother led to a struggle in establishing an integrated sense of 'I'; instead to create a sense of Self he brilliantly contrived to illuminate the darkness around that blank impress. The resulting lifework, enhanced by Jung's multifarious capacities as artist and philosopher as well as physician, is deeply impressive; yet Winnicott (1964) in his review of Memories, Dreams, Reflections (1963) nevertheless alludes to Jung's 'own need to search for a self with which to know' (p. 450). Passages from the autobiography are considered that appear to corroborate Winnicott's contention that Jung had a 'blank', potentially psychotic, core. Yet it is also argued that the psychoanalytic mainstream has undervalued the subtlety and creativity of Jung's own intuitive response to his shadow and that a sympathetic appreciation of this can still valuably inform our contemporary approaches to narcissistic disorders, especially dissociation. PMID:22039947
The fact that religiosity has been consistently associated with positive mental health outcomes is a warrant for counselors to explore the resources of one's religious tradition for therapeutic change. Argues that pastoral counseling is particularly suited for addressing the ego development needs of adolescents, and that the vicissitudes of…
Noting that current psychological discussions of conversion give far less attention to the “sense of sin” than did William James and his contemporaries, this article argues for renewed attention to sin and its role in the conversion experience. Using data from a survey of Christian laity on their attitudes toward the traditional deadly sins, the author concludes that the sins
This article concludes the psychoanalytic study of mathematical genius John Nash begun in previous articles (Capps 2003a, 2003b) by focusing on his “recovery” from paranoid schizophrenia after more than a decade of being under control of his delusions. I develop the idea that Nash was a highly narcissistic personality, the primary focus of which was his “beautiful mind,” in the
In an effort to investigate the consequences of the electronic media on the audience, the author examines the impact of the Walkman on the experiences of the listeners. To study the experience of Walkman listeners, the author analyzed the journals of 40 college students regarding their experiences in listening to their Walkmans. In the study, the technological features of the
|Although reports of research misconduct and questionable research practices (QRPs) have been prevalent in the literature, very little has been written about these issues in the field of counseling. The current pilot study addresses (a) the continuous drive for evidence-based practice in education and counseling and (b) the relationship between…
There appear to be two forms of high self-esteem: secure high self-esteem (which is often linked with psychological health) and fragile high self-esteem (which is generally associated with poor psycho- logical adjustment and impaired interpersonal relationships). Discrepant high self-esteem is a form of fragile self-esteem characterized by high ex- plicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. The present study examined whether
The following paper makes use of Kohutian self-psychology as a hermeneutic for interpreting Marie de l'Incarnation and her perplexing decision to abandon her young son Claude in favor of religious life. The author argues that filtered through the lens of Kohutian self-psychology, Marie de l'Incarnation emerges as a pathological narcissist and the decision to abandon Claude symptomatic of a narcissistic grandiosity. PMID:23297185
|This article seeks to raise a number of issues concerning children's well-being in late modernity. In order to provide historical contrasts, the first part of the article considers three "optimistic" periods: the Liberal Reform Programme, 1906-1911; interwar developments in New Psychology, progressive education and child guidance; the post-1945…
In this paper, we examine the relationship between people's actual interpersonal sensitivity (such as their ability to identify deception and to infer intentions and emotions) and their perceptions of their own sensitivity. Like prior scholars, we find the connection is weak or non-existent and that most people overestimate their social judgment and mind-reading skills. Unlike previous work, however, we show
This article focuses on the near collapse of the highly prestigious hedge-fund Long Term Capital Management (LTCM) in September 1998, causing widespread fears that its demise may lead to global financial meltdown. Explanations pivoting on the idea of bounded rationality - that rationally functioning organizations may collapse because of a lack of information or the capacity to process such information
Field studies suggest that individual differences are strong determinants negotiator effectiveness, but their impact has yet to be adequately documented (Thompson 1990). We argue that the lack of empirical confirmation is attributable to methodological limitations of the dominant paradigm. This paper shows the usefulness of psychodynamically-oriented constructs and clinical assessment methods. The study contrasts the negotiation experience of individuals high
Marcuse’s historicization of Freud’s eternal conflict between the reality and pleasure principles sought to redeem the cognitive and moral status of phantasy for utopian socialism. To save the pleasure principle, Marcuse also revised the cultural myths of Narcissus and Orpheus in place of the productivist myth of Prometheus. It is argued that this move committed him to patriarchal revisionism at
Considering Marcel Duchamp's work, this paper raises the question as to the nature of the subjective experience proposed by contemporary art to today's audience. Approaching art through the concept of sublimation, Freud maintains a fundamentally optimistic and positive view, putting forward its libidinal and sexual aspects, the pursuit of pleasure, beauty, and omnipotence. Following the path opened by Freud through the concept of the 'uncanny', most post-Freudian authors have proposed a 'blacker' image of artistic endeavour, allowing the expression of aggression. From a perspective which is neither that of an art historian nor a moralist, the author proposes the idea that certain propositions of contemporary art may allow the viewer to live narcissistic and destructive fantasies, via culturally sanctioned and socially acceptable means. The recognition of the fertile use of destruction as a condition of the emergence of the new, on the one hand, as well as the legitimacy of the expression through art of the most primitive fantasies and the right to non-communication, on the other, are postulated as constructs for a non-normative, non-judgemental psychoanalytic approach to the cultural world. PMID:17681906
We sought to explore the differential associations of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissistic traits, and Machiavellian traits with overt aggression, relational aggression, delinquency, behavioral dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation in a community sample of boys and girls (ages 11-17). Results indicated that the three personality…
With the rapid increase of adolescent participation in sites such as Facebook, and with the critical developmental task of identity formation during adolescence, there are vital questions for further investigation regarding the utilization of social networking sites, the development of feelings about the self and personality traits. The present study examined the relationship of older adolescents' use of Facebook to
As women have gained status in Western cultures in the last few decades, they have increasingly endorsed stereotypically masculine\\u000a instrumental\\/assertive traits. However, men have also endorsed these traits at a higher frequency and show only a weak trend\\u000a toward embracing more stereotypically feminine expressive\\/communal traits. Overall, Western cultures have moved toward valuing\\u000a instrumental\\/assertive traits and devaluing expressive\\/communal traits. The paradox
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Personality Disorders (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 2000) personality disorders (PDs) that will be included in the DSM–5 will be diagnosed in an entirely different manner; the explicit criterion sets will be replaced with impairments in self and interpersonal functioning and personality traits from a 25-trait dimensional model of personality pathology. From a trait
Joshua D. Miller; Brittany Gentile; Lauren Wilson; W. Keith Campbell
The borderline syndrome, a typical marginal structure, is certainly a specific, autonomous pathology, with its own distinctive characteristics: among them, acting out, cyclical repetition of events without historical progression and anaclitic depression. Kohut’s concept of ‘narcissistic hunger’ is particularly pertinent to the borderline condition: the borderline patient hungers to have that which is missing in his being. Through the application
|Numerous research studies reveal that cheating is a significant problem on the campuses of American colleges and universities. Traditional college-aged students (aged 18-25) fall within a time-frame of the life-span that has been labeled emerging adulthood, a time in which risk-taking behavior is common. The present study conceptualized academic…
|Many studies have reported that business students have been more apt to act in self-interested ways when compared to their counterparts in other academic fields. Beginning with the premise that ethical behavior derives in part from personality characteristics, the authors tested whether (a) measures of an empathetic or narcissistic personality…
Brown, Todd A.; Sautter, John A.; Littvay, Levente; Sautter, Alberta C.; Bearnes, Brennen
|We sought to explore the differential associations of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissistic traits, and Machiavellian traits with overt aggression, relational aggression, delinquency, behavioral dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation in a community sample of boys and girls (ages 11-17). Results indicated that the three personality…
Narcissistic pathology is assessed in the diagnostic manuals as a categorical construct characterized by cognitive, emotional, and behavioral indicators of grandiosity. This framework ignores the complexities of the construct that also include vulnerability. We suggest that assessing grandiosity and vulnerability as dimensional, interactive components provides the greatest utility when working with narcissistic patients. We describe a patient who presents as fragile, shy, and sensitive, but also has vivid fantasies about his superiority. While he does not meet the DSM-IV criteria for Narcissistic Personality Disorder, we highlight how anxiety, shame, and submissiveness co-occur with grandiosity, which maintain a narcissistic personality organization characterized by severe deficits in self-esteem regulation. We encourage the integration of dimensional assessment into the diagnosis of narcissistic pathology. PMID:22730014
|Considers the Antisocial Personality Disorder within the context of a psychopathology model. Criticizes and reviews the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders approach and suggests revisions. Coins the term narcissistic-antisocial personality and reviews it within several contexts. (Author/ABB)|
|The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of pathological gambling and addiction from the perspective of writer and teacher A.H Almaas. By drawing on his Diamond Mind approach we trace the origin of addictive behaviors and pathological gambling to narcissistic wounding, which constitutes the loss of connection with the Essential…
Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason; Boni, Lauren Julia; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant
The identification of psychological and interpersonal factors that predict cooperation and agreement between ex-spouses is important to understanding, and eventually promoting, healthy postdivorce adjustment of parents and their children. By drawing on object relations theory, the authors identified differences between 16 ex-couples who were able to negotiate and maintain a cooperative parenting plan after separation (\\
Marion F. Ehrenberg; Michael A. Hunter; Michael F. Elterman
This study provides convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity data for a new measure of narcissistic personality traits created from the perspective of the Five-factor model (FFM) of general personality structure. Fifteen scales were constructed as maladaptive variants of respective facets of the FFM (e.g., Reactive Anger as a narcissistic variant of angry hostility), with item selection made on the basis
Natalie Glover; Joshua D. Miller; Donald R. Lynam; Cristina Crego; Thomas A. Widiger
Narcissism is typically viewed as a dimensional construct in social psychology. Direct evidence supporting this position is lacking, however, and recent research suggests that clinical measures of narcissism exhibit categorical properties. It is therefore unclear whether social psychological researchers should conceptualize narcissism as a category or continuum. To help remedy this, the latent structure of narcissism—measured by the Narcissistic Personality
Accuracy and bias in self-perceptions of performance were studied in a managerial group-discussion task. Ss ranked their own performance and were ranked by the 5 other group members and by 11 assessment staff members. Although the self-perceptions showed convergent validity with the staff criterion, Ss were less accurate when judging themselves than when judging their peers. On average, Ss evaluated
Narcissists are thought to display extreme affective reactions to positive and negative information about the self. Two experiments were conducted in which high- and low-narcissistic individuals, as defined by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), completed a series of tasks in which they both succeeded and failed. After each task, participants made attributions for their performance and reported their moods. High-NPI
Both narcissists and high self-esteem individuals engage in active self-enhancement to support their positive self-views. However, while narcissists want to assert their superiority, high self-esteem individuals desire to be valued by the social community. These different self-goals suggest that only narcissists can afford to engage in forceful and brazen self-enhancement strategies. Consistent with expectation, in two studies, narcissists exploited self-enhancement
On the basis of a realistic behavioral approach, the authors showed that narcissists are popular at zero acquaintance and aimed to explain why this is the case. In Study 1, a group of psychology freshmen (N = 73) judged each other on the basis of brief self-introductions using a large round-robin design (2,628 dyads). Three main findings were revealed: First,
This research identifies the gratifications sought by the net-generation when producing user-generated content (UGC) on the internet. Members of the Net-generation want to vent negative feelings, show affection to their frieds and relatives, be involved in others' lives, and fulfill their need to be recognized. These gratifications were all found to be significantly associated with the users' various levels of
|This study investigated the psychometric properties and predictive validity of three self-report scales (the Psychopathy Content Scale, the Psychopathy-16 scale, and the Egotistic scale) derived from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) to screen for the presence of psychopathic and narcissistic personality characteristics. Exploratory…
Penney, Stephanie R.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Da Silva, Kimberley S.
Building on previous disaster research, this article presents and analyzes the May 1996 Mount Everest climbing disaster. Using a blend of psychodynamic and structuralist theory, the article demonstrates how historical changes in the field of high-altitude climbing fostered the emergence of pathologically narcissistic, competitive, and regressive dynamics that ultimately contributed to numerous climbing deaths.
The present study quantitatively examined the ethnographic social–psychological profile suggested by A. M. Klein (1993) for American bodybuilders using Israeli bodybuilders. Eighty male gym trainees and 80 men who have never trained completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and Bem's Sex Role Inventory, the Attitudes Toward Homosexuality (AHS) and the Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) Scales, and a demographic questionnaire. The bodybuilders showed
Some scholars have called for the replacement of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) with more narrow scales measuring grandiosity and entitlement instead. In the current study, the authors examined the relations among the NPI and measures of grandiosity and entitlement, as well as in relation to a measure of the Five-Factor Model (FFM). The NPI manifested significant correlations with the
|Some scholars have called for the replacement of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) with more narrow scales measuring grandiosity and entitlement instead. In the current study, the authors examined the relations among the NPI and measures of grandiosity and entitlement, as well as in relation to a measure of the Five-Factor Model (FFM).…
Miller, Joshua D.; Price, Joanna; Campbell, W. Keith
|This article describes the process of working through the "dry drunk" second stage of sexual addiction recovery through transforming the narcissistic "Master of the Universe" personality into the experience of nondual being using the Almaas Diamond Approach of self-realization. The Diamond Approach is a transpersonal informed psychology…
The unprecedented popularity of the social networking site Facebook raises a number of important questions regarding the impact it has on sociality. However, as Facebook is a very recent social phenomenon, there is a distinct lack of psychological theory relating to its use. While research has begun to identify the types of people who use Facebook, this line of investigation
Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97)?=?.20, p?=?.65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97)?=?.00, p?=?.99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, ??=?.27, p?=?.04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, ??=?.27, p?=?.06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, ??=?.72, p?=?.01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications.
Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.
The authors report results from 2 studies assessing the extent to which narcissism is related to self- and other ratings of leadership, workplace deviance, and task and contextual performance. Study 1 results revealed that narcissism was related to enhanced self-ratings of leadership, even when controlling for the Big Five traits. Study 2 results also revealed that narcissism was related to
Timothy A. Judge; Jeffery A. LePine; Bruce L. Rich
In a recent article, David P. Pierson makes a persuasive case for considering American television comedy, and sitcoms in particular, as 'Modern Comedies of Manners'. These comedies afford a particular point of entry into contemporary mediatised negotiations of 'civility', i.e. how individual desires and values interface with the conventions and stand- ards of families, peer groups and society at large.
In a group of 148 violent offenders, 14 offenders were diagnosed as psychopaths (PCL-R score 30+); 46 as middle group psychopaths (PCL-R score 21–29); and 88 as non-psychopaths (PCL-R score??21). To measure impulsivity, empathy, and hostility in the three groups, clinical diagnoses of psychologists and psychiatrists were used and classified in the HKT-30. Based on Hare's PCL-R classification, psychopaths scored
Stefan Bogaerts; Machiel Polak; Marinus Spreen; Almar Zwets
|Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not contained…
Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna
This article explores the intersection of clinical narcissism and Buddhist meditation practice. Through the lens of Otto Kernberg\\u000a and Heinz Kohut’s theories of narcissism, the article investigates the many facets of Eastern spiritual practice when undertaken\\u000a by a narcissistic practitioner. In particular, questions are raised regarding the potential psychological dangers of pursuing\\u000a meditation practice when suffering from clinical narcissism. Potential
Narcissism is a multifaceted term which encompasses traits of normal personality as well as a specific personality disorder. While much research has been concerned with narcissism as a trait there are only few empirical studies available on narcissistic personality disorder (NPS). The current diagnostic of NPS according to DSM-IV-TR focuses on grandiose type narcissism whereas vulnerable narcissism, which has been described by clinicians and researchers has not yet been recognised. Psychotherapy of narcissistic patients through different psychotherapeutic schools focuses mainly on processes in the therapeutic relationship, the analysis and change of grandiose and vulnerable schemas, emotion regulation techniques and correction of narcissistic behavior in favor of prosocial interactions. PMID:23636574
Several studies have tested whether narcissism is a compensatory reaction to underlying ego fragility by examining narcissism's empirical links to both explicit self-esteem (ESE) and implicit self-esteem (ISE), under the general expectation that narcissists should exhibit an abundance of ESE but a dearth of ISE. However, not only have these studies yielded conflicting findings, they have also proceeded from divergent
The relationship between a severe variant of narcissistic personality disorder (namely malignant narcissism) and the motivation to murder is presented in the case of a British spree serial killer. The case illustrates the development of this form of psychopathology and its association with the underlying inner narrative generated in the murderer's mind. The relationship between the pathology of narcissism, psychopathic
|Provides counselors with an overview of narcissism and its treatment. In the first section, dysfunctional narcissism is described, drawing on the diagnostic indicators presented in the DSM-III and the contemporary object relations theories of Heinz Kohut and Otto Kerberg. The second section focuses on counseling narcissistic clients. (Author/JAC)|
Narcissists, who seek keenly to self-enhance, strive to positively distinguish themselves. Might they therefore be inclined to purchase consumer products that enable them to do so? Study 1 found that narcissism, but not self-esteem, predicted dispositions to purchase products for the purpose of promoting personal uniqueness. Studies 2 and 3 found that narcissism predicted greater interest in exclusive, customizable, and personalizable products. Study 3 also found participants higher in narcissism regarded their prized possessions as less likely to be owned by others. Finally, Studies 3 and 4 found that interest in a hypothetical product, respectively, to be bought either for oneself or someone else, covaried with an experimental manipulation of product exclusivity and scarcity, but principally when levels of narcissism were high. Our findings illustrate the impact of narcissism on consumer preferences and support an agentic interpretation of narcissistic self-enhancement. PMID:23773040
Previous studies have found that narcissistic individuals are often viewed negatively by those who know them well. The present study sought to extend these previous findings by examining whether normal and pathological aspects of narcissism were associated with perceiver ratings of narcissistic characteristics and aggression. This was accomplished by having each of our undergraduate participants (288 targets) recruit friends or family members to complete ratings of the target who recruited them (1,296 perceivers). Results revealed that perceived entitlement was strongly associated with perceived aggression. Further, self-reported levels of pathological narcissism moderated these results such that vulnerable narcissism exacerbated the association between perceived entitlement and aggression, whereas grandiose narcissism mitigated the association. The discussion will focus on the implications of these results for understanding the various features of narcissism. PMID:23281823
Malkin, Mallory L; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Barry, Christopher T; Southard, Ashton C
|Laments the narcissism that the author sees in too many contemporary approaches to acting and directing. Argues that actors must focus on the world outside themselves, where the play and the audience most need them to be. (SR)|
|Distinguishes Q methodology from conventional hypothetico-deductive methodologies and from conventional communication approaches. Illustrates epistemological principles through a single-case study of cultural narcissism examined in terms of responses to pictures appearing in "Time" magazine. (RS)|
Five studies investigated the links among narcissism, self-esteem, and love. Across all studies, narcissism was associated primarily with a game-playing love style. This link was found in reports of general love styles (Study 1a) and of love in ongoing romantic relationships (Studies 1b-3, 5). Narcissists' game- playing love style was the result of a need for power and autonomy (Study
An examination of the relationship between self-esteem and delinquent behavior in juveniles suggests that pathological narcissism, characterized by a grandiose self-image and interpersonal exploitation, may be a factor in the etiology of juvenile delinquency.Psychoanalytic theory posits a relationship between narcissism and delinquent behavior in juveniles, however, there has been little research examining this relationship empirically. The present study represents an
Georgia B. Calhoun; Brian A. Glaser; Tres Stefurak; Catherine P. Bradshaw
A cross-temporal meta-analysis found that narcissism levels have risen over the generations in 85 samples of American college students who completed the 40-item forced-choice Narcissistic Personal- ity Inventory (NPI) between 1979 and 2006 (total n 5 16,475). Mean narcissism scores were significantly correlated with year of data collection when weighted by sample size (b 5 .53, po.001). Since 1982, NPI
Jean M. Twenge; Sara Konrath; Joshua D. Foster; W. Keith Campbell; Brad J. Bushman
The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is a self-report measure that assesses subclinical levels of narcissism. It evolved through a 54-item, four-factor version to its current 40-item, seven-factor version. This study focuses on the 40-item NPI that produces a full-scale narcissism score and seven-factor-based subscale scores: authority, exhibitionism, superiority, entitlement, exploitativeness, self-sufficiency, and vanity. This study is the first to examine
Despite the criticism that psychoanalytic models are not applicable to social phenomena, knowledge of the dynamics of narcissistic development aids in understanding a particular kind of racist individual. Specifically, racist attitudes may be indicative of a narcissistic personality disorder or of a regression to primitive narcissistic functioning secondary to environmental forces. The differentiation between the narcissistic racist, the stress-induced racist, and the socially misinformed racist is discussed utilizing clinical paradigms discovered in psychotherapy. Life experiences and religion are discussed as possible aids in the transformation of primary narcissism into secondary narcissism.
|This cross-sectional study examined the nature of child and adolescent psychopathy using the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in 3,675 schoolchildren (ages 11-16) in Hong Kong, China. A confirmatory factor analysis observed a good fit for the three-factor model (callous-unemotional, impulsivity, narcissism) of APSD, with boys scoring…
|Differentiates self-esteem from narcissism and traces societal preoccupation with self-esteem. Maintains that placing so much importance on an individual and self-esteem obscures the value of a balance between individuality and mutual responsibility. Describes Montessori's emphasis on the child's inner development and on community and mutual…
|Maintains that self-esteem is more than simply "feeling good" about oneself. It derives from having experienced meaningful success. A service learning program can accomplish this and avoid the self-preoccupation and narcissism that occasionally accompany self-esteem efforts. Service learning can replace this with empathy and commitment. (MJP)|
|When faced with shame, children can either respond in submissive ways to withdraw from their environment or in externalizing ways to oppose their environment. This study tested the hypothesis that fragile-positive views of self predispose children to respond in externalizing ways to shame situations. Narcissism, actual and perceived social…
|Given substantial interest in the traits conceived of as part of the "Dark Triad"--psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism--assessment of these traits is of great importance. The Dirty Dozen (DD; Jonason & Webster, 2010) is a brief measure of the Dark Triad constructs that uses 4 items to assess each of these constructs. In the present…
Miller, Joshua D.; Few, Lauren R.; Seibert, L. Alana; Watts, Ashley; Zeichner, Amos; Lynam, Donald R.
|Describes results of study of a 45-item scale developed to measure the construct and administered to four separate samples. The Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale significantly correlated in theoretically predicted ways with measures of racial identity, empathy, health narcissism, feminism, androgyny, homophobia, and dogmatism (the last…
Miville, Marie L.; Gelso, Charles J.; Pannu, Raji; Liu, Will; Touradji, Pegah; Holloway, Pauline; Fuertes, Jairo
|Describes a type of educational administrator in terms of demographic, emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal characteristics, underscoring this individual's less than fully authentic concern for others. This administrative personality type is then related to psychological theories of narcissism, obsessive-compulsive personality, and…
|Over the past half century, in the United States and other developed nations, children's free play with other children has declined sharply. Over the same period, anxiety, depression, suicide, feelings of helplessness, and narcissism have increased sharply in children, adolescents, and young adults. This article documents these historical changes…
|There has been an exponential increase of interest in the dark side of human nature during the last decade. To better understand this dark side, the authors developed and validated a concise, 12-item measure of the Dark Triad: narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism. In 4 studies involving 1,085 participants, they examined its structural…
|The self-report version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) has become a popular measure for assessing psychopathic features in justice-involved adolescents. However, the internal consistency reliability of its component scales (Narcissism, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity) has been questioned in several studies. This study…
Poythress, Norman G.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Falkenbach, Diana; Cruise, Keith; Lee, Zina; Murrie, Daniel C.; Vitacco, Michael
|The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…
Narciss' theoretical framework for informative tutorial feed- back (ITF) suggests to adapt the feedback along the dimensions: content, procedure, form, and presentation according to the task, the learner's re- sponse and to the learner's characteristics and particular situation. As prerequisites for the adaptations we devised a knowledge representation for exercises to which various tutorial and presentation strategies can be applied.
The purpose of this study was to reveal the typical personality profiles of veterans who have been perpetrators of domestic violence. Cluster analysis revealed that the MCMI-II profiles of 183 veterans entering treatment for domestic violence at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center fell into three clusters. These clusters were labeled Subclinical Narcissism, Narcissistic Personality Disorder, and High General Psychopathology\\/ Substance
Bertram Rothschild; Carolyn Dimson; Ragnar Storaasli; Lori Clapp
As a practice meant to release the subject from the narcissism that informs the concerns and preoccupations of her or his ego, psychoanalysis aims at a transformation of the subject comparable to the Buddha's quest for enlightenment. In order to clarify this subtle and difficult dimension of psychoanalytic work, this essay draws upon a clinical example and discusses it in
The Dark Triad – narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy – have traditionally been considered to be undesirable traits. However, emerging work suggest that not only may there be a positive side to possessing these traits but they may also serve important adaptive functions, even if the strategies associated with them are viewed as socially undesirable. In an online survey (N=336), we
|The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is a widely used measure of narcissism. However, debates persist about its exact factor structure with researchers proposing solutions ranging from two to seven factors. The present research aimed to clarify the factor structure of the NPI and further illuminate its nomological network. Four studies…
Ackerman, Robert A.; Witt, Edward A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Robins, Richard W.; Kashy, Deborah A.
|This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…
Despite much research, skepticism remains over the possibility of profiling scholastic cheaters. However, several relevant predictor variables and newer diagnostic tools have been overlooked. We remedy this deficit with a series of three studies. Study 1 was a large-scale survey of a broad range of personality predictors of self-reported cheating. Significant predictors included the Dark Triad (Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy) as
Kevin M. Williams; Craig Nathanson; Delroy L. Paulhus
|Examines specularity (the pleasure derived from looking at television) in the context of sports. Argues that televised sports' popularity reflects: (1) fetishism (motivation by fascinated desire); (2) voyeurism (uninvited viewing); and (3) narcissism (identification with athletes). Describes a study of sports telecast viewing. Argues against…
|The Narcissistic Personality Questionnaire for Children (NPQC) is a brief self-report scale for measuring narcissism in children. In Study 1, a factor analysis on 370 children's NPQC scores revealed four factors that were labeled superiority, exploitativeness, self-absorption, and leadership. Study 2 established convergent and discriminant…
The failure of many American corporations to adapt to changed economic circumstances has become a major social concern. Many reasons have been alleged for those catastrophes. These allegations describe the ostensible reasons, but they do not explain adequately. The explanations are fundamentally psychological, significantly having to do with individual and organizational narcissism, unconscious recapitulation of family dynamics in the organization,
The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…
I hate medical drama. If I want drama I will watch a movie, a sporting event or a TV show. Bartonella has almost 2,000 articles on PubMed, but almost no one realizes it is a major source of depression and suicide, panic attacks and social anxiety, seizures, heart attacks, personality change, pushy be- havior, divorce, profound narcissism, eccentric obsessions, irritability,
This article discusses issues related to understanding and treating perfectionism in religious adolescents. To do so, the author discusses the distinction between the quest for perfection and the pursuit of excellence, some of the disorders associated with perfectionism and grandiosity (e.g., narcissism, obsessive-compulsive disorders), and the underlying affects (shame, guilt). The impact of parenting on perfectionistic tendencies is discussed at
Writing at adolescence has a non negligible part in identity's construction. Vertical writing as tags, graphs and graffiti refer to a narcissism deficiency and express a pulsional necessity, whereas, horizontal writing as private diaries, letters and novels express object's search and are made in dreaming attitude. PMID:7618823
This article explores the Jewish roots of Erich Fromm's humanistic psychology: its ethical values, conception of human nature, and societal aspirations. It analyzes key concepts in Fromm's humanistic psychology that have Jewish antecedents, including biophilia, the rejection of idolatry and group narcissism, moral universalism, and free will. It explicates Fromm's major work addressing Judaism and humanistic psychology, You Shall Be
|Analyzed the lyrics of the 100 most popular songs in America from the 1950s to the 1980s to assess their value themes. Extracted nine value themes: romantic love, celebration, humanitarianism, antiestablishmentarianism, friendship, patriotism, narcissism, self-esteem, and nostalgia. Romantic love, particularly that of "innocent" young love,…
Is facial structure a valid cue of the dark triad of personality (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy)? I obtained self-reports and peer reports of personality as well as expression-neutral photographs of targets, and then I created prototypes of people high and low on each of the three dimensions by digitally combining select photographs of Caucasian targets. The results indicated that unacquainted
|Addresses trends in ethnographic studies of media audiences. Asserts that, although rethinking of ethnography is necessary, it has the potential to paralyze research and continue building an abstract theoretical narcissism. States that the future of cultural audience studies lies with attempts to improve ethnographic practice. Argues that…
Individuals who outshine others may experience distress if their performance poses an interpersonal threat. A scenario-based measure, the Test of Responses to Outperforming Others (TROO), was developed to assess positive and negative responses to outperformance among undergraduates. Three studies provided preliminary validation. Studies 2 and 3 examined personality correlates. Narcissism emerged as a robust predictor of positive emotion on the
The aesthetic illusion is the subjective experience that the content of a work of art is reality. It has an intrinsic relation to magic, an intrapsychic maneuver oriented toward modification and control of the extraspyschic world, principally through ego functioning. Magic is ontogenetically and culturally archaic, expresses the omnipotence inherent in primary narcissism, and operates according to the logic of
Reading a reaction to one's publication is usually a good thing for one's narcissism. In the best of cases, it is a good thing for one's thinking as well, as it obliges us to reconsider critically a number of our ideas. This is the case with the paper published by J. Mills, as a reaction to our \\
The Narcissistic Personality Questionnaire for Children (NPQC) is a brief self-report scale for measuring narcissism in children. In Study 1, a factor analysis on 370 children's NPQC scores revealed four factors that were labeled superiority, exploitativeness, self-absorption, and leadership. Study 2 established convergent and discriminant…
This essay uses the figure of Don Quixote to explore the mid-career crisis experienced by many male ministers. It proposes that Don Quixote is less problematic than Don Juan for ethical reasons, but employs psychoanalytic interpretations to reveal the complexity of his self-structure, focusing especially on his moral narcissism, proneness to paranoia and melancholia, and his fictive personality. While evidence
The psychological literature to date has identified more than one form of narcissism: the more well-known grandiose form, and the less familiar and recognized covert form. Although the distinction between these two narcissistic types has been identified with regard to better conceptualizing client dynamics, there has been much less written about how covert narcissistic tendencies and traits may affect psychotherapists
ANDREW F. LUCHNER; HAMID MIRSALIMI; CASEY J. MOSER; REBECCA A. JONES
|This study examined the contributions of gender, adult romantic attachment orientations (i.e., avoidance, anxiety), defense mechanisms (i.e., narcissism, other-splitting), and stressors to college student psychological abuse perpetration (dominance). Men with higher levels of attachment avoidance, narcissistic entitlement, and stressful problems…
The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is a widely used measure of narcissism. However, debates persist about its exact factor structure with researchers proposing solutions ranging from two to seven factors. The present research aimed to clarify the factor structure of the NPI and further illuminate its nomological network. Four studies provided support for a three-factor model consisting of the dimensions
Robert A. Ackerman; Edward A. Witt; M. Brent Donnellan; Kali H. Trzesniewski; Richard W. Robins; Deborah A. Kashy
Most research on narcissism has been conducted using the narcissistic personality inventory (NPI). However, the generalizability of findings from the NPI to narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is unknown. The current study uses two samples (48 clinical outpatients; 49 undergraduates) to address this question by examining the correlations between the NPI and interview ratings of NPD. The profiles generated by both
J. D. Miller; E. T. Gaughan; L. R. Pryor; C. Kamen; W. K. Campbell
Objective: This study examines the relationship between schizoid and narcissistic personality features. While the schizoid personality disorder seems widely accepted as a diagnostic category, the utility of the narcissistic personality disorder construct is under discussion. We regard schizoidism as a primary, structural disturbance of interaction with the world, whereas narcissism appears as a secondary phenomenon of self-organization and self-regulation. This
Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of pathological narcissism, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale (PDQ-4 NPD), was evaluated in 1 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples (total N=2,391) for its ability to measure pathological grandiosity. Findings were generally supportive: average scores were higher in the clinical than nonclinical samples and the PDQ-4 NPD scale correlated most strongly with (a) other measures of NPD; (b) other DSM Cluster B personality disorders; (c) traits involving antagonism, hostility, and assertiveness; and (d) interpersonal distress and disaffiliative dominance. However, the low internal consistency of the PDQ-4 NPD scale and unexpected associations with Cluster A and obsessive-compulsive features point to potential psychometric weaknesses with this instrument. These findings are useful for evaluating the PDQ-4 NPD scale and for informing ongoing debates regarding how to define and assess pathological narcissism. PMID:23101760
Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Thomas, Katherine M; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E
Romanticism is becoming increasing prevalent in transpersonal psychology, subvert- ing efforts to develop scientific approaches in this subfield of psychology. As a case study of some of romanticism's problems, the martial art and transpersonal system of Aikido is examined in regard to cultural errors and unwarranted supernatural assumptions. Specifically, six latent cultural errors (related to location, authority, time, ethnicity, narcissism,
Men's efforts to force women to engage in unwanted sexual activity can be explained by a combination of reactance theory and narcissism. Reactance theory suggests that deprivation of specific sexual options will cause men to desire them more, to try to reclaim them by forcing sex and by aggressing against the woman who has refused them, and assorted findings support
Roy F. Baumeister; Kathleen R. Catanese; Harry M. Wallace
The resurgence of national interest in youth service is due, in large part, to the national organizations that have grown so vigorously in recent years. Some explanations for the almost sudden reappearance of youth service as a nationwide issue are: (1) many Americans are fed up with narcissism, personal gratification, and me-centered pursuits;…
The conceptual, clinical, and empirical overlap between the constructs of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is reviewed and their descriptive discriminability is investigated. Twenty-four patients with NPD and 16 patients with ASPD were compared on 33 characteristics for pathological narcissism assessed with the semistructured Diagnostic Interview for Narcissism. The results confirm a sufficiently broad array of similarities that the question of whether these categories should be kept separate (as they are in DSM-IV) is underscored. The results also indicate important areas of difference. The NPD sample was best discriminated from the ASPD sample by their grandiosity, that is, the tendency to exaggerate their talents, and to regard themselves as more unique and superior. PMID:11345846
This study presents the first behavioral genetic investigation of the relationships between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) and the Dark Triad traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. In line with trait EI theory, the construct correlated positively with narcissism, but negatively with the other two traits. Generally, the correlations were consistent across the 4 factors and 15 facets of the construct. Cholesky decomposition analysis revealed that the phenotypic associations were primarily due to correlated genetic factors and secondarily due to correlated nonshared environmental factors, with shared environmental factors being nonsignificant in all cases. Results are discussed from the perspective of trait EI theory with particular reference to the issue of adaptive value. PMID:21314254
Petrides, K V; Vernon, Philip A; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Veselka, Livia
Measures of exploitativeness evidence problems with validity and reliability. The present set of studies assessed a new measure [the Interpersonal Exploitativeness Scale (IES)] that defines exploitativeness in terms of reciprocity. In Studies 1 and 2, 33 items were administered to participants. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that a single factor consisting of six items adequately assess interpersonal exploitativeness. Study 3 results revealed that the IES was positively associated with “normal” narcissism, pathological narcissism, psychological entitlement, and negative reciprocity and negatively correlated with positive reciprocity. In Study 4, participants competed in a commons dilemma. Those who scored higher on the IES were more likely to harvest a greater share of resources over time, even while controlling for other relevant variables, such as entitlement. Together, these studies show the IES to be a valid and reliable measure of interpersonal exploitativeness. The authors discuss the implications of these studies.
Brunell, Amy B.; Davis, Mark S.; Schley, Dan R.; Eng, Abbey L.; van Dulmen, Manfred H.M.; Wester, Kelly L.; Flannery, Daniel J.
THIS STUDY EXAMINED BASIC PERSONALITY characteristics, narcissism, and cynicism as predictors of ethical decision-making among graduate students training for careers in the sciences. Participants completed individual difference measures along with a scenario-based ethical decision-making measure that captures the complex, multifaceted nature of ethical decision-making in scientific research. The results revealed that narcissism and cynicism (individual differences influencing self-perceptions and perceptions of others) showed consistently negative relationships with aspects of ethical decision-making, whereas more basic personality characteristics (e.g., conscientiousness, agreeableness) were less consistent and weaker. Further analyses examined the relationship of personality to metacognitive reasoning strategies and socialbehavioral response patterns thought to underlie ethical decision-making. The findings indicated that personality was associated with many of these social-cognitive mechanisms which might, in part, explain the association between personality and ethical decisions. PMID:19385805
Antes, Alison L; Brown, Ryan P; Murphy, Stephen T; Waples, Ethan P; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D
We investigated the animal and human baby schema effect (BSE) in relation to gender, parental status, and individual features. In three, independent online surveys, conducted during three consecutive years, (Ntotal=1389), ratings of photographs of human and animal infants as well as of adults, sociodemographic variables (age, gender, parental status) and personality attributes (empathy, attachment, interpersonal closeness, narcissism, and need to belong) were assessed. We demonstrated that humans are sensitive to the baby schemata of both humans and animals and that both are weakly positively correlated. BSE is positively associated with female gender and (affective) empathy. Higher interpersonal closeness and need to belong were additionally connected specifically to the human BSE. In contrast, narcissism and insecure attachment were not related to the BSE, suggesting a robustness of this phenomenon to possible negative influences of these two personality attributes. PMID:23353724
Lehmann, Vicky; Huis in't Veld, Elisabeth M J; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M
Three studies tested the hypotheses that the activation of communal mental representations promotes relationship commitment (communal activation hypothesis) and that this effect is stronger among narcissists than among nonnarcissists (Communal Activation x Narcissism hypothesis). Across experimental, longitudinal, and interaction-based research methods, and in participant samples ranging from college students to married couples, results supported the communal activation hypothesis in two of three studies and the Communal Activation x Narcissism hypothesis in all three studies. Moreover, a meta-analytic summary of the results across the three studies revealed that the association of communal activation with commitment was significant overall and that it was stronger among narcissists than among nonnarcissists. Narcissists tended to be less committed than nonnarcissists at low levels of communal activation, but this effect diminished and sometimes even reversed at high levels. This work is the first to identify a mechanism by which narcissists can become more committed relationship partners. PMID:19622759
Finkel, Eli J; Campbell, W Keith; Buffardi, Laura E; Kumashiro, Madoka; Rusbult, Caryl E
Linking psychoanalytic studies with neuroscience has proven increasingly productive for identifying and understanding personality functioning. This article focuses on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), with the aim of exploring two clinically relevant aspects of narcissistic functioning also recognized in psychoanalysis: fear and decision-making. Evidence from neuroscientific studies of related conditions, such as psychopathy, suggests links between affective and cognitive functioning that can influence the sense of self-agency and narcissistic self-regulation. Attention can play a crucial role in moderating fear and self-regulatory deficits, and the interaction between experience and emotion can be central for decision-making. In this review we will explore fear as a motivating factor in narcissistic personality functioning, and the impact fear may have on decision-making in people with pathological narcissism and NPD. Understanding the processes and neurological underpinnings of fear and decision-making can potentially influence both the diagnosis and treatment of NPD.
Erik H. Erikson wrote three articles when he was in his late-twenties and an up-and-coming member of the psychoanalytic community in Vienna. At the time he wrote these articles, he was in a training psychoanalysis with Anna Freud, teaching at the Heitzing School in Vienna, and learning the Montessori method of teaching. These articles focus on the loss of primary narcissism and the development of the superego (or punitive conscience) in early childhood, especially through the child's conflict with maternal authority. They support the idea that melancholia, with its internalized rage against the mother, is the inevitable outcome of the loss of primary narcissism. I note, however, that the third of these articles makes a case for the restorative role of humor, especially when Freud's view that humor is a function of the superego is taken into account. PMID:19105029
Measures of exploitativeness evidence problems with validity and reliability. The present set of studies assessed a new measure [the Interpersonal Exploitativeness Scale (IES)] that defines exploitativeness in terms of reciprocity. In Studies 1 and 2, 33 items were administered to participants. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that a single factor consisting of six items adequately assess interpersonal exploitativeness. Study 3 results revealed that the IES was positively associated with "normal" narcissism, pathological narcissism, psychological entitlement, and negative reciprocity and negatively correlated with positive reciprocity. In Study 4, participants competed in a commons dilemma. Those who scored higher on the IES were more likely to harvest a greater share of resources over time, even while controlling for other relevant variables, such as entitlement. Together, these studies show the IES to be a valid and reliable measure of interpersonal exploitativeness. The authors discuss the implications of these studies. PMID:23755031
Brunell, Amy B; Davis, Mark S; Schley, Dan R; Eng, Abbey L; van Dulmen, Manfred H M; Wester, Kelly L; Flannery, Daniel J
Prior research on predictors of social network site (SNS) use has mainly focused on the Big Five, narcissism, and self-esteem. Results have been inconsistent, and variance explained was rather low. Need for popularity (NfP) might be a better predictor of SNS use, because SNSs are ideal venues for people with a high NfP. Study 1 tested NfP, self-esteem, need to belong, entitlement, and vanity as predictors for a range of SNS behaviors; Study 2 replaced entitlement and vanity with narcissism and added the Big Five as predictors. SNS behaviors assessed were grooming, strategic self-presentation, profile enhancement, disclosure of feelings, routine use of SNS, and number of friends. Results showed that NfP was the strongest and most consistent predictor of SNS behaviors. This pattern indicates that NfP plays an important role in SNSs. PMID:21988765
The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is a commonly used measure of narcissism. This study administered a 15 item short version of the NPI (NPI-15). Central aims of the present study were to examine its dimensionality, and to provide data on its psychometric properties. NPI-15 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) were assessed in a representative sample of the German population (N=2,512). According to Scree-plot and model fit, a solution with 2 or 3 factors seemed feasible. Because of factor loadings and item-level associations to depression/anxiety we decided to favour a 2-factor-solution. 2 subscales reflecting different facets of narcissism were compiled (leadership ability/personality [LA/LP], grandiosity [G]). The psychometric properties of these scales were good (LA/LP) respectively unsatisfactory (G). The validity of the NPI-15 needs to be further studied. PMID:23475762
As illustrated by two articles that each investigate personality pathology and its correlates in adolescents—Aelterman et\\u000a al. (2010) on obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) from a dimensional personality perspective, and Barry and Wallace (2010) on indicators of pathological and normative development of youth narcissism—this commentary discusses four important assessment\\u000a issues that have become more salient as the field considers a shift,
This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism\\u000a predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650\\u000a adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at Time 1 and Time 2, and\\u000a reactive aggression at Time 1, Time 2,
This retrospective study aimed at examining, through the review of medical charts, the relationship between four variables associated with the development of the Narcissistic Personality Disorders in children and adolescents:1.restricted socialisation;2.parental narcissistic investment of the youngster;3.response to treatment;4.use of health and psychosocial services. A version of the Diagnostic Interview for Narcissism (DIN) (Gunderson et al., 1990), adapted to the charts
J.-M. Guilé; V. Mbekou; H. Fortier; C. Cornez; L. Bergeron; L. Sayegh
The authors examined the correspondence between the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) and a recent revision of this measure, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory—Revised (PPI-R) in a sample of 85 male and female offenders in a community-based residential drug treatment program. Participants completed the PPI and PPI-R along with self-report measures of narcissism, aggression, emotional intelligence, and negative emotionality. Analyses focused on
James V. Ray; John W. Weir; Norman G. Poythress; Angela Rickelm
The Dark Triad of personality is composed of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. Despite the common belief that these traits are undesirable, the media is awash with characters that embody the Dark Triad. Characters like Gregory House, M.D., Batman (a.k.a. the Dark Knight), and James Bond all embody these traits and are some of the most popular media franchises today. As
Peter K. Jonason; Gregory D. Webster; David P. Schmitt; Norman P. Li; Laura Crysel
The objective of the current study was to examine possible risk (school-bullying and victimization, exposure to media violence, callous-unemotional traits, impulsivity and narcissism) and protective (family, peer and school social support) factors that might be associated with cyberbullying and cyber-victimization by employing a longitudinal, two-wave design. The sample consisted of 1,416 (50.1% girls) adolescents living in Cyprus. The findings suggested
Kostas A. Fanti; Andreas G. Demetriou; Veronica V. Hawa
The paper presents findings of a study that relates dispositional factors such as extroversion, stability, self-esteem and\\u000a narcissism to the use of social networking sites (SNSs). Each of these dispositional factors is shown to be related to different\\u000a types of usage of SNSs. It is argued that attempts to model the use of SNSs and thereby target particular information to
The Narcissistic Personality Questionnaire for Children (NPQC) is a brief self?report scale for measuring narcissism in children. In Study 1, a factor analysis on 370 children’s NPQC scores revealed four factors that were labeled superiority, exploitativeness, self?absorption, and leadership. Study 2 established convergent and discriminant validities of the NPQC. NPQC scores were positively correlated with need for power\\/dominance, self?esteem, aggression,
The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used measure of the construct of narcissism. Four- and seven-factor solutions have been reported for the instrument. In the present study, 338 undergraduates completed the NPI along with a battery of personality questionnaires that include the NEO-FFI. Exploratory principal components analysis indicated that the NPI had a two- or three-factor structure.
Thomas S. Kubarych; Ian J. Deary; Elizabeth J. Austin
A controversy exists regarding the strength and replicability of relations between self-related constructs of self-esteem and narcissism in relation to aggression. Methodological issues have been posited to be responsible for these inconsistent results including an over-reliance on self-report measures and the use of dissimilar measures of aggression. In the current study, we examined the relations among Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD),
Jessica L. Maples; Joshua D. Miller; Lauren F. Wilson; L. Alana Seibert; Lauren R. Few; Amos Zeichner
This discussion provides an archetypal psychological profile of individuals engaged in large-scale white-collar crime. A full review of white-collar crime research suggests the presence of narcissistic etiopathogeny in these criminals. As well, given the comorbidity of narcissism with primary psychopathy and Machiavellianism, this review hypothesizes possible lateral effects of these factors on narcissistic affect-control. Potentially this poor affect-control is decreased
I’ve been working at understanding change in schools for more than forty years. Being given a license to reflect on my intellectual\\u000a adventures in the study of school change — in public — is a delightful and faintly alarming charge. I need to avoid sheer\\u000a narcissism on the one hand, and detached encyclopedic syntheses on the other. And not succumb
Imitation is a fundamentally important human capability and has been the topic of considerable research in the behavioural sciences. One paradigm for investigating the basic nature of imitation is the "automatic imitation" paradigm. In this paradigm, participants are symbolically cued to make a particular response, whilst being incidentally exposed to a congruent or incongruent motor action performed by another person. The robust finding is that when the incidental action is incongruent with the cued action, participants are slower to respond than when it is congruent. Despite the name given to this paradigm, the extent to which the imitative tendency involved is actually automatic remains unclear. Here, we manipulated the probability of congruent and incongruent trials within blocks to assess the effects of expectation on the imitative process. In addition, we determined whether an individual difference variable related to how people process others' behaviour-narcissism-affected the automaticity of imitation. Our results confirm that imitation as observed in this paradigm is robust in the face of expectation. However, the degree to which expectation modulates automatic imitation was enhanced for individuals who scored higher on a narcissism inventory. Together, these results suggest that imitation in the automatic imitation paradigm is indeed largely automatic, but that individual differences in narcissism can change the extent to which imitative behaviour manifests. PMID:23187883
Parenting stress was examined as a correlate of psychopathic traits, specifically narcissism, callous/unemotional traits, and impulsivity, among school-aged children while controlling for the variance explained by aggressive behavior. Participants included 212 children ranging from 6 to 12 years of age (M = 8.3 years) who were admitted to an acute child psychiatric inpatient unit for treatment. Parents completed standardized measures of aggression (Child Behavior Checklist; CBCL), psychopathic traits (Antisocial Process Screening Device; APSD), and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index; PSI) at the time of the child's admission. Multiple regression analyses revealed that high levels of the PSI dimension attachment difficulties were associated with high levels of narcissism and callous/unemotional traits among the children while statistically controlling for aggression. The PSI dimension role restriction was also found to be negatively related to narcissism. These findings suggest that specific aspects of parenting stress may be related to child psychopathic traits and might aid with conceptualizing and developing treatment approaches for childhood behavior problems. PMID:18344170
Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura
This study assesses the association between cognitive schemas of justification of violence, grandiosity and abuse, and reactive and proactive aggressive behavior, and whether this association is mediated by social information processing (SIP). For this purpose, a sample of 1371 adolescents (638 girls and 580 boys) completed measures of cognitive schemas, SIP, and Reactive-Proactive Aggression. The results showed that the cognitive schemas of justification of violence and narcissism are more relevant for proactive aggression, whereas the abuse schema is more relevant for reactive aggression. SIP mediated particularly the association between cognitive schemas and reactive aggression. Each cognitive schema was shown to be associated with some particular SIP component: justification of violence and abuse with the component of interpretation, and narcissism with the experience of anger, Moreover, the abuse schema was negatively associated with the selection of aggressive responses. Lastly, a general model of paths between schemas, SIP, and aggression was found to be quite similar for boys and girls, although the former scored higher in proactive aggression, partly because of their higher scores in the justification of violence and narcissism schemas. PMID:20480688
The psychological literature to date has identified more than one form of narcissism: the more well-known grandiose form, and the less familiar and recognized covert form. Although the distinction between these two narcissistic types has been identified with regard to better conceptualizing client dynamics, there has been much less written about how covert narcissistic tendencies and traits may affect psychotherapists and psychotherapy. This paper uses psychodynamic theory to highlight the role that covert narcissistic characteristics may have on the psychotherapists' ability to maintain boundaries, potentially leading to boundary transgressions (existing along a continuum from therapeutically useful to maladaptive and anti-therapeutic). Specific therapeutic situations have been delineated to increase therapists' recognition and awareness of themes that may emerge and compromise the boundaries between themselves and their clients. Areas of focus include narcissism and its forms, the possible connection between covert narcissism in psychotherapists and the impact on managing boundaries, the potential therapeutic implications of covert narcissistic tendencies in psychotherapists, and the implications of covert narcissistic personality characteristics on treatment, supervision, and training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122361
Luchner, Andrew F; Mirsalimi, Hamid; Moser, Casey J; Jones, Rebecca A
We review two subjective (mis)perceptions that influence revenge and forgiveness systems. Individual differences predict more (e.g., narcissism) or less (e.g., empathy) revenge, with the opposite pattern for forgiveness. Moreover, differences in victim versus perpetrator perceptions can influence revenge and forgiveness systems, perpetuating never-ending cycles of revenge. These two examples point to the need for theories of revenge and forgiveness to address the role of cognitive and motivational biases in the functionality of such behavioral responses. PMID:23211456
Patrick, Fowles, and Krueger (2009) developed the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy in an effort to integrate historical theories and contemporary measurement models. The model proposes 3 phenotypic domains of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Patrick (2010) developed the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), a 58-item self-report measure, to index these 3 domains. This study examined the construct validity of the TriPM in a sample of incarcerated offenders (N = 141) and found evidence of good construct validity in that the scales were related to conceptually relevant normal-range and dysfunctional personality trait criteria, as well as narcissism and deficits in empathy. PMID:23113864
Stanley, Jennifer H; Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin
The social networking site, Facebook, has gained an enormous amount of popularity. In this article, we review the literature on the factors contributing to Facebook use. We propose a model suggesting that Facebook use is motivated by two primary needs: (1) The need to belong and (2) the need for self-presentation. Demographic and cultural factors contribute to the need to belong, whereas neuroticism, narcissism, shyness, self-esteem and self-worth contribute to the need for self presentation. Areas for future research are discussed.
Much of the literature on filicide explores acute psychosis, sociopathy, or malignant narcissism (psychiatrically ill versus not psychiatrically ill) as primary explanations of why parents kill children. In this issue, Hatters Friedman et al. review the literature on acute psychiatric symptoms in an effort to identify key risk factors for filicide that might have predictive value. In this commentary, we assert the argument that filicide is a complex phenomenon that is the result of more than just psychosis or environmental stressors and that, because not all parents who become psychiatrically ill kill, there may be specific risk factors related to individual underlying psychodynamic conflicts. PMID:16394227
This study of malevolent narcissism examines the relationship between the Washington Snipers, Muhammad and Malvo, from the perspectives of attachment theory and Kleinian theory. Muhammad embodied a perverted understanding of manliness. Malvo was desperate for the love of a father, and fused with the omnipotent destructiveness of John Muhammad. Together they embarked on a failed Quest, recreating the original infant/caregiver scenario, which in their experience was about destruction and death, rather than gratitude and life. Malvo and Muhammad were perfect together, merged into one unit devoted to murder. Their victims were random and multiple, like their early caregivers. PMID:19105018
The social networking site, Facebook, has gained an enormous amount of popularity. In this article, we review the literature on the factors contributing to Facebook use. We propose a model suggesting that Facebook use is motivated by two primary needs: (1) The need to belong and (2) the need for self-presentation. Demographic and cultural factors contribute to the need to belong, whereas neuroticism, narcissism, shyness, self-esteem and self-worth contribute to the need for self presentation. Areas for future research are discussed. PMID:22544987
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is associated with elevated rates of psychopathic traits and aggression. However, it remains unclear if attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms exacerbate these relations, particularly in samples of children who are severely clinically distressed. The purpose of the present study was to test ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator of the relations of ODD symptoms to psychopathic traits (i.e., callous-unemotional [CU] traits, narcissism) and to aggressive subtypes (i.e., proactive, reactive aggression) in a large sample of children in an acute psychiatric inpatient facility (n = 699; ages 6-12). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for child demographic variables, ADHD symptoms marginally exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and CU traits. Both ODD and ADHD symptoms had an additive, but not a multiplicative effect, in predicting narcissism. In addition, for a subset of the full sample for whom data were available (n =351), ADHD symptoms exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and both reactive and proactive aggression. These results suggest that ADHD symptoms tend to have a negative effect on the relation between ODD symptoms and markers of antisociality among children receiving acute psychiatric care. PMID:23436456
Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura
The current studies examined how the Dark Triad personality traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) facilitate the strategic structuring of an individual's social environment in terms of same- and opposite-sex friends. In one study using normative questions (N = 267) and another using a budget-allocation task (N = 114), we found that the Dark Triad traits were associated with choosing friends for strategic purposes and to create a volatile environment. Narcissistic individuals reported relatively more reasons to form friendships, such as shared interests, makes me feel good, and intelligence. Women high in narcissism chose same-sex friends who were attractive and women high on Machiavellianism chose same-sex friends who have social status. Men high on psychopathy devalued traits associated with good social relationships in favor of friends who could facilitate their mating efforts and to offset risks incurred in their life history strategy. Results are discussed using the selection-manipulation-evocation framework for explaining how personality traits interact with social environments and integrated with findings from evolutionary biology. PMID:22947669
This chapter repositions ideals away from their role as defensive structures restraining aggressive and lustful drives (as traditionally viewed) toward their place in shaping creativity and love. We select and mold our particular ideals in providing meaning and in this manner help to create those selfobjects needed to resolve or soothe our needs. This creative process may include "reshaping" of the available object to represent the "idealized other." From this perspective, Kohut's view of idealization and the idealized parental imago will be considered, including my own notion of a one-and-a-half person psychology. Our ideals inevitably conflict and clash, leading to internal self-conflicts that generate what I call the dialectic of narcissism. Narcissism is here considered broadly, reflecting all attributes of self-experience. Shame plays an important role in this dialectic, relating to failure with regard to ideals and to falling short of cherished goals. Ultimately, it is the shaping of, and approximation to, flexible and meaningful ideals that comprise that lofty, ineffable, human ideal--wisdom. Clinical vignettes will be offered to illustrate these themes. PMID:19379233
Given substantial interest in the traits conceived of as part of the "Dark Triad"--psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism--assessment of these traits is of great importance. The Dirty Dozen (DD; Jonason & Webster, 2010) is a brief measure of the Dark Triad constructs that uses 4 items to assess each of these constructs. In the present study, the authors examined the adequacy of the DD's Psychopathy scale by comparing it with established measures of psychopathy in a sample of undergraduates (Sample 1: N = 789) and male prisoners (Sample 2: N = 75). DD's Psychopathy subscale manifested significant correlations with established measures, but the correlations were smaller than those evinced by the existing scales. The results also demonstrated that there is important variance related to interpersonal antagonism and disinhibition that is not assessed by the DD. The authors suggest that caution should be used in relying on the DD as a measure of psychopathy. PMID:22612650
Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Seibert, L Alana; Watts, Ashley; Zeichner, Amos; Lynam, Donald R
Two studies examined students' intuitive physics ability and characteristics associated with physics competence. In Study 1, although many students did well on a physics quiz, more than 25% of students performed below levels predicted by chance. Better performance on the physics quiz was related to physics grades, highest level of math taken, and students' perceived scholastic competence, but was not related to a number of other hypothesized personality variables. Study 2 further explored personality and academic variables and also examined students' awareness of their own physics ability. Results indicate that the personality variables were again unrelated to ability, but narcissism may be related to subjects' estimates of knowledge. Also, academic variables and how important students think it is to understand the physical world are related to both measured and estimated physics proficiency.
Norvilitis, Jill M.; Reid, Howard M.; Norvilitis, Bret M.
The current study tested hypotheses associated with the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy (Patrick, 2010b; Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009), which describes three distinctive, albeit related, phenotypic domains-boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. We used two samples consisting of 209 female prison inmates and 627 undergraduate students whom had been administered a range of psychopathy and psychopathy-relevant measures. Our results indicated that the triarchic domains explained variance in other psychopathy models to degrees consistent with conceptual expectations. We also examined associations between the triarchic domains and personality traits relevant to psychopathy in the female correctional sample. The results showed that boldness was preferentially associated with narcissism, thrill/adventure seeking, and low behavioral inhibition system functioning; meanness with machiavellianism, low empathy, and low behavioral inhibition system; and disinhibition with impulsivity and fun seeking. PMID:22867118
Despite much research, skepticism remains over the possibility of profiling scholastic cheaters. However, several relevant predictor variables and newer diagnostic tools have been overlooked. We remedy this deficit with a series of three studies. Study 1 was a large-scale survey of a broad range of personality predictors of self-reported cheating. Significant predictors included the Dark Triad (Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy) as well as low agreeableness and low conscientiousness. Only psychopathy remained significant in a multiple regression. Study 2 replicated this pattern using a naturalistic, behavioral indicator of cheating, namely, plagiarism as indexed by the Internet service Turn-It-In. Poor verbal ability was also an independent predictor. Study 3 examined possible motivational mediators of the association between psychopathy and cheating. Unrestrained achievement and moral inhibition were successful mediators whereas fear of punishment was not. Practical implications for researchers and educators are discussed. PMID:20853988
Williams, Kevin M; Nathanson, Craig; Paulhus, Delroy L
Understanding how clergy, who begin their careers with high idealism, optimism, and compassion, burn out is difficult. One body of research suggests that clergy, among others, burn out because of the systems in which they work. From this perspective, burnout is the result of external systemic factors such as bureaucracy, poor administrative support, and difficult work conditions. The other body of research suggests that burnout is the result of intrapersonal factors such as high idealism, Type-A personality, narcissism, and perfectionism. It is our position that these two bodies of research are compatible, and that by integrating the Self psychology of Kohut with the general systems theory of Bowen, it becomes easier to understand burnout. Further, by integrating these two theories, principles for treatment become clearer. PMID:10852149
The current study provides the first examination of the relationship between life history indicators and the Dark Triad traits in an international sample drawn from the U.S. (n = 264), Singapore (n = 185), and Poland (n = 177). In all three samples, the Dark Triad traits were associated with psychosocial costs, although there were more links in the Singaporean and Polish samples than in the American sample. In the U.S., the quality of one's romantic relationships and psychopathy were negatively correlated. Narcissism was higher in the Polish and American samples than in the Singaporean sample. Men scored higher than women did regardless of location and the sex difference in the individual differences in life histories was mediated by the Dark Triad composite. Results suggest the Dark Triad are related to a volatile socioecology composed of psychosocial costs in the familial, romantic, and platonic relationships. PMID:23531804
Psychopathic traits are associated with violent, aggressive behaviors and recidivism in adulthood. To increase positive treatment outcomes, it is arguably beneficial to identify and treat psychopathy as early as possible. Furthermore, because research shows that the effectiveness of behavior modification is likely to be affected by the social information-processing patterns of aggressive children, it is important to understand the relationship between conduct-disordered traits and social cognitions. The results of this study showed that callous/unemotional traits in a community-based sample of behavior-disordered youth (57 male, 19 female; 10-19 years of age; 63% African American) significantly predicted values in obtaining a tangible reward and getting into trouble or being punished. However, callous/unemotional traits, impulsivity/conduct problems, and narcissism failed to predict positive expectations regarding receiving a tangible reward, reducing aversive treatment, and demonstration of dominance. Implications for these results are presented. PMID:22114171
Lorber, Colleen M; Hughes, Tammy L; Miller, Jeffrey A; Crothers, Laura M; Martin, Erin
Humility is a psychological construct that has not received much empirical attention until recently. This new emphasis on positive psychology and humility has been both conceptual and empirical. The present study had two objectives: to review the literature briefly to verify the importance of humility and its positive perception by others, and to begin to develop a preliminary measure of humility. Results indicated that humility is held in high regard by others. Two factors emerged from exploratory factor analysis that appear to converge on measuring humility, with acceptable convergent and divergent validity and internal consistency reliability. These results are discussed in terms of the expected relationships among humility and other constructs (e.g., social desirability, narcissism, self-esteem). PMID:21526606
Self-reports of approach motivation are unlikely to be sufficient in understanding the extent to which the individual reacts to appetitive cues in an approach-related manner. A novel implicit probe of approach tendencies was thus developed, one that assessed the extent to which positive affective (versus neutral) stimuli primed larger size estimates, as larger perceptual sizes co-occur with locomotion toward objects in the environment. In two studies (total N = 150), self-reports of approach motivation interacted with this implicit probe of approach motivation to predict individual differences in arrogance, a broad interpersonal dimension previously linked to narcissism, antisocial personality tendencies, and aggression. The results of the two studies were highly parallel in that self-reported levels of approach motivation predicted interpersonal arrogance in the particular context of high, but not low, levels of implicit approach motivation. Implications for understanding approach motivation, implicit probes of it, and problematic approach-related outcomes are discussed. PMID:22399360
Robinson, Michael D; Ode, Scott; Palder, Spencer L; Fetterman, Adam K
The current study aims to understand the factors that influence adolescents' disclosure of personally identifiable information (PII) on social networking sites (SNSs). A survey was conducted among 780 adolescent participants (between 13 and 18) who were Facebook users. Structural equation modeling was used for analyzing the data and obtaining an overarching model that include cognitive, personality, and social factors that influence adolescents' PII disclosure. Results showed privacy concern as the cognitive factor reduces adolescents' PII disclosure and it serves as a potential mediator for personality and social factors. Amongst personality factors, narcissism was found to directly increase PII disclosure, and social anxiety indirectly decreases PII disclosure by increasing privacy concern. Amongst social factors, active parental mediation decreases PII disclosure directly and indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Restrictive parental mediation decreases PII disclosure only indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Implications of the findings to parents, educators, and policy makers were discussed. PMID:23849657
The authors compared parent-related perceptions by hospitalized adolescents (i.e., who were admitted to a specialized psychiatric unit; n = 50) and delinquent adolescents (i.e., who were placed at a juvenile treatment institution; n = 51) with adolescents from the general population (n = 51). All adolescents completed a broad set of measures of attachment, perceived parenting, and separation-individuation. Contrary to initial expectations, hospitalized adolescents scored higher than controls on indices of excessive autonomy. Ambivalence regarding issues of interpersonal closeness and distance was found among delinquent adolescents. In addition, hospitalized and delinquent adolescents were found to be struggling, each in their specific way, with attachment-related experiences of trauma. Finally, delinquent adolescents also showed a stage-appropriate form of potentially adaptive narcissism. These findings add to the growing consensus in the literature that associations between adolescent psychopathology and parent-related perceptions are typically complex and somewhat counterintuitive. PMID:22708477
The author tries to account for the disturbing impact of Mozart's opera Don Giovanni. Some writers idealize Don Giovanni's power and vitality. The author view is that Mozart's music depicts him as a much emptier character, using phallic narcissism as a way of surviving a psychic catastrophe by projecting his pain into others. The music shows how Giovanni lives in projective identification with many other objects and part-objects, masculine and feminine; and how he seduces them into complicity with his defensive system. This situation is contrasted musically with the world of the other characters, particularly the women, who are depicted as more ordinary, more complex and, in fact, more sensual. PMID:18290798
Self-reports of approach motivation are unlikely to be sufficient in understanding the extent to which the individual reacts to appetitive cues in an approach-related manner. A novel implicit probe of approach tendencies was thus developed, one that assessed the extent to which positive affective (versus neutral) stimuli primed larger size estimates, as larger perceptual sizes co-occur with locomotion toward objects in the environment. In two studies (total N = 150), self-reports of approach motivation interacted with this implicit probe of approach motivation to predict individual differences in arrogance, a broad interpersonal dimension previously linked to narcissism, antisocial personality tendencies, and aggression. The results of the two studies were highly parallel in that self-reported levels of approach motivation predicted interpersonal arrogance in the particular context of high, but not low, levels of implicit approach motivation. Implications for understanding approach motivation, implicit probes of it, and problematic approach-related outcomes are discussed.
Robinson, Michael D.; Ode, Scott; Spencer L., Palder; Fetterman, Adam K.
Social vigilantism (SV) is an enduring individual difference that assesses the tendency of individuals to impress and propagate their "superior" beliefs onto others to correct others' more "ignorant" opinions. After establishing a reliable measure of SV, three studies showed that SV was associated with greater expressions of belief superiority (whether reacting to others holding dissimilar or similar beliefs) and greater resistance to persuasion (via increased rates of counterarguing and greater attitude stability after persuasion appeals) even after controlling for relevant individual differences (narcissism, dogmatism, psychological reactance, and need for cognition), as well as attitude importance and extremity. Thus, SV predicts expressions of belief superiority and resistance to persuasion above and beyond characteristics of the attitude and individual difference variables previously studied in the attitude literature. SV is a meaningful construct in increasing the understanding of persuasion, attitude resistance, and attitude dissemination that can be applied in a variety of psychological domains. PMID:19776422
Freud was the first to apply psychoanalysis to art, choosing for his subject the life and work of Leonardo da Vinci. Observing Leonardo's partly fused image of the Virgin and St. Anne, he inferred that the artist had depicted his two mothers, his biological mother and his stepmother. This very early analytic discourse on parent loss and adoption changed the course of the interpretation of art. Freud explored the psychology of art, the artist, and aesthetic appreciation. Confronting the age-old enigma of the Mona Lisa, he proposed a daring solution to the riddle of the sphinxlike smile of this icon of art. His paper prefigures concepts of narcissism, homosexuality, parenting, and sublimation. Lacking modern methodology and theory, Freud's pioneering insights overshadow his naive errors. In this fledgling inquiry, based on a childhood screen memory and limited knowledge of Leonardo's artistic and scientific contributions, Freud identified with this Renaissance genius in his own self-analytic and creative endeavor. PMID:11809030
Building a therapeutic alliance with a patient with pathological narcissism or narcissistic personality disorder is a challenging process. A combined alliance building and diagnostic strategy is outlined that promotes patients' motivation and active engagement in identifying their own problems. The main focus is on identifying grandiosity, self-regulatory patterns, and behavioral fluctuations in their social and interpersonal contexts while engaging the patient in meaningful clarifications and collaborative inquiry. A definition of grandiosity as a diagnostic characterological trait is suggested, one that captures self-criticism, inferiority, and fragility in addition to superiority, assertiveness, perfectionism, high ideals, and self-enhancing and self-serving interpersonal behavior. These reformulations serve to expand the spectrum of grandiosity-promoting strivings and activities, capture their fluctuations, and help clinicians attend to narcissistic individuals' internal experiences and motivation as well as to their external presentation and interpersonal self-enhancing, self-serving, controlling, and aggressive behavior. A case example illustrates this process. PMID:22729478
This study examined Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in relation to secure and insecure attachment styles based on data collected in a sample of 81 Belgian security workers. All had experienced one traumatic event in the previous year. The sample was divided into a securely attached and an insecurely attached group. The three PTSD symptom scales, Re-experiencing, Avoidance, and Hyperarousal, differentiated significantly between the two attachment groups; the dismissive attachment style was negatively related to PTSD. Individuals with a positive view of themselves and a negative view of others have less risk of developing PTSD than those with a fearful or preoccupied attachment style. A relationship between the dismissive attachment style with grandiose narcissism seems possible. Interest has been expressed in medical approaches; therefore, the importance of medical research on PTSD is emphasized. PMID:20099552
Bogaerts, Stefan; Kunst, Maarten J J; Winkel, Frans W
The self-as-evaluative base (SEB) hypothesis proposes that self-evaluation extends automatically via an amotivated consistency process to affect evaluation of novel in-groups. Four minimal group studies support SEB. Personal trait self-esteem (PSE) predicted increased favoritism toward a novel in-group that, objectively, was equivalent to the out-group (Study 1). This association was independent of information-processing effects (Study 1), collective self-esteem, right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), and narcissism (Studies 2 and 3). A self-affirmation manipulation attenuated the association between in-group favoritism and an individual difference associated with motivated social identity concerns (RWA) but did not alter the PSE effect (Study 3). Finally, the association between PSE and in-group favoritism remained positive even when the in-group was objectively less favorable than the out-group (Study 4). PMID:15898876
In much of contemporary culture, "trauma" signifies not so much terrible experience as a particular context for understanding and responding to a terrible experience. In therapy, in the media, and in international interventions, the traumatized are seen not simply as people who suffer and so are deserving of concern and aid; they are seen also as people who suffer for us, who are given special dispensation. They are treated with awe if they tell a certain kind of trauma story, and are ignored or vilified if they tell another. Trauma has become not simply a story of pain and its treatment, but a host of sub-stories involving the commodification of altruism, the justification of violence and revenge, the entry point into "true experience," and the place where voyeurism and witnessing intersect. Trauma is today the stuff not only of suffering but of fantasy. Historically, trauma theory and treatment have shown a tension, exemplified in the writings of Freud and Janet, between those who view trauma as formative and those who view it as exceptional. The latter view, that trauma confers exceptional status deserving of special privilege, has gained ground in recent years and has helped to shape the way charitable dollars are distributed, how the traumatized are presented in the media, how governments justify and carry out international responses to trauma, and how therapists attend to their traumatized patients. This response to trauma reflects an underlying, unarticulated belief system derived from narcissism; indeed, trauma has increasingly become the venue, in society and in treatment, where narcissism is permitted to prevail. PMID:12866751
Lynam and colleagues recently developed a new self-report inventory for the assessment of psychopathy, the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA). Using a sample of undergraduates (N = 227), the authors examined the construct validity of the EPA by examining its correlations with self and stranger ratings on the Five-Factor Model, as well as self-reported ratings of personality disorders, social cognition, and love styles. The EPA psychopathy scores manifested expected correlations with both self and stranger ratings of the Five-Factor Model, particularly with the domains of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, and were significantly related to various forms of personality pathology such as narcissism and antisocial personality disorders. The EPA also manifested expected relations with aggressive social cognitions. Finally, the EPA psychopathy scores were correlated with romantic love styles indicative of game playing and infidelity. The current results provide further evidence of the construct validity of the EPA as it manifests relations consistent with the nomological network of psychopathy. PMID:21193492
Miller, Joshua D; Gaughan, Eric T; Maples, Jessica; Gentile, Brittany; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A
The terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, D.C. on September 11, 2001 as well as domestic terrorism in the United States and elsewhere in the world has prompted an analysis of the psychology of the terrorist. The perpetrators' profound sense of being wronged--their values undermined by foreign powers or a corrupt domestic power structure--has cried out for revolution and revenge. The fanatic ideology of the perpetrators has provided the matrix for a progressively more malevolent representation of the oppressors: the Image of the Enemy. Retribution against the Enemy in the form of mass murder of anonymous civilians becomes an imperative. The counterpart of the image of the Enemy is the idealized collective self-image of members of the movement, faction, or cult. The group narcissism of the white supremacists in the United States, the Aum Shinrikyo in Japan, and the Islamic extremists enhance their collective self-image as pure, righteous, and united. While the foot soldiers, as in any war, gain glory through martyrdom, the instigators and leaders have their own personal narcissistic goals (power and prestige) and plan. For the extremist Islamists the ultimate goal has been overthrow of the moderate Islamic governments; for the domestic terrorists, destabilization of the national government and reinstitution of the traditional values. PMID:11863233
Self-expansion without regard for others' well-being may represent the dark side of an otherwise healthy motive. Guided by Amoebic Self-Theory (AST), we developed the Engulfing Self Scale (ESS) to measure acquisitive tendencies across AST's three domains of the self. Four studies revealed that bodily engulfment appeared generally benign, and that the problematic aspects of social engulfment were generally restricted to interpersonal contexts. Spatial-symbolic engulfment motivation was linked to a breadth of problematic indices such as psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychological entitlement, social dominance orientation, economic system justification, greed, and valuation of power. It also predicted reluctance to expose a cheating group leader when doing so would threaten one's own positive outcomes, greater justification of a looter's behavior when prompted take his or her perspective, and greater justification of self-serving reward allocations after defeating an ostensible competitor. Spatial-symbolic engulfment may be a motivational fountainhead for behaviors that negate others' well-being. PMID:23504598
Burris, Christopher T; Rempel, John K; Munteanu, Armand R; Therrien, Patrick A
The word “suggestion” has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence. Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena. The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability. Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct “inhibited in its aim” (transference) and brings in his distinction of “ego” and “ego-ideal” (or “super-ego”) to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible.
Prior to the last two decades, psychoanalytic literature focused on the psychopathology of sexual life, rather than on an integrated overview of love relationships. Only in the last twenty-five years has its scope been expanded to include the psychodynamics and phenomenology of love relationships per se. Nevertheless, a selective, critical review of the literature indicates that little attention has been paid to a) the interrelation of narcissism, self-esteem, and love relationships; b) the role of the ego-ideal and idealizations in the capacity for falling in love and sustaining love relationships; and c) the faculty for, and/or impediments to, transcending intrapsychic self-boundaries in mature love relationships. In this paper, a brief exposition of the ego-ideal developmental sequences and their integration into the superego as a differentiated structure serves as an introduction to the proposal of a developmental continuum of mechanisms of idealization and their respective nodal transmutations throughout the life cycle. This developmental continuum may contribute to the ongoing elucidation of the aforementioned problems. This referential frame is ultimately applied to the exploration of categorical and dimensional pathological variations of idealization and mourning in love relationships and in different levels of personality organization: neurotic, borderline, and narcissistic structures. A clinical vignette illustrates some of the correspondence criteria between this frame of reference and its clinical applications. PMID:10729945
Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests. They are seen as a 'global consumer phenomenon' with an exponential rise in usage within the last few years. Anecdotal case study evidence suggests that 'addiction' to social networks on the Internet may be a potential mental health problem for some users. However, the contemporary scientific literature addressing the addictive qualities of social networks on the Internet is scarce. Therefore, this literature review is intended to provide empirical and conceptual insight into the emerging phenomenon of addiction to SNSs by: (1) outlining SNS usage patterns, (2) examining motivations for SNS usage, (3) examining personalities of SNS users, (4) examining negative consequences of SNS usage, (5) exploring potential SNS addiction, and (6) exploring SNS addiction specificity and comorbidity. The findings indicate that SNSs are predominantly used for social purposes, mostly related to the maintenance of established offline networks. Moreover, extraverts appear to use social networking sites for social enhancement, whereas introverts use it for social compensation, each of which appears to be related to greater usage, as does low conscientiousness and high narcissism. Negative correlates of SNS usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction. PMID:22016701
The paper argues that the story of Oedipus, however understood, conveys psychic truth of no greater or more central importance to human development than do the stories of many other myths. A distinction is made between sophisticated theories developed out of Freud's original concept of the Oedipus complex, and the adherence by some clinicians to his original sexual theory. The meaning of Sophocles' play Oedipus the King is found to lie in the clash between Oedipus' omnipotent narcissism (hubris) and the power of the unconscious psyche, rather than in cross-generational sex. Emphasis is placed on the clinical usefulness of understanding all myths symbolically. The Oresteia by Aeschylus is offered as a story about pre-Oedipal (in the Freudian sense) psychic states. This trilogy shows symbolically the developing of an ego, the establishment of moral judgement and the integration of our shadow (the Furies). It also shows the parallel development of structures of law in society to replace instinctive blood feuds. It is suggested that had Freud chosen Orestes instead of Oedipus, the course of both psychoanalysis and of Western society would have had a different emphasis. PMID:19344316
Background: During the second half of the 20th century, the literature on the doctor-patient relationship mainly dealt with the management of “difficult” (personality-disordered) patients. Similar problems, however, surround other types of “special” patients. Method: An overview and analysis of the literature were conducted. As a result, such patients can be subcategorized by their main presentations; each requires a specific management strategy. Results: Three types of “special” patients stir up irrational feelings in their caregivers. Sick celebrities threaten to focus public scrutiny on the private world of medical caregivers. VIPs generate awe in caregivers, with loss of the objectivity essential to the practice of scientific medicine. Potentates unearth narcissism in the caregiver-patient relationship, which triggers a struggle between power and shame. Pride, privacy, and the staff's need to be in control are all threatened by introduction of the special patient into medicine's closed culture. Conclusion: The privacy that is owed to sick celebrities should be extended to protect overexposed staff. The awe and loss of medical objectivity that VIPs generate are counteracted by team leadership dedicated to avoiding any deviation from standard clinical procedure. Moreover, the collective ill will surrounding potentates can be neutralized by reassuring them that they are “special”—and by caregivers mending their own vulnerable self-esteem.
Groves, James E.; Dunderdale, Barbara A.; Stern, Theodore A.
Holland elucidated the new paradigm of self-organization in complex adaptive systems. This paradigm holds for all living systems, including the personality. In conjunction with the theory of archetypes, self-organization suggests two radical hypotheses, one about early development, the other about the origins of autism. Autism is associated with several medical conditions, with genetic markers, and with infant visual deprivation. However none of these factors is either necessary or sufficient to cause autism. It is hypothesized that each of these factors increases the likelihood of a primary psychological deficit: failure to acquire, or retain, the image of the mother's eyes. This hypothesis was initially derived from analytic work with patients who have early narcissistic injury and with patients who have mild autistic traits. Both diagnoses may arise from the same initial disturbance: Symington argued that autism is an extreme form of infantile narcissism. Indirect evidence for the image-of-the-eyes hypotheses comes from the evolution of primates, from infant-mother observations, from observations of infant vision, and from experiments on vision in other vertebrates. Byrd recently confirmed that the incidence of autism is increasing dramatically. The image-of-the-eyes hypotheses suggest that this increase may be linked to increased use of non-maternal childcare for young infants. PMID:15317530
Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests. They are seen as a ‘global consumer phenomenon’ with an exponential rise in usage within the last few years. Anecdotal case study evidence suggests that ‘addiction’ to social networks on the Internet may be a potential mental health problem for some users. However, the contemporary scientific literature addressing the addictive qualities of social networks on the Internet is scarce. Therefore, this literature review is intended to provide empirical and conceptual insight into the emerging phenomenon of addiction to SNSs by: (1) outlining SNS usage patterns, (2) examining motivations for SNS usage, (3) examining personalities of SNS users, (4) examining negative consequences of SNS usage, (5) exploring potential SNS addiction, and (6) exploring SNS addiction specificity and comorbidity. The findings indicate that SNSs are predominantly used for social purposes, mostly related to the maintenance of established offline networks. Moreover, extraverts appear to use social networking sites for social enhancement, whereas introverts use it for social compensation, each of which appears to be related to greater usage, as does low conscientiousness and high narcissism. Negative correlates of SNS usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction.
The author argues that the scenic function of the ego permits the situationally appropriate representation of an unconscious, infantile configuration - that is, of a relatively stable, personality-based drive scene having the same status as latent dream thoughts. The products of conflict elaboration (symptoms, etc.) are manifested in different ways in accordance with the conditions of the relevant situation. The contents of the drive scene are created by the psychical apparatus on the basis of infantile perceptions and are revealed in screen memories. The capacity for situationally appropriate representation is apparently bound up with the mobile drive, including its narcissistic transformations. Desexualization (in the sense of neutralization) renders scenic elaboration impossible. The drive derivatives withdrawn from the scenic configuration contribute to ego organization and the formation of character traits, which no longer vary according to the situation, but can only be modified by a change in personality structure itself. It is as yet unclear whether a process of resexualization can make them amenable once more to analytic work. The form of narcissistic libido that can assume a scenic configuration is closely related to primary narcissism. Its manifestations, which may likewise emerge in situation-dependent symptom formations, appear accessible to analysis. PMID:23560907
Differences in pathological personality traits and disturbances in brain metabolites between non consumers, abstinent and non abstinent consumers were assessed. Participants (n=113) aged between 18-45 years with personality disorder (PD) were diagnosed with clinical interview and scales for depression, anxiety, impulsivity and dimensions of personality pathology. Brain metabolites were analyzed with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and multiple comparisons. Abstinent and non-abstinent differentiated from non-consumers in emotional deregulation, inhibition, and restricted expression; abstinent and non-abstinent differentiated from each other in self-aggression, dissocial behaviour, conduct disorder, stimulus seeking and intimacy problems. N-Acetyl Aspartate and creatine values were lower between non-abstinent in prefrontal, anterior cingulate cortex, cerebellar vermis and superior corona radiata. For abstinent, choline levels were greater in cerebellar vermis and n-acetyl aspartate were lower in dorso-lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulated cortex and insula. Regarding personality traits, insecure attachment, narcissism, lability, self-aggression and anxiety characterize consumers and abstinent, while suspiciousness, rejection and character hardness are found in consumers (non-abstinent and abstinent). Compulsive traits, unplanned body impulsiveness and lack of control in emotional regulation predominated in non-abstinent and participants with co-morbidities. Detachment and inhibition predominate in alcohol abuse disorder and narcissistic traits in substance abuse. PMID:23880833
In the article the author presents a model of interpersonal relationships based on integration of object relations theory and theory of attachment. He proposes three main bipolar dimensions of interpersonal relationships: Independence - Dependence, Connectedness - Alienation and Reciprocity - Self-absorption. The author also proposes that it is important to distinguish between two main types of adult interpersonal relationships: object and subject relations. Object relations describe relationships in which the other person is perceived as an object that serves the satisfaction of the first person's needs. Object relations are a manifestation of the right pole of the three main dimensions of interpersonal relationships (Dependence, Alienation and Self-absorption). Subject relations are a counter-pole to the concept of object relations. They describe relationships with other people who are experienced as subjects with their own wishes, interests and needs. Subject relations are a manifestation of the left pole of the main dimensions (Independence, Connectedness and Reciprocity). In this article the author specifically focuses on definitions of object relations in adulthood through a description of six sub-dimensions of object relations: Symbiotic Merging, Separation Anxiety, Social Isolation, Fear of Engulfment, Egocentrism and Narcissism. Every sub-dimension is described in connection to adaptive and pathological functioning. Further research is needed to test the clinical and scientific validity of the model. PMID:21169889
In this paper, I apply the concept of psychic skin to analytic work with people suffering from personality disorders and psychoses. When psychoses emerge, the defensive skin which protects the ego is breached and violent unconscious forces rip through the personality. Some of the patients diagnosed as schizophrenic with whom I work have identified with archetypal characters such as Christ, Satan, John Lennon and the Queen. I attempt to show how the adoption of these inflated personas can serve as secondary psychic skins. Such delusional identifications can provide a protective shield to hide the denuded self and prevent intrusion from the external world. Through clinical example, I try to demonstrate how these archetypal 'second skins' can preserve life until internal and external conditions make it possible for the self to emerge. I contrast such psychotic identifications with 'thin-skinned' and 'thick-skinned' narcissism as well as 'defences of the self' in borderline states where the psychic skin may be damaged but does not disintegrate. I also look at the ways in which Jung's own personal experience was different from this and how he managed to avert psychotic breakdown. PMID:22288539
This study examined the ability of attributions and personality traits to predict the emotional and behavioural components of the road rage response. Participants recalled a recent time when they experienced three different anger-provoking events when driving. They then rated their behaviours and emotions during the event, and their attributions for why the event occurred. Participants also completed a battery of personality questionnaires designed to predict their responses to the situations. Attributing causality for the anger-arousing event to a stable factor in the offending driver was uniquely related to aggressive behaviour and anger in all three situations. Hostile and blame attributions predicted aggressive behaviour and anger in different situations. In addition to dispositional measures of aggressiveness and anger predicting aggressive behaviour and anger in each of the anger-provoking situations, other personality variables were also related to aspects of the road rage response (e.g. conscientiousness, agreeableness, narcissism, and extraversion). Attributions and personality traits accounted for unique variance in the outcomes, and there were only sporadic effects of attributions partially mediating the relationships between personality variables and responses to the anger-provoking situations. Therefore, it is unlikely that the relationships between personality traits and responses to anger-provoking situations are completely mediated by attributional processing. PMID:16573877
The complexity of space fission systems and rigidity of requirement on minimization of weight and dimension characteristics along with the wish to decrease expenditures on their development demand implementation of experimental works which results shall be used in designing, safety substantiation, and licensing procedures. Experimental facilities are intended to solve the following tasks: obtainment of benchmark data for computer code validations, substantiation of design solutions when computational efforts are too expensive, quality control in a production process, and ``iron'' substantiation of criticality safety design solutions for licensing and public relations. The NARCISS and ISKRA critical facilities and unique ORM facility on shielding investigations at the operating OR nuclear research reactor were created in the Kurchatov Institute to solve the mentioned tasks. The range of activities performed at these facilities within the implementation of the previous Russian nuclear power system programs is briefly described in the paper. This experience shall be analyzed in terms of methodological approach to development of future space nuclear systems (this analysis is beyond this paper). Because of the availability of these facilities for experiments, the brief description of their critical assemblies and characteristics is given in this paper.
Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Garin, Vladimir P.; Glushkov, Evgeny S.; Kompaniets, George V.; Kukharkin, Nikolai E.; Madeev, Vicktor G.; Papin, Vladimir K.; Polyakov, Dmitry N.; Stepennov, Boris S.; Tchuniyaev, Yevgeny I.; Tikhonov, Lev Ya.; Uksusov, Yevgeny I.
This is a clinical paper, which includes material from sessions, presenting the process of the analysis of a young adult male whose narcissistic character patterns, related to and evolved from failed attempts to integrate conflicting parental identifications. These unintegrated mother and father identifications contributed to life-long latent homosexual fantasies. Rodney's analysis indicates that for a boy/man, even a mother who has the qualities of a good enough parent, is not good enough to enable him to reach a nonconflicted manhood. A mother cannot provide for the boy the male model he needs and is searching for, the male who would affirm him in his maleness. Rodney wanted a father on whose shoulders he could stand to become a man. Rodney's persistent homosexual fantasy life, his quest for father's love, and his search for a masculine object to identify with stem from a combination of several factors. Rodney's regression to the negative oedipal phase was probably stimulated when father left the family. Rodney was eleven at the time. He felt overwhelmed experiencing himself as the oedipal victor. Unconsciously, Rodney feared his exacerbated incestuous wishes. He projected them upon his mother and subsequently incorporated them in his fantasies. His regression to more infantile dependency feelings was defensive. Rodney's father was an unsuitable object for identification. He was disinterested in Rodney and emotionally unavailable. Rodney, however, sought his father, whose lack of loving acknowledgement resulted in a lack of affirmation of Rodney's masculinity. Mother provided for Rodney the loving acknowledgement he lacked in his relationship with father. She was emotionally sustaining, an energetic, vibrant personality, who was seen by Rodney as a "superior human being." Rodney consciously idealized his mother toward whom he unconsciously also had ambivalent feelings. Rodney's identification with mother was not counterbalanced by the presence of a strong, loving father figure whom he could have used as a suitable model. This led to the development in Rodney of a strong sense of effeminization. Rodney in his homosexual fantasies assumed the so-called "feminine victimized" role. The regression to the negative oedipal phase contributed to an exacerbation of erotic, father-directed feelings, intensified by the identification with mother. Rodney was fixated in his quest for father's love. In addition, Rodney's unconscious guilt related to father and mother directed incestuous impulses, and his intense aggressivesadistic feelings contributed to the masochistic cast of his masturbation fantasies. Rodney's narcissistic aims and the quality of his narcissism changed during the analysis. His grandiosity almost disappeared. Rodney's goals became realistic and he acquired the skills necessary to achieve them. Inhibitions related to the "fear of success" were worked through. This enabled Rodney to compete successfully. His healthy narcissism derives from the success of his many achievements. Though Rodney remained a basically narcissistic personality, he did derive great pleasure from being a giving person. This was one of the many ways in which he identified with his mother. At the present, Rodney's identifications are selective and do not evoke intrapsychic conflict. PMID:9522407
Researchers have indicated that adult psychopathy often originates in childhood or adolescence. It has also been established that psychopathic traits are linked to disruptive behavior, criminality, and violence. As knowledge about psychopathy and its manifestations in juvenile sex offender populations remains limited, several instruments have been developed in an effort to measure the construct. In this study, we assessed how the relationship of diverse scales of psychopathy related to characteristics of sexual aggression, and determined which scales were most correlated to sexual and nonsexual delinquency. We utilized four measures of juvenile psychopathy: the Modified Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS; Lynam, 1997), the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Frick, O'Brien, Wootton, & McBurnett, 1994), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon & Davis, 1993; using two derived psychopathy scales), and the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional (ICU) Traits (Frick, 2003), in a sample of 191 incarcerated adolescent sex offenders located in juvenile detention facilities across a Midwestern state. We found that of the four instruments and seven subscales, only the APSD Narcissism and Impulsivity Scale was significantly correlated to a characteristic of sexual crime (i.e., number of victims, level of crime severity). No subscales were found to predict sexual crime at a significant level. However, several scales were correlated to the total delinquency score as measured by the Self-Reported Delinquency Measure. In a series of multiple regressions, the MACI Factor 2 and ICU total score were determined as the best fit to total nonsexual delinquency. Implications are offered. PMID:23525176
Tracking multiple targets in a cluttered environment is a challenging task. Probabilistic Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (PMHT) is an efficient approach for dealing with it. Essentially PMHT is based on the method of Expectation-Maximization for handling with association conflicts. Linearity in the number of targets and measurements is the main motivation for a further development and extension of this methodology. Unfortunately, compared with the Probabilistic Data Association Filter (PDAF), PMHT has not yet shown its superiority in terms of track-lost statistics. Furthermore, the problem of track extraction and deletion is apparently not yet satisfactorily solved within this framework. Four properties of PMHT are responsible for its problems in track maintenance: Non-Adaptivity, Hospitality, Narcissism and Local Maxima.1, 2 In this work we present a solution for each of them and derive an improved PMHT by integrating the solutions into the PMHT formalism. The new PMHT is evaluated by Monte-Carlo simulations. A sequential Likelihood-Ratio (LR) test for track extraction has been developed and already integrated into the framework of traditional Bayesian Multiple Hypothesis Tracking.3 As a multi-scan approach, also the PMHT methodology has the potential for track extraction. In this paper an analogous integration of a sequential LR test into the PMHT framework is proposed. We present an LR formula for track extraction and deletion using the PMHT update formulae. As PMHT provides all required ingredients for a sequential LR calculation, the LR is thus a by-product of the PMHT iteration process. Therefore the resulting update formula for the sequential LR test affords the development of Track-Before-Detect algorithms for PMHT. The approach is illustrated by a simple example.
Donald Winnicott (1896-1971), specialist in children's diseases, psychology and psychotherapy, tried to put together his experience in all these fields. His theories can be put between the orthodox psychoanalytic thought and a "relational" paediatrics. He made his research on the "global reality" of child rather than being interested in the "internal objects". Both the orthodox analysts, who condemned his theories, and the specialists in children's diseases, who didn't recognize the scientific aspect of his genius, criticised and opposed Winnicott. Even if sometimes his theories have not an organic unity, they are the result of very detailed clinical observations, which are supported by a large experience with children at the Paddington Green Children Hospital and the Queen's Hospital for Children in London. With "transition", Winnicott means an intermediate development area between the psychic and external reality. There, we can find the "transitional object", which is the first element leading the child to face the external reality through the creation of symbols. Winnicott goes over the idea of the binomial mother-child, intended as instinctive development, and underlining the importance of real experiences. In his opinion, in the child development one has to stress the concept of "need" instead of that of "desire". A good environment and the empathic contact with "a fairly good mother", cause the passage from the primary narcissism to the object relationships. A fairly good mother must be able to perform holding, handling, and object presenting. Her duty is that of gradually undeceiving, and to do it she must give a sufficient opportunity of illusion. The mother, offering the right opportunity of illusion, puts the basis of symbols. Subsequently, she will go on a gradual disillusion. Winnicott disagrees Klein's ideas by stating that "playing is therapeutic in its own aspect", seeing it as a potential space between mother and child, which will become the place of analysis and transfer and, after on, that of cultural experience. PMID:12916436
Few studies have examined the item functioning of youth psychopathy measures or compared the functioning of clinician and self-report based indices. Even fewer studies have made these comparisons in both male and female adolescent samples. The present study examined the applicability of items from two psychopathy measures, the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick, P. J., & Hare, R. D., 2001, The Antisocial Process Screening Device. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems) and Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth, A. E., Kosson, D. S., & Hare, R. D., 2003, The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems), to adolescent boys and girls who had come into contact with the law. Item Response Theory was used to test item functioning of the two psychopathy indices. Examination of the Item Response Theory trace lines indicated that the APSD and the PCL:YV have both highly discriminating and poorly discriminating items and that the measures differ in the regions of psychopathy they cover. The PCL:YV is particularly effective at assessing interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy and to a lesser extent, lifestyle and antisocial features. The APSD appears to be effective at assessing narcissism and impulsivity but not callousness. In addition, the items most discriminating of the underlying construct of psychopathy for males and females demonstrate some important differences. These findings suggest that the measures may tap different underlying elements of the same overlaying construct. This may account for modest correlations between the measures. The findings suggest that clinicians should be aware of the regions that each measure best taps and also suggest that continued refinement and revisions to the youth psychopathy measures may be required. PMID:22686465
Dillard, Crystal L; Salekin, Randall T; Barker, Edward D; Grimes, Ross D
This study aims at showing the positive effects of arts therapies in individual and group sessions, with an aging, valid or dependent population, presenting symptoms of dementia or not. The improvement of cognition (including memory), well-being, as well as of certain medical problems (pain, tension...) was underlined in several studies on arts therapies, including especially the use of music therapeutic techniques. Indeed, music stimulates the emotional memory, causing the emergence of ancient memories, thus restoring narcissism. The well-being of participants is increased. Our population consists of elderly people, most of them suffering from dementia. They come to the workshops by themselves or led by their families. Music but also pictorial arts are used as a therapeutic mediation for one session per week during the time of hospitalization. This period varies depending on the condition of the subject. The scales used in T1 and T2 with patients suffering from dementia are the Echelle d'appréciation clinique en gériatrie by Bouvard & Cottraux and the Fragebogen zur Beurteilung der Behandlung durch den Therapeuten (FBB-T) by Mattejat and Remschmidt. Regarding the criteria for external validation, a semi-structured interview is proposed to the nurses in T2. The scales used with valid people are the Index of Well-being by Campbell et al, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) by Zigmond and Snaith, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), validated by Vallières and Vallerand in 1990, and the Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen (SVF 78) by Janke et al. CDC: There was a positive effect for most seniors who attended the sessions: an increased well-being and a temporary appropriation of memories. However, given the small size and the heterogeneity of samples, the irregularity of attendance, the results cannot be generalized. More regular sessions of arts therapies would be favorable for a consolidation of results. PMID:20653190
The use of synthesis drugs is the object of numerous written articles and TV programs in the last, decade. These synthesis drugs or "designer drugs", are well known for their ability to enhance, reinforce or appease social difficulties and relationships. In the research for empathetic and entactogenic relations one discover an obvious lack of communication and "warmth" in personal or professional relationship. An image of chemical "well being" has become a frequent stereotype of a society with an atrophying of performance and values while supposedly dedicating itself to individual performance. The youths are the first victims of these new drugs, the economical and social environment are the main reinforcing factors of this behaviour. The main characteristic of these drugs, is the non-recognition of their danger, some users go so far as to describe this category of substances as "drugs which are not drugs". As a characteristic, the use of a these synthesis drugs is almost recreative, during the week-end and holiday. The drug addiction is different than that of opiates or cocaine. One can observe some cases of real dependence--corresponding to the DSW IV criterion--when the personality of the users is the main characteristic (narcissic failure, immature personality, family and school problems). Many adverse effects--hypertension, kidney failure, psychoses--were declared. The mass-media has presented many articles concerning Ecstasy (MDMA). This is the most used drug during the rave parties. Its adverse effects are well known and proven. The authors would like to present other more recent synthesis drugs, also known as "analogs". These drugs, a kind of mixture between amphetamine-like (MDMA, MBDB, MDA) and misused medicines (ketamine, gamma OH, atropine) represent a real danger. GHB, 2 CB, HMB, are some of these recent substances. The possibility to procure them on the Web, or to produce them by oneself, add to their danger because of the lack of controls on toxicity and quality. The original danger signs were revealed by the FDA and currently a major preoccupation within french specialised services. The major problem for the practitionner is to inform the users, in order to prevent addiction and analyse the solutions. PMID:10598316
Velea, D; Hautefeuille, M; Vazeille, G; Lantran-Davoux, C
Workaholism surfaced some years ago as a veritable addiction in the wide sense of the term, dependence. It differs from other sorts of dependence in that it is very often viewed in a positive perspective in the sense that it conveys to the person concerned the illusion of well-being, as well as a motivation and dedication in their professional activity. During the past 30 years, several authors have attempted to define this concept and to determine its characteristics. Robinson believes that workaholics have an approach to life whereby their work feeds on time, energy and physical activity. This provokes consequences that affect their physical health and interpersonal relationships. They have a tendency to live in the future rather than in the present. For Scott, Moore and Micelli , the compulsion for work is not necessarily viewed as being detrimental to one's health. Spence and Robbins highlight the notion of the pleasure experienced at work in their theoretical approach. The prevalence of the dependence on work is estimated at between 27 and 30% in the general population. It is correlated to the number of hours of work per week and tends to be higher as annual revenue increases. The sex ratio is 1, and the parents of children 5 to 18 years of age are the most susceptible to considering themselves workaholics. The physical and psychological consequences of professional exhaustion are characterized primarily by the decrease in self-esteem, symptoms of fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability and the manifestation of physical problems including cardiovascular ailments, as evidenced by hypertension, as well as heart and kidney complications. All the theoretical point of views, from the psychoanalytical models to the contemporary models, highlight self esteem as being the centerpiece of the question regarding the problem of workaholism. In fact, the narcissism articulated from the sociological evolution of our western way of life permits us to delineate the psychic identity of the individual better, and therefore, to understand this reconstructive attempt of one's self better. In characterizing the personality traits of workaholic individuals, the doctor/therapist is required to deal with this new form of dependence as early as possible, in order to anticipate and avert the numerous personal, professional, social, relational and sanitary complications. Faced with this large prevalence of dependence on work, it seems important to us to look for a symptomatology that would emanate a signal of workaholism so as to envisage and propose to workaholic patients a specific course of action that would be adapted to their needs. PMID:20850599
Background The undergraduate medical course is a period full of stressors, which may contribute to the high prevalence of mental disorders among students and a decrease in life’s quality. Research shows that interventions during an undergraduate course can reduce stress levels. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the Strategies for Coping with Professional Stress class offered to medical students of the Federal University of Goiás, at Goiânia, Goiás, in Brazil. Methods Qualitative research, developed with medical students in an elective class addressing strategies for coping with stress after a focal group (composed of nine of the 33 students taking this course) identified stress factors in the medical course and the coping strategies that these students use. Analysis of the results of the class evaluation questionnaire filled out by the students on the last day of class. Results Stress factors identified by students in the focus group: lack of time, excessive class content, tests, demanding too much of themselves, overload of extracurricular activities, competitiveness among students and family problems. Coping strategies mentioned in the focus group: respecting one’s limits, setting priorities, avoiding comparisons, leisure activities (movies, literature, sports, meeting with friends and family). Results of the questionnaires: class content that was considered most important: quality of life, strategies for coping with stress, stress factors, assertiveness, community therapy, relaxation, cognitive restructuring, career choice, breathing, social networking, taking care of the caregiver, music therapy and narcissism. Most popular methodologies: relaxation practice, drawing words and discussion them in a group, community therapy, music therapy, simulated jury, short texts and discussion. Meaning of the class: asking questions and reinforcing already known strategies (22.6%), moment of reflection and self-assessment (19.4%), new interest and a worthwhile experience (19.4%), improvement in quality of life (16.1%), expression’s opportunity (9.7%), other (6.4%). Conclusion The stressors perceived by the medical students are intense and diverse, and the coping strategies used by them are wide-ranging. Most students felt that the class was a worthwhile learning experience, incorporated new practices for improving quality of life and recognized the importance of sharing and reflecting on one’s stressors and life choices.