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Communal narcissism.  


An agency-communion model of narcissism distinguishes between agentic narcissists (individuals satisfying self-motives of grandiosity, esteem, entitlement, and power in agentic domains) and communal narcissists (individuals satisfying the same self-motives in communal domains). Five studies supported the model. In Study 1, participants listed their grandiose self-thoughts. Two distinct types emerged: agentic ("I am the most intelligent person") and communal ("I am the most helpful person"). In Study 2, we relied on the listed communal grandiose self-thoughts to construct the Communal Narcissism Inventory. It was psychometrically sound, stable over time, and largely independent of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-the standard measure of agentic narcissism. In Studies 3 and 4, agentic and communal narcissists shared the same self-motives, while crucially differing in their means for need satisfaction: Agentic narcissists capitalized on agentic means, communal narcissists on communal means. Study 5 revisited the puzzle of low self-other agreement regarding communal traits and behaviors. Attesting to the broader significance of our model, this low self-other agreement was partly due to communal narcissists: They saw themselves as high, but were seen by others as low, in communion. PMID:22889074

Gebauer, Jochen E; Sedikides, Constantine; Verplanken, Bas; Maio, Gregory R



Narcissism and Adjustment in Preadolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narcissism--a strong need to be admired for a grandiose self--is a problematic personality trait for children as well as adults. This study of 236 preadolescents (M age = 11.3 years; 129 girls, 107 boys) evaluated 2 intrapersonal (cognitive) pathways by which narcissism might contribute to maladjustment. The first was that narcissism combines with…

Pauletti, Rachel E.; Menon, Madhavi; Menon, Meenakshi; Tobin, Desiree D.; Perry, David G.



Freud's "On Narcissism: An Introduction"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews Freud's (1914) seminal paper "On narcissism: an introduction". Freud's paper is briefly set in the historical context of the evolution of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic theories, and Freud's metapsychology up to the publication of his Narcissism paper is outlined. A detailed and comprehensive description of the content of the…

Crockatt, Philip



Racism, Narcissism, and Integrity  

PubMed Central

Recently there has been much literature pertaining to the psychodynamics of narcissism and its relation to psychopathological and normal psychic functions. While these models of the mind are primarily aimed at understanding individual behavior in the therapeutic relationship, they are also useful in clarifying one's thinking about racism, which can be approached both from an individual and social viewpoint. The author demonstrates that the racist individual suffers from a defect in narcissistic personality development, which precludes the subsequent development of such qualities as creativity, empathy, and integrity. PMID:702554

Bell, Carl C.



Narcissism and adjustment in preadolescence.  


Narcissism-a strong need to be admired for a grandiose self-is a problematic personality trait for children as well as adults. This study of 236 preadolescents (M age = 11.3 years; 129 girls, 107 boys) evaluated 2 intrapersonal (cognitive) pathways by which narcissism might contribute to maladjustment. The first was that narcissism combines with salient self-serving gender stereotypes to encourage aggressive and selfish behavior. The second was that narcissism places children who perceive that they are failing to realize their grandiose self at risk for aggression and depression. Although concurrent-correlational, the data support the pathways, illuminate the content and dynamics of narcissistic children's minds, and suggest directions for future investigation. PMID:22335362

Pauletti, Rachel E; Menon, Madhavi; Menon, Meenakshi; Tobin, Desiree D; Perry, David G



The deconstruction of primary narcissism.  


The author examines Winnicott?'s contribution to Freud?'s concept of primary narcissism. In Mourning and melancholia, Freud laid the foundations for this contribution, but it was Winnicott who turned it into a clinically useful concept. There are three of Winnicott's ideas that can be seen as preliminary stages to his theory of transitional phenomena and illusion. They serve as an introduction to thinking about the analysis of the analysand?'s primary narcissism and the theoretical prerequisites that make the interpretation of primary narcissism possible. Through the exploration of three main points in Winnicott's writings the author shows how Winnicott's conceptualizations are both new and a continuation of Freud?'s thinking. His ideas are thus part of the overall theoretical pattern of Freud?'s metapsychology. The three main points are as follows: 1. In bringing maternal care and the presence of the psychic environment into the construction of primary narcissism, Winnicott made it possible to analyse narcissism. His ideas enable us to stand back from the characteristic solipsism of narcissism, which holds that everything comes from the self and only from the self. The latter concept tends to eliminate the role of the object and environment in the construction of the self. At the same time, by deconstructing the way in which the self is infiltrated by a certain number of narcissistic postulates, Winnicott made it possible to interpret the theory of narcissism itself. 2. Between the individual and the sense of self, Winnicott inserted the maternal object and her function as a mirror of affects who acts as a medium for the organization of self-identity. Primary identity is established through the construction and elimination of a narcissistic identification that becomes meaningful in the context of a primary homosexual relationship functioning as a 'double'. 3. A process of differentiation that governs the discovery of the object is in a dialectical relationship with narcissistic identification. That process can be understood only in terms of the responses made by the primary psychic environment to the baby's primary aggression. PMID:20840641

Roussillon, René



Understanding narcissism and self-esteem in children:.  

E-print Network

??This study examined the empirical relationship between narcissism and self-esteem in an attempt to evaluate competing conceptualizations of narcissism. Participants were 236 children (mean age… (more)

Evans, Rachel.



Portrait of a narcissist: Manifestations of narcissism in physical appearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narcissism is characterized in part by an acute concern for one’s appearance. Despite this fundamental aspect of narcissism, little is known about whether narcissism is manifested in features of physical appearance. Can you tell if someone is narcissistic just by looking at them? Our results indicate that snap judgments of narcissism based on full-body photographs are at least as accurate

Simine Vazire; Laura P. Naumann; Peter J. Rentfrow; Samuel D. Gosling



Collective narcissism and its social consequences.  


This article introduces the concept of collective narcissism--an emotional investment in an unrealistic belief about the in group's greatness--aiming to explain how feelings about an ingroup shape a tendency to aggress against outgroups. The results of 5 studies indicate that collective, but not individual, narcissism predicts intergroup aggressiveness. Collective narcissism is related to high private and low public collective self-esteem and low implicit group esteem. It predicts perceived threat from outgroups, unwillingness to forgive outgroups, preference for military aggression over and above social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, and blind patriotism. The relationship between collective narcissism and aggressiveness is mediated by perceived threat from outgroups and perceived insult to the ingroup. In sum, the results indicate that collective narcissism is a form of high but ambivalent group esteem related to sensitivity to threats to the ingroup's image and retaliatory aggression. PMID:19968420

de Zavala, Agnieszka Golec; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Eidelson, Roy; Jayawickreme, Nuwan



Narcissism and the death instinct.  


The myth of Narcissus is a myth of death resulting from the absence of desire in a love relationship, and a metaphor of the symbolic and imaginary death of the narcissistic person. Four of Freud's dreams are analysed in terms of their narcissistic structure. They reveal some important features in the implicit relationship between the feminine nature of the narcissistic body and the counterpart. They lead to a better formulation of the narcissistic state in terms of the relationship between the self and the counterpart. The narcissistic relationship is based on wishes and not desires. The object of the wish is not essential for the wish to emerge or to be sustained. As a result, the narcissistic relation is characterized by the absence of its aim and the impossibility of its satisfaction; and consequently it symbolizes death of the world or the self and is an imaginary death of both. In that sense, Freud's introduction of the concept of narcissism and his concept of the death instinct should be seen as connected, as they constitute a stage in psychoanalytic knowledge. It is difficult to understand narcissism detached from the concept of the death instinct without rendering the issues of meaning and interpretation irrelevant to the psychoanalytic act. PMID:6168597

Fayek, A



Narcissism and social networking Web sites.  


The present research examined how narcissism is manifested on a social networking Web site (i.e., Narcissistic personality self-reports were collected from social networking Web page owners. Then their Web pages were coded for both objective and subjective content features. Finally, strangers viewed the Web pages and rated their impression of the owner on agentic traits, communal traits, and narcissism. Narcissism predicted (a) higher levels of social activity in the online community and (b) more self-promoting content in several aspects of the social networking Web pages. Strangers who viewed the Web pages judged more narcissistic Web page owners to be more narcissistic. Finally, mediational analyses revealed several Web page content features that were influential in raters' narcissistic impressions of the owners, including quantity of social interaction, main photo self-promotion, and main photo attractiveness. Implications of the expression of narcissism in social networking communities are discussed. PMID:18599659

Buffardi, Laura E; Campbell, W Keith



Clarifying the links between grandiose narcissism and parenting.  


This study investigated the links between parenting and grandiose narcissism in hopes of clarifying recent empirical discrepancies. One-hundred forty-five participants completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and reported about their parents' support, coldness, monitoring, psychological control, and overvaluation. Psychological control was associated positively with narcissism, whereas monitoring and coldness were associated negatively. Overvaluation and parental support showed no reliable associations with narcissism. Analysis of the components of narcissism further elucidated these links. The results are interpreted in light of previous findings and as consistent with social learning and psychodynamic theories regarding the origins of narcissism. PMID:24684075

Horton, Robert S; Tritch, Tanner



The significance of Alfred Adler for the concept of narcissism.  


Alfred Adler's significance for the concept of narcissism is presented with reference to four aspects: 1) Adler's theory of masculine protest was evidently a factor influencing Freud to turn toward the phenomenon of narcissism. 2) Present-day understanding of narcissism shows remarkable similarity to Adler's views on psychodynamics and neurotic egocentricity. 3) Some contemporary criticisms of Freud's theory of narcissism are very similar to Adler's criticism. 4) Adler's theory of social interest permits subsumption of narcissism under lack of social interest rather than acceptance of it as an expression of innate socially negative tendencies. PMID:3882001

Ansbacher, H L



Personal Fables, Narcissism, and Adolescent Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship among three personal fables ("omnipotence," "invulnerability," "personal uniqueness"), narcissism, and mental health variables was assessed in a large, cross-sectional sample of adolescents drawn from Grades 6 (n = 94), 8 (n = 223), 10 (n = 142), and 12 (n = 102). Participants responded to the New Personal Fable Scale, the…

Aalsma, Matthew C.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Flannery, Daniel J.



Development and validation of the childhood narcissism scale.  


In this article, we describe the development and validation of a short (10 item) but comprehensive self-report measure of childhood narcissism. The Childhood Narcissism Scale (CNS) is a 1-dimensional measure of stable individual differences in childhood narcissism with strong internal consistency reliability (Studies 1-4). The CNS is virtually unrelated to conventional measures of self-esteem but is positively related to self-appraised superiority, social evaluative concern and self-esteem contingency, agentic interpersonal goals, and emotional extremity (Study 5). Furthermore, the CNS is negatively related to empathic concern and positively related to aggression following ego threat (Study 6). These results suggest that childhood narcissism has similar psychological and interpersonal correlates as adult narcissism. The CNS provides researchers a convenient tool for measuring narcissism in children and young adolescents with strong preliminary psychometric characteristics. PMID:18584447

Thomaes, Sander; Stegge, Hedy; Bushman, Brad J; Olthof, Tjeert; Denissen, Jaap



Parenting Narcissus: What Are the Links Between Parenting and Narcissism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous theorizing by clinical psychologists suggests that adolescent narcissism may be related to parenting practices (Kernb- erg, 1975; Kohut, 1977). Two studies investigated the relations between parenting dimensions (i.e., warmth, monitoring, and psychological con- trol) and narcissism both with and without removing from narcissism variance associated with trait self-esteem. Two hundred and twenty-two college students (Study 1) and 212 high

Robert S. Horton; Geoff Bleau; Brian Drwecki



Narcissism at the crossroads: Phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social\\/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social\\/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical theories of narcissism spanning 35 years consistently describe variations in the expression of pathological narcissism that emphasize either grandiosity or vulnerable affects and self-states. Recent research in social\\/personality psychology examining the structure of narcissistic personality traits consistently finds

Nicole M. Cain; Aaron L. Pincus; Emily B. Ansell



Narcissism and Envy in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narcissism and envy are two primary psychological forces that determine human behaviour. Narcissism affects a person's sense of self; envy affects his relations with others. Shakespeare seems to have anticipated the recent emergence of psychoanalytic theories about how these forces affect the masculine self. This thesis will investigate how the ideas of René Girard and Heinz Kohut coincide with issues

Philip Collington




E-print Network

MIND-READING AND METACOGNITION: NARCISSISM, NOT ACTUAL COMPETENCE, PREDICTS SELF-ESTIMATED ABILITY exercise. In both cases, actual performance did not predict self-estimated performance but narcissism did and their actual success in inferring another person's mental states. In this paper, we consider self

Qian, Ning


Comparing Clinical and Social-Personality Conceptualizations of Narcissism  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of consensus surrounding the conceptual- ization of narcissism. The present study compared two measures of narcissism—one used in clinical settings (Personality Diagnostic Ques- tionnaire, PDQ-41; Hyler, 1994) and one used in social-personality re- search (Narcissistic Personality Inventory, NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988)— across two samples. Sample 1 (N 5 271) was composed of undergradu- ates, whereas

Joshua D. Miller; W. Keith Campbell



There Is an "I" in TEAM: Narcissism and Social Loafing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated narcissism as a moderator of social loafing on a physical performance task. High and low narcissistic individuals twice performed a cycling task in same-sex teams of three: once when identifiability was low; and once when identifiability was high. A significant interaction between narcissism and identifiability was revealed, F(1,…

Woodman, Tim; Roberts, Ross; Hardy, Lew; Callow, Nichola; Rogers, Catherine H.



The narcissism epidemic: commentary on modernity and narcissistic personality disorder.  


Comments on the original article by Paris (see record 2012-18549-001) regarding narcissistic personality disorder. The current authors agree with Paris that modern life is making people more narcissistic. In fact, the authors demonstrate with this commentary, the case for increasing narcissism is even stronger than presented in his article. An explain that expressing individualism and lack of social support play key roles in this increase. However, the current authors question the idea that therapy is building narcissism. PMID:24796568

Twenge, Jean M; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith



Interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism: a social relations analysis.  


Impairments in self and interpersonal functioning are core features of personality pathology. Clinical theory and research indicate that compromised self-awareness and distorted interpersonal perceptions are particularly prominent in individuals exhibiting pathological narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Therefore we conducted a study to gain a better understanding of interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. A large sample (N=437) of moderately acquainted individuals assigned to 1 of 93 small mixed-sex groups completed self- and informant ratings on the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) in a round-robin design. The social relations model (SRM) was used to partition the variance in dyadic ratings to investigate several hypotheses about interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. SRM analyses demonstrated evidence of assimilation (the tendency to perceive and rate others similarly) and consensus (the extent to which multiple observers form similar impressions of another person) in interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. Results also indicated modest self-other agreement and assumed similarity (the tendency for people to perceive others as similar to themselves) for PNI higher order factors and subscale ratings. Finally, results suggested that individuals high in pathological narcissism had some awareness of how peers would rate them (metaperception) but believed that others would rate them similarly to how they rated themselves. PMID:23406324

Lukowitsky, Mark R; Pincus, Aaron L



Narcissism and Self-Esteem Among Homosexual and Heterosexual Male Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to orthodox psychoanalytical theory, narcissism and homosexuality are strongly associated. This association played a major role in pathologizing homosexuality. The present study compared self-esteem and two measures of narcissism among 90 homosexual and 109 heterosexual male students, who filled in a demographic questionnaire, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, which addresses both grandiose

Gidi Rubinstein



College Adjustment Difficulties and the Overt and Covert Forms of Narcissism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overt narcissism correlated negatively with emotional distress and interpersonal difficulties among female, but not male, students. After controlling for self-esteem, overt narcissism correlated positively with depression among female students and with emotional distress and interpersonal difficulties among male students. Covert narcissism

Weikel, Kim A.; Avara, Renee Mowery; Hanson, Chad A.; Kater, Hope



Locus of Control, Narcissism, and Family Life Education in Correctional Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the affect that narcissism and locus of control have on a prisoner's ability to complete a family life psycho-educational program. Data collected from a random selection of inmates and two sex offender groups indicates a significant correlation exists between locus of control, narcissism, and the final exam scores. No significant correlations were found between narcissism and locus

Daniel J. Bayse; Scot M. Allgood; Pamela C. Van Wyk



The Relations among Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Delinquency in a Sample of At-Risk Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores the relation between narcissism and delinquency among 372 at-risk 16-18-year-olds. The study also considered the relation between narcissism and self-esteem, as well as the potential interaction between narcissism and self-esteem for predicting delinquency in this age group. Narcissism and self-esteem were positively…

Barry, Christopher T.; Grafeman, Sarah J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Pickard, Jessica D.



Preschool Personality Antecedents of Narcissism in Adolescence and Emergent Adulthood: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

This prospective study examined relations between preschool personality attributes and narcissism during adolescence and emerging adulthood. We created five a priori preschool scales anticipated to foretell future narcissism. Independent assessors evaluated the participants' personality at ages 14, 18, and 23. Based upon these evaluations, we generated observer-based narcissism scales for each of these three ages. All preschool scales predicted subsequent narcissism, except Interpersonal Antagonism at age 23. According to mean scale and item scores analyses, narcissism increased significantly from age 14 to 18, followed by a slight but non-significant decline from age 18 to 23. The discussion focused on a developmental view of narcissism, the need for research on automatic processing and psychological defenses, and links between narcissism and attachment. PMID:20161614

Carlson, Kevin S.; Gjerde, Per F.



Narcissism and discrepancy between self and friends' perceptions of personality.  


Most research on narcissism and person perception has used strangers as perceivers. However, research has demonstrated that strangers' ratings are influenced by narcissists' stylish appearance (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2010). In the present study, we recruited participants and their close friends, individuals whose close relationship should immunize them to participants' superficial appearance cues. We investigated the relation between narcissism and personality ratings by self and friends. Participants (N?=?66; 38 women; Mage?=?20.83 years) completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) and described their personality on the 100-item California Adult Q-Sort (CAQ; Block, 2008). Participants' personality was also described on the CAQ by close friends. The "optimally adjusted individual" prototype was used to summarize participant and friend personality ratings (Block, 2008). Participants with high narcissism scores were ascribed higher optimal adjustment by self than by friends. Narcissistic individuals' self-ratings were extremely positive and more favorable than friends' ratings of them. PMID:23799917

Park, Sun W; Colvin, C Randall



Wealth and the inflated self: class, entitlement, and narcissism.  


Americans may be more narcissistic now than ever, but narcissism is not evenly distributed across social strata. Five studies demonstrated that higher social class is associated with increased entitlement and narcissism. Upper-class individuals reported greater psychological entitlement (Studies 1a, 1b, and 2) and narcissistic personality tendencies (Study 2), and they were more likely to behave in a narcissistic fashion by opting to look at themselves in a mirror (Study 3). Finally, inducing egalitarian values in upper-class participants decreased their narcissism to a level on par with their lower-class peers (Study 4). These findings offer novel evidence regarding the influence of social class on the self and highlight the importance of social stratification to understanding basic psychological processes. PMID:23963971

Piff, Paul K



Aspects of narcissism and symbiosis, or, essential neurosis of twins.  


Following a brief introduction I address the relationships of twins from five different perspectives: the Intimate Connection, the Mirror Image and Complementarity, Object- and Self-Representation, Self and Object or Rivalry, and Intersubjective Communication. This approach attempts to understand twin relationships and the individual development of twins in terms of their intense mutual dependence, akin to infantile symbiosis, and in terms of narcissism. In their similarity to each other, twins may choose each other as love objects even as they see themselves in the other. That is, a twin may "love what he himself is" or "someone who was once part of himself." This "type of object-choice … must be termed 'narcissistic'" (Freud, 1914, pp. 90, 88). Such "cathexis of an undifferentiated self-object" is considered to be "primary narcissism" (Burstein, 1977, p. 103). Hoffer (1952) describes primary narcissism as "the lack of all qualities discriminating between self and not-self, inside and outside" (p. 33). PMID:22712590

Kahn, Charlotte



[The application of the theory of narcissism in criminal proceedings (forensic theory of narcissism)].  


The concept of narcissism was introduced by Freud's psychoanalysis and is founded on a solid biological basis today, namely the so-called happiness hormones (endorphins, serotonin etc.), which generate happiness, joy and other positive feelings in the human being. By setting rules as to which actions are socially accepted and appreciated and thus associated with a positive feedback, society is able to promote the desirable behaviour and effectively control the integration of the individual into society. Happiness can be sought either in professional or in private life. Negative experiences in one of these fields can be compensated by positive experiences in the other. By means of a case, in which bottled-up narcissistic rage led to a state of severely impaired consciousness, the applicability of the forensic theory of narcissism in criminal law is illustrated and discussed. Depressive disorders, posttraumatic stress disorders, personality changes after extremely stressful situations and non-substance addictions such as computer addiction can be better understood on the basis of Kohut's model of the narcissistic balance of satisfaction. PMID:19938408

Gabbert, Thomas G



An examination of the perceptions of social network characteristics associated with grandiose and vulnerable narcissism.  


Two dimensions of narcissism exist, grandiose and vulnerable, which are thought to be associated with distinctly different patterns of interpersonal behavior. Social network analysis is a way of quantifying and analyzing interpersonal interactions that may prove useful for characterizing the networks associated with these narcissism dimensions. In the current study, participants (N = 148) completed scales assessing both narcissism dimensions and a measure of the five-factor model of personality. Egocentric network information about participants' 30 closest friends and family members (i.e., "alters") was also obtained. Both narcissism dimensions were characterized by negative perceptions of the individuals who comprise one's social networks, and many of these relations were mediated by individuals' higher levels of antagonism. Grandiose narcissism also interacted with alter centrality (i.e., importance to the network) such that individuals low on grandiose narcissism were less likely to perceive central alters in a negative light and were more attuned to central alters than were individuals high on grandiose narcissism. Overall, both narcissism dimensions were associated with perceiving one's overall social environment negatively because of the high levels of antagonism that characterize both narcissism dimensions. Individuals high on grandiose narcissism, however, appear to be more insensitive to the relative importance of individuals in their social networks. PMID:24364501

Lamkin, Joanna; Clifton, Allan; Campbell, W Keith; Miller, Joshua D



Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.  


This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior. PMID:8988574

Geberth, V J; Turco, R N



The Dark Triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the offensive yet non-pathological personalities in the literature, three are especially prominent: Machiavellianism, subclinical narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy. We evaluated the recent contention that, in normal samples, this ‘Dark Triad’ of constructs are one and the same. In a sample of 245 students, we measured the three constructs with standard measures and examined a variety of laboratory and self-report

Delroy L. Paulhus; Kevin M. Williams



Characterizing Pathological Narcissism in Terms of the HEXACO Model of Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the grandiose and vulnerable subscales of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al.\\u000a (Psychological Assessment, 21, 365-379, 2009)) in the context of the HEXACO model of personality. Based upon previous research, we predicted that grandiose aspects of\\u000a narcissism would be related to high extraversion, low emotionality, and low agreeableness, while vulnerable aspects of narcissism\\u000a would be

Konrad Bresin; Kathryn H. Gordon



Are Universities Creating Millennial Narcissistic Employees? An Empirical Examination of Narcissism in Business Students and Its Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigate whether narcissism levels are significantly higher in undergraduate business students than psychology students, whether business schools are reinforcing narcissism in the classroom, and whether narcissism is influencing student salary and career expectations. Data were collected from Millennial students (n = 536) and…

Westerman, James W.; Bergman, Jacqueline Z.; Bergman, Shawn M.; Daly, Joseph P.



Trauma, narcissism and the two attractors in trauma.  


In this paper, the author sets out to distinguish anew between two concepts that have become sorely entangled--'trauma' and 'narcissism'. Defining 'narcissism' in terms of an interaction between the selfobject and the self that maintains a protective shield, and 'trauma' as attacks on this protective shield, perpetrated by bad objects, he introduces two attractors present in trauma--'the hole attractor' and the structure enveloping it, 'the narcissistic envelope'. The hole attractor pulls the trauma patient, like a 'black hole', into a realm of emotional void, of hole object transference, devoid of memories and where often in an analyst's countertransference there are no reverberations of the trauma patient's experience. In the narcissistic envelope, on the other hand, motion, the life and death drive and fragments of memory do survive. Based on the author's own clinical experience with Holocaust survivors, and on secondary sources, the paper concludes with some clinical implications that take the two attractors into account. PMID:16040309

Gerzi, Shmuel



Narcissism and consumer behaviour: a review and preliminary findings.  


We review the literature on the relation between narcissism and consumer behavior. Consumer behavior is sometimes guided by self-related motives (e.g., self-enhancement) rather than by rational economic considerations. Narcissism is a case in point. This personality trait reflects a self-centered, self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative orientation. Narcissists are characterized by exhibitionism and vanity, and they see themselves as superior and entitled. To validate their grandiose self-image, narcissists purchase high-prestige products (i.e., luxurious, exclusive, flashy), show greater interest in the symbolic than utilitarian value of products, and distinguish themselves positively from others via their materialistic possessions. Our review lays the foundation for a novel methodological approach in which we explore how narcissism influences eye movement behavior during consumer decision-making. We conclude with a description of our experimental paradigm and report preliminary results. Our findings will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying narcissists' conspicuous purchases. They will also likely have implications for theories of personality, consumer behavior, marketing, advertising, and visual cognition. PMID:24711797

Cisek, Sylwia Z; Sedikides, Constantine; Hart, Claire M; Godwin, Hayward J; Benson, Valerie; Liversedge, Simon P



A neural model of mechanisms of empathy deficits in narcissism  

PubMed Central

From a multidimensional perspective, empathy is a process that includes affective sharing and imagining and understanding the emotions of others. The primary brain structures involved in mediating the components of empathy are the anterior insula (AI), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and specific regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). The AI and ACC are the main nodes in the salience network (SN), which selects and coordinates the information flow from the intero- and exteroreceptors. AI might play a role as a crucial hub – a dynamic switch between 2 separate networks of cognitive processing: the central executive network (CEN), which is concerned with effective task execution, and the default mode network (DMN), which is involved with self-reflective processes. Given various classifications, a deficit in empathy may be considered a central dysfunctional trait in narcissism. A recent fMRI study suggests that deficit in empathy is due to a dysfunction in the right AI. Based on the acquired data, we propose a theoretical model of imbalanced SN functioning in narcissism in which the dysfunctional AI hub is responsible for constant DMN activation, which, in turn, centers one’s attention on the self. This might hinder the ability to affectively share and understand the emotions of others. This review paper on neural mechanisms of empathy deficits in narcissism aims to inspire and direct future research in this area. PMID:24189465

Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Zajkowski, Wojciech



The Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Dyadic Narcissism and the Problem of Individuation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses issues of infantile gender identity as they are demonstrated through group processes amongst the carers of disturbed adolescents. It uses this and other clinical material to explore gender narcissism--both male and female. It examines how such narcissism is linked to sado-masochism, and how it can impede a healthy development…

Sprince, Jenny



The associations between two facets of narcissism and eating disorder symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study sought to examine the relationships between two facets of narcissism (vulnerable and grandiose) and eating disorder symptoms. Based upon previous research (Davis, Claridge, & Cerullo, 1997), it was predicted that the vulnerable narcissism facet would be more strongly associated with eating disorder symptoms because of the tendency for vulnerable narcissists to base their self-worth on their appearance

Kathryn H. Gordon; Joseph J. Dombeck



Examining Associations between Narcissism, Behavior Problems, and Anxiety in Non-Referred Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…

Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.



Are narcissists sexy? Zeroing in on the effect of narcissism on short-term mate appeal.  


This research was aimed to provide a comprehensive test of the classic notion that narcissistic individuals are appealing as short-term romantic or sexual partners. In three studies, we tested the hypotheses that narcissism exerts a positive effect on an individual's mate appeal and that this effect is mediated by high physical attractiveness and high social boldness. We implemented a multimethod approach and used ratings of opposite sex persons (Study 1), ratings of friends (Study 2), and records of courtship outcomes in naturalistic interactions (Study 3) as indicators of mate appeal. In all cases, narcissism had a positive effect on mate appeal, which was mainly due to the agentic self-enhancement aspects of narcissism (rather than narcissists' lacking communion). As predicted, physical attractiveness and social boldness mediated the positive effect of narcissism on mate appeal. Findings further indicated that narcissism was more strongly linked to mate appeal than to friend appeal. PMID:23554177

Dufner, Michael; Rauthmann, John F; Czarna, Anna Z; Denissen, Jaap J A



On being eager and uninhibited: narcissism and approach-avoidance motivation.  


This article demonstrates the validity and utility of conceptualizing narcissistic personality in terms of relative approach-avoidance motivation. Across three studies (N = 1,319), narcissism predicted high approach and low avoidance motivation. That is, narcissists reported being strongly motivated to approach desirable outcomes but only weakly motivated to avoid negative outcomes. Relative approach-avoidance motivation was shown to be useful in terms of explaining behavioral tendencies associated with narcissism (i.e., functional and dysfunctional impulsivity) and distinguishing different "flavors" of narcissism (i.e., overt and covert narcissism). Discussion focuses on how approach-avoidance motivation may be used to explain prior findings in the narcissism literature and generate novel future hypotheses. PMID:18436654

Foster, Joshua D; Trimm, Riley F



Collective narcissism moderates the effect of in-group image threat on intergroup hostility.  


Results of 4 experiments demonstrated that under in-group image threat collective narcissism predicts retaliatory intergroup hostility. Under in-group criticism (vs. praise) collective narcissists expressed intention to harm the offending out-group but not other, nonoffending out-groups. This effect was specific to collective narcissism and was replicated in studies that accounted for the overlap between collective narcissism and individual narcissism, in-group positivity (in-group identification, blind and constructive patriotism), social dominance orientation, and right wing authoritarianism. The link between collective narcissism and retaliatory intergroup hostility under in-group image threat was found in the context of national identity and international relations and in the context of a social identity defined by university affiliation. Study 4 demonstrated that the relationship between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility was mediated by the perception of in-group criticism as personally threatening. The results advance our understanding of the mechanism driving the link between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility. They indicate that threatened egotism theory can be extended into the intergroup domain. PMID:23586408

Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Iskra-Golec, Irena



Narcissism as a predictor of motivations behind Facebook profile picture selection.  


The rising popularity of social networking sites raises the question of whether and how personality differences are manifested on them. The present study explores this topic through an analysis of the relationship between narcissism and motivations behind Facebook profile picture selection. A survey that assesses motivations emphasizing physical attractiveness, personality, and social ties was conducted with 288 undergraduate students. The study found narcissism to be a significant predictor of the motivation for selecting profile pictures that emphasize attractiveness and personality for both men and women. The findings are discussed in terms of the dynamic self-regulatory processing model of narcissism. PMID:23249240

Kapidzic, Sanja



Aggressive reactions to abusive supervision: the role of interactional justice and narcissism.  


In this study, we explore personality and situational conditions in which negative leadership - specifically, abusive supervision - is associated with aggressive behavior in subordinates. That is, we examine the role that interactional justice and narcissism play in an employee's decision to respond aggressively to an abusive supervisor. We demonstrate that interactional justice mediates the relationship between perceptions of abusive supervision and subsequent employee aggression. In addition, we demonstrate that narcissism interacts with interactional justice perceptions to predict workplace aggression. We find that individuals with high levels of narcissism are the employees who are most likely to respond aggressively when they interpret their leader's behavior as abusive. PMID:21504430

Burton, James P; Hoobler, Jenny M



Commonalities and differences in characteristics of persons at risk for narcissism and mania  

PubMed Central

Clinicians have long noted overlap in some of the key features of narcissism and bipolar disorder, including excessively high goals and impulsivity. In addition, empirical findings consistently document high levels of comorbidity between the two conditions. To better understand the similarities and differences in psychological qualities associated with mania- and narcissism-related vulnerabilities, we administered to 233 undergraduates a broad range of measures pertaining to goals and affects (both their experience and their dysregulation) and impulsivity. As hypothesized, tendencies toward both narcissism and hypomania related to elevations on measures of affective and goal dysregulation. In addition, hypomania tendencies were related to higher impulsivity, but that association did not appear for narcissistic tendencies. Results highlight key commonalities and differences between those at risk for mania versus narcissism. Future research should examine these relationships in clinically diagnosed samples. PMID:20376289

Fulford, Daniel; Johnson, Sheri L.; Carver, Charles S.



[Malignant narcissism and sexual homicide--exemplified by the Jack Unterweger case].  


With the syndrome of malignant narcissism, which is characterised by narcissistic personality disorder, anti-social behaviour, sadism and a marked tendency to paranoid reactions, Kernberg (1985, 1996) describes an independent form of pathological narcissism. According to Stone (1996) this is found in many mass-murderers and serial killers. On the basis of the example of Jack Unterweger the connection between malignant narcissism and sexual offence is discussed as to psychodynamic development, personality structure and psychopathology. Unterweger, who was convicted to lifelong imprisonment in 1976 for sadistic sexual murder, became a wellknown writer in prison and was released prematurely in 1990 as the Austria case of successful rehabilitation. As stated in the sentence passed against him he killed 11 prostitutes in Europe and the USA within the next 18 months, but never pleaded guilty. Psychiatric examination revealed numerous elements of malignant narcissism and the constellation of his development and life was typical of serial offenders. PMID:10489586

Haller, R



The Influence of Birth Order and Gender on Narcissism as it Relates to Career Development  

E-print Network

This study explored the relationship between self-development as evidenced in the domain of narcissism and the process of vocational development as evidenced in career values, planning, and decisiveness/self-efficacy. It was suggested...

Duffy, Clare 1978-



Authentic and Hubristic Pride: The Affective Core of Self-esteem and Narcissism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do individuals with high self-esteem enjoy positive interpersonal relationships, or are they aggressive and antisocial? Does narcissism reflect an abundance of self-worth, or inflated self-views driven by an overcompensation for low self-esteem? The present research addresses the apparently two-sided nature of self-esteem and narcissism by distinguishing between two distinct self-regulatory processes (narcissistic self-aggrandizement and genuine self-esteem), and proposing that two

Jessica L. Tracy; Joey T. Cheng; Richard W. Robins; Kali H. Trzesniewski



A question of false self-esteem : Organization-based self-esteem and narcissism in organizational contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to explore the relationships between organization-based self-esteem and narcissism, and their correlates. It aims to distinguish the two constructs, as well as to examine the degree to which organization-based self-esteem is contaminated by “false self-esteem” (namely, narcissism). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Participants completed questionnaires containing measures of organization-based self-esteem, narcissism, and a variety of motivational, attitudinal, and

Donald G. Gardner; Jon L. Pierce



Parallel Syndromes: Two Dimensions of Narcissism and the Facets of Psychopathic Personality in Criminally-Involved Individuals  

PubMed Central

Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally-involved individuals. The present study examined the pattern of relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, respectively, and the four facets of psychopathy (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial) assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). As predicted, grandiose and vulnerable narcissism showed differential relationships to psychopathy facets, with grandiose narcissism relating positively to the interpersonal facet of psychopathy and vulnerable narcissism relating positively to the lifestyle facet of psychopathy. Paralleling existing psychopathy research, vulnerable narcissism showed stronger associations than grandiose narcissism to 1) other forms of psychopathology, including internalizing and substance use disorders, and 2) self- and other-directed aggression, measured using the Life History of Aggression and the Forms of Aggression Questionnaire. Grandiose narcissism was nonetheless associated with social dysfunction marked by a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style and unprovoked aggression. Potentially important implications for uncovering etiological pathways and developing treatment interventions for these disorders in externalizing adults are discussed. PMID:22448731



The Associations of Self-Reported and Peer-Reported Relational Aggression with Narcissism and Self-Esteem Among Adolescents in a Residential Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the relations of self-reported and peer-nominated relational aggression (RA) with self-esteem and narcissism among 43 at-risk 16- to 18-year-olds. Self-reported and peer-nominated RA were positively intercorrelated, and each was positively correlated with narcissism. An interaction between self-esteem and narcissism predicted peer-nominated RA, such that narcissism was related to peer-nominated RA particularly for individuals with high self-esteem.

Farrah N. Golmaryami; Christopher T. Barry



The Associations of Self-Reported and Peer-Reported Relational Aggression with Narcissism and Self-Esteem among Adolescents in a Residential Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the relations of self-reported and peer-nominated relational aggression (RA) with self-esteem and narcissism among 43 at-risk 16- to 18-year-olds. Self-reported and peer-nominated RA were positively intercorrelated, and each was positively correlated with narcissism. An interaction between self-esteem and narcissism

Golmaryami, Farrah N.; Barry, Christopher T.



Evidence for the criterion validity and clinical utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (Ns = 299, 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability with established indices of normal personality traits, psychopathology and clinical concerns, and pathological personality traits. Overall, the pattern of correlations supported the convergent and discriminate validity of grandiose and vulnerable conceptualizations of pathological narcissism as measured by the PNI. Clinical utility was assessed by evaluating the extent to which clinicians without specific training in pathological narcissism as well as clinicians with expertise in pathological narcissism could accurately predict the correlates of PNI grandiosity and vulnerability with normal and pathological personality traits and psychopathology. The rcontrast-cv coefficient (Westen & Rosenthal, 2003) provided a global index of accuracy in clinicians’ predictions that was more fully elaborated by examining systematic discrepancies across groups. Overall, novice and expert clinicians were generally able to predict criterion correlations, with some exceptions (e.g., counter to predictions, pathological narcissism was negatively associated with treatment resistance). These results provide further evidence regarding the validity and utility of the narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability constructs as measured by the PNI. PMID:22315481

Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.



Sounds like a Narcissist: Behavioral Manifestations of Narcissism in Everyday Life  

PubMed Central

Little is known about narcissists’ everyday behavior. The goal of this study was to describe how narcissism is manifested in everyday life. Using the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), we obtained naturalistic behavior from participants’ everyday lives. The results suggest that the defining characteristics of narcissism that have been established from questionnaire and laboratory-based studies are borne out in narcissists’ day-to-day behaviors. Narcissists do indeed behave in more extraverted and less agreeable ways than non-narcissists, skip class more (among narcissists high in exploitativeness/entitlement only), and use more sexual language. Furthermore, we found that the link between narcissism and disagreeable behavior is strengthened when controlling for self-esteem, thus extending prior questionnaire-based findings (Paulhus, Robins, Trzesniewski, & Tracy, 2004) to observed, real-world behavior. PMID:20711512

Holtzman, Nicholas S.; Vazire, Simine; Mehl, Matthias R.



Self-presentation 2.0: narcissism and self-esteem on Facebook.  


Online social networking sites have revealed an entirely new method of self-presentation. This cyber social tool provides a new site of analysis to examine personality and identity. The current study examines how narcissism and self-esteem are manifested on the social networking Web site . Self-esteem and narcissistic personality self-reports were collected from 100 Facebook users at York University. Participant Web pages were also coded based on self-promotional content features. Correlation analyses revealed that individuals higher in narcissism and lower in self-esteem were related to greater online activity as well as some self-promotional content. Gender differences were found to influence the type of self-promotional content presented by individual Facebook users. Implications and future research directions of narcissism and self-esteem on social networking Web sites are discussed. PMID:20712493

Mehdizadeh, Soraya



Narcissism and the self-evaluation maintenance model: effects of social comparison threats on relationship closeness.  


When threatened with an upward social comparison with a close other in a self-relevant domain, people may reduce either the self-relevance of the ability being compared or their perceived closeness to the other person (Tesser, 1988). Those high in the trait of narcissism may be more likely to push away others who outperform them. Participants and nominated close others completed online measures of narcissism, contingent self-worth, and relationship closeness. Subsequently, participants heard that their friend performed better (or equivalently) on a "competitive spirit" test. Participants higher in narcissism significantly reduced the closeness of their relationships after a threat but did not reduce the relevance of competitiveness to their self-worth. PMID:21476462

Nicholls, Emma; Stukas, Arthur A



Are two narcissists better than one? The link between narcissism, perceived creativity, and creative performance.  


The current research examines the link between narcissism and creativity at the individual, relational, and group levels of analysis. It finds that narcissists are not necessarily more creative than others, but they think they are, and they are adept at persuading others to agree with them. In the first study, narcissism was positively associated with self-rated creativity, despite the fact that blind coders saw no difference between the creative products offered by those low and high on narcissism. In a second study, more narcissistic individuals asked to pitch creative ideas to a target person were judged by the targets as being more creative than were less narcissistic individuals, in part because narcissists were more enthusiastic. Finally, a study of group creativity finds evidence of a curvilinear effect: Having more narcissists is better for generating creative outcomes (but having too many provides diminishing returns). PMID:20947771

Goncalo, Jack A; Flynn, Francis J; Kim, Sharon H



Personality Traits o Narcissism has been shown to play a role in dating  

E-print Network

family aggression and abuse in adolescent dating relationships. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment., 2008; Ryan et al., 2008). o Gender differences may moderate the relationship between narcissism is not well understood. Attachment Style o Evidence suggests that adolescent romantic attachment style has

Sanders, Matthew


Searching for a vulnerable dark triad: comparing Factor 2 psychopathy, vulnerable narcissism, and borderline personality disorder.  


Paulhus and Williams (2002) identified a "Dark Triad" comprising the following related personality styles: narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. The heterogeneity found in narcissism and psychopathy raises the possibility of a second triad made up of emotional vulnerability and dark traits (i.e., the vulnerable dark triad; VDT). Along with vulnerable narcissism and Factor 2 psychopathy, the third member of the hypothesized VDT is borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using a sample of 361 undergraduates, we examine the relations between these constructs and their relations with criterion variables, including personality, environmental etiological factors (e.g., abuse), and current functioning (e.g., psychopathology, affect). The results suggest that the VDT constructs are significantly related to one another and manifest similar nomological networks, particularly vulnerable narcissism and BPD. Although the VDT members are related to negative emotionality and antagonistic interpersonal styles, they are also related to introversion and disinhibition. Ultimately, it seems there is a "dark continuum" of pathological personality traits that differ primarily in relation to negative and positive emotionality and disinhibition. PMID:20663024

Miller, Joshua D; Dir, Ally; Gentile, Brittany; Wilson, Lauren; Pryor, Lauren R; Campbell, W Keith



A test of the construct validity of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory.  


The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI) is a new self-report measure that was developed to assess traits associated with grandiose and vulnerable narcissism from a Five-factor model (FFM) perspective. In a sample of undergraduates (N = 283), the relations among the FFNI scales, grandiose and vulnerable dimensions, and an array of relevant criteria were examined including self- and informant reports of the Big Five domains, measures of the Dark Triad, ratings of the interpersonal circumplex, externalizing and internalizing behaviors and symptoms, and romantic and attachment styles. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable dimensions demonstrated good convergent and criterion validity. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable dimensions manifested converging (e.g., disagreeableness, low love/communion, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, Ludus/Manic love styles) and diverging (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion, dominance, externalizing, internalizing, attachment anxiety) relations in a manner largely consistent with predictions. The FFNI joins the Pathological Narcissism Inventory as a measure that can simultaneously assess both grandiose and vulnerable dimensions of narcissism. PMID:23186210

Miller, Joshua D; Gentile, Brittany; Campbell, W Keith



Narcissism, self-concept clarity and aggressive cognitive bias amongst mentally disordered offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increased risk of aggression amongst a small proportion of the mentally disordered population. This is not fully explained by illness factors, and both personality and cognitive bias might contribute to aggressive thinking in this sub-population. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the personality constructs of narcissism and self-concept clarity and aggressively biased

Rachel Edwards; Alyson J. Bond



Parent-Infant Psychotherapy, the Transition to Parenthood and Parental Narcissism: Implications for Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the author discusses some of the indications for short- or long-term parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions in terms of what he defines as "problems of parenthood" and "problems of parental narcissism". Brief parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions are most frequently indicated in the case of the former: more neurotic…

Espasa, Francisco Palacio



Trumping Shame by Blasts of Noise: Narcissism, Self-Esteem, Shame, and Aggression in Young Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment tested how self-views influence shame-induced aggression. One hundred and sixty-three young adolescents (M = 12.2 years) completed measures of narcissism and self-esteem. They lost to an ostensible opponent on a competitive task. In the shame condition, they were told that their opponent was bad, and they saw their own name at the…

Thomaes, Sander; Bushman, Brad J.; Stegge, Hedy; Olthof, Tjeert



All about Me: Are We Developing Our Children's Self-Esteem or Their Narcissism?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commendable as it is for children to have high self-esteem, many practices advocated in pursuit of this goal may inadvertently develop narcissism through excessive preoccupation with oneself. Self-esteem is more likely to be fostered when children have opportunities to build self-confidence through effort, persistence, and accrual of skills. (SLD)

Katz, Lilian G.



Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…

Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.




E-print Network

??The conceptualization and assessment of narcissism is inconsistent across research disciplines, leading to a criterion problem which weakens the nomological net. Clinical psychology commonly considers… (more)

Roche, Michael



A comparison of the criterion validity of popular measures of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder via the use of expert ratings.  


The growing interest in the study of narcissism has resulted in the development of a number of assessment instruments that manifest only modest to moderate convergence. The present studies adjudicate among these measures with regard to criterion validity. In the 1st study, we compared multiple narcissism measures to expert consensus ratings of the personality traits associated with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD; Study 1; N = 98 community participants receiving psychological/psychiatric treatment) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) using 5-factor model traits as well as the traits associated with the pathological trait model according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). In Study 2 (N = 274 undergraduates), we tested the criterion validity of an even larger set of narcissism instruments by examining their relations with measures of general and pathological personality, as well as psychopathology, and compared the resultant correlations to the correlations expected by experts for measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Across studies, the grandiose dimensions from the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI; Glover, Miller, Lynam, Crego, & Widiger, 2012) and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) provided the strongest match to expert ratings of DSM-IV-TR NPD and grandiose narcissism, whereas the vulnerable dimensions of the FFNI and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (Pincus et al., 2009), as well as the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (Hendin & Cheek, 1997), provided the best match to expert ratings of vulnerable narcissism. These results should help guide researchers toward the selection of narcissism instruments that are most well suited to capturing different aspects of narcissism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24773036

Miller, Joshua D; McCain, Jessica; Lynam, Donald R; Few, Lauren R; Gentile, Brittany; MacKillop, James; Campbell, W Keith



Self-Serving Bias or Simply Serving the Self? Evidence for a Dimensional Approach to Narcissism  

PubMed Central

Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement. PMID:22773880

Tamborski, Michael; Brown, Ryan P.; Chowning, Karolyn



Narcissism and implicit attention seeking: Evidence from linguistic analyses of social networking and online presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined how narcissism, a personality trait marked by self-promotion, vanity, and grandiosity, related to how people communicate information about themselves online. We predicted that narcissists communicate in ways that draw attention to themselves. Specifically, we predicted that narcissistic people who used relatively few first-person singular pronouns (e.g., “I,” and “me”) would display more self-promoting and sexy images of

C. Nathan DeWall; Laura E. Buffardi; Ian Bonser; W. Keith Campbell




Microsoft Academic Search

In an elaboration of Kohufs theory, multiple sources of self-affirmation are identified and placed on a continuum that ranges from self-contained and intrapersonal sources to sources requiring interpersonal vulnerability. The multiple sources and the continuum are used to clarify healthy narcissism and narcissistic psychopathology. Narcissistic symptoms are explained as the result of a deficit in self-esteem, of the attempt to




Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory among Chinese university students.  


The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a multidimensional measure of narcissistic pathology. This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the PNI in a sample of Chinese university students in Hong Kong. Eight hundred and thirty-one students completed an online battery of questionnaires assessing narcissistic pathology, self-esteem, unstable sense of self, and maladaptive self-defense strategies. Results replicated the 7 first-order factors and the 2 second-order factors of the PNI. Each of the 7 first-order factors and the 2 second-order factors had good internal consistency. Preliminary findings also supported the concurrent validity of the PNI. The PNI appeared to be a valid measure of narcissistic pathology among Chinese. Findings of this study suggest that the core pathology of pathological narcissism might involve an inflated sense of self-importance that is not substantiated by actual achievement, and bearing this unsubstantiated sense of self-importance renders narcissists highly susceptible to self-deflation when their narcissistic needs are not met. PMID:22966841

You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom; Lai, Katty Kit Yee; Fu, Kei



Unraveling Exercise Addiction: The Role of Narcissism and Self-Esteem  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the risk of exercise addiction (EA) in fitness clubs and to identify possible factors in the development of the disorder. The Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) were administered to a sample of 150 consecutive gym attenders recruited in fitness centers. Based on EAI total score, high EA risk group (HEA n = 51) and a low EA risk group (LEA n = 69) were identified. HEA reported significantly higher total score (mean = 20.2 versus 14.6) on the NPI scale and lower total score (mean = 32.2 versus 36.4) on the SEI scale than LEA. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that only narcissism and self-esteem total scores (F = 5.66; df = 2; P = 0.006) were good predictors of days per week exercise. The present study confirms the direct and combined role of both labile self-esteem and high narcissism in the development of exercise addiction as predictive factors towards the risk of addiction. Multidisciplinary trained health care providers (physiatrists, psychologists, and psychiatrists) should carefully identify potential overexercise conditions in order to prevent the potential risk of exercise addiction.

Cicciarelli, Claudio; Romeo, Vincenzo Maria; Pandolfo, Gianluca



Are pathological narcissism and psychopathy different constructs or different names for the same thing? A study based on Italian nonclinical adult participants.  


To understand the similarities and differences in personality traits and moral disengagement associated with pathological narcissism and psychopathy, 740 Italian active community members who voluntarily participated in the study were administered the Italian versions of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, the HEXACO Personality Inventory, and the Moral Disengagement Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that low Honesty-Humility and Antagonism (i.e., low Agreeableness) were personality traits common to both pathological narcissism and psychopathy, whereas low Conscientiousness was only related to psychopathy. Different associations with the HEXACO-PI scales and facets were observed for narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability, as well as for primary psychopathy and secondary psychopathy. Moral disengagement represented a common feature of pathological narcissism and psychopathy that was related to narcissistic vulnerability and to primary and secondary psychopathy, but not to narcissistic grandiosity. PMID:24511898

Fossati, Andrea; Pincus, Aaron L; Borroni, Serena; Munteanu, Arina Ferrari; Maffei, Cesare



Male Narcissism and Attitudes Toward Heterosexual Women and Men, Lesbian Women, and Gay Men: Hostility toward Heterosexual Women Most of All  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated links between heterosexual men’s narcissism and attitudes toward heterosexual and non-heterosexual\\u000a women and men. Male narcissism was predicted to be associated with hostility toward heterosexual women more than toward other\\u000a groups, indicating investment in patriarchal power more than in conservative gender ideology or nonspecific disdain toward\\u000a all people. Hierarchical regression analyses of responses from 104 male

Scott W. Keiller



The role of athlete narcissism in moderating the relationship between coaches' transformational leader behaviors and athlete motivation.  


Leadership research that examines follower characteristics as a potential moderator of leadership effectiveness is lacking. Within Bass's (1985) transformational leadership framework, we examined follower narcissism as a moderator of the coach behavior-coach effectiveness relationship. Youth athletes (male = 103, female = 106) from the Singapore Sports Academy (mean age = 14.28, SD = 1.40 years) completed the Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory (Callow, Smith, Hardy, Arthur, & Hardy, 2009), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988), and indices of follower effort. Multilevel analyses revealed that athlete narcissism moderated the relationship between fostering acceptance of group goals and athlete effort and between high performance expectations and athlete effort. All the other transformational leader behaviors demonstrated main effects on follower effort, except for inspirational motivation. PMID:21451168

Arthur, Calum Alexander; Woodman, Tim; Ong, Chin Wei; Hardy, Lew; Ntoumanis, Nikos



Vulnerable narcissism: Commentary for the special series "Narcissistic personality disorder-New perspectives on diagnosis and treatment".  


Comments on the articles by A. E. Skodol et al. (see record 2013-24395-001), E. Ronningstam (see record 2014-42878-005), D. Diamond et al. (see record 2014-42878-004), and A. L. Pincus et al. (see record 2014-01439-001). The tie that binds these four articles together is the respective authors' emphasis on the vulnerability- emotional, self-esteem/ego, interpersonal- that they consider to be central to pathological narcissism. The current authors agree that it is important that the field acknowledge both grandiose and vulnerable aspects of narcissism (e.g., Miller & Campbell, 2008), but they wonder whether the pendulum is now swinging too far back in the direction of vulnerability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25314236

Miller, Joshua D; Widiger, Thomas A; Campbell, W Keith



Is the Narcissistic Personality Inventory still relevant? A test of independent grandiosity and entitlement scales in the assessment of narcissism.  


Some scholars have called for the replacement of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) with more narrow scales measuring grandiosity and entitlement instead. In the current study, the authors examined the relations among the NPI and measures of grandiosity and entitlement, as well as in relation to a measure of the Five-Factor Model (FFM). The NPI manifested significant correlations with the alternative scales of entitlement and grandiosity and relatively similar patterns of correlations with the FFM traits. Of note, the NPI manifested significant incremental validity in the prediction of several FFM traits that are central to the conceptualization of narcissism. These findings suggest that some caution must be used before assuming that these lower-order scales can be used to replace the NPI in the assessment of narcissism. PMID:22156716

Miller, Joshua D; Price, Joanna; Campbell, W Keith



The role of “dark personalities” (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy), Big Five personality factors, and ideology in explaining prejudice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The so-called Dark Triad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy) represent correlated subclinical personality traits capturing “dark personalities”. How might darker personalities contribute to prejudice? In the present study (n=197), these dark personality variables correlated positively with outgroup threat perceptions and anti-immigrant prejudice. A proposed two-stage structural equation model, assuming indirect personality effects (Dark Personality, Big Five) on prejudice through ideology and group

Gordon Hodson; Sarah M. Hogg; Cara C. MacInnis



Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism in the Five-Factor Model and the HEXACO model of personality structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relations of the “Dark Triad” personality traits—Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism—with the variables of the Five-Factor Model and the HEXACO model of personality structure. Results (N=164) indicated that all three Dark Triad traits were strongly negatively correlated (rs=?0.72, ?0.57, and ?0.53, respectively) with the HEXACO Honesty–Humility factor. Psychopathy and Machiavellianism showed moderate negative correlations with Big Five Agreeableness

Kibeom Lee; Michael C. Ashton



Why are narcissists so charming at first sight? Decoding the narcissism-popularity link at zero acquaintance.  


On the basis of a realistic behavioral approach, the authors showed that narcissists are popular at zero acquaintance and aimed to explain why this is the case. In Study 1, a group of psychology freshmen (N = 73) judged each other on the basis of brief self-introductions using a large round-robin design (2,628 dyads). Three main findings were revealed: First, narcissism leads to popularity at first sight. Second, the aspects of narcissism that are most maladaptive in the long run (exploitativeness/entitlement) proved to be most attractive at zero acquaintance. Third, an examination of observable verbal and nonverbal behaviors as well as aspects of physical appearance provided an explanation for why narcissists are more popular at first sight. Results were confirmed using judgments of uninvolved perceivers under 3 different conditions for which the amount of available information was varied systematically: (a) full information (video and sound, Study 2), (b) nonverbal information only (video only, Study 3), or (c) physical information only (still photograph of clothing, Study 4). These findings have important implications for understanding the inter- and intrapersonal dynamics of narcissism. PMID:20053038

Back, Mitja D; Schmukle, Stefan C; Egloff, Boris



Phallic narcissism, anal sadism, and oral discord: the case of Yukio Mishima, Part I.  


Thus far I have explored Mishima's traumatic childhood and the experiences leading him toward misogyny, phallic narcissism, and the drive to murder his own weakness and sexual vulnerability. Mishima suffered the extraordinary trauma of being separated from his parents and sequestered to the sickroom of a psychotic grandmother for the first twelve years of his life. Intense rage over abandonment and impingement engendered a disgust for femininity and the need to escape feminine messiness through homosexual pursuits. Mishima's entrenched feelings of shame and weakness gave rise to phallic narcissistic tendencies, as he idealized powerful men and eventually strove to become a powerful and beautiful male. In pursuing this erotic masculine image Mishima continued to fantasize about murdering his weak and shameful self-image, and commingled this sadistic impulse with fantasies of sexual merger with murdered love objects. Finally Mishima was the murderer erotically eradicating his sexual vulnerability as both subject and object. His suicide was a repetition of this erotic sadistic fantasy. In a further article I will continue the discussion by examining Mishima's fantasies of murdering beautiful and abandoning love objects. I will also address the complex nature of his ritual suicide as fantasy of rebirth, sexual merger, the murder of toxic introjects, and escape from death, decay, and regression to helpless infancy. PMID:11980029

Piven, J



Issues of Narcissism and Omnipotence treated by the use of physical limits with a symbolic meaning in Pesso Boyden System Psychomotor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the central roles of issues of narcissism, omnipotence and limits in early sequences of human development, as well as how these issues are dealt with in the psychotherapeutic process developed by Al Pesso and Diane Boyden-Pesso (Pesso Boyden System Psychomotor, PBSP). The article describes practical steps for strengthening the client's ability to contain omnipotent forces and wishes,

Lowijs Perquin; Certified Trainer; Pesso Boyden


A test of two brief measures of grandiose narcissism: the narcissistic personality inventory-13 and the narcissistic personality inventory-16.  


The most widely used measure of trait narcissism is the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), which can provide both total and subscale scores. However, with a length of 40 items, this measure may not be ideal in settings in which time or participant attention may limit the types of measures that can be administered. In response, Ames, Rose, and Anderson (2006) created the NPI-16, which provides a shorter, unidimensional measure of the construct. In the present research, we examine the reliability and validity of the NPI-16 in conjunction with a new short measure of narcissism, the NPI-13, which provides both a total score and 3 subscale scores (Leadership/Authority; Grandiose Exhibitionism; Entitlement/Exploitativeness). Across 2 studies, we demonstrate that both short measures manifest good convergent and discriminant validity and adequate overall reliability. The NPI-13 may be favored over the NPI-16 because it allows for the extraction of 3 subscales, consistent with the use of its parent measure. PMID:23815119

Gentile, Brittany; Miller, Joshua D; Hoffman, Brian J; Reidy, Dennis E; Zeichner, Amos; Campbell, W Keith



Narcissism and aggression.  


Many of the phenomena we associate with violence and rage seem to be connected with narcissistic wounding. In this study, the narcissistic dimension of personality is regarded as a phylogenetic derivative of a territorial instinct. The establishment of a self-territory is experienced as a form of personal space, and an effort is made to distinguish various regions in this space. In particular, there is envisaged a narcissistic core consisting of the multiplicity of affiliations to which a given person belongs. These include gender identity, body self, religion, patriotism, lineage, profession, and other such self-defining attachments. In addition, there is a periphery to this space, a point of contact with the boundaries of others where much vulnerability can develop in people with narcissistic problems. It is in connection with such vulnerabilities and the immense reactivity to the invasion of core narcissistic territory that the nature of violence in interpersonal reactions needs to be studied. PMID:6711707

Noshpitz, J D



Narcissism and Toxic Leaders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Why would a leader in the Army or in any organization choose to micro-manage subordinates; show a lack of respect for them; choose not to listen to or value their input; or be rude, mean-spirited, and threatening. Most leaders would not. Most people do no...

J. Doty, J. Fenlason



Narcissism, Sadism, and Loneliness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jeffrey Dahmer, the notorious Milwaukee, Wisconsin, serial killer, was charged with 15 counts of first-degree intentional\\u000a homicide. The homicides took place between 1987 and 1990 and were discovered during the summer of 1991. Dahmer pleaded not\\u000a guilty by reason of mental disease or defect. The author was the court-appointed forensic psychiatric expert in the case.\\u000a This chapter reports historical and

George B. Palermo


Defensive anality and anal narcissism.  


This paper aims at demonstrating a currently beleaguered assumption: the central importance, the continuing vitality, and the appropriate complexity of Freud's theory of the drives and of his idea of the primacy of the body ego. It is not enough to consider man a thinking machine or a social being; his animal nature must be given a central place in psychology. The paper postulates that 'anal or sphincter defensiveness' is one of the precursors of the repression barrier. Anality has been comparatively neglected in recent psychoanalytic literature, and so has its explorer, Karl Abraham. The paper's thesis is that there is a special defensive importance to anal erogeneity and libido, and to those aspects of ego and superego that are functionally operative (as the 'sadistic-anal organization' (Freud, 1917)) during the so-called 'sadistic-anal' developmental phase. Any of the psychic danger situations can evoke regression to manifestations of 'anal narcissim'--an attempt to master overwhelming feeling by a kind of emotional sphincter action, narrowing down the world to the controllable and the predictable. The basic assumption here is Fliess's idea that the attainment of anal sphincter control functions--with, as-it-were, 'psychic resonance'--as a means to master primal (murderous, cannibalistic) affect. For optimal psychic development, a proper balance must be attained between anal control of, and anal expression of, instinctual derivatives--especially of affect laden with aggression. PMID:4066168

Shengold, L



Recentering Pedagogy in an Age of Narcissism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most enduring images from Wilson's "The Social Conquest of Earth" (2012) is the campfire, the place of warmth and community around which gathered early humankind. It seems an ideal metaphor for teaching and learning, with mentors and learners gathered around an enterprise of mutual society: No one at the core, but all warmed and…

Watters, Ann O.



Interpersonal Analysis of Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the validity of grandiose and vulnerable subtypes of narcissistic character styles through an analysis of personality disorder criteria, interpersonal problems, and adult attachment styles in a nonclinical population. The grandiose personalities in this sample were rated high in the dramatic traits associated with narcissistic, antisocial, and histrionic personality disorders based on a diagnostic interview, and they reported

Kelly A. Dickinson; Aaron L. Pincus



Mapping the scale of the narcissism epidemic: Increases in narcissism 2002–2007 within ethnic groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Twenge, J. M., Konrath, S., Foster, J. D., Campbell, W. K., & Bushman, B. J. (2008a). Egos inflating over time: A cross-temporal meta-analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality, 76, 875–901.] found that Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) scores increased between 1982 and 2006 among college students nationwide, but [Trzesniewski, K. H., Donnellan, M. B., & Robins, R. W.

Jean M. Twenge; Joshua D. Foster



Narcissism: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article was to explore the complex issues surrounding the behaviors exhibited by students who have Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) and the role the disorder may play in school violence. Students with NPD are often characterized by arrogance, grandiosity, and self-importance; a preoccupation with fantasies of success and…

Spencer, Vicky G.; Garcia-Simpson, Cynthia; Newland, Shera



Further Evidence of an Increase in Narcissism Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our meta-analysis also finds no change over time in Nar- cissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) scores among California college students, most likely due to the cultural and ethnic shifts at the University of California campuses over this time (especially the large increase in Asian-American student enrollment). Students in the rest of the country, from 27 campuses, show an increase of d

Jean M. Twenge; Sara Konrath; Joshua D. Foster; W. Keith Campbell; Brad J. Bushman



John Nash's Postdelusional Period: A Case of Transformed Narcissism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article concludes the psychoanalytic study of mathematical genius John Nash begun in previous articles (Capps 2003a, 2003b) by focusing on his “recovery” from paranoid schizophrenia after more than a decade of being under control of his delusions. I develop the idea that Nash was a highly narcissistic personality, the primary focus of which was his “beautiful mind,” in the

Donald Capps



Pathological narcissism and serial homicide: Review and case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial homicide, as a psychopathological condition, has been described as long ago as 1886. The traits and characteristics\\u000a of serial murderers are varied, as are the theories that attempt to explain their motivation. Theorists have emphasized, for\\u000a example, traumatic events in early life, sexual disturbance and dynamics, and neurobiological abnormalities. In the past fifteen\\u000a years, as narcissistic disturbance in general

Louis B. Schlesinger



The Relative Influence of Sensation Seeking and Normal Narcissism on Academic Cheating in Emerging Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous research studies reveal that cheating is a significant problem on the campuses of American colleges and universities. Traditional college-aged students (aged 18-25) fall within a time-frame of the life-span that has been labeled emerging adulthood, a time in which risk-taking behavior is common. The present study conceptualized academic…

Romanek, John L.



Narcissism and Type of Violent Relationships for Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence  

E-print Network

, 29.8% met criteria for PTSD and 32% for MDD. 6 A recent study measured the prevalence of violence in the United States through telephonic surveys of 8000 U.S. women and men. Results indicated that violence against women is primarily IPV..., 29.8% met criteria for PTSD and 32% for MDD. 6 A recent study measured the prevalence of violence in the United States through telephonic surveys of 8000 U.S. women and men. Results indicated that violence against women is primarily IPV...

Rinker, Lee



Stress in Middle-Aged Women: Influence of Type A Behavior and Narcissism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined (1) strength of stress, (2) awareness of stress, and (3) influence of type A behavior and narcissistic personality on stress and its related factors in a sample of 500 middle-aged women. Compared to 400 middle-aged working men, the women scored lower on the type A and coping scales, suggesting the possibility that women with high scores on

Isao Fukunishi; Takashi Moroji; Shohei Okabe



The self as a transitional object: its relationship to narcissism and homosexuality.  


Men with significant narcissistic and homosexual trends can show a tendency to experience a part of the self as a transitional object. Specifically, these men regard themselves as dolls. Excerpts from three psychoanalytic cases are offered to demonstrate this clinical finding. It is believed that this occurrence represents a significant arrest in the development of the self. The recognition, interpretation, and reduction of this transitional phenomenon constitutes a significant therapeutic experience in the analyses of these men. PMID:955786

Natterson, J M



Discrepancies Between Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem: Implications for Narcissism and Self-Esteem Instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

There appear to be two forms of high self-esteem: secure high self-esteem (which is often linked with psychological health) and fragile high self-esteem (which is generally associated with poor psycho- logical adjustment and impaired interpersonal relationships). Discrepant high self-esteem is a form of fragile self-esteem characterized by high ex- plicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. The present study examined whether

Virgil Zeigler-Hill



Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism and the DSM–5 Pathological Personality Trait Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Personality Disorders (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 2000) personality disorders (PDs) that will be included in the DSM–5 will be diagnosed in an entirely different manner; the explicit criterion sets will be replaced with impairments in self and interpersonal functioning and personality traits from a 25-trait dimensional model of personality pathology. From a trait

Joshua D. Miller; Brittany Gentile; Lauren Wilson; W. Keith Campbell



Exploring Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism in Youth: Examination of Associations with Antisocial Behavior and Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We sought to explore the differential associations of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissistic traits, and Machiavellian traits with overt aggression, relational aggression, delinquency, behavioral dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation in a community sample of boys and girls (ages 11-17). Results indicated that the three personality…

Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.



The usage of Facebook as it relates to narcissism, self-esteem and loneliness  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid increase of adolescent participation in sites such as Facebook, and with the critical developmental task of identity formation during adolescence, there are vital questions for further investigation regarding the utilization of social networking sites, the development of feelings about the self and personality traits. The present study examined the relationship of older adolescents' use of Facebook to

Madeline Schwartz



Optimism and Hope versus Anxiety and Narcissism: Some Thoughts on Children's Welfare Yesterday and Today  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article seeks to raise a number of issues concerning children's well-being in late modernity. In order to provide historical contrasts, the first part of the article considers three "optimistic" periods: the Liberal Reform Programme, 1906-1911; interwar developments in New Psychology, progressive education and child guidance; the post-1945…

Hendrick, Harry



Neural correlates of visual and motor decision processes Jeffrey D Schall and Narcisse P Bichot  

E-print Network

and significance are weighed to select an object on which to focus attention and action. Experimentally combining both covert and overt orienting. This conclusion is supported by recent brain imaging studies showing and eye movements is not obligatory. In fact, covert orienting may be little more than a state of visual

Schall, Jeffrey D.


National Identity and Group Narcissism as Predictors of Intergroup Attitudes toward Undocumented Latino Immigrants in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The debate surrounding immigration reform to address undocumented Latino immigrants in the United States has been emotionally charged and polarizing. This study's goal was to better understand some of the psychological predictors of attitudes toward undocumented Latino immigrants in the United States, namely, collective identity as an…

Lyons, Patricia A.; Coursey, Lauren E.; Kenworthy, Jared B.



Structural Validity of the MACI Psychopathy and Narcissism Scales: Evidence of Multidimensionality and Implications for Use in Research and Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the psychometric properties and predictive validity of three self-report scales (the Psychopathy Content Scale, the Psychopathy-16 scale, and the Egotistic scale) derived from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) to screen for the presence of psychopathic and narcissistic personality characteristics. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed in a sample of 173 clinic-referred adolescents (ages 12–17), results

Stephanie R. Penney; Marlene M. Moretti; Kimberley S. Da Silva



The Evolutionary Significance of Anthropometric Variables on the ‘Dark Triad’ of Personality: Psychometrically Measured Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy.  

E-print Network

??The evolutionary significance of personality in humans has sparked a great deal of research. Various theories of gene-environment interaction and gene-gene development have provided interesting… (more)

Ponce, Carmen



Loving Yourself Abundantly: Relationship of the Narcissistic Personality to Self and Other Perceptions of Workplace Deviance, Leadership, and Task and Contextual Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report results from 2 studies assessing the extent to which narcissism is related to self- and other ratings of leadership, workplace deviance, and task and contextual performance. Study 1 results revealed that narcissism was related to enhanced self-ratings of leadership, even when controlling for the Big Five traits. Study 2 results also revealed that narcissism was related to

Timothy A. Judge; Jeffery A. LePine; Bruce L. Rich



Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol  

PubMed Central

Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97)?=?.20, p?=?.65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97)?=?.00, p?=?.99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, ??=?.27, p?=?.04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, ??=?.27, p?=?.06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, ??=?.72, p?=?.01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062

Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.




E-print Network

by offeringan abbreviated history of narcissism. We next focus rnberg and Kohut on the construct itself- cissism in the context of romantic relationships. HISTORY OF NARCISSISM idealization in childhood (Kohut presented narcissism in such a way that its importance in normal human development, in psychopathology

Reber, Paul J.


A Comparison of Agreeableness Scores from the Big Five Inventory and the Neo PI-R: Consequences for the Study of Narcissism and Psychopathy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not contained…

Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna



The Culture of Post-Narcissism Post-teenage, Pre-midlife Singles Culture in Seinfeld, Friends, and Ally - Seinfeld in Particular  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent article, David P. Pierson makes a persuasive case for considering American television comedy, and sitcoms in particular, as 'Modern Comedies of Manners'. These comedies afford a particular point of entry into contemporary mediatised negotiations of 'civility', i.e. how individual desires and values interface with the conventions and stand- ards of families, peer groups and society at large.



Loving yourself abundantly: relationship of the narcissistic personality to self- and other perceptions of workplace deviance, leadership, and task and contextual performance.  


The authors report results from 2 studies assessing the extent to which narcissism is related to self- and other ratings of leadership, workplace deviance, and task and contextual performance. Study 1 results revealed that narcissism was related to enhanced self-ratings of leadership, even when controlling for the Big Five traits. Study 2 results also revealed that narcissism was related to enhanced leadership self-perceptions; indeed, whereas narcissism was significantly positively correlated with self-ratings of leadership, it was significantly negatively related to other ratings of leadership. Study 2 also revealed that narcissism was related to more favorable self-ratings of workplace deviance and contextual performance compared to other (supervisor) ratings. Finally, as hypothesized, narcissism was more strongly negatively related to contextual performance than to task performance. PMID:16834504

Judge, Timothy A; LePine, Jeffery A; Rich, Bruce L



The pleasures of hurting others : behavioral evidence for everyday sadism.  

E-print Network

??Past research on malevolent personalities has centered on subclinical psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism, which together comprise the Dark Triad of personality. The present research introduces… (more)

Buckels, Erin Evelyn



A Case of Spree Serial Murder with Suggested Diagnostic Opinions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between a severe variant of narcissistic personality disorder (namely malignant narcissism) and the motivation to murder is presented in the case of a British spree serial killer. The case illustrates the development of this form of psychopathology and its association with the underlying inner narrative generated in the murderer's mind. The relationship between the pathology of narcissism, psychopathic

Philip H. Pollock



Revue de presse ANGLAIS Semaine du 08 au 14 novembre 2010  

E-print Network

American ­ November 2010 Technology Fit for a Princess: the Physics of Rapunzel's Gown (By Adam Piore) : How the laws of physics helped style Disney's newest star. Study of Facebook Users Connects Narcissism

Rennes, Université de



E-print Network

The narcissism of minor differences: how America and Europe are alike; an essay in numbers DA 560 .B74 1980 Blunt Milton, Giles Paradise lost: Smyrna, 1922; the destruction of Islam's city of tolerance DG 89 .B43 2007


Does self-love lead to love for others?: A story of narcissistic game playing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five studies investigated the links among narcissism, self-esteem, and love. Across all studies, narcissism was associated primarily with a game-playing love style. This link was found in reports of general love styles (Study 1a) and of love in ongoing romantic relationships (Studies 1b-3, 5). Narcissists' game- playing love style was the result of a need for power and autonomy (Study

W. Keith Campbell; Craig A. Foster; Eli J. Finkel



Does Self-Love Lead to Love for Others? A Story of Narcissistic Game Playing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five studies investigated the links among narcissism, self- esteem, and love. Across all studies, narcissism was associated primarily with a game-playing love style. This link was found in reports of general love styles (Study 1a) and of love in ongoing romantic relationships (Studies 1b–3, 5). Narcissists' game-playing love style was the result of a need for power and autonomy (Study

W. Keith Campbell; Craig A. Foster; Eli J. Finkel



Acquisitive or protective self-presentation of dark personalities? Associations among the Dark Triad and self-monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dark Triad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy) is associated with interpersonal manipulation which requires skills in navigating through social situations. Thus, positive relationships between the Dark Triad and self-monitoring (acquisitive: perceptiveness, impression management; protective: protective variability, protective social referencing) were hypothesized and examined in an online-study (N=408) with (canonical) correlations and factor analyses. Results indicated that narcissism was related especially to

John F. Rauthmann



Living a Fast Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research applied a mid-level evolutionary theory that has been successfully employed across numerous animal species—life\\u000a history theory—in an attempt to understand the Dark Triad personality trait cluster (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism).\\u000a In Study 1 (N?=?246), a measure of life history strategy was correlated with psychopathy, but unexpectedly with neither Machiavellianism\\u000a nor narcissism. Study 2 (N?=?321) replicated this overall

Peter K. Jonason; Bryan L. Koenig; Jeremy Tost



Automatic imitation is reduced in narcissists.  


Narcissism is a personality trait that has been extensively studied in normal populations. Individuals high on subclinical narcissism tend to display an excessive self-focus and reduced concern for others. Does their disregard of others have roots in low-level processes of social perception? We investigated whether narcissism is related to the automatic imitation of observed actions. In the automatic imitation task, participants make cued actions in the presence of action videos displaying congruent or incongruent actions. The difference in response times and accuracy between congruent and incongruent trials (i.e., the interference effect) is a behavioral index of motor resonance in the brain-a process whereby observed actions activate matching motor representations in the observer. We found narcissism to be negatively related to interference in the automatic imitation task, such that high narcissism is associated with reduced imitation. Thus, levels of narcissism predict differences in the tendency to automatically resonate with others, and the pattern of data we observe suggests that a key difference is that high narcissists possess an improved ability to suppress automatic imitation when such imitation would be detrimental to task performance. To the extent that motor resonance is a product of a human mirror system, our data constitute evidence for a link between narcissistic tendencies and mirror system functioning. PMID:23957308

Obhi, Sukhvinder S; Hogeveen, Jeremy; Giacomin, Miranda; Jordan, Christian H



Body checking in the eating disorders: association with narcissistic characteristics.  


There is substantial evidence that body image is a clinically important element of eating pathology, and that patients' body checking cognitions and behaviours are key elements in the maintenance of that body image. However, there is little understanding of individual differences in body checking. This study considered the potential role of narcissism and narcissistic defences in driving body checking cognitions and behaviours. 68 eating-disordered and 70 non-clinical women completed well-validated measures of body checking and narcissism. There were specific patterns of association between different elements of narcissism and different aspects of body checking. These patterns are compatible with a model where body checking serves the defensive function of maintaining self-esteem, rather than promoting positive levels of narcissistic self-esteem. PMID:18329594

Waller, Glenn; Sines, Jennie; Meyer, Caroline; Mountford, Victoria



An examination of the correlates of fearless dominance and self-centered impulsivity among high-frequency gamblers.  


The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) is a commonly used assessment of psychopathy. Questions have been raised, however, regarding the validity of its Fearless Dominance (FD) factor. In the current study, the correlations manifested by FD and Self-centered Impulsivity (ScI) in relation to external criteria were examined in a sample of gamblers. Two key hypotheses were also tested: (a) does FD perform differently when paired with high scores on ScI, and (b) does FD serve as an index of narcissism. As expected, FD and ScI manifested a divergent pattern of correlations such that only ScI was associated with psychopathology or impairment. FD's relations with the external criteria were not generally moderated by scores on ScI. FD was significantly correlated with narcissism, but the two differed such that only narcissism was associated with any degree of maladaptivity. It remains unclear whether FD should be considered a core component of psychopathy. PMID:24344842

Maples, Jessica L; Miller, Joshua D; Fortune, Erica; MacKillop, James; Campbell, W Keith; Lynam, Donald R; Lance, Chuck E; Goodie, Adam S



Racism: a symptom of the narcissistic personality disorder.  


Despite the criticism that psychoanalytic models are not applicable to social phenomena, knowledge of the dynamics of narcissistic development aids in understanding a particular kind of racist individual. Specifically, racist attitudes may be indicative of a narcissistic personality disorder or of a regression to primitive narcissistic functioning secondary to environmental forces. The differentiation between the narcissistic racist, the stress-induced racist, and the socially misinformed racist is discussed utilizing clinical paradigms discovered in psychotherapy. Life experiences and religion are discussed as possible aids in the transformation of primary narcissism into secondary narcissism. PMID:7392083

Bell, C C



The Spiritual Challenges of Power Humility and Love as Offsets To Leadership Hubris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary business press and academic studies are replete with examples of previously acclaimed leaders who slip into situational narcissism leading to distorted decisions and subsequent public embarrassment. An examination of the classic virtues of humility and love in the spiritual traditions (little talked about in the world of “celebrity” leadership) will suggest how these spiritual gifts can protect executives from

Andre L. Delbecq



Externalizing shame responses in children: The role of fragile-positiv es elf-estee m  

Microsoft Academic Search

When faced with shame ,c hildren can either respond in submissive ways to withdra w from their environment or in externalizing ways to oppose their environment. This study tested the hypothesis that fragile-positiv ev iew so fs elf predispose children to respond in externalizing ways to shame situations. Narcissism, actual and perceived social preference, global self-worth and propensity towards externalizing

Sander Thomaes; Hedy Stegge



Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree



Rediscovering compassion  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing concern in our society that compassion is a dying virtue, gradually being strangled by narcissism, competition, prejudice, and revenge. Yet psychologists, philosophers, and theologians agree that compassion is at the heart of the behavior that keeps individuals, families, institutions, and societies alive, namely, caring, altruism, justice, morality, and love. This article is meant to be a

Michael E. Cavanagh



Designing gondola using satcom services and solar cell energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of compact, and lightweight terminals for mobile satellite communication, opens up many opportunities to design new telecommunication systems for balloons. Architecture of this gondola, named Narcisse, is built around a control process unit able to support interface with all Inmarsat services, and Iridium or Thuraya satellite network as well. A first technological gondola was launched from Brazil in February

M. Cau; P. Dezen



Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun



Narcissistic Measures of Lutheran Clergy Who Self-Reported Committing Sexual Misconduct  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine if narcissism was a factor in Lutheran clergy who self-reported committing sexual misconduct. Sexual misconduct was defined as any activity in which a clergyperson, single or married, engaged in sexual behavior (sexual intercourse, kissing, touching or hugging with sexual intent, use of sexually explicit language) with a parishioner, client, or employee of the church (Francis

Perry C. Francis; Tracy D. Baldo



What Does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Really Measure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is a widely used measure of narcissism. However, debates persist about its exact factor structure with researchers proposing solutions ranging from two to seven factors. The present research aimed to clarify the factor structure of the NPI and further illuminate its nomological network. Four studies provided support for a three-factor model consisting of the dimensions

Robert A. Ackerman; Edward A. Witt; M. Brent Donnellan; Kali H. Trzesniewski; Richard W. Robins; Deborah A. Kashy



Innovations en clinique et psychopathologie de l’adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

There seems to be an increase in borderline cases, narcissistic personalities and behavioural disorders in adolescents. This reflects new aspects of psychopathology. In view of the fact this is a period of transition, adolescence puts into question the link between narcissism and objective relations, between dependence and autonomy. This creates a fragilisation of the psyche. Therefore the relation with the

Ph Jeammet



The validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale for assessing pathological grandiosity.  


Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of pathological narcissism, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale (PDQ-4 NPD), was evaluated in 1 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples (total N=2,391) for its ability to measure pathological grandiosity. Findings were generally supportive: average scores were higher in the clinical than nonclinical samples and the PDQ-4 NPD scale correlated most strongly with (a) other measures of NPD; (b) other DSM Cluster B personality disorders; (c) traits involving antagonism, hostility, and assertiveness; and (d) interpersonal distress and disaffiliative dominance. However, the low internal consistency of the PDQ-4 NPD scale and unexpected associations with Cluster A and obsessive-compulsive features point to potential psychometric weaknesses with this instrument. These findings are useful for evaluating the PDQ-4 NPD scale and for informing ongoing debates regarding how to define and assess pathological narcissism. PMID:23101760

Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Thomas, Katherine M; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E



What's Wrong with Youth Service? Occasional Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The resurgence of national interest in youth service is due, in large part, to the national organizations that have grown so vigorously in recent years. Some explanations for the almost sudden reappearance of youth service as a nationwide issue are: (1) many Americans are fed up with narcissism, personal gratification, and me-centered pursuits;…

Halperin, Samuel


Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine  

E-print Network

through society and time, social norms hold sway over the masses, and complex organisations are formed for exploring these questions, in the form of a psycho-social model of a human society. It is a multi of Computing Dynamics of Human Societies: Narcissism ~ The Generational Perspective By David Beaton Supervisor

Edalat, Abbas


Style Guide for Creating Works Cited Lists Works Cited General Guidelines  

E-print Network

: Melancholia, Depression and Narcissism in Late Modernity." Australian Humanities Review 41 (2007): n for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed. LB2369 .G53 2009. Print Resources Works Cited List book by a single.pag. Australian Humanities Review. Web. 15 Mar. 2009. Note: "n.pag." indicates that page numbers are inapplicable

Hochberg, Michael


Survival of the scheming: a genetically informed link between the dark triad and mental toughness.  


The present study is the first behavioral genetic investigation of the Dark Triad traits of personality, consisting of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, and the variable of mental toughness, reflecting individual differences in the ability to cope when under pressure. The purpose of this investigation was to explore a potential explanation for the success of individuals exhibiting the Dark Triad traits in workplace and social settings. Participants were adult twins who completed the MACH-IV, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale assessing Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, respectively, as well as the MT48, measuring mental toughness. Correlational analyses of the data revealed significant positive phenotypic associations between mental toughness and narcissism. Psychopathy and Machiavellianism, however, both showed some significant negative phenotypic correlations with mental toughness. Bivariate behavioral genetic analyses of the data were conducted to assess the extent to which these significant phenotypic correlations were attributable to common genetic and/or common environmental factors. Results indicate that correlations between narcissism and mental toughness were attributable primarily to common non-shared environmental factors, correlations between Machiavellianism and mental toughness were influenced by both common genetic and common non-shared environmental factors, and the correlations between psychopathy and mental toughness were attributable entirely to correlated genetic factors. Implications of these findings in the context of etiology and organizational adaptation are discussed. PMID:24074275

Onley, Michael; Veselka, Livia; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Vernon, Philip A



The costs and benefits of the Dark Triad: Implications for mate poaching and mate retention tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dark Triad – narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy – have traditionally been considered to be undesirable traits. However, emerging work suggest that not only may there be a positive side to possessing these traits but they may also serve important adaptive functions, even if the strategies associated with them are viewed as socially undesirable. In an online survey (N=336), we

Peter K. Jonason; Norman P. Li; David M. Buss



The dark triad and normal personality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machiavellianism, Narcissism and Psychopathy are often referred to as the ‘dark triad’ of personality. We examined the degree to which these constructs could be identified in 82 persons recruited from the general population, predicting that the dark triad would emerge as a single dimension denoting the cardinal interpersonal elements of primary psychopathy. We expected the primary psychopathy dimension to correlate

Sharon Jakobwitz; Vincent Egan



A behavioral genetic investigation of the Dark Triad and the Big 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the first behavioral genetic investigation of the three Dark Triad variables (narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) and their relationships with the Big 5 personality traits. A total of 278 adult twins completed questionnaire measures of the Dark Triad and the Big 5. Consistent with some previous studies, we found significant correlations among some of the Dark Triad variables

Philip A. Vernon; Vanessa C. Villani; Leanne C. Vickers; Julie Aitken Harris



The role of impulsivity in the Dark Triad of personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the Dark Triad of personality, both narcissism and psychopathy have been linked to impulsivity. What remains unclear is the pattern of associations that the Dark Triad have with functional and dysfunctional types of impulsivity. Using both student (N=142) and adult samples (N=329), we investigated the association of the Dark Triad variables with Dickman’s measures of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity.

Daniel N. Jones; Delroy L. Paulhus



The Dirty Dozen: A Concise Measure of the Dark Triad  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an exponential increase of interest in the dark side of human nature during the last decade. To better understand this dark side, the authors developed and validated a concise, 12-item measure of the Dark Triad: narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism. In 4 studies involving 1,085 participants, they examined its structural reliability, convergent and discriminant validity (Studies 1, 2, and

Peter K. Jonason; Gregory D. Webster



Identifying and Profiling Scholastic Cheaters: Their Personality, Cognitive Ability, and Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite much research, skepticism remains over the possibility of profiling scholastic cheaters. However, several relevant predictor variables and newer diagnostic tools have been overlooked. We remedy this deficit with a series of three studies. Study 1 was a large-scale survey of a broad range of personality predictors of self-reported cheating. Significant predictors included the Dark Triad (Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy) as

Kevin M. Williams; Craig Nathanson; Delroy L. Paulhus



Facing a psychopath: Detecting the dark triad from emotionally-neutral faces, using prototypes from the Personality Faceaurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is facial structure a valid cue of the dark triad of personality (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy)? I obtained self-reports and peer reports of personality as well as expression-neutral photographs of targets, and then I created prototypes of people high and low on each of the three dimensions by digitally combining select photographs of Caucasian targets. The results indicated that unacquainted

Nicholas S. Holtzman


An Examination of the Dirty Dozen Measure of Psychopathy: A Cautionary Tale about the Costs of Brief Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given substantial interest in the traits conceived of as part of the "Dark Triad"--psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism--assessment of these traits is of great importance. The Dirty Dozen (DD; Jonason & Webster, 2010) is a brief measure of the Dark Triad constructs that uses 4 items to assess each of these constructs. In the present…

Miller, Joshua D.; Few, Lauren R.; Seibert, L. Alana; Watts, Ashley; Zeichner, Amos; Lynam, Donald R.



Susceptibility to Infidelity in the First Year of Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infidelity is a major cause of divorce and spousal battering. Little is known, however, about which individuals are susceptible to infidelity, or about the relationship contexts that promote infidelity. This study of 107 married couples examines three sets of possible predictors of infidelity: Personality factors such as narcissism and conscientiousness; relationship contexts, including recurrent sources of conflict and sexual satisfaction;

David M. Buss; Todd K. Shackelford



Does Self-Love Lead to Love for Others? A Story of Narcissistic Game Playing  

E-print Network

that self-love can actually prevent or even be harmful for romantic relationships. This positionDoes Self-Love Lead to Love for Others? A Story of Narcissistic Game Playing W. Keith Campbell University Five studies investigated the links among narcissism, self-esteem, and love. Across all studies

Reber, Paul J.


[From vertical to horizontal. Writing in adolescence].  


Writing at adolescence has a non negligible part in identity's construction. Vertical writing as tags, graphs and graffiti refer to a narcissism deficiency and express a pulsional necessity, whereas, horizontal writing as private diaries, letters and novels express object's search and are made in dreaming attitude. PMID:7618823

Catheline-Antipoff, N



The Decline of Play and the Rise of Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past half century, in the United States and other developed nations, children's free play with other children has declined sharply. Over the same period, anxiety, depression, suicide, feelings of helplessness, and narcissism have increased sharply in children, adolescents, and young adults. This article documents these historical changes…

Gray, Peter



Appreciating Similarities and Valuing Differences: The Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes results of study of a 45-item scale developed to measure the construct and administered to four separate samples. The Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale significantly correlated in theoretically predicted ways with measures of racial identity, empathy, health narcissism, feminism, androgyny, homophobia, and dogmatism (the last…

Miville, Marie L.; Gelso, Charles J.; Pannu, Raji; Liu, Will; Touradji, Pegah; Holloway, Pauline; Fuertes, Jairo



On compulsive shopping and spending: a psychodynamic inquiry.  


Compulsive shopping and spending, an impulse disorder, form a specific psychodynamic complex with common developmental precursors of pathological narcissism. Compulsive shopping and spending are distinguished from other symptomatic uses of money and impulsive acts. Four cases illustrate some psychodynamic considerations and therapeutic implications. PMID:3213846

Krueger, D W



It is all about being popular: the effects of need for popularity on social network site use.  


Prior research on predictors of social network site (SNS) use has mainly focused on the Big Five, narcissism, and self-esteem. Results have been inconsistent, and variance explained was rather low. Need for popularity (NfP) might be a better predictor of SNS use, because SNSs are ideal venues for people with a high NfP. Study 1 tested NfP, self-esteem, need to belong, entitlement, and vanity as predictors for a range of SNS behaviors; Study 2 replaced entitlement and vanity with narcissism and added the Big Five as predictors. SNS behaviors assessed were grooming, strategic self-presentation, profile enhancement, disclosure of feelings, routine use of SNS, and number of friends. Results showed that NfP was the strongest and most consistent predictor of SNS behaviors. This pattern indicates that NfP plays an important role in SNSs. PMID:21988765

Utz, Sonja; Tanis, Martin; Vermeulen, Ivar



You Probably Think this Paper's About You: Narcissists' Perceptions of their Personality and Reputation  

PubMed Central

Do narcissists have insight into the negative aspects of their personality and reputation? Using both clinical and subclinical measures of narcissism, we examined others’ perceptions, self-perceptions and meta-perceptions of narcissists across a wide range of traits for a new acquaintance and close other (Study 1), longitudinally with a group of new acquaintances (Study 2), and among coworkers (Study 3). Results bring us to three surprising conclusions about narcissists: 1) they understand that others see them less positively than they see themselves (i.e., their meta-perceptions are less biased than are their self-perceptions), 2) they have some insight into the fact that they make positive first impressions that deteriorate over time, and 3) they have insight into their narcissistic personality (e.g., they describe themselves as arrogant). These findings shed light on some of the psychological mechanisms underlying narcissism. PMID:21604895

Carlson, Erika N.; Vazire, Simine; Oltmanns, Thomas F.



Modernity and narcissistic personality disorder.  


Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a trait-based disorder that can be understood as a pathological amplification of narcissistic traits. While temperamental vulnerability and psychological adversity are risk factors for NPD, sociocultural factors are also important. This review hypothesizes that increases in narcissistic traits and cultural narcissism could be associated with changes in the prevalence of NPD. These shifts seem to be a relatively recent phenomenon, driven by social changes associated with modernity. While the main treatment for NPD remains psychotherapy, that form of treatment is itself a product of modernity and individualism. The hypothesis is presented that psychological treatment, unless modified to address the specific problems associated with NPD, could run the risk of supporting narcissism. PMID:22800179

Paris, Joel



Mother, melancholia, and humor in Erik H. Erikson's earliest writings.  


Erik H. Erikson wrote three articles when he was in his late-twenties and an up-and-coming member of the psychoanalytic community in Vienna. At the time he wrote these articles, he was in a training psychoanalysis with Anna Freud, teaching at the Heitzing School in Vienna, and learning the Montessori method of teaching. These articles focus on the loss of primary narcissism and the development of the superego (or punitive conscience) in early childhood, especially through the child's conflict with maternal authority. They support the idea that melancholia, with its internalized rage against the mother, is the inevitable outcome of the loss of primary narcissism. I note, however, that the third of these articles makes a case for the restorative role of humor, especially when Freud's view that humor is a function of the superego is taken into account. PMID:19105029

Capps, Donald



Trait emotional intelligence and the dark triad traits of personality.  


This study presents the first behavioral genetic investigation of the relationships between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) and the Dark Triad traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. In line with trait EI theory, the construct correlated positively with narcissism, but negatively with the other two traits. Generally, the correlations were consistent across the 4 factors and 15 facets of the construct. Cholesky decomposition analysis revealed that the phenotypic associations were primarily due to correlated genetic factors and secondarily due to correlated nonshared environmental factors, with shared environmental factors being nonsignificant in all cases. Results are discussed from the perspective of trait EI theory with particular reference to the issue of adaptive value. PMID:21314254

Petrides, K V; Vernon, Philip A; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Veselka, Livia



Introduction to the special series on "Narcissistic personality disorder-New perspectives on diagnosis and treatment".  


The first aim for this Special Series on "Narcissistic personality disorder-New perspecitves on diagnosis and treatment" is to further the dimensional self-regulatory diagnostic approach for identifying NPD by integrating range of functioning, co-occurring grandiosity and vulnerability, compromised empathic ability, self-enhancing interpersonal strategies and relatedness, and overt and covert expressions of pathological narcissism. A second aim is to broaden the conceptualization of pathological narcissism by identifying it in terms of attachment and mentalization/reflective function. The third aim is to apply the combined dimensional and trait diagnostic approach to clinical practice, both diagnostic evaluation and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25314230

Ronningstam, Elsa



Universite d'Angers Developpement Web  

E-print Network

´ephone est d'une rare beaut´e , et sa m`ere D´em´eter l'´el`eve cueillir des fleurs, Pers´ephone s'´ecarte du groupe, pour cueillir un narcisse. L`a elle est remarqu´ee par le puissant Had`es, son oncle, qui souhaite en faire sa reine. Il enl`eve la jeune fille qui d

Matthieu, Basseur


Crest or Pepsodent: Jorge Díaz's El cepillo de dientes  

E-print Network

condition through absurdist techniques, he also denounces the social construction of the Chilean bourgeoisie. In El cepillo, a study of the construction of the bourgeoisie, its dependence on consumerism and narcissism, requires a critique of mass media... sensibilidades" ("Dos comunicaciones" 74). If theatre has this potential, so too do other forms, such as mass media, but with dangerous effects. In the case of El cepillo de dientes, Díaz discloses, examines and censures the hidden social and economic bases...

Boling, Becky



A longitudinal study of cyberbullying: Examining riskand protective factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the current study was to examine possible risk (school-bullying and victimization, exposure to media violence, callous-unemotional traits, impulsivity and narcissism) and protective (family, peer and school social support) factors that might be associated with cyberbullying and cyber-victimization by employing a longitudinal, two-wave design. The sample consisted of 1,416 (50.1% girls) adolescents living in Cyprus. The findings suggested

Kostas A. Fanti; Andreas G. Demetriou; Veronica V. Hawa



The existential and postmodern individual  

E-print Network

. This begs the question, how does the absurd man live. Camus believes that once absurdity is recognized, it becomes a passion and that there is a happiness in realizing the absurd. The absurd man is no longer bound by the need to gain an understanding..., indifference, narcissism, hedonism, apathy, egoism, anti-intellectualism.?56 Because postmodernism generally holds that there is no one objective truth, the postmodern individual is also nonjudgmental; therefore, he does not believe that there is any...

Herring, Lesley Virginia



Losing Sight of Ourselves: Applying Durkheim. Giddens, Baudrillard and Vaknin to Reality Television  

E-print Network

the realm of what we watch on television. Does what we choose to watch define who we are as individuals? I originally hoped to examine reality TV shows and how they encourage narcissistic behavior. This issue shall still be discussed in this paper... which is to follow, are that these reality television shows portray our society?s ideology. Overall, this paper seeks to examine these issues of narcissism and shame as well as the interrelated aspects of trust, plurality of choices, anxiety...

Collins, Megan Elizabeth



Mate-selection and the Dark Triad: Facilitating a short-term mating strategy and creating a volatile environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study (N=242) seeks to establish the relationship between traits known collectively as the Dark Triad – narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism – and mating standards and preferences. Using a budget-allocation task, we correlated scores on the Dark Triad traits with mate preferences for a long-term and short-term mate. Men scoring high on the Dark Triad may be more indiscriminate than

Peter K. Jonason; Katherine A. Valentine; Norman P. Li; Carmelita L. Harbeson



Relationships between the Dark Triad and humor styles: A replication and extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred undergraduate students completed paper-and-pencil measures of the Dark Triad (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, which taps two adaptive (affiliative and self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive and self-defeating) styles of humor. The first purpose of the study was to replicate relationships between these variables reported by Veselka et al. (2010). The second purpose was to

Rod A. Martin; Jessica M. Lastuk; Jennifer Jeffery; Philip A. Vernon; Livia Veselka


The Dark Triad: Facilitating a Short-Term Mating Strategy in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey (N=224) found that characteristics collectively known as the Dark Triad (i.e. narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism) were correlated with various dimensions of short-term mating but not long-term mating. The link between the Dark Triad and shortterm mating was stronger for men than for women. The Dark Triad partially mediated the sex difference in short-term mating behaviour. Findings are consistent

Peter K. Jonason; Norman P. LI; Gregory D. Webster; David P. Schmitt



The Dark Triad: Traits That Facilitate Short-Term Mating in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey (N = 224) found that characteristics collectively known as the Dark Triad (i.e. narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism) were correlated with various dimensions of short-term mating but not long-term mating. The link between the Dark Triad and short-term mating was stronger for men than for women. The Dark Triad partially mediated the sex difference in short-term mating behaviour. Findings

P. K. Jonason; Norman P. LI; G. D. Webster; D. P. Schmitt



The Antihero in Popular Culture: Life History Theory and the Dark Triad Personality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dark Triad of personality is composed of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. Despite the common belief that these traits are undesirable, the media is awash with characters that embody the Dark Triad. Characters like Gregory House, M.D., Batman (a.k.a. the Dark Knight), and James Bond all embody these traits and are some of the most popular media franchises today. As

Peter K. Jonason; Gregory D. Webster; David P. Schmitt; Norman P. Li; Laura Crysel



Social Information Processing as a Mediator Between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism\\u000a predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650\\u000a adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at Time 1 and Time 2, and\\u000a reactive aggression at Time 1, Time 2,

Esther Calvete; Izaskun Orue


Musci preferences as data in assessing and treating offenders and victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary music has been criticized for promoting violence, hatred, misogyny, sexual excess, drug and alcohol abuse, suicide,\\u000a narcissism, and self-pity. The authors, a criminologist licensed as a mental health counselor and a clinical psychologist,\\u000a have found that exploring individuals' music preferences can often provide invaluable assistance in understanding how offenders\\u000a and victims fulfill existential needs common to both of them.

Kathleen M. Heide; Eldra P. Solomon



Different slopes for different folks: Self-esteem instability and gender as moderators of the relationship between self-esteem and attitudinal aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research examined the relationships among self-esteem level, temporal self-esteem instability, gender, and self-reported aggression. Self-esteem level was negatively related to attitudinal aggression, although this relationship varied as a joint function of self-esteem instability and gender. It was strongest among men with unstable self-esteem and among women with stable self-esteem. Although self-esteem instability and narcissism (Study 3) were each

Gregory D. Webster; Lee A. Kirkpatrick; John B. Nezlek; C. Veronica Smith; Elizabeth Layne PADDOCK



Psychopathy Factors and Risk for Aggressive Behavior: A Test of the “Threatened Egotism” Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study was to examine psychopathy within a model of aggressive behavior that encompasses narcissism\\u000a and “threatened egoism.” This model was advanced by Baumeister and his colleagues (e.g., R. F. Baumeister, L. Smart, & J.\\u000a M. Boden, 1996; B. J. Bushman & R. F. Baumeister, 1998). We examined whether the threatened egotism model extends to the

Ellison M. Cale; Scott O. Lilienfeld



Child serial murder-psychodynamics: closely watched shadows.  


There is a malignant transformation in object relations resulting in an identification with an omnipotent and cruel object resulting in an identity transformation. If the tension, desperation, and dissociation increase, serial murder becomes spree murder. The presence of pathological narcissism and psychopathic tendencies are of diagnostic significance in understanding the murderer's personality functioning and motivation to kill. Meloy (1988) considered the degree of sadism and aggression combined with narcissistic qualities to reflect the "malignancy" of the psychopathic disturbance where gratification (of aggression) occurs in the service of narcissistic functioning--that is, cruelty toward others in the form of a triumphant victory over a rejecting object. Meloy also believes that dissociation is ubiquitious in the psychopath. The initial murder of the serial murderer may reflect a "new identity." The pathological object-relations of narcissism and the malignant narcissism are important diagnostic indicators in the personality functioning of serial killers and the occurrence of these phenomena is a significant factor in the formation of the personalities of serial killers, their inner motivations, and their pattern of commission. PMID:11685995

Turco, R



A test of two brief measures of the dark triad: the Dirty Dozen and Short Dark Triad.  


There has been a substantial increase in the simultaneous study of 3 related constructs--psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism--since being termed the dark triad (DT; Paulhus & Williams, 2002). Growing interest in the DT has led to the development of 2 short, efficient measures that reduce the number of items typically used from 124 to 12 (Dirty Dozen, or DD; Jonason & Webster, 2010) and 27 (Short Dark Triad, or SD3; Jones & Paulhus, in press), respectively. Using a community sample collected online (N = 287), we examined the convergent, discriminant, incremental, and criterion validity of scores from 2 brief measures of the DT. In general, scores from the SD3 scales manifested stronger convergent and incremental validity in relation to longer, more established measures of the DT constructs. Scores from both brief DT measures evidenced adequate discriminant validity as well as criterion validity in relation to traits from the five-factor model. However, the SD3 Narcissism Scale appears to assess primarily the grandiose aspects of this construct, whereas the DD captures both vulnerable and grandiose features of narcissism. Overall, if a short measure of the DT is required, the SD3 yields data that are more consistent with these constructs as they are measured using more established and validated measures. PMID:24274044

Maples, Jessica L; Lamkin, Joanna; Miller, Joshua D



Why Do People Use Facebook?  


The social networking site, Facebook, has gained an enormous amount of popularity. In this article, we review the literature on the factors contributing to Facebook use. We propose a model suggesting that Facebook use is motivated by two primary needs: (1) The need to belong and (2) the need for self-presentation. Demographic and cultural factors contribute to the need to belong, whereas neuroticism, narcissism, shyness, self-esteem and self-worth contribute to the need for self presentation. Areas for future research are discussed. PMID:22544987

Nadkarni, Ashwini; Hofmann, Stefan G



Why Do People Use Facebook?  

PubMed Central

The social networking site, Facebook, has gained an enormous amount of popularity. In this article, we review the literature on the factors contributing to Facebook use. We propose a model suggesting that Facebook use is motivated by two primary needs: (1) The need to belong and (2) the need for self-presentation. Demographic and cultural factors contribute to the need to belong, whereas neuroticism, narcissism, shyness, self-esteem and self-worth contribute to the need for self presentation. Areas for future research are discussed. PMID:22544987

Nadkarni, Ashwini; Hofmann, Stefan G.



Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II Safety Program  

SciTech Connect

Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated.

Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Garin, V.P.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Krutoy, A.M.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Polyakov, D.N. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others



The fuzzy reality of perceived harms.  


We review two subjective (mis)perceptions that influence revenge and forgiveness systems. Individual differences predict more (e.g., narcissism) or less (e.g., empathy) revenge, with the opposite pattern for forgiveness. Moreover, differences in victim versus perpetrator perceptions can influence revenge and forgiveness systems, perpetuating never-ending cycles of revenge. These two examples point to the need for theories of revenge and forgiveness to address the role of cognitive and motivational biases in the functionality of such behavioral responses. PMID:23211456

Konrath, Sara; Cheung, Irene



Beyond the diagnostic traits: A collaborative exploratory diagnostic process for dimensions and underpinnings of narcissistic personality disorder.  


Narcissistic personality disorder has been challenging to diagnose in psychiatric and general clinical practice. Several circumstances and personality factors related to the nature of pathological narcissism and NPD contribute. NPD is usually a moderately impairing condition, often accompanied by specific capabilities and high level of functioning. Comorbidity of other urgent and recognizable psychiatric conditions, such as mood and substance use disorders or suicidality, can override even significant narcissistic personality functioning. Patients' limited ability to recognize own contribution to problems or impact on other people, their hypersensitivity and defensive reactivity, and compromised ability for self-disclosure, self-reflection, and emotional empathy can make initial evaluations difficult. The aim of this study is to integrate recent clinical and empirical knowledge on the underpinnings of pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality functioning, and distinguish narcissistic self-regulatory patterns that are affecting diagnostic traits. A more flexible, exploratory, and collaborative diagnostic process is proposed that integrates the patients subjective experiences and interpersonal functioning in terms of self-regulation, agency, and traits in a way that is informative and meaningful for both the patient and the clinician. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25314232

Ronningstam, Elsa



Narcissistic personality disorder in DSM-5.  


The criteria for personality disorders in Section II of DSM-5 have not changed from those in DSM-IV. Therefore, the diagnosis of Section II narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) will perpetuate all of the well-enumerated shortcomings associated with the diagnosis since DSM-III. In this article, we will briefly review problems associated with Section II NPD and then discuss the evolution of a new model of personality disorder and the place in the model of pathological narcissism and NPD. The new model was intended to be the official approach to the diagnosis of personality pathology in DSM-5, but was ultimately placed as an alternative in Section III for further study. The new model is a categorical-dimensional hybrid based on the assessment of core elements of personality functioning and of pathological personality traits. The specific criteria for NPD were intended to rectify some of the shortcomings of the DSM-IV representation by acknowledging both grandiose and vulnerable aspects, overt and covert presentations, and the dimensionality of narcissism. In addition, criteria were assigned and diagnostic thresholds set based on empirical data. The Section III representation of narcissistic phenomena using dimensions of self and interpersonal functioning and relevant traits offers a significant improvement over Section II NPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23834518

Skodol, Andrew E; Bender, Donna S; Morey, Leslie C



The associations among dark personalities and sexual tactics across different scenarios.  


Although malevolent individuals may be willing to use any tactic necessary to obtain sex, not all antagonistic traits will predict coercion or coaxing in all situations. A sample of 447 adult men, collected in two waves, reported their intentions to engage in coercion or coaxing of hypothetical targets. Study 1 provided three hypothetical scenarios that result in sexual rejection: (a) an expensive date, (b) a stranger, and (c) a relationship partner, and Study 2 provided the same scenarios, and three additional scenarios: (d) a rival's partner, (e) a bet, and (f) a powerful person. A Structural Equations Model indicated that a common antagonistic factor, indicated by Social Dominance and the Dark Triad traits of psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism, predicted coaxing across all situations, whereas only psychopathy predicted coercion across all situations. In addition, narcissism accounted for additional variance in coaxing when rejected by an expensive date. These findings suggest that across the different scenarios, psychopathy is primarily associated with coercive tactics and the common malevolent core among the traits is associated with coaxing tactics. PMID:24288187

Jones, Daniel N; Olderbak, Sally G



What have you done for me lately? Friendship-selection in the shadow of the Dark Triad traits.  


The current studies examined how the Dark Triad personality traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) facilitate the strategic structuring of an individual's social environment in terms of same- and opposite-sex friends. In one study using normative questions (N = 267) and another using a budget-allocation task (N = 114), we found that the Dark Triad traits were associated with choosing friends for strategic purposes and to create a volatile environment. Narcissistic individuals reported relatively more reasons to form friendships, such as shared interests, makes me feel good, and intelligence. Women high in narcissism chose same-sex friends who were attractive and women high on Machiavellianism chose same-sex friends who have social status. Men high on psychopathy devalued traits associated with good social relationships in favor of friends who could facilitate their mating efforts and to offset risks incurred in their life history strategy. Results are discussed using the selection-manipulation-evocation framework for explaining how personality traits interact with social environments and integrated with findings from evolutionary biology. PMID:22947669

Jonason, Peter K; Schmitt, David P



Dry critical experiments and analyses performed in support of the TOPAZ-2 safety program  

SciTech Connect

In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz-2 space nuclear power system. Functional safety requirements developed for the Topaz mission mandated that the reactor remain subcritical when flooded and immersed in water. Initial experiments and analyses performed in Russia and the United States indicated that the reactor could potentially become supercritical in several water- or sand-immersion scenarios. Consequently, a series of critical experiments was performed on the Narciss M-II facility at the Kurchatov Institute to measure the reactivity effects of water and sand immersion, to quantify the effectiveness of reactor modifications proposed to preclude criticality, and to benchmark the calculational methods and nuclear data used in the Topaz-2 safety analyses. In this paper we describe the Narciss M-II experimental configurations along with the associated calculational models and methods. We also present and compare the measured and calculated results for the dry experimental configurations. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

Pelowitz, D.B.; Sapir, J. [Reactor Design and Analysis Group, TSA-12, MS K551, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Kompanietz, G.B.; Krutov, A.M.; Polyakov, D.N.; Lobynstev, V.A. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)



Designing gondola using satcom services and solar cell energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction of compact, and lightweight terminals for mobile satellite communication, opens up many opportunities to design new telecommunication systems for balloons. Architecture of this gondola, named Narcisse, is built around a control process unit able to support interface with all Inmarsat services, and Iridium or Thuraya satellite network as well. A first technological gondola was launched from Brazil in February 2001, under a Infra Red Mongolfiere (hot air balloon). This gondola used an Inmarsat terminal C which can support in two ways , store and forward messages at a data rate of 600 bits per second. During the 3 turns around the earth, the system worked well, and demonstrated its ability to handle change over from one geostationary spacecraft to the next, when balloon changes ocean region. Moreover this system provides high telemetry rate (Mbits) or telecommand capability, and greatly increase the performances of the scientific payloads . On the other hand, such types of gondola can be useful to operate long duration flight (days) with large stratospheric balloons, currently limited to range capability of UHF ground station . When line of sight of view is lost, between ground station and gondola, the switch would be made from UHF to the Inmarsat or iridium system to complete the mission. In this case, the TM/TC system has no range or altitude limitation, and the gondola descent trajectory can be followed until the ground improving the localization of landing which will be helpful for recovery operation. So, using a real time duplex mini M Inmarsat terminal, the Narcisse gondola has been operationally involved early 2002 in Archeops project. Launched from Kiruna, Narcisse provided a full duplex 2400bits per second link, all along the flight across Russia. Narcisse has been again involved in march 2003 in Mipas project, using Iridium as a cold redundancy to secure Inmarsat mini M not working at extreme polar regions (latitude more than 80°). During this flight an Inmarsat mini M was also used to provide a scientific telemetry and telecomand channel. A lighter version (15 Kg) of this gondola is currently involved in the Hibiscus project (launch of Infrared montgolfieres from Brazil ). This gondola fitted with the new terminal "Ec track" which taking advantage of better RF budget link offered by Inmarsat spacecraft third generation, requires 50% : launch of hundred pressurized balloons from south pole. The target being to decrease the gondola weight to less than 10 Kg. Expecting a life duration of three months, the energy to heat and power the electronic will be only provided from solar cells and Li Ion secondary battery. Plans for the future : Until now all the terminals we have used with Narcisse have a data rate limited to 2400 bit/s. We are now considering to transmit the data from scientific stratospheric balloons gondolas , by using a high speed terminal (64kbit/s) linked to a mechanically pointed antenna under a pressurized radome.

Cau, M.; Dezen, P.


Cognitive, personality, and social factors associated with adolescents' online personal information disclosure.  


The current study aims to understand the factors that influence adolescents' disclosure of personally identifiable information (PII) on social networking sites (SNSs). A survey was conducted among 780 adolescent participants (between 13 and 18) who were Facebook users. Structural equation modeling was used for analyzing the data and obtaining an overarching model that include cognitive, personality, and social factors that influence adolescents' PII disclosure. Results showed privacy concern as the cognitive factor reduces adolescents' PII disclosure and it serves as a potential mediator for personality and social factors. Amongst personality factors, narcissism was found to directly increase PII disclosure, and social anxiety indirectly decreases PII disclosure by increasing privacy concern. Amongst social factors, active parental mediation decreases PII disclosure directly and indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Restrictive parental mediation decreases PII disclosure only indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Implications of the findings to parents, educators, and policy makers were discussed. PMID:23849657

Liu, Cong; Ang, Rebecca P; Lwin, May O



[The Dresden Body Image Inventory (DKB-35): validity in a clinical sample].  


The Dresden Body Image Questionnaire (DKB-35) measures 5 dimensions of body image: vitality, self-acceptance, self-aggrandisement, physical closeness, and sexual fulfilment. This article presents data on the reliability and validity of the DKB-35. The sample consisted of 560 pa-tients with psychosomatic disorders. To analyse the factor structure, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. To examine the convergent validity, correlations between the DKB-35 scales and the Frankfurt Body Concept Scales (FKKS, [1]), the Narcissism Personality Inventory (NPI, [2]) and the self-esteem subscale of the Frankfurt Self-Concept Scales (FSKN, [3]) were computed. The 5 scales of the DKB-35 showed excellent reliability. Between the 5 DKB-35 scales and the corresponding scales of the FKKS, the NPI, and the FSKN, moderate correlations were found. The results confirm the reliability and validity of the DKB-35. Possible fields of applications and further developments are discussed. PMID:23966276

Pöhlmann, Karin; Roth, Marcus; Brähler, Elmar; Joraschky, Peter



Social vigilantism: measuring individual differences in belief superiority and resistance to persuasion.  


Social vigilantism (SV) is an enduring individual difference that assesses the tendency of individuals to impress and propagate their "superior" beliefs onto others to correct others' more "ignorant" opinions. After establishing a reliable measure of SV, three studies showed that SV was associated with greater expressions of belief superiority (whether reacting to others holding dissimilar or similar beliefs) and greater resistance to persuasion (via increased rates of counterarguing and greater attitude stability after persuasion appeals) even after controlling for relevant individual differences (narcissism, dogmatism, psychological reactance, and need for cognition), as well as attitude importance and extremity. Thus, SV predicts expressions of belief superiority and resistance to persuasion above and beyond characteristics of the attitude and individual difference variables previously studied in the attitude literature. SV is a meaningful construct in increasing the understanding of persuasion, attitude resistance, and attitude dissemination that can be applied in a variety of psychological domains. PMID:19776422

Saucier, Donald A; Webster, Russell J



The internal world of Don Giovanni.  


The author tries to account for the disturbing impact of Mozart's opera Don Giovanni. Some writers idealize Don Giovanni's power and vitality. The author view is that Mozart's music depicts him as a much emptier character, using phallic narcissism as a way of surviving a psychic catastrophe by projecting his pain into others. The music shows how Giovanni lives in projective identification with many other objects and part-objects, masculine and feminine; and how he seduces them into complicity with his defensive system. This situation is contrasted musically with the world of the other characters, particularly the women, who are depicted as more ordinary, more complex and, in fact, more sensual. PMID:18290798

Rusbridger, Richard



Personality in cyberspace: personal Web sites as media for personality expressions and impressions.  


This research examined the personality of owners of personal Web sites based on self-reports, visitors' ratings, and the content of the Web sites. The authors compared a large sample of Web site owners with population-wide samples on the Big Five dimensions of personality. Controlling for demographic differences, the average Web site owner reported being slightly less extraverted and more open to experience. Compared with various other samples, Web site owners did not generally differ on narcissism, self-monitoring, or self-esteem, but gender differences on these traits were often smaller in Web site owners. Self-other agreement was highest with Openness to Experience, but valid judgments of all Big Five dimensions were derived from Web sites providing rich information. Visitors made use of quantifiable features of the Web site to infer personality, and the cues they utilized partly corresponded to self-reported traits. PMID:16784349

Marcus, Bernd; Machilek, Franz; Schütz, Astrid



A behavioral genetic analysis of alexithymia and the Dark Triad traits of personality.  


The present study is the first to assess phenotypic correlations between alexithymia and the Dark Triad traits of personality in a community sample, as well as the common genetic and environmental factors underlying these correlations. Participants were 232 North American adult twin pairs who completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, the MACH-IV, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Results revealed that alexithymia correlates significantly and positively with psychopathy and Machiavellianism, and negatively with narcissism. Subsequent bivariate behavioral genetic analysis demonstrated that these phenotypic correlations were primarily attributable to common genetic and common non-shared environmental factors. The implication of these findings regarding the maladaptive functions of alexithymia within the antisocial realm of behavior and the need for replication are discussed. PMID:23561050

Cairncross, Molly; Veselka, Livia; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Vernon, Philip A



Identifying and profiling scholastic cheaters: their personality, cognitive ability, and motivation.  


Despite much research, skepticism remains over the possibility of profiling scholastic cheaters. However, several relevant predictor variables and newer diagnostic tools have been overlooked. We remedy this deficit with a series of three studies. Study 1 was a large-scale survey of a broad range of personality predictors of self-reported cheating. Significant predictors included the Dark Triad (Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy) as well as low agreeableness and low conscientiousness. Only psychopathy remained significant in a multiple regression. Study 2 replicated this pattern using a naturalistic, behavioral indicator of cheating, namely, plagiarism as indexed by the Internet service Turn-It-In. Poor verbal ability was also an independent predictor. Study 3 examined possible motivational mediators of the association between psychopathy and cheating. Unrestrained achievement and moral inhibition were successful mediators whereas fear of punishment was not. Practical implications for researchers and educators are discussed. PMID:20853988

Williams, Kevin M; Nathanson, Craig; Paulhus, Delroy L



A meta-analysis of the Dark Triad and work behavior: a social exchange perspective.  


We reviewed studies of the Dark Triad (DT) personality traits--Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy-and meta-analytically examined their implications for job performance and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Relations among the DT traits and behaviors were extracted from original reports published between 1951 and 2011 of 245 independent samples (N = 43,907). We found that reductions in the quality of job performance were consistently associated with increases in Machiavellianism and psychopathy and that CWB was associated with increases in all 3 components of the DT, but that these associations were moderated by such contextual factors as authority and culture. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the DT explains moderate amounts of the variance in counterproductivity, but not job performance. The results showed that the 3 traits are positively related to one another but are sufficiently distinctive to warrant theoretical and empirical partitioning. PMID:22023075

O'Boyle, Ernest H; Forsyth, Donelson R; Banks, George C; McDaniel, Michael A



An examination of the Dirty Dozen measure of psychopathy: a cautionary tale about the costs of brief measures.  


Given substantial interest in the traits conceived of as part of the "Dark Triad"--psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism--assessment of these traits is of great importance. The Dirty Dozen (DD; Jonason & Webster, 2010) is a brief measure of the Dark Triad constructs that uses 4 items to assess each of these constructs. In the present study, the authors examined the adequacy of the DD's Psychopathy scale by comparing it with established measures of psychopathy in a sample of undergraduates (Sample 1: N = 789) and male prisoners (Sample 2: N = 75). DD's Psychopathy subscale manifested significant correlations with established measures, but the correlations were smaller than those evinced by the existing scales. The results also demonstrated that there is important variance related to interpersonal antagonism and disinhibition that is not assessed by the DD. The authors suggest that caution should be used in relying on the DD as a measure of psychopathy. PMID:22612650

Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Seibert, L Alana; Watts, Ashley; Zeichner, Amos; Lynam, Donald R



Behavioral confirmation of everyday sadism.  


Past research on socially aversive personalities has focused on subclinical psychopathy, subclinical narcissism, and Machiavellianism-the "Dark Triad" of personality. In the research reported here, we evaluated whether an everyday form of sadism should be added to that list. Acts of apparent cruelty were captured using two laboratory procedures, and we showed that such behavior could be predicted with two measures of sadistic personality. Study 1 featured a bug-killing paradigm. As expected, sadists volunteered to kill bugs at greater rates than did nonsadists. Study 2 examined willingness to harm an innocent victim. When aggression was easy, sadism and Dark Triad measures predicted unprovoked aggression. However, only sadists were willing to work for the opportunity to hurt an innocent person. In both studies, sadism emerged as an independent predictor of behavior reflecting an appetite for cruelty. Together, these findings support the construct validity of everyday sadism and its incorporation into a new "Dark Tetrad" of personality. PMID:24022650

Buckels, Erin E; Jones, Daniel N; Paulhus, Delroy L



Quick and dirty: some psychosocial costs associated with the Dark Triad in three countries.  


The current study provides the first examination of the relationship between life history indicators and the Dark Triad traits in an international sample drawn from the U.S. (n = 264), Singapore (n = 185), and Poland (n = 177). In all three samples, the Dark Triad traits were associated with psychosocial costs, although there were more links in the Singaporean and Polish samples than in the American sample. In the U.S., the quality of one's romantic relationships and psychopathy were negatively correlated. Narcissism was higher in the Polish and American samples than in the Singaporean sample. Men scored higher than women did regardless of location and the sex difference in the individual differences in life histories was mediated by the Dark Triad composite. Results suggest the Dark Triad are related to a volatile socioecology composed of psychosocial costs in the familial, romantic, and platonic relationships. PMID:23531804

Jonason, Peter K; Li, Normal P; Czarna, Anna Z



A behavioral genetic study of the dark triad of personality and moral development.  


The present study is the first behavioral genetic investigation of relationships between the Dark Triad of personality--Machiavellianism, narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy--and moral development. Participants were 154 monozygotic twin pairs and 82 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs. Higher scores on Machiavellianism and psychopathy were positively correlated with low levels of moral development; high psychopathy scores also correlated negatively with high levels of moral development. Individual differences in lower levels of moral development were attributable to genetic and nonshared environmental factors but, very interestingly, individual differences in the highest levels of moral development showed no genetic basis but were entirely attributable to shared and nonshared environmental factors. Finally, correlations between the Dark Triad and moral development variables showed no genetic basis while correlations among the moral development variables were variously attributable to correlated genetic and correlated environmental factors. PMID:19335182

Campbell, Jennifer; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Villani, Vanessa C; Nguyen, Brenda; Vickers, Leanne; Vernon, Philip A



Some youths have a gloomy side: correlates of the dark triad personality traits in non-clinical adolescents.  


This cross-sectional study examined the Dark Triad personality traits and their correlates in non-clinical youths aged 12-18 years (N = 117). Child- and parent-report data were obtained on Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy as well as on Big Five personality factors and symptoms of aggression and delinquency. Results indicated that especially Machiavellianism and psychopathy were in a theoretically meaningful way related to Big Five factors: that is, both traits were associated with lower levels of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness/intellect, and higher levels of emotional instability. Further, Machiavellianism and psychopathy also emerged as significant and unique correlates of symptoms of aggression and delinquency, which further underlines the importance of these Dark Triad traits in the pathogenesis of disruptive behavior problems in youths. PMID:23334267

Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Timmermans, Anke



Introducing the short Dark Triad (SD3): a brief measure of dark personality traits.  


Three socially aversive traits-Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy-have been studied as an overlapping constellation known as the Dark Triad. Here, we develop and validate the Short Dark Triad (SD3), a brief proxy measure. Four studies (total N = 1,063) examined the structure, reliability, and validity of the subscales in both community and student samples. In Studies 1 and 2, structural analyses yielded three factors with the final 27 items loading appropriately on their respective factors. Study 3 confirmed that the resulting SD3 subscales map well onto the longer standard measures. Study 4 validated the SD3 subscales against informant ratings. Together, these studies indicate that the SD3 provides efficient, reliable, and valid measures of the Dark Triad of personalities. PMID:24322012

Jones, Daniel N; Paulhus, Delroy L



The dirty dozen: a concise measure of the dark triad.  


There has been an exponential increase of interest in the dark side of human nature during the last decade. To better understand this dark side, the authors developed and validated a concise, 12-item measure of the Dark Triad: narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism. In 4 studies involving 1,085 participants, they examined its structural reliability, convergent and discriminant validity (Studies 1, 2, and 4), and test-retest reliability (Study 3). Their measure retained the flexibility needed to measure these 3 independent-yet-related constructs while improving its efficiency by reducing its item count by 87% (from 91 to 12 items). The measure retained its core of disagreeableness, short-term mating, and aggressiveness. They call this measure the Dirty Dozen, but it cleanly measures the Dark Triad. PMID:20528068

Jonason, Peter K; Webster, Gregory D



The ingredients of supervisor failure.  


Trainees all too often learn more about how not to conduct supervision than how to conduct supervision effectively. The purpose of this article is to present a conceptualization of the theoretical, empirical, and practical elements of supervisor failures. Specifically, the article attends to the following behaviors that may lead to supervisor failure: (a) denigrate the supervisory relationship; (b) demonstrate multicultural incompetence; (c) become an unethical supermodel; (d) use evaluation instruments that could not pass for an undergraduate thesis; (e) teach your trainee how to diagnose narcissism by example; (f) apply psychotherapy models in supervision as if there is a theoretical or empirical basis; (g) infantalize your trainee; (h) collude with your trainee; (i) make your trainee your surrogate psychotherapist; and (j) go on a date with your trainee. Recommendations for increasing supervisor success and limiting supervisor failure are provided. PMID:25220894

Ladany, Nicholas



Explicit and Implicit Approach Motivation Interact to Predict Interpersonal Arrogance  

PubMed Central

Self-reports of approach motivation are unlikely to be sufficient in understanding the extent to which the individual reacts to appetitive cues in an approach-related manner. A novel implicit probe of approach tendencies was thus developed, one that assessed the extent to which positive affective (versus neutral) stimuli primed larger size estimates, as larger perceptual sizes co-occur with locomotion toward objects in the environment. In two studies (total N = 150), self-reports of approach motivation interacted with this implicit probe of approach motivation to predict individual differences in arrogance, a broad interpersonal dimension previously linked to narcissism, antisocial personality tendencies, and aggression. The results of the two studies were highly parallel in that self-reported levels of approach motivation predicted interpersonal arrogance in the particular context of high, but not low, levels of implicit approach motivation. Implications for understanding approach motivation, implicit probes of it, and problematic approach-related outcomes are discussed. PMID:22399360

Robinson, Michael D.; Ode, Scott; Spencer L., Palder; Fetterman, Adam K.



The almost untreatable narcissistic patient.  


Clinical experience in the Personality Disorders Institute at Weill Cornell Medical College suggests that patients with borderline personality organization and a narcissistic personality disorder have a more serious prognosis than all other personality disorders functioning at the borderline level, and that those who in addition present significant antisocial behavior have an even worse prognosis (Clarkin, Yeomans, and Kernberg 1999; Stone 1990). This negative trend culminates in a group of practically untreatable patients with antisocial personality disorder, who represent the most severe cases of pathological narcissism. There are also patients with severe narcissistic personality disorder, functioning at an overt borderline level with significant antisocial features, but not presenting an antisocial personality disorder proper, who at times respond to treatment, while others do not. These patients are explored here, with a focus on particular psychotherapeutic techniques that have proven helpful, as well as on the limits of these technical approaches. PMID:17601104

Kernberg, Otto F



Success in everyday physics: The role of personality and academic variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two studies examined students' intuitive physics ability and characteristics associated with physics competence. In Study 1, although many students did well on a physics quiz, more than 25% of students performed below levels predicted by chance. Better performance on the physics quiz was related to physics grades, highest level of math taken, and students' perceived scholastic competence, but was not related to a number of other hypothesized personality variables. Study 2 further explored personality and academic variables and also examined students' awareness of their own physics ability. Results indicate that the personality variables were again unrelated to ability, but narcissism may be related to subjects' estimates of knowledge. Also, academic variables and how important students think it is to understand the physical world are related to both measured and estimated physics proficiency.

Norvilitis, Jill M.; Reid, Howard M.; Norvilitis, Bret M.



Within-person Covariation of Agentic and Communal Perceptions: Implications for Interpersonal Theory and Assessment  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal theory identifies agency and communion as uncorrelated (orthogonal) dimensions, largely evidenced by research examining between-person analyses of single-occasion measures. However, longitudinal studies of interpersonal behavior demonstrated the within-person association of agency and communion is not orthogonal for many individuals, and between-person differences in these associations relate to adjustment. We applied a similar approach to investigate the association of interpersonal perceptions. 184 university students completed a 7-day event-contingent study of their interpersonal experiences. Using multilevel regression models, we demonstrated that agentic and communal perceptions were positively associated, and the strength of this within-person association was moderated by between-person scores of dependency and narcissism. We discuss the benefits of incorporating within-person interpersonal associations (termed interpersonal covariation) into interpersonal theory and assessment. PMID:24072945

Roche, Michael J.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hyde, Amanda L.; Conroy, David E.; Ram, Nilam



[Hatred of foreigners and purity--current aspects of an illusion. Social psychological and psychoanalytic considerations].  


This study draws upon both Carlo Ginzburg's procedures for establishing and preserving (historical) evidence and Claude Lévi-Strauss' structuralist approach with its analysis of "primitive" mythologies to demonstrate that binary coding of the social domain is an all-pervasive structural principle. Heim's intention in this is to show that (present-day) xenophobia and racism are the products of a phantasm centering around the division of the world into pure and impure. The author brings into alignment collective fantasies about the homogeneity of the "body politic" with a form of primary narcissism which, if it is to preserve the illusion of original purity, is forced to externalize instinctual urges experienced as heterogeneous and unpleasurable and project them onto "foreigners" and things foreign. PMID:1509096

Heim, R



Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II safety program  

SciTech Connect

Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Garin, V.P.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Krutov, A.M.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Polyakov, D.N.; Chunyaev, E.I. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Marshall, A.C. [International Nuclear Safety, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Sapir, J.L.; Pelowitz, D.B. [Reactor Design and Analysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)



Karl Abraham's revolution of 1916: from sensual sucking to the oral-aggressive wish of destruction.  


The author argues that "The First Pregenital Stage of the Libido" (Abraham 1916-1917) expounds a new conception of orality, i.e., of purposeful oral aggression directed against an object during the first stage of psychic development. This conception is shown to be contrary to Freud's view of orality as elaborated in Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905), as well as in other writings of late 1914 and 1915. Abraham's conception ignores fundamental dimensions of Freud's thinking during these years, namely, the difference between autoerotism/narcissism and object love, on the one hand, and also between the leading role of sexuality and the secondary role of aggression, on the other. Thus, Abraham's thinking represents a basic theoretical change that had far-reaching consequences for psychoanalytic practice. PMID:22423435

May, Ulrike



Success in everyday physics: The role of personality and academic variables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two studies examined students' intuitive physics ability and characteristics associated with physics competence. In Study 1, although many students did well on a physics quiz, more than 25% of students performed below levels predicted by chance. Better performance on the physics quiz was related to physics grades, highest level of math taken, and students' perceived scholastic competence, but was not related to a number of other hypothesized personality variables. Study 2 further explored personality and academic variables and also examined students' awareness of their own physics ability. Results indicate that the personality variables were again unrelated to ability, but narcissism may be related to subjects' estimates of knowledge. Also, academic variables and how important students think it is to understand the physical world are related to both measured and estimated physics proficiency.

Norvilitis, Jill; Reid, Howard; Norvilitis, Bret



The application of psychoanalytic principles to the study of "magic".  


In this paper Freud's work on animism and magic is elaborated. Those two subjects are presented mainly in his work "Totem and Taboo" (1913). The true motives, which lead primitive man to practice magic are, according to Freud, human whishes and his immense belief in their power. Importance attached to wishes and to the will has been extended from them to all those psychical acts, which are subjected to will. A general overvaluation has thus come about of all mental processes. Things become less important than ideas of things. Relations, which hold between the ideas of things, are equally hold between the things. The principle of governing magic or the technique of animistic way of thinking is one of the 'omnipotence of thoughts'. The overvaluation of psychic acts could be brought into relation with narcissism and megalomania, a belief in the thaumaturgic force of words and a technique for dealing with the external world--'magic'--which appears to be a logical application of these grandiose premises. Recent psychoanalytic authors dealing with the problem of magic emphasize that magic survived culturally to the present days and even in adults who are otherwise intellectually and scientifically 'modern'. Their explanations for that derive from Ferenczi's and especially Róheim's work that pointed out that magic facilitates adaptive and realistically effective endeavors. Balter pointed out that magic employs ego functioning, and conversely ego functioning includes magic. PMID:12974171

Rudan, Vlasta; Tripkovi?, Mara; Vidas, Mercedes



On love.  


This paper aims to stimulate awareness of the relationship between adult heterosexual love and sexual health. Although rarely discussed in professional circles, adult love is a powerful ideal that strongly influences both individual and relationship psychology. A gap between one's personal ideal of love and the actual experience of it inevitably appears within a long-term relationship. The feelings and behavior that stems from the gap become a crucial management issue for each individual in a relationship. The gap is minimized by an array of defenses and competing life demands, which either enhance or destabilize individual and relationship well-being. Idealization, denial, and rationalization are necessary to preserve the internal sense of loving at all phases of the committed relationship. The limitations of various definitions of sexual health are reviewed. Sixteen suggestions for preserving sexual health in long-term relationships are offered. Most of these involve guidelines for overcoming narcissism. The limitations of modern therapists, even sex therapists, for forthrightly dealing with sexual problems in terms of love are highlighted. PMID:7500369

Levine, S B



Some key features in the evolution of self psychology and psychoanalysis.  


Psychoanalysis, as every science and its application, has continued to evolve over the past century, especially accelerating over the last 30 years. Self psychology has played a constitutive role in that evolution and has continued to change itself. These movements have been supported and augmented by a wide range of emergent research and theory, especially that of cognitive psychology, infant and attachment research, rapid eye movement and dream research, psychotherapy research, and neuroscience. I present schematically some of what I consider to be the key features of the evolution of self psychology and their interconnection with that of psychoanalysis at large, including the revolutionary paradigm changes, the new epistemology, listening/experiencing perspectives, from narcissism to the development of the self, the new organization model of transference, the new organization model of dreams, and the implicit and explicit dimensions of analytic work. I conclude with a focus on the radical ongoing extension of the analyst's participation in the analytic relationship, using, as an example, the co-creation of analytic love, and providing several brief clinical illustrations. The leading edge question guiding my discussion is "How does analytic change occur?" PMID:19379228

Fosshage, James L



Abusive families and character formation.  


Family research studies confirm that abusive parents tend to be undifferentiated partners who compete with each other and with their children for attention and nurturance. More or less healthy parents make demands on children to counteract their own injured narcissism, but they do so largely without devaluation and the sadistic use of projective identification. Under sufficient stress abusive parents attack the child who fails to gratify their needs, thereby giving vent to longstanding frustrations and feelings of being threatened by the child's individuation and competency. The emotional atmosphere in such families facilitates ego deficits like those of the borderline personality as it molds the child's efforts to avoid anxiety. Devaluation, loss, and defenses against mourning partially account for depression and paranoid traits in abused youngsters. Early neglect and abuse exposes them to influential models who act out rage and primitive defenses. Some abused individuals project their rage and later become paranoid or antisocial, whereas others fragment or retain infantile defenses. The destructiveness of severe psychological abuse lies in the constriction of the experiencing self and healthy character development, together with the conditioning to repeat abusive relationships and to avoid intimacy. Achieving individuation under these circumstances entails overcoming the internalized abusive relationships and relinquishing the unconscious wish to be transformed from the abused into the abuser. PMID:2221200

McCarthy, J B



Identity disturbance in distant patients.  


Chronically distant, emotionally isolated patients often present with identity disturbance. Identity, it is argued, develops as a thematic pattern of narcissism, shaped by the nature of the mother's early libidinal influences on the child's sense of self. Identity provides a form of self-definition that addresses the question, Who am I? In the treatment of these patients, resistances to narcissistic vulnerabilities (narcissistic resistances) provide an illusory sense of security and induce the analyst to avoid attention to a central pathological problem: primitive and frightening needs for, and unconscious fantasies of, dependence on, and functionality for, another. Patients' avoidance of material and therapeutic interactions that deal with their dependencies are aspects of a tacit contract with the analyst to foreclose examination of their considerable problems with inner stability. Among these problems are anxieties regarding intrusion and loss of separateness. As analysis proceeds, elements of such a patient's identity become clarified and are used to understand and organize the material for both analyst and patient. This can allow the patient to articulate a more embodied and vital experience of individuality. A case is presented to illustrate the analysis of a patient using this approach. PMID:23526544

Hoffman, Irwin



A Buddhist contribution to the psychoanalytic psychology of self.  


The author attempts to integrate the concepts of self used in psychoanalytic theory with the understanding of the nature of self as explained within the Buddhist meditative tradition. He divides different concepts of self in psychoanalytic theory into three major levels of consciousness and abstraction: self as experience, representational self and self as system. The representational level is defined as consisting of unconscious organizing structures of interaction: the system level is a hierarchically higher organization of representations, while the experiential level consists of the moment-to-moment flow of consciousness. He argues that for the sake of theoretical clarity these levels should be differentiated in discussions of self. He then describes the Buddhist psychology of self and tries to show how this perspective can enrich psychoanalytic understanding of the experiential self and of narcissism, which in Buddhist language would be described as clinging to (seeking or avoiding) images of self that arise in the mind. Last, he describes a model of therapeutic development using different levels of self and the interrelationship between them, showing how psychoanalytic psychotherapy and Buddhist insight meditation emphasize different levels of self using complementary rather than mutually exclusive methods. PMID:14754482

Falkenström, Fredrik



Ethical considerations in emergency planning, preparedness, and response to acts of terrorism.  


Throughout the globe, healthcare providers are increasingly challenged with the specter of terrorism and the fallout from weapons of mass destruction. Preparing for and responding to such manmade emergencies, however, threatens the ethical underpinnings of routine, individualized, patient-centered, emergency healthcare. The exigency of a critical incident can instantly transform resource rich environs, to those of austerity. Healthcare workers, who only moments earlier may have been seeing two to three patients per hour, are instantly thrust into a sea of casualties and more basic lifeboat issues of quarantine, system overload and the thornier determinations of who will be given every chance to live and who will be allowed to die. Beyond the tribulations of triage, surge capacity, and the allocation of scarce resources, terrorism creates a parallel need for a host of virtues not commonly required in daily medical practice, including prudence, courage, justice, stewardship, vigilance, resilience, and charity. As a polyvalent counterpoint to the vices of apathy, cowardice, profligacy, recklessness, inflexibility, and narcissism, the virtues empower providers at all levels to vertically integrate principles of safety, public health, utility, and medical ethics at the micro, meso, and macro levels. Over time, virtuous behavior can be modeled, mentored, practiced, and institutionalized to become one of our more useful vaccines against the threat of terrorism in the new millennium. PMID:15141854

Larkin, Gregory Luke; Arnold, Jeffrey



Celebrity Patients, VIPs, and Potentates  

PubMed Central

Background: During the second half of the 20th century, the literature on the doctor-patient relationship mainly dealt with the management of “difficult” (personality-disordered) patients. Similar problems, however, surround other types of “special” patients. Method: An overview and analysis of the literature were conducted. As a result, such patients can be subcategorized by their main presentations; each requires a specific management strategy. Results: Three types of “special” patients stir up irrational feelings in their caregivers. Sick celebrities threaten to focus public scrutiny on the private world of medical caregivers. VIPs generate awe in caregivers, with loss of the objectivity essential to the practice of scientific medicine. Potentates unearth narcissism in the caregiver-patient relationship, which triggers a struggle between power and shame. Pride, privacy, and the staff's need to be in control are all threatened by introduction of the special patient into medicine's closed culture. Conclusion: The privacy that is owed to sick celebrities should be extended to protect overexposed staff. The awe and loss of medical objectivity that VIPs generate are counteracted by team leadership dedicated to avoiding any deviation from standard clinical procedure. Moreover, the collective ill will surrounding potentates can be neutralized by reassuring them that they are “special”—and by caregivers mending their own vulnerable self-esteem. PMID:15014712

Groves, James E.; Dunderdale, Barbara A.; Stern, Theodore A.



An interest in fame: confirming the measurement and empirical conceptualization of fame interest.  


The following paper introduces and develops the conceptualization of Fame Interest. Study 1 (N=1,978), through the use of factor analysis techniques, introduces the Fame Interest Scale which comprises six dimensions of Fame Interest (intensity, vulnerability, celebrity life-style, drive, perceived suitability, and altruistic) with evidence for the reliability and validity of the scale. Study 2 (N=376) examined the relationship between an interest in fame and measures of the five-factor model of personality, narcissism, self-esteem, curiosity, attachment style and perceived family, and peer and media influence. From this second study four findings emerge; (1) Fame Interest typified by a perceived suitability and intensity for a celebrity life-style was associated with perceived family, peer and media influence, (2) Fame Interest that arises from a vulnerability is a reflection of neuroticism, low self-esteem, and problematic attachments, (3) Fame Interest for altruistic reasons is associated with agreeableness, and (4) Fame Interest that reflects an overall drive is associated with conscientiousness. PMID:19646329

Maltby, John



Beyond the big five: the Dark Triad and the supernumerary personality inventory.  


The Dark Triad of personality, comprising Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, was investigated in relation to the Supernumerary Personality Inventory (SPI) traits, because both sets of variables are predominantly distinct from the Big Five model of personality. Correlational and principal factor analyses were conducted to assess the relations between the Dark Triad and SPI traits. Multivariate behavioral genetic model-fitting analyses were also conducted to determine the correlated genetic and/or environmental underpinnings of the observed phenotypic correlations. Participants were 358 monozygotic and 98 same-sex dizygotic adult twin pairs from North America. As predicted, results revealed significant correlations between the Dark Triad and most SPI traits, and these correlations were primarily attributable to common genetic and non-shared environmental factors, except in the case of Machiavellianism, where shared environmental effects emerged. Three correlated factors were extracted during joint factor analysis of the Dark Triad and SPI traits, as well as a heritable general factor of personality - results that clarified the structure of the Dark Triad construct. It is concluded that the Dark Triad represents an exploitative and antisocial construct that extends beyond the Big Five model and shares a theoretical space with the SPI traits. PMID:21425898

Veselka, Livia; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Vernon, Philip A



A Fairbairnian structural analysis of the narcissistic personality disorder.  


Fairbairn's structural theory is based on the developing child's need to dissociate actual events between himself or herself and his or her objects that are excessively rejecting in order to contine an uninterrupted, pristine attachment to them. This eventuates in three selves in relation to three objects: One pair is conscious (the central ego which relates to the ideal object), while the other two pairs (the antilibidinal ego, which relates to the rejecting object, and the libidinal ego, which relates to the exciting object) are mostly held in the unconscious. Fairbairn saw the fluid relationship between the two split-off pairs of unconscious part selves and the conscious central ego as the primary dynamic of the human personality. The author proposes a specific variation in Fairbairn's structural theory to account for the development of narcissism. Specifically, this disorder is viewed as the result of a developmental history in which the child finds himself or herself in an exceedingly hostile interpersonal environment that precludes the child from using an idealized version either of his or her parental objects as the "exciting object." The child therefore substitutes a grandiose view of himself or herself as the exciting object. This defense deflects external influences and replaces relationships with external objects with a closed internal world that is comprised of an admiring part-self basking in reflected love from its relationship with an exciting part-object. PMID:24866161

Celani, David P



Object and subject relations in adulthood--towards an integrative model of interpersonal relationships.  


In the article the author presents a model of interpersonal relationships based on integration of object relations theory and theory of attachment. He proposes three main bipolar dimensions of interpersonal relationships: Independence - Dependence, Connectedness - Alienation and Reciprocity - Self-absorption. The author also proposes that it is important to distinguish between two main types of adult interpersonal relationships: object and subject relations. Object relations describe relationships in which the other person is perceived as an object that serves the satisfaction of the first person's needs. Object relations are a manifestation of the right pole of the three main dimensions of interpersonal relationships (Dependence, Alienation and Self-absorption). Subject relations are a counter-pole to the concept of object relations. They describe relationships with other people who are experienced as subjects with their own wishes, interests and needs. Subject relations are a manifestation of the left pole of the main dimensions (Independence, Connectedness and Reciprocity). In this article the author specifically focuses on definitions of object relations in adulthood through a description of six sub-dimensions of object relations: Symbiotic Merging, Separation Anxiety, Social Isolation, Fear of Engulfment, Egocentrism and Narcissism. Every sub-dimension is described in connection to adaptive and pathological functioning. Further research is needed to test the clinical and scientific validity of the model. PMID:21169889

Zvelc, Gregor



Test Facilities and Experience on Space Nuclear System Developments at the Kurchatov Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity of space fission systems and rigidity of requirement on minimization of weight and dimension characteristics along with the wish to decrease expenditures on their development demand implementation of experimental works which results shall be used in designing, safety substantiation, and licensing procedures. Experimental facilities are intended to solve the following tasks: obtainment of benchmark data for computer code validations, substantiation of design solutions when computational efforts are too expensive, quality control in a production process, and ``iron'' substantiation of criticality safety design solutions for licensing and public relations. The NARCISS and ISKRA critical facilities and unique ORM facility on shielding investigations at the operating OR nuclear research reactor were created in the Kurchatov Institute to solve the mentioned tasks. The range of activities performed at these facilities within the implementation of the previous Russian nuclear power system programs is briefly described in the paper. This experience shall be analyzed in terms of methodological approach to development of future space nuclear systems (this analysis is beyond this paper). Because of the availability of these facilities for experiments, the brief description of their critical assemblies and characteristics is given in this paper.

Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Garin, Vladimir P.; Glushkov, Evgeny S.; Kompaniets, George V.; Kukharkin, Nikolai E.; Madeev, Vicktor G.; Papin, Vladimir K.; Polyakov, Dmitry N.; Stepennov, Boris S.; Tchuniyaev, Yevgeny I.; Tikhonov, Lev Ya.; Uksusov, Yevgeny I.



The psychology of spite and the measurement of spitefulness.  


Spite is an understudied construct that has been virtually ignored within the personality, social, and clinical psychology literatures. This study introduces a self-report Spitefulness Scale to assess individual differences in spitefulness. The scale was initially tested on a large sample of 946 college students and cross-validated on a national sample of 297 adults. The scale was internally consistent in both samples. Factor analysis supported a 1-factor solution for the initial pool of 31 items. Item response theory analysis was used to identify the best performing of the original 31 items in the university sample and reduce the scale to 17 items. Tests of measurement invariance indicated that the items functioned similarly across both university and national samples, across both men and women, and across both ethnic majority and minority groups. Men reported higher levels of spitefulness than women, younger people were more spiteful than older people, and ethnic minority members reported higher levels of spitefulness than ethnic majority members. Across both samples, spitefulness was positively associated with aggression, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism, and guilt-free shame, and negatively correlated with self-esteem, guilt-proneness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Ideally, this Spitefulness Scale will be able to predict behavior in both laboratory settings (e.g., ultimatum games, aggression paradigms) and everyday life, contribute to the diagnosis of personality disorders and oppositional defiant disorder, and encourage further study of this neglected, often destructive, trait. PMID:24548150

Marcus, David K; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Mercer, Sterett H; Norris, Alyssa L



Online Social Networking and Addiction--A Review of the Psychological Literature  

PubMed Central

Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests. They are seen as a ‘global consumer phenomenon’ with an exponential rise in usage within the last few years. Anecdotal case study evidence suggests that ‘addiction’ to social networks on the Internet may be a potential mental health problem for some users. However, the contemporary scientific literature addressing the addictive qualities of social networks on the Internet is scarce. Therefore, this literature review is intended to provide empirical and conceptual insight into the emerging phenomenon of addiction to SNSs by: (1) outlining SNS usage patterns, (2) examining motivations for SNS usage, (3) examining personalities of SNS users, (4) examining negative consequences of SNS usage, (5) exploring potential SNS addiction, and (6) exploring SNS addiction specificity and comorbidity. The findings indicate that SNSs are predominantly used for social purposes, mostly related to the maintenance of established offline networks. Moreover, extraverts appear to use social networking sites for social enhancement, whereas introverts use it for social compensation, each of which appears to be related to greater usage, as does low conscientiousness and high narcissism. Negative correlates of SNS usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction. PMID:22016701

Kuss, Daria J.; Griffiths, Mark D.



Reactive-narcissistic character, obsessional personality and obsessive-compulsive behaviour: a study of the validity of Sandler and Hazari's typology.  


Sandler & Hazari's (1960) questionnaire measuring reactive-narcissistic character and obsessional personality was filled in by 120 medical students. Principal components analysis was applied to their scores. The resulting factor structure is highly similar to Sandler & Hazari's. Both reactive-narcissistic character and obsessional personality can be measured in a reliable way. In support of the hypotheses, reactive-narcissism is correlated positively with achievement motivation, but shows no correlation with traits reflecting lack of self-confidence (external locus of control and negative fear of failure), nor with aggression. Contrary to expectation, a positive correlation was found with control uncertainty. According to expectation obsessionality is correlated negatively with achievement motivation and positively with traits reflecting lack of self-confidence and with aggression. The hypothesis that obsessional subjects exhibit more obsessive-compulsiveness in a decision-making task than reactive-narcissistic subjects could not be confirmed. Results are discussed in the light of previous findings. The conclusion is that the typology as measured by Sandler & Hazari's (1960) questionnaire has high construct validity. The question whether the typology is predictive of future obsessive-compulsive behaviour remains unanswered. PMID:3676135

Trijsburg, R W; Duivenvoorden, H J



Sex differences in the etiology of psychopathic traits in youth.  


Few studies have examined the etiology of psychopathic traits in youth, and even fewer have tested whether the genetic and environmental influences underlying these traits differ for boys and girls. We tested for sex differences in the etiology of 3 trait dimensions-impulsivity, narcissism, and callous-unemotionality (CU)-previously found to underlie youth psychopathy in our sample. Using biometric modeling we tested whether constraining the genetic and environmental influences for each dimension across sex reduced model fit. We also tested for qualitative sex differences in the influences underlying these dimensions by allowing the genetic and environmental correlations between opposite sex dizygotic twins to be less than their respective values in same-sex dizygotic twins. Although the magnitudes of the genetic and environmental influences underlying the CU and narcissistic trait dimensions did not differ for boys and girls, nonshared environmental influences contributed significantly greater variance to impulsive traits in boys. No qualitative sex differences were found in the influences underlying any of the 3 trait dimensions, suggesting that the same genes and environments contribute to these psychopathic traits in males and females. PMID:24886014

Ficks, Courtney A; Dong, Lu; Waldman, Irwin D



Screen memory: its importance to object relations and transference.  


A screen memory of an obsessive and narcissistic man, reported early in psychoanalysis, both represented and disguised the patient's oedipal conflict, incestuous wishes, and sibling rivalry. It symbolized for him his relationship with his mother and was treated by him, in a repetitive and fetishistic manner throughout treatment, as the reason for his bitterness toward life, his sense of entitlement, his narcissism, and his distrust of women. In the transference, the memory-far from being inert- constantly played an active role in his wishes and disappointments regarding the analyst, and in his fantasied oedipal triumph over him. As the analysis progressed, and after years of treatment, the encapsulated nature of this memory began to give way to the patient's growing awareness of his oedipal wishes, the full range of his feelings toward his mother, and his sense of abandonment by her. The nature of screen memory is explored, including how it relates to a patient's personality and use of the past in general, how it may figure in the development of a person's object relations, and the decisive role it may play throughout a treatment. PMID:18515702

Reichbart, Richard



Online social networking and addiction--a review of the psychological literature.  


Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests. They are seen as a 'global consumer phenomenon' with an exponential rise in usage within the last few years. Anecdotal case study evidence suggests that 'addiction' to social networks on the Internet may be a potential mental health problem for some users. However, the contemporary scientific literature addressing the addictive qualities of social networks on the Internet is scarce. Therefore, this literature review is intended to provide empirical and conceptual insight into the emerging phenomenon of addiction to SNSs by: (1) outlining SNS usage patterns, (2) examining motivations for SNS usage, (3) examining personalities of SNS users, (4) examining negative consequences of SNS usage, (5) exploring potential SNS addiction, and (6) exploring SNS addiction specificity and comorbidity. The findings indicate that SNSs are predominantly used for social purposes, mostly related to the maintenance of established offline networks. Moreover, extraverts appear to use social networking sites for social enhancement, whereas introverts use it for social compensation, each of which appears to be related to greater usage, as does low conscientiousness and high narcissism. Negative correlates of SNS usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction. PMID:22016701

Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D



Further development and construct validation of MMPI-2-RF indices of global psychopathy, fearless-dominance, and impulsive-antisociality in a sample of incarcerated women.  


Replicating and extending research by Sellbom et al. (M. Sellbom, Y. S. Ben-Porath, C. J. Patrick, D. B. Wygant, D. M. Gartland, & K. P. Stafford, 2012, Development and Construct Validation of the MMPI-2-RF Measures of Global Psychopathy, Fearless-Dominance, and Impulsive-Antisociality, Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 3, 17-38), the current study examined the criterion-related validity of three self-report indices of psychopathy that were derived from scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Y. S. Ben-Porath & A. Tellegen, 2008, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form: Manual for Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press). We estimated psychopathy indices by regressing scores from the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; S. O. Lilienfeld & B. P. Andrews, 1996, Development and Preliminary Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Psychopathic Personality Traits in Noncriminal Populations, Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 488-524) and its two distinct facets, Fearless-Dominance and Impulsive-Antisociality, onto conceptually selected MMPI-2-RF scales. Data for a newly collected sample of 230 incarcerated women were combined with existing data from Sellbom et al.'s (2012) male correctional and mixed-gender college samples to establish regression equations with optimal generalizability. Correlation and regression analyses were then used to examine associations between the MMPI-2-RF-based estimates of PPI psychopathy and criterion measures (i.e., other well-established measures of psychopathy and conceptually related personality traits), and to evaluate whether gender moderated these associations. The MMPI-2-RF-based psychopathy indices correlated as expected with criterion measures and showed only one significant moderating effect for gender, namely, in the association between psychopathy and narcissism. These results provide further support for the validity of the MMPI-2-RF-based estimates of PPI psychopathy, and encourage their use in research and clinical contexts. PMID:23855322

Phillips, Tasha R; Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Patrick, Christopher J



Individual, social, and behavioral factors associated with co-occurring conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits.  


Conduct problems (CP) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits can have a long-lasting negative impact into adulthood. Importantly, among youth with CP, those high on CU traits engage in a more severe, aggressive, and persistent pattern of antisocial behavior. The current study investigates the co-occurrence between CP and CU traits among a large sample of Greek-Cypriot adolescents (N?=?1,674; 50.1 % girls). Five distinct groups were identified with Latent Profile Analysis: low risk (48.7 %), average risk (33.8 %), co-occurring high CP-high CU (5.4 %), high CP-low CU (5.2 %), and low CP-high CU (6.9 %). Although more boys were identified in the higher risk groups, boys and girls within each group were not differentiated on levels of CP or CU traits during early adolescence. Youth in the identified groups were compared on early (Mean age?=?12.12) and middle (Mean age?=?14.02) adolescence individual and contextual factors. Youth with high CP-high CU were at higher risk for behavioral (bullying and substance use), individual (inattention, impulsivity, narcissism), and contextual (low family-support) problems compared to youth in the high CP-low CU and low CP-high CU groups, providing evidence that the combination of CP and CU traits might constitute a pathological group. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of sub-typing CP based on CU traits for the forthcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Additional novel findings suggested that adolescents scoring high on CP, irrespective of CU, were not differentiated on hyperactivity, victimization, and anxiety/depression, and adolescents scoring high on CU traits, with or without CP, reported similar low levels of self-esteem and peer and family social-support. PMID:23408037

Fanti, Kostas A



Psychopathy in adolescent offenders: an item response theory study of the antisocial process screening device-self report and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version.  


Few studies have examined the item functioning of youth psychopathy measures or compared the functioning of clinician and self-report based indices. Even fewer studies have made these comparisons in both male and female adolescent samples. The present study examined the applicability of items from two psychopathy measures, the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick, P. J., & Hare, R. D., 2001, The Antisocial Process Screening Device. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems) and Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth, A. E., Kosson, D. S., & Hare, R. D., 2003, The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems), to adolescent boys and girls who had come into contact with the law. Item Response Theory was used to test item functioning of the two psychopathy indices. Examination of the Item Response Theory trace lines indicated that the APSD and the PCL:YV have both highly discriminating and poorly discriminating items and that the measures differ in the regions of psychopathy they cover. The PCL:YV is particularly effective at assessing interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy and to a lesser extent, lifestyle and antisocial features. The APSD appears to be effective at assessing narcissism and impulsivity but not callousness. In addition, the items most discriminating of the underlying construct of psychopathy for males and females demonstrate some important differences. These findings suggest that the measures may tap different underlying elements of the same overlaying construct. This may account for modest correlations between the measures. The findings suggest that clinicians should be aware of the regions that each measure best taps and also suggest that continued refinement and revisions to the youth psychopathy measures may be required. PMID:22686465

Dillard, Crystal L; Salekin, Randall T; Barker, Edward D; Grimes, Ross D



Perceptions and attitudes toward androgenic-anabolic steroid use among two age categories: a qualitative inquiry.  


We attempted to qualitatively investigate why men of 2 age categories have chosen not to use androgenic-anabolic steroids (AASs). Twelve men (22.28 +/- 1.38 years [group I] and 53.00 +/- 13.28 years [group II]) were selected on the basis of specific inclusion criteria, including age and fitness levels (i.e., "do you weight train?"). Subjects were classified in 1 of 2 categories-younger or older precluders-and were asked to complete 2 survey instruments before their participation. The Drive for Muscularity Scale (reliability 0.85) and Body Image Questionnaire were used to gain a better understanding of perceptions and motivations regarding health, fitness, and body image. A series of semistructured questions were used to enhance focus group discussion regarding attitudes. Questions were validated by a panel of experts in qualitative methods. Member checks were conducted to enhance trustworthiness of the data. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed with thematic open-coding techniques. Various behaviors were reported regarding body image. Emerging themes showed a clear demarcation between age categories. Younger subjects cited power, control, body image, and narcissism, whereas older subjects viewed AAS use as more of an athletic-based phenomenon, such as with performance enhancement, when asked about steroids. Groups were in agreement that media trends and perceptions of the ideal male body are becoming "superhuman" and unattainable without chemical means. Understanding attitudinal perspectives might help complement national data on AAS trends. Future investigations could help coaches and allied health professionals collaborate with each other, as well as with national groups and foundations, to devise more appropriate strategies in addressing this growing athletic and public health concern. PMID:17530945

Leone, James E; Fetro, Joyce V



Measurement and structural invariance of the antisocial process screening device.  


Despite increasing study of psychopathic traits in children and adolescents, evidence regarding the factor structure of these traits has been inconsistent across community, clinic-referred, and incarcerated samples. Empirical support exists for both 2-factor (Impulsivity-Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional) and 3-factor (Narcissism, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity) models, and factorial invariance across various samples has not been either tested or supported in the extant literature. We conducted confirmatory factor analyses of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001) in 838 nonreferred twin pairs (M = 10.57 years, SD = 3.19 years) and 251 clinic-referred children (M = 10.82 years, SD = 3.39 years). Factorial invariance was tested across zygosity (monozygotic vs. dizygotic twins), sex (males vs. females), and age (younger vs. older children, divided by median age of 10.37 years) in the community sample and across sample type in both the community and clinic-referred samples. Results suggested that the 3-factor model fit better than did the 2-factor model in both community and clinic-referred samples. Using the best fitting 3-factor model, full measurement and structural invariance were found across zygosity, sex, and age in the community sample. Full measurement and structural invariance were also found across sample type except for differences in factor means across samples, suggesting excellent psychometric properties of the APSD. These results strongly support the robustness of the 3-factor model of psychopathic traits in children as well as the generalizability of the APSD across samples. PMID:24274050

Dong, Lu; Wu, Hao; Waldman, Irwin D



["Pyromania" and arson. A psychiatric and criminologic data analysis].  


We analyzed psychiatric and criminological data from 103 arsonists. The following criticisms of the definition of pyromania according to DSM-III-R and IDC-10 seem appropriate. First, the categoric exclusion of aggressive motives does not seem very promising, since approximately one fourth of arsonists whose firesetting is based on motives quoted in DSM-III-R may also have an aggressive motive. Second, ICD-10 gives being drunk and alcoholism as a criterion for the exclusion of pyromania. This seems untenable, since the behavior classed as pyromania is largely a product of alcohol misuse. Repeated firesetting, resulting from being fascinated by fire etc., may be less a disturbance of impulse control but rather the manifestation of a psychoinfantilism, which, supported by alcohol abuse, extends into older age. The mean age of such arsonists is slightly above 20 years. The tendency for relapses after imprisonment seems to be low; this tendency probably decreases spontaneously in older age. The mean age of arsonists with aggressive motives is a little below 30 years, those setting fire with suicidal motives have a mean age of 35, deluded arsonists have a mean age of 40 years. Concrete sexual motives are relatively rare. Approximately 50% of arsonists have a purely aggressive motive. Retaliation is a rare cause, however, since most of them do not even know the victims. One third of these persons set the fire in their own homes. Most arsonists show a personality disorder, with insecurity and narcissism predominating. Data on firesetting are to be treated with caution, since two thirds of all cases are newer resolved; one fourth of cases concern minors, and in Central Europe arsonists with rational motives are hardly ever referred to psychiatrists. PMID:8992375

Laubichler, W; Kühberger, A; Sedlmeier, P



Late-Wisconsinan submarine moraines along the north shore of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (Eastern Canada)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of ice-contact submarine fans and morainal banks along the Québec North-Shore of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (Eastern Canada), between the Manicouagan River delta and the Mingan Islands, have been revealed with great detail by recent multibeam echosounder and high-resolution subbottom profiler surveys. These grounding-line landforms are observed between 65 and 190 m water depths and were constructed as the marine-based margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) stabilized or readvanced. Radiocarbon ages obtained from shells sampled in sediment cores collected in glaciomarine deposits 6 km south of a grounding line in the Sept-Iles area indicate a stabilisation that took place around 11 000 14C yr BP (12.5 ka cal BP with a ?R=120 ± 40 yr). In the Mingan Islands area, organic matter collected in distal deposits of an ice-contact fan is dated at 10 800 14C yr BP (11.6 ka cal BP). The position of the Sept-Iles and Mingan deposits, 20 km south of the ~9.7-9.5 14C kyr BP North-Shore Moraine, suggests that these ice marginal landforms were constructed during the Younger Dryas (YD) cold episode and that they might be the eastward submarine extent of the early YD St. Narcisse morainic system. Superimposed till sheets and morainal banks observed within grounding line deposits indicate that this stability phase was interrupted by local readvances that were marked in some cases by ice streaming. Segments of this morainic system are also visible along the shoreline in some sectors, where they have been generally washed out of fine fragments by waves. Another series of ice-contact deposits and landforms of similar nature observed farther offshore and at greater depths (100-190 m) were formed during a previous phase of stabilisation of the LIS margin. This older morainic system was probably deposited immediately after the opening of the Estuary and Gulf of the St. Lawrence.

Lajeunesse, Patrick; St-Onge, Guillaume



[Workaholism: between illusion and addiction].  


Workaholism surfaced some years ago as a veritable addiction in the wide sense of the term, dependence. It differs from other sorts of dependence in that it is very often viewed in a positive perspective in the sense that it conveys to the person concerned the illusion of well-being, as well as a motivation and dedication in their professional activity. During the past 30 years, several authors have attempted to define this concept and to determine its characteristics. Robinson believes that workaholics have an approach to life whereby their work feeds on time, energy and physical activity. This provokes consequences that affect their physical health and interpersonal relationships. They have a tendency to live in the future rather than in the present. For Scott, Moore and Micelli , the compulsion for work is not necessarily viewed as being detrimental to one's health. Spence and Robbins highlight the notion of the pleasure experienced at work in their theoretical approach. The prevalence of the dependence on work is estimated at between 27 and 30% in the general population. It is correlated to the number of hours of work per week and tends to be higher as annual revenue increases. The sex ratio is 1, and the parents of children 5 to 18 years of age are the most susceptible to considering themselves workaholics. The physical and psychological consequences of professional exhaustion are characterized primarily by the decrease in self-esteem, symptoms of fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability and the manifestation of physical problems including cardiovascular ailments, as evidenced by hypertension, as well as heart and kidney complications. All the theoretical point of views, from the psychoanalytical models to the contemporary models, highlight self esteem as being the centerpiece of the question regarding the problem of workaholism. In fact, the narcissism articulated from the sociological evolution of our western way of life permits us to delineate the psychic identity of the individual better, and therefore, to understand this reconstructive attempt of one's self better. In characterizing the personality traits of workaholic individuals, the doctor/therapist is required to deal with this new form of dependence as early as possible, in order to anticipate and avert the numerous personal, professional, social, relational and sanitary complications. Faced with this large prevalence of dependence on work, it seems important to us to look for a symptomatology that would emanate a signal of workaholism so as to envisage and propose to workaholic patients a specific course of action that would be adapted to their needs. PMID:20850599

Elowe, J



Teaching strategies for coping with stress - the perceptions of medical students  

PubMed Central

Background The undergraduate medical course is a period full of stressors, which may contribute to the high prevalence of mental disorders among students and a decrease in life’s quality. Research shows that interventions during an undergraduate course can reduce stress levels. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the Strategies for Coping with Professional Stress class offered to medical students of the Federal University of Goiás, at Goiânia, Goiás, in Brazil. Methods Qualitative research, developed with medical students in an elective class addressing strategies for coping with stress after a focal group (composed of nine of the 33 students taking this course) identified stress factors in the medical course and the coping strategies that these students use. Analysis of the results of the class evaluation questionnaire filled out by the students on the last day of class. Results Stress factors identified by students in the focus group: lack of time, excessive class content, tests, demanding too much of themselves, overload of extracurricular activities, competitiveness among students and family problems. Coping strategies mentioned in the focus group: respecting one’s limits, setting priorities, avoiding comparisons, leisure activities (movies, literature, sports, meeting with friends and family). Results of the questionnaires: class content that was considered most important: quality of life, strategies for coping with stress, stress factors, assertiveness, community therapy, relaxation, cognitive restructuring, career choice, breathing, social networking, taking care of the caregiver, music therapy and narcissism. Most popular methodologies: relaxation practice, drawing words and discussion them in a group, community therapy, music therapy, simulated jury, short texts and discussion. Meaning of the class: asking questions and reinforcing already known strategies (22.6%), moment of reflection and self-assessment (19.4%), new interest and a worthwhile experience (19.4%), improvement in quality of life (16.1%), expression’s opportunity (9.7%), other (6.4%). Conclusion The stressors perceived by the medical students are intense and diverse, and the coping strategies used by them are wide-ranging. Most students felt that the class was a worthwhile learning experience, incorporated new practices for improving quality of life and recognized the importance of sharing and reflecting on one’s stressors and life choices. PMID:23565944