These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Body cues to narcissism   

E-print Network

-personal perception of narcissism. Real body stimuli (targets) were presented as rotating 3D scans to participants who judged them on narcissism. Targets’ self-rated narcissism together with their perceived level of narcissism was investigated in association...

Salvesen, Tanya

2013-03-13

2

Narcissism and its discontents.  

PubMed

Comments on the original article by Paris (see record 2012-18549-001) on the topic of narcissism and modernity. It is a wide-ranging, ambitious, and, at times, provocative discussion of issues related to putative cultural influences on the etiology, development, and exacerbation of narcissism. Among the most important issues raised by Paris is the need for well-conducted longitudinal research on the development of narcissism so that the etiological mechanisms underlying this oftentimes-deleterious condition might be uncovered. However, there are a number of ongoing debates in the literature that make much of his proposal premature. This commentary addresses a few of these debate issues. PMID:24796570

Wright, Aidan G C

2014-04-01

3

Narcissism and Adjustment in Preadolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narcissism--a strong need to be admired for a grandiose self--is a problematic personality trait for children as well as adults. This study of 236 preadolescents (M age = 11.3 years; 129 girls, 107 boys) evaluated 2 intrapersonal (cognitive) pathways by which narcissism might contribute to maladjustment. The first was that narcissism combines with…

Pauletti, Rachel E.; Menon, Madhavi; Menon, Meenakshi; Tobin, Desiree D.; Perry, David G.

2012-01-01

4

Narcissism and Internet Pornography Use.  

PubMed

This study examined the relation between Internet pornography use and narcissism. Participants (N=257) completed an online survey that included questions on Internet pornography use and 3 narcissism measures (i.e., Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Pathological Narcissistic Inventory, and the Index of Sexual Narcissism). The hours spent viewing Internet pornography was positively correlated to participants' narcissism level. In addition, those who have ever used Internet pornography endorsed higher levels of all 3 measures of narcissism than did those who have never used Internet pornography. PMID:24918657

Kasper, Thomas Edward; Short, Mary Beth; Milam, Alex Clinton

2014-06-11

5

Narcissism and unprovoked aggression.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that narcissists become aggressive when they experience ego-threat. However, there is surprisingly little empirical research on the relationship between narcissism and aggression. Equivocal findings suggest that aggression in narcissists either occurs only in response to provocation, or regardless of provocation. One-hundred and thirty-seven collegiate men completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory followed by a sham aggression paradigm, which afforded them the opportunity shock, or refrain entirely from shocking an ostensible opponent confederate. Participants were identified as "unprovoked aggressors," "retaliatory aggressors," or "nonaggressors" contingent on when and if they chose to administer electrical shocks to the confederate. Results indicated that participants who were high on narcissistic traits were more likely to be unprovoked aggressors than their low narcissism counterparts. Results are discussed in relation to threatened egotism theory and call for more research on narcissism, aggression, and the moderating effect of provocation. PMID:20623495

Reidy, Dennis E; Foster, Joshua D; Zeichner, Amos

2010-01-01

6

Origins of narcissism in children.  

PubMed

Narcissism levels have been increasing among Western youth, and contribute to societal problems such as aggression and violence. The origins of narcissism, however, are not well understood. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first prospective longitudinal evidence on the origins of narcissism in children. We compared two perspectives: social learning theory (positing that narcissism is cultivated by parental overvaluation) and psychoanalytic theory (positing that narcissism is cultivated by lack of parental warmth). We timed the study in late childhood (ages 7-12), when individual differences in narcissism first emerge. In four 6-mo waves, 565 children and their parents reported child narcissism, child self-esteem, parental overvaluation, and parental warmth. Four-wave cross-lagged panel models were conducted. Results support social learning theory and contradict psychoanalytic theory: Narcissism was predicted by parental overvaluation, not by lack of parental warmth. Thus, children seem to acquire narcissism, in part, by internalizing parents' inflated views of them (e.g., "I am superior to others" and "I am entitled to privileges"). Attesting to the specificity of this finding, self-esteem was predicted by parental warmth, not by parental overvaluation. These findings uncover early socialization experiences that cultivate narcissism, and may inform interventions to curtail narcissistic development at an early age. PMID:25775577

Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan; Bushman, Brad J

2015-03-24

7

Narcissism: Theory and Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of a suitable measuring device hampered the empirical study of narcissism until Raskin and Hall (1979) developed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). The NPI possesses desirable psychometric properties, and in this article I used the scale in a variety of studies. Factor analysis of the scale replicated the four-factor solution found by Emmons (1984): Leadership\\/Authority, Self-Absorption\\/Self-Admiration, Superiority\\/Arrogance, and Exploitiveness\\/Entitlement.

Robert A. Emmons

1987-01-01

8

Narcissism and Moral Education: Extending the Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to criticisms of his article, "Unmasking the Face of Narcissism," recognizing a difference between "positive narcissism," or mastering one's own reality, and "negative narcissism." Suggests the Copernican Model, involving longer class periods and fewer major courses, as a means of incorporating analyses of narcissism into literature,…

Ryan, Francis J.

1996-01-01

9

Freud's "On Narcissism: An Introduction"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews Freud's (1914) seminal paper "On narcissism: an introduction". Freud's paper is briefly set in the historical context of the evolution of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic theories, and Freud's metapsychology up to the publication of his Narcissism paper is outlined. A detailed and comprehensive description of the content of the…

Crockatt, Philip

2006-01-01

10

Sexual narcissism and infidelity in early marriage.  

PubMed

There is theoretical reason to believe that narcissism is associated with infidelity. Yet, studies that have examined this association have yielded inconsistent results. Given that these inconsistencies may have emerged because prior studies used global assessments of narcissism that do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, the current research drew from two longitudinal studies of 123 married couples to examine the extent to which sexual narcissism predicted marital infidelity. Consistent with the idea that narcissism predicts sexual behavior when activated in the sexual domain, own sexual narcissism was positively associated with infidelity, controlling for own marital and sexual satisfaction, own globally-assessed narcissism, partner globally-assessed narcissism, and partner sexual narcissism. Helping to explain why this association emerged, further analyses demonstrated that it was driven by all four facets of sexual narcissism-sexual exploitation, grandiose sense of sexual skill, sexual entitlement (Study 1 only), and lack of sexual empathy (husbands only). Additionally, although partner sexual narcissism was unrelated to infidelity on average, partners' grandiose sense of sexual skill and partners' sexual entitlement (Study 2 only) were positively associated with infidelity, and partners' lack of sexual empathy was negatively associated with infidelity (Study 2 only). These findings highlight the benefits of using domain-specific measures of sexual narcissism in research on sexual behavior and the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality more generally. PMID:24696386

McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura

2014-10-01

11

Narcissism, Sex Roles, and Self-Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between gender, sex role, and narcissism. Data indicated that males and masculine individuals were not higher in their levels of maladaptive narcissism, that an adjusted narcissism was more obvious in males and in masculine subjects, and that femininity appeared to inhibit the display of an unhealthy exploitative…

Watson, P. J.; And Others

1987-01-01

12

MIND-READING AND METACOGNITION: NARCISSISM, NOT ACTUAL COMPETENCE,  

E-print Network

MIND-READING AND METACOGNITION: NARCISSISM, NOT ACTUAL COMPETENCE, PREDICTS SELF-ESTIMATED ABILITY exercise. In both cases, actual performance did not predict self-estimated performance but narcissism did. KEY WORDS: empathic accuracy; interpersonal sensitivity; metacognition; mind- reading; narcissism

Qian, Ning

13

NEOCOLONIAL NARCISSISM AND POSTCOLONIAL PARANOIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children represents an attempt to provide a therapeutic understanding of history and its traumas in a manner that places individualized psychoanalytic constructions in juxtaposition to those of larger collectives. Following Rushdie's lead, I recuperate the problematic Freudian concepts of paranoia, narcissism and fetishism and offer them as models for the functioning of state power. I postulate interdependent

Jason Howard Mezey

2006-01-01

14

Narcissism--An Adolescent Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that the adolescent process needs to be accorded its own particularity of reference, especially where narcissism is concerned. The paper draws on literary and clinical examples to describe what is termed the "adolescent organisation". In many ways, this organisation reflects post-Kleinian theory of what constitutes narcissistic…

Waddell, Margot

2006-01-01

15

Narcissism, sex roles, and self-functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between gender, sex role, and narcissism. Two hundred and three students completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale, along with several measures of self-esteem and depression. Overall, the data indicated that males and masculine individuals were not higher in their levels of maladaptive narcissism, that an

P. J. Watson; Donna Taylor; Ronald J. Morris

1987-01-01

16

Down-regulating narcissistic tendencies: communal focus reduces state narcissism.  

PubMed

Narcissism has been conceptualized as a set of coherent, mutually reinforcing attributes that orients individuals toward self-enhancement and positive self-feelings. In this view, reducing one element of narcissism--such as a greater concern for agency than communion--may situationally reduce narcissism in a state-like manner. Across five studies, we found that increasing communal focus toward others decreases state narcissism. In Study 1, participants induced to feel empathy reported less state narcissism. In Studies 2 to 4, participants primed with interdependent self-construal reported less state narcissism than control participants and those primed with independent self-construal. Furthermore, in Study 4, changes in state narcissism mediated changes in desire for fame and perceptions that others deserve help. Thus, changes in one element of narcissism may situationally reduce narcissistic tendencies. These findings suggest that narcissism is more state-like and context-dependent than previously assumed. PMID:24345714

Giacomin, Miranda; Jordan, Christian H

2014-04-01

17

Dependent Narcissism, Organizational Learning, and Human Resource Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narcissistic leadership can benefit organizational performance. Aberrant narcissism can destroy the psychosocial health of groups, limiting performance. This article examines Dependent Organizational Disorder, a common form of narcissism, which infects leadership, thwarts performance, and interrupts organizational learning. Dependent…

Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

2009-01-01

18

Facing towards or Turning away from Destructive Narcissism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a detailed theoretical discussion of destructive narcissism in relation to Freud and Rosenfeld and later theorists. In destructive narcissism, the destructiveness is itself idealised and overrides "the vital functions which serve the purpose of self-preservation" (Freud, S., 1914, "On narcissism" S.E. 14: 87)--a feature which…

Flynn, Denis; Skogstad, Helga

2006-01-01

19

Shame, Guilt, Narcissism, and Depression: Correlates and Sex Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationships between shame, guilt, narcissism, and depression and the gender differences connected with these states. We hypothesize that shame would be a more powerful contributor to narcissism and depression than guilt and that women would score higher in shame, higher in depression, and lower in narcissism than men. The Adapted Shame\\/Guilt Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory,

Fred Wright; John O’Leary; Joseph Balkin

1989-01-01

20

The Relation between Two Types of Narcissism and Boredom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relation between two types of narcissism and boredom in a group of 106 women undergraduates. As expected, MMPI-based measures of overt and covert narcissism both correlated positively with the Boredom Proneness Scale (BPS) (Farmer & Sundberg, 1986) and its subscale measuring a need for challenge and excitement. Only Overt Narcissism, which is characterized by extroversion and

Paul Wink; Karen Donahue

1997-01-01

21

Theoretical models of narcissism, sexuality, and relationship commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research examines the link between narcissistic personality and sexuality. Additionally, it explores how sexu- ality may inform the operation of narcissism within the context of close relationships. Two theoretical models, each addressing one of these issues, were evaluated empirically. Our first proposed model suggests that the agentic nature of narcissism explains why narcissism is linked to less restricted

Joshua D. Foster; Ilan Shrira; W. Keith Campbell

2006-01-01

22

A Python interface with Narcisse graphics  

SciTech Connect

Narcisse is a graphics package developed by our French colleagues at Centre d`Etudes de Limeil Valenton of the Commissariat d`Energie Atomique. Narcisse is quite comprehensive; it can do two-, three-, and four-dimensional plots (the latter meaning that the surface is colored according to the values of an arbitrary function). One can open and send plots to a Narcisse window on a distant machine. Narcisse has a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) which, once a graph has appeared, allows the user to change its characteristics interactively. This enables one to find the best appearance for a particular plot without having to graph it repeatedly from the user program. Previously created files in various formats can also be imported directly into the Narcisse GUI and manipulated from there. Narcisse runs independently, as a graphics server. The user program communicates with Narcisse via Unix sockets. This communication is quite low level and very complex. The appearance of a plot is controlled by nearly 150 parameters for determining such things as the color palette, type of shading, axis scales, curve and surface labels, titles, angle and distance of view (for three- and four-dimensional graphs), hidden line removal, etc. Most end users do not wish to spend time learning the tedious details of such interfaces; they would just like to specify data and ask to have it plotted. This paper describes a high level, easy to use graphics interface which hides (as much as possible) the low level details of whatever graphics system is actually being used, so that the low level can be essentially ``plug-and-play.`` Then, whenever a better system becomes available, it should only be necessary to change low level interface routines not normally accessed by ordinary users. Python, with its easy extendability, was ideally suited for this job.

Motteler, Z.C.

1996-04-15

23

The Predictive Utility of Narcissism among Children and Adolescents: Evidence for a Distinction between Adaptive and Maladaptive Narcissism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the predictive utility of narcissism among a community sample of children and adolescents (N=98) longitudinally. Analyses focused on the differential utility between maladaptive and adaptive narcissism for predicting later delinquency. Maladaptive narcissism significantly predicted self-reported delinquency at one-, two-, and…

Barry, Christopher T.; Frick, Paul J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Grafeman, Sarah J.

2007-01-01

24

Sexual narcissism and the perpetration of sexual aggression.  

PubMed

Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction). PMID:19130204

Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K

2010-08-01

25

Personal Fables, Narcissism, and Adolescent Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship among three personal fables ("omnipotence," "invulnerability," "personal uniqueness"), narcissism, and mental health variables was assessed in a large, cross-sectional sample of adolescents drawn from Grades 6 (n = 94), 8 (n = 223), 10 (n = 142), and 12 (n = 102). Participants responded to the New Personal Fable Scale, the…

Aalsma, Matthew C.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Flannery, Daniel J.

2006-01-01

26

The happy and unhappy faces of narcissism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several theorists have argued in favor of a distinction between overt and covert narcissism, and factor analytic studies have supported this distinction. In this paper I demonstrate that overt narcissists report higher self-esteem and higher satisfaction with life, whereas covert narcissists report lower self-esteem and lower satisfaction with life. I also present mediational models to explain why overt narcissists are

Paul Rose

2002-01-01

27

Narcissism and Leadership: An Object Relations Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having been largely unknown as a clinical entity, the narcissistic personality has recently come into the limelight. It is argued that one critical component in the orientation of leaders is the quality and intensity of their narcissistic development. In this paper, the relationship between narcissism and leadership is explored. Using concepts taken from psychoanalytic object relations theory, three narcissistic configurations

Danny Miller

1985-01-01

28

Between Self-Denial and Narcissism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that Francis Ryan's article, "Unmasking the Face of Narcissism: A Prerequisite for Moral Education," holds a mistaken view of morality and moral reasoning. Suggests that moral principles have not necessarily been based on self-denial and self-discipline. Argues that the literature on moral education discussed in the article is actually…

Garlikov, Richard

1996-01-01

29

Narcissism and spirituality in Flannery O'Connor's stories.  

PubMed

Virtually any short story by Flannery O'Connor could serve as a poignant case study of narcissism. While narcissism in the guises of ambition and hubris is an ancient literary theme, O'Connor's protagonists vividly exemplify a syndrome of covert and hypervigilant narcissism that has been well characterized in the literature. Her work also strongly implies that narcissism and spirituality (particularly Christianity) are antithetical, and two of her stories--"The Enduring Chill" and "The Lame Shall Enter First"--are analyzed with respect to this belief. The characters of Asbury and Sheppard exhibit classic narcissistic signs and symptoms as delineated by Kohut and Kernberg. The complex relationship of narcissism to evil, spirituality, and contemporary culture is explored, and it is argued that narcissism has a prominent spiritual dimension that raises questions about the role of values in psychotherapy. PMID:14735879

Scheurich, Neil; Mullen, Vincent

2003-01-01

30

Three narcissism scales for the California Q-set.  

PubMed

Three observer-based narcissism scales were developed from factor scores based on a California Q-set (CAQ) narcissism prototype. Each of the three scales--Willfulness, Hypersensitivity, and Autonomy--correlated with observer and self-report narcissism measures in the derivation sample of 105 women and a cross-validation sample of 175 men and 175 women. California Psychological Inventory (CPI), Adjective Check List (ACL), and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) correlates and partner ACL ratings suggested that the Willfulness scale represents self-assuredness, rebelliousness, and exhibitionism characteristic of overt or phallic narcissism. The correlates of the Hypersensitivity scale included depression and introversion along with rebelliousness and hostility, indicative of covert narcissism. The Autonomy scale was correlated positively with creativity, empathy, achievement-orientation, and individualism, and thus assesses a healthy variant of narcissism. PMID:1545344

Wink, P

1992-02-01

31

Parenting Narcissus: What Are the Links Between Parenting and Narcissism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous theorizing by clinical psychologists suggests that adolescent narcissism may be related to parenting practices (Kernb- erg, 1975; Kohut, 1977). Two studies investigated the relations between parenting dimensions (i.e., warmth, monitoring, and psychological con- trol) and narcissism both with and without removing from narcissism variance associated with trait self-esteem. Two hundred and twenty-two college students (Study 1) and 212 high

Robert S. Horton; Geoff Bleau; Brian Drwecki

2006-01-01

32

Assessing Hypersensitive Narcissism: A Reexamination of Murray's Narcism Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new measure of hypersensitive narcissism was derived by correlating the items of H. A. Murray's (1938) Narcism Scale with an MMPI-based composite measure of covert narcissism. In three samples of college students (totalN= 403), 10 items formed a reliable measure: the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS). The new HSNS and the MMPI-based composite showed similar patterns of correlations with the

Holly M. Hendin; Jonathan M. Cheek

1997-01-01

33

Gender Differences in Narcissism and Courtship Violence in Dating Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study explored the relationship between courtship violence and the exploitativeness\\/entitlement factor of overt\\u000a narcissism, covert narcissism, and sexual narcissism. Data were analyzed from 63 currently dating couples on their own and\\u000a partner’s aggression using the CTS2. All were white, heterosexual students from a small US college in Central Pennsylvania.\\u000a An interdependence analysis showed that correlations were entirely explained

Kathryn M. Ryan; Kim Weikel; Gene Sprechini

2008-01-01

34

Narcissism at the crossroads: Phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social\\/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social\\/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical theories of narcissism spanning 35 years consistently describe variations in the expression of pathological narcissism that emphasize either grandiosity or vulnerable affects and self-states. Recent research in social\\/personality psychology examining the structure of narcissistic personality traits consistently finds

Nicole M. Cain; Aaron L. Pincus; Emily B. Ansell

2008-01-01

35

On the meaning and measure of narcissism.  

PubMed

For three decades, social-personality research on overt narcissism has relied almost exclusively on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). However, the NPI suffers from a host of psychometric and validity concerns that make composite NPI scores (summed across its subscales) difficult to interpret. The present studies propose that narcissistic characteristics tend to fall under two general clusters: grandiosity and entitlement. The studies show that measures of grandiosity and entitlement interact to predict scores on the NPI, controlling for gender, self-esteem, and basic personality (Study 1), but also that grandiosity and entitlement function independently with respect to mental health (Study 2) and ethical misconduct (Study 3). Together, these results challenge the view of overt narcissism as a unidimensional construct and underscore the importance of distinguishing between grandiose and entitled aspects of the narcissistic self-concept. PMID:19487486

Brown, Ryan P; Budzek, Karolyn; Tamborski, Michael

2009-07-01

36

Narcissism and Comparative Self-Enhancement Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined narcissism and comparative self-enhancement strategies. Participants either completed an interdependent (Experiment 1) or an independent (Experiment 2) achievement task and then received bogus success or failure feedback. Across experiments, narcissistic individuals self-enhanced. Nonnarcissists, however, showed more flexibility in self-enhancement. They did not self-enhance when doing so meant comparing themselves favorably to a partner (a comparative strategy). Otherwise,

W. Keith Campbell; Glenn D. Reeder; Constantine Sedikides; Andrew J. Elliot

2000-01-01

37

Comparing Clinical and Social-Personality Conceptualizations of Narcissism  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of consensus surrounding the conceptual- ization of narcissism. The present study compared two measures of narcissism—one used in clinical settings (Personality Diagnostic Ques- tionnaire, PDQ-41; Hyler, 1994) and one used in social-personality re- search (Narcissistic Personality Inventory, NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988)— across two samples. Sample 1 (N 5 271) was composed of undergradu- ates, whereas

Joshua D. Miller; W. Keith Campbell

2008-01-01

38

Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…

Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.

2009-01-01

39

Identity, Narcissism, and Defence Mechanisms in Late Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among Marcia?s (1980) identity status, the components of narcissism, and three ego defense mechanisms (denial, projection, and identification) were studied in a group of late adolescents as they began college. The results indicated that experiencing an identity crisis (statuses of Moratorium and Diffusion\\/Moratorium) was associated with the use of all three defenses, but not with narcissism. Commitment to

Phebe Cramer

1995-01-01

40

Unmasking the Face of Narcissism: A Prerequisite for Moral Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that moral and values clarification education encourages narcissism in youths through a focus on individualism and the personal. Finds similar tendencies in adolescent literature. Describes a moral education program designed to counter narcissism through a focus on cooperative relationships. Provides instructional techniques to counter…

Ryan, Francis J.

1996-01-01

41

There Is an "I" in TEAM: Narcissism and Social Loafing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated narcissism as a moderator of social loafing on a physical performance task. High and low narcissistic individuals twice performed a cycling task in same-sex teams of three: once when identifiability was low; and once when identifiability was high. A significant interaction between narcissism and identifiability was revealed, F(1,…

Woodman, Tim; Roberts, Ross; Hardy, Lew; Callow, Nichola; Rogers, Catherine H.

2011-01-01

42

Narcissism, Materialism, and Environmental Ethics in Business Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate the relationships between narcissism, materialism, and environmental ethics in undergraduate business students. Data were collected from business students (n = 405) at an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited business school at a comprehensive state university. Results indicate that narcissism has an…

Bergman, Jacqueline Z.; Westerman, James W.; Bergman, Shawn M.; Westerman, Jennifer; Daly, Joseph P.

2014-01-01

43

The Implications of Sexual Narcissism for Sexual and Marital Satisfaction  

PubMed Central

There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs. PMID:23297145

McNulty, James K.; Widman, Laura

2013-01-01

44

Humor style mediates the association between pathological narcissism and self-esteem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine whether humor styles mediated the associations between the pathological forms of narcissism (grandiose narcissism and vulnerable narcissism) and self-esteem in a sample of Israeli undergraduates (N=200). Grandiose narcissism was positively associated with the use of adaptive humor (i.e., self-enhancing humor and affiliative humor), whereas vulnerable narcissism was negatively associated with the

Virgil Zeigler-Hill; Avi Besser

2011-01-01

45

The Narcissism of Depression or the Depression of Narcissism and Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the fact that it has long been recognised that narcissism can contribute to depression, we have become accustomed to referring to depression mostly in terms of a neurotic disturbance. The author highlights the difference between the narcissistic elements in depression, which is based on guilt, and the graver narcissistic depression, which…

Anastasopoulos, Dimitris

2007-01-01

46

Narcissism and eating characteristics in young nonclinical women.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the potential relationship among borderline personality disorder traits, specific aspects of narcissism, and different elements of eating pathology. Fifty-two nonclinical female participants completed standardized measures of narcissism, borderline personality disorder traits, and eating pathology. Data were analyzed using correlations. Specific associations were found, suggesting that different elements of narcissism are linked with different eating characteristics. Bulimic attitudes were linked with narcissistic personality disorder and borderline personality disorder traits. In contrast, restrictive eating attitudes and a low body mass index were associated with a repressed form of narcissism (which involves putting others' needs before one's own). If these findings are replicated in a clinical group, treatment of restrictive and bulimic cases might need to address different personality features. PMID:15684918

Brunton, Joan Nicola; Lacey, John Hubert; Waller, Glenn

2005-02-01

47

The narcissism epidemic: commentary on modernity and narcissistic personality disorder.  

PubMed

Comments on the original article by Paris (see record 2012-18549-001) regarding narcissistic personality disorder. The current authors agree with Paris that modern life is making people more narcissistic. In fact, the authors demonstrate with this commentary, the case for increasing narcissism is even stronger than presented in his article. An explain that expressing individualism and lack of social support play key roles in this increase. However, the current authors question the idea that therapy is building narcissism. PMID:24796568

Twenge, Jean M; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith

2014-04-01

48

Martyrdom redefined: self-destructive killers and vulnerable narcissism.  

PubMed

Lankford shows that suicide terrorists have much in common with maladjusted persons who die by suicide. However, what differentiates suicidal killers from those who "only" commit suicide? A key element may be vulnerable narcissism. Narcissism has been simultaneously linked to interpersonal aggression, achievement, and depression. These traits may explain the paradoxical picture of a person who may appear "normal" in some aspects, and yet hate himself and others so intensely as to seek mutual destruction. PMID:25162842

Bobadilla, Leonardo

2014-08-01

49

Persistence pays off Left to right: Ina Williams, Brenda Frank, Jack Narcisse and Sarah Moberg  

E-print Network

Persistence pays off Left to right: Ina Williams, Brenda Frank, Jack Narcisse and Sarah Moberg Once received a BA with a major in First Nations while Jack Narcisse received a certificate in First Nations

50

Mark's Signs\\/Twain's Twins: Narcissism in Mark Twain's Pudd'nhead Wilson  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through his work “On Narcissism” Freud was to bequeath an intellectual legacy in which the problems of subject and object were described, and in a sense delimited, by the classical iconology inherited with the very naming of “narcissism” itself. Studies of the double in literature are frequently informed by this model. Using Freud's standard formulation of narcissism as a point

C. Jane Taylor

1992-01-01

51

Individual differences in narcissism: Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation examined associations among narcissism, age, ethnicity, world region, and gender, using a large (n=3445) sample of participants representing several different world regions and ethnicities. The results suggest that (1) reported narcissism declines in older participants, (2) consistent with previous findings, males report being more narcissistic than females, (3) that ethnic differences in reported narcissism are generally comparable

Joshua D. Foster; W. Keith Campbell; Jean M. Twenge

2003-01-01

52

College Adjustment Difficulties and the Overt and Covert Forms of Narcissism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overt narcissism correlated negatively with emotional distress and interpersonal difficulties among female, but not male, students. After controlling for self-esteem, overt narcissism correlated positively with depression among female students and with emotional distress and interpersonal difficulties among male students. Covert narcissism

Weikel, Kim A.; Avara, Renee Mowery; Hanson, Chad A.; Kater, Hope

2010-01-01

53

Convergence of Narcissism Measures from the Perspective of General Personality Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct of narcissism has a lengthy history and has been operationalized and measured by a variety of instruments. In this study, five narcissism scales were compared in terms of alternative conceptualizations of narcissism offered by C. C. Morf and F. Rhodewalt (2001), D. L. Paulhus (2001), and S. Vazire and D. C. Funder (2006), using the…

Samuel, Douglas B.; Widiger, Thomas A.

2008-01-01

54

Educating the Disagreeable Extravert: Narcissism, the Big Five Personality Traits, and Achievement Goal Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the fact that longitudinal data have been compiled over the past 30 years among undergraduate students in higher education settings regarding narcissism, the literature is devoid of empirical investigations that explore the relationships between narcissism and learning. Because the data suggest that narcissism scores are increasing each…

Watson, Joan Monahan

2012-01-01

55

Locus of Control, Narcissism, and Family Life Education in Correctional Rehabilitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effect of narcissism and locus of control on prisoner ability to complete family life psycho-educational program. Data from 63 inmates and 2 sex offender groups indicated significant correlation between locus of control, narcissism, and final examination scores. No significant correlations were found between narcissism and locus of…

Bayse, Daniel J.; And Others

1992-01-01

56

Personality Traits o Narcissism has been shown to play a role in dating  

E-print Network

Personality Traits o Narcissism has been shown to play a role in dating violence (Ryan et al., 2008). o Narcissism predicts perpetration of dating violence, particularly in provocative situations, when display narcissistic traits differently; specifically, men exhibit more overt narcissism (Heather et al

Sanders, Matthew

57

The Relations among Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Delinquency in a Sample of At-Risk Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores the relation between narcissism and delinquency among 372 at-risk 16-18-year-olds. The study also considered the relation between narcissism and self-esteem, as well as the potential interaction between narcissism and self-esteem for predicting delinquency in this age group. Narcissism and self-esteem were positively…

Barry, Christopher T.; Grafeman, Sarah J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Pickard, Jessica D.

2007-01-01

58

Wealth and the inflated self: class, entitlement, and narcissism.  

PubMed

Americans may be more narcissistic now than ever, but narcissism is not evenly distributed across social strata. Five studies demonstrated that higher social class is associated with increased entitlement and narcissism. Upper-class individuals reported greater psychological entitlement (Studies 1a, 1b, and 2) and narcissistic personality tendencies (Study 2), and they were more likely to behave in a narcissistic fashion by opting to look at themselves in a mirror (Study 3). Finally, inducing egalitarian values in upper-class participants decreased their narcissism to a level on par with their lower-class peers (Study 4). These findings offer novel evidence regarding the influence of social class on the self and highlight the importance of social stratification to understanding basic psychological processes. PMID:23963971

Piff, Paul K

2014-01-01

59

Narcissism and discrepancy between self and friends' perceptions of personality.  

PubMed

Most research on narcissism and person perception has used strangers as perceivers. However, research has demonstrated that strangers' ratings are influenced by narcissists' stylish appearance (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2010). In the present study, we recruited participants and their close friends, individuals whose close relationship should immunize them to participants' superficial appearance cues. We investigated the relation between narcissism and personality ratings by self and friends. Participants (N?=?66; 38 women; Mage?=?20.83 years) completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) and described their personality on the 100-item California Adult Q-Sort (CAQ; Block, 2008). Participants' personality was also described on the CAQ by close friends. The "optimally adjusted individual" prototype was used to summarize participant and friend personality ratings (Block, 2008). Participants with high narcissism scores were ascribed higher optimal adjustment by self than by friends. Narcissistic individuals' self-ratings were extremely positive and more favorable than friends' ratings of them. PMID:23799917

Park, Sun W; Colvin, C Randall

2014-08-01

60

An examination of the perceptions of social network characteristics associated with grandiose and vulnerable narcissism.  

PubMed

Two dimensions of narcissism exist, grandiose and vulnerable, which are thought to be associated with distinctly different patterns of interpersonal behavior. Social network analysis is a way of quantifying and analyzing interpersonal interactions that may prove useful for characterizing the networks associated with these narcissism dimensions. In the current study, participants (N = 148) completed scales assessing both narcissism dimensions and a measure of the five-factor model of personality. Egocentric network information about participants' 30 closest friends and family members (i.e., "alters") was also obtained. Both narcissism dimensions were characterized by negative perceptions of the individuals who comprise one's social networks, and many of these relations were mediated by individuals' higher levels of antagonism. Grandiose narcissism also interacted with alter centrality (i.e., importance to the network) such that individuals low on grandiose narcissism were less likely to perceive central alters in a negative light and were more attuned to central alters than were individuals high on grandiose narcissism. Overall, both narcissism dimensions were associated with perceiving one's overall social environment negatively because of the high levels of antagonism that characterize both narcissism dimensions. Individuals high on grandiose narcissism, however, appear to be more insensitive to the relative importance of individuals in their social networks. PMID:24364501

Lamkin, Joanna; Clifton, Allan; Campbell, W Keith; Miller, Joshua D

2014-04-01

61

Technology, Narcissism, and the Moral Sense: Implications for Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses narcissism, child-rearing practices that lead to child-centeredness, and social insensitivity and their implications for instruction. Considers moral education and the moral sense; cultivating the moral sense through technology; and idea and product technologies. Also includes a commentary on the article by Jonathan Ross and a response…

Ryan, Francis; Bednar, Maryanne; Sweeder, John

1999-01-01

62

Institutional Narcissism, Arrogant Organization Disorder and Interruptions in Organizational Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are…

Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

2009-01-01

63

The Dark Triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the offensive yet non-pathological personalities in the literature, three are especially prominent: Machiavellianism, subclinical narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy. We evaluated the recent contention that, in normal samples, this ‘Dark Triad’ of constructs are one and the same. In a sample of 245 students, we measured the three constructs with standard measures and examined a variety of laboratory and self-report

Delroy L. Paulhus; Kevin M. Williams

2002-01-01

64

Development and Validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS)  

PubMed Central

Main Objectives The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies). Methods In 11 independent studies (total N?=?2,250), we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. Results The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults), intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression), and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior). The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. Significance The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures. PMID:25093508

Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P.; Bushman, Brad J.

2014-01-01

65

Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.  

PubMed

This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior. PMID:8988574

Geberth, V J; Turco, R N

1997-01-01

66

Gender differences in narcissism: A meta-analytic review.  

PubMed

Despite the widely held belief that men are more narcissistic than women, there has been no systematic review to establish the magnitude, variability across measures and settings, and stability over time of this gender difference. Drawing on the biosocial approach to social role theory, a meta-analysis performed for Study 1 found that men tended to be more narcissistic than women (d = .26; k = 355 studies; N = 470,846). This gender difference remained stable in U.S. college student cohorts over time (from 1990 to 2013) and across different age groups. Study 1 also investigated gender differences in three facets of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) to reveal that the narcissism gender difference is driven by the Exploitative/Entitlement facet (d = .29; k = 44 studies; N = 44,108) and Leadership/Authority facet (d = .20; k = 40 studies; N = 44,739); whereas the gender difference in Grandiose/Exhibitionism (d = .04; k = 39 studies; N = 42,460) was much smaller. We further investigated a less-studied form of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism-which is marked by low self-esteem, neuroticism, and introversion-to find that (in contrast to the more commonly studied form of narcissism found in the DSM and the NPI) men and women did not differ on vulnerable narcissism (d = -.04; k = 42 studies; N = 46,735). Study 2 used item response theory to rule out the possibility that measurement bias accounts for observed gender differences in the three facets of the NPI (N = 19,001). Results revealed that observed gender differences were not explained by measurement bias and thus can be interpreted as true sex differences. Discussion focuses on the implications for the biosocial construction model of gender differences, for the etiology of narcissism, for clinical applications, and for the role of narcissism in helping to explain gender differences in leadership and aggressive behavior. Readers are warned against overapplying small effect sizes to perpetuate gender stereotypes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25546498

Grijalva, Emily; Newman, Daniel A; Tay, Louis; Donnellan, M Brent; Harms, P D; Robins, Richard W; Yan, Taiyi

2015-03-01

67

Narcissism and self-esteem among homosexual and heterosexual male students.  

PubMed

According to orthodox psychoanalytical theory, narcissism and homosexuality are strongly associated. This association played a major role in pathologizing homosexuality. The present study compared self-esteem and two measures of narcissism among 90 homosexual and 109 heterosexual male students, who filled in a demographic questionnaire, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, which addresses both grandiose and vulnerable subtypes of narcissism. The hypothesis, which is based on the Freudian connection between narcissism and homosexuality, is supported by the results, indicating that the homosexual students score higher in both measures of narcissism and lower on the self-esteem measure, compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Intra-psychic, as well as environmental, interpretations of the results are suggested in the discussion. PMID:20063233

Rubinstein, Gidi

2010-01-01

68

Narcissism: its function in modulating self-conscious emotions.  

PubMed

This study focused on the functional aspects of narcissism in regulating self-conscious emotions (guilt, shame, hubristic pride, and achievement-oriented pride) as well as two other attribution styles (externalization and detachment). The authors investigated Japanese university students (N = 452) with regard to their self-conscious emotions using the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 (TOSCA-3) and their narcissistic personality using the short version of Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-S). Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis. The authors found that narcissism led individuals to feel achievement-oriented pride, hubristic pride, externalization, and detachment, but inhibited feelings of shame. It did not have a significant effect on guilt. Shame-proneness prompted hubristic pride and externalization. Guilt-proneness inclined an individual toward achievement-oriented pride, but deterred externalization. In this article, the authors present and interpret these results in detail and then discuss how they can be utilized in psychotherapy. PMID:22988899

Uji, Masayo; Nagata, Toshiaki; Kitamura, Toshinori

2012-01-01

69

There is an "I" in TEAM: narcissism and social loafing.  

PubMed

We investigated narcissism as a moderator of social loafing on a physical performance task. High and low narcissistic individuals twice performed a cycling task in same-sex teams of three: once when identifiability was low; and once when identifiability was high. A significant interaction between narcissism and identifiability was revealed, F(1, 40) = 4.09, p < .05, eta2 = .09 for performance. Follow-up tests indicated that high narcissists' performance significantly increased with greater identifiability, whereas low narcissists displayed no such performance differences. Results suggested that this effect was due to an increase in narcissists' on-task effort (ratings of perceived exertion and heart rate) when they knew that their performance was to be identified. PMID:21699108

Woodman, Tim; Roberts, Ross; Hardy, Lew; Callow, Nichola; Rogers, Catherine H

2011-06-01

70

Entering Adulthood in a Recession Tempers Later Narcissism.  

PubMed

Despite widespread interest in narcissism, relatively little is known about the conditions that encourage or dampen it. Drawing on research showing that macroenvironmental conditions in emerging adulthood can leave a lasting imprint on attitudes and behaviors, I argue that people who enter adulthood during recessions are less likely to be narcissistic later in life than those who come of age in more prosperous times. Using large samples of American adults, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people who entered adulthood during worse economic times endorsed fewer narcissistic items as older adults. Study 3 extended these findings to a behavioral manifestation of narcissism: the relative pay of CEOs. CEOs who came of age in worse economic times paid themselves less relative to other top executives in their firms. These findings suggest that macroenvironmental experiences at a critical life stage can have lasting implications for how unique, special, and deserving people believe themselves to be. PMID:24815615

Bianchi, Emily C

2014-05-01

71

Collective narcissism and anti-Semitism in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the relationship between collective narcissism—an emotional investment in an unrealistic belief about the greatness of an in-group (Golec de Zavala, Cichocka, Eidelson, & Jayawickreme, 2009) — and anti-Semitism in Poland. The results indicate that this relationship is simultaneously mediated by (a) a belief that the in-group is constantly threatened by hostile intentions of other groups (Polish siege

Agnieszka Golec de Zavala; Aleksandra Cichocka

2012-01-01

72

Are Universities Creating Millennial Narcissistic Employees? An Empirical Examination of Narcissism in Business Students and Its Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigate whether narcissism levels are significantly higher in undergraduate business students than psychology students, whether business schools are reinforcing narcissism in the classroom, and whether narcissism is influencing student salary and career expectations. Data were collected from Millennial students (n = 536) and…

Westerman, James W.; Bergman, Jacqueline Z.; Bergman, Shawn M.; Daly, Joseph P.

2012-01-01

73

Mirror, mirror on the wall: reflecting on narcissism.  

PubMed

This article introduces a special issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session focused on the conceptualization and treatment of narcissism. Obscured by an ongoing debate about how best to define pathological narcissism, clinicians have often lost sight of the fact that narcissistic investment in the self is a normal developmental trend that can be disturbed to varying degrees by environmental stresses and failures of nurturing. Using case presentations, contributing authors demonstrate the following: the importance of understanding the closely interrelated grandiosity and vulnerability associated with narcissistic difficulties; variation in the expression of narcissistic "types"; the role of perfectionism and sadomasochism; and the possibility that narcissistic issues are present across all types of personality psychopathology. Specific alliance-building recommendations are offered, and the greater utility of defining narcissism dimensionally rather than categorically is explored. A clinical case in the current article illustrates each of these central ideas. Together, the discussions presented in this issue invite greater insight into, and appreciation of, narcissistic phenomena, along with examples of effective and empathic treatment approaches. PMID:22729995

Bender, Donna S

2012-08-01

74

Narcissism and consumer behaviour: a review and preliminary findings  

PubMed Central

We review the literature on the relation between narcissism and consumer behavior. Consumer behavior is sometimes guided by self-related motives (e.g., self-enhancement) rather than by rational economic considerations. Narcissism is a case in point. This personality trait reflects a self-centered, self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative orientation. Narcissists are characterized by exhibitionism and vanity, and they see themselves as superior and entitled. To validate their grandiose self-image, narcissists purchase high-prestige products (i.e., luxurious, exclusive, flashy), show greater interest in the symbolic than utilitarian value of products, and distinguish themselves positively from others via their materialistic possessions. Our review lays the foundation for a novel methodological approach in which we explore how narcissism influences eye movement behavior during consumer decision-making. We conclude with a description of our experimental paradigm and report preliminary results. Our findings will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying narcissists’ conspicuous purchases. They will also likely have implications for theories of personality, consumer behavior, marketing, advertising, and visual cognition. PMID:24711797

Cisek, Sylwia Z.; Sedikides, Constantine; Hart, Claire M.; Godwin, Hayward J.; Benson, Valerie; Liversedge, Simon P.

2014-01-01

75

Narcissism and consumer behaviour: a review and preliminary findings.  

PubMed

We review the literature on the relation between narcissism and consumer behavior. Consumer behavior is sometimes guided by self-related motives (e.g., self-enhancement) rather than by rational economic considerations. Narcissism is a case in point. This personality trait reflects a self-centered, self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative orientation. Narcissists are characterized by exhibitionism and vanity, and they see themselves as superior and entitled. To validate their grandiose self-image, narcissists purchase high-prestige products (i.e., luxurious, exclusive, flashy), show greater interest in the symbolic than utilitarian value of products, and distinguish themselves positively from others via their materialistic possessions. Our review lays the foundation for a novel methodological approach in which we explore how narcissism influences eye movement behavior during consumer decision-making. We conclude with a description of our experimental paradigm and report preliminary results. Our findings will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying narcissists' conspicuous purchases. They will also likely have implications for theories of personality, consumer behavior, marketing, advertising, and visual cognition. PMID:24711797

Cisek, Sylwia Z; Sedikides, Constantine; Hart, Claire M; Godwin, Hayward J; Benson, Valerie; Liversedge, Simon P

2014-01-01

76

The Higher Order Factor Structure and Gender Invariance of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a…

Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.

2010-01-01

77

The Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Dyadic Narcissism and the Problem of Individuation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses issues of infantile gender identity as they are demonstrated through group processes amongst the carers of disturbed adolescents. It uses this and other clinical material to explore gender narcissism--both male and female. It examines how such narcissism is linked to sado-masochism, and how it can impede a healthy development…

Sprince, Jenny

2009-01-01

78

Measuring Narcissism within Add Health: The Development and Validation of a New Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the development of a measure of narcissism within the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data set. In Study 1, items were selected from Wave III to form the Add Health Narcissism Scale (AHNS). These were factor analyzed, yielding a single factor comprised of five subscales. We correlated the AHNS and…

Davis, Mark S.; Brunell, Amy B.

2012-01-01

79

Narcissism, Exploitative Attitudes, and Academic Dishonesty: An Exploratory Investigation of Reality versus Myth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Renewed interest in the effects of narcissism in the media has generated a closer examination of the phenomenon. This coupled with an increase in academic misbehavior among both high school and university students has provided an opportunity to scrutinize the effects of narcissism on attitudes toward academic dishonesty. The authors investigated…

Menon, Mohan K.; Sharland, Alex

2011-01-01

80

Examining Associations between Narcissism, Behavior Problems, and Anxiety in Non-Referred Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…

Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.

2011-01-01

81

Narcissism, Sexual Refusal, and Aggression: Testing a Narcissistic Reactance Model of Sexual Coercion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory analog studies investigated the theory that narcissism and reactance contribute to causing rape. In Study 1, narcissism correlated positively with rape-supportive beliefs and negatively with empathy for rape victims. In Study 2, narcissists reported more enjoyment than other men of film depictions that presented consensual, affectionate activity followed by rape (but not in response to either affection or rape

Brad J. Bushman; Angelicca M. Bonacci; Mirjam van Dijk; Roy F. Baumeister

2003-01-01

82

The higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory.  

PubMed

The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a higher order factor structure that conforms to the theoretical structure of pathological narcissism with one factor representing narcissistic grandiosity and the other capturing narcissistic vulnerability. These results uniquely place the PNI as the only measure to broadly assess the two phenotypic themes of pathological narcissism. In the second study, results from tests of measurement invariance indicate that the PNI performs similarly in large samples of men (n = 488) and women (n = 495). These results further establish the psychometric properties of the PNI and suggest that it is well suited for the assessment of pathological narcissism. PMID:20634422

Wright, Aidan G C; Lukowitsky, Mark R; Pincus, Aaron L; Conroy, David E

2010-12-01

83

Collective narcissism moderates the effect of in-group image threat on intergroup hostility.  

PubMed

Results of 4 experiments demonstrated that under in-group image threat collective narcissism predicts retaliatory intergroup hostility. Under in-group criticism (vs. praise) collective narcissists expressed intention to harm the offending out-group but not other, nonoffending out-groups. This effect was specific to collective narcissism and was replicated in studies that accounted for the overlap between collective narcissism and individual narcissism, in-group positivity (in-group identification, blind and constructive patriotism), social dominance orientation, and right wing authoritarianism. The link between collective narcissism and retaliatory intergroup hostility under in-group image threat was found in the context of national identity and international relations and in the context of a social identity defined by university affiliation. Study 4 demonstrated that the relationship between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility was mediated by the perception of in-group criticism as personally threatening. The results advance our understanding of the mechanism driving the link between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility. They indicate that threatened egotism theory can be extended into the intergroup domain. PMID:23586408

Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Iskra-Golec, Irena

2013-06-01

84

Aggressive reactions to abusive supervision: the role of interactional justice and narcissism.  

PubMed

In this study, we explore personality and situational conditions in which negative leadership - specifically, abusive supervision - is associated with aggressive behavior in subordinates. That is, we examine the role that interactional justice and narcissism play in an employee's decision to respond aggressively to an abusive supervisor. We demonstrate that interactional justice mediates the relationship between perceptions of abusive supervision and subsequent employee aggression. In addition, we demonstrate that narcissism interacts with interactional justice perceptions to predict workplace aggression. We find that individuals with high levels of narcissism are the employees who are most likely to respond aggressively when they interpret their leader's behavior as abusive. PMID:21504430

Burton, James P; Hoobler, Jenny M

2011-08-01

85

Bulimia as a disturbance of narcissism: self-esteem and the capacity to self-soothe.  

PubMed

A review of the literature on eating disorders reveals that, although psychodynamic formulations linking narcissistic dynamics--particularly difficulties with self-soothing--and eating disorders are common in the theoretical and clinical literature, little empirical work has attempted to substantiate this claim. In this study, 117 women completed the Eating Disorder Inventory and the Bulimia Test Revised and four scales that measure different components of narcissism (the Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory, measuring self-esteem, the Self-Care Questionnaire, and two subscales of the Ego Functioning Assessment Questionnaire, measuring self-soothing). The four scales used to assess narcissism were all highly correlated with each other, indicating that they measure a similar construct. In addition, the eating-disorder measures were correlated with the measures of narcissism, suggesting that a relationship exists between bulimia and narcissism, as assessed using self-report instruments. PMID:9347071

Steinberg, B E; Shaw, R J

1997-01-01

86

The associations between two facets of narcissism and eating disorder symptoms.  

PubMed

The current study sought to examine the relationships between two facets of narcissism (vulnerable and grandiose) and eating disorder symptoms. Based upon previous research (Davis, Claridge, & Cerullo, 1997), it was predicted that the vulnerable narcissism facet would be more strongly associated with eating disorder symptoms because of the tendency for vulnerable narcissists to base their self-worth on their appearance (Zeigler-Hill, Clark, & Picard, 2008). The hypotheses were tested cross-sectionally in a sample of 355 male and female undergraduate students. Results generally conformed to prediction, in that vulnerable narcissism tended to be positively correlated with eating disorder symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by self-worth that is contingent upon physical appearance. Our findings are consistent with the notion that vulnerable narcissism is a risk factor for eating disorder symptoms because it is associated with a drive to improve self-worth through the enhancement of physical appearance. PMID:20850065

Gordon, Kathryn H; Dombeck, Joseph J

2010-12-01

87

Commonalities and differences in characteristics of persons at risk for narcissism and mania  

PubMed Central

Clinicians have long noted overlap in some of the key features of narcissism and bipolar disorder, including excessively high goals and impulsivity. In addition, empirical findings consistently document high levels of comorbidity between the two conditions. To better understand the similarities and differences in psychological qualities associated with mania- and narcissism-related vulnerabilities, we administered to 233 undergraduates a broad range of measures pertaining to goals and affects (both their experience and their dysregulation) and impulsivity. As hypothesized, tendencies toward both narcissism and hypomania related to elevations on measures of affective and goal dysregulation. In addition, hypomania tendencies were related to higher impulsivity, but that association did not appear for narcissistic tendencies. Results highlight key commonalities and differences between those at risk for mania versus narcissism. Future research should examine these relationships in clinically diagnosed samples. PMID:20376289

Fulford, Daniel; Johnson, Sheri L.; Carver, Charles S.

2010-01-01

88

Young adult sibling relations: the effects of perceived parental favoritism and narcissism.  

PubMed

The present study examined predictors of siblings' relations in 202 young adults (aged 21-32 years), who completed the Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Results indicate that warmth between siblings is explained by gender (with women feeling closer), perceived paternal favoritism, low levels of narcissism, and an interaction suggesting that paternal favoritism moderates the link between narcissism and sibling warmth. Conflict between siblings was explained by gender (sisters), age, parental favoritism, high levels of narcissism, extreme levels of similarity or dissimilarity between siblings, and interactions indicating that older age is a predictor of conflict between siblings among women but not among men. The impact of parental favoritism and narcissism on sibling relationships in young adulthood was discussed. PMID:21290927

Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Cohen, Orna

2011-01-01

89

Are narcissists attractive? The link between narcissism, self-perceived mate success and body shape.   

E-print Network

Body measurements such as WHR, WCR, BUR, LBR, BMI, along with composite masculinity factors and facial/body fluctuating asymmetry were used to examine the possible correlation between measures of narcissism and SPMS with physical attractiveness...

Chang, David

2012-06-21

90

One man's wickedness : malignant narcissism and major blunders in international relations  

E-print Network

Malignant narcissism is a personality syndrome marked by hubris, paranoia, and reckless indifference to the human consequences of decisions. Malignant-narcissistic leaders tend to commit major blunders in international ...

Landau, Daniel B. (Daniel Bruce), 1969-

2004-01-01

91

[Malignant narcissism and sexual homicide--exemplified by the Jack Unterweger case].  

PubMed

With the syndrome of malignant narcissism, which is characterised by narcissistic personality disorder, anti-social behaviour, sadism and a marked tendency to paranoid reactions, Kernberg (1985, 1996) describes an independent form of pathological narcissism. According to Stone (1996) this is found in many mass-murderers and serial killers. On the basis of the example of Jack Unterweger the connection between malignant narcissism and sexual offence is discussed as to psychodynamic development, personality structure and psychopathology. Unterweger, who was convicted to lifelong imprisonment in 1976 for sadistic sexual murder, became a wellknown writer in prison and was released prematurely in 1990 as the Austria case of successful rehabilitation. As stated in the sentence passed against him he killed 11 prostitutes in Europe and the USA within the next 18 months, but never pleaded guilty. Psychiatric examination revealed numerous elements of malignant narcissism and the constellation of his development and life was typical of serial offenders. PMID:10489586

Haller, R

1999-01-01

92

Narcissism and depression: MMPI-2 evidence for the continuum hypothesis in clinical samples.  

PubMed

According to one hypothesis, self-report measures of narcissism help describe a psychological continuum related to self-esteem. Most of the previous support for this idea appeared in studies of undergraduates responding to the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Hall, 1981) along with other self-report instruments. In this project, results consistent with the continuum hypothesis were obtained when Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) narcissism scales were correlated with depression in adults receiving treatment for alcoholism. Essentially identical outcomes emerged in a second sample of state psychiatric hospital patients. A third study upheld the hypothesis when narcissism scales were correlated with clinical assessments rather than self-reports of depression. None of these findings were easily explained in terms of alternative interpretations of self-reported narcissism, and these data demonstrate that empirical support for the continuum hypothesis was not limited to the NPI, undergraduates, or self-report measures. PMID:12227670

Watson, P J; Sawrie, Stephen M; Greene, Roger L; Arredondo, Rudy

2002-08-01

93

Narcissism and the non-equivalence of self-esteem measures: A matter of dominance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research reveals a substantial degree of variability in the extent to which narcissism (as measured by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory or NPI; Emmons, 1987) and self-esteem (measured using a variety of self-report scales) are associated. Data from 329 college students provided support for the hypothesis that the variability in associations between narcissism and different measures of self-esteem may be

Ryan P. Brown; Virgil Zeigler-Hill

2004-01-01

94

Evaluating Sources of Ego-Threatening Feedback: Self-Esteem and Narcissism Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

High self-esteem individuals in previous studies have tended to deny the credibility of negative evaluators. The present research examined possible explanations for this finding and compared the effects of self-esteem and narcissism on evaluations of negative feedback sources. Following bogus negative feedback, self-esteem predicted negative evaluations of a nonperson feedback source and positive affect, as expected from consistency theory; narcissism

Regina L. Smalley; Jayne E. Stake

1996-01-01

95

Parallel Syndromes: Two Dimensions of Narcissism and the Facets of Psychopathic Personality in Criminally-Involved Individuals  

PubMed Central

Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally-involved individuals. The present study examined the pattern of relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, respectively, and the four facets of psychopathy (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial) assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). As predicted, grandiose and vulnerable narcissism showed differential relationships to psychopathy facets, with grandiose narcissism relating positively to the interpersonal facet of psychopathy and vulnerable narcissism relating positively to the lifestyle facet of psychopathy. Paralleling existing psychopathy research, vulnerable narcissism showed stronger associations than grandiose narcissism to 1) other forms of psychopathology, including internalizing and substance use disorders, and 2) self- and other-directed aggression, measured using the Life History of Aggression and the Forms of Aggression Questionnaire. Grandiose narcissism was nonetheless associated with social dysfunction marked by a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style and unprovoked aggression. Potentially important implications for uncovering etiological pathways and developing treatment interventions for these disorders in externalizing adults are discussed. PMID:22448731

2012-01-01

96

Pathological Narcissism and Interpersonal Behavior in Daily Life  

PubMed Central

The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) has been proposed as a useful meta-framework for integrating contextual differences in situations with individual differences in personality pathology. In this article, we evaluated the potential of combining the CAPS meta-framework and contemporary interpersonal theory to investigate how individual differences in pathological narcissism influenced interpersonal functioning in daily life. University students (N = 184) completed event-contingent reports about interpersonal interactions across a 7-day diary study. Using multilevel regression models, we found that combinations of narcissistic expression (grandiosity, vulnerability) were associated with different interpersonal behavior patterns reflective of interpersonal dysfunction. These results are among the first to empirically demonstrate the usefulness of the CAPS model to conceptualize personality pathology through the patterning of if-then interpersonal processes. PMID:23205698

Roche, Michael J.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.; Hyde, Amanda L.; Ram, Nilam

2014-01-01

97

The Associations of Self-Reported and Peer-Reported Relational Aggression with Narcissism and Self-Esteem among Adolescents in a Residential Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the relations of self-reported and peer-nominated relational aggression (RA) with self-esteem and narcissism among 43 at-risk 16- to 18-year-olds. Self-reported and peer-nominated RA were positively intercorrelated, and each was positively correlated with narcissism. An interaction between self-esteem and narcissism

Golmaryami, Farrah N.; Barry, Christopher T.

2010-01-01

98

Evidence for the criterion validity and clinical utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (Ns = 299, 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability with established indices of normal personality traits, psychopathology and clinical concerns, and pathological personality traits. Overall, the pattern of correlations supported the convergent and discriminate validity of grandiose and vulnerable conceptualizations of pathological narcissism as measured by the PNI. Clinical utility was assessed by evaluating the extent to which clinicians without specific training in pathological narcissism as well as clinicians with expertise in pathological narcissism could accurately predict the correlates of PNI grandiosity and vulnerability with normal and pathological personality traits and psychopathology. The rcontrast-cv coefficient (Westen & Rosenthal, 2003) provided a global index of accuracy in clinicians’ predictions that was more fully elaborated by examining systematic discrepancies across groups. Overall, novice and expert clinicians were generally able to predict criterion correlations, with some exceptions (e.g., counter to predictions, pathological narcissism was negatively associated with treatment resistance). These results provide further evidence regarding the validity and utility of the narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability constructs as measured by the PNI. PMID:22315481

Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

99

A Behavioral Genetic Study of Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Dimensions of Narcissism  

PubMed Central

Narcissism, characterized by grandiose self-image and entitled feelings to others, has been increasingly prevalent in the past decades. This study examined genetic and environmental bases of two dimensions of narcissism: intrapersonal grandiosity and interpersonal entitlement. A total of 304 pairs of twins from Beijing, China completed the Narcissistic Grandiosity Scale and the Psychological Entitlement Scale. Both grandiosity (23%) and entitlement (35%) were found to be moderately heritable, while simultaneously showing considerable non-shared environmental influences. Moreover, the genetic and environmental influences on the two dimensions were mostly unique (92–93%), with few genetic and environmental effects in common (7–8%). The two dimensions of narcissism, intrapersonal grandiosity and interpersonal entitlement, are heritable and largely independent of each other in terms of their genetic and environmental sources. These findings extend our understanding of the heritability of narcissism on the one hand. On the other hand, the study demonstrates the rationale for distinguishing between intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of narcissism, and possibly personality in general as well. PMID:24695616

Luo, Yu L. L.; Cai, Huajian; Song, Hairong

2014-01-01

100

A behavioral genetic study of intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of narcissism.  

PubMed

Narcissism, characterized by grandiose self-image and entitled feelings to others, has been increasingly prevalent in the past decades. This study examined genetic and environmental bases of two dimensions of narcissism: intrapersonal grandiosity and interpersonal entitlement. A total of 304 pairs of twins from Beijing, China completed the Narcissistic Grandiosity Scale and the Psychological Entitlement Scale. Both grandiosity (23%) and entitlement (35%) were found to be moderately heritable, while simultaneously showing considerable non-shared environmental influences. Moreover, the genetic and environmental influences on the two dimensions were mostly unique (92-93%), with few genetic and environmental effects in common (7-8%). The two dimensions of narcissism, intrapersonal grandiosity and interpersonal entitlement, are heritable and largely independent of each other in terms of their genetic and environmental sources. These findings extend our understanding of the heritability of narcissism on the one hand. On the other hand, the study demonstrates the rationale for distinguishing between intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of narcissism, and possibly personality in general as well. PMID:24695616

Luo, Yu L L; Cai, Huajian; Song, Hairong

2014-01-01

101

Sounds like a Narcissist: Behavioral Manifestations of Narcissism in Everyday Life  

PubMed Central

Little is known about narcissists’ everyday behavior. The goal of this study was to describe how narcissism is manifested in everyday life. Using the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), we obtained naturalistic behavior from participants’ everyday lives. The results suggest that the defining characteristics of narcissism that have been established from questionnaire and laboratory-based studies are borne out in narcissists’ day-to-day behaviors. Narcissists do indeed behave in more extraverted and less agreeable ways than non-narcissists, skip class more (among narcissists high in exploitativeness/entitlement only), and use more sexual language. Furthermore, we found that the link between narcissism and disagreeable behavior is strengthened when controlling for self-esteem, thus extending prior questionnaire-based findings (Paulhus, Robins, Trzesniewski, & Tracy, 2004) to observed, real-world behavior. PMID:20711512

Holtzman, Nicholas S.; Vazire, Simine; Mehl, Matthias R.

2010-01-01

102

Narcissism Predicts Heightened Cortisol Reactivity to a Psychosocial Stressor in Men  

PubMed Central

Narcissists' sensitivity to social evaluation should increase their physiological reactivity to evaluative stressors. However, very few studies have assessed the physiological correlates of narcissism. In this study, participants completed an evaluative laboratory stressor or a non-evaluative control task. Cortisol reactivity—a marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response—and negative affect (NA) were higher in the stress versus control condition. However, men showed larger cortisol responses and, among men, higher narcissism scores predicted greater cortisol reactivity and larger increases in NA. Narcissism was unrelated to cortisol reactivity and NA among women and in the control condition. These findings highlight the influence of defensive personality traits on HPA reactivity and suggest a pathway through which narcissistic traits might influence long-term health outcomes. PMID:21076653

Edelstein, Robin S.; Yim, Ilona S.; Quas, Jodi A.

2010-01-01

103

Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder in Axis I disorders.  

PubMed

This paper presents available information on the comorbidity of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and pathological narcissism with major mental illness. A review of empirical studies reporting on the prevalence of NPD in Axis I disorders, and of theoretical and clinical literature on narcissistic pathology in major mental illness, forms the basis for an analysis of this interface. The results show that prevalence rates of NPD in Axis I disorders rarely exceed those found in the general psychiatric or personality disorder populations (i.e., less than 22%). NPD was found at high rates in individuals with a substance use disorder (12-38%) or bipolar disorder (4-47%); it was present at very low rates or absent in persons with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Higher prevalence rates were reported in the studies that used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory I or II than in those that employed the Structured interview for DSM-III Personality Disorders or the Structured Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders--Revised. There is no evidence implicating a significant relationship between NPD and any specific Axis I disorder. A comparison of theoretical and clinical studies with empirical ones reveals major differences in the views regarding the presence and significance of NPD in Axis I disorders. However, the results highlight trends of interacting comorbidity between NPD and substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, and anorexia nervosa. PMID:9384963

Ronningstam, E

1996-01-01

104

Retrospective reports of attachment disruptions, parental abuse and neglect mediate the relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem.  

PubMed

Studies have shown a direct relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem; however, there have not been many studies that have empirically tested which theoretically relevant variables mediate this relationship. In the present study, we evaluated how self-reported, early negative childhood experiences with parental figures mediate the relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem. Four-hundred eight-five undergraduates from a Midwestern university retrospectively assessed their experiences of parental attachment and bonding, as well as their levels of pathological narcissism and current self-esteem. There was a significant correlation among all pathological narcissism subscales and self-esteem, except for the Exploitativeness subscale. Self-esteem was negatively correlated with all negative childhood experiences on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and was positively correlated with positive childhood experiences on the Parental Attachment Questionnaire (PAQ). The parental relationship quality was negatively associated with all but one Pathological Narcissism Inventory subscale, as was the PAQ total score. Lastly, emotional neglect on the CTQ significantly mediated the relationship between several pathological narcissism subscales and self-esteem. When investigating parental attachment and parental bonding, the quality of the relationship with the parent was a significant mediator between pathological narcissism and self-esteem. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding the adverse effects of parental abuse and neglect on healthy development of the self and self-esteem. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25331543

Maxwell, Kendal; Huprich, Steven

2014-10-01

105

There is no there there: a discussion of "Narcissism and self-esteem among homosexual and heterosexual male students".  

PubMed

"Narcissism and Self-Esteem among Homosexual and Heterosexual Male Students," states as its aim: Acknowledging the changes both homosexuality and narcissism went through, the present study aims at empirically reviving the discussion about the association between these two phenomena. Based on the Freudian assumption that homosexual individuals develop on a narcissistic basis and look for a young man who resembles themselves, the hypothesis of this study predicts that their level of narcissism would be higher and level of self-esteem would be lower compared to their heterosexual counterparts. (Rubinstein, this issue). PMID:20063235

Drescher, Jack

2010-01-01

106

A test of the construct validity of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory.  

PubMed

The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI) is a new self-report measure that was developed to assess traits associated with grandiose and vulnerable narcissism from a Five-factor model (FFM) perspective. In a sample of undergraduates (N = 283), the relations among the FFNI scales, grandiose and vulnerable dimensions, and an array of relevant criteria were examined including self- and informant reports of the Big Five domains, measures of the Dark Triad, ratings of the interpersonal circumplex, externalizing and internalizing behaviors and symptoms, and romantic and attachment styles. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable dimensions demonstrated good convergent and criterion validity. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable dimensions manifested converging (e.g., disagreeableness, low love/communion, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, Ludus/Manic love styles) and diverging (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion, dominance, externalizing, internalizing, attachment anxiety) relations in a manner largely consistent with predictions. The FFNI joins the Pathological Narcissism Inventory as a measure that can simultaneously assess both grandiose and vulnerable dimensions of narcissism. PMID:23186210

Miller, Joshua D; Gentile, Brittany; Campbell, W Keith

2013-01-01

107

Effects of Self-Esteem and Narcissism on Bullying and Victimization during Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigates the longitudinal association, across a 1-year period, between self-esteem and narcissism with bullying and peer victimization. The sample consisted of 1,416 (50.1% girls) Greek Cypriot early adolescents ("M" age = 12.89) who completed a battery of self-report measures. The small correlation found between…

Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.

2015-01-01

108

Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…

Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

109

Narcissism dimensions differentially moderate selective attention to evaluative stimuli in incarcerated offenders.  

PubMed

Narcissistic personality disorder is associated with distinguishing traits including self-enhancement, arrogance, and intense reactivity to ego threat. Theoretical accounts of narcissism suggest these heterogeneous behaviors reflect a defensive motivational style that functions to both uphold and protect the self-concept. However, the notion that narcissism can be characterized by grandiose and vulnerable dimensions raises the possibility that these diverse behaviors represent distinct expressions of narcissistic defensiveness. The present study examined whether both dimensions exhibit a general defensive style marked by selective attention to evaluative stimuli or are differentially associated with selective attention to positive and negative information, respectively. Using a dot probe task consisting of valenced and neutral trait adjectives, we evaluated these hypotheses in a group of male offenders. Results indicated that vulnerable narcissism was associated with attention biases for both positive and negative stimuli, though the dimension was further distinguished by disengagement difficulties and a greater recognition memory bias in response to negative words. Conversely, grandiose narcissism was associated with increased accuracy when attending to positive stimuli and directing attention away from negative stimuli. Overall, these findings suggest narcissistic individuals share motivated selective attention in response to evaluative stimuli, while simultaneously highlighting important phenotypic differences between grandiose and vulnerable dimensions. PMID:25330183

Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Lee, Christopher; Newman, Joseph P

2015-01-01

110

Parent-Infant Psychotherapy, the Transition to Parenthood and Parental Narcissism: Implications for Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the author discusses some of the indications for short- or long-term parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions in terms of what he defines as "problems of parenthood" and "problems of parental narcissism". Brief parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions are most frequently indicated in the case of the former: more neurotic…

Espasa, Francisco Palacio

2004-01-01

111

An Empirical Typology of Narcissism and Mental Health in Late Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-step cluster analytic strategy was used in two studies to identify an empirically derived typology of narcissism in late adolescence. In Study 1, late adolescents (N=204) responded to the profile of narcissistic dispositions and measures of grandiosity (''superiority'') and idealization (''goal instability'') inspired by Kohut's theory,…

Lapsley, Daniel K.; Aalsma, Matthew C.

2006-01-01

112

Freshman to Senior Year: A Follow-Up Study of Identity, Narcissism, and Defense Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identity status, narcissism, and use of defense mechanisms of 89 college seniors who had previously been assessed as they entered college (Cramer, 1995) was determined. As compared to earlier follow-up studies, fewer students were found in the Foreclosed status, and more students remained in Moratorium. Support was found for the previously made predictions that change in identity status would

Phebe Cramer

1998-01-01

113

An Examination of the Roles of Rationalization and Narcissism in Facilitating Academic Dishonesty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic dishonesty is a significant problem among college students. Numerous factors affect levels of cheating. This study utilized an original survey on cheating and rationalization along with the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and multiple regression analysis to examine the relationships between rationalization, narcissism, and academic…

Faulkner, Karen

2012-01-01

114

Trumping Shame by Blasts of Noise: Narcissism, Self-Esteem, Shame, and Aggression in Young Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment tested how self-views influence shame-induced aggression. One hundred and sixty-three young adolescents (M = 12.2 years) completed measures of narcissism and self-esteem. They lost to an ostensible opponent on a competitive task. In the shame condition, they were told that their opponent was bad, and they saw their own name at the…

Thomaes, Sander; Bushman, Brad J.; Stegge, Hedy; Olthof, Tjeert

2008-01-01

115

Narcissism, self-concept clarity and aggressive cognitive bias amongst mentally disordered offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increased risk of aggression amongst a small proportion of the mentally disordered population. This is not fully explained by illness factors, and both personality and cognitive bias might contribute to aggressive thinking in this sub-population. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the personality constructs of narcissism and self-concept clarity and aggressively biased

Rachel Edwards; Alyson J. Bond

2012-01-01

116

The impact of narcissism on drop-out from cognitive-behavioral therapy for the eating disorders: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between narcissism and drop-out from the early stage of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders. Narcissism was defined in terms of both its core elements and the narcissistic defense styles. The participants were 41 patients presenting for CBT at a specialist eating disorders service. Each completed measures of narcissism and eating disorder psychopathology. Attendance at sessions was also recorded. The presence of the narcissistically abused personality defense style was associated with a higher likelihood of dropping out of outpatient CBT. This "martyred" form of narcissism appears to have a significant role in the adherence to treatment for the eating disorders. The limitations and the clinical implications of this preliminary research are discussed, and future directions for research are suggested. PMID:19363385

Campbell, Mari A; Waller, Glenn; Pistrang, Nancy

2009-04-01

117

A Big Five facet analysis of sub-clinical narcissism: understanding boldness in terms of well-known personality traits.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine a Big Five 'bright-side' analysis of a sub-clinical personality disorder, i.e. narcissism. A total of 6957 British adults completed the NEO-PI-R, which measures the Big Five Personality factors at the domain and the facet level, as well as the Hogan Development Survey (HDS), which has a measure of Narcissism called Bold as one of its dysfunctional interpersonal tendencies. Correlation and regression results confirmed many of the associations between the Big Five domains and facets (NEO-PI-R) and sub-clinical narcissism. The Bold (Narcissism) scale from the HDS was the criterion variable in all analyses. Bold individuals are disagreeable extraverts with very low scores on facet Modesty but moderately high scores on Assertiveness, Competence and Achievement Striving. The study confirmed work using different population groups and different measures. PMID:24733713

Furnham, Adrian; Crump, John

2014-08-01

118

How narcissistic employees respond to abusive supervision: two roles of narcissism in decreasing perception and increasing deviance.  

PubMed

Abusive supervision, a type of interpersonal mistreatment from direct supervisors toward subordinates, has received growing attention in leadership research. However, the role of narcissism related to abusive supervision is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of narcissism with subordinates' perceptions of abusive supervision and deviance toward the supervisor. Ratings on the aforementioned variables were collected from 403 full-time employees at two different times with one week in between (95 men, 308 women; M age = 26.0 yr.; M tenure = 5.1 yr.). The results of regression analyses showed that narcissism was significantly and negatively related to abusive supervision. Moreover, narcissism moderated the positive relationship between abusive supervision and deviance toward the supervisor. PMID:25243364

Wang, Rong; Jiang, Jiang

2014-10-01

119

The Evolutionary Significance of Anthropometric Variables on the ‘Dark Triad’ of Personality: Psychometrically Measured Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy.   

E-print Network

) this study will incorporate this into the investigation of the ‘dark triad’ of personality: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. The study aims to assess associations between the ‘dark triad’ and various anthropometric measurements indicative...

Ponce, Carmen

2012-11-28

120

The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI): a test of the convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of FFNI scores in clinical and community samples.  

PubMed

The five-factor narcissism inventory (FFNI) is a new self-report measure that was developed to assess traits associated with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), as well as grandiose and vulnerable narcissism from a five-factor model (FFM) perspective. In the current study, the FFNI was examined in relation to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) NPD, DSM-5 (http://www.dsm5.org) NPD traits, grandiose narcissism, and vulnerable narcissism in both community (N = 287) and clinical samples (N = 98). Across the samples, the FFNI scales manifested good convergent and discriminant validity such that FFNI scales derived from FFM neuroticism were primarily related to vulnerable narcissism scores, scales derived from FFM extraversion were primarily related to grandiose scores, and FFNI scales derived from FFM agreeableness were related to both narcissism dimensions, as well as the DSM-IV and DSM-5 NPD scores. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable narcissism composites also demonstrated incremental validity in the statistical prediction of these scores, above and beyond existing measures of DSM NPD, grandiose narcissism, and vulnerable narcissism, respectively. The FFNI is a promising measure that provides a comprehensive assessment of narcissistic pathology while maintaining ties to the significant general personality literature on the FFM. PMID:23647044

Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Wilson, Lauren; Gentile, Brittany; Widiger, Thomas A; Mackillop, James; Keith Campbell, W

2013-09-01

121

A comparison of the criterion validity of popular measures of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder via the use of expert ratings.  

PubMed

The growing interest in the study of narcissism has resulted in the development of a number of assessment instruments that manifest only modest to moderate convergence. The present studies adjudicate among these measures with regard to criterion validity. In the 1st study, we compared multiple narcissism measures to expert consensus ratings of the personality traits associated with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD; Study 1; N = 98 community participants receiving psychological/psychiatric treatment) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) using 5-factor model traits as well as the traits associated with the pathological trait model according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). In Study 2 (N = 274 undergraduates), we tested the criterion validity of an even larger set of narcissism instruments by examining their relations with measures of general and pathological personality, as well as psychopathology, and compared the resultant correlations to the correlations expected by experts for measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Across studies, the grandiose dimensions from the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI; Glover, Miller, Lynam, Crego, & Widiger, 2012) and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) provided the strongest match to expert ratings of DSM-IV-TR NPD and grandiose narcissism, whereas the vulnerable dimensions of the FFNI and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (Pincus et al., 2009), as well as the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (Hendin & Cheek, 1997), provided the best match to expert ratings of vulnerable narcissism. These results should help guide researchers toward the selection of narcissism instruments that are most well suited to capturing different aspects of narcissism. PMID:24773036

Miller, Joshua D; McCain, Jessica; Lynam, Donald R; Few, Lauren R; Gentile, Brittany; MacKillop, James; Campbell, W Keith

2014-09-01

122

Narcissism and Other-Derogation in the Absence of Ego Threat.  

PubMed

The relation between narcissism and other-derogation has been examined primarily in the context of ego threat. In three studies, we investigated whether narcissistic individuals derogate others in the absence of ego threat. In Study 1, 79 judges watched four videotaped dyadic interactions and rated the personality of the same four people. In Study 2, 66 judges rated the personality of a friend. In Study 3, 72 judges considered the average Northeastern University student and rated the personality of this hypothetical person. Across the three studies, targets' personality characteristics were described on the 100-item California Adult Q-Sort (CAQ; Block, 2008). Judges' ratings of targets were compared to a CAQ prototype of the optimally adjusted person to assess target-derogation. Judges' narcissism and other-derogation were positively related in Studies 1 and 2. Narcissism positively predicted and self-esteem negatively predicted target-derogation after controlling for each other in Study 3. Narcissistic individuals derogate others more than non-narcissistic individuals regardless of whether ego threat is present or absent. PMID:24934570

Park, Sun W; Colvin, C Randall

2014-06-17

123

The case for using research on trait narcissism as a building block for understanding narcissistic personality disorder.  

PubMed

The empirical literature on narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is quite sparse with only a small number of studies singularly devoted to this important construct. Of the published articles on NPD, the majority (approximately 80%) are either of a theoretical nature or present data from a case study perspective. There is, however, a thriving and growing literature on trait narcissism. In comparison to NPD, trait narcissism is viewed as a continuous construct in which no attempt is made to make dichotomous decisions of a clinical nature. Recent data suggest that research on trait narcissism is relevant to NPD as self-report scores are substantially correlated with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 1994) interviews of NPD and generate a five-factor model personality profile that is congruent with expert ratings of prototypical NPD. We review the literature on trait narcissism in relation to implicit and explicit aspects of self-esteem, self-presentation, decision making, relationships, work performance, and externalizing behavior (e.g., aggression). Ultimately, we argue that this literature might be used as a stepping stone toward the development of a better empirical understanding of NPD and its nomological network. PMID:22448634

Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith

2010-07-01

124

Self-Functioning and Perceived Parenting: Relations of Parental Empathy and Love Inconsistency with Narcissism, Depression, and Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Heinz Kohut's (1977, 1984) theory of the psychology of the self, good parenting provides a child with optimal frustration and just the right amount of loving empathic concern. In the present study, the authors examined the relations of perceived parental empathy and love inconsistency with measures of narcissism, self-esteem, and depression. In…

Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Watson, P. J.; O'Leary, Brian J.; Weathington, Bart L.

2008-01-01

125

Unraveling Exercise Addiction: The Role of Narcissism and Self-Esteem  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the risk of exercise addiction (EA) in fitness clubs and to identify possible factors in the development of the disorder. The Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) were administered to a sample of 150 consecutive gym attenders recruited in fitness centers. Based on EAI total score, high EA risk group (HEA n = 51) and a low EA risk group (LEA n = 69) were identified. HEA reported significantly higher total score (mean = 20.2 versus 14.6) on the NPI scale and lower total score (mean = 32.2 versus 36.4) on the SEI scale than LEA. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that only narcissism and self-esteem total scores (F = 5.66; df = 2; P = 0.006) were good predictors of days per week exercise. The present study confirms the direct and combined role of both labile self-esteem and high narcissism in the development of exercise addiction as predictive factors towards the risk of addiction. Multidisciplinary trained health care providers (physiatrists, psychologists, and psychiatrists) should carefully identify potential overexercise conditions in order to prevent the potential risk of exercise addiction. PMID:25405056

Cicciarelli, Claudio; Romeo, Vincenzo Maria; Pandolfo, Gianluca

2014-01-01

126

Are pathological narcissism and psychopathy different constructs or different names for the same thing? A study based on Italian nonclinical adult participants.  

PubMed

To understand the similarities and differences in personality traits and moral disengagement associated with pathological narcissism and psychopathy, 740 Italian active community members who voluntarily participated in the study were administered the Italian versions of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, the HEXACO Personality Inventory, and the Moral Disengagement Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that low Honesty-Humility and Antagonism (i.e., low Agreeableness) were personality traits common to both pathological narcissism and psychopathy, whereas low Conscientiousness was only related to psychopathy. Different associations with the HEXACO-PI scales and facets were observed for narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability, as well as for primary psychopathy and secondary psychopathy. Moral disengagement represented a common feature of pathological narcissism and psychopathy that was related to narcissistic vulnerability and to primary and secondary psychopathy, but not to narcissistic grandiosity. PMID:24511898

Fossati, Andrea; Pincus, Aaron L; Borroni, Serena; Munteanu, Arina Ferrari; Maffei, Cesare

2014-06-01

127

Youth psychopathy: Differential correlates of callous-unemotional traits, narcissism, and impulsivity.  

PubMed

Research supports the validity of the dimensional approach to psychopathy in both children and adults. The occurrence of severe aggressive and antisocial behavior in combination with callous-unemotional traits (CU traits) designates a group of children that is particularly at risk to develop psychopathy. However, most studies did not investigate the role of the remaining psychopathy dimensions (i.e. narcissism and impulsivity) in comparison. The present text reviews the newest developments in the dimensional study of psychopathy in relation to cognition, behavior and affect in clinical and detained child and adolescent samples. Findings support the role of the callous-unemotional dimension (CU traits) in the development of psychopathy. Additionally, they also underscore the importance of the narcissistic and impulsive dimensions for the understanding of psychopathy in children and adolescents and for the identification of different psychopathy profiles. Understanding differential correlates of the underlying dimensions of psychopathy is an important step in formulating interventions for those most at risk. PMID:23149319

Feilhauer, Johanna; Cima, Maaike

2013-01-10

128

Interactive effects of different visual imagery perspectives and narcissism on motor performance.  

PubMed

Two studies examined the interactive effects of different visual imagery perspectives and narcissism on motor performance. In both studies participants completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-40: Raskin & Hall, 1979) and were assigned to either an internal visual imagery or external visual imagery group. Participants then performed a motor task (dart throwing in Study 1 and golf putting in Study 2) under conditions of practice, low self-enhancement, and high self-enhancement. Following completion of the respective tasks, participants were categorized into high and low narcissistic groups based on their NPI-40 scores. In both studies, high narcissists using external visual imagery significantly improved performance from the low to the high self-enhancement condition, whereas high narcissists using internal visual imagery did not. Low narcissists remained relatively constant in performance across self-enhancement conditions, regardless of perspective. The results highlight the importance of considering personality characteristics when examining the effects of visual imagery perspectives on performance. PMID:20733210

Roberts, Ross; Callow, Nichola; Hardy, Lew; Woodman, Tim; Thomas, Laura

2010-08-01

129

The role of athlete narcissism in moderating the relationship between coaches' transformational leader behaviors and athlete motivation.  

PubMed

Leadership research that examines follower characteristics as a potential moderator of leadership effectiveness is lacking. Within Bass's (1985) transformational leadership framework, we examined follower narcissism as a moderator of the coach behavior-coach effectiveness relationship. Youth athletes (male = 103, female = 106) from the Singapore Sports Academy (mean age = 14.28, SD = 1.40 years) completed the Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory (Callow, Smith, Hardy, Arthur, & Hardy, 2009), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988), and indices of follower effort. Multilevel analyses revealed that athlete narcissism moderated the relationship between fostering acceptance of group goals and athlete effort and between high performance expectations and athlete effort. All the other transformational leader behaviors demonstrated main effects on follower effort, except for inspirational motivation. PMID:21451168

Arthur, Calum Alexander; Woodman, Tim; Ong, Chin Wei; Hardy, Lew; Ntoumanis, Nikos

2011-02-01

130

Vulnerable narcissism: commentary for the special series "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspectives on diagnosis and treatment".  

PubMed

Comments on the articles by A. E. Skodol et al. (see record 2013-24395-001), E. Ronningstam (see record 2014-42878-005), D. Diamond et al. (see record 2014-42878-004), and A. L. Pincus et al. (see record 2014-01439-001). The tie that binds these four articles together is the respective authors' emphasis on the vulnerability- emotional, self-esteem/ego, interpersonal- that they consider to be central to pathological narcissism. The current authors agree that it is important that the field acknowledge both grandiose and vulnerable aspects of narcissism (e.g., Miller & Campbell, 2008), but they wonder whether the pendulum is now swinging too far back in the direction of vulnerability. PMID:25314236

Miller, Joshua D; Widiger, Thomas A; Campbell, W Keith

2014-10-01

131

Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism in the Five-Factor Model and the HEXACO model of personality structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relations of the “Dark Triad” personality traits—Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism—with the variables of the Five-Factor Model and the HEXACO model of personality structure. Results (N=164) indicated that all three Dark Triad traits were strongly negatively correlated (rs=?0.72, ?0.57, and ?0.53, respectively) with the HEXACO Honesty–Humility factor. Psychopathy and Machiavellianism showed moderate negative correlations with Big Five Agreeableness

Kibeom Lee; Michael C. Ashton

2005-01-01

132

Self-Esteem, Narcissism, and AggressionDoes Violence Result From Low Self-Esteem or From Threatened Egotism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A traditional view holds that low self-esteem causes aggression, but recent work has not confirmed this. Although aggressive people typically have high self-esteem, there are also many nonaggressive people with high self-esteem, and so newer constructs such as narcissism and unstable self-esteem are most effective at predicting aggression. The link between self-regard and aggression is best captured by the theory

Roy F. Baumeister; Brad J. Bushman; W. Keith Campbell

2000-01-01

133

S e l f -e f f i c a c y , N a r c i s s i s m & M o t o r C o n t r o l | 0 RUNNING HEAD : SELF-EFFICACY, NARCISSISM & MOTOR CONTROL1  

E-print Network

-EFFICACY, NARCISSISM & MOTOR CONTROL1 Title2 An Ecological Study of the Moderating Effect of Self-Efficacy on3' biomechanical12 performance in a dart-throwing task, against that of trait narcissism, as measured by the NPI13 that increased levels of trait narcissism will lead to less biomechanically16 measurable effort into performance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

134

The Examination of the Correlation between Social Physique Anxiety Levels and Narcissism Levels of the Students Who Studied at the SPES  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to discover the correlation between social physique anxiety levels and narcissism levels of the students of the school of the physical education and sports. A total of 308 students who studied at different academic departments of the school of the physical education and sports of Mustafa Kemal University participated in…

Gezer, Engin

2014-01-01

135

Students aggress against professors in reaction to receiving poor grades: an effect moderated by student narcissism and self-esteem.  

PubMed

Laboratory evidence about whether students' evaluations of teaching (SETs) are valid is lacking. Results from three (3) independent studies strongly confirm that "professors" who were generous with their grades were rewarded for their favor with higher SETs, while professors who were frugal were punished with lower SETs (Study 1, d = 1.51; Study 2, d = 1.59; Study 3, partial ?(2) = .26). This result was found even when the feedback was manipulated to be more or less insulting (Study 3). Consistent with laboratory findings on direct aggression, results also indicated that, when participants were given a poorer feedback, higher self-esteem (Study 1 and Study 2) and higher narcissism (Study 1) were associated with them giving lower (more aggressive) evaluations of the "professor." Moreover, consistent with findings on self-serving biases, participants higher in self-esteem who were in the positive grade/feedback condition exhibited a self-enhancing bias by giving their "professor" higher evaluations (Study 1 and Study 2). The aforementioned relationships were not moderated by the professor's sex or rank (teaching assistant vs.professor). Results provide evidence that (1) students do aggress against professors through poor teaching evaluations, (2) threatened egotism among individuals with high self-esteem is associated with more aggression, especially when coupled with high narcissism, and (3) self-enhancing biases are robust among those with high self-esteem. PMID:22997048

Vaillancourt, Tracy

2013-01-01

136

Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-concepts of intelligence: relations to modesty, narcissism, and achievement motivation.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that different configurations of the implicit self-concept of intelligence (iSCI) and the explicit self-concept of intelligence (eSCI) are consistently related to individuals' performance on different intelligence tests (Dislich etal., 2012). The results indicated that any discrepant configuration between the iSCI and the eSCI impairs performance. In the present study, how correspondence between the iSCI and the eSCI is related to intelligence test performance as well as personality traits of modesty (low eSCI, high iSCI), narcissism (high eSCI, low iSCI), and achievement motivation was investigated. Furthermore, a moderated mediation analysis showed that the relation between the iSCI-eSCI configurations and intelligence test performance was mediated by achievement motivation for modest individuals. PMID:24575063

Gerstenberg, Friederike X R; Imhoff, Roland; Banse, Rainer; Schmitt, Manfred

2014-01-01

137

Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-concepts of intelligence: relations to modesty, narcissism, and achievement motivation  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that different configurations of the implicit self-concept of intelligence (iSCI) and the explicit self-concept of intelligence (eSCI) are consistently related to individuals’ performance on different intelligence tests (Dislich etal., 2012). The results indicated that any discrepant configuration between the iSCI and the eSCI impairs performance. In the present study, how correspondence between the iSCI and the eSCI is related to intelligence test performance as well as personality traits of modesty (low eSCI, high iSCI), narcissism (high eSCI, low iSCI), and achievement motivation was investigated. Furthermore, a moderated mediation analysis showed that the relation between the iSCI–eSCI configurations and intelligence test performance was mediated by achievement motivation for modest individuals. PMID:24575063

Gerstenberg, Friederike X. R.; Imhoff, Roland; Banse, Rainer; Schmitt, Manfred

2014-01-01

138

The maturation of narcissism: commentary for the special series "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspectives on diagnosis and treatment".  

PubMed

Comments on the articles by A. E. Skodol et al. (see record 2013-24395-001), E. Ronningstam (see record 2014-42878-005), D. Diamond et al. (see record 2014-42878-004), and A. L. Pincus et al. (see record 2014-01439-001). This series of articles raises an interesting meta-issue worthy of further consideration: How specific is vulnerability to narcissism? Is this a "Criterion A" feature of most personality disorders, with variants (e.g., paranoid, histrionic, etc.) defined by how one reacts to an inner sense of fragility, vulnerability, or immaturity? Or should vulnerability be more meaningfully incorporated into the specific criteria for narcissistic personality disorder, which have tended to overemphasize grandiosity? These are important questions that can only be worked out meaningfully with further research. PMID:25314235

Hopwood, Christopher J

2014-10-01

139

Narcissism and sadomasochistic relationships.  

PubMed

People with narcissistic vulnerabilities often relate to others sadomasochistically-either exerting power, or submitting to others, or both-in order to manage their vulnerabilities and protect themselves from feelings of abandonment. Sadomasochistic experience often involves concrete thinking and limited playfulness or ability to use metaphor. In therapy, these difficulties are often actualized in the patient-therapist relationship so that usual verbal interpretations may be of limited value, and the therapist needs to work to maintain a mutually respectful relationship even as the patient tries to draw him/her into sadomasochistic interactions. Because these difficulties have roots in early childhood and are repeatedly reinforced by later experience, long-term treatment that provides ongoing opportunities for new experience and understanding will be most helpful. These ideas are illustrated with two case examples. PMID:22729454

Rosegrant, John

2012-08-01

140

Narcissism, Sadism, and Loneliness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jeffrey Dahmer, the notorious Milwaukee, Wisconsin, serial killer, was charged with 15 counts of first-degree intentional\\u000a homicide. The homicides took place between 1987 and 1990 and were discovered during the summer of 1991. Dahmer pleaded not\\u000a guilty by reason of mental disease or defect. The author was the court-appointed forensic psychiatric expert in the case.\\u000a This chapter reports historical and

George B. Palermo

141

DSM-III-R narcissistic personality disorder evaluated by patients' and informants' self-report questionnaires: relationships with other personality disorders and a sense of entitlement as an indicator of narcissism.  

PubMed

Modified versions of the revised Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-R) for DSM-III-R personality disorders (PDs) were completed by 60 patients and their informants. Patients' ratings gave a mean number of 4.5 PDs per subject and narcissistic (NAR) PD in 42%. Informants' ratings gave NAR PD in 38%. For patients and informants, NAR PD scores (i.e., the number of positive NAR PD criteria for each subject) were significantly correlated with histrionic (HIS) and borderline (BOR) PD scores and with scores of some PDs outside DSM-III-R's "cluster B." Also, there were significant correlations between patients' and informants' NAR PD scores and between NAR PD scores and total number of positive criteria (i.e., for all 13 PDs) for patients and informants. For patients' ratings, there were significant associations between NAR PD and HIS, BOR, and passive-aggressive (PAG) PDs and, for informants' ratings, between NAR and HIS PDs. There was no significant association between patients' and informants' diagnoses of NAR PD. Grandiosity, the most characteristic feature of narcissism, is related to NAR PD criteria 3 through 6. The patients' evaluation of criterion 6 (i.e., "Has a sense of entitlement ...") shows satisfactory item-total correlation and endorsement frequency, together with "fair to good" reliability when patients' and informants' ratings are compared (kappa = 0.62). The identification of a sense of entitlement by the patient may be a relatively reliable and valid indicator of narcissism. PMID:1451453

Dowson, J H

1992-01-01

142

Cultural Narcissism and Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Scholars have described American culture in recent decades as narcissistic, manifested by displays of self-absorption tantamount to a pathological syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions. An education reform movement that is highly critical of public schools, teachers, and students has simultaneously emerged, espousing a…

Pajak, Edward F.

2011-01-01

143

Narcissism, confidence, and risk attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research addresses whether narcissists are more overconfident than others and whether this overconfidence leads to deficits in decision making. In Study 1, nar- cissism predicted overconfidence. This was attributable to narcissists' greater confi- dence despite no greater accuracy. In Study 2, participants were offered fair bets on their answers. Narcissists lost significantly more points in this betting task

W. Keith Campbell; Adam S. Goodie; Joshua D. Foster

2004-01-01

144

Autangle: A case of Quantum Narcissism?  

E-print Network

In this paper we ask a common psychological question and provide a physics answer: "Looking into a mirror can one get entangled with one's image?" This is not a frivolous question; rather, it bears on the effect of boundaries on the behavior of quantum entanglement between a harmonic oscillator and a quantum field, a basic problem of interest in proposed mirror-field superposition and related experiments in macroscopic quantum phenomena, as well as atomic fluctuation forces near a conducting surface. The oscillator's internal degree of freedom is modeled by a harmonic oscillator and the presence of a perfectly reflecting mirror enforces the Dirichlet boundary condition on the quantum field, restricting the latter to a half space. By assuming a bilinear oscillator-field interaction, we derive a coupled set of equations for the oscillator's and the field's Heisenberg operators. The former can be cast in the form of quantum Langevin equation, where the dissipation and noise kernels respectively correspond to the...

Zhou, Rong; Lin, Shih-Yuin; Hu, Bei-lok

2012-01-01

145

Interpersonal Analysis of Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the validity of grandiose and vulnerable subtypes of narcissistic character styles through an analysis of personality disorder criteria, interpersonal problems, and adult attachment styles in a nonclinical population. The grandiose personalities in this sample were rated high in the dramatic traits associated with narcissistic, antisocial, and histrionic personality disorders based on a diagnostic interview, and they reported

Kelly A. Dickinson; Aaron L. Pincus

2003-01-01

146

Recentering Pedagogy in an Age of Narcissism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most enduring images from Wilson's "The Social Conquest of Earth" (2012) is the campfire, the place of warmth and community around which gathered early humankind. It seems an ideal metaphor for teaching and learning, with mentors and learners gathered around an enterprise of mutual society: No one at the core, but all warmed and…

Watters, Ann O.

2013-01-01

147

Autangle: A case of Quantum Narcissism?  

E-print Network

In this paper we ask a common psychological question and provide a physics answer: "Looking into a mirror can one get entangled with one's image?" This is not a frivolous question; rather, it bears on the effect of boundaries on the behavior of quantum entanglement between a harmonic oscillator and a quantum field, a basic problem of interest in proposed mirror-field superposition and related experiments in macroscopic quantum phenomena, as well as atomic fluctuation forces near a conducting surface. The object's internal degree of freedom is modeled by a harmonic oscillator and the presence of a perfectly reflecting mirror enforces the Dirichlet boundary conditions on the quantum field, restricting the latter to a half space. By assuming a bilinear oscillator-field interaction, we derive a coupled set of equations for the oscillator's and the field's Heisenberg operators. The former can be cast in the form of a quantum Langevin equation, where the dissipation and noise kernels respectively correspond to the retarded and Hadamard functions of the free quantum field in half space. We use the linear entropy as measures of entanglement between the oscillator and the quantum field under mirror reflection, then solve the early-time oscillator-field entanglement dynamics and compare it with that between two inertial oscillators in free space. At late times when the combined system is in a stationary state, we obtain exact expressions for the oscillator's covariance matrix and show that the oscillator-field entanglement decreases as the oscillator moves closer to the mirror. We explain this behavior qualitatively with the help of a mirror image and provide an answer to the question raised above. We also compare this situation with the case of two real oscillators and explain the differences.

Rong Zhou; Ryan Orson Behunin; Shih-Yuin Lin; Bei-lok Hu

2012-01-04

148

Narcissism: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article was to explore the complex issues surrounding the behaviors exhibited by students who have Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) and the role the disorder may play in school violence. Students with NPD are often characterized by arrogance, grandiosity, and self-importance; a preoccupation with fantasies of success and…

Spencer, Vicky G.; Garcia-Simpson, Cynthia; Newland, Shera

2007-01-01

149

Vengeance is mine: Narcissism, vengeance, and the tendency to forgive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theory and research have suggested that the disposition to forgive and the tendency to seek vengeance are related but distinguishable characteristics. Although highly forgiving individuals cannot be simultaneously high in vengeance, those who are low in forgiveness could be either vengeful or not. The present study tested the hypothesis that what distinguishes unforgiving people who are highly vengeful from

Ryan P. Brown

2004-01-01

150

Narcissism, Entitlement, and Questionable Research Practices in Counseling: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although reports of research misconduct and questionable research practices (QRPs) have been prevalent in the literature, very little has been written about these issues in the field of counseling. The current pilot study addresses (a) the continuous drive for evidence-based practice in education and counseling and (b) the relationship between…

Davis, Mark S.; Wester, Kelly L.; King, Bridgett

2008-01-01

151

The Influence of Birth Order and Gender on Narcissism as it Relates to Career Development  

E-print Network

on parental and familial socialization during the early years. Adams (1972) categorized these theories under six headings: 1) intrauterine or physiological influences; 2) only-child uniqueness; 3) dethronement; 4) anxious and relaxed parent; 5) sibling... influence; 6) economic. The first heading, Intrauterine or Physiological Theory, suggests that the individual is influenced before birth by the ordinal positioning. Adams (1972) suggests that the earlier child benefits from a younger mother?s ?richer...

Duffy, Clare 1978-

2011-08-09

152

From Our President. Are We Confusing Self-Esteem and Narcissism?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent classroom emphasis on boosting self-esteem by encouraging self-congratulation and appealing to children's consumer instincts is misguided. Many of the self-oriented activities prompt responses of the form "what I like" rather than "what I want to know." Children's self-esteem is fostered not by empty compliments but by respectful treatment…

Katz, Lilian G.

1993-01-01

153

Narcissism and Type of Violent Relationships for Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence  

E-print Network

. The study of a cross-section of men in a Batterer Intervention Program included measures on self-perception, views of partner, and history of violent, aggressive, controlling, and psychologically abusive interactions with their partner. Structural Equation...

Rinker, Lee

2010-01-16

154

Linking Gambling and Trauma: A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Case Study Using Almaas' Transformation of Narcissism Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of pathological gambling and addiction from the perspective of writer and teacher A.H Almaas. By drawing on his Diamond Mind approach we trace the origin of addictive behaviors and pathological gambling to narcissistic wounding, which constitutes the loss of connection with the Essential…

Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason; Boni, Lauren Julia; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant

2013-01-01

155

The Relative Influence of Sensation Seeking and Normal Narcissism on Academic Cheating in Emerging Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous research studies reveal that cheating is a significant problem on the campuses of American colleges and universities. Traditional college-aged students (aged 18-25) fall within a time-frame of the life-span that has been labeled emerging adulthood, a time in which risk-taking behavior is common. The present study conceptualized academic…

Romanek, John L.

2009-01-01

156

Optimism and Hope versus Anxiety and Narcissism: Some Thoughts on Children's Welfare Yesterday and Today  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article seeks to raise a number of issues concerning children's well-being in late modernity. In order to provide historical contrasts, the first part of the article considers three "optimistic" periods: the Liberal Reform Programme, 1906-1911; interwar developments in New Psychology, progressive education and child guidance; the post-1945…

Hendrick, Harry

2007-01-01

157

Interpersonal views of narcissism and authentic high self-esteem: it is not all about you.  

PubMed

Employing peer-rating methodology, this study examined relationship issues in narcissists versus individuals with authentic high self-esteem. Undergraduates (N = 147) were assigned to rate someone (a "target") they knew well who was most similar to a narcissistic prototype, an authentic self-esteem prototype, or a control person. Participants rating narcissistic targets reported significantly more interpersonal problems with the target and more avoidant and revenge behaviors directed toward them than did participants rating authentic self-esteem or control targets. Authentic high self-esteem was associated with positive social relationships. Large effect sizes suggested substantial interpersonal differences observed by peers interacting with narcissists compared to authentic high self-esteem individuals. PMID:25153960

Byrne, J Stephen; O'Brien, Edward J

2014-08-01

158

Autaptic self-inhibition of cortical GABAergic neurons: synaptic narcissism or useful introspection?  

PubMed

Fast synaptic inhibition sculpts all forms of cortical activity by means of a specialized connectivity pattern between highly heterogeneous inhibitory interneurons and principal excitatory cells. Importantly, inhibitory neurons connect also to each other extensively, following a detailed blueprint, and, indeed, specific forms of disinhibition affect important behavioral functions. Here we discuss a peculiar form of cortical disinhibition: the massive autaptic self-inhibition of parvalbumin-(PV) positive basket cells. Despite being described long ago, autaptic inhibition onto PV basket cells is rarely included in cortical circuit diagrams, perhaps because of its still elusive function. We propose here a potential dual role of autaptic feedback inhibition in temporally coordinating PV basket cells during cortical network activity. PMID:24434607

Deleuze, Charlotte; Pazienti, Antonio; Bacci, Alberto

2014-06-01

159

Ethics and Personality: Empathy and Narcissism as Moderators of Ethical Decision Making in Business Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have reported that business students have been more apt to act in self-interested ways when compared to their counterparts in other academic fields. Beginning with the premise that ethical behavior derives in part from personality characteristics, the authors tested whether (a) measures of an empathetic or narcissistic personality…

Brown, Todd A.; Sautter, John A.; Littvay, Levente; Sautter, Alberta C.; Bearnes, Brennen

2010-01-01

160

Discrepancies Between Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem: Implications for Narcissism and Self-Esteem Instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

There appear to be two forms of high self-esteem: secure high self-esteem (which is often linked with psychological health) and fragile high self-esteem (which is generally associated with poor psycho- logical adjustment and impaired interpersonal relationships). Discrepant high self-esteem is a form of fragile self-esteem characterized by high ex- plicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. The present study examined whether

Virgil Zeigler-Hill

2006-01-01

161

CEO narcissism in M&A decision-making and its impact on firm performance   

E-print Network

Using a large sample of about 1,900 M&A deals from 1993 to 2005, and data on more than 3,100 CEOs, I explore merger and acquisition activities from a psychological perspective, and provide another explanation for M&A ...

Liu, Yue

2009-11-25

162

Status and Gender: The Paradox of Progress in an Age of Narcissism  

Microsoft Academic Search

As women have gained status in Western cultures in the last few decades, they have increasingly endorsed stereotypically masculine\\u000a instrumental\\/assertive traits. However, men have also endorsed these traits at a higher frequency and show only a weak trend\\u000a toward embracing more stereotypically feminine expressive\\/communal traits. Overall, Western cultures have moved toward valuing\\u000a instrumental\\/assertive traits and devaluing expressive\\/communal traits. The paradox

Jean M. Twenge

2009-01-01

163

Exploring Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism in Youth: Examination of Associations with Antisocial Behavior and Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We sought to explore the differential associations of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissistic traits, and Machiavellian traits with overt aggression, relational aggression, delinquency, behavioral dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation in a community sample of boys and girls (ages 11-17). Results indicated that the three personality…

Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.

2013-01-01

164

http://psp.sagepub.com Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin  

E-print Network

Ã? Narcissism hypothesis). Across experimental, longitudi nal, and interactionbased research methods vation hypothesis in two of three studies and the Communal Activation Ã? Narcissism hypothesis in all relationship partners. Keywords: narcissism; communal activation; commitment; relat

Reber, Paul J.

165

JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY 31, 193221 (1997) ARTICLE NO. RP972175  

E-print Network

: Personality factors such as narcissism and conscientiousness; relationship contexts, including recurrent Narcissism, and high Psychoticism. Relationship contexts most strongly linked to susceptibility to infidelity

Pillow, Jonathan

166

Page 1 of 4 FACULTY ACCOMPLISHMENTS  

E-print Network

., Barden, J. & Hupp, J. M. (in press). Narcissism and Academic Dishonesty: The Exhibitionism Dimension). In W. K. Campbell & J. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder

167

National Denial, Splitting, and Narcissism: Group Defence Mechanisms of Teachers and Students in Palestine in Response to the Holocaust.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the national defense mechanisms used by the education system of the Yishuv, the Jewish community in pre-independence Israel, in response to the Holocaust, as well as the significance of these responses and their contemporary implications. Concludes with contemporary applications of national defense mechanisms and their possible…

Dror, Yuval

1996-01-01

168

Macho Man: Narcissism, Homophobia, Agency, Communion, and Authoritarianism—A Comparative Study Among Israeli Bodybuilders and a Control Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study quantitatively examined the ethnographic social–psychological profile suggested by A. M. Klein (1993) for American bodybuilders using Israeli bodybuilders. Eighty male gym trainees and 80 men who have never trained completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and Bem's Sex Role Inventory, the Attitudes Toward Homosexuality (AHS) and the Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) Scales, and a demographic questionnaire. The bodybuilders showed

Gidi Rubinstein

2003-01-01

169

Narcissism, solitude, friendship: notes on the therapeutic alliance in the context of the Freud-Jung relationship.  

PubMed

This paper deals with friendship and therapeutic alliance as a transformation of the libidinal love that structures the Oedipal complex. The author considers the relationship between Jung and Freud as a formidable test that may shed light on their personalities and on the relevance of the Oedipal complex for both of them and for their particular theories and practices. The author discusses the possibility that the Oedipal complex may be seen under a finalistic frame of reference and discusses which implicit goals it may express. Such a goal has not been reached by either Freud nor Jung, but might be the key to underline and recognize the fundamental importance of the 'therapeutic alliance' within the analytical situation, seen as a potential relationship between the selves of the patient and of the analyst springing from a transformation of libidinal love into 'friendship' as it was described by Friedrich Nietzsche. PMID:22954047

Carta, Stefano

2012-09-01

170

Structural Validity of the MACI Psychopathy and Narcissism Scales: Evidence of Multidimensionality and Implications for Use in Research and Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the psychometric properties and predictive validity of three self-report scales (the Psychopathy Content Scale, the Psychopathy-16 scale, and the Egotistic scale) derived from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) to screen for the presence of psychopathic and narcissistic personality characteristics. Exploratory…

Penney, Stephanie R.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Da Silva, Kimberley S.

2008-01-01

171

Deliverance, Denial, and the Death ZoneA Study of Narcissism and Regression in the May 1996 Everest Climbing Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on previous disaster research, this article presents and analyzes the May 1996 Mount Everest climbing disaster. Using a blend of psychodynamic and structuralist theory, the article demonstrates how historical changes in the field of high-altitude climbing fostered the emergence of pathologically narcissistic, competitive, and regressive dynamics that ultimately contributed to numerous climbing deaths.

Michael Elmes; David Barry

1999-01-01

172

Is the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Still Relevant? A Test of Independent Grandiosity and Entitlement Scales in the Assessment of Narcissism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some scholars have called for the replacement of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) with more narrow scales measuring grandiosity and entitlement instead. In the current study, the authors examined the relations among the NPI and measures of grandiosity and entitlement, as well as in relation to a measure of the Five-Factor Model (FFM).…

Miller, Joshua D.; Price, Joanna; Campbell, W. Keith

2012-01-01

173

Accuracy and Bias in Self-Perception: Individual Differences in Self-Enhancement and the Role of Narcissism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accuracy and bias in self-perceptions of performance were studied in a managerial group-discussion task. Ss ranked their own performance and were ranked by the 5 other group members and by 11 assessment staff members. Although the self-perceptions showed convergent validity with the staff criterion, Ss were less accurate when judging themselves than when judging their peers. On average, Ss evaluated

Oliver P. John; Richard W. Robins

1994-01-01

174

National Identity and Group Narcissism as Predictors of Intergroup Attitudes toward Undocumented Latino Immigrants in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The debate surrounding immigration reform to address undocumented Latino immigrants in the United States has been emotionally charged and polarizing. This study's goal was to better understand some of the psychological predictors of attitudes toward undocumented Latino immigrants in the United States, namely, collective identity as an…

Lyons, Patricia A.; Coursey, Lauren E.; Kenworthy, Jared B.

2013-01-01

175

Nondual Psychotherapy and Second Stage Sexual Addictions Recovery: Transforming "Master of the Universe" Narcissism into Nondual Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the process of working through the "dry drunk" second stage of sexual addiction recovery through transforming the narcissistic "Master of the Universe" personality into the experience of nondual being using the Almaas Diamond Approach of self-realization. The Diamond Approach is a transpersonal informed psychology…

Nixon, Gary; Theriault, Brian

2012-01-01

176

Universit Paris 8 -Vincennes -Saint-Denis Dpartement de Littrature franaise -URF 4  

E-print Network

perception à la figure de Narcisse 15 I. Positions théoriques : Valéry entre phénoménologie et sémiotique 16 : Narcisse, vision et réflexivité 110 I. Le Narcisse de Valéry et la quête narcisséenne 111 1. Resensibilisation du mythe de Narcisse au XXème siècle 113 - Une praxis énonciative 113 - L'émergence de Narcisse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Queen's College, Oxford 1202261815 Change the way you look  

E-print Network

Change the way you look is not intended to feed any further the narcissism of a culture that sees self the injunction to love others ­ not some sort of individualistic narcissism. Anyway, now we've sorted that one

Capdeboscq, Yves

178

Finger length ratio (2D:4D) and sex differences in aggression during a simulated war game  

E-print Network

:4D predicted unprovoked attack independently. In men, high levels of narcissism pre- dicted greater; Narcissism, social dominance orientation; Stress; Self-esteem; Aggression; War 0191-8869/$ - see front matter

Cosmides, Leda

179

GENERAL ARTICLES CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 106, NO. 5, 10 MARCH 2014 691  

E-print Network

, narcissism, social mobility, socio-economic dis- crimination. COUNTRIES may differ in political ideology community started show- ing traits like narcissism. It reflects the changing nature of our society and how

Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

180

Loving Yourself Abundantly: Relationship of the Narcissistic Personality to Self and Other Perceptions of Workplace Deviance, Leadership, and Task and Contextual Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report results from 2 studies assessing the extent to which narcissism is related to self- and other ratings of leadership, workplace deviance, and task and contextual performance. Study 1 results revealed that narcissism was related to enhanced self-ratings of leadership, even when controlling for the Big Five traits. Study 2 results also revealed that narcissism was related to

Timothy A. Judge; Jeffery A. LePine; Bruce L. Rich

2006-01-01

181

0092-6566/$ -see front matter 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2005.03.002  

E-print Network

as a short measure of narcissism Daniel R. Ames a,¤ , Paul Rose b , Cameron P. Anderson c a Columbia Narcissism has received increased attention in the past few decades as a sub-clinical individ- ual di of narcissism when situations do not allow the use of longer inventories. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights

Qian, Ning

182

Narcissistic Acts in Everyday Life David M. Buss and Lisa ManclneUl Chiodo  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT This article presents a series of studies on narcissism, a person- ality syndrome receiving components of narcissism, (c) identify which acts and which dispositions are most and least central to narcissism, (d) test the hypothesis that the concep- tually specified component dispositions

Pillow, Jonathan

183

Perpetual Inventory Rosalind E. Krauss  

E-print Network

that takes seriously the formal qualities Video: The Aesthetics of Narcissism First published as "Video and Narcissism," October, no. 1 (Spring 1976). #12;I The Post-medium Condition 4 of a work, or tries to assay of the entire genre. Yet what would it mean to say "The medium of video is narcissism"?2 For one thing

184

Does Self-Love Lead to Love for Others? A Story of Narcissistic Game Playing  

E-print Network

University Five studies investigated the links among narcissism, self-esteem, and love. Across all studies, narcissism was associated primarily with a game-playing love style. This link was found in reports of general studies. Implications for the understanding of narcissism in relationships are discussed. If you do

Reber, Paul J.

185

Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine  

E-print Network

of Computing Dynamics of Human Societies: Narcissism ~ The Generational Perspective By David Beaton Supervisor-agent abstraction of reality, simulating the family dynamic, and also narcissism: a psychological disorder of this model are to test social hypotheses relating to narcissism, and also to gain valuable insight

Edalat, Abbas

186

Mirror, mirror, on the wall, who is the most masculine of them all? The Dark Triad, masculinity, and women's mate choice  

E-print Network

Mating context a b s t r a c t Although the Dark Triad of personality (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism with a preference for narcissism (Study 2). We discuss the results in terms of male and female mating strategies. Ã?, narcissism and psychop- athy) is a constellation of seemingly aversive personality traits, characterised

Helle, Samuli

187

W. KEITH CAMPBELL AMY B. BRUNELL  

E-print Network

W. KEITH CAMPBELL AMY B. BRUNELL ELI J. FINKEL #12;I. SELF -+ RELATIONSHIPS Narcissism 59 We begin by offeringan abbreviated history of narcissism. We next focus rnberg and Kohut on the construct itself, with particular attention directed at narcissistic self- regulation. We present an agency model of narcissism

Reber, Paul J.

188

A Comparison of Agreeableness Scores from the Big Five Inventory and the Neo PI-R: Consequences for the Study of Narcissism and Psychopathy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not contained…

Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna

2011-01-01

189

Enter Ghosts: The Loss of Intersubjectivity in Clinical Work With Adult Children of Pathological Narcissists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between narcissism and intersubjectivity through the lens of clinical work with adult children of pathologically narcissistic parents. Exposure to parental narcissistic pathology constitutes cumulative relational trauma, which subverts the development of intersubjective relating capacities in the developing child. This trauma is inherited and bequeathed intergenerationally. The paper focuses on the interpersonal dynamics of narcissism, which

Daniel Shaw

2010-01-01

190

Response to commentaries: modernity and narcissistic personality disorder.  

PubMed

Replies to comments by Twenge, Miller, and Campbell (see record 2014-16207-001), Trull (see record 2014-16207-002), and Wright (see record 2014-16207-003) on the original article by Paris (see record 2012-18549-001) on the topic of narcissism and modernity. The current author would like to thank all three commentators for focusing on points in the original article that need clarification. Wright (2014) underlines the problem of precisely defining narcissism, arguing that research cannot progress until we agree on the meaning of the construct. Trull (2014) makes the useful point that cohort changes in narcissism do not translate into changes in the prevalence of NPD. Finally, Twenge, Miller, and Campbell (2014) are leaders in the empirical study of narcissism and NPD. The current author is pleased that they agree with some of his conclusions. However, they should not consider the case for dramatic increases in trait narcissism to be settled. PMID:24796571

Paris, Joel

2014-04-01

191

Cognitive Ability and Psychopathic Traits: Independent and Interactive Associations with Youth Conduct Problems.  

PubMed

Although average or high IQ was central to initial conceptualizations of psychopathy, IQ is typically negatively associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). Few studies have simultaneously considered narcissism and callous-unemotional (CU) traits with respect to ODD and CD symptoms, including potential interactive associations with IQ. Participants were 221 ethnically-diverse (45 % non-White) 6-9 year-old children with (n?=?114) and without (n?=?107) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with separate parent and teacher ratings of narcissism, CU traits, ODD, and CD. To minimize shared method variance, we conservatively examined the association of parent-rated psychopathic traits with teacher-rated ODD and CD as well as the association of teacher-rated psychopathic traits with parent-rated ODD and CD. Controlling for age, sex, and the number of child ADHD symptoms, narcissism, but not CU traits, uniquely and positively predicted parent- and teacher-rated ODD and CD symptoms. We also observed a significant IQ × narcissism interaction where narcissism was more strongly associated with ODD and CD among children with high IQ relative to average and low IQ youth. Whereas studies of youth psychopathic traits focus almost exclusively on CU traits, narcissism independently predicted separate parent and teacher ratings of ODD and CD, particularly among children with high IQ. These preliminary data persuasively suggest that early narcissism is a critical facet of psychopathy and in conjunction with IQ, may suggest a unique profile associated with emergent conduct problems. PMID:25220395

McKenzie, Meghan E; Lee, Steve S

2014-09-16

192

Abductory Inference, Communication Theory, and Subjective Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distinguishes Q methodology from conventional hypothetico-deductive methodologies and from conventional communication approaches. Illustrates epistemological principles through a single-case study of cultural narcissism examined in terms of responses to pictures appearing in "Time" magazine. (RS)

Goldman, Irvin

1990-01-01

193

Leader emergence: the case of the narcissistic leader.  

PubMed

These studies investigate whether individuals with high narcissism scores would be more likely to emerge as leaders during leaderless group discussions. The authors hypothesized that narcissists would emerge as group leaders. In three studies, participants completed personality questionnaires and engaged in four-person leaderless group discussions. Results from all three studies reveal a link between narcissism and leader emergence. Studies 1 and 2 further reveal that the power dimension of narcissism predicted reported leader emergence while controlling for sex, self-esteem, and the Big Five personality traits. Study 3 demonstrates an association between narcissism and expert ratings of leader emergence in a group of executives. The implications of the propensity of narcissists to emerge as leaders are discussed. PMID:18794326

Brunell, Amy B; Gentry, William A; Campbell, W Keith; Hoffman, Brian J; Kuhnert, Karl W; Demarree, Kenneth G

2008-12-01

194

The Poverty of (Moral) Philosophy: Towards and Empirical and Pragmatic Ethics  

E-print Network

- versal moral sentiment, but rather a tactical refocusing of our attention away from what Freud described as a ‘narcissism of minor differences’ (1930 [2004]: 64) and back upon recognition of the pain of those seemingly unlike ourselves as in fact...

Morgan, Marcus

2013-10-11

195

“Indirect Interpellations: Hate Speech and ‘Bad Subjects’ in Mongolia  

E-print Network

 stereotypes.  What  they  do  is  to  elicit  a  renewed  sense  of   outrage,  fear  and  anger  as  well  as  stoke  national  fervor  and  narcissism.  In  fact,  the   very  formulaicity  of  these...

Bille, Franck

2013-07-02

196

Non-obligatory Forgiveness: Supererogatory or Impermissible?  

E-print Network

than merely acceptably kind, or more generous than a person need be to rise above the miserly. Such aspirations need not collapse into narcissism or involve ignoring traits in greater need NON-OBLIGATORY FORGIVENSS 47 of attention" (82...

Anderson, Rhonda

197

The existential and postmodern individual  

E-print Network

, indifference, narcissism, hedonism, apathy, egoism, anti-intellectualism.?56 Because postmodernism generally holds that there is no one objective truth, the postmodern individual is also nonjudgmental; therefore, he does not believe that there is any...

Herring, Lesley Virginia

2005-08-29

198

Change in Affect as a Function of Extraversion and Stress  

E-print Network

and Social Psychology, 73, 1107- 1117. 8. Rhodewalt, F., Madrian, J.C., & Cheney, S. (1998). Narcissism, self-knowledge organization, and emotional reactivity: the effect of daily experiences on self-esteem and affect. Personality Social Psychology Bulletin...

Falter, Sierra

2009-10-01

199

Whose Journey Is It? A Critic's Plea to Actors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laments the narcissism that the author sees in too many contemporary approaches to acting and directing. Argues that actors must focus on the world outside themselves, where the play and the audience most need them to be. (SR)

Lasser, Michael

1999-01-01

200

It's All about Me: Narcissistic Chief Executive Officers and Their Effects on Company Strategy and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses unobtrusive measures of the narcissism of chief executive officers (CEOs)—the prominence of the CEO's photograph in annual reports, the CEO's prominence in press releases, the CEO's use of first-person singular pronouns in interviews, and compensation relative to the second-highest-paid firm executive—to examine the effect of CEO narcissism on a firm's strategy and performance. Results of an empirical

Arijit Chatterjee; Donald C. Hambrick

2007-01-01

201

Automatic imitation is reduced in narcissists.  

PubMed

Narcissism is a personality trait that has been extensively studied in normal populations. Individuals high on subclinical narcissism tend to display an excessive self-focus and reduced concern for others. Does their disregard of others have roots in low-level processes of social perception? We investigated whether narcissism is related to the automatic imitation of observed actions. In the automatic imitation task, participants make cued actions in the presence of action videos displaying congruent or incongruent actions. The difference in response times and accuracy between congruent and incongruent trials (i.e., the interference effect) is a behavioral index of motor resonance in the brain-a process whereby observed actions activate matching motor representations in the observer. We found narcissism to be negatively related to interference in the automatic imitation task, such that high narcissism is associated with reduced imitation. Thus, levels of narcissism predict differences in the tendency to automatically resonate with others, and the pattern of data we observe suggests that a key difference is that high narcissists possess an improved ability to suppress automatic imitation when such imitation would be detrimental to task performance. To the extent that motor resonance is a product of a human mirror system, our data constitute evidence for a link between narcissistic tendencies and mirror system functioning. PMID:23957308

Obhi, Sukhvinder S; Hogeveen, Jeremy; Giacomin, Miranda; Jordan, Christian H

2014-06-01

202

A Meta-Analytic Test of Redundancy and Relative Importance of the Dark Triad and Five-Factor Model of Personality.  

PubMed

We examined the relationships between Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy-the three traits of the Dark Triad (DT)-and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality. The review identified 310 independent samples drawn from 215 sources and yielded information pertaining to global trait relationships and facet-level relationships. We used meta-analysis to examine (a) the bivariate relations between the DT and the five global traits and 30 facets of the FFM, (b) the relative importance of each of the FFM global traits in predicting DT, and (c) the relationship between the DT and FFM facets identified in translational models of narcissism and psychopathy. These analyses identified consistent and theoretically meaningful associations between the DT traits and the facets of the FFM. The five traits of the FFM, in a relative importance analysis, accounted for much of the variance in Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, respectively, and facet-level analyses identified specific facets of each FFM trait that were consistently associated with narcissism (e.g., angry/hostility, modesty) and psychopathy (e.g., straightforwardness, deliberation). The FFM explained nearly all of the variance in psychopathy (R(2) c ?=?.88) and a substantial portion of the variance in narcissism (R(2) c ?=?.42). PMID:25168647

O'Boyle, Ernest H; Forsyth, Donelson R; Banks, George C; Story, Paul A; White, Charles D

2014-08-28

203

The role of cortisol and psychopathic traits in aggression among at-risk girls: tests of mediating hypotheses.  

PubMed

Multiple etiological factors (e.g., biological and personality predispositions) have been linked to the development of aggression. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between proactive/reactive aggression and biological (HPA-axis functioning) and personality characteristics (subdimensions of psychopathy) among girls at risk for aggressive behavior. Participants included girls (N?=?158) admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient treatment (M age?=?9.72; SD?=?1.99). Parents completed a measure of proactive/reactive aggression and psychopathy upon admission. Fasting plasma cortisol levels were obtained the morning following the child's admission. Correlational analyses revealed a significant negative correlation between cortisol and the narcissism and impulsivity subdimensions of psychopathy as well as proactive/reactive aggression. A significant positive relation between proactive and reactive aggression and the three subdimensions of psychopathy was also observed. Path analyses revealed that only narcissism was uniquely and positively related to proactive and reactive aggression. Tests of indirect effects from cortisol to aggression through subdimensions of psychopathy indicated significant pathways via narcissism to proactive and reactive aggression. The findings support previous research linking narcissism uniquely to aggression for girls and suggest that the relation between cortisol and proactive/reactive aggression is mediated by narcissism. PMID:24302544

Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Luebbe, Aaron; Fite, Paula; Becker, Stephen P

2014-01-01

204

Body checking in the eating disorders: association with narcissistic characteristics.  

PubMed

There is substantial evidence that body image is a clinically important element of eating pathology, and that patients' body checking cognitions and behaviours are key elements in the maintenance of that body image. However, there is little understanding of individual differences in body checking. This study considered the potential role of narcissism and narcissistic defences in driving body checking cognitions and behaviours. 68 eating-disordered and 70 non-clinical women completed well-validated measures of body checking and narcissism. There were specific patterns of association between different elements of narcissism and different aspects of body checking. These patterns are compatible with a model where body checking serves the defensive function of maintaining self-esteem, rather than promoting positive levels of narcissistic self-esteem. PMID:18329594

Waller, Glenn; Sines, Jennie; Meyer, Caroline; Mountford, Victoria

2008-04-01

205

An examination of the correlates of fearless dominance and self-centered impulsivity among high-frequency gamblers.  

PubMed

The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) is a commonly used assessment of psychopathy. Questions have been raised, however, regarding the validity of its Fearless Dominance (FD) factor. In the current study, the correlations manifested by FD and Self-centered Impulsivity (ScI) in relation to external criteria were examined in a sample of gamblers. Two key hypotheses were also tested: (a) does FD perform differently when paired with high scores on ScI, and (b) does FD serve as an index of narcissism. As expected, FD and ScI manifested a divergent pattern of correlations such that only ScI was associated with psychopathology or impairment. FD's relations with the external criteria were not generally moderated by scores on ScI. FD was significantly correlated with narcissism, but the two differed such that only narcissism was associated with any degree of maladaptivity. It remains unclear whether FD should be considered a core component of psychopathy. PMID:24344842

Maples, Jessica L; Miller, Joshua D; Fortune, Erica; MacKillop, James; Campbell, W Keith; Lynam, Donald R; Lance, Chuck E; Goodie, Adam S

2014-06-01

206

Love and love of self in early modern French writing  

E-print Network

, or that there can be no choice in love, only that his attachment is irrational. At the start of Phèdre Hippolyte avows his feelings for Aricie, yet disavows them for two reasons. First, they are humiliating (I.i.96); they violate his innate narcissism: having... ‘fetish’ just now, and a passing reference to Hippolyte’s ‘narcissism’, I have not resorted to any subsequent metalanguage of analysis: and one might defend that approach by arguing that acute reflection on the depths of the mind and the complex...

Moriarty, Michael

2013-07-01

207

Introduction to the special series on "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspectives on diagnosis and treatment".  

PubMed

The first aim for this Special Series on "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspecitves on diagnosis and treatment" is to further the dimensional self-regulatory diagnostic approach for identifying NPD by integrating range of functioning, co-occurring grandiosity and vulnerability, compromised empathic ability, self-enhancing interpersonal strategies and relatedness, and overt and covert expressions of pathological narcissism. A second aim is to broaden the conceptualization of pathological narcissism by identifying it in terms of attachment and mentalization/reflective function. The third aim is to apply the combined dimensional and trait diagnostic approach to clinical practice, both diagnostic evaluation and treatment. PMID:25314230

Ronningstam, Elsa

2014-10-01

208

An overview of the treatment of severe narcissistic pathology.  

PubMed

This paper provides an overview of narcissistic personality disorders as they present clinically along a spectrum of severity ranging from the best functioning forms of pathological narcissism to the most threatening to the patient's psychosocial and physical survival. It proposes a general interpretive psychoanalytic stance with all these clinical syndromes that range from standard psychoanalysis to a specific psychoanalytical psychotherapy for the most repressive and life threatening conditions that may not respond to standard psychoanalysis proper. This general psychoanalytic approach is placed into the context of related developments in contemporary psychoanalytic understanding of pathological narcissism and its treatment. PMID:24902768

Kernberg, Otto F

2014-10-01

209

Poetry and the "Me" Generation: Democratizing the "Ars Poetica".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The art of poetry is being worn away by democracy, the rule of the average, and by an attitude of narcissism which equates sincere endeavor with significant endeavor. The opening lines of several poems taken from a poetry journal reveal a distinct lack of significant emotion. While poetry is the most significant expression of the Self, the "I" of…

Rice, Paul

210

Heartless and cunning? Intelligence in adolescents with antisocial behavior and psychopathic traits.  

PubMed

Clinical theory predicts that individuals high in psychopathic traits possess average or above average intelligence; however findings in adult and child samples have been mixed. The present study aimed to investigate (1) the relationship between verbal and nonverbal intelligence and the three dimensions of psychopathy (callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissism, impulsivity); and (2) whether these dimensions moderate the association between verbal and nonverbal intelligence and the severity of antisocial behavior. Participants were 361 adolescents aged 9-18 years (68% boys) and their parents, drawn from four samples with different levels of risk for antisocial behavior. Families were disadvantaged and 25% were from an ethnic minority. Verbal intelligence was unrelated to parent-reported CU traits, narcissism or impulsivity after controlling for gender, sociodemographic disadvantage, sample, antisocial behavior and hyperactivity. Narcissism, but not CU traits or impulsivity, was significantly related to lower nonverbal IQ. None of the three psychopathic trait dimensions moderated the relationship between verbal or nonverbal IQ and antisocial behavior. CU traits, narcissism, hyperactivity and inclusion in the very high or high risk samples were significantly related to more severe antisocial behavior. Results contradict the widely held view that psychopathic traits are associated with better than average verbal or nonverbal intelligence. PMID:24011851

Allen, Jennifer L; Briskman, Jacqueline; Humayun, Sajid; Dadds, Mark R; Scott, Stephen

2013-12-30

211

The costs and benefits of the Dark Triad: Implications for mate poaching and mate retention tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dark Triad – narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy – have traditionally been considered to be undesirable traits. However, emerging work suggest that not only may there be a positive side to possessing these traits but they may also serve important adaptive functions, even if the strategies associated with them are viewed as socially undesirable. In an online survey (N=336), we

Peter K. Jonason; Norman P. Li; David M. Buss

2010-01-01

212

Magic and the Aesthetic Illusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aesthetic illusion is the subjective experience that the content of a work of art is reality. It has an intrinsic relation to magic, an intrapsychic maneuver oriented toward modification and control of the extraspyschic world, principally through ego functioning. Magic is ontogenetically and culturally archaic, expresses the omnipotence inherent in primary narcissism, and operates according to the logic of

Leon Balter

2002-01-01

213

On compulsive shopping and spending: a psychodynamic inquiry.  

PubMed

Compulsive shopping and spending, an impulse disorder, form a specific psychodynamic complex with common developmental precursors of pathological narcissism. Compulsive shopping and spending are distinguished from other symptomatic uses of money and impulsive acts. Four cases illustrate some psychodynamic considerations and therapeutic implications. PMID:3213846

Krueger, D W

1988-10-01

214

Problems of Romanticism in Transpersonal Psychology: A Case Study of Aikido  

Microsoft Academic Search

Romanticism is becoming increasing prevalent in transpersonal psychology, subvert- ing efforts to develop scientific approaches in this subfield of psychology. As a case study of some of romanticism's problems, the martial art and transpersonal system of Aikido is examined in regard to cultural errors and unwarranted supernatural assumptions. Specifically, six latent cultural errors (related to location, authority, time, ethnicity, narcissism,

Harris Friedman

2005-01-01

215

\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I attempt to draw parallels between the psychology of commercial advertising and marketing and the psychology of addiction. Both appear to be characterized by denial, escapism, narcissism, isolation, insatiability, impatience, and diminished sensitivity. Advertising appeals to these impulses and addiction is marked by them. In what follows, I explore these parallels in general and then explore the

Tamara R. Piety

2001-01-01

216

Emotional awareness among eating-disordered patients: the role of narcissistic traits.  

PubMed

The narcissistic defences and a lack of emotional awareness (alexithymia) are both salient features of eating disorder pathology, as well as being linked to each other. As each of these characteristics impacts independently on treatment, it is important to understand how they interact within an eating-disordered population. The present study assessed the associations between the three core elements of alexithymia and the core and defensive elements of narcissism in this clinical group. Seventy eating-disordered patients completed standardised measures of alexithymia and narcissism, and multiple regression analyses were conducted in order to examine the relationship between these variables. Core narcissism (e.g. grandiosity, entitlement) was associated with difficulties in describing feelings to others, whereas the narcissistic defences were associated with difficulties in identifying feelings and distinguishing them from somatic experiences. These patterns of association suggest that different aspects of alexithymia are associated with different aspects of narcissism. Clinical suggestions are made for how these characteristics might require modifications of standard treatment approaches for the eating disorders. PMID:17955567

Lawson, Rachel; Waller, Glenn; Sines, Jennie; Meyer, Caroline

2008-01-01

217

Anorexia, coprophagia and somatic outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious insufficiencies of ego structure and functions may originate from early traumata. The absence or the crushing of fantasies and generally the failure of the symbolic function may be responsible for delusional solutions or for behavioral and somatic outcomes. These ‘solutions’ can be understood as regressions to supposedly inadequate primitive narcissism. The traces and the consequences of the primary traumata

Savvas Savvopoulos

2006-01-01

218

Losing Sight of Ourselves: A Theoretical Analysis of Reality Television in the United States  

E-print Network

Sigmund Freud’s work On Narcissism. Here, Freud clearly articulates that most individuals are born without an ego, yet children develop a love and need for admiration of their “self.” Most individuals then mature and are taught through their parents...

Collins, Megan E

2014-06-11

219

Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

2012-01-01

220

Internal Consistency Reliability of the Self-Report Antisocial Process Screening Device  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The self-report version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) has become a popular measure for assessing psychopathic features in justice-involved adolescents. However, the internal consistency reliability of its component scales (Narcissism, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity) has been questioned in several studies. This study…

Poythress, Norman G.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Falkenbach, Diana; Cruise, Keith; Lee, Zina; Murrie, Daniel C.; Vitacco, Michael

2006-01-01

221

Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

2010-01-01

222

Teaching Generation Me  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's college students are significantly different from previous generations. On average, they are overconfident, have high expectations, report higher narcissism, are lower in creativity, are less interested in civic issues, and are less inclined to read long passages of text. They are highly confident of their abilities and received…

Twenge, Jean M.

2013-01-01

223

What Does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Really Measure?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is a widely used measure of narcissism. However, debates persist about its exact factor structure with researchers proposing solutions ranging from two to seven factors. The present research aimed to clarify the factor structure of the NPI and further illuminate its nomological network. Four studies…

Ackerman, Robert A.; Witt, Edward A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Robins, Richard W.; Kashy, Deborah A.

2011-01-01

224

An Examination of the Dirty Dozen Measure of Psychopathy: A Cautionary Tale about the Costs of Brief Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given substantial interest in the traits conceived of as part of the "Dark Triad"--psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism--assessment of these traits is of great importance. The Dirty Dozen (DD; Jonason & Webster, 2010) is a brief measure of the Dark Triad constructs that uses 4 items to assess each of these constructs. In the present…

Miller, Joshua D.; Few, Lauren R.; Seibert, L. Alana; Watts, Ashley; Zeichner, Amos; Lynam, Donald R.

2012-01-01

225

The Dirty Dozen: A Concise Measure of the Dark Triad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been an exponential increase of interest in the dark side of human nature during the last decade. To better understand this dark side, the authors developed and validated a concise, 12-item measure of the Dark Triad: narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism. In 4 studies involving 1,085 participants, they examined its structural…

Jonason, Peter K.; Webster, Gregory D.

2010-01-01

226

Externalizing Shame Responses in Children: The Role of Fragile-Positive Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When faced with shame, children can either respond in submissive ways to withdraw from their environment or in externalizing ways to oppose their environment. This study tested the hypothesis that fragile-positive views of self predispose children to respond in externalizing ways to shame situations. Narcissism, actual and perceived social…

Thomaes, Sander; Stegge, Hedy; Olthof, Tjeert

2007-01-01

227

Ruminations on narcissistic personality disorder.  

PubMed

Comments on the original article by Paris (see record 2012-18549-001) which provides an interesting and provocative overview of the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). In this commentary, the author focuses on several assessment issues for narcissism, as well as NPD in particular. PMID:24796569

Trull, Timothy J

2014-04-01

228

Self-Esteem: Balance between Individual and Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differentiates self-esteem from narcissism and traces societal preoccupation with self-esteem. Maintains that placing so much importance on an individual and self-esteem obscures the value of a balance between individuality and mutual responsibility. Describes Montessori's emphasis on the child's inner development and on community and mutual…

Woods, Carol S.

1999-01-01

229

Interview of Antony Gormley  

E-print Network

of narcissism, and they may be right, but the issue for me is to deal with what is arising and to do it in the most effective way possible; for me at the moment working with a team of twenty or so seems pretty effective 55:40:08 The inauguration of 'Plant...

Gormley, Antony

2009-04-29

230

Development and Initial Validation of the Narcissistic Personality Questionnaire for Children: A Preliminary Investigation Using School-Based Asian Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Narcissistic Personality Questionnaire for Children (NPQC) is a brief self-report scale for measuring narcissism in children. In Study 1, a factor analysis on 370 children's NPQC scores revealed four factors that were labeled superiority, exploitativeness, self-absorption, and leadership. Study 2 established convergent and discriminant…

Ang, Rebecca P.; Yusof, Noradlin

2006-01-01

231

Correlates of Psychological Abuse Perpetration in College Dating Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the contributions of gender, adult romantic attachment orientations (i.e., avoidance, anxiety), defense mechanisms (i.e., narcissism, other-splitting), and stressors to college student psychological abuse perpetration (dominance). Men with higher levels of attachment avoidance, narcissistic entitlement, and stressful problems…

Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.

2010-01-01

232

The Decline of Play and the Rise of Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past half century, in the United States and other developed nations, children's free play with other children has declined sharply. Over the same period, anxiety, depression, suicide, feelings of helplessness, and narcissism have increased sharply in children, adolescents, and young adults. This article documents these historical changes…

Gray, Peter

2011-01-01

233

The Utility of the Child and Adolescent Psychopathy Construct in Hong Kong, China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study examined the nature of child and adolescent psychopathy using the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in 3,675 schoolchildren (ages 11-16) in Hong Kong, China. A confirmatory factor analysis observed a good fit for the three-factor model (callous-unemotional, impulsivity, narcissism) of APSD, with boys scoring…

Fung, Annis Lai-Chu; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian

2010-01-01

234

The 'As If' Faculty/Student Advocate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a type of educational administrator in terms of demographic, emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal characteristics, underscoring this individual's less than fully authentic concern for others. This administrative personality type is then related to psychological theories of narcissism, obsessive-compulsive personality, and aggression.…

Misch, Donald A.

2002-01-01

235

Financial Panic In a Petro State? This is not a presentation by the  

E-print Network

;27/02/2013 28 weakens the "fiscal social contract" between citizens and state leaders, as the normally and far less social mobility than their parents. But narcissism leads these same Americans to reject;27/02/2013 21 "Don't study OPEC.... Study what oil is doing to us." Perez Alfonso Staple Theory: A defense

Boisvert, Jeff

236

Art Therapy, Somatization, and Narcissistic Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes how art therapy can benefit patients with somatic complaints and those suffering from functional gastrointestinal disorders such as dyspepsia. Some psychosomatic disorders may be linked to narcissistic identification and\\/or depressive components. Mushatt (1989) depicts the essence of narcissism as a residue of the earliest symbiotic state, shown when body and external world are one. She points out

Louise Lacroix; Leland Peterson; Pierre Verrier

2001-01-01

237

Self-Recognition of the Body and Its Parts during Late Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male and female student volunteers were photographed nude in three orientations and asked to identify bodily parts from an array of photographs grouped according to height and linearity. Results are discussed in terms of ego involvement, narcissism, and the increased attention given to the body during adolescence. (Author/GK)

Collins, John K.

1981-01-01

238

American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, 2013, Vol. 1, No. 3, 40-44 Available online at http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajcmr/1/3/2  

E-print Network

Reaction in Sickle Cell Disease Narcisse Elenga* Service de Pédiatrie, Centre hospitalier de Cayenne 16, 2013; Accepted May 17, 2013 Abstract Patients with sickle cell disease frequently require red with massive hemolysis, it is recommended that all patients with sickle cell disease receiving transfusions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

The World's Top Stealth Bug Ends Marriages, Friendships and Jobs Bartonella Promotes Addiction, Aggression and Character Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

I hate medical drama. If I want drama I will watch a movie, a sporting event or a TV show. Bartonella has almost 2,000 articles on PubMed, but almost no one realizes it is a major source of depression and suicide, panic attacks and social anxiety, seizures, heart attacks, personality change, pushy be- havior, divorce, profound narcissism, eccentric obsessions, irritability,

James Schaller

240

Narcissists' social pain seen only in the brain.  

PubMed

Narcissism is a complex phenomenon, involving a level of defensive self-enhancement. Narcissists have avoidant attachment styles, maintain distance in relationships and claim not to need others. However, they are especially sensitive to others' evaluations, needing positive reflected appraisals to maintain their inflated self-views, and showing extreme responses (e.g. aggression) when rejected. The current study tested the hypothesis that narcissists also show hypersensitivity in brain systems associated with distress during exclusion. We measured individual differences in narcissism (Narcissistic Personality Inventory) and monitored neural responses to social exclusion (Cyberball). Narcissism was significantly associated with activity in an a priori anatomically defined social pain network (anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex) during social exclusion. Results suggest hypersensitivity to exclusion in narcissists may be a function of hypersensitivity in brain systems associated with distress, and suggests a potential pathway that connects narcissism to negative consequences for longer-term physical and mental health-findings not apparent with self-report alone. PMID:24860084

Cascio, Christopher N; Konrath, Sara H; Falk, Emily B

2015-03-01

241

Designing and Evaluating Tutoring Feedback Strategies for Digital Learning Environments on the Basis of the Interactive Tutoring Feedback Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the interactive tutoring feedback model (ITF-model; Narciss, 2006; 2008), and how it can be applied to the design and evaluation of feedback strategies for digital learning environments. The ITF-model conceptualizes formative tutoring feedback as a multidimensional instructional activity that aims at contributing to the…

Narciss, Susanne

2013-01-01

242

Survival of the scheming: a genetically informed link between the dark triad and mental toughness.  

PubMed

The present study is the first behavioral genetic investigation of the Dark Triad traits of personality, consisting of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, and the variable of mental toughness, reflecting individual differences in the ability to cope when under pressure. The purpose of this investigation was to explore a potential explanation for the success of individuals exhibiting the Dark Triad traits in workplace and social settings. Participants were adult twins who completed the MACH-IV, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale assessing Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, respectively, as well as the MT48, measuring mental toughness. Correlational analyses of the data revealed significant positive phenotypic associations between mental toughness and narcissism. Psychopathy and Machiavellianism, however, both showed some significant negative phenotypic correlations with mental toughness. Bivariate behavioral genetic analyses of the data were conducted to assess the extent to which these significant phenotypic correlations were attributable to common genetic and/or common environmental factors. Results indicate that correlations between narcissism and mental toughness were attributable primarily to common non-shared environmental factors, correlations between Machiavellianism and mental toughness were influenced by both common genetic and common non-shared environmental factors, and the correlations between psychopathy and mental toughness were attributable entirely to correlated genetic factors. Implications of these findings in the context of etiology and organizational adaptation are discussed. PMID:24074275

Onley, Michael; Veselka, Livia; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Vernon, Philip A

2013-12-01

243

The functional domain specificity of self-esteem and the differential prediction of aggression.  

PubMed

On the basis of an evolutionary theory of self-esteem (SE), it was hypothesized that the SE-aggression relationship differs across functionally distinct domains of SE and across contexts. In 2 experiments, participants had the opportunity to aggress against the evaluator of an essay they had written. In Study 1, self-perceived superiority was positively related to aggression, whereas social inclusion was inversely related to aggression. In Study 2, in which the context was altered to simulate a mating competition, only a measure of self-perceived mate value emerged as a (positive) predictor of aggression. Global SE failed to contribute to the prediction of aggression in either experiment. Statistically controlling for narcissism did not eliminate either set of findings. Implications for the conceptualization and measurement of SE and narcissism are discussed. PMID:12003475

Kirkpatrick, Lee A; Waugh, Christian E; Valencia, Alelhie; Webster, Gregory D

2002-05-01

244

An examination of the factor structure of DSM-IV Narcissistic Personality Disorder Criteria  

PubMed Central

A growing body of research has suggested that narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) contains two factors or types: overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable. A recent factor analysis of DSM-IV NPD symptoms supported a similar two-factor model. The present research tested this proposed two-factor solution against a one-factor solution (N = 298; 72% patients) using both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and an examination of associations between the resultant factors and theoretically relevant criteria (other PDs; depression, anxiety). The results of the CFA supported a one-factor solution. Likewise, the two factors each yielded a similar pattern of correlations with relevant criteria. Together, these results argue against a two-factor structure for the current DSM-IV NPD symptoms. Given the broader research literature suggesting a two-factor structure of narcissism, strategies for assessing both overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable forms of narcissism in DSM-V are discussed. PMID:18243885

Miller, Joshua D.; Hoffman, Brian J.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.

2008-01-01

245

You Probably Think this Paper’s About You: Narcissists’ Perceptions of their Personality and Reputation  

PubMed Central

Do narcissists have insight into the negative aspects of their personality and reputation? Using both clinical and subclinical measures of narcissism, we examined others’ perceptions, self-perceptions and meta-perceptions of narcissists across a wide range of traits for a new acquaintance and close other (Study 1), longitudinally with a group of new acquaintances (Study 2), and among coworkers (Study 3). Results bring us to three surprising conclusions about narcissists: 1) they understand that others see them less positively than they see themselves (i.e., their meta-perceptions are less biased than are their self-perceptions), 2) they have some insight into the fact that they make positive first impressions that deteriorate over time, and 3) they have insight into their narcissistic personality (e.g., they describe themselves as arrogant). These findings shed light on some of the psychological mechanisms underlying narcissism. PMID:21604895

Carlson, Erika N.; Vazire, Simine; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2011-01-01

246

Dimensions of psychopathy and their relationships to cognitive functioning in children.  

PubMed

Individuals with psychopathic traits are hypothesized to be free of intellectual deficits and possibly even to exhibit good cognitive abilities. Previous studies, based on clinical and incarcerated youth, have shown inconsistent findings. We investigated the relationships between different dimensions of psychopathy (callous/unemotional traits, narcissism, impulsivity) and cognitive abilities in a large population-based sample of children (age 9, N = 4,713). Findings indicated a positive relationship between narcissism and both verbal and nonverbal abilities, even after accounting for conduct problems and hyperactivity. Callous/unemotional traits and impulsivity were negatively related to both types of cognitive abilities but did not remain significant after accounting for conduct problems and hyperactivity. Interactions between gender and the dimensions of psychopathy were not significant. PMID:18645759

Fontaine, Nathalie; Barker, Edward D; Salekin, Randall T; Viding, Essi

2008-07-01

247

Turning shame inside-out: "humiliated fury" in young adolescents.  

PubMed

The term "humiliated fury" refers to the anger people can experience when they are shamed. In Study 1, participants were randomly exposed to a prototypical shameful event or control event, and their self-reported feelings of anger were measured. In Study 2, participants reported each school day, for 2 weeks, the shameful events they experienced. They also nominated classmates who got angry each day. Narcissism was treated as a potential moderator in both studies. As predicted, shameful events made children angry, especially more narcissistic children. Boys with high narcissism scores were especially likely to express their anger after being shamed. These results corroborate clinical theory holding that shameful events can initiate instances of humiliated fury. PMID:21604873

Thomaes, Sander; Stegge, Hedy; Olthof, Tjeert; Bushman, Brad J; Nezlek, John B

2011-08-01

248

Attitudes Towards (Psychotherapy) Groups: Results of a Survey in a Representative Sample.  

PubMed

Abstract Based upon observations indicating decreasing attractiveness of groups within and outside the clinical field, the present study aimed to determine attitudes toward, and expectations of, groups in a representative sample of 2512 German citizens. The survey also included questions specifically related to group psychotherapy and its acceptance. In addition, psychological characteristics of respondents (measures of narcissism, psychological impairment, and emotion regulation) and socio-demographic variables were assessed to examine their potential association with group-related attitudes. In total, the survey revealed a relatively positive picture of attitudes and expectations toward groups in general and psychotherapy groups in particular. Those with more open attitudes towards groups were comparatively less distressed, anxious, and depressed; they favored emotional reappraisal instead of suppression as the dominant strategy to regulate their emotions. Contrary to prediction, narcissism did not influence attitudes towards groups. The results are related to current discussions of the attractiveness of groups and to implications for the practice of group psychotherapy. PMID:24963534

Strauss, Bernhard; Spangenberg, Lena; Brähler, Elmar; Bormann, Bianca

2014-06-25

249

Theoretical and Empirical Concerns Regarding the Dark Triad as a Construct.  

PubMed

Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism are three constructs that have been collectively referred to as the "Dark Triad." Although researchers were initially interested in comparing similarities and differences between these constructs, in recent years researchers have combined items from the measures to create an overall measure of the Dark Triad as a single construct. The authors raise theoretical concerns regarding this approach, arguing that Machiavellianism and narcissism can be viewed as features or traits of psychopathy. They also provide empirical evidence from a large, correctional sample (N = 972) to demonstrate that a latent Dark Triad could not be estimated using confirmatory factor analysis because more than 100% of the variance was attributed to psychopathy. Moreover, the Dark Triad traits, by and large, did not confer incremental validity above and beyond psychopathy, and none of the interaction models indicated that additional information would be gained from considering the Dark Triad traits in constellation. PMID:25248015

Glenn, Andrea L; Sellbom, Martin

2014-09-23

250

Moving the field forward: commentary for the special series "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspectives on diagnosis and treatment".  

PubMed

Comments on the articles by A. E. Skodol et al. (see record 2013-24395-001), E. Ronningstam (see record 2014-42878-005), D. Diamond et al. (see record 2014-42878-004), and A. L. Pincus et al. (see record 2014-01439-001). These articles in this special issue, "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspectives on diagnosis and treatment", provide useful guidance for all clinicians working with patients with narcissistic pathology, particularly those who may not have considered narcissism as an underlying cause of a patient's presenting difficulties or as a contributor to therapeutic impasse. Taken together, they offer a more conceptually sophisticated approach to NPD than the constraining criteria of the DSM, and make a compelling case that it is time for NPD and pathological narcissism to receive greater clinical and research attention. PMID:25314233

Kealy, David; Hadjipavlou, George A; Ogrodniczuk, John S

2014-10-01

251

Personality predictors of driver vengeance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify personality and individual difference measures related to driver vengeance, as measured by the Driver Vengeance Questionnaire (DVQ; Wiesenthal, Hennessy, & Gibson, 2000). There were 170 undergraduate students who completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires including the DVQ and measures of narcissism, impulsivity, and trait driver stress. A hierarchical linear regressidn predicting DVQ score revealed that being male (? = .25), narcissism (? = .19), and trait driver stress (? = .41) were significantly associated with vengeance. Impulsivity was significant in the third block of the regression but was not a significant predictor of vengeance in the final block. Interactions between gender and the individual difference measures were not significant. The final model accounted for 34% of the variance. Implications of the results and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25774420

Wickens, Christine M; Wiesenthal, David L; Roseborough, James E W

2015-01-01

252

Mother, melancholia, and humor in Erik H. Erikson's earliest writings.  

PubMed

Erik H. Erikson wrote three articles when he was in his late-twenties and an up-and-coming member of the psychoanalytic community in Vienna. At the time he wrote these articles, he was in a training psychoanalysis with Anna Freud, teaching at the Heitzing School in Vienna, and learning the Montessori method of teaching. These articles focus on the loss of primary narcissism and the development of the superego (or punitive conscience) in early childhood, especially through the child's conflict with maternal authority. They support the idea that melancholia, with its internalized rage against the mother, is the inevitable outcome of the loss of primary narcissism. I note, however, that the third of these articles makes a case for the restorative role of humor, especially when Freud's view that humor is a function of the superego is taken into account. PMID:19105029

Capps, Donald

2008-09-01

253

[Severe depression : psychoanalysis].  

PubMed

The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity. PMID:20141799

Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

2009-12-01

254

Internal consistency reliability of the self-report antisocial process screening device.  

PubMed

The self-report version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) has become a popular measure for assessing psychopathic features in justice-involved adolescents. However, the internal consistency reliability of its component scales (Narcissism, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity) has been questioned in several studies. This study evaluates the internal consistency reliability of the self-report APSD by examining various indices (e.g., Cronbach's alpha, mean interitem correlation) across 11 studies. Whereas the Narcissism and Impulsivity scales display moderate to good reliability, internal consistency indices for the Callous-Unemotional scale are consistently poor across studies. Suggestions are made for revisions to this scale that would substantially improve its internal consistency reliability. PMID:16443722

Poythress, Norman G; Douglas, Kevin S; Falkenbach, Diana; Cruise, Keith; Lee, Zina; Murrie, Daniel C; Vitacco, Michael

2006-03-01

255

A longitudinal study of cyberbullying: Examining riskand protective factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the current study was to examine possible risk (school-bullying and victimization, exposure to media violence, callous-unemotional traits, impulsivity and narcissism) and protective (family, peer and school social support) factors that might be associated with cyberbullying and cyber-victimization by employing a longitudinal, two-wave design. The sample consisted of 1,416 (50.1% girls) adolescents living in Cyprus. The findings suggested

Kostas A. Fanti; Andreas G. Demetriou; Veronica V. Hawa

2012-01-01

256

The Antihero in Popular Culture: Life History Theory and the Dark Triad Personality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dark Triad of personality is composed of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. Despite the common belief that these traits are undesirable, the media is awash with characters that embody the Dark Triad. Characters like Gregory House, M.D., Batman (a.k.a. the Dark Knight), and James Bond all embody these traits and are some of the most popular media franchises today. As

Peter K. Jonason; Gregory D. Webster; David P. Schmitt; Norman P. Li; Laura Crysel

2012-01-01

257

Relationships between the Dark Triad and humor styles: A replication and extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred undergraduate students completed paper-and-pencil measures of the Dark Triad (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, which taps two adaptive (affiliative and self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive and self-defeating) styles of humor. The first purpose of the study was to replicate relationships between these variables reported by Veselka et al. (2010). The second purpose was to

Rod A. Martin; Jessica M. Lastuk; Jennifer Jeffery; Philip A. Vernon; Livia Veselka

258

Finger length ratio (2D:4D) and sex differences in aggression during a simulated war game  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the association between a biomarker of early sex differentiation, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D), and unprovoked attack during a simulated war game (n=176). We also investigated whether 2D:4D mediated the tendency for men to attack more than women and whether personality dimensions previously associated with sex differences in aggression or hostility (social dominance orientation, narcissism, perceived stress,

Matthew H. McIntyre; Emily S. Barrett; Rose McDermott; Dominic D. P. Johnson; Jonathan Cowden; Stephen P. Rosen

2007-01-01

259

Emergent Issues in Assessing Personality Pathology: Illustrations from Two Studies of Adolescent Personality and Related Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As illustrated by two articles that each investigate personality pathology and its correlates in adolescents—Aelterman et\\u000a al. (2010) on obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) from a dimensional personality perspective, and Barry and Wallace (2010) on indicators of pathological and normative development of youth narcissism—this commentary discusses four important assessment\\u000a issues that have become more salient as the field considers a shift,

Lee Anna Clark

2010-01-01

260

Personality and intentional binding: an exploratory study using the narcissistic personality inventory.  

PubMed

When an individual estimates the temporal interval between a voluntary action and a consequent effect, their estimates are shorter than the real duration. This perceived shortening has been termed "intentional binding", and is often due to a shift in the perception of a voluntary action forward towards the effect and a shift in the perception of the effect back towards the action. Despite much work on binding, there is virtually no consideration of individual/personality differences and how they affect it. Narcissism is a psychological trait associated with an inflated sense of self, and individuals higher in levels of subclinical narcissism tend to see themselves as highly effective agents. Conversely, lower levels of narcissism may be associated with a reduced sense of agency. In this exploratory study, to assess whether individuals with different scores on a narcissism scale are associated with differences in intentional binding, we compared perceived times of actions and effects (tones) between participants with high, middle, and low scores on the narcissistic personality inventory (NPI). We hypothesized that participants with higher scores would show increased binding compared to participants with lower scores. We found that participants in our middle and high groups showed a similar degree of binding, which was significantly greater than the level of binding shown by participants with the lowest scores. To our knowledge, these results are the first to demonstrate that different scores on a personality scale are associated with changes in the phenomenological experience of action, and therefore underscore the importance of considering individual/personality differences in the study of volition. Our results also reinforce the notion that intentional binding is related to agency experience. PMID:25698952

Hascalovitz, Ann Chen; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

2015-01-01

261

Correspondence Between the Psychopathic Personality Inventory and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised: a Look At Self-Reported Personality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the correspondence between the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) and a recent revision of this measure, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory—Revised (PPI-R) in a sample of 85 male and female offenders in a community-based residential drug treatment program. Participants completed the PPI and PPI-R along with self-report measures of narcissism, aggression, emotional intelligence, and negative emotionality. Analyses focused on

James V. Ray; John W. Weir; Norman G. Poythress; Angela Rickelm

2011-01-01

262

Internal Consistency Reliability of the Self-Report Antisocial Process Screening Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self-report version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) has become a popular measure for assessing psychopathic features in justice-involved adolescents. However, the internal consistency reliability of its component scales (Narcissism, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity) has been questioned in several studies. This study evaluates the internal consistency reliability of the self-report APSD by examining various indices (e.g., Cronbach's alpha, mean

Norman G. Poythress; Kevin S. Douglas; Diana Falkenbach; Keith Cruise; Zina Lee; Daniel C. Murrie; Michael Vitacco

2006-01-01

263

Narcissistic Features in Young Adolescents: Relations to Aggression and Internalizing Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research and theory suggest narcissistic features contribute to aggression in adults. The present study examined the association of narcissistic features with aggression and internalizing symptoms in 233 students of 5th–8th grade at three inner-city schools. A factor analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory in this sample revealed three factors: Adaptive Narcissism, Exploitativeness, and Exhibitionism. Regression analyses were used to

Jason J. Washburn; Susan D. McMahon; Cheryl A. King; Mark A. Reinecke; Carrie Silver

2004-01-01

264

Personality and intentional binding: an exploratory study using the narcissistic personality inventory  

PubMed Central

When an individual estimates the temporal interval between a voluntary action and a consequent effect, their estimates are shorter than the real duration. This perceived shortening has been termed “intentional binding”, and is often due to a shift in the perception of a voluntary action forward towards the effect and a shift in the perception of the effect back towards the action. Despite much work on binding, there is virtually no consideration of individual/personality differences and how they affect it. Narcissism is a psychological trait associated with an inflated sense of self, and individuals higher in levels of subclinical narcissism tend to see themselves as highly effective agents. Conversely, lower levels of narcissism may be associated with a reduced sense of agency. In this exploratory study, to assess whether individuals with different scores on a narcissism scale are associated with differences in intentional binding, we compared perceived times of actions and effects (tones) between participants with high, middle, and low scores on the narcissistic personality inventory (NPI). We hypothesized that participants with higher scores would show increased binding compared to participants with lower scores. We found that participants in our middle and high groups showed a similar degree of binding, which was significantly greater than the level of binding shown by participants with the lowest scores. To our knowledge, these results are the first to demonstrate that different scores on a personality scale are associated with changes in the phenomenological experience of action, and therefore underscore the importance of considering individual/personality differences in the study of volition. Our results also reinforce the notion that intentional binding is related to agency experience. PMID:25698952

Hascalovitz, Ann (Chen); Obhi, Sukhvinder S.

2015-01-01

265

Identification and its vicissitudes.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to understand the vicissitudes of identification within the co-ordinates of narcissism and the object relation. Firstly the dialectic pair primary identification/secondary identification are studied, and primary narcissism is suggested as the hypothesis which best explains them. The complex identification processes in the primary scene are considered next and the importance of the introjection of the oedipal parents for the formation of the superego is underlined. The importance of the structuring function of the introjection and projection mechanisms becomes embodied in the concept of projective identification, which comes to question the postulate of primary narcissism. The theory of projective-introjective identification is an extremely powerful instrument for explaining phenomena, however it obliges one to accept that the first introjections are radically different from the others. They have nothing to do with mourning but rather with primitive mechanisms which question the subject/object polarity and, so this author believes, spring basically from envy. Lastly, it is maintained that envy and libido are factors of a dialectic from which the object relation and the earliest processes of identification, previous to the Oedipus complex, proceed at one and the same time. PMID:4066167

Etchegoyen, R H

1985-01-01

266

Cognitive schemas and aggressive behavior in adolescents: the mediating role of social information processing.  

PubMed

This study assesses the association between cognitive schemas of justification of violence, grandiosity and abuse, and reactive and proactive aggressive behavior, and whether this association is mediated by social information processing (SIP). For this purpose, a sample of 1371 adolescents (638 girls and 580 boys) completed measures of cognitive schemas, SIP, and Reactive-Proactive Aggression. The results showed that the cognitive schemas of justification of violence and narcissism are more relevant for proactive aggression, whereas the abuse schema is more relevant for reactive aggression. SIP mediated particularly the association between cognitive schemas and reactive aggression. Each cognitive schema was shown to be associated with some particular SIP component: justification of violence and abuse with the component of interpretation, and narcissism with the experience of anger, Moreover, the abuse schema was negatively associated with the selection of aggressive responses. Lastly, a general model of paths between schemas, SIP, and aggression was found to be quite similar for boys and girls, although the former scored higher in proactive aggression, partly because of their higher scores in the justification of violence and narcissism schemas. PMID:20480688

Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

2010-05-01

267

Validation of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory among psychiatric inpatients: sociodemographic, cognitive and personality correlates.  

PubMed

This study examined the internal structure and validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) in a sample of 399 psychiatric inpatients. The construct validity of the PPI was examined by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The divergent and convergent validity of the PPI were examined by correlating the PPI with demographic variables, intelligence, DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders, and measures of impulsiveness, aggression, narcissism, and psychopathy. CFA supports the presumed 8-factor structure of the PPI and shows that the first-order PPI scales can be represented by two higher-order factors, that is, PPI-I (fearless dominance) and PPI-II (impulsive-aggressiveness). Males scored significantly higher on all PPI scales than females. PPI-I correlated positively with functional impulsiveness, amorality, social imperturbability, and self-centered narcissism. PPI-II was negatively related to age and educational level, and positively to physical and verbal aggression, dysfunctional impulsivity, and other-centered narcissism. Implications for clinical practice are outlined. PMID:19817629

Claes, Laurence; Vertommen, Stefaan; Soenens, Bart; Eyskens, Ann; Rens, Els; Vertommen, Hans

2009-10-01

268

A test of the construct validity of the elemental psychopathy assessment scores in a community sample of adults.  

PubMed

The Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA) is a relatively new self-report measure of the basic traits associated with psychopathy. Using community participants (N = 104) oversampled for the presence of psychopathic traits, we examined the convergent and criterion validity of the EPA total and factor scores (i.e., Antagonism, Emotional Stability, Disinhibition, and Narcissism) in relation to self- and informant reports of psychopathy and the general personality dimensions of the HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience; Ashton & Lee, 2009), as well as self-reported scores on narcissism, Machiavellianism, and externalizing behaviors (EBs) such as antisocial behavior and aggression. The EPA total and factor scores manifested substantial positive correlations with self- and informant-reported psychopathy scores and dimensions from the HEXACO, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and EBs. The patterns of these relations became clearer and more differentiated when examined via regression analyses such that the EPA factors manifested differential relations with various aspects of psychopathy (e.g., EPA Antagonism was the only unique correlate of psychopathy traits related to callousness and manipulation). Overall, the EPA is a promising assessment tool given the breadth of its coverage, the flexibility with which it can be used (total score; 4-factor scores; 18 subscale scores), and its ties to a popular model of basic personality traits. PMID:24548152

Miller, Joshua D; Hyatt, Courtland S; Rausher, Steven; Maples, Jessica L; Zeichner, Amos

2014-06-01

269

Child serial murder-psychodynamics: closely watched shadows.  

PubMed

There is a malignant transformation in object relations resulting in an identification with an omnipotent and cruel object resulting in an identity transformation. If the tension, desperation, and dissociation increase, serial murder becomes spree murder. The presence of pathological narcissism and psychopathic tendencies are of diagnostic significance in understanding the murderer's personality functioning and motivation to kill. Meloy (1988) considered the degree of sadism and aggression combined with narcissistic qualities to reflect the "malignancy" of the psychopathic disturbance where gratification (of aggression) occurs in the service of narcissistic functioning--that is, cruelty toward others in the form of a triumphant victory over a rejecting object. Meloy also believes that dissociation is ubiquitious in the psychopath. The initial murder of the serial murderer may reflect a "new identity." The pathological object-relations of narcissism and the malignant narcissism are important diagnostic indicators in the personality functioning of serial killers and the occurrence of these phenomena is a significant factor in the formation of the personalities of serial killers, their inner motivations, and their pattern of commission. PMID:11685995

Turco, R

2001-01-01

270

Personality in Relation to Genetic Liability for Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: Differential Associations with the COMT Val108/158Met Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may share aspects of genetic etiology. Evidence supports the Val108/158Met polymorphism of the Catechol-o-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene as potentially contributing to the etiology of both disorders. To determine whether the COMT gene is associated with personality traits related to genetic risk for either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, we examined dimensions of personality psychopathology in biological relatives of individuals with the disorders. Specifically, we contrasted personality characteristics of first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives of people with bipolar-I disorder, and nonpsychiatric control participants using scores from the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology – Brief Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). We also characterized the COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism of subjects. Compared to controls, relatives of schizophrenia patients scored lower on stimulus seeking and higher on restrictive expression and social avoidance. Compared to relatives of bipolar patients, relatives of schizophrenia patients had lower scores on narcissism, rejectionality (i.e., rejection of ideas of others), stimulus seeking, passive-aggressive oppositionality, and self-harm. The subset of relatives of schizophrenia patients who were COMT val homozygotes exhibited lower scores on narcissism, rejectionality, and stimulus seeking than met homozygote relatives of schizophrenia patients and control participants. Although relatives of bipolar patients showed scale elevations consistent with emotional dysregulation, the scores failed to be associated with the Val108/158Met polymorphism. Abnormally low narcissism and rejectionality in val homozygote relatives of schizophrenia patients suggests that the val allele of the COMT polymorphism may be associated with an underdeveloped self-concept phenomenologically similar to made volition and passivity experiences comprising first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:18201871

Silberschmidt, Amy L.; Sponheim, Scott R.

2009-01-01

271

Personality in relation to genetic liability for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: differential associations with the COMT Val 108/158 Met polymorphism.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may share aspects of genetic etiology. Evidence supports the Val 108/158 Met polymorphism of the Catechol-o-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene as potentially contributing to the etiology of both disorders. To determine whether the COMT gene is associated with personality traits related to genetic risk for either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, we examined dimensions of personality psychopathology in biological relatives of individuals with the disorders. Specifically, we contrasted personality characteristics of first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives of people with bipolar-I disorder, and nonpsychiatric control participants using scores from the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Brief Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). We also characterized the COMT Val 108/158 Met polymorphism of subjects. Compared to controls, relatives of schizophrenia patients scored lower on stimulus seeking and higher on restrictive expression and social avoidance. Compared to relatives of bipolar patients, relatives of schizophrenia patients had lower scores on narcissism, rejectionality (i.e., rejection of ideas of others), stimulus seeking, passive-aggressive oppositionality, and self-harm. The subset of relatives of schizophrenia patients who were COMT val homozygotes exhibited lower scores on narcissism, rejectionality, and stimulus seeking than met homozygote relatives of schizophrenia patients and control participants. Although relatives of bipolar patients showed scale elevations consistent with emotional dysregulation, the scores failed to be associated with the Val 108/158 Met polymorphism. Abnormally low narcissism and rejectionality in val homozygote relatives of schizophrenia patients suggests that the val allele of the COMT polymorphism may be associated with an underdeveloped self-concept phenomenologically similar to made volition and passivity experiences comprising first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:18201871

Silberschmidt, Amy L; Sponheim, Scott R

2008-03-01

272

Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II Safety Program  

SciTech Connect

Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated.

Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Garin, V.P.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Krutoy, A.M.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Polyakov, D.N. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-11-01

273

[Psychogenic polydipsia - suicide as resolution of narcissistic crisis].  

PubMed

A 37 year-old patient had been suffering from considerable polydipsia over a period of almost 3 years. Examination of the pituitary gland, the neural and renal system produced negative results. The psychoanalytic interview revealed a conflict that could explain the origin of the symptoms. Against the background of the biography, the symptoms could be interpreted as regressive behaviour with defense mechanisms of denial of reality and idealization. A personal misfortune provoked a psychological breakdown of the patient's defense mechanisms and he committed suicide. The background for these correlations was found in the theory of narcissism. PMID:7234150

Klussmann, R; Wallmüller-Strycker, A

1981-01-01

274

Why Do People Use Facebook?  

PubMed Central

The social networking site, Facebook, has gained an enormous amount of popularity. In this article, we review the literature on the factors contributing to Facebook use. We propose a model suggesting that Facebook use is motivated by two primary needs: (1) The need to belong and (2) the need for self-presentation. Demographic and cultural factors contribute to the need to belong, whereas neuroticism, narcissism, shyness, self-esteem and self-worth contribute to the need for self presentation. Areas for future research are discussed. PMID:22544987

Nadkarni, Ashwini; Hofmann, Stefan G.

2011-01-01

275

Ganyphilia  

PubMed Central

The author describes a role for psychotherapy in ganyphilia, the homoerotic interest by adult males in adolescents. This paraphilia, which is commonly pandered to by street hustlers, often comes to light when the subject is arrested. When ganyphilia is embedded within a framework of disordered narcissism, the personality disorder itself can be effectively treated by a psychoanalytic psychotherapy informed by contemporary self psychology. After locating ganyphilia in a historical/mythological context, the author presents aspects of the psychotherapy of a court-mandated case to demonstrate both etiologic forces and the treatment process. PMID:22700100

NASH, JAMES L.

1992-01-01

276

Under the mirror of the sleeping water: Poussin's Narcissus.  

PubMed

Examined in conjunction with a close reading of Ovid's Metamorphoses, Nicolas Poussin's four paintings on the preoccupying theme of Narcissus and Echo reflect a developing aesthetic interpretation of its textual source. Poussin's reflective vision supports a radical reappraisal of the enigmatic myth at the heart of psychoanalytic theory and practice, in which Narcissus is construed as a far more object-related figure that seeks the formative, affirmative mirroring of the other. This in turn encourages a more versatile conceptualization of narcissistic disturbance, in which an etiologically heterogenous constellation of issues stems from a variety of disturbances in the myriad dynamic and developmental aspects of mirroring and attunement: the narcissisms. PMID:25422176

Tutter, Adele

2014-12-01

277

The technique of partial identification: waking up to the world.  

PubMed

A capacity to make partial identification with others is a skill that brings group members out of the loneliness of narcissism and into the lively world of immediacy and progressive emotional communication. Partial identification, which requires empathy and intuition, involves both knowing what another is feeling and also what we feel toward that other. Developing partial identification will meet with different resistances in men and women. Using clinical examples, the author defines and demonstrates the concept of partial identification and discusses how the pathway to achieving the technique can differ along gender lines. PMID:19441970

Holmes, Lucy

2009-04-01

278

Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion  

SciTech Connect

The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust.

Frank, J.D.

1984-11-01

279

"These anxieties are not mine": adolescence, the oedipal configuration, and transgenerational factors.  

PubMed

Part 1 of this paper draws on the film Back to the Future (1985) to highlight various aspects of adolescence, the oedipal situation, and transgenerational factors. The authors then discuss the Oedipus myth and its themes of adolescence, narcissism, identity, acting out, repetition, aggression, and the parent-child relationship, among others. Comments drawn from Winnicott's writing on oedipal issues are discussed as well. As an illustration of some of these issues, in Part 2, the authors present the clinical case of Osvaldo, age sixteen. Transference-countertransference issues in this treatment are explored in depth. PMID:25074052

Bonaminio, Vincenzo; Di Renzo, Mariassunta

2014-07-01

280

Brief report: self-reported psychopathic-like features among Finnish community youth: investigation of the factor structure of the antisocial personality screening device.  

PubMed

The Antisocial Process Screening Device- Self-Report (APSD-SR) is a self-report measure for assessment of psychopathic traits in adolescents. The present study aimed to investigate the factor structure and internal consistency of the APSD-SR in a sample of 4855 Finnish community adolescents. A three-factor structure with factors representing impulsivity (IMP), narcissism (NAR) and callous-unemotional (CU) features was found. Internal consistency indices ranged from moderate to good. The findings provide promising data on applicability of the APSD-SR instrument to Scandinavian youth. Results have implications for researchers and clinicians interested in measuring adolescent psychopathy. PMID:25190497

Laajasalo, Taina; Saukkonen, Suvi; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Lipsanen, Jari; Aronen, Eeva T

2014-10-01

281

Determination of the relative power density distribution in a heterogeneous reactor from the results of measurements of the reactivity effects and the neutron importance function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for experimental determination of the relative power density distribution in a heterogeneous reactor based on measurements of fuel reactivity effects and importance of neutrons from a californium source is proposed. The method was perfected on two critical assembly configurations at the NARCISS facility of the Kurchatov Institute, which simulated a small-size heterogeneous nuclear reactor. The neutron importance measurements were performed on subcritical and critical assemblies. It is shown that, along with traditionally used activation methods, the developed method can be applied to experimental studies of special features of the power density distribution in critical assemblies and reactors.

Bobrov, A. A.; Glushkov, E. S.; Zimin, A. A.; Kapitonova, A. V.; Kompaniets, G. V.; Nosov, V. I.; Petrushenko, R. P.; Smirnov, O. N.

2012-12-01

282

An examination of the factor structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, narcissistic personality disorder criteria: one or two factors?  

PubMed

A growing body of research has suggested that narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) contains 2 factors or types: overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable. A recent factor analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), NPD symptoms supported a similar 2-factor model. The present research tested this proposed 2-factor solution against a 1-factor solution (N = 289; 72% patients) using both confirmatory factor analysis and an examination of associations between the resultant factors and theoretically relevant criteria (other personality disorders; depression, anxiety). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported a 1-factor solution. Likewise, the 2 factors each yielded a similar pattern of correlations with relevant criteria. Together, these results argue against a 2-factor structure for the current DSM-IV NPD symptoms. Given the broader research literature suggesting a 2-factor structure of narcissism, strategies for assessing both overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable forms of narcissism in DSM-V are discussed. PMID:18243885

Miller, Joshua D; Hoffman, Brian J; Campbell, W Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A

2008-01-01

283

Dry critical experiments and analyses performed in support of the TOPAZ-2 safety program  

SciTech Connect

In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz-2 space nuclear power system. Functional safety requirements developed for the Topaz mission mandated that the reactor remain subcritical when flooded and immersed in water. Initial experiments and analyses performed in Russia and the United States indicated that the reactor could potentially become supercritical in several water- or sand-immersion scenarios. Consequently, a series of critical experiments was performed on the Narciss M-II facility at the Kurchatov Institute to measure the reactivity effects of water and sand immersion, to quantify the effectiveness of reactor modifications proposed to preclude criticality, and to benchmark the calculational methods and nuclear data used in the Topaz-2 safety analyses. In this paper we describe the Narciss M-II experimental configurations along with the associated calculational models and methods. We also present and compare the measured and calculated results for the dry experimental configurations. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

Pelowitz, D.B.; Sapir, J. [Reactor Design and Analysis Group, TSA-12, MS K551, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Kompanietz, G.B.; Krutov, A.M.; Polyakov, D.N.; Lobynstev, V.A. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

1995-01-20

284

Violence and personality disorders: clinical and forensic implications.  

PubMed

Several studies have provided strong evidence that personality disorders (PD) represent a significant clinical risk for violence. This review has aimed to examine the relationship of greater risk for violence among persons with certain PD in terms of four fundamental personality dimensions: 1) impulse control; 2) affect regulation; 3) threatened egotism or narcissism; and 4) paranoid cognitive personality style. Two of these dimensions -impulse control and affect regulation- are probably substantially affected by virtually all PDs linked to violence. Narcissism or threatened egotism and paranoid cognitive personality style have also been empirically linked to violence and mental disorder. PD symptoms have proven to be even stronger predictors of violence than the PDs per se. In fact, increased symptoms of DSM-IV cluster A or cluster B PD, such as paranoid, narcissistic and antisocial PD symptoms, correlate significantly with violence. Finally, there are three important principles about the relationship between PDs and violence: 1) PDs are rarely egosyntonic; 2) most patients and violent situations that come to clinical attention involve comorbid conditions; and 3) violence and risk of violence are often associated with substance abuse. Implications of this review for further research are discussed. PMID:21116999

Esbec, E; Echeburúa, E

2010-01-01

285

Narcissistic personality disorder in DSM-5.  

PubMed

The criteria for personality disorders in Section II of DSM-5 have not changed from those in DSM-IV. Therefore, the diagnosis of Section II narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) will perpetuate all of the well-enumerated shortcomings associated with the diagnosis since DSM-III. In this article, we will briefly review problems associated with Section II NPD and then discuss the evolution of a new model of personality disorder and the place in the model of pathological narcissism and NPD. The new model was intended to be the official approach to the diagnosis of personality pathology in DSM-5, but was ultimately placed as an alternative in Section III for further study. The new model is a categorical-dimensional hybrid based on the assessment of core elements of personality functioning and of pathological personality traits. The specific criteria for NPD were intended to rectify some of the shortcomings of the DSM-IV representation by acknowledging both grandiose and vulnerable aspects, overt and covert presentations, and the dimensionality of narcissism. In addition, criteria were assigned and diagnostic thresholds set based on empirical data. The Section III representation of narcissistic phenomena using dimensions of self and interpersonal functioning and relevant traits offers a significant improvement over Section II NPD. PMID:23834518

Skodol, Andrew E; Bender, Donna S; Morey, Leslie C

2014-10-01

286

The associations among dark personalities and sexual tactics across different scenarios.  

PubMed

Although malevolent individuals may be willing to use any tactic necessary to obtain sex, not all antagonistic traits will predict coercion or coaxing in all situations. A sample of 447 adult men, collected in two waves, reported their intentions to engage in coercion or coaxing of hypothetical targets. Study 1 provided three hypothetical scenarios that result in sexual rejection: (a) an expensive date, (b) a stranger, and (c) a relationship partner, and Study 2 provided the same scenarios, and three additional scenarios: (d) a rival's partner, (e) a bet, and (f) a powerful person. A Structural Equations Model indicated that a common antagonistic factor, indicated by Social Dominance and the Dark Triad traits of psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism, predicted coaxing across all situations, whereas only psychopathy predicted coercion across all situations. In addition, narcissism accounted for additional variance in coaxing when rejected by an expensive date. These findings suggest that across the different scenarios, psychopathy is primarily associated with coercive tactics and the common malevolent core among the traits is associated with coaxing tactics. PMID:24288187

Jones, Daniel N; Olderbak, Sally G

2014-04-01

287

Narcissistic Symptoms in German School Shooters.  

PubMed

School shooters are often described as narcissistic, but empirical evidence is scant. To provide more reliable and detailed information, we conducted an exploratory study, analyzing police investigation files on seven school shootings in Germany, looking for symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) in witnesses' and offenders' reports and expert psychological evaluations. Three out of four offenders who had been treated for mental disorders prior to the offenses displayed detached symptoms of narcissism, but none was diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder. Of the other three, two displayed narcissistic traits. In one case, the number of symptoms would have justified a diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder. Offenders showed low and high self-esteem and a range of other mental disorders. Thus, narcissism is not a common characteristic of school shooters, but possibly more frequent than in the general population. This should be considered in developing adequate preventive and intervention measures. PMID:25063684

Bondü, Rebecca; Scheithauer, Herbert

2014-07-25

288

Empathy in narcissistic personality disorder: from clinical and empirical perspectives.  

PubMed

Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is associated with an assortment of characteristics that undermine interpersonal functioning. A lack of empathy is often cited as the primary distinguishing feature of NPD. However, clinical presentations of NPD suggest that empathy is not simply deficient in these individuals, but dysfunctional and subject to a diverse set of motivational and situational factors. Consistent with this presentation, research illustrates that empathy is multidimensional, involving 2 distinct emotional and cognitive processes associated with a capacity to respectively understand and respond to others' mental and affective states. The goal of this practice review is to bridge the gap between our psychobiological understanding of empathy and its clinical manifestations in NPD. We present 3 case studies highlighting the variability in empathic functioning in people with NPD. Additionally, we summarize the literature on empathy and NPD, which largely associates this disorder with deficient emotional empathy, and dysfunctional rather than deficient cognitive empathy. Because this research is limited, we also present empathy-based findings for related syndromes (borderline and psychopathy). Given the complexity of narcissism and empathy, we propose that multiple relationships can exist between these constructs. Ultimately, by recognizing the multifaceted relationship between empathy and narcissism, and moving away from an all or nothing belief that those with NPD simply lack empathy, therapists may better understand narcissistic patients' behavior and motivational structure. PMID:24512457

Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Ronningstam, Elsa

2014-07-01

289

Moving Narcissus: Can Narcissists Be Empathic?  

PubMed

Empathy plays a critical role in fostering and maintaining social relations. Narcissists lack empathy, and this may account for their interpersonal failures. But why do narcissists lack empathy? Are they incapable, or is change possible? Three studies addressed this question. Study 1 showed that the link between narcissism and low empathy generalizes to a specific target person presented in a vignette. The effect was driven by maladaptive narcissistic components (i.e., entitlement, exploitativeness, exhibitionism). Study 2 examined the effect of perspective-taking (vs. control) instructions on self-reported responses to a video. Study 3 examined the effect of the same manipulation on autonomic arousal (heart rate [HR]) during an audio-recording. Perspective-taking ameliorated negative links between maladaptive narcissism and both self-reported empathy and HR. That is, narcissists can be moved by another's suffering, if they take that person's perspective. The findings demonstrate that narcissists' low empathy does not reflect inability, implying potential for intervention. PMID:24878930

Hepper, Erica G; Hart, Claire M; Sedikides, Constantine

2014-05-30

290

Do changes in selfishness explain 12-step benefit? A prospective lagged analysis.  

PubMed

12-Step attendance is associated with increased abstinence. A strong claim made in 12-step literature is that alcoholics are pathologically selfish and that working the 12 steps reduces this selfishness, which, in turn, leads to sustained alcohol abstinence. This study tested this assumption by investigating the linkages between 12-step attendance, pathological narcissism, and drinking. One hundred thirty early Alcohol Anonymous (AA) affiliates with limited AA and treatment histories were recruited from treatment and community-based AA. A majority of the sample was alcohol dependent and reported illicit drug use before recruitment. Participants were interviewed at intake and at 3, 6, and 9 months. A majority of participants attended AA meetings throughout follow-up and such attendance predicted increased abstinence and reduced drinking intensity. 12-Step affiliates were significantly higher on pathological narcissism (PN) relative to general population samples and their PN remained elevated. Contrary to predictions, PN was unrelated to 12-step meeting attendance and did not predict later abstinence or drinking intensity. The findings did not support the hypothesis that reductions in PN explain 12-step benefit. An alternative function for the emphasis placed on pathological selfishness in 12-step programs is discussed and a recommendation is made to use unobtrusive measures of selfishness in future research. PMID:23327500

Tonigan, J Scott; Rynes, Kristina; Toscova, Radka; Hagler, Kylee

2013-01-01

291

Beyond the diagnostic traits: a collaborative exploratory diagnostic process for dimensions and underpinnings of narcissistic personality disorder.  

PubMed

Narcissistic personality disorder has been challenging to diagnose in psychiatric and general clinical practice. Several circumstances and personality factors related to the nature of pathological narcissism and NPD contribute. NPD is usually a moderately impairing condition, often accompanied by specific capabilities and high level of functioning. Comorbidity of other urgent and recognizable psychiatric conditions, such as mood and substance use disorders or suicidality, can override even significant narcissistic personality functioning. Patients' limited ability to recognize own contribution to problems or impact on other people, their hypersensitivity and defensive reactivity, and compromised ability for self-disclosure, self-reflection, and emotional empathy can make initial evaluations difficult. The aim of this study is to integrate recent clinical and empirical knowledge on the underpinnings of pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality functioning, and distinguish narcissistic self-regulatory patterns that are affecting diagnostic traits. A more flexible, exploratory, and collaborative diagnostic process is proposed that integrates the patients subjective experiences and interpersonal functioning in terms of self-regulation, agency, and traits in a way that is informative and meaningful for both the patient and the clinician. PMID:25314232

Ronningstam, Elsa

2014-10-01

292

Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II safety program  

SciTech Connect

Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Garin, V.P.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Krutov, A.M.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Polyakov, D.N.; Chunyaev, E.I. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Marshall, A.C. [International Nuclear Safety, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Sapir, J.L.; Pelowitz, D.B. [Reactor Design and Analysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1995-01-20

293

The significance of Kleinian contributions to psychoanalysis. III. The Kleinian theory of ego psychology and object relations.  

PubMed

The Kleinian theory of ego psychology rests largely on the theory of internal object relations formed through projective identification and re-introjection, and how they undergo transformations from the paranoid-schizoid to the depressive positions via the capacity of the maternal container to transform her infant's "paranoid" content into sobering awareness of truth. It differs from the classical theory in terms of the initial emphasis on projective identification and the only gradually developing importance of introjection of the external world of reality. This contribution develops the Kleinian metapsychology of ego formation from the succession of the paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions, which are the phenomenological-experimental equivalents of Mahler's autistic, symbiotic, and separation-individuation phases of development. It seeks also to develop the Kleinian conception of narcissism and compare it to the classical one. PMID:6759433

Grotstein, J S

294

Looking again, and harder, for a link between low self-esteem and aggression.  

PubMed

Recent field studies have revived the hypothesis that low self-esteem causes aggression. Accordingly, we reanalyzed the data from a previous experiment and conducted a new experiment to study direct physical aggression in the form of blasting a fellow participant with aversive noise. We also conducted a field study using a measure of indirect aggression in the form of a consequential negative evaluation. High narcissists were more aggressive than others but only when provoked by insult or humiliation and only toward the source of criticism. The combination of high self-esteem and high narcissism produced the highest levels of aggression. These results support the view of aggression as stemming from threatened egotism and are inconsistent with the hypothesis that low self-esteem causes either direct or indirect aggression. PMID:19192074

Bushman, Brad J; Baumeister, Roy F; Thomaes, Sander; Ryu, Ehri; Begeer, Sander; West, Stephen G

2009-04-01

295

Callous and unemotional traits and social cognitive processes in a sample of community-based aggressive youth.  

PubMed

Psychopathic traits are associated with violent, aggressive behaviors and recidivism in adulthood. To increase positive treatment outcomes, it is arguably beneficial to identify and treat psychopathy as early as possible. Furthermore, because research shows that the effectiveness of behavior modification is likely to be affected by the social information-processing patterns of aggressive children, it is important to understand the relationship between conduct-disordered traits and social cognitions. The results of this study showed that callous/unemotional traits in a community-based sample of behavior-disordered youth (57 male, 19 female; 10-19 years of age; 63% African American) significantly predicted values in obtaining a tangible reward and getting into trouble or being punished. However, callous/unemotional traits, impulsivity/conduct problems, and narcissism failed to predict positive expectations regarding receiving a tangible reward, reducing aversive treatment, and demonstration of dominance. Implications for these results are presented. PMID:22114171

Lorber, Colleen M; Hughes, Tammy L; Miller, Jeffrey A; Crothers, Laura M; Martin, Erin

2011-12-01

296

A meta-analysis of the Dark Triad and work behavior: a social exchange perspective.  

PubMed

We reviewed studies of the Dark Triad (DT) personality traits--Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy-and meta-analytically examined their implications for job performance and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Relations among the DT traits and behaviors were extracted from original reports published between 1951 and 2011 of 245 independent samples (N = 43,907). We found that reductions in the quality of job performance were consistently associated with increases in Machiavellianism and psychopathy and that CWB was associated with increases in all 3 components of the DT, but that these associations were moderated by such contextual factors as authority and culture. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the DT explains moderate amounts of the variance in counterproductivity, but not job performance. The results showed that the 3 traits are positively related to one another but are sufficiently distinctive to warrant theoretical and empirical partitioning. PMID:22023075

O'Boyle, Ernest H; Forsyth, Donelson R; Banks, George C; McDaniel, Michael A

2012-05-01

297

Explicit and Implicit Approach Motivation Interact to Predict Interpersonal Arrogance  

PubMed Central

Self-reports of approach motivation are unlikely to be sufficient in understanding the extent to which the individual reacts to appetitive cues in an approach-related manner. A novel implicit probe of approach tendencies was thus developed, one that assessed the extent to which positive affective (versus neutral) stimuli primed larger size estimates, as larger perceptual sizes co-occur with locomotion toward objects in the environment. In two studies (total N = 150), self-reports of approach motivation interacted with this implicit probe of approach motivation to predict individual differences in arrogance, a broad interpersonal dimension previously linked to narcissism, antisocial personality tendencies, and aggression. The results of the two studies were highly parallel in that self-reported levels of approach motivation predicted interpersonal arrogance in the particular context of high, but not low, levels of implicit approach motivation. Implications for understanding approach motivation, implicit probes of it, and problematic approach-related outcomes are discussed. PMID:22399360

Robinson, Michael D.; Ode, Scott; Spencer L., Palder; Fetterman, Adam K.

2012-01-01

298

Self-forgiveness in psychology and psychotherapy: a critique.  

PubMed

This critique proposes that self-forgiveness is a misleading and inaccurate concept for understanding the conditions to which it is applied. Besides the fact that traditional religion provides no rationale for self-forgiveness, four specific criticisms are presented. (1) Self-forgiveness causes splitting of the self--creating various problems. (2) It involves a conflict of interest between the self that judges and the self that is judged. (3) Through its extreme emphasis on the self, it promotes narcissism and appeals to narcissists. (4) Research indicates that interpersonal forgiveness and self or intrapersonal forgiveness involve different psychological processes. We conclude that self-acceptance is a more accurate and useful term for the process and benefits attributed to self-forgiveness. PMID:20354790

Vitz, Paul C; Meade, Jennifer M

2011-06-01

299

Within-person Covariation of Agentic and Communal Perceptions: Implications for Interpersonal Theory and Assessment  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal theory identifies agency and communion as uncorrelated (orthogonal) dimensions, largely evidenced by research examining between-person analyses of single-occasion measures. However, longitudinal studies of interpersonal behavior demonstrated the within-person association of agency and communion is not orthogonal for many individuals, and between-person differences in these associations relate to adjustment. We applied a similar approach to investigate the association of interpersonal perceptions. 184 university students completed a 7-day event-contingent study of their interpersonal experiences. Using multilevel regression models, we demonstrated that agentic and communal perceptions were positively associated, and the strength of this within-person association was moderated by between-person scores of dependency and narcissism. We discuss the benefits of incorporating within-person interpersonal associations (termed interpersonal covariation) into interpersonal theory and assessment. PMID:24072945

Roche, Michael J.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hyde, Amanda L.; Conroy, David E.; Ram, Nilam

2013-01-01

300

Interpersonal evaluations following threats to self: role of self-esteem.  

PubMed

In 2 studies, the authors used dyadic interactions to assess the influence of ego threat on likability as a function of self-esteem. In both studies, 2 naive participants engaged in a structured conversation; in half of the dyads, 1 participant received an ego threat prior to the interaction. In the 1st study, threatened high self-esteem participants were rated as less likable than were threatened low self-esteem participants. The 2nd study confirmed that ego threats are associated with decreased liking for those with high self-esteem and with increased liking for those with low self-esteem. A mediational analysis demonstrated that decreased liking among high self-esteem participants was due to being perceived as antagonistic. Study 2 also indicated that the findings could not be explained by trait levels of narcissism. These patterns are interpreted in terms of differential sensitivity to potential interpersonal rejection. PMID:10794376

Heatherton, T F; Vohs, K D

2000-04-01

301

MCMI personality subtypes for male and female alcoholics.  

PubMed

Alcohol-dependent outpatients were clustered on the basis of their responses on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI; Millon, 1983) personality disorder scales; male and female patients were clustered separately. The clusters were compared with respect to self-reported psychiatric, interpersonal, and drinking problems. The results, along with those of previous cluster analyses with male inpatients, suggest several reliable personality subtypes. One type (more common in inpatient settings) scores high on Negativistic and Avoidant/Schizoid or Dependent scales and reports numerous problems and intense distress. A second type (more common in outpatient settings) reports few problems and scores highest on Compulsive or Histrionic/Narcissistic scales. A third group (found in all and only male samples) scores high on Narcissism and Antisocial scales, readily admits substance problems, and may be interpersonally controlling and distancing. PMID:7965570

Matano, R A; Locke, K D; Schwartz, K

1994-10-01

302

Quick and dirty: some psychosocial costs associated with the Dark Triad in three countries.  

PubMed

The current study provides the first examination of the relationship between life history indicators and the Dark Triad traits in an international sample drawn from the U.S. (n = 264), Singapore (n = 185), and Poland (n = 177). In all three samples, the Dark Triad traits were associated with psychosocial costs, although there were more links in the Singaporean and Polish samples than in the American sample. In the U.S., the quality of one's romantic relationships and psychopathy were negatively correlated. Narcissism was higher in the Polish and American samples than in the Singaporean sample. Men scored higher than women did regardless of location and the sex difference in the individual differences in life histories was mediated by the Dark Triad composite. Results suggest the Dark Triad are related to a volatile socioecology composed of psychosocial costs in the familial, romantic, and platonic relationships. PMID:23531804

Jonason, Peter K; Li, Normal P; Czarna, Anna Z

2013-01-01

303

Personality in cyberspace: personal Web sites as media for personality expressions and impressions.  

PubMed

This research examined the personality of owners of personal Web sites based on self-reports, visitors' ratings, and the content of the Web sites. The authors compared a large sample of Web site owners with population-wide samples on the Big Five dimensions of personality. Controlling for demographic differences, the average Web site owner reported being slightly less extraverted and more open to experience. Compared with various other samples, Web site owners did not generally differ on narcissism, self-monitoring, or self-esteem, but gender differences on these traits were often smaller in Web site owners. Self-other agreement was highest with Openness to Experience, but valid judgments of all Big Five dimensions were derived from Web sites providing rich information. Visitors made use of quantifiable features of the Web site to infer personality, and the cues they utilized partly corresponded to self-reported traits. PMID:16784349

Marcus, Bernd; Machilek, Franz; Schütz, Astrid

2006-06-01

304

Psychological experience of gambling and subtypes of pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

Clinical experience and some empirical data suggest that different subtypes of gamblers may exist. This study examined psychometric properties of the Gambling Experience Measure (GEM) to establish support for differing subtypes of gamblers. In total, 149 treatment-seeking pathological gamblers completed the GEM and other instruments. A principal component analysis produced a three-factor solution that included gambling as a way to escape negative emotions (Escape), dissociating (Dissociation), and narcissism/seeking attention (Egotism). Multiple regression analyses revealed that being female and general dissociation was associated with Escape gambling. General dissociation was also related to the Dissociation factor. Male gender and impulsivity were associated with the Egotism factor. These data offer preliminary evidence of the validity and reliability of the GEM in distinguishing subgroups of gamblers. PMID:16919760

Ledgerwood, David M; Petry, Nancy M

2006-09-30

305

Identifying and profiling scholastic cheaters: their personality, cognitive ability, and motivation.  

PubMed

Despite much research, skepticism remains over the possibility of profiling scholastic cheaters. However, several relevant predictor variables and newer diagnostic tools have been overlooked. We remedy this deficit with a series of three studies. Study 1 was a large-scale survey of a broad range of personality predictors of self-reported cheating. Significant predictors included the Dark Triad (Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy) as well as low agreeableness and low conscientiousness. Only psychopathy remained significant in a multiple regression. Study 2 replicated this pattern using a naturalistic, behavioral indicator of cheating, namely, plagiarism as indexed by the Internet service Turn-It-In. Poor verbal ability was also an independent predictor. Study 3 examined possible motivational mediators of the association between psychopathy and cheating. Unrestrained achievement and moral inhibition were successful mediators whereas fear of punishment was not. Practical implications for researchers and educators are discussed. PMID:20853988

Williams, Kevin M; Nathanson, Craig; Paulhus, Delroy L

2010-09-01

306

The dirty dozen: a concise measure of the dark triad.  

PubMed

There has been an exponential increase of interest in the dark side of human nature during the last decade. To better understand this dark side, the authors developed and validated a concise, 12-item measure of the Dark Triad: narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism. In 4 studies involving 1,085 participants, they examined its structural reliability, convergent and discriminant validity (Studies 1, 2, and 4), and test-retest reliability (Study 3). Their measure retained the flexibility needed to measure these 3 independent-yet-related constructs while improving its efficiency by reducing its item count by 87% (from 91 to 12 items). The measure retained its core of disagreeableness, short-term mating, and aggressiveness. They call this measure the Dirty Dozen, but it cleanly measures the Dark Triad. PMID:20528068

Jonason, Peter K; Webster, Gregory D

2010-06-01

307

Social vigilantism: measuring individual differences in belief superiority and resistance to persuasion.  

PubMed

Social vigilantism (SV) is an enduring individual difference that assesses the tendency of individuals to impress and propagate their "superior" beliefs onto others to correct others' more "ignorant" opinions. After establishing a reliable measure of SV, three studies showed that SV was associated with greater expressions of belief superiority (whether reacting to others holding dissimilar or similar beliefs) and greater resistance to persuasion (via increased rates of counterarguing and greater attitude stability after persuasion appeals) even after controlling for relevant individual differences (narcissism, dogmatism, psychological reactance, and need for cognition), as well as attitude importance and extremity. Thus, SV predicts expressions of belief superiority and resistance to persuasion above and beyond characteristics of the attitude and individual difference variables previously studied in the attitude literature. SV is a meaningful construct in increasing the understanding of persuasion, attitude resistance, and attitude dissemination that can be applied in a variety of psychological domains. PMID:19776422

Saucier, Donald A; Webster, Russell J

2010-01-01

308

The association of psychopathic traits with aggression and delinquency in non-referred boys and girls.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the association of psychopathic traits with aggression and delinquency in a non-referred sample of boys (n=86) and girls (n=114) in the fifth through ninth grades at two public schools in a large urban area. Psychopathic traits were measured by both teacher- and self-report ratings, whereas aggression and delinquency were assessed through self-report ratings. Self-reported psychopathic traits were associated with both aggression and delinquency and teacher-reported psychopathic traits were associated with higher levels of aggression. There were no clear differences for the callous-unemotional, narcissism, or impulsivity dimensions in their associations with aggression and delinquency. Also, psychopathic traits predicted aggression and delinquency for both boys and girls. The one clear gender difference was in the stronger associations between psychopathic traits and relational aggression for girls. PMID:16333813

Marsee, Monica A; Silverthorn, Persephanie; Frick, Paul J

2005-01-01

309

A behavioral genetic study of the dark triad of personality and moral development.  

PubMed

The present study is the first behavioral genetic investigation of relationships between the Dark Triad of personality--Machiavellianism, narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy--and moral development. Participants were 154 monozygotic twin pairs and 82 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs. Higher scores on Machiavellianism and psychopathy were positively correlated with low levels of moral development; high psychopathy scores also correlated negatively with high levels of moral development. Individual differences in lower levels of moral development were attributable to genetic and nonshared environmental factors but, very interestingly, individual differences in the highest levels of moral development showed no genetic basis but were entirely attributable to shared and nonshared environmental factors. Finally, correlations between the Dark Triad and moral development variables showed no genetic basis while correlations among the moral development variables were variously attributable to correlated genetic and correlated environmental factors. PMID:19335182

Campbell, Jennifer; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Villani, Vanessa C; Nguyen, Brenda; Vickers, Leanne; Vernon, Philip A

2009-04-01

310

Narcissistic Personality Inventory: structure of the adapted Dutch version.  

PubMed

The present study examined the structure of a Dutch adaptation of the 40-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) in a community sample (n = 460) and a student sample (n = 515). Altering the response format of the NPI to a Likert-scale had no apparent effect on the responses. Confirmatory factor analyses supported neither the four-factor structure reported by Emmons (1984), nor the seven-factor structure reported by Raskin and Terry (1988). Instead, exploratory factor analyses supported either a single-factor solution (general narcissism), or a two-factor solution (Authority/Power and Self-Admiration). The validity of the NPI was supported by its relations with sex, age, personality, self-esteem, shame, guilt and social desirability. PMID:19614906

Barelds, Dick P H; Dijkstra, Pieternel

2010-04-01

311

Infidelity in couples seeking marital therapy.  

PubMed

The revelation of an affair is often an emotionally explosive event for a couple, yet little is known about specific individual and relationship factors that accompany infidelity. The present study examined the qualities of individuals and couples that differentiate couples with (n = 19) and without (n = 115) infidelity using couples from a randomized clinical trial of marital therapy. Findings indicated that couples with infidelity showed greater marital instability, dishonesty, arguments about trust, narcissism, and time spent apart. Gender also proved to be a significant moderator of several effects. Men who had participated in affairs showed increased substance use, were older, and were more sexually dissatisfied. Results offer initial clues to concomitants of affairs for couple therapists. PMID:16221027

Atkins, David C; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H; Christensen, Andrew

2005-09-01

312

Does felt gender compatibility mediate influences of self-perceived gender nonconformity on early adolescents' psychosocial adjustment?  

PubMed

This study evaluated the hypothesis that self-perceived gender nonconformity is distressing to children because it undermines a confident sense of gender compatibility. Participants were 357 early adolescents (180 boys, M age = 12.68 years) in England who responded to questionnaires measuring friendship styles (preoccupied, avoidant), gender compatibility (typicality, contentedness), and adjustment (self-esteem, peer social competence, depression, narcissism). Sex differences in friendship styles indicated that preoccupied and avoidant styles were typical for girls and boys, respectively. Gender-atypical friendship styles predicted poor adjustment, and their impact on adjustment was partially mediated by felt gender compatibility. Results suggest that perceiving gender-atypical attributes in the self undermines adjustment partly because it leads children to feel incompatible with their gender collective. PMID:21679168

Menon, Meenakshi

2011-01-01

313

["New" authoritarianism and right extremism. A time-related diagnostic conjecture].  

PubMed

On the basis of two brief case studies the author elucidates the difference between "classical" authoritarianism as described by Adorno et al and the "new" authoritarianism which she posits as indicating what might be termed a negatively extended stage of sociation. Whereas the classical authoritarian takes an external object as the locus for the formation of moral judgments and activates aggressive impulses via projections onto "foreigners" or "aliens", the communicative dimension of social action, a dimension profoundly characterised by narcissism and centring no longer around the super-ego but the unconscious self with a specific aggression potential of its own. In Brede's view extreme right-wing phraseology and violence may be a reaction to persons or groups whose common factor is the "new" authoritarianist syndrome. PMID:8532896

Brede, K

1995-11-01

314

Revisiting the Stanford prison experiment: could participant self-selection have led to the cruelty?  

PubMed

The authors investigated whether students who selectively volunteer for a study of prison life possess dispositions associated with behaving abusively. Students were recruited for a psychological study of prison life using a virtually identical newspaper ad as used in the Stanford Prison Experiment (SPE; Haney, Banks & Zimbardo, 1973) or for a psychological study, an identical ad minus the words of prison life. Volunteers for the prison study scored significantly higher on measures of the abuse-related dispositions of aggressiveness, authoritarianism, Machiavellianism, narcissism, and social dominance and lower on empathy and altruism, two qualities inversely related to aggressive abuse. Although implications for the SPE remain a matter of conjecture, an interpretation in terms of person-situation interactionism rather than a strict situationist account is indicated by these findings. Implications for interpreting the abusiveness of American military guards at Abu Ghraib Prison also are discussed. PMID:17440210

Carnahan, Thomas; McFarland, Sam

2007-05-01

315

Perceived Overqualification: A Multi-Source Investigation of Psychological Predisposition and Contextual Triggers.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Although employee (subjective) perceived overqualification (POQ) has recently been explored as a meaningful organizational construct, further work is needed to fully understand it. We extend the theoretical psychological underpinnings of employee POQ and examine both its determinants and outcomes based on established and newly proposed theoretical developments. Four-hundred and fifteen employees completed an online questionnaire and 208 of their supervisors completed corresponding surveys about the employees' withdrawal behaviors and job-related attitudes, in order to explore potential predictors and outcomes of subjectively experienced POQ. Among the predictors, work conditions (uniform requirements and repetitive tasks) were most strongly associated with POQ. In terms of individual differences, narcissism predicted higher POQ while general mental ability only did when holding other variables constant. In addition, among the outcomes, higher POQ was related to lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment, but was not related to withdrawal behaviors such as truancy, absenteeism, and turnover intentions. PMID:25356746

Lobene, Eleni V; Meade, Adam W; Pond, Samuel B

2014-10-30

316

How to spot a narcissist: Mental health literacy with respect to Narcissistic Personality Disorder.  

PubMed

Lay people were asked to read one Depression, one Schizophrenia, and three Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) vignettes. After each, they were asked what they thought the problem was for the individuals concerned and to make various ratings. Half of each of the five vignettes were of male, and the other of female, characters. The results demonstrated that laypeople are less likely to suggest help for, and have more difficulty identifying NPD compared to Depression and Schizophrenia. There were differences in the likeliness to suggest help between all three NPD vignettes and differences in the identification of two NPD vignettes possible due to the length and details in different vignettes. The gender of the person in the vignette had no effect on identification. The participants NPI scores were not correlated with the Narcissism literacy suggesting no relationship between having, and spotting, the disorder. Implications and limitations of the research are considered. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25279811

Wright, Kirstie; Furnham, Adrian

2014-10-01

317

Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability in psychotherapy.  

PubMed

This article briefly summarizes the empirical and clinical literature underlying a contemporary clinical model of pathological narcissism. Unlike the DSM Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), this clinical model identifies and differentiates between two phenotypic themes of dysfunction-narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability-that can be expressed both overtly and covertly in patients' ways of thinking, feeling, behaving, and participating in treatment. Clinical recognition that narcissistic patients can and often do present for psychotherapy in vulnerable states of depression, anxiety, shame, and even suicidality increases the likelihood of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment planning. This article provides case examples derived from psychotherapies with narcissistic patients to demonstrate how narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability concurrently present in patients who seek treatment. PMID:24446581

Pincus, Aaron L; Cain, Nicole M; Wright, Aidan G C

2014-10-01

318

The role of self-construal in predicting self-presentational motives for online social network use in the UK and Japan.  

PubMed

Self-presentational motives underlying online social network (OSN) use were explored in samples of British and Japanese users. Self-expression, maintaining privacy, and attention seeking were strong motives in both samples; impression management and modesty were less strongly endorsed. Measures of independent and interdependent self-construal, as well as narcissism and modesty, were investigated as potential predictors of these motivations. Independent self-construal emerged as the most important predictor across both samples, with less independent participants showing more concern with image management and modesty. Participants with more interdependent self-construals were more concerned about maintaining privacy. There were some differences in the patterns of prediction between the samples, but overall self-construal measures contributed to the explanation of the majority of the motivations, whereas narcissistic or modest personality variables did not. PMID:24720544

Long, Karen; Zhang, Xiao

2014-07-01

319

Success in everyday physics: The role of personality and academic variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two studies examined students' intuitive physics ability and characteristics associated with physics competence. In Study 1, although many students did well on a physics quiz, more than 25% of students performed below levels predicted by chance. Better performance on the physics quiz was related to physics grades, highest level of math taken, and students' perceived scholastic competence, but was not related to a number of other hypothesized personality variables. Study 2 further explored personality and academic variables and also examined students' awareness of their own physics ability. Results indicate that the personality variables were again unrelated to ability, but narcissism may be related to subjects' estimates of knowledge. Also, academic variables and how important students think it is to understand the physical world are related to both measured and estimated physics proficiency.

Norvilitis, Jill M.; Reid, Howard M.; Norvilitis, Bret M.

2002-05-01

320

The ingredients of supervisor failure.  

PubMed

Trainees all too often learn more about how not to conduct supervision than how to conduct supervision effectively. The purpose of this article is to present a conceptualization of the theoretical, empirical, and practical elements of supervisor failures. Specifically, the article attends to the following behaviors that may lead to supervisor failure: (a) denigrate the supervisory relationship; (b) demonstrate multicultural incompetence; (c) become an unethical supermodel; (d) use evaluation instruments that could not pass for an undergraduate thesis; (e) teach your trainee how to diagnose narcissism by example; (f) apply psychotherapy models in supervision as if there is a theoretical or empirical basis; (g) infantalize your trainee; (h) collude with your trainee; (i) make your trainee your surrogate psychotherapist; and (j) go on a date with your trainee. Recommendations for increasing supervisor success and limiting supervisor failure are provided. PMID:25220894

Ladany, Nicholas

2014-11-01

321

The origins and development of the Oedipus complex.  

PubMed

The universality of the Oedipus complex indicates that the oedipal situation is at the heart of the mental life of man. Usually, one finds oneself with two opposing situations, in reading the psychoanalytic literature published in the French-speaking countries and that of the English-speaking countries. Some people accuse psychoanalysts of 'oedipalization' of the study of the mental life and the behaviour of man. Others, such as the followers of Melanie Klein, consider the problem of relations with internal objects is there from the first year of life and imply a division between good and bad objects, followed by a split that dominates the mental life of man throughout his life. After several anthropological references, I have tried to study how clinical themes permit me to distinguish the approach to the Oedipus complex from the triangulation of object relations, and how the Oedipus complex today appears to find an outlet in the destiny and the vicissitudes of narcissism. PMID:7129768

Lebovici, S

1982-01-01

322

[Addictive behaviors in the aged].  

PubMed

This review is devoted to alcoholism but also to other substance-dependences (tobacco, medication, illicit drugs) and behavioral addictions (gambling) in the aged. Compared to younger subjects, addictions in older people are marked by the high frequency of somatic comorbidities, physiological changes related to age, increased severity due to atypical presentations. Moreover, usual screening tests and diagnostic questionnaires are often not suited for the aged. Psychopathology of addictions in the aged points out vulnerabilities not resolved with the advance in age, in connection with separation, narcissism, oral regression, alexithymia and other pathological dimensions of personality. The weight of the environment, dominated by a certain agism, remains a brake to the global care that must be based, as in younger adults, on motivational approach and specific treatments with special pharmacological vigilance. PMID:23015240

Nubukpo, Philippe; Laot, Lucie; Clément, Jean-Pierre

2012-09-01

323

Estimating Facets of Psychopathy From Normal Personality Traits: A Step Toward Community Epidemiological Investigations  

PubMed Central

In three samples consisting of community and undergraduate men and women and incarcerated men, we examined the criterion validity of two distinct factors of psychopathy embodied in the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) as indexed by primary trait scales from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Consistent with the PPI factors themselves, MPQ-estimated PPI-I related negatively with internalizing disorder symptoms and fearfulness and positively with thrill and adventure seeking, sociability, activity, and narcissism. MPQ-estimated PPI-II was associated negatively with socialization and positively with externalizing disorder symptoms, impulsivity, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility, and trait anxiety and negative emotionality. Additionally, PPI-I was selectively related to the interpersonal facet of Factor 1 of the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R), whereas PPI-II was related preferentially to Factor 2 of the PCL-R. PMID:15695739

Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.

2008-01-01

324

Schizotypy and pathological personality profile in siblings of patients with psychosis.  

PubMed

Schizotypy has been proposed to be the expression of the genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. Schizotypal features have been associated with personality dimensions found in patients with psychosis. In this study, we compared the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology - Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) scores of patients with psychosis, siblings scoring higher on schizotypy (SSHS), and siblings scoring lower (SSLS). The SSHSs displayed a DAPP-BQ profile characterized by high scores in the dimensions of affective lability, anxiousness, submissiveness, social avoidance, identity problems, oppositionality, narcissism, and restricted expression, distinguishing them from the SSLS. Due to these dimensions, SSHSs are more similar to the patients' DAPP-BQ profile. The results suggest that this pathological personality profile might contribute to increase the risk of developing psychosis in siblings who have more schizotypal features. PMID:21266146

Moreno Samaniego, Lorena; Valero Oyarzábal, Joaquín; Gaviria Gómez, Ana Milena; Hernández Fernández, Ana; Gutiérrez-Zotes, José Alfonso; Labad Alquézar, Antonio

2011-02-01

325

[Hatred of foreigners and purity--current aspects of an illusion. Social psychological and psychoanalytic considerations].  

PubMed

This study draws upon both Carlo Ginzburg's procedures for establishing and preserving (historical) evidence and Claude Lévi-Strauss' structuralist approach with its analysis of "primitive" mythologies to demonstrate that binary coding of the social domain is an all-pervasive structural principle. Heim's intention in this is to show that (present-day) xenophobia and racism are the products of a phantasm centering around the division of the world into pure and impure. The author brings into alignment collective fantasies about the homogeneity of the "body politic" with a form of primary narcissism which, if it is to preserve the illusion of original purity, is forced to externalize instinctual urges experienced as heterogeneous and unpleasurable and project them onto "foreigners" and things foreign. PMID:1509096

Heim, R

1992-08-01

326

Primo Levi's loneliness: psychoanalytic perspectives on suicide-nearness.  

PubMed

To elucidate suicide-nearness, the perspectives of the death drive and narcissism are applied to the writings of Primo Levi. Emerging themes are Levi's struggle to maintain his self-regard from his year as a prisoner in Auschwitz and onward, and his observations on xenophobia, violence, and the need for love. The gradual increase of depressive content in Levi's work is noted, as are his identifications with others who succumbed in the Holocaust or took their lives after surviving it. The conflict between the wish for peace and the need for love is seen as impossible to resolve under the threat of extermination and as reemerging in the prevailing sense of loneliness that Levi described. PMID:16924976

Titelman, David

2006-07-01

327

Self-analysis: a fool for a patient?  

PubMed

In this paper I first reviewed the scanty publications on the subject of self-analysis. Although it was recommended by Freud as early as 1910 for every analyst, self-analysis turns out to have many pitfalls and to be quite a complicated and controversial procedure. There is no agreement on the proper technique of self-analysis in the literature, nor is there any discussion of the determinants of the particular choice of technique of self-analysis that is employed, nor even of the reasons why some analysts do not engage in it at all. Using clinical data gathered from written material of many years of self-analysis following the termination of a successful training psychoanalysis, I have attempted to elucidate some of the problems posed by this procedure. These problems are in some ways similar to formal psychoanalysis, but are in some ways contingent on the fact that it is basically a different technique. It is a solitary occupation and therefore suffers from the dangers of disintegration into autism, narcissism, and obsessional rumination. There is no living presence of an analyst to serve either as a transference figure or to make interpretations and stimulate the production of material. The identification with the analyst's analyzing function is far from simple in self-analysis because of the complex nature of the various internalizations of the analyst that take place over years of a formal training analysis. Thus, Ticho (1967) is correct when she claimed that self-analysis is a skill that the analysand has to acquire by himself or herself. An important phase of the beginning of self-analysis involves the working through of the separation from the psychoanalyst and the re-evaluation of the analyst and the analytic process. This results in a heightened sense of independence and autonomy, increased cohesion of the self, and maturation--which is manifested by greater autonomous ego functioning, a more mature sense of identity, and continued transformations of narcissism which highly valuable goals, on the basis of the data I have presented, can be approached through the process of self-analysis. Above all this stands the most important goal of self-analysis, the understanding of one's countertransference reactions. This is especially important in the treatment of seriously disturbed patients who become disruptive, and thus get labeled borderline, often as a response to unconscious countertransference manifestations from the analyst which are then experienced in the self-object transference as failures in empathy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2126871

Chessick, R D

1990-01-01

328

Self-perceptions and their Prediction of Aggression in Male Juvenile Offenders.  

PubMed

This study evaluated multiple facets of self-perceptions that have been theorized and shown to play a contributory role in the development of aggression for less clinically severe populations in a sample of youths from the juvenile justice system. Independent and unique associations of low self-esteem and inflated self-perceptions with aggression were examined in a sample of male juvenile offenders (N = 119; Mean age = 16.74 years) using a longitudinal study design. Latent growth curve modeling analyses revealed that self-esteem, adaptive and maladaptive narcissism independently predicted juvenile offenders' initial levels of aggression. It was also found that perceptual bias independently predicted changes in aggression over time. With the inclusion of all variables in the same model, self-esteem was no longer associated with aggression; however, all other relationships remained significant. The implications of these findings as well as the importance of interventions targeting self-perceptions to decrease aggression among high-risk youths are discussed. PMID:25280453

Smith, Stephanie D; Lynch, Rebecca J; Stephens, Haley F; Kistner, Janet A

2014-10-01

329

An examination of the factor structure of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment.  

PubMed

The Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA) is a self-report measure designed to assess the basic elements of psychopathy from a Five-Factor Model perspective. Using two large undergraduate samples, the aim of the current study was to further validate this new measure by examining its factor structure and the relations of the factors with established psychopathy measures and externalizing behaviors (Sample 2 only). Exploratory factor analytic results were highly consistent across the two samples and generated a four-factor structure characterized by Antagonism, Emotional Stability, Disinhibition, and Narcissism. These factors converged as expected with factors from alternative self-report conceptualizations of psychopathy and externalizing behaviors. The EPA factors also provided incremental validity in the prediction of the alternative psychopathy measures and externalizing behaviors above and beyond the other psychopathy measures. The stable factor structure and relations with constructs relevant to the study of psychopathy provide further support for the EPA as a stand-alone, comprehensive assessment of psychopathic personality. PMID:23544429

Few, Lauren R; Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R

2013-07-01

330

Perceived humiliation during admission to a psychiatric emergency service and its relation to socio-demography and psychopathology  

PubMed Central

Background There is a lack of empirical studies of patients’ level of humiliation during the hospital admission process and its implications for the clinical setting. We wanted to explore associations between self-rated humiliation and socio-demography and psychopathology in relation to admission to a psychiatric emergency unit. Methods Consecutively admitted patients (N?=?186) were interviewed with several validated instruments. The patients self-rated humiliation by The Cantril Ladder, and 35% of the sample was defined as the high humiliation group. Results Final multivariate analysis found significant associations between compulsory admission, not being in paid work, high scores on hostility, and on entitlement, and high levels of humiliation. No significant interactions were observed between these variables, and the narcissism score was not a confounder concerning humiliation. Conclusions High level of humiliation during the admission process was mainly related to patient factors, but also to compulsory admission which should be avoided as much as possible protecting the self-esteem of the patients. PMID:23988222

2013-01-01

331

Controlled study of eating concerns and psychopathological traits in relatives of eating-disordered probands: do familial traits exist?  

PubMed

To examine the extent to which first-degree relatives of eating-disordered (ED) probands endorse maladaptive eating attitudes and personality/affective traits, we compared self-reported eating concerns (Restraint, Emotional Eating, Body Dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes) and psychopathological traits (Affective Instability, Anxiousness, Compulsivity, and Narcissism) across groups of restricter (n = 19), binger (n = 56), psychiatric control (PC, n = 38), normal dieter (ND, n = 29), and nondieter control (NC, n = 28) probands, and then across participating nuclear family members. Results among probands were as anticipated: ED probands showed expected elevations in both areas, and predicted restricter/binger differences were obtained. However, corresponding differences were not obtained on measures of mothers', fathers', or siblings' eating concerns and traits. Our findings corroborate the notion that EDs represent a convergence of eating, affective, and personality disturbances, but not that such a clustering of features exists as a familial trait. We discuss normal trait and attitudinal variations observed in ED probands' relatives in light of findings showing EDs and other psychiatric syndromes to aggregate within families. PMID:7581412

Steiger, H; Stotland, S; Ghadirian, A M; Whitehead, V

1995-09-01

332

Addiction and paranoid process: psychoanalytic perspectives.  

PubMed

Multiple aspects of the problem of drug abuse and addiction are formulated in terms of the dynamics of the paranoid process, specifically emphasizing the complex interactions of introjection, projection, and the paranoid construction. The effect of projection is to modify the experience of the drug substance so qualities and capacities, often powerful and magical, are attributed to it, allowing it to serve as an external agency contributing to the maintenance of internal introjective configurations and correspondingly to the preservation of an inner sense of self-cohesion. The projective dynamics deal primarily with the vicissitudes of aggression and narcissism, and are given a sense of organization and meaningful integration by the cognitive elaboration of the paranoid construction. They also serve to locate the drug-taking behavior in a larger matrix of familial, social, and other environmental influences, which tend to give support to the projective system. The interaction of these projective psychological dynamics with the pharmacological action of drug substances completes the drug equation and helps to shed further light on the selection of specific drug substances as having addictive potential. PMID:7429712

Meissner, W W

333

Pursuing Perfection: Distress and Interpersonal Functioning Among Adolescent Boys in Single-Sex and Co-Educational Independent Schools.  

PubMed

This study extends past findings of heightened problems among affluent youth by examining adjustment patterns among boys in two academically elite, independent high schools: one for boys only and the other coeducational. Both samples manifested disproportionately high rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only the co-educational boys showed elevations in substance use. Boys in both schools showed elevations in a new outcome domain examined: exhibitionistic narcissism. Multivariate analyses of predictors showed that parent criticism -- a defining feature of youths' maladaptive perfectionism -- and perceived maternal depression emerged as major vulnerability factors for both samples in relation to symptom levels. On other parenting dimensions, boys in the single-sex school seemed to be particularly sensitive to feelings of alienation from their fathers and perceived paternal depression. Envy of peers' attractiveness was associated with adolescent distress in both samples, but appeared to be especially critical for co-educational boys. Results are discussed, focusing on the costs and benefits of boys' attendance at a single-sex versus co-educational school, along with implications for practice and future research. PMID:25395693

Coren, Sidney A; Luthar, Suniya S

2014-11-01

334

Online social networking and addiction--a review of the psychological literature.  

PubMed

Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests. They are seen as a 'global consumer phenomenon' with an exponential rise in usage within the last few years. Anecdotal case study evidence suggests that 'addiction' to social networks on the Internet may be a potential mental health problem for some users. However, the contemporary scientific literature addressing the addictive qualities of social networks on the Internet is scarce. Therefore, this literature review is intended to provide empirical and conceptual insight into the emerging phenomenon of addiction to SNSs by: (1) outlining SNS usage patterns, (2) examining motivations for SNS usage, (3) examining personalities of SNS users, (4) examining negative consequences of SNS usage, (5) exploring potential SNS addiction, and (6) exploring SNS addiction specificity and comorbidity. The findings indicate that SNSs are predominantly used for social purposes, mostly related to the maintenance of established offline networks. Moreover, extraverts appear to use social networking sites for social enhancement, whereas introverts use it for social compensation, each of which appears to be related to greater usage, as does low conscientiousness and high narcissism. Negative correlates of SNS usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction. PMID:22016701

Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D

2011-09-01

335

Online Social Networking and Addiction—A Review of the Psychological Literature  

PubMed Central

Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests. They are seen as a ‘global consumer phenomenon’ with an exponential rise in usage within the last few years. Anecdotal case study evidence suggests that ‘addiction’ to social networks on the Internet may be a potential mental health problem for some users. However, the contemporary scientific literature addressing the addictive qualities of social networks on the Internet is scarce. Therefore, this literature review is intended to provide empirical and conceptual insight into the emerging phenomenon of addiction to SNSs by: (1) outlining SNS usage patterns, (2) examining motivations for SNS usage, (3) examining personalities of SNS users, (4) examining negative consequences of SNS usage, (5) exploring potential SNS addiction, and (6) exploring SNS addiction specificity and comorbidity. The findings indicate that SNSs are predominantly used for social purposes, mostly related to the maintenance of established offline networks. Moreover, extraverts appear to use social networking sites for social enhancement, whereas introverts use it for social compensation, each of which appears to be related to greater usage, as does low conscientiousness and high narcissism. Negative correlates of SNS usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction. PMID:22016701

Kuss, Daria J.; Griffiths, Mark D.

2011-01-01

336

Celebrity Patients, VIPs, and Potentates  

PubMed Central

Background: During the second half of the 20th century, the literature on the doctor-patient relationship mainly dealt with the management of “difficult” (personality-disordered) patients. Similar problems, however, surround other types of “special” patients. Method: An overview and analysis of the literature were conducted. As a result, such patients can be subcategorized by their main presentations; each requires a specific management strategy. Results: Three types of “special” patients stir up irrational feelings in their caregivers. Sick celebrities threaten to focus public scrutiny on the private world of medical caregivers. VIPs generate awe in caregivers, with loss of the objectivity essential to the practice of scientific medicine. Potentates unearth narcissism in the caregiver-patient relationship, which triggers a struggle between power and shame. Pride, privacy, and the staff's need to be in control are all threatened by introduction of the special patient into medicine's closed culture. Conclusion: The privacy that is owed to sick celebrities should be extended to protect overexposed staff. The awe and loss of medical objectivity that VIPs generate are counteracted by team leadership dedicated to avoiding any deviation from standard clinical procedure. Moreover, the collective ill will surrounding potentates can be neutralized by reassuring them that they are “special”—and by caregivers mending their own vulnerable self-esteem. PMID:15014712

Groves, James E.; Dunderdale, Barbara A.; Stern, Theodore A.

2002-01-01

337

An interest in fame: confirming the measurement and empirical conceptualization of fame interest.  

PubMed

The following paper introduces and develops the conceptualization of Fame Interest. Study 1 (N=1,978), through the use of factor analysis techniques, introduces the Fame Interest Scale which comprises six dimensions of Fame Interest (intensity, vulnerability, celebrity life-style, drive, perceived suitability, and altruistic) with evidence for the reliability and validity of the scale. Study 2 (N=376) examined the relationship between an interest in fame and measures of the five-factor model of personality, narcissism, self-esteem, curiosity, attachment style and perceived family, and peer and media influence. From this second study four findings emerge; (1) Fame Interest typified by a perceived suitability and intensity for a celebrity life-style was associated with perceived family, peer and media influence, (2) Fame Interest that arises from a vulnerability is a reflection of neuroticism, low self-esteem, and problematic attachments, (3) Fame Interest for altruistic reasons is associated with agreeableness, and (4) Fame Interest that reflects an overall drive is associated with conscientiousness. PMID:19646329

Maltby, John

2010-08-01

338

Experimental studies of the etiology of genital exhibitionism.  

PubMed

Several studies are reported which examine the critical stimuli and responses as well as personality factors important in genital exhibitionism. Using penile volume measurement, sex history questionnaires, personality tests, and behavioral observations, it was found that (1) exhibitionists responded most to mature females and were comparable to normals in reactions to children and men; (2) while exhibitionists indicated narcissistic desires in exposing, in a laboratory study they did not differ from controls in reactions to exposing with various reactions of the female, from sexual arousal and admiration to fear and anger; (3) the only strong features distinguishing exhibitionists from controls and other sexually anomalous subjects were peeping associated with orgasm and outdoor solitary masturbation; (4) exhibitionists seemed to be less assertive and less feminine than controls, but results were weak and inconsistent; (5) exhibitionists and controls did not differ in separation and divorce or marital satisfaction; (6) blood testosterone and penile reactivity of exhibitionists were within normal limits. Overall, the results suggest that most major theories of genital exhibitionism are wanting. It is suggested that narcissism and pedophilia be examined further in connection with exhibitionism. PMID:475579

Langevin, R; Paitich, D; Ramsay, G; Anderson, C; Kamrad, J; Pope, S; Geller, G; Pearl, L; Newman, S

1979-07-01

339

A perversion named desire.  

PubMed

Inspired by the title of the work, A Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee Williams, the author argues that desire and perversion are equivalent, based on the following. (1) The notion of infanatile sexuality as polymorphously perverse, and whose components constitute the 'core of our unconscious' and the ultimate 'matter' of unconscious desire. (2) The perspective of narcissism, which establishes desire, supported by the theory that maternity implants an illusion of completeness which culture promotes, despite the fact that such an ideal conflicts with the laws governing the foundation of culture. (3) The resulting forms of the oedipal complex and the castration complex, whether man or woman, imply a visible or unapparent violence with regard to the original 'call' of desire. (4) The traditional structures refer to the possibility of the mother imagining herself as completed by the child: the blocking of that illusion is associated with psychosis; the weakness of the desire, once established, demands, in the context of perversion, the presence of the figure of plenitude. Neurosis prefers its absence on the level of the apparent while insuring its permanence on the unconscious level. PMID:2050495

Torres, E R

1991-01-01

340

Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: two different ways of relating to oneself.  

PubMed

This research examined self-compassion and self-esteem as they relate to various aspects of psychological functioning. Self-compassion entails treating oneself with kindness, recognizing one's shared humanity, and being mindful when considering negative aspects of oneself. Study 1 (N=2,187) compared self-compassion and global self-esteem as they relate to ego-focused reactivity. It was found that self-compassion predicted more stable feelings of self-worth than self-esteem and was less contingent on particular outcomes. Self-compassion also had a stronger negative association with social comparison, public self-consciousness, self-rumination, anger, and need for cognitive closure. Self-esteem (but not self-compassion) was positively associated with narcissism. Study 2 (N=165) compared global self-esteem and self-compassion with regard to positive mood states. It was found that the two constructs were statistically equivalent predictors of happiness, optimism, and positive affect. Results from these two studies suggest that self-compassion may be a useful alternative to global self-esteem when considering what constitutes a healthy self-stance. PMID:19076996

Neff, Kristin D; Vonk, Roos

2009-02-01

341

Beyond the big five: the Dark Triad and the supernumerary personality inventory.  

PubMed

The Dark Triad of personality, comprising Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, was investigated in relation to the Supernumerary Personality Inventory (SPI) traits, because both sets of variables are predominantly distinct from the Big Five model of personality. Correlational and principal factor analyses were conducted to assess the relations between the Dark Triad and SPI traits. Multivariate behavioral genetic model-fitting analyses were also conducted to determine the correlated genetic and/or environmental underpinnings of the observed phenotypic correlations. Participants were 358 monozygotic and 98 same-sex dizygotic adult twin pairs from North America. As predicted, results revealed significant correlations between the Dark Triad and most SPI traits, and these correlations were primarily attributable to common genetic and non-shared environmental factors, except in the case of Machiavellianism, where shared environmental effects emerged. Three correlated factors were extracted during joint factor analysis of the Dark Triad and SPI traits, as well as a heritable general factor of personality - results that clarified the structure of the Dark Triad construct. It is concluded that the Dark Triad represents an exploitative and antisocial construct that extends beyond the Big Five model and shares a theoretical space with the SPI traits. PMID:21425898

Veselka, Livia; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Vernon, Philip A

2011-04-01

342

Sex and shame: the inhibition of female desires.  

PubMed

A developmental narrative is presented that centers on bodily based narcissistic injury and sense of shame in response to unrequited oedipal longings. Through an experience of oedipal defeat in relation to both mother and father, a female sense of inadequacy and shame may be internalized and accepted as one's identity, in contrast to the male phallic-omnipotent trajectory. The demise of genital narcissism in females can underlie various expressions of pervasive inhibition and failure to actualize desire. The thesis offered goes beyond separation-individuation theory in suggesting that girls may inhibit sexuality and aggression, and themselves more generally, due to a representation of self as "not having what it takes" genitally, and then bodily and psychically. Mental representations of the self, based on positive imagery of the female body, are needed to give voice to a woman's bodily experience and sexual desire and agency in various realms. Two clinical vignettes illustrate female inhibitions in sexuality and in professional ambition as understood within the framework presented. PMID:18430703

Elise, Dianne

2008-03-01

343

Exploring differences in youth and parent reports of antisociality among adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders.  

PubMed

This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis of adolescent or parent report, though the difference was much larger for parent reports. Examining this discrepancy more closely, we found that parents of sexual offenders reported less antisocial behavior than did their sons, whereas parents of nonsexual offenders reported more antisocial behavior than did their sons. The same pattern of results was obtained for reports on impulsivity, but much less so with respect to antisocial personality traits such as narcissism and callousness. Measures of family functioning were generally not related to these parent-adolescent discrepancies in reports of conduct problems, but these discrepancies were positively correlated with parental reports of stress. The implications of these findings for the interpretation of research on adolescent sexual offenders and comparisons of sexual and nonsexual offenders are discussed. PMID:21244171

Skilling, Tracey A; Doiron, James M; Seto, Michael C

2011-03-01

344

Suppose Freud had chosen Orestes instead.  

PubMed

The paper argues that the story of Oedipus, however understood, conveys psychic truth of no greater or more central importance to human development than do the stories of many other myths. A distinction is made between sophisticated theories developed out of Freud's original concept of the Oedipus complex, and the adherence by some clinicians to his original sexual theory. The meaning of Sophocles' play Oedipus the King is found to lie in the clash between Oedipus' omnipotent narcissism (hubris) and the power of the unconscious psyche, rather than in cross-generational sex. Emphasis is placed on the clinical usefulness of understanding all myths symbolically. The Oresteia by Aeschylus is offered as a story about pre-Oedipal (in the Freudian sense) psychic states. This trilogy shows symbolically the developing of an ego, the establishment of moral judgement and the integration of our shadow (the Furies). It also shows the parallel development of structures of law in society to replace instinctive blood feuds. It is suggested that had Freud chosen Orestes instead of Oedipus, the course of both psychoanalysis and of Western society would have had a different emphasis. PMID:19344316

Clark, Margaret

2009-04-01

345

[Adolescent sexuality].  

PubMed

The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

Calero, Juan del Rey

2010-01-01

346

Screening of egocentric and unemotional characteristics in incarcerated and community children.  

PubMed

A two-dimensional instrument to screen egocentric and unemotional traits in children was tested in this study, and the associations with the aggressive and the antisocial symptoms of conduct disorder were determined. To this end the narcissistic-egocentric and callous-unemotional characteristics associated with psychopathy were, along with the symptoms of conduct disorder, rated by teachers in a general community sample of 1179 four-to-eighteen-year-old Dutch children, and by professional care takers in a sample of 145 twelve-to eighteen-year-old incarcerated adolescents. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the ratings of the psychopathic characteristics indeed clustered into a dimension with egocentric characteristics and a dimension with unemotional characteristics. Both dimensions were reliable and stable across age and gender groups. In both samples aggressive behavior was primarily linked to the interaction of egocentric and unemotional characteristics, while antisocial behavior was primarily linked to egocentric characteristics only. The incarcerated adolescents showed substantially more characteristics on both psychopathic dimensions than a comparable age and gender matched group with adolescents from the general community sample. The discrimination between normal and incarcerated adolescent youngsters and the linkage with aggressive behavior suggests the existence of a subtype of conduct disordered children displaying narcissism, deficient affect and disruptive social problem behavior. PMID:20381866

Scholte, E M; Stoutjesdijk, R; Van Oudheusden, M A G; Lodewijks, H; Van der Ploeg, J D

2010-01-01

347

A Fairbairnian structural analysis of the narcissistic personality disorder.  

PubMed

Fairbairn's structural theory is based on the developing child's need to dissociate actual events between himself or herself and his or her objects that are excessively rejecting in order to contine an uninterrupted, pristine attachment to them. This eventuates in three selves in relation to three objects: One pair is conscious (the central ego which relates to the ideal object), while the other two pairs (the antilibidinal ego, which relates to the rejecting object, and the libidinal ego, which relates to the exciting object) are mostly held in the unconscious. Fairbairn saw the fluid relationship between the two split-off pairs of unconscious part selves and the conscious central ego as the primary dynamic of the human personality. The author proposes a specific variation in Fairbairn's structural theory to account for the development of narcissism. Specifically, this disorder is viewed as the result of a developmental history in which the child finds himself or herself in an exceedingly hostile interpersonal environment that precludes the child from using an idealized version either of his or her parental objects as the "exciting object." The child therefore substitutes a grandiose view of himself or herself as the exciting object. This defense deflects external influences and replaces relationships with external objects with a closed internal world that is comprised of an admiring part-self basking in reflected love from its relationship with an exciting part-object. PMID:24866161

Celani, David P

2014-06-01

348

Malignant self-regard: accounting for commonalities in vulnerably narcissistic, depressive, self-defeating, and masochistic personality disorders.  

PubMed

Several personality disorders (PDs) have been of interest in the clinical literature, yet failed to have been adequately represented in the diagnostic manuals. Some of these are masochistic, self-defeating, depressive, and narcissistic PDs. The theoretical and empirical relationships among these disorders are reviewed. It is proposed that a particular type of self-structure, malignant self-regard (MSR), may account for similarities among all of them and provide a better framework upon which to understand the nature of these personality types and their discrimination from related constructs. Subsequently, a questionnaire to assess MSR was created and evaluated for its psychometric properties. The measure was found to be reliable (Cronbach's alpha=.93) and valid, given its correlations with measures of self-defeating, depressive, and vulnerably narcissistic personalities (rs range from .66 to .76). MSR also can be meaningfully differentiated from a nomological network of related constructs, including neuroticism, extraversion, depression, and grandiose narcissism. The utility of assessing self-structures, such as MSR, in the diagnostic manuals is discussed. PMID:24503574

Huprich, Steven K; Nelson, Sharon M

2014-05-01

349

Mediating Effect of Psychopathy on the Risk of Social Problems Among Children with ADHD Versus Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms.  

PubMed

Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) has been proposed as a unique syndrome; however research examining how it is different from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is just starting to emerge. The present study extends this research by examining how specific personality features (i.e., psychopathy) may mediate the relation between ADHD and social problems, but not between SCT and social problems. Caregivers of 198 children (6-12 years old) that presented for an inpatient psychiatric evaluation completed standardized measures of childhood behavior problems. Bootstrapped mediational analyses were performed to evaluate the mediating role of psychopathy on the relation between social problems and symptoms of ADHD versus SCT. Two sub-domains of psychopathy-impulsivity and narcissism-emerged as partial mediators for the relation between social problems and ADHD symptoms; whereas SCT symptoms were not found to be related to psychopathy after controlling for ADHD symptoms. These findings provide support for conceptualizing ADHD and SCT as discrete syndromes as well as for the mediating role of psychopathy domains on the risk of social problems among a clinical sample of youth with symptoms of ADHD. PMID:25212965

Raiker, Joseph S; Greening, L; Stoppelbein, L; Becker, Stephen P; Fite, Paula J; Luebbe, Aaron M

2014-09-12

350

Sex differences in the etiology of psychopathic traits in youth.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the etiology of psychopathic traits in youth, and even fewer have tested whether the genetic and environmental influences underlying these traits differ for boys and girls. We tested for sex differences in the etiology of 3 trait dimensions-impulsivity, narcissism, and callous-unemotionality (CU)-previously found to underlie youth psychopathy in our sample. Using biometric modeling we tested whether constraining the genetic and environmental influences for each dimension across sex reduced model fit. We also tested for qualitative sex differences in the influences underlying these dimensions by allowing the genetic and environmental correlations between opposite sex dizygotic twins to be less than their respective values in same-sex dizygotic twins. Although the magnitudes of the genetic and environmental influences underlying the CU and narcissistic trait dimensions did not differ for boys and girls, nonshared environmental influences contributed significantly greater variance to impulsive traits in boys. No qualitative sex differences were found in the influences underlying any of the 3 trait dimensions, suggesting that the same genes and environments contribute to these psychopathic traits in males and females. PMID:24886014

Ficks, Courtney A; Dong, Lu; Waldman, Irwin D

2014-05-01

351

Child behaviour checklist emotional dysregulation profiles in youth with disruptive behaviour disorders: clinical correlates and treatment implications.  

PubMed

Two Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) profiles were correlated to poor self-regulation, Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation (DESR) (elevation between 1 and 2 Standard Deviations (SD) in Anxiety/Depression, Aggression, Attention subscales), and Dysregulation Profile (DP) (elevation of 2 Standard Deviations or more). We explored youths with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) whether these profiles are associated with specific clinical features. The sample included 57 patients with DESR profile and 41 with DP profile, ages 9 to 15 years, all assigned to a non-pharmacological Multimodal Treatment Program. No differences resulted between groups in demographic features, diagnosis ratio, and comorbidities with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Bipolar Disorder (BD), and Anxiety Disorder. The DP group was associated with higher scores in Withdrawn, Social Problem, Thought, Rule Breaking, and Somatic CBCL subscales, and higher scores in Narcissism and Impulsivity (but not Callous-Unemotional (CU)), according to the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). After treatment, patients with DESR improved their personality traits (Narcissistic and Callous-Unemotional, but not Impulsivity), while changes in CBCL scales were modest. Patients with DP improved scales of Attention, Aggression, Anxiety-Depression, Rule Breaking, Withdrawal, Social Problem and Thought, while personality features did not change. These results suggest diagnostic implications of CBCL profiles, and indications for targeted treatment strategies. PMID:25480545

Gabriele, Masi; Pietro, Muratori; Azzurra, Manfredi; Simone, Pisano; Annarita, Milone

2015-01-30

352

The psychology of spite and the measurement of spitefulness.  

PubMed

Spite is an understudied construct that has been virtually ignored within the personality, social, and clinical psychology literatures. This study introduces a self-report Spitefulness Scale to assess individual differences in spitefulness. The scale was initially tested on a large sample of 946 college students and cross-validated on a national sample of 297 adults. The scale was internally consistent in both samples. Factor analysis supported a 1-factor solution for the initial pool of 31 items. Item response theory analysis was used to identify the best performing of the original 31 items in the university sample and reduce the scale to 17 items. Tests of measurement invariance indicated that the items functioned similarly across both university and national samples, across both men and women, and across both ethnic majority and minority groups. Men reported higher levels of spitefulness than women, younger people were more spiteful than older people, and ethnic minority members reported higher levels of spitefulness than ethnic majority members. Across both samples, spitefulness was positively associated with aggression, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism, and guilt-free shame, and negatively correlated with self-esteem, guilt-proneness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Ideally, this Spitefulness Scale will be able to predict behavior in both laboratory settings (e.g., ultimatum games, aggression paradigms) and everyday life, contribute to the diagnosis of personality disorders and oppositional defiant disorder, and encourage further study of this neglected, often destructive, trait. PMID:24548150

Marcus, David K; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Mercer, Sterett H; Norris, Alyssa L

2014-06-01

353

Narcissistic personality disorder: an integrative review of recent empirical data and current definitions.  

PubMed

Although concepts of pathological narcissism are as old as psychology and psychiatry itself, only a small number of clinical studies are based on the criteria for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals of Mental Disorders (DSM). As a result, NPD appears to be one of the most controversially discussed nosological entities in psychiatry. Whereas the majority of empirical studies used self or other ratings of NPD criteria to address issues of reliability and validity of the diagnostic category (i.e., internal consistency, factor structure, discriminant validity), only recent research has applied experimental designs to investigate specific features of NPD (e.g., self-esteem, empathy, shame). The aim of this review is to summarize available empirical data on NPD and relate these findings to current definitions of NPD (according to the DSM-5, [1]). In order to do so, this review follows the five steps to establishing diagnostic validity proposed by Robins and Guze [2], i.e., (1) clinical description, (2) laboratory studies, (3) delimitation from other disorders, (4) family studies, and (5) follow up studies. Finally, this review suggests pathways for future research that may assist further nosological evaluation of NPD and contribute to the overall goal, the improvement of treatment for patients. PMID:24633939

Roepke, Stefan; Vater, Aline

2014-05-01

354

Early narcissistic transference patterns: an exploratory single case study from the perspective of dialogical self theory.  

PubMed

Persons exhibiting narcissistic personality traits are difficult to treat in psychotherapy, in particular because of the problems they have in building up a sound therapeutic relationship. We discuss the hypothesis that the threats to a therapeutic alliance emerge both from patients' maladaptive patterns of behaving towards others and from therapists being affected by these patterns and becoming a part of a dysfunctional dialogue. We examine this phenomenon in terms of Dialogical Self Theory and suggest that a patient can be conceptualised as embodying a cast of characters weaving a problematic dialogue both within the self and with other selves. Via the analysis of the transcripts of the first four audiotaped sessions of a psychotherapy involving a woman with narcissistic traits we identified one early dominant dialogical pattern in which a contemptuous and a contemptible character faced each other, shadowing characters in search for help. Such a pattern is consistent with the literature on interpersonal processes in narcissism. The therapist was involved in the pattern from the third session, suggesting that countertransference with individuals displaying narcissistic personality traits is caused more by the pathology than by their therapist's characteristics. Implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:17312867

Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Fiore, Donatella; Lysaker, Paul Henry; Petrilli, Daniela; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Semerari, Antonio; Nicolò, Giuseppe

2006-12-01

355

Klein and Lacan meet 21st century schizoid man: fairy stories for the modern era.  

PubMed

Melanie Klein invited us into the phenomenology of the schizoid dilemma through her depictions of the paranoid-schizoid position. By inserting his recursive arrows, Bion extended this conceptualization, showing us the folly of believing that we can ever entirely move beyond the frightening fantasies and realities of social exclusion and isolation. The 21st century has brought, along with the explosion of technology, an expulsion from the social order of many children who have found refuge from isolation and humiliation in the more accessible and less terrifying world of media and technological invention. What may look like narcissism can mask a terrible underlying schizoid failure to enter into the human race. This is the realm of fantasy run amok, where desire becomes alien and alienated such that one is haunted and hunted down by its very possibility. In this universe, conceptualizations from Klein, Bion, and Lacan help us to locate the individual who has become caught in a massive psychic retreat such that there is no subject because there are no objects. To illustrate, I describe my work with a young man who is living in a terrible "zombie zone" where people are not real and therefore are incomprehensible and terribly dangerous. The poignancy of his dilemma is heartbreaking. Perhaps that is one lesson we can still take from our old fairy tales: when one's heart can be broken by another's plight, then comes the possibility of a healing, an entry through that piercing of what had been impenetrable. PMID:25117781

Charles, Marilyn

2014-09-01

356

Test Facilities and Experience on Space Nuclear System Developments at the Kurchatov Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity of space fission systems and rigidity of requirement on minimization of weight and dimension characteristics along with the wish to decrease expenditures on their development demand implementation of experimental works which results shall be used in designing, safety substantiation, and licensing procedures. Experimental facilities are intended to solve the following tasks: obtainment of benchmark data for computer code validations, substantiation of design solutions when computational efforts are too expensive, quality control in a production process, and ``iron'' substantiation of criticality safety design solutions for licensing and public relations. The NARCISS and ISKRA critical facilities and unique ORM facility on shielding investigations at the operating OR nuclear research reactor were created in the Kurchatov Institute to solve the mentioned tasks. The range of activities performed at these facilities within the implementation of the previous Russian nuclear power system programs is briefly described in the paper. This experience shall be analyzed in terms of methodological approach to development of future space nuclear systems (this analysis is beyond this paper). Because of the availability of these facilities for experiments, the brief description of their critical assemblies and characteristics is given in this paper.

Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Garin, Vladimir P.; Glushkov, Evgeny S.; Kompaniets, George V.; Kukharkin, Nikolai E.; Madeev, Vicktor G.; Papin, Vladimir K.; Polyakov, Dmitry N.; Stepennov, Boris S.; Tchuniyaev, Yevgeny I.; Tikhonov, Lev Ya.; Uksusov, Yevgeny I.

2004-02-01

357

Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background: An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. Methods: The main objectives of the present study were (a) to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b) whether the primary infertile women (n=18) are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12) with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women) were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Results: Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. Conclusions: This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life. PMID:25788801

Poddar, Shuvabrata; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Mukherjee, Urbi

2014-01-01

358

Factor structure of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire and its relationship with the revised NEO personality inventory in a Japanese sample.  

PubMed

The Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology, Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) was developed to assess 18 personality traits that provide a systematic representation of personality disorder. This study investigates the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the DAPP-BQ and the relationship between the DAPP-BQ and Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in a heterogeneous general population sample (n = 1485). Internal consistency (coefficient alpha) and test-retest reliability over a 3-week period was satisfactory for all scales. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors labeled "emotional dysregulation," "dissocial behavior," "inhibition," and "compulsivity" that accounted for 76.0% of the total variance. Subsequently, we investigated the relationships between the 18 dimensions and the 5 dimensions of the NEO-PI-R in a second heterogeneous general population sample (n = 717). Combined factor analysis of the 2 scales again yielded 4 factors accounting for 70.4% of the total variance. Finally, we used multiple regression analyses to examine the extent to which the 5 NEO-PI-R scales could be used to predict individual DAPP-BQ scales. These indicated that the NEO-PI-R does not have content that covers some DAPP-BQ dimensions, especially conduct problems, narcissism, and stimulus seeking. PMID:17067879

Maruta, Toshimasa; Yamate, Taketo; Iimori, Makio; Kato, Masaaki; Livesley, W John

2006-01-01

359

Ethical considerations in emergency planning, preparedness, and response to acts of terrorism.  

PubMed

Throughout the globe, healthcare providers are increasingly challenged with the specter of terrorism and the fallout from weapons of mass destruction. Preparing for and responding to such manmade emergencies, however, threatens the ethical underpinnings of routine, individualized, patient-centered, emergency healthcare. The exigency of a critical incident can instantly transform resource rich environs, to those of austerity. Healthcare workers, who only moments earlier may have been seeing two to three patients per hour, are instantly thrust into a sea of casualties and more basic lifeboat issues of quarantine, system overload and the thornier determinations of who will be given every chance to live and who will be allowed to die. Beyond the tribulations of triage, surge capacity, and the allocation of scarce resources, terrorism creates a parallel need for a host of virtues not commonly required in daily medical practice, including prudence, courage, justice, stewardship, vigilance, resilience, and charity. As a polyvalent counterpoint to the vices of apathy, cowardice, profligacy, recklessness, inflexibility, and narcissism, the virtues empower providers at all levels to vertically integrate principles of safety, public health, utility, and medical ethics at the micro, meso, and macro levels. Over time, virtuous behavior can be modeled, mentored, practiced, and institutionalized to become one of our more useful vaccines against the threat of terrorism in the new millennium. PMID:15141854

Larkin, Gregory Luke; Arnold, Jeffrey

2003-01-01

360

[Diogenes syndrome: a transnosographic approach].  

PubMed

Diogenes syndrome is a behavioural disorder of the elderly. Symptoms include living in extreme squalor, a neglected physical state and unhygienic conditions. This is accompanied by a self-imposed isolation, the refusal of external help and a tendency to accumulate heteroclite objects. This particular geriatric syndrome has been described for the first time only quite recently, as the 2 primary descriptions by geriatricians and psychiatrists date from 1966 and 1975 respectively. Its rare occurrence contrasts with the fact that it is well-known, partly due to it being named after the Greek philosopher "Diogene de Sinope", who taught cynicism philosophy and a return to a natural way of life, and partly because of its rare characteristics. The Diogenes syndrome is a fascinating object of study for the clinician who takes care of patients living in uncommon conditions, on the edge of society and unaware of the particularity of their lifestyles. Patients suffering from Diogenes syndrome are usually discovered by chance, either because of a somatic illness, or as a result of social intervention related to their behavioural problems. Management of the syndrome is difficult and ethically challenging, as the patient does not seek help. Moreover, 46% of patients have a 5 year mortality rate. Hospitalisation has to be avoided whenever possible and ambulatory treatment and social measures should be favoured. Psychotropic treatment prescription may be necessary, depending on clinical features and the possible underlying psychiatric disease. Although several clinical hypotheses have been suggested, the true ethiopathogeny of the syndrome remains unclear. Most authors agree that this behaviour does not reflect free will and has consequently no theoretical relationship to the Greek philosopher. There is no true consensus about diagnostic criteria. They include the main features of the syndrome and exclude known psychiatric syndromes. Clark and Mankikar, who named this syndrome, reckon it may represent stress-related defence mechanisms of the elderly or may be related to natural ageing process. However, psychiatric pathologies as paranoid and paranoiac psychoses, mood disorders and obsessive and compulsive disorders have been described to be associated with it in the literature. Dementia, in particular temporo-frontal dementia, should be looked for and excluded clinically. Alcohol abuse seems to be an aggravating rather than a precipitating factor. Finally, the link between these pathologies and Diogenes syndrome is not yet determined: are they triggering, co-morbid or etiological factors? Should this syndrome be considered as a true illness or as a symptom? This paper presents Diogenes syndrome as a behavioural disorder and distinguishes 2 types: the "active type"--patients who collect from outside to clutter inside--and the "passive type"--patients who passively become invaded by their rubbish. Active type patients fill their home to fill in the vacuum of their life, as it deteriorates and looses its narcissical appeal. Passive type patients accumulate by default and emptiness. A psychopathological understanding is presented here, referring to psychoanalytical theories of the Moi-peau (ego-skin) described by Anzieu. The Moi-peau represents a structure of the psyche founded on the following principle: any psychic function develops itself according to a bodily function from which it transposes its functioning at a mental level. The skin has three functions: the containing shell, the protective barrier of the psyche, and a medium of exchange. The Moi-peau is organised as a double-wall acting both as a defence mechanism and as a filter between the psyche and the external world. It preserves the relationship and the cohesion "container-content". As a result of a narcissical wound, the Moi-peau is damaged and looses its function of a container. In the case of Diogenes Syndrome, the accumulated items repair the Moi-peau and the home becomes an "exterior-proof", thus playing the role of the Moi-

Hanon, C; Pinquier, C; Gaddour, N; Saïd, S; Mathis, D; Pellerin, J

2004-01-01

361

[Outcome in Patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa and concomitant narcissistic self-disorders  

PubMed

The present study examines the question of whether concomitant narcissistic self-disorders indicate a poorer prognosis in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Ninety-one female inpatients who met the DSM-IV criteria for AN or BN were investigated during inpatient treatment by using: a semi-structured diagnostic interview, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), The Narcissism Inventory (NI), the Hamburg Obsession-Compulsion Inventory, and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). The patients were divided into two groups: those with and those without narcissistic self-disorders as measured by the NI. Seventy-five patients were assessed at follow-up thirty months after discharge. Fifty-one percent of the follow-up group no longer fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for AN or BN, and there was no significant correlation with the earlier presence of concomitant narcissistic self-disorders. At follow-up, patients with narcissistic self-disorders had significantly more pathological mean-scores than patients without such disorders on four of the eight EDI scales and on four of the eight IIP scales. ANOVA for repeated measures revealed significant improvement over time on seven of the eight EDI scales in both groups. However, significant group-by-time interactions demonstrated that patients with narcissistic self-disorders had improved more over time than patients without self-disturbances. Furthermore, the obsessive-compulsive symptoms of those patients with narcissistic self-disorders who no longer fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for AN or BN had significantly decreased. Our findings indicate that the improvement of eating disorder symptoms corresponds to a decrease in obsessive-compulsive symptoms. In addition, there is a certain degree of independence between the severity of narcissistic self-disorders and the outcome of AN or BN. The results suggest that concomitant narcissistic self-disorders do not indicate a significantly poorer prognosis in patients with AN and BN. PMID:11781881

Thiel, Andreas; Züger, Markus; Jacoby, Georg J.; Schüssler, Gerhard

1999-01-01

362

Body image and weight preoccupation: a comparison between exercising and non-exercising women.  

PubMed

Relationships were examined among certain personality characteristics and variables which assess weight, diet, and appearance concerns for two groups of women--those who were avid exercisers (n = 86) and those who exercised only occasionally or not at all (n = 72). Multiple regression analyses indicated that emotional reactivity (measured by the N scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory) was strongly related to weight preoccupation (measured by three subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory) in both groups. Body Mass Index (BMI), but not a measure of subjective body shape, also predicted weight preoccupation for the non-exercisers while the opposite relationship was found for exercisers. In this group, subjective body shape and not BMI influenced weight preoccupation. It was also found that greater body dissatisfaction was related to poorer emotional well-being in the exercise group, and these women reported, to a significantly greater degree than non-exercisers, that their physical appearance was important to their self-esteem. It is possible that an excessive preoccupation with diet and body shape leads some women to take up a vigorous exercise program. However, the absence of differences in weight preoccupation between the groups argues against this. A possibility that has seldom been considered in the literature is that dedication to regular exercise fosters a heightened degree of body narcissism and a distorted impression of one's body size. A focus of attention in an exercise program on the relationship between body size and maximal performance may, in susceptible individuals, increase the likelihood of developing an obsessive attitude toward weight control. PMID:2241138

Davis, C

1990-08-01

363

Individual, social, and behavioral factors associated with co-occurring conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits.  

PubMed

Conduct problems (CP) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits can have a long-lasting negative impact into adulthood. Importantly, among youth with CP, those high on CU traits engage in a more severe, aggressive, and persistent pattern of antisocial behavior. The current study investigates the co-occurrence between CP and CU traits among a large sample of Greek-Cypriot adolescents (N?=?1,674; 50.1 % girls). Five distinct groups were identified with Latent Profile Analysis: low risk (48.7 %), average risk (33.8 %), co-occurring high CP-high CU (5.4 %), high CP-low CU (5.2 %), and low CP-high CU (6.9 %). Although more boys were identified in the higher risk groups, boys and girls within each group were not differentiated on levels of CP or CU traits during early adolescence. Youth in the identified groups were compared on early (Mean age?=?12.12) and middle (Mean age?=?14.02) adolescence individual and contextual factors. Youth with high CP-high CU were at higher risk for behavioral (bullying and substance use), individual (inattention, impulsivity, narcissism), and contextual (low family-support) problems compared to youth in the high CP-low CU and low CP-high CU groups, providing evidence that the combination of CP and CU traits might constitute a pathological group. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of sub-typing CP based on CU traits for the forthcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Additional novel findings suggested that adolescents scoring high on CP, irrespective of CU, were not differentiated on hyperactivity, victimization, and anxiety/depression, and adolescents scoring high on CU traits, with or without CP, reported similar low levels of self-esteem and peer and family social-support. PMID:23408037

Fanti, Kostas A

2013-07-01

364

My Child Is God's Gift to Humanity: Development and Validation of the Parental Overvaluation Scale (POS).  

PubMed

Although it is natural for parents to value their children, some parents "overvalue" them, believing that their own children are more special and more entitled than other children are. This research introduces this concept of parental overvaluation. We developed a concise self-report scale to measure individual differences in parental overvaluation, the Parental Overvaluation Scale (POS; Study 1). The POS has high test-retest stability over 6, 12, and 18 months (Study 2). As demonstrated in a representative sample of Dutch parents (Study 3) and a diverse sample of American parents (Study 4), the POS has an internally consistent single-factor structure; strong measurement invariance across sexes; as well as good convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity. Overvaluation is especially high in narcissistic parents (Studies 3, 4, 6). When parents overvalue their child, they overclaim their child's knowledge (Study 4), perceive their child as more gifted than actual IQ scores justify (Study 5), want their child to stand out from others, and frequently praise their child in real-life settings (Study 6). By contrast, overvaluation is not consistently related to parents' basic parenting dimensions (i.e., warmth and control) or Big Five personality traits (Studies 3, 4, 6). Importantly, overvalued children are not more intelligent or better performing than other children (Studies 5-6). These findings support the validity of the POS and show that parental overvaluation has important and unique implications for parents' beliefs and practices. Research on overvaluation might shed light on the determinants of parenting practices and the socialization of children's self-views, including narcissism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25365035

Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Bushman, Brad J

2014-11-01

365

An exploration of psychopathy in self-report measures among juvenile sex offenders.  

PubMed

Researchers have indicated that adult psychopathy often originates in childhood or adolescence. It has also been established that psychopathic traits are linked to disruptive behavior, criminality, and violence. As knowledge about psychopathy and its manifestations in juvenile sex offender populations remains limited, several instruments have been developed in an effort to measure the construct. In this study, we assessed how the relationship of diverse scales of psychopathy related to characteristics of sexual aggression, and determined which scales were most correlated to sexual and nonsexual delinquency. We utilized four measures of juvenile psychopathy: the Modified Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS; Lynam, 1997), the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Frick, O'Brien, Wootton, & McBurnett, 1994), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon & Davis, 1993; using two derived psychopathy scales), and the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional (ICU) Traits (Frick, 2003), in a sample of 191 incarcerated adolescent sex offenders located in juvenile detention facilities across a Midwestern state. We found that of the four instruments and seven subscales, only the APSD Narcissism and Impulsivity Scale was significantly correlated to a characteristic of sexual crime (i.e., number of victims, level of crime severity). No subscales were found to predict sexual crime at a significant level. However, several scales were correlated to the total delinquency score as measured by the Self-Reported Delinquency Measure. In a series of multiple regressions, the MACI Factor 2 and ICU total score were determined as the best fit to total nonsexual delinquency. Implications are offered. PMID:23525176

Morrell, Laura M; Burton, David L

2014-05-01

366

The PMHT: solutions for some of its problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracking multiple targets in a cluttered environment is a challenging task. Probabilistic Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (PMHT) is an efficient approach for dealing with it. Essentially PMHT is based on the method of Expectation-Maximization for handling with association conflicts. Linearity in the number of targets and measurements is the main motivation for a further development and extension of this methodology. Unfortunately, compared with the Probabilistic Data Association Filter (PDAF), PMHT has not yet shown its superiority in terms of track-lost statistics. Furthermore, the problem of track extraction and deletion is apparently not yet satisfactorily solved within this framework. Four properties of PMHT are responsible for its problems in track maintenance: Non-Adaptivity, Hospitality, Narcissism and Local Maxima. 1, 2 In this work we present a solution for each of them and derive an improved PMHT by integrating the solutions into the PMHT formalism. The new PMHT is evaluated by Monte-Carlo simulations. A sequential Likelihood-Ratio (LR) test for track extraction has been developed and already integrated into the framework of traditional Bayesian Multiple Hypothesis Tracking. 3 As a multi-scan approach, also the PMHT methodology has the potential for track extraction. In this paper an analogous integration of a sequential LR test into the PMHT framework is proposed. We present an LR formula for track extraction and deletion using the PMHT update formulae. As PMHT provides all required ingredients for a sequential LR calculation, the LR is thus a by-product of the PMHT iteration process. Therefore the resulting update formula for the sequential LR test affords the development of Track-Before-Detect algorithms for PMHT. The approach is illustrated by a simple example.

Wieneke, Monika; Koch, Wolfgang

2007-09-01

367

Measurement and structural invariance of the antisocial process screening device.  

PubMed

Despite increasing study of psychopathic traits in children and adolescents, evidence regarding the factor structure of these traits has been inconsistent across community, clinic-referred, and incarcerated samples. Empirical support exists for both 2-factor (Impulsivity-Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional) and 3-factor (Narcissism, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity) models, and factorial invariance across various samples has not been either tested or supported in the extant literature. We conducted confirmatory factor analyses of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001) in 838 nonreferred twin pairs (M = 10.57 years, SD = 3.19 years) and 251 clinic-referred children (M = 10.82 years, SD = 3.39 years). Factorial invariance was tested across zygosity (monozygotic vs. dizygotic twins), sex (males vs. females), and age (younger vs. older children, divided by median age of 10.37 years) in the community sample and across sample type in both the community and clinic-referred samples. Results suggested that the 3-factor model fit better than did the 2-factor model in both community and clinic-referred samples. Using the best fitting 3-factor model, full measurement and structural invariance were found across zygosity, sex, and age in the community sample. Full measurement and structural invariance were also found across sample type except for differences in factor means across samples, suggesting excellent psychometric properties of the APSD. These results strongly support the robustness of the 3-factor model of psychopathic traits in children as well as the generalizability of the APSD across samples. PMID:24274050

Dong, Lu; Wu, Hao; Waldman, Irwin D

2014-06-01

368

Normal and pathological altruism.  

PubMed

The psychoanalytic literature on altruism is sparse, although much has been written on this topic from a sociobiological perspective. Freud (1917) first described the concept in "Libido Theory and Narcissism." In 1946 Anna Freud coined the term "altruistic surrender" to describe the psychodynamics of altruistic behavior in a group of inhibited individuals who were neurotically driven to do good for others. The usefulness and clinical applicability of this formulation, in conjunction with the frequent coexistence of masochism and altruism, encouraged psychoanalysts to regard all forms of altruism as having masochistic underpinnings. Since then, there has been a conflation of the two concepts in much of the analytic literature. This paper reexamines the psychoanalytic understanding of altruism and proposes an expansion of the concept to include a normal form. Five types of altruism are described: protoaltruism, generative altruism, conflicted altruism, pseudoaltruism, and psychotic altruism. Protoaltruism has biological roots and can be observed in animals. In humans, protoaltruism includes maternal and paternal nurturing and protectiveness. Generative altruism is the nonconflictual pleasure in fostering the success and/or welfare of another. Conflicted altruism is generative altruism that is drawn into conflict, but in which the pleasure and satisfaction of another (a proxy) is actually enjoyed. Pseudoaltruism originates in conflict and serves as a defensive cloak for underlying sadomasochism. Psychotic altruism is defined as the sometimes bizarre forms of caretaking behavior and associated self-denial seen in psychotic individuals, and often based on delusion. We consider Anna Freud's altruistic surrender to combine features of both conflict-laden altruism and pseudoaltruism. Two clinical illustrations are discussed. PMID:11678244

Seelig, B J; Rosof, L S

2001-01-01

369

Cerebral information processing in personality disorders: I. Intensity dependence of auditory evoked potentials.  

PubMed

Patients with personality disorders such as the histrionic type exaggerate their responses when receiving external social or environmental stimuli. We speculated that they might also show an augmenting pattern of the auditory evoked potential N1-P2 component in response to stimuli with increasing levels of intensity, a response pattern that is thought to be inversely correlated with cerebral serotonin (5-HT) activity. To test this hypothesis, we collected auditory evoked potentials in 191 patients with personality disorders (19 patients with the paranoid type, 12 schizoid, 14 schizotypal, 18 antisocial, 15 borderline, 13 histrionic, 17 narcissistic, 25 avoidant, 30 dependent and 28 obsessive-compulsive) and 26 healthy volunteers. Their personality traits were measured using the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Compared with healthy subjects and other patient groups, the histrionic group scored higher on the basic traits Affective Instability, Stimulus Seeking, Rejection and Narcissism, and on the higher traits Emotional Dysregulation and Dissocial, than the other groups, and the schizoid group scored lower on most of the DAPP-BQ basic and higher traits. In addition, the histrionic group showed steeper amplitude/stimulus intensity function (ASF) slopes at three midline scalp electrodes than the healthy controls or the other patient groups. The ASF slopes were not correlated with any DAPP-BQ traits in the total sample of 217 subjects. However, the DAPP-BQ basic trait Rejection was positively correlated with the ASF slopes at all three electrode sites in the histrionic group. The increased intensity dependence of the auditory N1-P2 component might indicate that cerebral 5-HT neuronal activity is, on average, weak in the histrionic patients. PMID:16499979

Wang, Wei; Wang, Yehan; Fu, Xianming; Liu, Jianhui; He, Chengsen; Dong, Yi; Livesley, W John; Jang, Kerry L

2006-02-28

370

Teaching strategies for coping with stress – the perceptions of medical students  

PubMed Central

Background The undergraduate medical course is a period full of stressors, which may contribute to the high prevalence of mental disorders among students and a decrease in life’s quality. Research shows that interventions during an undergraduate course can reduce stress levels. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the Strategies for Coping with Professional Stress class offered to medical students of the Federal University of Goiás, at Goiânia, Goiás, in Brazil. Methods Qualitative research, developed with medical students in an elective class addressing strategies for coping with stress after a focal group (composed of nine of the 33 students taking this course) identified stress factors in the medical course and the coping strategies that these students use. Analysis of the results of the class evaluation questionnaire filled out by the students on the last day of class. Results Stress factors identified by students in the focus group: lack of time, excessive class content, tests, demanding too much of themselves, overload of extracurricular activities, competitiveness among students and family problems. Coping strategies mentioned in the focus group: respecting one’s limits, setting priorities, avoiding comparisons, leisure activities (movies, literature, sports, meeting with friends and family). Results of the questionnaires: class content that was considered most important: quality of life, strategies for coping with stress, stress factors, assertiveness, community therapy, relaxation, cognitive restructuring, career choice, breathing, social networking, taking care of the caregiver, music therapy and narcissism. Most popular methodologies: relaxation practice, drawing words and discussion them in a group, community therapy, music therapy, simulated jury, short texts and discussion. Meaning of the class: asking questions and reinforcing already known strategies (22.6%), moment of reflection and self-assessment (19.4%), new interest and a worthwhile experience (19.4%), improvement in quality of life (16.1%), expression’s opportunity (9.7%), other (6.4%). Conclusion The stressors perceived by the medical students are intense and diverse, and the coping strategies used by them are wide-ranging. Most students felt that the class was a worthwhile learning experience, incorporated new practices for improving quality of life and recognized the importance of sharing and reflecting on one’s stressors and life choices. PMID:23565944

2013-01-01

371

Late-Wisconsinan submarine moraines along the north shore of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (Eastern Canada)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of ice-contact submarine fans and morainal banks along the Québec North-Shore of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (Eastern Canada), between the Manicouagan River delta and the Mingan Islands, have been revealed with great detail by recent multibeam echosounder and high-resolution subbottom profiler surveys. These grounding-line landforms are observed between 65 and 190 m water depths and were constructed as the marine-based margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) stabilized or readvanced. Radiocarbon ages obtained from shells sampled in sediment cores collected in glaciomarine deposits 6 km south of a grounding line in the Sept-Iles area indicate a stabilisation that took place around 11 000 14C yr BP (12.5 ka cal BP with a ?R=120 ± 40 yr). In the Mingan Islands area, organic matter collected in distal deposits of an ice-contact fan is dated at 10 800 14C yr BP (11.6 ka cal BP). The position of the Sept-Iles and Mingan deposits, 20 km south of the ~9.7-9.5 14C kyr BP North-Shore Moraine, suggests that these ice marginal landforms were constructed during the Younger Dryas (YD) cold episode and that they might be the eastward submarine extent of the early YD St. Narcisse morainic system. Superimposed till sheets and morainal banks observed within grounding line deposits indicate that this stability phase was interrupted by local readvances that were marked in some cases by ice streaming. Segments of this morainic system are also visible along the shoreline in some sectors, where they have been generally washed out of fine fragments by waves. Another series of ice-contact deposits and landforms of similar nature observed farther offshore and at greater depths (100-190 m) were formed during a previous phase of stabilisation of the LIS margin. This older morainic system was probably deposited immediately after the opening of the Estuary and Gulf of the St. Lawrence.

Lajeunesse, Patrick; St-Onge, Guillaume

2013-04-01

372

[New synthesis empathogenic agents].  

PubMed

The use of synthesis drugs is the object of numerous written articles and TV programs in the last, decade. These synthesis drugs or "designer drugs", are well known for their ability to enhance, reinforce or appease social difficulties and relationships. In the research for empathetic and entactogenic relations one discover an obvious lack of communication and "warmth" in personal or professional relationship. An image of chemical "well being" has become a frequent stereotype of a society with an atrophying of performance and values while supposedly dedicating itself to individual performance. The youths are the first victims of these new drugs, the economical and social environment are the main reinforcing factors of this behaviour. The main characteristic of these drugs, is the non-recognition of their danger, some users go so far as to describe this category of substances as "drugs which are not drugs". As a characteristic, the use of a these synthesis drugs is almost recreative, during the week-end and holiday. The drug addiction is different than that of opiates or cocaine. One can observe some cases of real dependence--corresponding to the DSW IV criterion--when the personality of the users is the main characteristic (narcissic failure, immature personality, family and school problems). Many adverse effects--hypertension, kidney failure, psychoses--were declared. The mass-media has presented many articles concerning Ecstasy (MDMA). This is the most used drug during the rave parties. Its adverse effects are well known and proven. The authors would like to present other more recent synthesis drugs, also known as "analogs". These drugs, a kind of mixture between amphetamine-like (MDMA, MBDB, MDA) and misused medicines (ketamine, gamma OH, atropine) represent a real danger. GHB, 2 CB, HMB, are some of these recent substances. The possibility to procure them on the Web, or to produce them by oneself, add to their danger because of the lack of controls on toxicity and quality. The original danger signs were revealed by the FDA and currently a major preoccupation within french specialised services. The major problem for the practitionner is to inform the users, in order to prevent addiction and analyse the solutions. PMID:10598316

Velea, D; Hautefeuille, M; Vazeille, G; Lantran-Davoux, C

1999-01-01

373

[Workaholism: between illusion and addiction].  

PubMed

Workaholism surfaced some years ago as a veritable addiction in the wide sense of the term, dependence. It differs from other sorts of dependence in that it is very often viewed in a positive perspective in the sense that it conveys to the person concerned the illusion of well-being, as well as a motivation and dedication in their professional activity. During the past 30 years, several authors have attempted to define this concept and to determine its characteristics. Robinson believes that workaholics have an approach to life whereby their work feeds on time, energy and physical activity. This provokes consequences that affect their physical health and interpersonal relationships. They have a tendency to live in the future rather than in the present. For Scott, Moore and Micelli , the compulsion for work is not necessarily viewed as being detrimental to one's health. Spence and Robbins highlight the notion of the pleasure experienced at work in their theoretical approach. The prevalence of the dependence on work is estimated at between 27 and 30% in the general population. It is correlated to the number of hours of work per week and tends to be higher as annual revenue increases. The sex ratio is 1, and the parents of children 5 to 18 years of age are the most susceptible to considering themselves workaholics. The physical and psychological consequences of professional exhaustion are characterized primarily by the decrease in self-esteem, symptoms of fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability and the manifestation of physical problems including cardiovascular ailments, as evidenced by hypertension, as well as heart and kidney complications. All the theoretical point of views, from the psychoanalytical models to the contemporary models, highlight self esteem as being the centerpiece of the question regarding the problem of workaholism. In fact, the narcissism articulated from the sociological evolution of our western way of life permits us to delineate the psychic identity of the individual better, and therefore, to understand this reconstructive attempt of one's self better. In characterizing the personality traits of workaholic individuals, the doctor/therapist is required to deal with this new form of dependence as early as possible, in order to anticipate and avert the numerous personal, professional, social, relational and sanitary complications. Faced with this large prevalence of dependence on work, it seems important to us to look for a symptomatology that would emanate a signal of workaholism so as to envisage and propose to workaholic patients a specific course of action that would be adapted to their needs. PMID:20850599

Elowe, J

2010-09-01

374

Adolescent sexual offenders: a self-psychological perspective.  

PubMed

Following a request for assistance in formulating a treatment philosophy for adolescent sexual offenders, a qualitative study of seven adolescent offenders was designed with a view to elaborating pre-offense, and post-offense dynamics. The point of departure was the hypothesis that sexual offending had relation to object relations. It was further hypothesized that offenders' object relations and self-development had been disfigured in childhood and adolescent development. The developmental theories of Mahler, Stern, Winnicott, and Kohut were reviewed in order to shed light on the connection between disfigured self-development and sexual offending. Mahler's work suggested that anomalies during the separation-individuation process were heavily implicated. Winnicott's thinking on transitional functioning in potential space and his employment of the concepts of the true self and false self were especially useful. These bodies of work were assimilated to Kohut's theory of self development in which three nuclear sectors of the self, namely, the grandiose-exhibitionistic sector, the idealizing-voyeuristic sector, and the twinship-alterego sector, gradually coalesce and cohere through the moderating influence of parental empathy with the child's developmental tasks. Where such empathy is unforthcoming, or when the normal parental functions are obliterated by traumatic experiences of abuse, unmoderated needs for exhibitionism and voyeurism continue through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Victims of sexual offending were hypothesized to perform functions of restoration and preservation of a chronically weak and threatened self. The sample's interview transcripts were qualitatively analyzed and aggregated. Analysis suggested that, indeed, offenses appeared to have been motivated to preserve a weakened sense of self and that the thoughts and perceptions surrounding the offenses resonated with expressions of problematic separation from parental objects. In addition, it was noted that in the post-offense period, offenders had become subject to close supervision, or proctoring, from both formal and informal systems. In close supervision, offenders tended to rapidly crystallize a foreclosed, negative, deviant sexual identity in defense of unmoderated narcissism. Other observations were that intrafamilial offending was consistent with enmeshment in the family, adjudication and apparent treatment readiness, while extrafamilial offending was consistent with exclusion from the family, no adjudication and resistance to treatment. PMID:9196788

Chorn, R; Parekh, A

1997-01-01

375

The McCollough Facial Rejuvenation System: expanding the scope of a condition-specific algorithm.  

PubMed

The ideal facial rejuvenation algorithm is comprised of an appropriate combination of procedures, thoughtfully chosen from an assortment of reliable alternatives, that when skillfully performed provide both short- and long-term enhancement to the undesirable conditions of aging that exists at the time of treatment. In 2010, the senior author published the first scientific article in which a condition-specific classification system and a treatment plan algorithm were applied to the discipline of facial rejuvenation. In the landmark article, the senior author reviewed his surgical experience of more than 5000 face-lifts and grouped patients into five major categories (or stages), based upon the extent of aging identified in various regions of the face and neck and the procedures performed to correct them. The criteria (that have now been suggested on a facial aging worksheet) were recorded in a data blank comprised of a first-generation worksheet. Once the data were collected--and using algorithmic charts for each region and/or facial feature--the most appropriate plan of action for a given patient was created. The sole objective in sharing the senior author's methodology was to launch a scholarly discussion among physicians and surgeons involved in the various disciplines that provide rejuvenation procedures on the face, head, and neck. From such a debate would, hopefully, emerge a definitive algorithmic system--one based squarely on the venerable ethics of medicine, coupled with the appropriate application of and skillful performance of the fundamental principles of surgery. A single, science-based system would restore order to a noble discipline, currently being challenged by narcissism, gimmickry, and commercialization. The implementation of a system rooted in universal truths would require its advocates to agree upon a common "language," the implementation of which allows aesthetically focused surgeons to share both new ideas and time-tested experiences. More importantly, a condition-specific system matches each potential patient's problems--at every age--with the appropriate facial rejuvenation treatment plan, restoring the ideals of science and art to the profession. Initially provided in a consumer information book devised to assist patients with understanding the advantages of personalized treatment plans, the senior author later shared his practices and evolving system with colleagues attending conventions, seminars, and courses. Only after he was convinced that his system could be of benefit to physicians and surgeons from a variety of backgrounds was it offered to the peer-reviewed medical literature. Clearly, a plethora of techniques and materials are available for facial rejuvenation; however, only the ones deemed to be worthy of consideration were included. In practice--and in this presentation--the authors expanded the scope of the previously published article and offer a user-friendly, condition-specific worksheet and algorithmic tables designed to make it easier for surgeons to select the right combinations of procedures--at the right time in a patient's life. Although imitations potentiate an environment of disharmony, the authors remain committed to enabling the evolution of a single facial rejuvenation classification system, one that--with the input of like-minded scholars--could restore needed order to a branch of the medical profession that, in recent years, seems to have lost its focus. PMID:22418820

McCollough, E Gaylon; Ha, Chi D

2012-02-01