Sample records for narcissism

  1. Narcissism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth E. Hart; Cherry Huggett

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-nine newly recovering alcoholic outpatients drawn from a Minnesota-Model type treatment program in the United Kingdom completed the NPI narcissism scale and the “Steps Questionnaire.” Results showed the narcissistic “authority” subscale showed a very strong inverse relationship to level of personal acceptance of Steps 2 and 3 (the so called “God” steps) of the 12-Step program embodied by Alcoholics Anonymous.

  2. ASSERTIVENESS AND NARCISSISM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Watson; Jennifer McKinney; Christy Hawkins; Ronald J. Morris

    1988-01-01

    Scores on the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) were positively related to measures of healthy narcissism and inversely related to empathic distress, anxiety, and depression. Partial correlational procedures controlled for the tendency of healthy and unhealthy forms of narcissism to be linked together and revealed the RAS to be inversely associated with maladaptive narcissism. This same basic pattern was observed following

  3. Narcissism and Accounting Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jill; Akers, Michael D.; Giacomino, Don E.

    2013-01-01

    Narcissism is a personality trait that varies in individuals much like other characteristics. Accordingly, narcissism can positively or negatively impact the leadership style and career of business leaders. While personality research has examined the level of narcissism in college-aged students over the past 30 years, only recently has limited…

  4. Narcissism and Adjustment in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauletti, Rachel E.; Menon, Madhavi; Menon, Meenakshi; Tobin, Desiree D.; Perry, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Narcissism--a strong need to be admired for a grandiose self--is a problematic personality trait for children as well as adults. This study of 236 preadolescents (M age = 11.3 years; 129 girls, 107 boys) evaluated 2 intrapersonal (cognitive) pathways by which narcissism might contribute to maladjustment. The first was that narcissism combines with…

  5. Narcissism and internet pornography use.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Thomas Edward; Short, Mary Beth; Milam, Alex Clinton

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between Internet pornography use and narcissism. Participants (N=257) completed an online survey that included questions on Internet pornography use and 3 narcissism measures (i.e., Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Pathological Narcissistic Inventory, and the Index of Sexual Narcissism). The hours spent viewing Internet pornography was positively correlated to participants' narcissism level. In addition, those who have ever used Internet pornography endorsed higher levels of all 3 measures of narcissism than did those who have never used Internet pornography. PMID:24918657

  6. Narcissism and Moral Education: Extending the Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Francis J.

    1996-01-01

    Responds to criticisms of his article, "Unmasking the Face of Narcissism," recognizing a difference between "positive narcissism," or mastering one's own reality, and "negative narcissism." Suggests the Copernican Model, involving longer class periods and fewer major courses, as a means of incorporating analyses of narcissism into literature,…

  7. Freud's "On Narcissism: An Introduction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockatt, Philip

    2006-01-01

    The author reviews Freud's (1914) seminal paper "On narcissism: an introduction". Freud's paper is briefly set in the historical context of the evolution of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic theories, and Freud's metapsychology up to the publication of his Narcissism paper is outlined. A detailed and comprehensive description of the content of the…

  8. Narcissism and adjustment in preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Pauletti, Rachel E; Menon, Madhavi; Menon, Meenakshi; Tobin, Desiree D; Perry, David G

    2012-01-01

    Narcissism-a strong need to be admired for a grandiose self-is a problematic personality trait for children as well as adults. This study of 236 preadolescents (M age = 11.3 years; 129 girls, 107 boys) evaluated 2 intrapersonal (cognitive) pathways by which narcissism might contribute to maladjustment. The first was that narcissism combines with salient self-serving gender stereotypes to encourage aggressive and selfish behavior. The second was that narcissism places children who perceive that they are failing to realize their grandiose self at risk for aggression and depression. Although concurrent-correlational, the data support the pathways, illuminate the content and dynamics of narcissistic children's minds, and suggest directions for future investigation. PMID:22335362

  9. Sexual narcissism and infidelity in early marriage.

    PubMed

    McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura

    2014-10-01

    There is theoretical reason to believe that narcissism is associated with infidelity. Yet, studies that have examined this association have yielded inconsistent results. Given that these inconsistencies may have emerged because prior studies used global assessments of narcissism that do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, the current research drew from two longitudinal studies of 123 married couples to examine the extent to which sexual narcissism predicted marital infidelity. Consistent with the idea that narcissism predicts sexual behavior when activated in the sexual domain, own sexual narcissism was positively associated with infidelity, controlling for own marital and sexual satisfaction, own globally-assessed narcissism, partner globally-assessed narcissism, and partner sexual narcissism. Helping to explain why this association emerged, further analyses demonstrated that it was driven by all four facets of sexual narcissism-sexual exploitation, grandiose sense of sexual skill, sexual entitlement (Study 1 only), and lack of sexual empathy (husbands only). Additionally, although partner sexual narcissism was unrelated to infidelity on average, partners' grandiose sense of sexual skill and partners' sexual entitlement (Study 2 only) were positively associated with infidelity, and partners' lack of sexual empathy was negatively associated with infidelity (Study 2 only). These findings highlight the benefits of using domain-specific measures of sexual narcissism in research on sexual behavior and the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality more generally. PMID:24696386

  10. Narcissism--An Adolescent Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Margot

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that the adolescent process needs to be accorded its own particularity of reference, especially where narcissism is concerned. The paper draws on literary and clinical examples to describe what is termed the "adolescent organisation". In many ways, this organisation reflects post-Kleinian theory of what constitutes narcissistic…

  11. Narcissism, mania and analysts' envy.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Irwin

    2011-12-01

    Character traits like narcissism, mania and grandiosity are routinely discussed in the psychoanalytic literature as aspects of psychopathology only. However, many individuals who have both achieved and contributed to society in the most profound ways often have such characteristics. Psychoanalysts, sometimes envious of patients who possess considerable wealth and/or power, may be inclined to overly pathologize such qualities, denying their own desires for the perks of power and material success. Mad Men is discussed largely in this context. PMID:22143506

  12. Narcissism and relational representations among psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Joyce, Anthony S; Steinberg, Paul I; Piper, William E

    2015-06-01

    Pathological narcissism is associated with maladaptive interpersonal behavior, although less is known regarding the internal relational representations of narcissistic patients. The authors examined the relationship between pathological narcissism and two constructs that reflect internal representations of relational patterns: quality of object relations and attachment style. Patients attending a psychiatric day treatment program (N = 218) completed measures of narcissism, general psychiatric distress, and attachment style in terms of attachment avoidance and anxiety. A semistructured interview was used to assess quality of object relations. Multiple regression analysis was conducted, controlling for general psychiatric distress. Pathological narcissism was associated with anxious attachment, but not with avoidant attachment. Narcissism was also associated with lower levels of quality of object relations. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of internal representations of self-other relations. PMID:23398104

  13. Dependent Narcissism, Organizational Learning, and Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

    2009-01-01

    Narcissistic leadership can benefit organizational performance. Aberrant narcissism can destroy the psychosocial health of groups, limiting performance. This article examines Dependent Organizational Disorder, a common form of narcissism, which infects leadership, thwarts performance, and interrupts organizational learning. Dependent…

  14. How To Eliminate Narcissism Overnight

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition appears likely to eliminate the diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder. There are significant problems with the discriminant validity of the current narcissistic personality disorder critiera set; furthermore, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition's narrow focus on “grandiosity” probably contributes to the wide disparity between low narcissistic personality disorder prevalence rates in epidemiological studies and high rates of narcissistic personality disorder in clinical practice. Nevertheless, the best course of action may be to refine the narcissistic personality disorder criteria, followed by careful field testing and a search for biomarkers, rather than wholesale elimination of the narcissistic personality disorder category. The construct of “malignant narcissism” is also worthy of more intense empirical investigation. PMID:21468294

  15. Sexual Narcissism and the Perpetration of Sexual Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Widman; James K. McNulty

    2010-01-01

    Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded\\u000a inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not\\u000a sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research\\u000a avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict

  16. Shame, Guilt, Narcissism, and Depression: Correlates and Sex Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred Wright; John O’Leary; Joseph Balkin

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between shame, guilt, narcissism, and depression and the gender differences connected with these states. We hypothesize that shame would be a more powerful contributor to narcissism and depression than guilt and that women would score higher in shame, higher in depression, and lower in narcissism than men. The Adapted Shame\\/Guilt Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory,

  17. Facing towards or Turning away from Destructive Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Denis; Skogstad, Helga

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed theoretical discussion of destructive narcissism in relation to Freud and Rosenfeld and later theorists. In destructive narcissism, the destructiveness is itself idealised and overrides "the vital functions which serve the purpose of self-preservation" (Freud, S., 1914, "On narcissism" S.E. 14: 87)--a feature which…

  18. The Predictive Utility of Narcissism among Children and Adolescents: Evidence for a Distinction between Adaptive and Maladaptive Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Christopher T.; Frick, Paul J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Grafeman, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the predictive utility of narcissism among a community sample of children and adolescents (N=98) longitudinally. Analyses focused on the differential utility between maladaptive and adaptive narcissism for predicting later delinquency. Maladaptive narcissism significantly predicted self-reported delinquency at one-, two-, and…

  19. The significance of Alfred Adler for the concept of narcissism.

    PubMed

    Ansbacher, H L

    1985-02-01

    Alfred Adler's significance for the concept of narcissism is presented with reference to four aspects: 1) Adler's theory of masculine protest was evidently a factor influencing Freud to turn toward the phenomenon of narcissism. 2) Present-day understanding of narcissism shows remarkable similarity to Adler's views on psychodynamics and neurotic egocentricity. 3) Some contemporary criticisms of Freud's theory of narcissism are very similar to Adler's criticism. 4) Adler's theory of social interest permits subsumption of narcissism under lack of social interest rather than acceptance of it as an expression of innate socially negative tendencies. PMID:3882001

  20. Personal Fables, Narcissism, and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Flannery, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship among three personal fables ("omnipotence," "invulnerability," "personal uniqueness"), narcissism, and mental health variables was assessed in a large, cross-sectional sample of adolescents drawn from Grades 6 (n = 94), 8 (n = 223), 10 (n = 142), and 12 (n = 102). Participants responded to the New Personal Fable Scale, the…

  1. Shame and Gender Issues in Pathological Narcissism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John OLeary; Fred Wright

    1986-01-01

    This article demonstrates the importance of a close monitoring of the emotion of shame in psychoanalysis. Shame is distinguished from guilt, and its special relationship to pathological narcissism is discussed. A typology of narcissistic pathology is also described, which is mediated by the extent to which grandiosity is consciously experienced by the patient. Specifically, where grandiosity is conscious and central,

  2. Unmasking the Face of Narcissism: A Prerequisite for Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Francis J.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that moral and values clarification education encourages narcissism in youths through a focus on individualism and the personal. Finds similar tendencies in adolescent literature. Describes a moral education program designed to counter narcissism through a focus on cooperative relationships. Provides instructional techniques to counter…

  3. Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…

  4. There Is an "I" in TEAM: Narcissism and Social Loafing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodman, Tim; Roberts, Ross; Hardy, Lew; Callow, Nichola; Rogers, Catherine H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated narcissism as a moderator of social loafing on a physical performance task. High and low narcissistic individuals twice performed a cycling task in same-sex teams of three: once when identifiability was low; and once when identifiability was high. A significant interaction between narcissism and identifiability was revealed, F(1,…

  5. The Implications of Sexual Narcissism for Sexual and Marital Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, James K.; Widman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs. PMID:23297145

  6. Narcissism, Materialism, and Environmental Ethics in Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Jacqueline Z.; Westerman, James W.; Bergman, Shawn M.; Westerman, Jennifer; Daly, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationships between narcissism, materialism, and environmental ethics in undergraduate business students. Data were collected from business students (n = 405) at an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited business school at a comprehensive state university. Results indicate that narcissism has an…

  7. The implications of sexual narcissism for sexual and marital satisfaction.

    PubMed

    McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura

    2013-08-01

    There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs. PMID:23297145

  8. Self-Reported Narcissism and Perceived Parental Permissiveness and Authoritarianism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Ramsey; P. J. Watson; Michael D. Biderman; Amy L. Reeves

    1996-01-01

    The hypothesis that inadequate parenting promotes the development of pathological narcissism was tested in a sample of 370 undergraduate students. They responded to the O'Brien (1987) Multiphasic Narcissism Inventory (OMNI) and to measures of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. Perceived parental permissiveness and authoritarianism served as independent predictors of greater narcissistic tendencies. The students who scored high on the OMNI

  9. The Narcissism of Depression or the Depression of Narcissism and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitris

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that it has long been recognised that narcissism can contribute to depression, we have become accustomed to referring to depression mostly in terms of a neurotic disturbance. The author highlights the difference between the narcissistic elements in depression, which is based on guilt, and the graver narcissistic depression, which…

  10. Narcissism and Sensitivity to Criticism: A Preliminary Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon D. Atlas; Melissa A. Them

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the connection between narcissism and sensitivity to criticism. In study 1, participants completed\\u000a the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and the Sensitivity to Criticism Scale (SCS) and were asked to construct and\\u000a deliver speeches to be rated by performance judges. They were then asked whether they would like to receive evaluative feedback.\\u000a Narcissism and sensitivity to criticism were

  11. Vicissitudes of narcissism in the cinematic autobiography.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, G O; Gabbard, K

    1984-09-01

    We have discussed two contemporary cinematic autobiographies in which narcissistic struggles are presented in the protagonists. Whether Bob Fosse and Woody Allen are themselves suffering from narcissistic character pathology is unknown to us and is not the point of our thesis. Narcissistic issues are presented as predominant life difficulties for the major characters in the movies, and an examination of these narcissistic themes can enlarge our understanding of the current cultural and intrapsychic narcissistic phenomena. By examining how Joe Gideon in All That Jazz and Sandy Bates in Stardust Memories approach relationships with significant figures in their lives, how they deal with the mid-life crisis, and how they struggle with the knowledge of the inevitability of personal death provide insights about the vicissitudes of narcissism at a particular point in the male adult life-cycle. PMID:6436853

  12. College Adjustment Difficulties and the Overt and Covert Forms of Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikel, Kim A.; Avara, Renee Mowery; Hanson, Chad A.; Kater, Hope

    2010-01-01

    Overt narcissism correlated negatively with emotional distress and interpersonal difficulties among female, but not male, students. After controlling for self-esteem, overt narcissism correlated positively with depression among female students and with emotional distress and interpersonal difficulties among male students. Covert narcissism

  13. The Relations among Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Delinquency in a Sample of At-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Christopher T.; Grafeman, Sarah J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Pickard, Jessica D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores the relation between narcissism and delinquency among 372 at-risk 16-18-year-olds. The study also considered the relation between narcissism and self-esteem, as well as the potential interaction between narcissism and self-esteem for predicting delinquency in this age group. Narcissism and self-esteem were positively…

  14. [Narcissism in the world of Facebook. An evolutionary psychopathological interpretation].

    PubMed

    Szekeres, Adám; Tisljár, Roland

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades there has been a considerable increase in the levels of narcissism among the population of individualistic, western cultures. The phenomena of narcissism induced a large number of psychological researches, some of which approaches the issue from changes in environmental factors. The modern environment of these days is substantially different from the one to which our ancestors have adapted over millions of years of evolution. The research results of narcissism from the perspective of evolutionary psychopathology approach have yet to integrate.The present review focuses on two studies and empirical findings induced by them in which an attempt is made to explore the evolutionary origins of narcissism. Relating to these studies we present the main mechanisms by which evolution may have played a role in the development and maintenance of narcissism. One of the significant elements of the current, changing social environment allowing virtual contacts is the social networking site called Facebook. Following the presentation of the main features of the site we discuss research results in connection with narcissistic traits and Facebook usage. Finally an attempt is made to integrate these findings into an evolutionary psychopathological framework. PMID:24443578

  15. Preschool Personality Antecedents of Narcissism in Adolescence and Emergent Adulthood: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Kevin S.; Gjerde, Per F.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective study examined relations between preschool personality attributes and narcissism during adolescence and emerging adulthood. We created five a priori preschool scales anticipated to foretell future narcissism. Independent assessors evaluated the participants' personality at ages 14, 18, and 23. Based upon these evaluations, we generated observer-based narcissism scales for each of these three ages. All preschool scales predicted subsequent narcissism, except Interpersonal Antagonism at age 23. According to mean scale and item scores analyses, narcissism increased significantly from age 14 to 18, followed by a slight but non-significant decline from age 18 to 23. The discussion focused on a developmental view of narcissism, the need for research on automatic processing and psychological defenses, and links between narcissism and attachment. PMID:20161614

  16. Narcissism and discrepancy between self and friends' perceptions of personality.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun W; Colvin, C Randall

    2014-08-01

    Most research on narcissism and person perception has used strangers as perceivers. However, research has demonstrated that strangers' ratings are influenced by narcissists' stylish appearance (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2010). In the present study, we recruited participants and their close friends, individuals whose close relationship should immunize them to participants' superficial appearance cues. We investigated the relation between narcissism and personality ratings by self and friends. Participants (N?=?66; 38 women; Mage?=?20.83 years) completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) and described their personality on the 100-item California Adult Q-Sort (CAQ; Block, 2008). Participants' personality was also described on the CAQ by close friends. The "optimally adjusted individual" prototype was used to summarize participant and friend personality ratings (Block, 2008). Participants with high narcissism scores were ascribed higher optimal adjustment by self than by friends. Narcissistic individuals' self-ratings were extremely positive and more favorable than friends' ratings of them. PMID:23799917

  17. Aspects of narcissism and symbiosis, or, essential neurosis of twins.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Charlotte

    2012-06-01

    Following a brief introduction I address the relationships of twins from five different perspectives: the Intimate Connection, the Mirror Image and Complementarity, Object- and Self-Representation, Self and Object or Rivalry, and Intersubjective Communication. This approach attempts to understand twin relationships and the individual development of twins in terms of their intense mutual dependence, akin to infantile symbiosis, and in terms of narcissism. In their similarity to each other, twins may choose each other as love objects even as they see themselves in the other. That is, a twin may "love what he himself is" or "someone who was once part of himself." This "type of object-choice … must be termed 'narcissistic'" (Freud, 1914, pp. 90, 88). Such "cathexis of an undifferentiated self-object" is considered to be "primary narcissism" (Burstein, 1977, p. 103). Hoffer (1952) describes primary narcissism as "the lack of all qualities discriminating between self and not-self, inside and outside" (p. 33). PMID:22712590

  18. The Two Faces of Narcissism and Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Varshney, Nicole M.; Arens, Daniel; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    This paper describes a study that examined the relationship between two forms of adolescent narcissism and indicators of self-worth (positive adjustment and psychopathology) in a sample of 561 adolescents. School structure, academic performance, and school participation were also examined and mental health functioning was assessed by measures of…

  19. Technology, Narcissism, and the Moral Sense: Implications for Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Francis; Bednar, Maryanne; Sweeder, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses narcissism, child-rearing practices that lead to child-centeredness, and social insensitivity and their implications for instruction. Considers moral education and the moral sense; cultivating the moral sense through technology; and idea and product technologies. Also includes a commentary on the article by Jonathan Ross and a response…

  20. Institutional Narcissism, Arrogant Organization Disorder and Interruptions in Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are…

  1. The Dark Triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delroy L. Paulhus; Kevin M. Williams

    2002-01-01

    Of the offensive yet non-pathological personalities in the literature, three are especially prominent: Machiavellianism, subclinical narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy. We evaluated the recent contention that, in normal samples, this ‘Dark Triad’ of constructs are one and the same. In a sample of 245 students, we measured the three constructs with standard measures and examined a variety of laboratory and self-report

  2. Are Universities Creating Millennial Narcissistic Employees? An Empirical Examination of Narcissism in Business Students and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, James W.; Bergman, Jacqueline Z.; Bergman, Shawn M.; Daly, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigate whether narcissism levels are significantly higher in undergraduate business students than psychology students, whether business schools are reinforcing narcissism in the classroom, and whether narcissism is influencing student salary and career expectations. Data were collected from Millennial students (n = 536) and…

  3. Entering adulthood in a recession tempers later narcissism.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Emily C

    2014-07-01

    Despite widespread interest in narcissism, relatively little is known about the conditions that encourage or dampen it. Drawing on research showing that macroenvironmental conditions in emerging adulthood can leave a lasting imprint on attitudes and behaviors, I argue that people who enter adulthood during recessions are less likely to be narcissistic later in life than those who come of age in more prosperous times. Using large samples of American adults, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people who entered adulthood during worse economic times endorsed fewer narcissistic items as older adults. Study 3 extended these findings to a behavioral manifestation of narcissism: the relative pay of CEOs. CEOs who came of age in worse economic times paid themselves less relative to other top executives in their firms. These findings suggest that macroenvironmental experiences at a critical life stage can have lasting implications for how unique, special, and deserving people believe themselves to be. PMID:24815615

  4. A neural model of mechanisms of empathy deficits in narcissism

    PubMed Central

    Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Zajkowski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    From a multidimensional perspective, empathy is a process that includes affective sharing and imagining and understanding the emotions of others. The primary brain structures involved in mediating the components of empathy are the anterior insula (AI), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and specific regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). The AI and ACC are the main nodes in the salience network (SN), which selects and coordinates the information flow from the intero- and exteroreceptors. AI might play a role as a crucial hub – a dynamic switch between 2 separate networks of cognitive processing: the central executive network (CEN), which is concerned with effective task execution, and the default mode network (DMN), which is involved with self-reflective processes. Given various classifications, a deficit in empathy may be considered a central dysfunctional trait in narcissism. A recent fMRI study suggests that deficit in empathy is due to a dysfunction in the right AI. Based on the acquired data, we propose a theoretical model of imbalanced SN functioning in narcissism in which the dysfunctional AI hub is responsible for constant DMN activation, which, in turn, centers one’s attention on the self. This might hinder the ability to affectively share and understand the emotions of others. This review paper on neural mechanisms of empathy deficits in narcissism aims to inspire and direct future research in this area. PMID:24189465

  5. Narcissism and consumer behaviour: a review and preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    Cisek, Sylwia Z.; Sedikides, Constantine; Hart, Claire M.; Godwin, Hayward J.; Benson, Valerie; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    We review the literature on the relation between narcissism and consumer behavior. Consumer behavior is sometimes guided by self-related motives (e.g., self-enhancement) rather than by rational economic considerations. Narcissism is a case in point. This personality trait reflects a self-centered, self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative orientation. Narcissists are characterized by exhibitionism and vanity, and they see themselves as superior and entitled. To validate their grandiose self-image, narcissists purchase high-prestige products (i.e., luxurious, exclusive, flashy), show greater interest in the symbolic than utilitarian value of products, and distinguish themselves positively from others via their materialistic possessions. Our review lays the foundation for a novel methodological approach in which we explore how narcissism influences eye movement behavior during consumer decision-making. We conclude with a description of our experimental paradigm and report preliminary results. Our findings will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying narcissists’ conspicuous purchases. They will also likely have implications for theories of personality, consumer behavior, marketing, advertising, and visual cognition. PMID:24711797

  6. The Higher Order Factor Structure and Gender Invariance of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a…

  7. Examining Associations between Narcissism, Behavior Problems, and Anxiety in Non-Referred Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…

  8. Narcissism, Exploitative Attitudes, and Academic Dishonesty: An Exploratory Investigation of Reality versus Myth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Mohan K.; Sharland, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Renewed interest in the effects of narcissism in the media has generated a closer examination of the phenomenon. This coupled with an increase in academic misbehavior among both high school and university students has provided an opportunity to scrutinize the effects of narcissism on attitudes toward academic dishonesty. The authors investigated…

  9. The Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Dyadic Narcissism and the Problem of Individuation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprince, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of infantile gender identity as they are demonstrated through group processes amongst the carers of disturbed adolescents. It uses this and other clinical material to explore gender narcissism--both male and female. It examines how such narcissism is linked to sado-masochism, and how it can impede a healthy development…

  10. Narcissism in patients admitted to psychiatric acute wards: its relation to violence, suicidality and other psychopathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marit F Svindseth; Jim Aage Nøttestad; Juliska Wallin; John Olav Roaldset; Alv A Dahl

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective was to examine various aspects of narcissism in patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards and to compare their level of narcissism to that of an age- and gender-matched sample from the general population (NORM). METHODS: This cross-sectional study interviewed 186 eligible acute psychiatric patients with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning

  11. Measuring Narcissism within Add Health: The Development and Validation of a New Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mark S.; Brunell, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the development of a measure of narcissism within the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data set. In Study 1, items were selected from Wave III to form the Add Health Narcissism Scale (AHNS). These were factor analyzed, yielding a single factor comprised of five subscales. We correlated the AHNS and…

  12. Narcissism and Type of Violent Relationships for Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    E-print Network

    Rinker, Lee

    2010-01-16

    Multi-axial Inventory - II MCSD Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale MDD Major Depressive Disorder MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory NPD Narcissistic Personality Disorder viii NPI Narcissism Personality Inventory... (NPD), the unhealthy version of narcissism, is a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration and a lack of empathy (American Psychological Association, 2000). Associated features include vulnerable self-esteem, sensitivity, intense...

  13. Are narcissists sexy? Zeroing in on the effect of narcissism on short-term mate appeal.

    PubMed

    Dufner, Michael; Rauthmann, John F; Czarna, Anna Z; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2013-07-01

    This research was aimed to provide a comprehensive test of the classic notion that narcissistic individuals are appealing as short-term romantic or sexual partners. In three studies, we tested the hypotheses that narcissism exerts a positive effect on an individual's mate appeal and that this effect is mediated by high physical attractiveness and high social boldness. We implemented a multimethod approach and used ratings of opposite sex persons (Study 1), ratings of friends (Study 2), and records of courtship outcomes in naturalistic interactions (Study 3) as indicators of mate appeal. In all cases, narcissism had a positive effect on mate appeal, which was mainly due to the agentic self-enhancement aspects of narcissism (rather than narcissists' lacking communion). As predicted, physical attractiveness and social boldness mediated the positive effect of narcissism on mate appeal. Findings further indicated that narcissism was more strongly linked to mate appeal than to friend appeal. PMID:23554177

  14. On being eager and uninhibited: narcissism and approach-avoidance motivation.

    PubMed

    Foster, Joshua D; Trimm, Riley F

    2008-07-01

    This article demonstrates the validity and utility of conceptualizing narcissistic personality in terms of relative approach-avoidance motivation. Across three studies (N = 1,319), narcissism predicted high approach and low avoidance motivation. That is, narcissists reported being strongly motivated to approach desirable outcomes but only weakly motivated to avoid negative outcomes. Relative approach-avoidance motivation was shown to be useful in terms of explaining behavioral tendencies associated with narcissism (i.e., functional and dysfunctional impulsivity) and distinguishing different "flavors" of narcissism (i.e., overt and covert narcissism). Discussion focuses on how approach-avoidance motivation may be used to explain prior findings in the narcissism literature and generate novel future hypotheses. PMID:18436654

  15. Narcissism as a predictor of motivations behind Facebook profile picture selection.

    PubMed

    Kapidzic, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    The rising popularity of social networking sites raises the question of whether and how personality differences are manifested on them. The present study explores this topic through an analysis of the relationship between narcissism and motivations behind Facebook profile picture selection. A survey that assesses motivations emphasizing physical attractiveness, personality, and social ties was conducted with 288 undergraduate students. The study found narcissism to be a significant predictor of the motivation for selecting profile pictures that emphasize attractiveness and personality for both men and women. The findings are discussed in terms of the dynamic self-regulatory processing model of narcissism. PMID:23249240

  16. Revolting doubles: radical narcissism and the trope of lesbian doppelgangers.

    PubMed

    Jenzen, Olu

    2013-01-01

    This article is concerned with a repositioning of popular culture images and narratives that are, and have been, highly unpopular among queer audiences. This involves a re-engagement with the visual representation of lesbian lovers as doubles, ubiquitous in popular culture. It argues that by positioning the trope of the lesbian doppelgangers as it appears in popular culture on a continuum of visual representations of sameness and likeness that also includes feminist and queer art its qualities of radical or "absolute" narcissism are brought to the fore to be enjoyed as a subversive statement of highly self-referencing, auto-erotic, and self-sufficient economy of desire. In a reading of Black Swan (2010), a film that has attracted notable negative responses from feminist critics, it discusses how radical narcissism disturbs the heteronormative matrix through a refusal of its underpinning organization of desire and identification as exclusionary. It closes by engaging with contemporary artworks drawing on the doppelganger motif. PMID:23855946

  17. Narcissism and Type of Violent Relationships for Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence 

    E-print Network

    Rinker, Lee

    2010-01-16

    The study proposed to distinguish differences in perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence (i.e., Common Couple Violence and Patriarchal Terrorism) due to the mediating effect of their presentations of narcissism (covert and overt). Distinguishing...

  18. Commonalities and differences in characteristics of persons at risk for narcissism and mania

    PubMed Central

    Fulford, Daniel; Johnson, Sheri L.; Carver, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians have long noted overlap in some of the key features of narcissism and bipolar disorder, including excessively high goals and impulsivity. In addition, empirical findings consistently document high levels of comorbidity between the two conditions. To better understand the similarities and differences in psychological qualities associated with mania- and narcissism-related vulnerabilities, we administered to 233 undergraduates a broad range of measures pertaining to goals and affects (both their experience and their dysregulation) and impulsivity. As hypothesized, tendencies toward both narcissism and hypomania related to elevations on measures of affective and goal dysregulation. In addition, hypomania tendencies were related to higher impulsivity, but that association did not appear for narcissistic tendencies. Results highlight key commonalities and differences between those at risk for mania versus narcissism. Future research should examine these relationships in clinically diagnosed samples. PMID:20376289

  19. Convergence of narcissism measures from the perspective of general personality functioning.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A

    2008-09-01

    The construct of narcissism has a lengthy history and has been operationalized and measured by a variety of instruments. In this study, five narcissism scales were compared in terms of alternative conceptualizations of narcissism offered by C. C. Morf and F. Rhodewalt (2001), D. L. Paulhus (2001), and S. Vazire and D. C. Funder (2006), using the domains and facets of the five-factor model as a common point of comparison. The findings provided little support for the conceptualizations of Morf and Rhodewalt or Vazire and Funder. Support was obtained for the conceptualization of Paulhus, particularly as assessed by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and, secondarily, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Implications for the assessment and conceptualization of narcissism are discussed. PMID:18310592

  20. Distinguishing narcissism and hostility: similarities and differences in interpersonal circumplex and five-factor correlates.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J M; Smith, T W; Rhodewalt, F

    2001-06-01

    Narcissism and hostility are both characterized by dysfunctional social interactions, including tendencies to perceive slights, experience anger, and behave aggressively. The aim of this study was to examine the similarities and differences of narcissism and hostility, using 2 conceptual tools-the interpersonal circumplex and the Five-factor model. In a sample of 292 undergraduate men and women, composite measures of hostility (i.e., Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire [Buss & Perry, 1992] and Cook-Medley Hostility [Cook & Medley, 1954] total scores) were inversely correlated with affiliation and unrelated to dominance. In contrast, composite narcissism scores (i.e., Narcissistic Personality Inventory) were positively correlated with dominance and inversely correlated with affiliation. Examination of components of these traits revealed additional similarities and differences, as did associations with other dimensions of the Five-factor model. These findings suggest that the traits of narcissism and hostility are distinguishable by their interpersonal referents, as are their components. PMID:11499463

  1. The Influence of Birth Order and Gender on Narcissism as it Relates to Career Development 

    E-print Network

    Duffy, Clare 1978-

    2011-08-09

    in the family system (Adams, 1972; Belmont, 1977). Gender is another factor likely to contribute to the developmental process. For example, Sigmund Freud (1957) suggested that gender has played a role in narcissism. Recently, research also supports Freud... with the outside environment. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perspective. From a clinical perspective, Sigmund Freud (1914) was one of the first to address narcissism from a dual perspective?both as a maladaptive and adaptive function of the personality. Well known...

  2. Self-Knowledge and Narcissism in Iranians: Relationships with Empathy and Self-Esteem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nima Ghorbani; P. J. Watson; Fatemeh Hamzavy; Bart L. Weathington

    2010-01-01

    Self-knowledge is a Muslim psychological ideal, but social theory suggests that the dynamics of narcissism and self-esteem\\u000a may challenge the stability of Muslim society. In Iranian university students, an Integrative Self-Knowledge Scale displayed\\u000a relationships with narcissism, self-esteem, and empathy that reflected relative mental health; and the Narcissistic Personality\\u000a Inventory included factors that pointed toward adjustment as well as maladjustment. Evidence

  3. The Influence of Birth Order and Gender on Narcissism as it Relates to Career Development

    E-print Network

    Duffy, Clare 1978-

    2011-08-09

    in the family system (Adams, 1972; Belmont, 1977). Gender is another factor likely to contribute to the developmental process. For example, Sigmund Freud (1957) suggested that gender has played a role in narcissism. Recently, research also supports Freud... with the outside environment. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perspective. From a clinical perspective, Sigmund Freud (1914) was one of the first to address narcissism from a dual perspective?both as a maladaptive and adaptive function of the personality. Well known...

  4. [Ego and narcissism theory between 1914 and 1922 as it appears in the International Journal of Medical Psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    May-Tolzmann, U

    1990-08-01

    The publication of Freud's essay on narcissism in 1914 set off a discussion about the psychoanalytic concepts of the ego and of narcissism. The author reviews this discussion by reference to articles appearing in the Int. Z. ärztl. Psa. between 1914 and 1922. She highlights the theoretical and technical modifications corresponding to this discussion and demonstrates that apparently modern theories of the ego and of narcissism have their roots largely in that period. PMID:2217847

  5. Pathological Narcissism and Interpersonal Behavior in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Michael J.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.; Hyde, Amanda L.; Ram, Nilam

    2014-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) has been proposed as a useful meta-framework for integrating contextual differences in situations with individual differences in personality pathology. In this article, we evaluated the potential of combining the CAPS meta-framework and contemporary interpersonal theory to investigate how individual differences in pathological narcissism influenced interpersonal functioning in daily life. University students (N = 184) completed event-contingent reports about interpersonal interactions across a 7-day diary study. Using multilevel regression models, we found that combinations of narcissistic expression (grandiosity, vulnerability) were associated with different interpersonal behavior patterns reflective of interpersonal dysfunction. These results are among the first to empirically demonstrate the usefulness of the CAPS model to conceptualize personality pathology through the patterning of if-then interpersonal processes. PMID:23205698

  6. The Associations of Self-Reported and Peer-Reported Relational Aggression with Narcissism and Self-Esteem Among Adolescents in a Residential Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farrah N. Golmaryami; Christopher T. Barry

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations of self-reported and peer-nominated relational aggression (RA) with self-esteem and narcissism among 43 at-risk 16- to 18-year-olds. Self-reported and peer-nominated RA were positively intercorrelated, and each was positively correlated with narcissism. An interaction between self-esteem and narcissism predicted peer-nominated RA, such that narcissism was related to peer-nominated RA particularly for individuals with high self-esteem.

  7. The Associations of Self-Reported and Peer-Reported Relational Aggression with Narcissism and Self-Esteem among Adolescents in a Residential Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golmaryami, Farrah N.; Barry, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations of self-reported and peer-nominated relational aggression (RA) with self-esteem and narcissism among 43 at-risk 16- to 18-year-olds. Self-reported and peer-nominated RA were positively intercorrelated, and each was positively correlated with narcissism. An interaction between self-esteem and narcissism

  8. Implications of college-age narcissism for psychosocial functioning at midlife: Findings from a longitudinal study of women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Wink; Karen Donahue I

    1995-01-01

    Positive and negative implications of two types of college-age narcissism on psychosocial functioning at midlife were studied in a longitudinal sample of women. Both types were scored with self-report measures when the women were, on the average, age 21. Throughout the first half of their adult life, high scorers on covert narcissism presented themselves as lacking in confidence and having

  9. Evidence for the criterion validity and clinical utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (Ns = 299, 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability with established indices of normal personality traits, psychopathology and clinical concerns, and pathological personality traits. Overall, the pattern of correlations supported the convergent and discriminate validity of grandiose and vulnerable conceptualizations of pathological narcissism as measured by the PNI. Clinical utility was assessed by evaluating the extent to which clinicians without specific training in pathological narcissism as well as clinicians with expertise in pathological narcissism could accurately predict the correlates of PNI grandiosity and vulnerability with normal and pathological personality traits and psychopathology. The rcontrast-cv coefficient (Westen & Rosenthal, 2003) provided a global index of accuracy in clinicians’ predictions that was more fully elaborated by examining systematic discrepancies across groups. Overall, novice and expert clinicians were generally able to predict criterion correlations, with some exceptions (e.g., counter to predictions, pathological narcissism was negatively associated with treatment resistance). These results provide further evidence regarding the validity and utility of the narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability constructs as measured by the PNI. PMID:22315481

  10. Narcissism Predicts Heightened Cortisol Reactivity to a Psychosocial Stressor in Men

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Robin S.; Yim, Ilona S.; Quas, Jodi A.

    2010-01-01

    Narcissists' sensitivity to social evaluation should increase their physiological reactivity to evaluative stressors. However, very few studies have assessed the physiological correlates of narcissism. In this study, participants completed an evaluative laboratory stressor or a non-evaluative control task. Cortisol reactivity—a marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response—and negative affect (NA) were higher in the stress versus control condition. However, men showed larger cortisol responses and, among men, higher narcissism scores predicted greater cortisol reactivity and larger increases in NA. Narcissism was unrelated to cortisol reactivity and NA among women and in the control condition. These findings highlight the influence of defensive personality traits on HPA reactivity and suggest a pathway through which narcissistic traits might influence long-term health outcomes. PMID:21076653

  11. Self-presentation 2.0: narcissism and self-esteem on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Soraya

    2010-08-01

    Online social networking sites have revealed an entirely new method of self-presentation. This cyber social tool provides a new site of analysis to examine personality and identity. The current study examines how narcissism and self-esteem are manifested on the social networking Web site Facebook.com . Self-esteem and narcissistic personality self-reports were collected from 100 Facebook users at York University. Participant Web pages were also coded based on self-promotional content features. Correlation analyses revealed that individuals higher in narcissism and lower in self-esteem were related to greater online activity as well as some self-promotional content. Gender differences were found to influence the type of self-promotional content presented by individual Facebook users. Implications and future research directions of narcissism and self-esteem on social networking Web sites are discussed. PMID:20712493

  12. Retrospective reports of attachment disruptions, parental abuse and neglect mediate the relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Kendal; Huprich, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Studies have shown a direct relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem; however, there have not been many studies that have empirically tested which theoretically relevant variables mediate this relationship. In the present study, we evaluated how self-reported, early negative childhood experiences with parental figures mediate the relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem. Four-hundred eight-five undergraduates from a Midwestern university retrospectively assessed their experiences of parental attachment and bonding, as well as their levels of pathological narcissism and current self-esteem. There was a significant correlation among all pathological narcissism subscales and self-esteem, except for the Exploitativeness subscale. Self-esteem was negatively correlated with all negative childhood experiences on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and was positively correlated with positive childhood experiences on the Parental Attachment Questionnaire (PAQ). The parental relationship quality was negatively associated with all but one Pathological Narcissism Inventory subscale, as was the PAQ total score. Lastly, emotional neglect on the CTQ significantly mediated the relationship between several pathological narcissism subscales and self-esteem. When investigating parental attachment and parental bonding, the quality of the relationship with the parent was a significant mediator between pathological narcissism and self-esteem. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding the adverse effects of parental abuse and neglect on healthy development of the self and self-esteem. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25331543

  13. An Examination of the Roles of Rationalization and Narcissism in Facilitating Academic Dishonesty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Academic dishonesty is a significant problem among college students. Numerous factors affect levels of cheating. This study utilized an original survey on cheating and rationalization along with the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and multiple regression analysis to examine the relationships between rationalization, narcissism, and academic…

  14. Parent-Infant Psychotherapy, the Transition to Parenthood and Parental Narcissism: Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espasa, Francisco Palacio

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author discusses some of the indications for short- or long-term parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions in terms of what he defines as "problems of parenthood" and "problems of parental narcissism". Brief parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions are most frequently indicated in the case of the former: more neurotic…

  15. Trumping Shame by Blasts of Noise: Narcissism, Self-Esteem, Shame, and Aggression in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomaes, Sander; Bushman, Brad J.; Stegge, Hedy; Olthof, Tjeert

    2008-01-01

    This experiment tested how self-views influence shame-induced aggression. One hundred and sixty-three young adolescents (M = 12.2 years) completed measures of narcissism and self-esteem. They lost to an ostensible opponent on a competitive task. In the shame condition, they were told that their opponent was bad, and they saw their own name at the…

  16. An Empirical Typology of Narcissism and Mental Health in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Aalsma, Matthew C.

    2006-01-01

    A two-step cluster analytic strategy was used in two studies to identify an empirically derived typology of narcissism in late adolescence. In Study 1, late adolescents (N=204) responded to the profile of narcissistic dispositions and measures of grandiosity (''superiority'') and idealization (''goal instability'') inspired by Kohut's theory,…

  17. Narcissism dimensions differentially moderate selective attention to evaluative stimuli in incarcerated offenders.

    PubMed

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Lee, Christopher; Newman, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder is associated with distinguishing traits including self-enhancement, arrogance, and intense reactivity to ego threat. Theoretical accounts of narcissism suggest these heterogeneous behaviors reflect a defensive motivational style that functions to both uphold and protect the self-concept. However, the notion that narcissism can be characterized by grandiose and vulnerable dimensions raises the possibility that these diverse behaviors represent distinct expressions of narcissistic defensiveness. The present study examined whether both dimensions exhibit a general defensive style marked by selective attention to evaluative stimuli or are differentially associated with selective attention to positive and negative information, respectively. Using a dot probe task consisting of valenced and neutral trait adjectives, we evaluated these hypotheses in a group of male offenders. Results indicated that vulnerable narcissism was associated with attention biases for both positive and negative stimuli, though the dimension was further distinguished by disengagement difficulties and a greater recognition memory bias in response to negative words. Conversely, grandiose narcissism was associated with increased accuracy when attending to positive stimuli and directing attention away from negative stimuli. Overall, these findings suggest narcissistic individuals share motivated selective attention in response to evaluative stimuli, while simultaneously highlighting important phenotypic differences between grandiose and vulnerable dimensions. PMID:25330183

  18. Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…

  19. Effects of Self-Esteem and Narcissism on Bullying and Victimization during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the longitudinal association, across a 1-year period, between self-esteem and narcissism with bullying and peer victimization. The sample consisted of 1,416 (50.1% girls) Greek Cypriot early adolescents ("M" age = 12.89) who completed a battery of self-report measures. The small correlation found between…

  20. How narcissistic employees respond to abusive supervision: two roles of narcissism in decreasing perception and increasing deviance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Jiang, Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Abusive supervision, a type of interpersonal mistreatment from direct supervisors toward subordinates, has received growing attention in leadership research. However, the role of narcissism related to abusive supervision is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of narcissism with subordinates' perceptions of abusive supervision and deviance toward the supervisor. Ratings on the aforementioned variables were collected from 403 full-time employees at two different times with one week in between (95 men, 308 women; M age = 26.0 yr.; M tenure = 5.1 yr.). The results of regression analyses showed that narcissism was significantly and negatively related to abusive supervision. Moreover, narcissism moderated the positive relationship between abusive supervision and deviance toward the supervisor. PMID:25243364

  1. The Evolutionary Significance of Anthropometric Variables on the ‘Dark Triad’ of Personality: Psychometrically Measured Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy. 

    E-print Network

    Ponce, Carmen

    2012-11-28

    ) this study will incorporate this into the investigation of the ‘dark triad’ of personality: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. The study aims to assess associations between the ‘dark triad’ and various anthropometric measurements indicative...

  2. Narcissism as a Moderator of Satisfaction with Body Image in Young Women with Extreme Underweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lipowska, Ma?gorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Objective Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight. Methods The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72), severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI < 17.5, n = 85), and women with normal body weight (21.7 < “ideal BMI” > 22.7, n = 168). Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Principal Findings We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women. Conclusion The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one’s body varies depending on BMI level: extremely underweight women and obese individuals constitute groups in which narcissism has the strongest impact on the self-satisfaction with body. PMID:25961302

  3. It Is Developmental Me, Not Generation Me: Developmental Changes Are More Important Than Generational Changes in Narcissism—Commentary on Trzesniewski & Donnellan (2010)

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Brent W.; Edmonds, Grant; Grijalva, Emily

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we make two points about the ongoing debate concerning the purported increase in narcissistic tendencies in college students over the last 30 years. First, we show that when new data on narcissism are folded into preexisting meta-analytic data, there is no increase in narcissism in college students over the last few decades. Second, we show, in contrast, that age changes in narcissism are both replicable and comparatively large in comparison to generational changes in narcissism. This leads to the conclusion that every generation is Generation Me, as every generation of younger people are more narcissistic than their elders. PMID:21243122

  4. A comparison of the criterion validity of popular measures of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder via the use of expert ratings.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; McCain, Jessica; Lynam, Donald R; Few, Lauren R; Gentile, Brittany; MacKillop, James; Campbell, W Keith

    2014-09-01

    The growing interest in the study of narcissism has resulted in the development of a number of assessment instruments that manifest only modest to moderate convergence. The present studies adjudicate among these measures with regard to criterion validity. In the 1st study, we compared multiple narcissism measures to expert consensus ratings of the personality traits associated with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD; Study 1; N = 98 community participants receiving psychological/psychiatric treatment) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) using 5-factor model traits as well as the traits associated with the pathological trait model according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). In Study 2 (N = 274 undergraduates), we tested the criterion validity of an even larger set of narcissism instruments by examining their relations with measures of general and pathological personality, as well as psychopathology, and compared the resultant correlations to the correlations expected by experts for measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Across studies, the grandiose dimensions from the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI; Glover, Miller, Lynam, Crego, & Widiger, 2012) and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) provided the strongest match to expert ratings of DSM-IV-TR NPD and grandiose narcissism, whereas the vulnerable dimensions of the FFNI and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (Pincus et al., 2009), as well as the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (Hendin & Cheek, 1997), provided the best match to expert ratings of vulnerable narcissism. These results should help guide researchers toward the selection of narcissism instruments that are most well suited to capturing different aspects of narcissism. PMID:24773036

  5. Self-Serving Bias or Simply Serving the Self? Evidence for a Dimensional Approach to Narcissism

    PubMed Central

    Tamborski, Michael; Brown, Ryan P.; Chowning, Karolyn

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement. PMID:22773880

  6. Narcissism, self-evaluations, and partner preferences among men who have sex with men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Andrew Moskowitz; Gerulf Rieger; David Wyatt Seal

    2009-01-01

    Larger or more prominent male body attributes—increased muscularity, penis size, height, etc.—may be associated with differences in narcissism in men who have sex with men (MSM). This may be due, in part, to physical appearance, which tends to be disproportionately revered by MSM. An Internet survey (N=649) was employed to test this and other hypotheses. Our results indicated that MSM

  7. The relationship between exercise and anxiety, obsessive-compulsiveness, and narcissism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Spano

    2001-01-01

    Regular physical activity is considered an important preventative health behavior and contributes many physical and psychological benefits (ICEFH Consensus Statement, 1989). However, when too intense, it can be maladaptive and associated with such psychological characteristics as anxiety, obsessive-compulsiveness, and narcissism (Davis, 1990a; Morgan, 1976; Yates, 1991). A total of 210 research participants completed: the Trait Anxiety Scale of the State-Trait

  8. Body Satisfaction in Gym-active Males: An Exploration of Sexuality, Gender, and Narcissism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jac Brown; Doug Graham

    2008-01-01

    This study compared 80 gay and straight Australian males on self report measures of body satisfaction, masculinity, femininity,\\u000a narcissism, and reasons for exercising at gyms to explore factors related to excessive exercise. Gay males are less satisfied\\u000a with their bodies compared to straight males. Improving appearance was more important for gay men, while fun was considered\\u000a more important for straight

  9. Leader narcissism and follower outcomes: The counterbalancing effect of leader humility.

    PubMed

    Owens, Bradley P; Wallace, Angela S; Waldman, David A

    2015-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(4) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2015-29666-001). The last name of the second author was misspelled in the Online First version of the article. All versions of this article have been corrected.] In response to recent calls to theorize and examine how multiple leader characteristics may work together in their effects, the current research examines how leader narcissism and humility interact to predict perceived leader effectiveness and follower (i.e., direct-report) job engagement and performance. Although an examination of leaders who are narcissistic yet humble may seem oxymoronic and even paradoxical, researchers have suggested that seemingly contradictory personal attributes may exist simultaneously and may actually work together to produce positive outcomes. Results from survey data from followers and leaders working for a large health insurance organization showed that the interaction of leader narcissism and leader humility is associated with perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower job engagement, and subjective and objective follower job performance. Together, these results suggest that narcissistic leaders can have positive effects on followers when their narcissism is tempered by humility. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25621592

  10. Are pathological narcissism and psychopathy different constructs or different names for the same thing? A study based on Italian nonclinical adult participants.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Pincus, Aaron L; Borroni, Serena; Munteanu, Arina Ferrari; Maffei, Cesare

    2014-06-01

    To understand the similarities and differences in personality traits and moral disengagement associated with pathological narcissism and psychopathy, 740 Italian active community members who voluntarily participated in the study were administered the Italian versions of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, the HEXACO Personality Inventory, and the Moral Disengagement Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that low Honesty-Humility and Antagonism (i.e., low Agreeableness) were personality traits common to both pathological narcissism and psychopathy, whereas low Conscientiousness was only related to psychopathy. Different associations with the HEXACO-PI scales and facets were observed for narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability, as well as for primary psychopathy and secondary psychopathy. Moral disengagement represented a common feature of pathological narcissism and psychopathy that was related to narcissistic vulnerability and to primary and secondary psychopathy, but not to narcissistic grandiosity. PMID:24511898

  11. Are narcissists hardy or vulnerable? The role of narcissism in the production of stress-related biomarkers in response to emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Joey T; Tracy, Jessica L; Miller, Gregory E

    2013-12-01

    Does narcissism provide a source of hardiness or vulnerability in the face of adversity? The present research addressed this question by testing whether narcissism is associated with increased physiological reactivity to emotional distress, among women. Drawing on the "fragile-ego" account, we predicted that narcissists would show a heightened physiological stress profile in response to everyday frustrations. Results supported this prediction; across a 3-day period, highly narcissistic individuals showed elevated output of 2 biomarkers of stress--cortisol and alpha--amylase-to the extent that they experienced negative emotions. In contrast, among those low in narcissism there was no association between these biomarkers and emotions. These findings suggest that narcissists' stress-response systems are particularly sensitive to everyday negative emotions, consistent with the notion that narcissism comes with physiological costs. PMID:24219398

  12. Vulnerable narcissism: commentary for the special series "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspectives on diagnosis and treatment".

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Widiger, Thomas A; Campbell, W Keith

    2014-10-01

    Comments on the articles by A. E. Skodol et al. (see record 2013-24395-001), E. Ronningstam (see record 2014-42878-005), D. Diamond et al. (see record 2014-42878-004), and A. L. Pincus et al. (see record 2014-01439-001). The tie that binds these four articles together is the respective authors' emphasis on the vulnerability- emotional, self-esteem/ego, interpersonal- that they consider to be central to pathological narcissism. The current authors agree that it is important that the field acknowledge both grandiose and vulnerable aspects of narcissism (e.g., Miller & Campbell, 2008), but they wonder whether the pendulum is now swinging too far back in the direction of vulnerability. PMID:25314236

  13. Phallic narcissism, anal sadism, and oral discord: the case of Yukio Mishima, Part I.

    PubMed

    Piven, J

    2001-12-01

    Thus far I have explored Mishima's traumatic childhood and the experiences leading him toward misogyny, phallic narcissism, and the drive to murder his own weakness and sexual vulnerability. Mishima suffered the extraordinary trauma of being separated from his parents and sequestered to the sickroom of a psychotic grandmother for the first twelve years of his life. Intense rage over abandonment and impingement engendered a disgust for femininity and the need to escape feminine messiness through homosexual pursuits. Mishima's entrenched feelings of shame and weakness gave rise to phallic narcissistic tendencies, as he idealized powerful men and eventually strove to become a powerful and beautiful male. In pursuing this erotic masculine image Mishima continued to fantasize about murdering his weak and shameful self-image, and commingled this sadistic impulse with fantasies of sexual merger with murdered love objects. Finally Mishima was the murderer erotically eradicating his sexual vulnerability as both subject and object. His suicide was a repetition of this erotic sadistic fantasy. In a further article I will continue the discussion by examining Mishima's fantasies of murdering beautiful and abandoning love objects. I will also address the complex nature of his ritual suicide as fantasy of rebirth, sexual merger, the murder of toxic introjects, and escape from death, decay, and regression to helpless infancy. PMID:11980029

  14. The Examination of the Correlation between Social Physique Anxiety Levels and Narcissism Levels of the Students Who Studied at the SPES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gezer, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to discover the correlation between social physique anxiety levels and narcissism levels of the students of the school of the physical education and sports. A total of 308 students who studied at different academic departments of the school of the physical education and sports of Mustafa Kemal University participated in…

  15. Issues of Narcissism and Omnipotence treated by the use of physical limits with a symbolic meaning in Pesso Boyden System Psychomotor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lowijs Perquin; Certified Trainer; Pesso Boyden

    This article discusses the central roles of issues of narcissism, omnipotence and limits in early sequences of human development, as well as how these issues are dealt with in the psychotherapeutic process developed by Al Pesso and Diane Boyden-Pesso (Pesso Boyden System Psychomotor, PBSP). The article describes practical steps for strengthening the client's ability to contain omnipotent forces and wishes,

  16. [Psychoanalytic study of social withdrawal: grandiose narcissism and passive aggression due to insufficient maternal containing in childhood].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Toyoaki

    2012-01-01

    Two different types of pathology can cause social withdrawal: the narcissistic--schizoid personality organization (NSPO) type and the mild Asperger's syndrome (mild developmental disorders) type. Only the former type can be treated by psychoanalytic psychotherapy. In the childhood of both types, one may find traumatic family environments which will result in social withdrawal (Hikikomori). In the infancy of the NSPO type, the mother fails to function as a sufficient container of the child's emotion, which encourages formation of a schizoid personality organization i.e. the psychic withdrawal (or "psychic retreat" by Steiner, J.). With only a little failure in life events, this may turn into a physical withdrawal for a long time. And in this type of pathology their aggression takes a passive form that hardens their social withdrawal situation. Moreover, the social withdrawal itself serves to reinforce the pathological narcissism. PMID:23234194

  17. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-concepts of intelligence: relations to modesty, narcissism, and achievement motivation

    PubMed Central

    Gerstenberg, Friederike X. R.; Imhoff, Roland; Banse, Rainer; Schmitt, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that different configurations of the implicit self-concept of intelligence (iSCI) and the explicit self-concept of intelligence (eSCI) are consistently related to individuals’ performance on different intelligence tests (Dislich etal., 2012). The results indicated that any discrepant configuration between the iSCI and the eSCI impairs performance. In the present study, how correspondence between the iSCI and the eSCI is related to intelligence test performance as well as personality traits of modesty (low eSCI, high iSCI), narcissism (high eSCI, low iSCI), and achievement motivation was investigated. Furthermore, a moderated mediation analysis showed that the relation between the iSCI–eSCI configurations and intelligence test performance was mediated by achievement motivation for modest individuals. PMID:24575063

  18. The maturation of narcissism: commentary for the special series "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspectives on diagnosis and treatment".

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Comments on the articles by A. E. Skodol et al. (see record 2013-24395-001), E. Ronningstam (see record 2014-42878-005), D. Diamond et al. (see record 2014-42878-004), and A. L. Pincus et al. (see record 2014-01439-001). This series of articles raises an interesting meta-issue worthy of further consideration: How specific is vulnerability to narcissism? Is this a "Criterion A" feature of most personality disorders, with variants (e.g., paranoid, histrionic, etc.) defined by how one reacts to an inner sense of fragility, vulnerability, or immaturity? Or should vulnerability be more meaningfully incorporated into the specific criteria for narcissistic personality disorder, which have tended to overemphasize grandiosity? These are important questions that can only be worked out meaningfully with further research. PMID:25314235

  19. The King of Norway: negative individuation, the hero myth and psychopathic narcissism in extreme violence and the life of Anders Behring Breivik.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Harri

    2013-11-01

    The paper discusses negative individuation and the hero myth as developmental concepts. It is suggested that in negative individuation healthy psychological development is hindered and goes astray. Aggression then becomes the central psychic system. Repressed anger is the core element in psychopathic narcissism (Diamond) and malignant narcissism (Kernberg). Both Diamond and Kernberg extend narcissistic personality structure to antisocial, psychopathic personality in an effort to better understand extreme violence. According to Freud, love (libido) and hate (the death drive) are the major motivational systems in the human psyche. In contrast to Freud, Jung sees libido as a life force in general, not simply as a sexual drive. Jung writes about evil and the shadow but does not present a comprehensive theory of the negative development of an individual's life. The concept of negative individuation connects the shadow and the death drive with psychopathology, psychiatry and psychotherapy. In this paper, I explore these concepts in the light of contemporary affect theory according to Kernberg. I also ask how ideology is tied to extreme violence and how it is possible that narcissistic personality structures can lead to such radically different outcomes as were manifested in the lives of Anders Behring Breivik and Steve Jobs. PMID:24237209

  20. Narcissism and sadomasochistic relationships.

    PubMed

    Rosegrant, John

    2012-08-01

    People with narcissistic vulnerabilities often relate to others sadomasochistically-either exerting power, or submitting to others, or both-in order to manage their vulnerabilities and protect themselves from feelings of abandonment. Sadomasochistic experience often involves concrete thinking and limited playfulness or ability to use metaphor. In therapy, these difficulties are often actualized in the patient-therapist relationship so that usual verbal interpretations may be of limited value, and the therapist needs to work to maintain a mutually respectful relationship even as the patient tries to draw him/her into sadomasochistic interactions. Because these difficulties have roots in early childhood and are repeatedly reinforced by later experience, long-term treatment that provides ongoing opportunities for new experience and understanding will be most helpful. These ideas are illustrated with two case examples. PMID:22729454

  1. Cultural Narcissism and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajak, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Scholars have described American culture in recent decades as narcissistic, manifested by displays of self-absorption tantamount to a pathological syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions. An education reform movement that is highly critical of public schools, teachers, and students has simultaneously emerged, espousing a…

  2. Recentering Pedagogy in an Age of Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Ann O.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most enduring images from Wilson's "The Social Conquest of Earth" (2012) is the campfire, the place of warmth and community around which gathered early humankind. It seems an ideal metaphor for teaching and learning, with mentors and learners gathered around an enterprise of mutual society: No one at the core, but all warmed and…

  3. Narcissism: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Vicky G.; Garcia-Simpson, Cynthia; Newland, Shera

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore the complex issues surrounding the behaviors exhibited by students who have Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) and the role the disorder may play in school violence. Students with NPD are often characterized by arrogance, grandiosity, and self-importance; a preoccupation with fantasies of success and…

  4. When Daughter's Sexual Abuse Is an Injury to Mother's Narcissism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePinho, Connie Maria

    The mother's reaction to the disclosure of sexual abuse is often dramatic and her particular type of response in turn affects the daughter's coping mechanisms to deal with the abuse and the disclosure. The type of symptoms developed are thus considered in part dependent on the mother's reaction. Mothers of children who have been sexually abused…

  5. The Relative Influence of Sensation Seeking and Normal Narcissism on Academic Cheating in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanek, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous research studies reveal that cheating is a significant problem on the campuses of American colleges and universities. Traditional college-aged students (aged 18-25) fall within a time-frame of the life-span that has been labeled emerging adulthood, a time in which risk-taking behavior is common. The present study conceptualized academic…

  6. Autaptic self-inhibition of cortical GABAergic neurons: synaptic narcissism or useful introspection?

    PubMed

    Deleuze, Charlotte; Pazienti, Antonio; Bacci, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    Fast synaptic inhibition sculpts all forms of cortical activity by means of a specialized connectivity pattern between highly heterogeneous inhibitory interneurons and principal excitatory cells. Importantly, inhibitory neurons connect also to each other extensively, following a detailed blueprint, and, indeed, specific forms of disinhibition affect important behavioral functions. Here we discuss a peculiar form of cortical disinhibition: the massive autaptic self-inhibition of parvalbumin-(PV) positive basket cells. Despite being described long ago, autaptic inhibition onto PV basket cells is rarely included in cortical circuit diagrams, perhaps because of its still elusive function. We propose here a potential dual role of autaptic feedback inhibition in temporally coordinating PV basket cells during cortical network activity. PMID:24434607

  7. Interpersonal views of narcissism and authentic high self-esteem: it is not all about you.

    PubMed

    Byrne, J Stephen; O'Brien, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Employing peer-rating methodology, this study examined relationship issues in narcissists versus individuals with authentic high self-esteem. Undergraduates (N = 147) were assigned to rate someone (a "target") they knew well who was most similar to a narcissistic prototype, an authentic self-esteem prototype, or a control person. Participants rating narcissistic targets reported significantly more interpersonal problems with the target and more avoidant and revenge behaviors directed toward them than did participants rating authentic self-esteem or control targets. Authentic high self-esteem was associated with positive social relationships. Large effect sizes suggested substantial interpersonal differences observed by peers interacting with narcissists compared to authentic high self-esteem individuals. PMID:25153960

  8. Linking Gambling and Trauma: A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Case Study Using Almaas' Transformation of Narcissism Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason; Boni, Lauren Julia; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of pathological gambling and addiction from the perspective of writer and teacher A.H Almaas. By drawing on his Diamond Mind approach we trace the origin of addictive behaviors and pathological gambling to narcissistic wounding, which constitutes the loss of connection with the Essential…

  9. Personality Traits o Narcissism has been shown to play a role in dating

    E-print Network

    Sanders, Matthew

    is not well understood. Attachment Style o Evidence suggests that adolescent romantic attachment style has the likelihood of, manner, and intensity of adolescent dating violence. The Present Study o The present study personality traits and romantic attachment styles on adolescent dating aggression? 2. Are there gender

  10. Ethics and Personality: Empathy and Narcissism as Moderators of Ethical Decision Making in Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Todd A.; Sautter, John A.; Littvay, Levente; Sautter, Alberta C.; Bearnes, Brennen

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have reported that business students have been more apt to act in self-interested ways when compared to their counterparts in other academic fields. Beginning with the premise that ethical behavior derives in part from personality characteristics, the authors tested whether (a) measures of an empathetic or narcissistic personality…

  11. Clinical Assessment Methods in Negotiation Research: The Study of Narcissism and Negotiator Effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Greenhalgh; RODERICK W. GILKEY

    1997-01-01

    Field studies suggest that individual differences are strong determinants negotiator effectiveness, but their impact has yet to be adequately documented (Thompson 1990). We argue that the lack of empirical confirmation is attributable to methodological limitations of the dominant paradigm. This paper shows the usefulness of psychodynamically-oriented constructs and clinical assessment methods. The study contrasts the negotiation experience of individuals high

  12. The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory: A Five-Factor Measure of Narcissistic Personality Traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie Glover; Joshua D. Miller; Donald R. Lynam; Cristina Crego; Thomas A. Widiger

    2012-01-01

    This study provides convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity data for a new measure of narcissistic personality traits created from the perspective of the Five-factor model (FFM) of general personality structure. Fifteen scales were constructed as maladaptive variants of respective facets of the FFM (e.g., Reactive Anger as a narcissistic variant of angry hostility), with item selection made on the basis

  13. Structural Validity of the MACI Psychopathy and Narcissism Scales: Evidence of Multidimensionality and Implications for Use in Research and Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Da Silva, Kimberley S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties and predictive validity of three self-report scales (the Psychopathy Content Scale, the Psychopathy-16 scale, and the Egotistic scale) derived from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) to screen for the presence of psychopathic and narcissistic personality characteristics. Exploratory…

  14. Is the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Still Relevant? A Test of Independent Grandiosity and Entitlement Scales in the Assessment of Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua D.; Price, Joanna; Campbell, W. Keith

    2012-01-01

    Some scholars have called for the replacement of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) with more narrow scales measuring grandiosity and entitlement instead. In the current study, the authors examined the relations among the NPI and measures of grandiosity and entitlement, as well as in relation to a measure of the Five-Factor Model (FFM).…

  15. On self-aggrandizement and anger: a temporal analysis of narcissism and affective reactions to success and failure.

    PubMed

    Rhodewalt, F; Morf, C C

    1998-03-01

    Narcissists are thought to display extreme affective reactions to positive and negative information about the self. Two experiments were conducted in which high- and low-narcissistic individuals, as defined by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), completed a series of tasks in which they both succeeded and failed. After each task, participants made attributions for their performance and reported their moods. High-NPI participants responded with greater changes in anxiety, anger, and self-esteem. Low self-complexity was examined, but it neither mediated nor moderated affective responses. High-NPI participants tended to attribute initial success to ability, leading to more extreme anger responses and greater self-esteem reactivity to failure. A temporal sequence model linking self-attribution and emotion to narcissistic rage is discussed. PMID:9523411

  16. Nondual Psychotherapy and Second Stage Sexual Addictions Recovery: Transforming "Master of the Universe" Narcissism into Nondual Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Theriault, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the process of working through the "dry drunk" second stage of sexual addiction recovery through transforming the narcissistic "Master of the Universe" personality into the experience of nondual being using the Almaas Diamond Approach of self-realization. The Diamond Approach is a transpersonal informed psychology…

  17. National Identity and Group Narcissism as Predictors of Intergroup Attitudes toward Undocumented Latino Immigrants in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Patricia A.; Coursey, Lauren E.; Kenworthy, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    The debate surrounding immigration reform to address undocumented Latino immigrants in the United States has been emotionally charged and polarizing. This study's goal was to better understand some of the psychological predictors of attitudes toward undocumented Latino immigrants in the United States, namely, collective identity as an…

  18. National Denial, Splitting, and Narcissism: Group Defence Mechanisms of Teachers and Students in Palestine in Response to the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dror, Yuval

    1996-01-01

    Explores the national defense mechanisms used by the education system of the Yishuv, the Jewish community in pre-independence Israel, in response to the Holocaust, as well as the significance of these responses and their contemporary implications. Concludes with contemporary applications of national defense mechanisms and their possible…

  19. Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97)?=?.20, p?=?.65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97)?=?.00, p?=?.99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, ??=?.27, p?=?.04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, ??=?.27, p?=?.06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, ??=?.72, p?=?.01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062

  20. Loving Yourself Abundantly: Relationship of the Narcissistic Personality to Self and Other Perceptions of Workplace Deviance, Leadership, and Task and Contextual Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy A. Judge; Jeffery A. LePine; Bruce L. Rich

    2006-01-01

    The authors report results from 2 studies assessing the extent to which narcissism is related to self- and other ratings of leadership, workplace deviance, and task and contextual performance. Study 1 results revealed that narcissism was related to enhanced self-ratings of leadership, even when controlling for the Big Five traits. Study 2 results also revealed that narcissism was related to

  1. High and Low Aggressive Narcissism and Anti-social Lifestyle in Relationship to Impulsivity, Hostility, and Empathy in a Group of Forensic Patients in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Bogaerts; Machiel Polak; Marinus Spreen; Almar Zwets

    2012-01-01

    In a group of 148 violent offenders, 14 offenders were diagnosed as psychopaths (PCL-R score 30+); 46 as middle group psychopaths (PCL-R score 21–29); and 88 as non-psychopaths (PCL-R score??21). To measure impulsivity, empathy, and hostility in the three groups, clinical diagnoses of psychologists and psychiatrists were used and classified in the HKT-30. Based on Hare's PCL-R classification, psychopaths scored

  2. The Culture of Post-Narcissism Post-teenage, Pre-midlife Singles Culture in Seinfeld, Friends, and Ally - Seinfeld in Particular

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL SKOVMAND

    In a recent article, David P. Pierson makes a persuasive case for considering American television comedy, and sitcoms in particular, as 'Modern Comedies of Manners'. These comedies afford a particular point of entry into contemporary mediatised negotiations of 'civility', i.e. how individual desires and values interface with the conventions and stand- ards of families, peer groups and society at large.

  3. Cognitive ability and psychopathic traits: independent and interactive associations with youth conduct problems.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Meghan E; Lee, Steve S

    2015-05-01

    Although average or high IQ was central to initial conceptualizations of psychopathy, IQ is typically negatively associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). Few studies have simultaneously considered narcissism and callous-unemotional (CU) traits with respect to ODD and CD symptoms, including potential interactive associations with IQ. Participants were 221 ethnically-diverse (45 % non-White) 6-9 year-old children with (n?=?114) and without (n?=?107) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with separate parent and teacher ratings of narcissism, CU traits, ODD, and CD. To minimize shared method variance, we conservatively examined the association of parent-rated psychopathic traits with teacher-rated ODD and CD as well as the association of teacher-rated psychopathic traits with parent-rated ODD and CD. Controlling for age, sex, and the number of child ADHD symptoms, narcissism, but not CU traits, uniquely and positively predicted parent- and teacher-rated ODD and CD symptoms. We also observed a significant IQ × narcissism interaction where narcissism was more strongly associated with ODD and CD among children with high IQ relative to average and low IQ youth. Whereas studies of youth psychopathic traits focus almost exclusively on CU traits, narcissism independently predicted separate parent and teacher ratings of ODD and CD, particularly among children with high IQ. These preliminary data persuasively suggest that early narcissism is a critical facet of psychopathy and in conjunction with IQ, may suggest a unique profile associated with emergent conduct problems. PMID:25220395

  4. Whose Journey Is It? A Critic's Plea to Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasser, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Laments the narcissism that the author sees in too many contemporary approaches to acting and directing. Argues that actors must focus on the world outside themselves, where the play and the audience most need them to be. (SR)

  5. The Utility of the Child and Adolescent Psychopathy Construct in Hong Kong, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annis Lai-chu Fung; Yu Gao; Adrian Raine

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the nature of child and adolescent psychopathy using the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in 3,675 schoolchildren (ages 11–16) in Hong Kong, China. A confirmatory factor analysis observed a good fit for the three-factor model (callous-unemotional, impulsivity, narcissism) of APSD, with boys scoring higher than girls on narcissism and callous-unemotional traits. Modest construct validity was found

  6. Automatic imitation is reduced in narcissists.

    PubMed

    Obhi, Sukhvinder S; Hogeveen, Jeremy; Giacomin, Miranda; Jordan, Christian H

    2014-06-01

    Narcissism is a personality trait that has been extensively studied in normal populations. Individuals high on subclinical narcissism tend to display an excessive self-focus and reduced concern for others. Does their disregard of others have roots in low-level processes of social perception? We investigated whether narcissism is related to the automatic imitation of observed actions. In the automatic imitation task, participants make cued actions in the presence of action videos displaying congruent or incongruent actions. The difference in response times and accuracy between congruent and incongruent trials (i.e., the interference effect) is a behavioral index of motor resonance in the brain-a process whereby observed actions activate matching motor representations in the observer. We found narcissism to be negatively related to interference in the automatic imitation task, such that high narcissism is associated with reduced imitation. Thus, levels of narcissism predict differences in the tendency to automatically resonate with others, and the pattern of data we observe suggests that a key difference is that high narcissists possess an improved ability to suppress automatic imitation when such imitation would be detrimental to task performance. To the extent that motor resonance is a product of a human mirror system, our data constitute evidence for a link between narcissistic tendencies and mirror system functioning. PMID:23957308

  7. A Meta-Analytic Test of Redundancy and Relative Importance of the Dark Triad and Five-Factor Model of Personality.

    PubMed

    O'Boyle, Ernest H; Forsyth, Donelson R; Banks, George C; Story, Paul A; White, Charles D

    2014-08-28

    We examined the relationships between Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy-the three traits of the Dark Triad (DT)-and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality. The review identified 310 independent samples drawn from 215 sources and yielded information pertaining to global trait relationships and facet-level relationships. We used meta-analysis to examine (a) the bivariate relations between the DT and the five global traits and 30 facets of the FFM, (b) the relative importance of each of the FFM global traits in predicting DT, and (c) the relationship between the DT and FFM facets identified in translational models of narcissism and psychopathy. These analyses identified consistent and theoretically meaningful associations between the DT traits and the facets of the FFM. The five traits of the FFM, in a relative importance analysis, accounted for much of the variance in Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, respectively, and facet-level analyses identified specific facets of each FFM trait that were consistently associated with narcissism (e.g., angry/hostility, modesty) and psychopathy (e.g., straightforwardness, deliberation). The FFM explained nearly all of the variance in psychopathy (R(2) c ?=?.88) and a substantial portion of the variance in narcissism (R(2) c ?=?.42). PMID:25168647

  8. An examination of the correlates of fearless dominance and self-centered impulsivity among high-frequency gamblers.

    PubMed

    Maples, Jessica L; Miller, Joshua D; Fortune, Erica; MacKillop, James; Campbell, W Keith; Lynam, Donald R; Lance, Chuck E; Goodie, Adam S

    2014-06-01

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) is a commonly used assessment of psychopathy. Questions have been raised, however, regarding the validity of its Fearless Dominance (FD) factor. In the current study, the correlations manifested by FD and Self-centered Impulsivity (ScI) in relation to external criteria were examined in a sample of gamblers. Two key hypotheses were also tested: (a) does FD perform differently when paired with high scores on ScI, and (b) does FD serve as an index of narcissism. As expected, FD and ScI manifested a divergent pattern of correlations such that only ScI was associated with psychopathology or impairment. FD's relations with the external criteria were not generally moderated by scores on ScI. FD was significantly correlated with narcissism, but the two differed such that only narcissism was associated with any degree of maladaptivity. It remains unclear whether FD should be considered a core component of psychopathy. PMID:24344842

  9. Do Mean Guys Always Finish First or Just Say That They Do? Narcissists' Awareness of Their Social Status and Popularity Over Time.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Erika N; DesJardins, Nicole M Lawless

    2015-07-01

    Narcissists crave respect and admiration. Do they attain the status and popularity they crave, or do they just think that they do? In two studies (Ns = 133 and 94), participants completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, described themselves on core personality traits (e.g., extraversion), and were described by an informant on those traits. Participants also provided self- and peer ratings of status and liking in small groups after an initial meeting and over the course of 4 months (Study 2). Relative to people lower, people higher in narcissism initially attained, but eventually lost status; yet, they were aware that they tended to lose status. Narcissists were not especially popular, although they tended to think they were more popular. These patterns differed among narcissism facets, providing further support for the idea that the mixed adaptiveness of narcissism may be due to the heterogeneity of the construct. PMID:25888681

  10. Impulsivity and the self-defeating behavior of narcissists.

    PubMed

    Vazire, Simine; Funder, David C

    2006-01-01

    Currently prominent models of narcissism (e.g., Morf and Rhodewalt, 2001) primarily explain narcissists' self-defeating behaviors in terms of conscious cognitive and affective processes. We propose that the disposition of impulsivity may also play an important role. We offer 2 forms of evidence. First, we present a meta-analysis demonstrating a strong positive relationship between narcissism and impulsivity. Second, we review and reinterpret the literature on 3 hallmarks of narcissism: self-enhancement, aggression, and negative long-term outcomes. Our reinterpretation argues that impulsivity provides a more parsimonious explanation for at least some of narcissists' self-defeating behavior than do existing models. These 2 sources of evidence suggest that narcissists' quest for the status and recognition they so intensely desire is thwarted, in part, by their lack of the self-control necessary to achieve those goals. PMID:16768652

  11. Introduction to the special series on "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspectives on diagnosis and treatment".

    PubMed

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2014-10-01

    The first aim for this Special Series on "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspecitves on diagnosis and treatment" is to further the dimensional self-regulatory diagnostic approach for identifying NPD by integrating range of functioning, co-occurring grandiosity and vulnerability, compromised empathic ability, self-enhancing interpersonal strategies and relatedness, and overt and covert expressions of pathological narcissism. A second aim is to broaden the conceptualization of pathological narcissism by identifying it in terms of attachment and mentalization/reflective function. The third aim is to apply the combined dimensional and trait diagnostic approach to clinical practice, both diagnostic evaluation and treatment. PMID:25314230

  12. An overview of the treatment of severe narcissistic pathology.

    PubMed

    Kernberg, Otto F

    2014-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of narcissistic personality disorders as they present clinically along a spectrum of severity ranging from the best functioning forms of pathological narcissism to the most threatening to the patient's psychosocial and physical survival. It proposes a general interpretive psychoanalytic stance with all these clinical syndromes that range from standard psychoanalysis to a specific psychoanalytical psychotherapy for the most repressive and life threatening conditions that may not respond to standard psychoanalysis proper. This general psychoanalytic approach is placed into the context of related developments in contemporary psychoanalytic understanding of pathological narcissism and its treatment. PMID:24902768

  13. Do changes in selfishness explain 12-step benefit?: A prospective lagged analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Scott Tonigan; Kristina Rynes; Radka Toscova; Kylee Hagler

    2013-01-01

    Objective: 12-step attendance is associated with increased abstinence. A strong claim made in 12-step literature is that alcoholics are pathologically selfish and that working the 12 steps reduces this selfishness which, in turn, leads to sustained alcohol abstinence. This study tested this assumption by investigating the linkages between 12-step attendance, pathological narcissism, and drinking. Method: 130 early AA affiliates with

  14. Self-centeredness and the adult male perpetrator of child sexual abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane F. Gilgun

    1988-01-01

    Self-centeredness has been identified as a quality of the adult male perpetrator of child sexual abuse, but little or no effort has been expended toward defining the concept clearly. In this paper, the research literature on the perpetrator and psychoanalytic writings on narcissism are reviewed for the purpose of developing a comprehensive definition of self-centeredness. Literature related to the social

  15. Gender differences in brain structure and resting-state functional connectivity related to narcissistic personality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjing; Cun, Lingli; Du, Xue; Yang, Junyi; Wang, Yanqiu; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive and personality studies have observed gender differences in narcissism, the neural bases of these differences remain unknown. The current study combined the voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) analyses to explore the sex-specific neural basis of narcissistic personality. The VBM results showed that the relationship between narcissistic personality and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) differed between sexes. Narcissistic scores had a significant positive correlation with the rGMV of the right SPL in females, but not in males. Further analyses were conducted to investigate the sex-specific relationship between rsFC and narcissism, using right SPL/frontal eye fields (FEF) as the seed regions (key nodes of the dorsal attention network, DAN). Interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right SPL/FEF and areas of the precuneus and middle frontal gyrus (key nodes of the the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher narcissistic personality scores in males, whereas females showed the opposite tendency. The findings indicate that gender differences in narcissism may be associated with differences in the intrinsic and dynamic interplay between the internally-directed DMN and the externally-directed TPN. Morphometry and functional connectivity analyses can enhance our understanding of the neural basis of sex-specific narcissism. PMID:26109334

  16. W. KEITH CAMPBELL AMY B. BRUNELL

    E-print Network

    Reber, Paul J.

    to narcissism as a personality variable in a later work, Libidinal Types (Freud, 1931/1950).In this essay, he, 1977).These approaches resulted in the tion that narcissistic personality is a defensive structure- behavior was clear. Second, he made his presentation in such a confusing personality tradition. Although

  17. Spirituality and depth psychology.

    PubMed

    Erickson, R C

    1987-09-01

    The resurgence of interest in spiritual and religious matters and in the depth psychology of C.G. Jung is examined relative to the work of spiritual direction and pastoral counseling. It is suggested that the risks of muddled thinking, narcissism, gnosticism, and credulity are increased when one attempts to combine spiritual disciplines with depth psychology. PMID:24302033

  18. Contemporary Film and the Representative Anecdote of "Unmasking": Coping Strategies for a Narcissistic Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scodari, Christine

    1987-01-01

    Examines contemporary films--including "The Terminator,""Witness,""Jagged Edge," and "The Big Chill,"--and discusses their metaphoric anecdotes of "unmasking," the inverse of the process of becoming narcissistic. Asserts that "unmasking" films provide coping strategies for an audience faced with problems stemming from narcissism in society. (MM)

  19. What's Wrong with Youth Service? Occasional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Samuel

    The resurgence of national interest in youth service is due, in large part, to the national organizations that have grown so vigorously in recent years. Some explanations for the almost sudden reappearance of youth service as a nationwide issue are: (1) many Americans are fed up with narcissism, personal gratification, and me-centered pursuits;…

  20. The Dirty Dozen: A Concise Measure of the Dark Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonason, Peter K.; Webster, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an exponential increase of interest in the dark side of human nature during the last decade. To better understand this dark side, the authors developed and validated a concise, 12-item measure of the Dark Triad: narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism. In 4 studies involving 1,085 participants, they examined its structural…

  1. What Does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Really Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Robert A.; Witt, Edward A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Robins, Richard W.; Kashy, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is a widely used measure of narcissism. However, debates persist about its exact factor structure with researchers proposing solutions ranging from two to seven factors. The present research aimed to clarify the factor structure of the NPI and further illuminate its nomological network. Four studies…

  2. Development and Initial Validation of the Narcissistic Personality Questionnaire for Children: A Preliminary Investigation Using School-Based Asian Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Yusof, Noradlin

    2006-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Questionnaire for Children (NPQC) is a brief self-report scale for measuring narcissism in children. In Study 1, a factor analysis on 370 children's NPQC scores revealed four factors that were labeled superiority, exploitativeness, self-absorption, and leadership. Study 2 established convergent and discriminant…

  3. Internal Consistency Reliability of the Self-Report Antisocial Process Screening Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Falkenbach, Diana; Cruise, Keith; Lee, Zina; Murrie, Daniel C.; Vitacco, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The self-report version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) has become a popular measure for assessing psychopathic features in justice-involved adolescents. However, the internal consistency reliability of its component scales (Narcissism, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity) has been questioned in several studies. This study…

  4. Narcissists' social pain seen only in the brain.

    PubMed

    Cascio, Christopher N; Konrath, Sara H; Falk, Emily B

    2015-03-01

    Narcissism is a complex phenomenon, involving a level of defensive self-enhancement. Narcissists have avoidant attachment styles, maintain distance in relationships and claim not to need others. However, they are especially sensitive to others' evaluations, needing positive reflected appraisals to maintain their inflated self-views, and showing extreme responses (e.g. aggression) when rejected. The current study tested the hypothesis that narcissists also show hypersensitivity in brain systems associated with distress during exclusion. We measured individual differences in narcissism (Narcissistic Personality Inventory) and monitored neural responses to social exclusion (Cyberball). Narcissism was significantly associated with activity in an a priori anatomically defined social pain network (anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex) during social exclusion. Results suggest hypersensitivity to exclusion in narcissists may be a function of hypersensitivity in brain systems associated with distress, and suggests a potential pathway that connects narcissism to negative consequences for longer-term physical and mental health-findings not apparent with self-report alone. PMID:24860084

  5. Correlates of Psychological Abuse Perpetration in College Dating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of gender, adult romantic attachment orientations (i.e., avoidance, anxiety), defense mechanisms (i.e., narcissism, other-splitting), and stressors to college student psychological abuse perpetration (dominance). Men with higher levels of attachment avoidance, narcissistic entitlement, and stressful problems…

  6. The Decline of Play and the Rise of Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Over the past half century, in the United States and other developed nations, children's free play with other children has declined sharply. Over the same period, anxiety, depression, suicide, feelings of helplessness, and narcissism have increased sharply in children, adolescents, and young adults. This article documents these historical changes…

  7. The 'As If' Faculty/Student Advocate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misch, Donald A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a type of educational administrator in terms of demographic, emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal characteristics, underscoring this individual's less than fully authentic concern for others. This administrative personality type is then related to psychological theories of narcissism, obsessive-compulsive personality, and aggression.…

  8. Externalizing Shame Responses in Children: The Role of Fragile-Positive Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomaes, Sander; Stegge, Hedy; Olthof, Tjeert

    2007-01-01

    When faced with shame, children can either respond in submissive ways to withdraw from their environment or in externalizing ways to oppose their environment. This study tested the hypothesis that fragile-positive views of self predispose children to respond in externalizing ways to shame situations. Narcissism, actual and perceived social…

  9. Teaching Generation Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twenge, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    Today's college students are significantly different from previous generations. On average, they are overconfident, have high expectations, report higher narcissism, are lower in creativity, are less interested in civic issues, and are less inclined to read long passages of text. They are highly confident of their abilities and received…

  10. Self-Esteem: Balance between Individual and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol S.

    1999-01-01

    Differentiates self-esteem from narcissism and traces societal preoccupation with self-esteem. Maintains that placing so much importance on an individual and self-esteem obscures the value of a balance between individuality and mutual responsibility. Describes Montessori's emphasis on the child's inner development and on community and mutual…

  11. Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

  12. [Crisis of adolescence, an ambiguity].

    PubMed

    Wiltzer, P

    1981-04-01

    The adolescence is distress, rebellion, dependence. It is the time of interrogation upon the body which becomes almost strange for the individual through his transformations. The crisis of adolescence can breed many mental diseases; the most serious of them are issued from the narcissism. The crisis of adolescence is a necessary halting place before the entrance in the world of adults. PMID:7306274

  13. Aspects of Early Gender Development: Toward a Reformulation1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Fast

    1990-01-01

    Freud's profoundly phallocentric perspective distorts not only his conceptions of female gender development but his view of male gender organization and the place of parents in structuring children's femininity and masculinity. Recent explorations of developmental transitions out of infantile narcissism suggest an alternate framework for understanding gender development in both girls and boys. This article addresses the theoretical and clinical

  14. Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

  15. Gender differences in brain structure and resting-state functional connectivity related to narcissistic personality

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenjing; Cun, Lingli; Du, Xue; Yang, Junyi; Wang, Yanqiu; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive and personality studies have observed gender differences in narcissism, the neural bases of these differences remain unknown. The current study combined the voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) analyses to explore the sex-specific neural basis of narcissistic personality. The VBM results showed that the relationship between narcissistic personality and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) differed between sexes. Narcissistic scores had a significant positive correlation with the rGMV of the right SPL in females, but not in males. Further analyses were conducted to investigate the sex-specific relationship between rsFC and narcissism, using right SPL/frontal eye fields (FEF) as the seed regions (key nodes of the dorsal attention network, DAN). Interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right SPL/FEF and areas of the precuneus and middle frontal gyrus (key nodes of the the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher narcissistic personality scores in males, whereas females showed the opposite tendency. The findings indicate that gender differences in narcissism may be associated with differences in the intrinsic and dynamic interplay between the internally-directed DMN and the externally-directed TPN. Morphometry and functional connectivity analyses can enhance our understanding of the neural basis of sex-specific narcissism. PMID:26109334

  16. The costs and benefits of the Dark Triad: Implications for mate poaching and mate retention tactics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter K. Jonason; Norman P. Li; David M. Buss

    2010-01-01

    The Dark Triad – narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy – have traditionally been considered to be undesirable traits. However, emerging work suggest that not only may there be a positive side to possessing these traits but they may also serve important adaptive functions, even if the strategies associated with them are viewed as socially undesirable. In an online survey (N=336), we

  17. The "Dark Traits" of Sociopathic Leaders: Could They Be a Threat to Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Some sociopathic personality traits in managers can derail business organisations even though the leaders have been carefully selected and considered "high flyers". Three of those traits are narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism. These traits are "socially-aversive" because the sociopaths have an ingrained disregard for…

  18. The Utility of the Child and Adolescent Psychopathy Construct in Hong Kong, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Annis Lai-Chu; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the nature of child and adolescent psychopathy using the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in 3,675 schoolchildren (ages 11-16) in Hong Kong, China. A confirmatory factor analysis observed a good fit for the three-factor model (callous-unemotional, impulsivity, narcissism) of APSD, with boys scoring…

  19. An Examination of the Dirty Dozen Measure of Psychopathy: A Cautionary Tale about the Costs of Brief Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua D.; Few, Lauren R.; Seibert, L. Alana; Watts, Ashley; Zeichner, Amos; Lynam, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    Given substantial interest in the traits conceived of as part of the "Dark Triad"--psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism--assessment of these traits is of great importance. The Dirty Dozen (DD; Jonason & Webster, 2010) is a brief measure of the Dark Triad constructs that uses 4 items to assess each of these constructs. In the present…

  20. Self-Recognition of the Body and Its Parts during Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and female student volunteers were photographed nude in three orientations and asked to identify bodily parts from an array of photographs grouped according to height and linearity. Results are discussed in terms of ego involvement, narcissism, and the increased attention given to the body during adolescence. (Author/GK)

  1. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse: The Roles of Sadism and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criville, Albert

    1990-01-01

    A hypothesis, based on concepts of narcissism and perversion, is presented of the mental functioning of the physically and sexually abusive parent. The concept also gives insight into the structuring of the personality of the child-victim, who undergoes the risk of himself becoming a physically and/or sexually abusive parent. (DB)

  2. You Probably Think This Paper's About You: Narcissists' Perceptions of Their Personality and Reputation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika N. Carlson; Simine Vazire; Thomas F. Oltmanns

    2011-01-01

    Do narcissists have insight into the negative aspects of their personality and reputation? Using both clinical and subclinical measures of narcissism, the authors examined others' perceptions, self-perceptions, and meta-perceptions of narcissists across a wide range of traits for a new acquaintance and close other (Study 1), longitudinally with a group of new acquaintances (Study 2), and among coworkers (Study 3).

  3. Personality predictors of driver vengeance.

    PubMed

    Wickens, Christine M; Wiesenthal, David L; Roseborough, James E W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify personality and individual difference measures related to driver vengeance, as measured by the Driver Vengeance Questionnaire (DVQ; Wiesenthal, Hennessy, & Gibson, 2000). There were 170 undergraduate students who completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires including the DVQ and measures of narcissism, impulsivity, and trait driver stress. A hierarchical linear regressidn predicting DVQ score revealed that being male (? = .25), narcissism (? = .19), and trait driver stress (? = .41) were significantly associated with vengeance. Impulsivity was significant in the third block of the regression but was not a significant predictor of vengeance in the final block. Interactions between gender and the individual difference measures were not significant. The final model accounted for 34% of the variance. Implications of the results and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25774420

  4. Moving the field forward: commentary for the special series "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspectives on diagnosis and treatment".

    PubMed

    Kealy, David; Hadjipavlou, George A; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2014-10-01

    Comments on the articles by A. E. Skodol et al. (see record 2013-24395-001), E. Ronningstam (see record 2014-42878-005), D. Diamond et al. (see record 2014-42878-004), and A. L. Pincus et al. (see record 2014-01439-001). These articles in this special issue, "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspectives on diagnosis and treatment", provide useful guidance for all clinicians working with patients with narcissistic pathology, particularly those who may not have considered narcissism as an underlying cause of a patient's presenting difficulties or as a contributor to therapeutic impasse. Taken together, they offer a more conceptually sophisticated approach to NPD than the constraining criteria of the DSM, and make a compelling case that it is time for NPD and pathological narcissism to receive greater clinical and research attention. PMID:25314233

  5. Attitudes Towards (Psychotherapy) Groups: Results of a Survey in a Representative Sample.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Bernhard; Spangenberg, Lena; Brähler, Elmar; Bormann, Bianca

    2015-07-01

    Based upon observations indicating decreasing attractiveness of groups within and outside the clinical field, the present study aimed to determine attitudes toward, and expectations of, groups in a representative sample of 2512 German citizens. The survey also included questions specifically related to group psychotherapy and its acceptance. In addition, psychological characteristics of respondents (measures of narcissism, psychological impairment, and emotion regulation) and socio-demographic variables were assessed to examine their potential association with group-related attitudes. In total, the survey revealed a relatively positive picture of attitudes and expectations toward groups in general and psychotherapy groups in particular. Those with more open attitudes towards groups were comparatively less distressed, anxious, and depressed; they favored emotional reappraisal instead of suppression as the dominant strategy to regulate their emotions. Contrary to prediction, narcissism did not influence attitudes towards groups. The results are related to current discussions of the attractiveness of groups and to implications for the practice of group psychotherapy. PMID:24963534

  6. Internal consistency reliability of the self-report antisocial process screening device.

    PubMed

    Poythress, Norman G; Douglas, Kevin S; Falkenbach, Diana; Cruise, Keith; Lee, Zina; Murrie, Daniel C; Vitacco, Michael

    2006-03-01

    The self-report version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) has become a popular measure for assessing psychopathic features in justice-involved adolescents. However, the internal consistency reliability of its component scales (Narcissism, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity) has been questioned in several studies. This study evaluates the internal consistency reliability of the self-report APSD by examining various indices (e.g., Cronbach's alpha, mean interitem correlation) across 11 studies. Whereas the Narcissism and Impulsivity scales display moderate to good reliability, internal consistency indices for the Callous-Unemotional scale are consistently poor across studies. Suggestions are made for revisions to this scale that would substantially improve its internal consistency reliability. PMID:16443722

  7. A New Measure of Interpersonal Exploitativeness

    PubMed Central

    Brunell, Amy B.; Davis, Mark S.; Schley, Dan R.; Eng, Abbey L.; van Dulmen, Manfred H.M.; Wester, Kelly L.; Flannery, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Measures of exploitativeness evidence problems with validity and reliability. The present set of studies assessed a new measure [the Interpersonal Exploitativeness Scale (IES)] that defines exploitativeness in terms of reciprocity. In Studies 1 and 2, 33 items were administered to participants. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that a single factor consisting of six items adequately assess interpersonal exploitativeness. Study 3 results revealed that the IES was positively associated with “normal” narcissism, pathological narcissism, psychological entitlement, and negative reciprocity and negatively correlated with positive reciprocity. In Study 4, participants competed in a commons dilemma. Those who scored higher on the IES were more likely to harvest a greater share of resources over time, even while controlling for other relevant variables, such as entitlement. Together, these studies show the IES to be a valid and reliable measure of interpersonal exploitativeness. The authors discuss the implications of these studies. PMID:23755031

  8. Theoretical and empirical concerns regarding the dark triad as a construct.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Andrea L; Sellbom, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism are three constructs that have been collectively referred to as the "Dark Triad." Although researchers were initially interested in comparing similarities and differences between these constructs, in recent years researchers have combined items from the measures to create an overall measure of the Dark Triad as a single construct. The authors raise theoretical concerns regarding this approach, arguing that Machiavellianism and narcissism can be viewed as features or traits of psychopathy. They also provide empirical evidence from a large, correctional sample (N = 972) to demonstrate that a latent Dark Triad could not be estimated using confirmatory factor analysis because more than 100% of the variance was attributed to psychopathy. Moreover, the Dark Triad traits, by and large, did not confer incremental validity above and beyond psychopathy, and none of the interaction models indicated that additional information would be gained from considering the Dark Triad traits in constellation. PMID:25248015

  9. Personality and intentional binding: an exploratory study using the narcissistic personality inventory.

    PubMed

    Hascalovitz, Ann Chen; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2015-01-01

    When an individual estimates the temporal interval between a voluntary action and a consequent effect, their estimates are shorter than the real duration. This perceived shortening has been termed "intentional binding", and is often due to a shift in the perception of a voluntary action forward towards the effect and a shift in the perception of the effect back towards the action. Despite much work on binding, there is virtually no consideration of individual/personality differences and how they affect it. Narcissism is a psychological trait associated with an inflated sense of self, and individuals higher in levels of subclinical narcissism tend to see themselves as highly effective agents. Conversely, lower levels of narcissism may be associated with a reduced sense of agency. In this exploratory study, to assess whether individuals with different scores on a narcissism scale are associated with differences in intentional binding, we compared perceived times of actions and effects (tones) between participants with high, middle, and low scores on the narcissistic personality inventory (NPI). We hypothesized that participants with higher scores would show increased binding compared to participants with lower scores. We found that participants in our middle and high groups showed a similar degree of binding, which was significantly greater than the level of binding shown by participants with the lowest scores. To our knowledge, these results are the first to demonstrate that different scores on a personality scale are associated with changes in the phenomenological experience of action, and therefore underscore the importance of considering individual/personality differences in the study of volition. Our results also reinforce the notion that intentional binding is related to agency experience. PMID:25698952

  10. Personality and intentional binding: an exploratory study using the narcissistic personality inventory

    PubMed Central

    Hascalovitz, Ann (Chen); Obhi, Sukhvinder S.

    2015-01-01

    When an individual estimates the temporal interval between a voluntary action and a consequent effect, their estimates are shorter than the real duration. This perceived shortening has been termed “intentional binding”, and is often due to a shift in the perception of a voluntary action forward towards the effect and a shift in the perception of the effect back towards the action. Despite much work on binding, there is virtually no consideration of individual/personality differences and how they affect it. Narcissism is a psychological trait associated with an inflated sense of self, and individuals higher in levels of subclinical narcissism tend to see themselves as highly effective agents. Conversely, lower levels of narcissism may be associated with a reduced sense of agency. In this exploratory study, to assess whether individuals with different scores on a narcissism scale are associated with differences in intentional binding, we compared perceived times of actions and effects (tones) between participants with high, middle, and low scores on the narcissistic personality inventory (NPI). We hypothesized that participants with higher scores would show increased binding compared to participants with lower scores. We found that participants in our middle and high groups showed a similar degree of binding, which was significantly greater than the level of binding shown by participants with the lowest scores. To our knowledge, these results are the first to demonstrate that different scores on a personality scale are associated with changes in the phenomenological experience of action, and therefore underscore the importance of considering individual/personality differences in the study of volition. Our results also reinforce the notion that intentional binding is related to agency experience. PMID:25698952

  11. Social Information Processing as a Mediator Between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther Calvete; Izaskun Orue

    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism\\u000a predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650\\u000a adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at Time 1 and Time 2, and\\u000a reactive aggression at Time 1, Time 2,

  12. Nutrient status of wetlands in the Interlake Region of Manitoba, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry R. Murkin; Michael P. Stainton; John A. Boughen; J. Bruce Pollard; Rodger D. Titman

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary observations indicated that the productivity of wetlands in the Interlake region of Manitoba, Canada is low, resulting\\u000a in limited use by waterfowl and other wildlife species. This study compared nutrient availability, algal biomass, and invertebrate\\u000a abundance and biomass between two Interlake wetlands. The Narcisse site was a typical Interlake wetland with no known source\\u000a of external nutrient input. The

  13. The existential and postmodern individual

    E-print Network

    Herring, Lesley Virginia

    2005-08-29

    Existentialist literature. What it says is that there is no essential nature of man, except in the one point that he can make of himself what he wants.28 26 Ibid., 240. 27 Sartre, Jean-Paul, Being..., indifference, narcissism, hedonism, apathy, egoism, anti-intellectualism.?56 Because postmodernism generally holds that there is no one objective truth, the postmodern individual is also nonjudgmental; therefore, he does not believe that there is any...

  14. A longitudinal study of cyberbullying: Examining riskand protective factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kostas A. Fanti; Andreas G. Demetriou; Veronica V. Hawa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine possible risk (school-bullying and victimization, exposure to media violence, callous-unemotional traits, impulsivity and narcissism) and protective (family, peer and school social support) factors that might be associated with cyberbullying and cyber-victimization by employing a longitudinal, two-wave design. The sample consisted of 1,416 (50.1% girls) adolescents living in Cyprus. The findings suggested

  15. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and the DSM–V

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua D. Miller; Thomas A. Widiger; W. Keith Campbell

    2010-01-01

    We address 3 issues relevant to narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and the DSM–V. First, we argue that excluding NPD while retaining other traditional personality disorder constructs (e.g., avoidant) makes little sense given the research literature on NPD and trait narcissism and their association with clinically relevant consequences such as aggression, self-enhancement, distorted self-presentation, failed relationships, cognitive biases, and internalizing and

  16. A test of the construct validity of the elemental psychopathy assessment scores in a community sample of adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Hyatt, Courtland S; Rausher, Steven; Maples, Jessica L; Zeichner, Amos

    2014-06-01

    The Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA) is a relatively new self-report measure of the basic traits associated with psychopathy. Using community participants (N = 104) oversampled for the presence of psychopathic traits, we examined the convergent and criterion validity of the EPA total and factor scores (i.e., Antagonism, Emotional Stability, Disinhibition, and Narcissism) in relation to self- and informant reports of psychopathy and the general personality dimensions of the HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience; Ashton & Lee, 2009), as well as self-reported scores on narcissism, Machiavellianism, and externalizing behaviors (EBs) such as antisocial behavior and aggression. The EPA total and factor scores manifested substantial positive correlations with self- and informant-reported psychopathy scores and dimensions from the HEXACO, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and EBs. The patterns of these relations became clearer and more differentiated when examined via regression analyses such that the EPA factors manifested differential relations with various aspects of psychopathy (e.g., EPA Antagonism was the only unique correlate of psychopathy traits related to callousness and manipulation). Overall, the EPA is a promising assessment tool given the breadth of its coverage, the flexibility with which it can be used (total score; 4-factor scores; 18 subscale scores), and its ties to a popular model of basic personality traits. PMID:24548152

  17. Child serial murder-psychodynamics: closely watched shadows.

    PubMed

    Turco, R

    2001-01-01

    There is a malignant transformation in object relations resulting in an identification with an omnipotent and cruel object resulting in an identity transformation. If the tension, desperation, and dissociation increase, serial murder becomes spree murder. The presence of pathological narcissism and psychopathic tendencies are of diagnostic significance in understanding the murderer's personality functioning and motivation to kill. Meloy (1988) considered the degree of sadism and aggression combined with narcissistic qualities to reflect the "malignancy" of the psychopathic disturbance where gratification (of aggression) occurs in the service of narcissistic functioning--that is, cruelty toward others in the form of a triumphant victory over a rejecting object. Meloy also believes that dissociation is ubiquitious in the psychopath. The initial murder of the serial murderer may reflect a "new identity." The pathological object-relations of narcissism and the malignant narcissism are important diagnostic indicators in the personality functioning of serial killers and the occurrence of these phenomena is a significant factor in the formation of the personalities of serial killers, their inner motivations, and their pattern of commission. PMID:11685995

  18. Personality in Relation to Genetic Liability for Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: Differential Associations with the COMT Val108/158Met Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Silberschmidt, Amy L.; Sponheim, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may share aspects of genetic etiology. Evidence supports the Val108/158Met polymorphism of the Catechol-o-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene as potentially contributing to the etiology of both disorders. To determine whether the COMT gene is associated with personality traits related to genetic risk for either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, we examined dimensions of personality psychopathology in biological relatives of individuals with the disorders. Specifically, we contrasted personality characteristics of first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives of people with bipolar-I disorder, and nonpsychiatric control participants using scores from the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology – Brief Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). We also characterized the COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism of subjects. Compared to controls, relatives of schizophrenia patients scored lower on stimulus seeking and higher on restrictive expression and social avoidance. Compared to relatives of bipolar patients, relatives of schizophrenia patients had lower scores on narcissism, rejectionality (i.e., rejection of ideas of others), stimulus seeking, passive-aggressive oppositionality, and self-harm. The subset of relatives of schizophrenia patients who were COMT val homozygotes exhibited lower scores on narcissism, rejectionality, and stimulus seeking than met homozygote relatives of schizophrenia patients and control participants. Although relatives of bipolar patients showed scale elevations consistent with emotional dysregulation, the scores failed to be associated with the Val108/158Met polymorphism. Abnormally low narcissism and rejectionality in val homozygote relatives of schizophrenia patients suggests that the val allele of the COMT polymorphism may be associated with an underdeveloped self-concept phenomenologically similar to made volition and passivity experiences comprising first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:18201871

  19. Brief report: self-reported psychopathic-like features among Finnish community youth: investigation of the factor structure of the antisocial personality screening device.

    PubMed

    Laajasalo, Taina; Saukkonen, Suvi; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Lipsanen, Jari; Aronen, Eeva T

    2014-10-01

    The Antisocial Process Screening Device- Self-Report (APSD-SR) is a self-report measure for assessment of psychopathic traits in adolescents. The present study aimed to investigate the factor structure and internal consistency of the APSD-SR in a sample of 4855 Finnish community adolescents. A three-factor structure with factors representing impulsivity (IMP), narcissism (NAR) and callous-unemotional (CU) features was found. Internal consistency indices ranged from moderate to good. The findings provide promising data on applicability of the APSD-SR instrument to Scandinavian youth. Results have implications for researchers and clinicians interested in measuring adolescent psychopathy. PMID:25190497

  20. Addiction and “Generation Me:” Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Adolescents with Substance Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    CARTER, REBECCA R.; JOHNSON, SHANNON M.; EXLINE, JULIE J.; POST, STEPHEN G.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using SDD adolescents compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were strongly distinguished by overt narcissistic behaviors and less monetary giving. Levels of narcissistic and prosocial behaviors among adolescents with SDD suggest a connection between self-centeredness and addiction. Results also suggest volunteerism as a potential option to counter narcissism in substance dependent adolescents. PMID:22544995

  1. A cross-cultural review of sudden mass assault by a single individual in the oriental and occidental cultures.

    PubMed

    Hempel, A G; Levine, R E; Meloy, J R; Westermeyer, J

    2000-05-01

    A nonrandom sample of North American cases of sudden mass assault by a single individual (SMASI, n = 30) is compared with a nonrandom sample of Laotian amok cases (n = 18) and other amok studies. Perpetrators in both studies show evidence of social isolation, loss, depression, anger, pathological narcissism, and paranoia, often to a psychotic degree. The term "innovative perpetrator" is reintroduced and expanded upon. Similarities among samples far outweigh differences, leading the authors to conclude that SMASI and its appearance in different cultures is not a culture-bound syndrome. PMID:10855962

  2. The technique of partial identification: waking up to the world.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Lucy

    2009-04-01

    A capacity to make partial identification with others is a skill that brings group members out of the loneliness of narcissism and into the lively world of immediacy and progressive emotional communication. Partial identification, which requires empathy and intuition, involves both knowing what another is feeling and also what we feel toward that other. Developing partial identification will meet with different resistances in men and women. Using clinical examples, the author defines and demonstrates the concept of partial identification and discusses how the pathway to achieving the technique can differ along gender lines. PMID:19441970

  3. Why Do People Use Facebook?

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Ashwini; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-02-01

    The social networking site, Facebook, has gained an enormous amount of popularity. In this article, we review the literature on the factors contributing to Facebook use. We propose a model suggesting that Facebook use is motivated by two primary needs: (1) The need to belong and (2) the need for self-presentation. Demographic and cultural factors contribute to the need to belong, whereas neuroticism, narcissism, shyness, self-esteem and self-worth contribute to the need for self presentation. Areas for future research are discussed. PMID:22544987

  4. Empathy in narcissistic personality disorder: from clinical and empirical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Ronningstam, Elsa

    2014-07-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is associated with an assortment of characteristics that undermine interpersonal functioning. A lack of empathy is often cited as the primary distinguishing feature of NPD. However, clinical presentations of NPD suggest that empathy is not simply deficient in these individuals, but dysfunctional and subject to a diverse set of motivational and situational factors. Consistent with this presentation, research illustrates that empathy is multidimensional, involving 2 distinct emotional and cognitive processes associated with a capacity to respectively understand and respond to others' mental and affective states. The goal of this practice review is to bridge the gap between our psychobiological understanding of empathy and its clinical manifestations in NPD. We present 3 case studies highlighting the variability in empathic functioning in people with NPD. Additionally, we summarize the literature on empathy and NPD, which largely associates this disorder with deficient emotional empathy, and dysfunctional rather than deficient cognitive empathy. Because this research is limited, we also present empathy-based findings for related syndromes (borderline and psychopathy). Given the complexity of narcissism and empathy, we propose that multiple relationships can exist between these constructs. Ultimately, by recognizing the multifaceted relationship between empathy and narcissism, and moving away from an all or nothing belief that those with NPD simply lack empathy, therapists may better understand narcissistic patients' behavior and motivational structure. PMID:24512457

  5. Narcissistic personality disorder in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Skodol, Andrew E; Bender, Donna S; Morey, Leslie C

    2014-10-01

    The criteria for personality disorders in Section II of DSM-5 have not changed from those in DSM-IV. Therefore, the diagnosis of Section II narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) will perpetuate all of the well-enumerated shortcomings associated with the diagnosis since DSM-III. In this article, we will briefly review problems associated with Section II NPD and then discuss the evolution of a new model of personality disorder and the place in the model of pathological narcissism and NPD. The new model was intended to be the official approach to the diagnosis of personality pathology in DSM-5, but was ultimately placed as an alternative in Section III for further study. The new model is a categorical-dimensional hybrid based on the assessment of core elements of personality functioning and of pathological personality traits. The specific criteria for NPD were intended to rectify some of the shortcomings of the DSM-IV representation by acknowledging both grandiose and vulnerable aspects, overt and covert presentations, and the dimensionality of narcissism. In addition, criteria were assigned and diagnostic thresholds set based on empirical data. The Section III representation of narcissistic phenomena using dimensions of self and interpersonal functioning and relevant traits offers a significant improvement over Section II NPD. PMID:23834518

  6. Narcissistic Symptoms in German School Shooters.

    PubMed

    Bondü, Rebecca; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2014-07-25

    School shooters are often described as narcissistic, but empirical evidence is scant. To provide more reliable and detailed information, we conducted an exploratory study, analyzing police investigation files on seven school shootings in Germany, looking for symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) in witnesses' and offenders' reports and expert psychological evaluations. Three out of four offenders who had been treated for mental disorders prior to the offenses displayed detached symptoms of narcissism, but none was diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder. Of the other three, two displayed narcissistic traits. In one case, the number of symptoms would have justified a diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder. Offenders showed low and high self-esteem and a range of other mental disorders. Thus, narcissism is not a common characteristic of school shooters, but possibly more frequent than in the general population. This should be considered in developing adequate preventive and intervention measures. PMID:25063684

  7. The unholy trinity: The Dark Triad, coercion, and Brunswik-Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Aurelio J; Gladden, Paul R; Sisco, Melissa M; Patch, Emily A; Jones, Daniel N

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy, Narcissism, and Machiavellianism (the Dark Triad) have each been hypothesized as predictors of socially deviant behavior including sexual coercion, but the three traits also covary significantly with one another. The purpose of this study was to examine several alternative Multisample Structural Equation Models (MSEMs) exploring the relations between the Dark Triad and Sexually Coercive Behavior, testing whether any or all of the three specific "Dark Personality" traits uniquely contributed to predicting sexually coercive behavior. Self-report questionnaires measuring Primary and Secondary Psychopathy, Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and Sexually Coercive Behavior were administered to a sample of undergraduates. The relative fit of each of the MSEMs to the data was examined by means of hierarchically nested model comparisons. The most parsimonious yet explanatory model identified was one in which a single common factor composed of the three Dark Triad indicators explained the relationships among the Dark Triad traits and Sexually Coercive Behavior without any direct contributions from the specific Dark Triad indicators. Results indicate that the three Dark Triad traits, controlling for the common factor, do not differentially predict Sexually Coercive Behavior. These results are interpreted with respect to the principle of Brunswik-Symmetry. PMID:26054294

  8. Beyond the diagnostic traits: a collaborative exploratory diagnostic process for dimensions and underpinnings of narcissistic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2014-10-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder has been challenging to diagnose in psychiatric and general clinical practice. Several circumstances and personality factors related to the nature of pathological narcissism and NPD contribute. NPD is usually a moderately impairing condition, often accompanied by specific capabilities and high level of functioning. Comorbidity of other urgent and recognizable psychiatric conditions, such as mood and substance use disorders or suicidality, can override even significant narcissistic personality functioning. Patients' limited ability to recognize own contribution to problems or impact on other people, their hypersensitivity and defensive reactivity, and compromised ability for self-disclosure, self-reflection, and emotional empathy can make initial evaluations difficult. The aim of this study is to integrate recent clinical and empirical knowledge on the underpinnings of pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality functioning, and distinguish narcissistic self-regulatory patterns that are affecting diagnostic traits. A more flexible, exploratory, and collaborative diagnostic process is proposed that integrates the patients subjective experiences and interpersonal functioning in terms of self-regulation, agency, and traits in a way that is informative and meaningful for both the patient and the clinician. PMID:25314232

  9. Narcissistic disorders in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, the concept of narcissism in the psychoanalytic literature is reviewed and three uses of the term are defined, firstly, clinical narcissism, secondly, an innate force or tendency opposed to relationships and thirdly, narcissistic personality disorders. The latter can be further differentiated on the basis of the transference/countertransference into borderline (thin-skinned), aloof (thick-skinned) and as-if (false-self) narcissistic disorders. The characteristics of each of these patterns are described. The author suggests that narcissistic disorders arise when there is a failure of containment in infancy and childhood that gives rise to an ego-destructive super-ego leading to the evolving of a narcissistic organization. The libidinal defensive organization arises when parental failure of containment is the primary factor and destructive organization when the infant has an excess of object-hostility. Two case descriptions are given to illustrate the distinction between a predominantly destructive and a predominantly libidinal narcissistic disorder and the author suggests that both arise from the production, by projective identification, of a narcissistic relationship with an ego ideal in order to evade a relationship with a destructive parental super-ego. PMID:15317528

  10. Primo Levi's loneliness: psychoanalytic perspectives on suicide-nearness.

    PubMed

    Titelman, David

    2006-07-01

    To elucidate suicide-nearness, the perspectives of the death drive and narcissism are applied to the writings of Primo Levi. Emerging themes are Levi's struggle to maintain his self-regard from his year as a prisoner in Auschwitz and onward, and his observations on xenophobia, violence, and the need for love. The gradual increase of depressive content in Levi's work is noted, as are his identifications with others who succumbed in the Holocaust or took their lives after surviving it. The conflict between the wish for peace and the need for love is seen as impossible to resolve under the threat of extermination and as reemerging in the prevailing sense of loneliness that Levi described. PMID:16924976

  11. A meta-analysis of the Dark Triad and work behavior: a social exchange perspective.

    PubMed

    O'Boyle, Ernest H; Forsyth, Donelson R; Banks, George C; McDaniel, Michael A

    2012-05-01

    We reviewed studies of the Dark Triad (DT) personality traits--Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy-and meta-analytically examined their implications for job performance and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Relations among the DT traits and behaviors were extracted from original reports published between 1951 and 2011 of 245 independent samples (N = 43,907). We found that reductions in the quality of job performance were consistently associated with increases in Machiavellianism and psychopathy and that CWB was associated with increases in all 3 components of the DT, but that these associations were moderated by such contextual factors as authority and culture. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the DT explains moderate amounts of the variance in counterproductivity, but not job performance. The results showed that the 3 traits are positively related to one another but are sufficiently distinctive to warrant theoretical and empirical partitioning. PMID:22023075

  12. Infidelity in couples seeking marital therapy.

    PubMed

    Atkins, David C; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H; Christensen, Andrew

    2005-09-01

    The revelation of an affair is often an emotionally explosive event for a couple, yet little is known about specific individual and relationship factors that accompany infidelity. The present study examined the qualities of individuals and couples that differentiate couples with (n = 19) and without (n = 115) infidelity using couples from a randomized clinical trial of marital therapy. Findings indicated that couples with infidelity showed greater marital instability, dishonesty, arguments about trust, narcissism, and time spent apart. Gender also proved to be a significant moderator of several effects. Men who had participated in affairs showed increased substance use, were older, and were more sexually dissatisfied. Results offer initial clues to concomitants of affairs for couple therapists. PMID:16221027

  13. The role of self-construal in predicting self-presentational motives for online social network use in the UK and Japan.

    PubMed

    Long, Karen; Zhang, Xiao

    2014-07-01

    Self-presentational motives underlying online social network (OSN) use were explored in samples of British and Japanese users. Self-expression, maintaining privacy, and attention seeking were strong motives in both samples; impression management and modesty were less strongly endorsed. Measures of independent and interdependent self-construal, as well as narcissism and modesty, were investigated as potential predictors of these motivations. Independent self-construal emerged as the most important predictor across both samples, with less independent participants showing more concern with image management and modesty. Participants with more interdependent self-construals were more concerned about maintaining privacy. There were some differences in the patterns of prediction between the samples, but overall self-construal measures contributed to the explanation of the majority of the motivations, whereas narcissistic or modest personality variables did not. PMID:24720544

  14. Personality in cyberspace: personal Web sites as media for personality expressions and impressions.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Bernd; Machilek, Franz; Schütz, Astrid

    2006-06-01

    This research examined the personality of owners of personal Web sites based on self-reports, visitors' ratings, and the content of the Web sites. The authors compared a large sample of Web site owners with population-wide samples on the Big Five dimensions of personality. Controlling for demographic differences, the average Web site owner reported being slightly less extraverted and more open to experience. Compared with various other samples, Web site owners did not generally differ on narcissism, self-monitoring, or self-esteem, but gender differences on these traits were often smaller in Web site owners. Self-other agreement was highest with Openness to Experience, but valid judgments of all Big Five dimensions were derived from Web sites providing rich information. Visitors made use of quantifiable features of the Web site to infer personality, and the cues they utilized partly corresponded to self-reported traits. PMID:16784349

  15. The ingredients of supervisor failure.

    PubMed

    Ladany, Nicholas

    2014-11-01

    Trainees all too often learn more about how not to conduct supervision than how to conduct supervision effectively. The purpose of this article is to present a conceptualization of the theoretical, empirical, and practical elements of supervisor failures. Specifically, the article attends to the following behaviors that may lead to supervisor failure: (a) denigrate the supervisory relationship; (b) demonstrate multicultural incompetence; (c) become an unethical supermodel; (d) use evaluation instruments that could not pass for an undergraduate thesis; (e) teach your trainee how to diagnose narcissism by example; (f) apply psychotherapy models in supervision as if there is a theoretical or empirical basis; (g) infantalize your trainee; (h) collude with your trainee; (i) make your trainee your surrogate psychotherapist; and (j) go on a date with your trainee. Recommendations for increasing supervisor success and limiting supervisor failure are provided. PMID:25220894

  16. Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Aaron L; Cain, Nicole M; Wright, Aidan G C

    2014-10-01

    This article briefly summarizes the empirical and clinical literature underlying a contemporary clinical model of pathological narcissism. Unlike the DSM Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), this clinical model identifies and differentiates between two phenotypic themes of dysfunction-narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability-that can be expressed both overtly and covertly in patients' ways of thinking, feeling, behaving, and participating in treatment. Clinical recognition that narcissistic patients can and often do present for psychotherapy in vulnerable states of depression, anxiety, shame, and even suicidality increases the likelihood of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment planning. This article provides case examples derived from psychotherapies with narcissistic patients to demonstrate how narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability concurrently present in patients who seek treatment. PMID:24446581

  17. How to spot a narcissist: Mental health literacy with respect to Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kirstie; Furnham, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    Lay people were asked to read one Depression, one Schizophrenia, and three Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) vignettes. After each, they were asked what they thought the problem was for the individuals concerned and to make various ratings. Half of each of the five vignettes were of male, and the other of female, characters. The results demonstrated that laypeople are less likely to suggest help for, and have more difficulty identifying NPD compared to Depression and Schizophrenia. There were differences in the likeliness to suggest help between all three NPD vignettes and differences in the identification of two NPD vignettes possible due to the length and details in different vignettes. The gender of the person in the vignette had no effect on identification. The participants NPI scores were not correlated with the Narcissism literacy suggesting no relationship between having, and spotting, the disorder. Implications and limitations of the research are considered. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25279811

  18. The Relative Importance of Psychopathy-Related Traits in Predicting Impersonal Sex and Hostile Masculinity

    PubMed Central

    LeBreton, James M.; Baysinger, Michael; Abbey, Antonia; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the relative contributions of several facets of subclinical psychopathy (i.e., callous affect, erratic lifestyle, interpersonal manipulation), subclinical narcissism (i.e., entitlement, exploitation), and trait aggression (i.e., anger) to the prediction of four enduring attitudes towards women and sexual assault (i.e., hostility towards women, negative attitudes regarding women, sexual dominance, impersonal sex) and a behavioral indicator of an impersonal sexual behavior (i.e., number of one-night stands). Survey data were collected from 470 single men living in the Detroit Metropolitan area. The importance of personality traits varied as a function of the outcome with anger most predictive of hostility toward women; erratic lifestyle most predictive of impersonal sexual attitudes and behavior, and entitlement most predictive of sexual dominance and negative attitudes toward women. These outcome-specific findings are interpreted and directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Within-person Covariation of Agentic and Communal Perceptions: Implications for Interpersonal Theory and Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Michael J.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hyde, Amanda L.; Conroy, David E.; Ram, Nilam

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal theory identifies agency and communion as uncorrelated (orthogonal) dimensions, largely evidenced by research examining between-person analyses of single-occasion measures. However, longitudinal studies of interpersonal behavior demonstrated the within-person association of agency and communion is not orthogonal for many individuals, and between-person differences in these associations relate to adjustment. We applied a similar approach to investigate the association of interpersonal perceptions. 184 university students completed a 7-day event-contingent study of their interpersonal experiences. Using multilevel regression models, we demonstrated that agentic and communal perceptions were positively associated, and the strength of this within-person association was moderated by between-person scores of dependency and narcissism. We discuss the benefits of incorporating within-person interpersonal associations (termed interpersonal covariation) into interpersonal theory and assessment. PMID:24072945

  20. Success in everyday physics: The role of personality and academic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norvilitis, Jill M.; Reid, Howard M.; Norvilitis, Bret M.

    2002-05-01

    Two studies examined students' intuitive physics ability and characteristics associated with physics competence. In Study 1, although many students did well on a physics quiz, more than 25% of students performed below levels predicted by chance. Better performance on the physics quiz was related to physics grades, highest level of math taken, and students' perceived scholastic competence, but was not related to a number of other hypothesized personality variables. Study 2 further explored personality and academic variables and also examined students' awareness of their own physics ability. Results indicate that the personality variables were again unrelated to ability, but narcissism may be related to subjects' estimates of knowledge. Also, academic variables and how important students think it is to understand the physical world are related to both measured and estimated physics proficiency.

  1. Good Liars Are Neither 'Dark' Nor Self-Deceptive.

    PubMed

    Wright, Gordon R T; Berry, Christopher J; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Deception is a central component of the personality 'Dark Triad' (Machiavellianism, Psychopathy and Narcissism). However, whether individuals exhibiting high scores on Dark Triad measures have a heightened deceptive ability has received little experimental attention. The present study tested whether the ability to lie effectively, and to detect lies told by others, was related to Dark Triad, Lie Acceptability, or Self-Deceptive measures of personality using an interactive group-based deception task. At a group level, lie detection accuracy was correlated with the ability to deceive others-replicating previous work. No evidence was found to suggest that Dark Triad traits confer any advantage either to deceive others, or to detect deception in others. Participants who considered lying to be more acceptable were more skilled at lying, while self-deceptive individuals were generally less credible and less confident when lying. Results are interpreted within a framework in which repeated practice results in enhanced deceptive ability. PMID:26083765

  2. Behavioral confirmation of everyday sadism.

    PubMed

    Buckels, Erin E; Jones, Daniel N; Paulhus, Delroy L

    2013-11-01

    Past research on socially aversive personalities has focused on subclinical psychopathy, subclinical narcissism, and Machiavellianism-the "Dark Triad" of personality. In the research reported here, we evaluated whether an everyday form of sadism should be added to that list. Acts of apparent cruelty were captured using two laboratory procedures, and we showed that such behavior could be predicted with two measures of sadistic personality. Study 1 featured a bug-killing paradigm. As expected, sadists volunteered to kill bugs at greater rates than did nonsadists. Study 2 examined willingness to harm an innocent victim. When aggression was easy, sadism and Dark Triad measures predicted unprovoked aggression. However, only sadists were willing to work for the opportunity to hurt an innocent person. In both studies, sadism emerged as an independent predictor of behavior reflecting an appetite for cruelty. Together, these findings support the construct validity of everyday sadism and its incorporation into a new "Dark Tetrad" of personality. PMID:24022650

  3. Good Liars Are Neither ‘Dark’ Nor Self-Deceptive

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Gordon R. T.; Berry, Christopher J.; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Deception is a central component of the personality 'Dark Triad' (Machiavellianism, Psychopathy and Narcissism). However, whether individuals exhibiting high scores on Dark Triad measures have a heightened deceptive ability has received little experimental attention. The present study tested whether the ability to lie effectively, and to detect lies told by others, was related to Dark Triad, Lie Acceptability, or Self-Deceptive measures of personality using an interactive group-based deception task. At a group level, lie detection accuracy was correlated with the ability to deceive others—replicating previous work. No evidence was found to suggest that Dark Triad traits confer any advantage either to deceive others, or to detect deception in others. Participants who considered lying to be more acceptable were more skilled at lying, while self-deceptive individuals were generally less credible and less confident when lying. Results are interpreted within a framework in which repeated practice results in enhanced deceptive ability. PMID:26083765

  4. Callous and unemotional traits and social cognitive processes in a sample of community-based aggressive youth.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Colleen M; Hughes, Tammy L; Miller, Jeffrey A; Crothers, Laura M; Martin, Erin

    2011-12-01

    Psychopathic traits are associated with violent, aggressive behaviors and recidivism in adulthood. To increase positive treatment outcomes, it is arguably beneficial to identify and treat psychopathy as early as possible. Furthermore, because research shows that the effectiveness of behavior modification is likely to be affected by the social information-processing patterns of aggressive children, it is important to understand the relationship between conduct-disordered traits and social cognitions. The results of this study showed that callous/unemotional traits in a community-based sample of behavior-disordered youth (57 male, 19 female; 10-19 years of age; 63% African American) significantly predicted values in obtaining a tangible reward and getting into trouble or being punished. However, callous/unemotional traits, impulsivity/conduct problems, and narcissism failed to predict positive expectations regarding receiving a tangible reward, reducing aversive treatment, and demonstration of dominance. Implications for these results are presented. PMID:22114171

  5. Does felt gender compatibility mediate influences of self-perceived gender nonconformity on early adolescents' psychosocial adjustment?

    PubMed

    Menon, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that self-perceived gender nonconformity is distressing to children because it undermines a confident sense of gender compatibility. Participants were 357 early adolescents (180 boys, M age = 12.68 years) in England who responded to questionnaires measuring friendship styles (preoccupied, avoidant), gender compatibility (typicality, contentedness), and adjustment (self-esteem, peer social competence, depression, narcissism). Sex differences in friendship styles indicated that preoccupied and avoidant styles were typical for girls and boys, respectively. Gender-atypical friendship styles predicted poor adjustment, and their impact on adjustment was partially mediated by felt gender compatibility. Results suggest that perceiving gender-atypical attributes in the self undermines adjustment partly because it leads children to feel incompatible with their gender collective. PMID:21679168

  6. The out-of-body experience and personality adjustment.

    PubMed

    Tobacyk, J J; Mitchell, T P

    1987-06-01

    Relationships between the out-of-body experience and personality adjustment were studied. A total of 445 college students, including 65 reporting out-of-body experiences, completed self-report measures of death orientation, defensive style, narcissism, paranormal beliefs, self-concept, and social desirability. No significant differences were found between respondents reporting out-of-body experiences and nonreporters on any of the instruments, except for the Paranormal Belief Scale. Reporters of out-of-body experiences showed significantly greater belief in precognition, psi, spiritualism, and witchcraft than did nonreporters. Findings indicate considerable similarity between reporters and nonreporters in personality adjustment. It is clear that, on these personality adjustment measures, the out-of-body experience was associated with neither less effective nor more effective adjustment. PMID:3585314

  7. [The vicissitudes of the therapeutic alliance or going from childhood to adolescence during psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Zaugg, J P

    1993-01-01

    By tracking the modifications of the therapeutic alliance between a pre-adolescent boy and his therapist, the author attempts 1/to describe the differences in terms of techniques and goals between low frequency session therapies and intensive therapies, and 2/to outline some of the characteristics of the psychic functioning of this age. In this particular case going form the first demand to the desire to end therapy, from sessions given on demand to more regular sessions, the transference evolved from a narcissic type to an oedipal type, heterosexual and homosexual. Some typical conflict of the age has emerged: mourning of childhood and anticipation of adolescence in its physical, relational and psychic implications. In elaborating this temporal dimension, the child develops, with the decline of the Oedipus complex, a cathexis of a personal historical space. This cathexis is a crucial process and facilitates the going through adolescence. PMID:8302972

  8. Some youths have a gloomy side: correlates of the dark triad personality traits in non-clinical adolescents.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Timmermans, Anke

    2013-10-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the Dark Triad personality traits and their correlates in non-clinical youths aged 12-18 years (N = 117). Child- and parent-report data were obtained on Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy as well as on Big Five personality factors and symptoms of aggression and delinquency. Results indicated that especially Machiavellianism and psychopathy were in a theoretically meaningful way related to Big Five factors: that is, both traits were associated with lower levels of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness/intellect, and higher levels of emotional instability. Further, Machiavellianism and psychopathy also emerged as significant and unique correlates of symptoms of aggression and delinquency, which further underlines the importance of these Dark Triad traits in the pathogenesis of disruptive behavior problems in youths. PMID:23334267

  9. Perceived Overqualification: A Multi-Source Investigation of Psychological Predisposition and Contextual Triggers.

    PubMed

    Lobene, Eleni V; Meade, Adam W; Pond, Samuel B

    2014-10-30

    ABSTRACT Although employee (subjective) perceived overqualification (POQ) has recently been explored as a meaningful organizational construct, further work is needed to fully understand it. We extend the theoretical psychological underpinnings of employee POQ and examine both its determinants and outcomes based on established and newly proposed theoretical developments. Four-hundred and fifteen employees completed an online questionnaire and 208 of their supervisors completed corresponding surveys about the employees' withdrawal behaviors and job-related attitudes, in order to explore potential predictors and outcomes of subjectively experienced POQ. Among the predictors, work conditions (uniform requirements and repetitive tasks) were most strongly associated with POQ. In terms of individual differences, narcissism predicted higher POQ while general mental ability only did when holding other variables constant. In addition, among the outcomes, higher POQ was related to lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment, but was not related to withdrawal behaviors such as truancy, absenteeism, and turnover intentions. PMID:25356746

  10. Cognitive, personality, and social factors associated with adolescents' online personal information disclosure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Ang, Rebecca P; Lwin, May O

    2013-08-01

    The current study aims to understand the factors that influence adolescents' disclosure of personally identifiable information (PII) on social networking sites (SNSs). A survey was conducted among 780 adolescent participants (between 13 and 18) who were Facebook users. Structural equation modeling was used for analyzing the data and obtaining an overarching model that include cognitive, personality, and social factors that influence adolescents' PII disclosure. Results showed privacy concern as the cognitive factor reduces adolescents' PII disclosure and it serves as a potential mediator for personality and social factors. Amongst personality factors, narcissism was found to directly increase PII disclosure, and social anxiety indirectly decreases PII disclosure by increasing privacy concern. Amongst social factors, active parental mediation decreases PII disclosure directly and indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Restrictive parental mediation decreases PII disclosure only indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Implications of the findings to parents, educators, and policy makers were discussed. PMID:23849657

  11. Social vigilantism: measuring individual differences in belief superiority and resistance to persuasion.

    PubMed

    Saucier, Donald A; Webster, Russell J

    2010-01-01

    Social vigilantism (SV) is an enduring individual difference that assesses the tendency of individuals to impress and propagate their "superior" beliefs onto others to correct others' more "ignorant" opinions. After establishing a reliable measure of SV, three studies showed that SV was associated with greater expressions of belief superiority (whether reacting to others holding dissimilar or similar beliefs) and greater resistance to persuasion (via increased rates of counterarguing and greater attitude stability after persuasion appeals) even after controlling for relevant individual differences (narcissism, dogmatism, psychological reactance, and need for cognition), as well as attitude importance and extremity. Thus, SV predicts expressions of belief superiority and resistance to persuasion above and beyond characteristics of the attitude and individual difference variables previously studied in the attitude literature. SV is a meaningful construct in increasing the understanding of persuasion, attitude resistance, and attitude dissemination that can be applied in a variety of psychological domains. PMID:19776422

  12. Narcissistic responding to ego threat: when the status of the evaluator matters.

    PubMed

    Horton, Robert S; Sedikides, Constantine

    2009-10-01

    Narcissists and nonnarcissists were insulted by high-status and low-status evaluators and were given an opportunity to self-protect with a comparative (evaluator derogation; Experiment 1) and noncomparative (inflated state self-esteem; Experiments 1 and 2) strategy. Narcissists engaged in comparative self-protection indiscriminately (i.e., derogating both low-status and high-status evaluators), whereas nonnarcissists showed some mercy to low-status evaluators. With regard to noncomparative protection, the findings were consistent across studies: Evaluator status interacted with narcissism such that narcissists engaged in noncomparative self-protection more than nonnarcissists when the evaluator was high, but not low, in status. Evaluator status and, more generally, source of feedback are worth serious consideration when untangling the intricacies and flexibility of narcissistic self-protection. PMID:19678876

  13. [The Dresden Body Image Inventory (DKB-35): validity in a clinical sample].

    PubMed

    Pöhlmann, Karin; Roth, Marcus; Brähler, Elmar; Joraschky, Peter

    2014-03-01

    The Dresden Body Image Questionnaire (DKB-35) measures 5 dimensions of body image: vitality, self-acceptance, self-aggrandisement, physical closeness, and sexual fulfilment. This article presents data on the reliability and validity of the DKB-35. The sample consisted of 560 pa-tients with psychosomatic disorders. To analyse the factor structure, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. To examine the convergent validity, correlations between the DKB-35 scales and the Frankfurt Body Concept Scales (FKKS, [1]), the Narcissism Personality Inventory (NPI, [2]) and the self-esteem subscale of the Frankfurt Self-Concept Scales (FSKN, [3]) were computed. The 5 scales of the DKB-35 showed excellent reliability. Between the 5 DKB-35 scales and the corresponding scales of the FKKS, the NPI, and the FSKN, moderate correlations were found. The results confirm the reliability and validity of the DKB-35. Possible fields of applications and further developments are discussed. PMID:23966276

  14. Trauma: the seductive hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Steven

    2003-01-01

    In much of contemporary culture, "trauma" signifies not so much terrible experience as a particular context for understanding and responding to a terrible experience. In therapy, in the media, and in international interventions, the traumatized are seen not simply as people who suffer and so are deserving of concern and aid; they are seen also as people who suffer for us, who are given special dispensation. They are treated with awe if they tell a certain kind of trauma story, and are ignored or vilified if they tell another. Trauma has become not simply a story of pain and its treatment, but a host of sub-stories involving the commodification of altruism, the justification of violence and revenge, the entry point into "true experience," and the place where voyeurism and witnessing intersect. Trauma is today the stuff not only of suffering but of fantasy. Historically, trauma theory and treatment have shown a tension, exemplified in the writings of Freud and Janet, between those who view trauma as formative and those who view it as exceptional. The latter view, that trauma confers exceptional status deserving of special privilege, has gained ground in recent years and has helped to shape the way charitable dollars are distributed, how the traumatized are presented in the media, how governments justify and carry out international responses to trauma, and how therapists attend to their traumatized patients. This response to trauma reflects an underlying, unarticulated belief system derived from narcissism; indeed, trauma has increasingly become the venue, in society and in treatment, where narcissism is permitted to prevail. PMID:12866751

  15. Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: two different ways of relating to oneself.

    PubMed

    Neff, Kristin D; Vonk, Roos

    2009-02-01

    This research examined self-compassion and self-esteem as they relate to various aspects of psychological functioning. Self-compassion entails treating oneself with kindness, recognizing one's shared humanity, and being mindful when considering negative aspects of oneself. Study 1 (N=2,187) compared self-compassion and global self-esteem as they relate to ego-focused reactivity. It was found that self-compassion predicted more stable feelings of self-worth than self-esteem and was less contingent on particular outcomes. Self-compassion also had a stronger negative association with social comparison, public self-consciousness, self-rumination, anger, and need for cognitive closure. Self-esteem (but not self-compassion) was positively associated with narcissism. Study 2 (N=165) compared global self-esteem and self-compassion with regard to positive mood states. It was found that the two constructs were statistically equivalent predictors of happiness, optimism, and positive affect. Results from these two studies suggest that self-compassion may be a useful alternative to global self-esteem when considering what constitutes a healthy self-stance. PMID:19076996

  16. An interest in fame: confirming the measurement and empirical conceptualization of fame interest.

    PubMed

    Maltby, John

    2010-08-01

    The following paper introduces and develops the conceptualization of Fame Interest. Study 1 (N=1,978), through the use of factor analysis techniques, introduces the Fame Interest Scale which comprises six dimensions of Fame Interest (intensity, vulnerability, celebrity life-style, drive, perceived suitability, and altruistic) with evidence for the reliability and validity of the scale. Study 2 (N=376) examined the relationship between an interest in fame and measures of the five-factor model of personality, narcissism, self-esteem, curiosity, attachment style and perceived family, and peer and media influence. From this second study four findings emerge; (1) Fame Interest typified by a perceived suitability and intensity for a celebrity life-style was associated with perceived family, peer and media influence, (2) Fame Interest that arises from a vulnerability is a reflection of neuroticism, low self-esteem, and problematic attachments, (3) Fame Interest for altruistic reasons is associated with agreeableness, and (4) Fame Interest that reflects an overall drive is associated with conscientiousness. PMID:19646329

  17. Pursuing Perfection: Distress and Interpersonal Functioning Among Adolescent Boys in Single-Sex and Co-Educational Independent Schools.

    PubMed

    Coren, Sidney A; Luthar, Suniya S

    2014-11-01

    This study extends past findings of heightened problems among affluent youth by examining adjustment patterns among boys in two academically elite, independent high schools: one for boys only and the other coeducational. Both samples manifested disproportionately high rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only the co-educational boys showed elevations in substance use. Boys in both schools showed elevations in a new outcome domain examined: exhibitionistic narcissism. Multivariate analyses of predictors showed that parent criticism -- a defining feature of youths' maladaptive perfectionism -- and perceived maternal depression emerged as major vulnerability factors for both samples in relation to symptom levels. On other parenting dimensions, boys in the single-sex school seemed to be particularly sensitive to feelings of alienation from their fathers and perceived paternal depression. Envy of peers' attractiveness was associated with adolescent distress in both samples, but appeared to be especially critical for co-educational boys. Results are discussed, focusing on the costs and benefits of boys' attendance at a single-sex versus co-educational school, along with implications for practice and future research. PMID:25395693

  18. The psychology of spite and the measurement of spitefulness.

    PubMed

    Marcus, David K; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Mercer, Sterett H; Norris, Alyssa L

    2014-06-01

    Spite is an understudied construct that has been virtually ignored within the personality, social, and clinical psychology literatures. This study introduces a self-report Spitefulness Scale to assess individual differences in spitefulness. The scale was initially tested on a large sample of 946 college students and cross-validated on a national sample of 297 adults. The scale was internally consistent in both samples. Factor analysis supported a 1-factor solution for the initial pool of 31 items. Item response theory analysis was used to identify the best performing of the original 31 items in the university sample and reduce the scale to 17 items. Tests of measurement invariance indicated that the items functioned similarly across both university and national samples, across both men and women, and across both ethnic majority and minority groups. Men reported higher levels of spitefulness than women, younger people were more spiteful than older people, and ethnic minority members reported higher levels of spitefulness than ethnic majority members. Across both samples, spitefulness was positively associated with aggression, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism, and guilt-free shame, and negatively correlated with self-esteem, guilt-proneness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Ideally, this Spitefulness Scale will be able to predict behavior in both laboratory settings (e.g., ultimatum games, aggression paradigms) and everyday life, contribute to the diagnosis of personality disorders and oppositional defiant disorder, and encourage further study of this neglected, often destructive, trait. PMID:24548150

  19. Test Facilities and Experience on Space Nuclear System Developments at the Kurchatov Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Garin, Vladimir P.; Glushkov, Evgeny S.; Kompaniets, George V.; Kukharkin, Nikolai E.; Madeev, Vicktor G.; Papin, Vladimir K.; Polyakov, Dmitry N.; Stepennov, Boris S.; Tchuniyaev, Yevgeny I.; Tikhonov, Lev Ya.; Uksusov, Yevgeny I.

    2004-02-01

    The complexity of space fission systems and rigidity of requirement on minimization of weight and dimension characteristics along with the wish to decrease expenditures on their development demand implementation of experimental works which results shall be used in designing, safety substantiation, and licensing procedures. Experimental facilities are intended to solve the following tasks: obtainment of benchmark data for computer code validations, substantiation of design solutions when computational efforts are too expensive, quality control in a production process, and ``iron'' substantiation of criticality safety design solutions for licensing and public relations. The NARCISS and ISKRA critical facilities and unique ORM facility on shielding investigations at the operating OR nuclear research reactor were created in the Kurchatov Institute to solve the mentioned tasks. The range of activities performed at these facilities within the implementation of the previous Russian nuclear power system programs is briefly described in the paper. This experience shall be analyzed in terms of methodological approach to development of future space nuclear systems (this analysis is beyond this paper). Because of the availability of these facilities for experiments, the brief description of their critical assemblies and characteristics is given in this paper.

  20. Self-perceptions and their Prediction of Aggression in Male Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephanie D; Lynch, Rebecca J; Stephens, Haley F; Kistner, Janet A

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated multiple facets of self-perceptions that have been theorized and shown to play a contributory role in the development of aggression for less clinically severe populations in a sample of youths from the juvenile justice system. Independent and unique associations of low self-esteem and inflated self-perceptions with aggression were examined in a sample of male juvenile offenders (N = 119; Mean age = 16.74 years) using a longitudinal study design. Latent growth curve modeling analyses revealed that self-esteem, adaptive and maladaptive narcissism independently predicted juvenile offenders' initial levels of aggression. It was also found that perceptual bias independently predicted changes in aggression over time. With the inclusion of all variables in the same model, self-esteem was no longer associated with aggression; however, all other relationships remained significant. The implications of these findings as well as the importance of interventions targeting self-perceptions to decrease aggression among high-risk youths are discussed. PMID:25280453

  1. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    PubMed

    Butler, Emily E; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243), the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness) and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits). Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy) were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57). Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest. PMID:26079137

  2. Screen memory: its importance to object relations and transference.

    PubMed

    Reichbart, Richard

    2008-06-01

    A screen memory of an obsessive and narcissistic man, reported early in psychoanalysis, both represented and disguised the patient's oedipal conflict, incestuous wishes, and sibling rivalry. It symbolized for him his relationship with his mother and was treated by him, in a repetitive and fetishistic manner throughout treatment, as the reason for his bitterness toward life, his sense of entitlement, his narcissism, and his distrust of women. In the transference, the memory-far from being inert- constantly played an active role in his wishes and disappointments regarding the analyst, and in his fantasied oedipal triumph over him. As the analysis progressed, and after years of treatment, the encapsulated nature of this memory began to give way to the patient's growing awareness of his oedipal wishes, the full range of his feelings toward his mother, and his sense of abandonment by her. The nature of screen memory is explored, including how it relates to a patient's personality and use of the past in general, how it may figure in the development of a person's object relations, and the decisive role it may play throughout a treatment. PMID:18515702

  3. Psychometric examination and normative data for the narcissistic personality inventory 29 item version.

    PubMed

    Svindseth, Marit F; Sørebø, Oystein; Nøttestad, Jim Aage; Roaldset, John Olav; Wallin, Juliska; Dahl, Alv A

    2009-04-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is commonly used in empirical studies of narcissism. Few population-based studies have been published. Our aim was to do a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the NPI 29 item version with a four-factor structure, in two population-based samples and in a patient sample, and present normative population-based data. The NPI-29 was filled in by 324 respondents from the Norwegian population, 231 from the Swedish population and 167 Norwegian psychiatric patients. The four-factor structure of the NPI-29 with Leadership/Power, Exhibitionism/Self-admiration, Superiority/Arrogance and Uniqueness/Entitlement was reproduced in these samples. The CFA models showed good fit indices in all samples. Mean scores on the NPI-29 and four subscales hardly differed between the samples. For the NPI-29 total score and factors, few significant differences were observed. CFA of the samples supported the factor structure of the NPI-29 formerly identified by principal component analysis of the Swedish population sample. PMID:18826419

  4. Perceived humiliation during admission to a psychiatric emergency service and its relation to socio-demography and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a lack of empirical studies of patients’ level of humiliation during the hospital admission process and its implications for the clinical setting. We wanted to explore associations between self-rated humiliation and socio-demography and psychopathology in relation to admission to a psychiatric emergency unit. Methods Consecutively admitted patients (N?=?186) were interviewed with several validated instruments. The patients self-rated humiliation by The Cantril Ladder, and 35% of the sample was defined as the high humiliation group. Results Final multivariate analysis found significant associations between compulsory admission, not being in paid work, high scores on hostility, and on entitlement, and high levels of humiliation. No significant interactions were observed between these variables, and the narcissism score was not a confounder concerning humiliation. Conclusions High level of humiliation during the admission process was mainly related to patient factors, but also to compulsory admission which should be avoided as much as possible protecting the self-esteem of the patients. PMID:23988222

  5. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Shuvabrata; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Mukherjee, Urbi

    2014-01-01

    Background: An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. Methods: The main objectives of the present study were (a) to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b) whether the primary infertile women (n=18) are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12) with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women) were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Results: Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. Conclusions: This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life. PMID:25788801

  6. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Emily E.; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243), the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness) and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits). Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy) were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57). Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest. PMID:26079137

  7. Test Facilities and Experience on Space Nuclear System Developments at the Kurchatov Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Garin, Vladimir P.; Glushkov, Evgeny S.; Kompaniets, George V.; Kukharkin, Nikolai E.; Madeev, Vicktor G.; Papin, Vladimir K.; Polyakov, Dmitry N.; Stepennov, Boris S.; Tchuniyaev, Yevgeny I.; Tikhonov, Lev Ya.; Uksusov, Yevgeny I. [Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov sq.1, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2004-02-04

    The complexity of space fission systems and rigidity of requirement on minimization of weight and dimension characteristics along with the wish to decrease expenditures on their development demand implementation of experimental works which results shall be used in designing, safety substantiation, and licensing procedures. Experimental facilities are intended to solve the following tasks: obtainment of benchmark data for computer code validations, substantiation of design solutions when computational efforts are too expensive, quality control in a production process, and 'iron' substantiation of criticality safety design solutions for licensing and public relations. The NARCISS and ISKRA critical facilities and unique ORM facility on shielding investigations at the operating OR nuclear research reactor were created in the Kurchatov Institute to solve the mentioned tasks. The range of activities performed at these facilities within the implementation of the previous Russian nuclear power system programs is briefly described in the paper. This experience shall be analyzed in terms of methodological approach to development of future space nuclear systems (this analysis is beyond this paper). Because of the availability of these facilities for experiments, the brief description of their critical assemblies and characteristics is given in this paper.

  8. Online Social Networking and Addiction—A Review of the Psychological Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kuss, Daria J.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests. They are seen as a ‘global consumer phenomenon’ with an exponential rise in usage within the last few years. Anecdotal case study evidence suggests that ‘addiction’ to social networks on the Internet may be a potential mental health problem for some users. However, the contemporary scientific literature addressing the addictive qualities of social networks on the Internet is scarce. Therefore, this literature review is intended to provide empirical and conceptual insight into the emerging phenomenon of addiction to SNSs by: (1) outlining SNS usage patterns, (2) examining motivations for SNS usage, (3) examining personalities of SNS users, (4) examining negative consequences of SNS usage, (5) exploring potential SNS addiction, and (6) exploring SNS addiction specificity and comorbidity. The findings indicate that SNSs are predominantly used for social purposes, mostly related to the maintenance of established offline networks. Moreover, extraverts appear to use social networking sites for social enhancement, whereas introverts use it for social compensation, each of which appears to be related to greater usage, as does low conscientiousness and high narcissism. Negative correlates of SNS usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction. PMID:22016701

  9. Mediating Effect of Psychopathy on the Risk of Social Problems Among Children with ADHD Versus Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Raiker, Joseph S; Greening, L; Stoppelbein, L; Becker, Stephen P; Fite, Paula J; Luebbe, Aaron M

    2015-08-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) has been proposed as a unique syndrome; however research examining how it is different from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is just starting to emerge. The present study extends this research by examining how specific personality features (i.e., psychopathy) may mediate the relation between ADHD and social problems, but not between SCT and social problems. Caregivers of 198 children (6-12 years old) that presented for an inpatient psychiatric evaluation completed standardized measures of childhood behavior problems. Bootstrapped mediational analyses were performed to evaluate the mediating role of psychopathy on the relation between social problems and symptoms of ADHD versus SCT. Two sub-domains of psychopathy-impulsivity and narcissism-emerged as partial mediators for the relation between social problems and ADHD symptoms; whereas SCT symptoms were not found to be related to psychopathy after controlling for ADHD symptoms. These findings provide support for conceptualizing ADHD and SCT as discrete syndromes as well as for the mediating role of psychopathy domains on the risk of social problems among a clinical sample of youth with symptoms of ADHD. PMID:25212965

  10. Klein and Lacan meet 21st century schizoid man: fairy stories for the modern era.

    PubMed

    Charles, Marilyn

    2014-09-01

    Melanie Klein invited us into the phenomenology of the schizoid dilemma through her depictions of the paranoid-schizoid position. By inserting his recursive arrows, Bion extended this conceptualization, showing us the folly of believing that we can ever entirely move beyond the frightening fantasies and realities of social exclusion and isolation. The 21st century has brought, along with the explosion of technology, an expulsion from the social order of many children who have found refuge from isolation and humiliation in the more accessible and less terrifying world of media and technological invention. What may look like narcissism can mask a terrible underlying schizoid failure to enter into the human race. This is the realm of fantasy run amok, where desire becomes alien and alienated such that one is haunted and hunted down by its very possibility. In this universe, conceptualizations from Klein, Bion, and Lacan help us to locate the individual who has become caught in a massive psychic retreat such that there is no subject because there are no objects. To illustrate, I describe my work with a young man who is living in a terrible "zombie zone" where people are not real and therefore are incomprehensible and terribly dangerous. The poignancy of his dilemma is heartbreaking. Perhaps that is one lesson we can still take from our old fairy tales: when one's heart can be broken by another's plight, then comes the possibility of a healing, an entry through that piercing of what had been impenetrable. PMID:25117781

  11. [Dangerous comics--only a fantasy?].

    PubMed

    Hammon, C P

    1992-01-01

    Both superhero comics and fairy tales are equally popular with children: they create fantasy worlds full of violence and dangers which the hero must overcome. The question is raised whether the criticism of prevailing violence and a lack of realism can be rejected not only when considering fairy tales but also in the case of comics. The comparison of the two genres leads to the following results: Comics with their regressive pull and their independent superhuman heroes represent the archaic world of narcissism unconscious, unwilling to develop and conservative. Violence serves to maintain the original state or regain a harmonious "paradise". However, the rich world of symbols is also the creative source of our existence to which we keep returning--whether in dreams or in other fields of imagination. As works of literature, fairy tales seem to be more progressive and concerned with solutions. In the main, they support the development of the self. Violence is used to overthrow the old order and usher in the new. The aggression results in overcoming the unconscious. The image of the fairy tale hero corresponds to the child's view of the world. He does not seek narcissistic solitude and greatness but the companionship of prince or princess. A progressive and optimistic view of the future as well as a more conservative and retrospective tendency are part of human nature. For children, however, problems of development take precedence. Thus superhero comics are only dangerous for severely disturbed children, but fairy tales are certainly more beneficial. PMID:1635907

  12. On a type of heterosexuality, and the fluidity of object relations.

    PubMed

    Hershey, D W

    1989-01-01

    This paper delineates a form of heterosexuality whose underlying psychological structure resembles that of perversions. It is characterized by: idealization of instinctual processes, whereby the ego subordinates the object to the actualization of the instinctual event itself; heightened narcissism in an otherwise neurotic ego organization; multiple intrapsychic uses of the object; a special kind of defensive organization; an experienced victory over the superego and associated elevation of certain aspects of the ego ideal; and a resultant alteration in the nature of close interpersonal relationships. I use clinical vignettes from both male and female patients in psychoanalysis to focus on the phenomena in question. The thinking of Chassequet-Smirgel, Freud, Khan, Rangell, Socarides, and others is used in an attempt to gain an encompassing perspective. It is emphasized that patients demonstrating this form of heterosexuality do not possess a perversion per se, but demonstrate a character neurosis which integrates certain perverse mechanisms into its defensive organization. These mechanisms can be isolated and studied in psychoanalytic treatment, with the potential for illuminating their defensive and mood-regulating functions, and eventual working through and resolution of the intrapsychic conflicts underlying them. Some comments on the implications of this form of sexuality for our contemporary culture are included. PMID:2708772

  13. Envy: one or many?

    PubMed

    Laverde-Rubio, Eduardo

    2004-04-01

    This paper reports conceptual and clinical research about envy. It consists of an examination and comparison of Klein's points of view of 1952, where the feeling of exclusion from the envious object is stressed, and of 1957, based on the split death instinct that is projected onto the envied object. These two approaches are contrasted with the point of view of the author, where envy is understood as the result of a particular kind of object relation, in which the subject registers an asymmetry with its peer, that he considers unfair, due to the biased action of an idealized omnipotent object, on whom the subject depends and that gives to the envied one, and deceives the envious one, leading to experiencing a compound of emotions: hatred, love, sense of unfairness, wish of revenge, helplessness and incapacity of the subject to provide for himself. The mental state just described emerges from clinical observations, and is illustrated with the passage from the Bible where Abel, the envied one, is killed by Cain, the envious one, showing their relationship with Jehovah, biased in his preferences, a situation designated by the author as 'Cain's complex'. In this paper some considerations are also made concerning the modalities of envy: penis envy in women, the relationship between envy and narcissism, the difference between envy and jealousy, and the interpretative handling of envy. To answer the question posed in the title, the conclusion is that envy presents a central nucleus with different elaborative branches. PMID:15142292

  14. [Diogenes syndrome: a transnosographic approach].

    PubMed

    Hanon, C; Pinquier, C; Gaddour, N; Saïd, S; Mathis, D; Pellerin, J

    2004-01-01

    Diogenes syndrome is a behavioural disorder of the elderly. Symptoms include living in extreme squalor, a neglected physical state and unhygienic conditions. This is accompanied by a self-imposed isolation, the refusal of external help and a tendency to accumulate heteroclite objects. This particular geriatric syndrome has been described for the first time only quite recently, as the 2 primary descriptions by geriatricians and psychiatrists date from 1966 and 1975 respectively. Its rare occurrence contrasts with the fact that it is well-known, partly due to it being named after the Greek philosopher "Diogene de Sinope", who taught cynicism philosophy and a return to a natural way of life, and partly because of its rare characteristics. The Diogenes syndrome is a fascinating object of study for the clinician who takes care of patients living in uncommon conditions, on the edge of society and unaware of the particularity of their lifestyles. Patients suffering from Diogenes syndrome are usually discovered by chance, either because of a somatic illness, or as a result of social intervention related to their behavioural problems. Management of the syndrome is difficult and ethically challenging, as the patient does not seek help. Moreover, 46% of patients have a 5 year mortality rate. Hospitalisation has to be avoided whenever possible and ambulatory treatment and social measures should be favoured. Psychotropic treatment prescription may be necessary, depending on clinical features and the possible underlying psychiatric disease. Although several clinical hypotheses have been suggested, the true ethiopathogeny of the syndrome remains unclear. Most authors agree that this behaviour does not reflect free will and has consequently no theoretical relationship to the Greek philosopher. There is no true consensus about diagnostic criteria. They include the main features of the syndrome and exclude known psychiatric syndromes. Clark and Mankikar, who named this syndrome, reckon it may represent stress-related defence mechanisms of the elderly or may be related to natural ageing process. However, psychiatric pathologies as paranoid and paranoiac psychoses, mood disorders and obsessive and compulsive disorders have been described to be associated with it in the literature. Dementia, in particular temporo-frontal dementia, should be looked for and excluded clinically. Alcohol abuse seems to be an aggravating rather than a precipitating factor. Finally, the link between these pathologies and Diogenes syndrome is not yet determined: are they triggering, co-morbid or etiological factors? Should this syndrome be considered as a true illness or as a symptom? This paper presents Diogenes syndrome as a behavioural disorder and distinguishes 2 types: the "active type"--patients who collect from outside to clutter inside--and the "passive type"--patients who passively become invaded by their rubbish. Active type patients fill their home to fill in the vacuum of their life, as it deteriorates and looses its narcissical appeal. Passive type patients accumulate by default and emptiness. A psychopathological understanding is presented here, referring to psychoanalytical theories of the Moi-peau (ego-skin) described by Anzieu. The Moi-peau represents a structure of the psyche founded on the following principle: any psychic function develops itself according to a bodily function from which it transposes its functioning at a mental level. The skin has three functions: the containing shell, the protective barrier of the psyche, and a medium of exchange. The Moi-peau is organised as a double-wall acting both as a defence mechanism and as a filter between the psyche and the external world. It preserves the relationship and the cohesion "container-content". As a result of a narcissical wound, the Moi-peau is damaged and looses its function of a container. In the case of Diogenes Syndrome, the accumulated items repair the Moi-peau and the home becomes an "exterior-proof", thus playing the role of the Moi-

  15. The PMHT: solutions for some of its problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieneke, Monika; Koch, Wolfgang

    2007-09-01

    Tracking multiple targets in a cluttered environment is a challenging task. Probabilistic Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (PMHT) is an efficient approach for dealing with it. Essentially PMHT is based on the method of Expectation-Maximization for handling with association conflicts. Linearity in the number of targets and measurements is the main motivation for a further development and extension of this methodology. Unfortunately, compared with the Probabilistic Data Association Filter (PDAF), PMHT has not yet shown its superiority in terms of track-lost statistics. Furthermore, the problem of track extraction and deletion is apparently not yet satisfactorily solved within this framework. Four properties of PMHT are responsible for its problems in track maintenance: Non-Adaptivity, Hospitality, Narcissism and Local Maxima. 1, 2 In this work we present a solution for each of them and derive an improved PMHT by integrating the solutions into the PMHT formalism. The new PMHT is evaluated by Monte-Carlo simulations. A sequential Likelihood-Ratio (LR) test for track extraction has been developed and already integrated into the framework of traditional Bayesian Multiple Hypothesis Tracking. 3 As a multi-scan approach, also the PMHT methodology has the potential for track extraction. In this paper an analogous integration of a sequential LR test into the PMHT framework is proposed. We present an LR formula for track extraction and deletion using the PMHT update formulae. As PMHT provides all required ingredients for a sequential LR calculation, the LR is thus a by-product of the PMHT iteration process. Therefore the resulting update formula for the sequential LR test affords the development of Track-Before-Detect algorithms for PMHT. The approach is illustrated by a simple example.

  16. Perceptions and attitudes toward androgenic-anabolic steroid use among two age categories: a qualitative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Leone, James E; Fetro, Joyce V

    2007-05-01

    We attempted to qualitatively investigate why men of 2 age categories have chosen not to use androgenic-anabolic steroids (AASs). Twelve men (22.28 +/- 1.38 years [group I] and 53.00 +/- 13.28 years [group II]) were selected on the basis of specific inclusion criteria, including age and fitness levels (i.e., "do you weight train?"). Subjects were classified in 1 of 2 categories-younger or older precluders-and were asked to complete 2 survey instruments before their participation. The Drive for Muscularity Scale (reliability 0.85) and Body Image Questionnaire were used to gain a better understanding of perceptions and motivations regarding health, fitness, and body image. A series of semistructured questions were used to enhance focus group discussion regarding attitudes. Questions were validated by a panel of experts in qualitative methods. Member checks were conducted to enhance trustworthiness of the data. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed with thematic open-coding techniques. Various behaviors were reported regarding body image. Emerging themes showed a clear demarcation between age categories. Younger subjects cited power, control, body image, and narcissism, whereas older subjects viewed AAS use as more of an athletic-based phenomenon, such as with performance enhancement, when asked about steroids. Groups were in agreement that media trends and perceptions of the ideal male body are becoming "superhuman" and unattainable without chemical means. Understanding attitudinal perspectives might help complement national data on AAS trends. Future investigations could help coaches and allied health professionals collaborate with each other, as well as with national groups and foundations, to devise more appropriate strategies in addressing this growing athletic and public health concern. PMID:17530945

  17. [Comparative study on elderly and disabled subjects with various degrees of dementia].

    PubMed

    Ciccarello, A

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at showing the positive effects of arts therapies in individual and group sessions, with an aging, valid or dependent population, presenting symptoms of dementia or not. The improvement of cognition (including memory), well-being, as well as of certain medical problems (pain, tension...) was underlined in several studies on arts therapies, including especially the use of music therapeutic techniques. Indeed, music stimulates the emotional memory, causing the emergence of ancient memories, thus restoring narcissism. The well-being of participants is increased. Our population consists of elderly people, most of them suffering from dementia. They come to the workshops by themselves or led by their families. Music but also pictorial arts are used as a therapeutic mediation for one session per week during the time of hospitalization. This period varies depending on the condition of the subject. The scales used in T1 and T2 with patients suffering from dementia are the Echelle d'appréciation clinique en gériatrie by Bouvard & Cottraux and the Fragebogen zur Beurteilung der Behandlung durch den Therapeuten (FBB-T) by Mattejat and Remschmidt. Regarding the criteria for external validation, a semi-structured interview is proposed to the nurses in T2. The scales used with valid people are the Index of Well-being by Campbell et al, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) by Zigmond and Snaith, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), validated by Vallières and Vallerand in 1990, and the Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen (SVF 78) by Janke et al. CDC: There was a positive effect for most seniors who attended the sessions: an increased well-being and a temporary appropriation of memories. However, given the small size and the heterogeneity of samples, the irregularity of attendance, the results cannot be generalized. More regular sessions of arts therapies would be favorable for a consolidation of results. PMID:20653190

  18. [New synthesis empathogenic agents].

    PubMed

    Velea, D; Hautefeuille, M; Vazeille, G; Lantran-Davoux, C

    1999-01-01

    The use of synthesis drugs is the object of numerous written articles and TV programs in the last, decade. These synthesis drugs or "designer drugs", are well known for their ability to enhance, reinforce or appease social difficulties and relationships. In the research for empathetic and entactogenic relations one discover an obvious lack of communication and "warmth" in personal or professional relationship. An image of chemical "well being" has become a frequent stereotype of a society with an atrophying of performance and values while supposedly dedicating itself to individual performance. The youths are the first victims of these new drugs, the economical and social environment are the main reinforcing factors of this behaviour. The main characteristic of these drugs, is the non-recognition of their danger, some users go so far as to describe this category of substances as "drugs which are not drugs". As a characteristic, the use of a these synthesis drugs is almost recreative, during the week-end and holiday. The drug addiction is different than that of opiates or cocaine. One can observe some cases of real dependence--corresponding to the DSW IV criterion--when the personality of the users is the main characteristic (narcissic failure, immature personality, family and school problems). Many adverse effects--hypertension, kidney failure, psychoses--were declared. The mass-media has presented many articles concerning Ecstasy (MDMA). This is the most used drug during the rave parties. Its adverse effects are well known and proven. The authors would like to present other more recent synthesis drugs, also known as "analogs". These drugs, a kind of mixture between amphetamine-like (MDMA, MBDB, MDA) and misused medicines (ketamine, gamma OH, atropine) represent a real danger. GHB, 2 CB, HMB, are some of these recent substances. The possibility to procure them on the Web, or to produce them by oneself, add to their danger because of the lack of controls on toxicity and quality. The original danger signs were revealed by the FDA and currently a major preoccupation within french specialised services. The major problem for the practitionner is to inform the users, in order to prevent addiction and analyse the solutions. PMID:10598316

  19. Late-Wisconsinan submarine moraines along the north shore of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (Eastern Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajeunesse, Patrick; St-Onge, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    A series of ice-contact submarine fans and morainal banks along the Québec North-Shore of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (Eastern Canada), between the Manicouagan River delta and the Mingan Islands, have been revealed with great detail by recent multibeam echosounder and high-resolution subbottom profiler surveys. These grounding-line landforms are observed between 65 and 190 m water depths and were constructed as the marine-based margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) stabilized or readvanced. Radiocarbon ages obtained from shells sampled in sediment cores collected in glaciomarine deposits 6 km south of a grounding line in the Sept-Iles area indicate a stabilisation that took place around 11 000 14C yr BP (12.5 ka cal BP with a ?R=120 ± 40 yr). In the Mingan Islands area, organic matter collected in distal deposits of an ice-contact fan is dated at 10 800 14C yr BP (11.6 ka cal BP). The position of the Sept-Iles and Mingan deposits, 20 km south of the ~9.7-9.5 14C kyr BP North-Shore Moraine, suggests that these ice marginal landforms were constructed during the Younger Dryas (YD) cold episode and that they might be the eastward submarine extent of the early YD St. Narcisse morainic system. Superimposed till sheets and morainal banks observed within grounding line deposits indicate that this stability phase was interrupted by local readvances that were marked in some cases by ice streaming. Segments of this morainic system are also visible along the shoreline in some sectors, where they have been generally washed out of fine fragments by waves. Another series of ice-contact deposits and landforms of similar nature observed farther offshore and at greater depths (100-190 m) were formed during a previous phase of stabilisation of the LIS margin. This older morainic system was probably deposited immediately after the opening of the Estuary and Gulf of the St. Lawrence.