Science.gov

Sample records for narcotic antagonists

  1. Retention and Outcome in a Narcotic Antagonist Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, Thomas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Patients in an outpatient narcotic antagonist treatment program were followed through their course of treatment. Those who remained longer were found to enter treatment with more stable employment records and less recent opiate use. They also appeared more successful at termination, with better vocational stability, less extraneous drug use, and…

  2. Analgesic effectiveness of the narcotic agonist-antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Houde, Raymond W.

    1979-01-01

    1 Two fundamentally different types of narcotic-antogonists have been found to be very effective analgesics with relatively low dependence-producing potentials. 2 These two drug classes can be distinguished as being either morphine-like or nalorphine-like on the basis of their subjective and objective effects after single doses and on chronic administration, and by the character of their abstinence syndromes on abrupt withdrawal or on precipitation by other antagonists. 3 To explain differences in side effects associated with their analgesic actions, the existence of three types of receptors has been postulated: a μ receptor which is believed to be associated with euphoria and other typical morphine-like effects and a kappa (χ) and a sigma (σ) receptor which are believed to be associated with the sedative and psychotomimetic effects, respectively, of the nalorphine-like drugs. 4 The antagonist-analgesics of the morphine-type have the characteristics of being agonists of low intrinsic activity but with high affinity for the μ receptor. Representative analgesics of this type are profadol, propiram and buprenorphine. 5 The antagonist-analgesics of the nalorphine-type are drugs which are believed to have varying degrees of affinity and intrinsic activity at all three receptors, but characteristically seem to act merely as competitive antagonists with no intrinsic activity at the μ receptor. Representative analgesics of this type are pentazocine, nalbuphine and butorphanol. 6 There are considerable differences among the individual drugs of each type in terms of their analgesic and narcotic-antagonistic potencies. However, clear differences in analgesic efficacy among any of the antagonist-analgesics remain to be proved. All give evidence of being capable of relieving pain in nondependent patients in situations in which doses of morphine (or its surrogates) usually used would be effective. 7 The major advantages of the partial agonists of the morphine-type over the

  3. Editing and Scaling of Instrument Packets for the Clinical Evaluation of Narcotic Antagonists. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldt, Robert F.; Gitomer, Nancy L.

    Efforts of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) as a contractor to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) include: (1) assessment of the usefulness of naltrexone, a narcotic antagonist, in the rehabilitation of several types of opiate-dependent individuals; (2) assessment of any drawbacks to the use of naltrexone; and (3) appraisal of…

  4. Effects of narcotic analgesics and antagonists on the in vivo release of acetylcholine from the cerebral cortex of the cat.

    PubMed

    Jhamandas, K; Phillis, J W; Pinsky, C

    1971-09-01

    1. In cats under light allobarbitone anaesthesia, the effects of intravenous injections of narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics, of a general depressant, and of narcotic antagonists were investigated on the spontaneous release of acetylcholine (ACh) from the surface of the sensorimotor cortex.2. The narcotic analgesics morphine (0.1, 1.0 and 5 mg/kg), meperidine (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg), methadone (1.0 mg/kg) and codeine (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) greatly reduced ACh release.3. The non-narcotic analgesics pentazocine (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) and propoxyphene (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) as well as the depressant chlorpromazine (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg) also greatly reduced ACh release.4. Two of the three narcotic antagonists examined, levallorphan (0.1, 1.0 and 5 mg/kg) and nalorphine (1.0 mg/kg) had the property of reducing ACh release. They were thus partial agonists. With levallorphan the greatest reduction occurred with the smallest dose injected and the effect was regularly obtained, whereas with nalorphine a reduction was obtained in some experiments only. The third, naloxone, was a specific narcotic antagonist and did not reduce the ACh release in any dose (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg) examined. In a dose of 1.0 mg/kg it actually produced a small increase in Ach release.5. Naloxone (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) restored the reduction in ACh release produced by the narcotic analgesics and by the partial agonist levallorphan. It partially restored the reduction produced by the non-narcotic analgesics and by nalorphine, but had no effect on the reduction produced by chlorpromazine.6. The relevance of these results with regard to analgesia and to the narcotic abstinence syndrome is discussed. PMID:5136464

  5. Narcotic antagonists in drug dependence: pilot study showing enhancement of compliance with SYN-10, amino-acid precursors and enkephalinase inhibition therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Thomas J H; Blum, Kenneth; Payte, James T; Schoolfield, John; Hopper, David; Stanford, Mathew; Braverman, Eric R

    2004-01-01

    We decided to test the hypothesis that possibly by combining a narcotic antagonist and amino-acid therapy consisting of an enkephalinase inhibitor (D-phenylalanine) and neurotransmitter precursors (L-amino- acids) to promote neuronal dopamine release might enhance compliance in methadone patients rapidly detoxified with the narcotic antagonist Trexan (Dupont, Delaware). In this regard, Thanos et al. [J. Neurochem. 78 (2001) 1094] and associates found increases in the dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2) via adenoviral vector delivery of the DRD2 gene into the nucleus accumbens, significantly reduced both ethanol preference (43%) and alcohol intake (64%) of ethanol preferring rats, which recovered as the DRD2, returned to baseline levels. This DRD2 overexpression similarly produced significant reductions in ethanol non-preferring rats, in both alcohol preference (16%) and alcohol intake (75%). This work further suggests that high levels of DRD2 may be protective against alcohol abuse [JAMA 263 (1990) 2055; Arch, Gen. Psychiatr. 48 (1991) 648]. The DRD2 A1 allele has also been shown to associate with heroin addicts in a number of studies. In addition, other dopaminergic receptor gene polymorphisms have also associated with opioid dependence. For example, Kotler et al. [Mol. Phychiatr. 3 (1997) 251] showed that the 7 repeat allele of the DRD4 receptor is significantly overpresented in the opioid-dependent cohort and confers a relative risk of 2.46. This has been confirmed by Li et al. [Mol. Psychiatry 2 (1997) 413] for both the 5 and 7 repeat alleles in Han Chinese case control sample of heroin addicts. Similarly Duaux et al. [Mol. Psychiatry 3 (1998) 333] in French Heroin addicts, found a significant association with homozygotes alleles of the DRD3-Bal 1. A study from NIAAA, provided evidence which strongly suggests that DRD2 is a susceptibility gene for substance abusers across multiple populations (2003). Moreover, there are a number of studies utilizing amino-acid and

  6. Effect of intravenously-administered putative and potential antagonists of ethanol on sleep time in ethanol-narcotized mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, R.C.; Jernigan, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    Groups of male CD-1 mice (n = 12/group) were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with 5 g ethanol/kg of body weight. After loss of righting reflex, they were given vehicle or one of 2-3 doses of reputed or potential antagonists of ethanol intravenously (IV). Sleep time was measured from loss to return of righting reflex. Mean sleep time (MST) was increased significantly by a large dose of dl-amphetamine and by 4-aminopyridine. Significant increases were also produced by small and large doses of aminophylline and by yohimbine. MST was not altered significantly by small and medium doses of dl-amphetamine, a medium dose of aminophylline, or by any doses of naloxone, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, propranolol, physostigmine, doxapram, or Ro 15-4513. When Ro 15-4513 was given IP 15 minutes before ethanol (n = 6/group), onset and duration of narcosis were not altered. None of the compounds tested was an effective IV antidote for deep ethanol narcosis because of drug side effects, toxicity, prolongation of MST, or insufficient shortening of MST. 36 references, 1 table.

  7. Pain medications - narcotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007489.htm Pain medications - narcotics To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Narcotics are also called opioid pain relievers. They are ...

  8. Taking narcotics for back pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lumbar pain - chronic - narcotics; Pain - back - chronic - narcotics; Chronic back pain - low - narcotics ... Opioids compared to placebo or other treatments for chronic low-back pain: an update of the Cochrane Review. Spine . 2014;( ...

  9. What Are Narcotic Drugs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todays Educ, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Part of "Students and Drug Abuse, prepared by the Public Information Branch and Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, in cooperation with the staff of Today's Education.

  10. Pain medications - narcotics

    MedlinePlus

    Painkillers; Drugs for pain; Analgesics; Opioids ... Narcotics are also called opioid pain relievers. They are used only for pain that is severe and is not helped by other types of painkillers. When used ...

  11. NDTA narcotics standard development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvick, Sydney J.; Cui, Jing; Kunz, Terry D.; Hoglund, David E.; Pilon, Pierre; Lawrence, Andre H.; Drolet, Gerry; Su, Chih-Wu; Rigdon, Stephen W.; Demirgian, Jack C.; Shier, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    The Narcotics Detection Technology Assessment (NDTA) program is a series of studies conducted to evaluate illicit substance detection devices. The ability to effectively detect cocaine and heroin particles is directly related to the efficiency of a detection device's sample collection design. The NDTA tests are therefore structured to require sampling of narcotics from a surface. Tests standards are required which permit subnanogram to microgram quantities of narcotic to be dispensed onto a target surface for sampling. Optimally, the standard should not adversely affect the performance of the device under test. The NDTA test team has developed and experimentally characterized solution- deposited substrate standards, solution-deposited substrate- free standards, vapor-deposited standards, suspension standards, and dry mix standards, and dry mix standards. A variety of substrates and dry-mix fillers have been evaluated, including sand, fullerenes, copper powder, nickel powder, pulverized paper, and aluminum. Suspension standards were explored with a variety of liquids. The narcotic standards with the best performance were found to be dry mixes of cocaine with silver-coated nickel powder, and dry mixes of heroin with silanized glass beads.

  12. Narcotic Drug and Marihuana Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Donald E.

    As a background paper for the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators Drug Education Conference held in November, 1966, this paper focuses first on narcotic control in general, and second, on the reasons for insisting on marijuana control. Brief descriptions are given of the currently existing narcotics acts at federal and state…

  13. Prescribing Narcotics to Habitual and Addicted Narcotic Users

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Forest S.; Uelmen, Gerald F.

    1980-01-01

    Confusion exists among physicians over the legal requirements and appropriate prescribing of narcotics to addicted or habitual users of narcotics. The result has often been either (1) the deprivation of appropriate treatment for patients who desire detoxification or adequate pain relief, or (2) illegal prescribing by physicians. Because most narcotics are potent and dangerous substances, certain legal restrictions are necessary to protect the general public. State-approved programs have been established to prescribe methadone and propoxyphene napsylate for addiction treatment. Current laws and regulations in California permit every practicing physician to provide effective and safe treatment for addiction and pain relief. PMID:7467311

  14. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  15. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  16. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  17. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any...

  18. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any...

  19. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  20. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  1. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  2. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  3. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  4. Narcotic Drug Control in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislature, Albany.

    This report concentrates on the analysis and evaluation of programs utilized by New York State's Narcotics Addiction Control Commission (NACC) and concerned with control of narcotic drugs and with those individuals who abuse them. The three key premises, basic to the narcotic drug control programs approved by the state legislature, are: (1) there…

  5. Narcotics detection using piezoelectric ringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Timothy J.; Magnuson, Erik E.; West, Rebecca; Lyndquist, R.

    1997-02-01

    Piezo-electric ringing (PER) has been demonstrated to be an effective means of scanning cargo for the presence of hidden narcotics. The PER signal is characteristic of certain types of crystallized material, such as cocaine hydrochloride. However, the PER signal cannot be used to conclusively identify all types of narcotic material, as the signal is not unique. For the purposes of cargo scanning, the PER technique is therefore most effective when used in combination with quadrupole resonance analysis (QRA). PER shares the same methodology as QRA technology, and can therefore be very easily and inexpensively integrated into existing QRA detectors. PER can be used as a pre-scanning technique before the QRA scan is applied and, because the PER scan is of a very short duration, can effectively offset some of the throughput limitations of standard QRA narcotics detectors. Following is a discussion of a PER detector developed by Quantum Manetics under contract to United States Customs. Design philosophy and performance are discussed, supported by results from recent tests conducted by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency and U.S. Customs.

  6. 78 FR 66105 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  7. 78 FR 70630 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entity whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  8. 77 FR 69706 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  9. 76 FR 5857 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  10. 75 FR 64781 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... interests in property have been blocked pending investigation pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  11. 77 FR 23807 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  12. 77 FR 44715 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  13. 77 FR 14592 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... whose property and interests in property have ] been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  14. 77 FR 2347 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis....

  15. 75 FR 34214 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis....

  16. 78 FR 53191 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  17. 77 FR 38140 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities) whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  18. 77 FR 56271 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  19. 78 FR 59766 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act''). DATES: The designation by the Director of OFAC of the... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics ] traffickers and...

  20. 76 FR 67792 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  1. 78 FR 8701 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entity whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  2. 76 FR 25407 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics ] traffickers and their organizations on...

  3. 75 FR 65554 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... interests in property are blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act... they are owned or controlled by a specially designated narcotics trafficker. FOR FURTHER...

  4. 75 FR 36474 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  5. 77 FR 29755 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis....

  6. 78 FR 53007 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  7. 78 FR 29814 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property has been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  8. 78 FR 61000 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  9. 76 FR 25405 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  10. 78 FR 62946 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entity whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  11. 77 FR 22846 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property has been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  12. 76 FR 56875 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  13. 78 FR 28289 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis....

  14. 78 FR 36635 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  15. 77 FR 48609 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act''). DATES: The designation by the Director of OFAC of the... of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis....

  16. 76 FR 6843 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  17. 77 FR 36041 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  18. 76 FR 5858 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  19. 77 FR 51616 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  20. 78 FR 13760 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  1. 76 FR 10668 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  2. 77 FR 4400 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  3. 77 FR 63418 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  4. 77 FR 28670 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  5. 78 FR 3083 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  6. Quadrupole resonance scanner for narcotics detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Julian D.; Moeller, C. R.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Sheldon, Alan G.

    1994-10-01

    Interest in non-invasive, non-hazardous, bulk detection technologies for narcotics interdiction has risen over the last few years. As part of our continuing research and development programs in detection of narcotics and explosives using sensitive magnetic measuring devices, we present the first commercially available prototype Quadrupole Resonance (QR) scanner for narcotics detection. The portable narcotics detection system was designed in modular form such that a single QR base system could be easily used with a variety of custom detection heads. The QR system presented in this paper is suitable for scanning items up to 61 X 35 X 13 cm in size, and was designed to scan mail packages and briefcase-sized items for the presence of narcotics. System tests have shown that detection sensitivity is comparable that obtained in laboratory systems.

  7. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  8. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  9. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  10. 19 CFR 12.36 - Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics. 12.36 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Narcotic Drugs § 12.36 Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics. The importation and exportation of narcotic drugs are governed by regulations of the...

  11. 19 CFR 12.36 - Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics. 12.36 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Narcotic Drugs § 12.36 Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics. The importation and exportation of narcotic drugs are governed by regulations of the...

  12. 19 CFR 12.36 - Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics. 12.36 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Narcotic Drugs § 12.36 Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics. The importation and exportation of narcotic drugs are governed by regulations of the...

  13. 19 CFR 12.36 - Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics. 12.36 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Narcotic Drugs § 12.36 Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics. The importation and exportation of narcotic drugs are governed by regulations of the...

  14. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  15. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  16. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  17. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  18. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  19. 19 CFR 12.36 - Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics. 12.36 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Narcotic Drugs § 12.36 Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics. The importation and exportation of narcotic drugs are governed by regulations of the...

  20. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  1. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  2. Narcotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find Help Publications Videos Vigil for Lost Promise Red Ribbon Week PRESS ROOM DEA News News Releases Speeches and Testimony Major ... Find Help Publications Videos Vigil for Lost Promise Red Ribbon Week Press Room Top Story News Releases Speeches and Testimony Major ...

  3. Narcotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... OPERATIONS Diversion Control Programs Most Wanted Fugitives Training Intelligence Submit a Tip DRUG INFO Drug Fact Sheets ... Operations Diversion Control Programs Most Wanted Fugitives Training Intelligence Submit a Tip Drug Info Drug Fact Sheets ...

  4. Narcotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... heroin and pharmaceutical drugs like OxyContin ® , Vicodin ® , codeine, morphine, methadone, and fentanyl. Street names Big H, Black ... synthesized from naturally occurring opium products, such as morphine and codeine, and include heroin, oxycodone, hydrocodone, and ...

  5. Narcotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... meaning, is “ opioid. ” Examples include the illicit drug heroin and pharmaceutical drugs like OxyContin ® , Vicodin ® , codeine, morphine, ... H, Black Tar, Brown Sugar, Dover's Powder, Hilbilly Heroin, Horse, Junk, Lean or Purple Drank, MPTP (New ...

  6. 77 FR 69707 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property has been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin...

  7. 75 FR 65554 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... interests in property has been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin..., 1999. The Kingpin Act establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign...

  8. 15 CFR 265.37 - Narcotics and other drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Narcotics and other drugs. 265.37... other drugs. The possession, sale, consumption, or use on the site of narcotic or other drugs illegal... with respect to the possession, sale, consumption, or use of narcotic or other drugs....

  9. 15 CFR 265.37 - Narcotics and other drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Narcotics and other drugs. 265.37... other drugs. The possession, sale, consumption, or use on the site of narcotic or other drugs illegal... with respect to the possession, sale, consumption, or use of narcotic or other drugs....

  10. 31 CFR 598.313 - Significant foreign narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant foreign narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.313 Significant foreign narcotics trafficker. The term...

  11. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  12. 31 CFR 598.313 - Significant foreign narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant foreign narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.313 Significant foreign narcotics trafficker. The term...

  13. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  14. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section... beverages and narcotics. Entering the PIADC or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drugs, or the consumption of such beverages or the use...

  15. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section... beverages and narcotics. Entering the PIADC or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drugs, or the consumption of such beverages or the use...

  16. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited....

  17. 31 CFR 598.314 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.314 Specially designated narcotics trafficker. The term...

  18. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  19. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  20. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  1. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  2. 75 FR 44311 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin... narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides a statutory framework...

  3. 78 FR 53007 - Additional Designation, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designation, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act AGENCY... property and interests in property has been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  4. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited....

  5. 31 CFR 598.314 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.314 Specially designated narcotics trafficker. The term...

  6. 78 FR 5562 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act'') (21 U.S.C. 1901-1908, 8 U.S.C. 1182). DATES: The... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  7. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  8. 31 CFR 598.304 - Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.304 Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act. The term...

  9. 78 FR 9997 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act'') (21 U.S.C. 1901-1908, 8 U.S.C. 1182). In addition, OFAC... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  10. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  11. 31 CFR 598.304 - Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.304 Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act. The term...

  12. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  13. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  14. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  15. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section... beverages and narcotics. Entering the PIADC or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drugs, or the consumption of such beverages or the use...

  16. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  17. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  18. 31 CFR 598.314 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.314 Specially designated narcotics trafficker. The term...

  19. Uniform Evaluation of Programs to Combat Narcotic Addiction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friends of Psychiatric Research, Inc., Baltimore, MD.

    Early in 1967, the Office of Economic Opportunity was authorized to formulate and carry out programs for the prevention of narcotic addiction and the rehabilitation of narcotic addicts. Such programs were required to include provisions for the detoxification, guidance, training and job placement of narcotic addicts. The programs were aimed at…

  20. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  1. 31 CFR 598.304 - Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.304 Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act. The term...

  2. 76 FR 23644 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides a statutory framework...

  3. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  4. 31 CFR 598.304 - Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.304 Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act. The term...

  5. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. 25.8 Section 25.8... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.8 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. Operating a motor vehicle... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is...

  6. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  7. 76 FR 25406 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin... narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides a statutory framework...

  8. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited....

  9. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section... beverages and narcotics. Entering the PIADC or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drugs, or the consumption of such beverages or the use...

  10. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  11. 31 CFR 598.304 - Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.304 Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act. The term...

  12. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited....

  13. 75 FR 24773 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides a statutory framework...

  14. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. 25.8 Section 25.8... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.8 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. Operating a motor vehicle... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is...

  15. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section... beverages and narcotics. Entering the PIADC or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drugs, or the consumption of such beverages or the use...

  16. 78 FR 47828 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act'') (21 U.S.C. 1901-1908, 8 U.S.C. 1182). DATES: The... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  17. 76 FR 58562 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin... individuals whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis with...

  18. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  19. 31 CFR 598.313 - Significant foreign narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant foreign narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.313 Significant foreign narcotics trafficker. The term...

  20. 31 CFR 598.313 - Significant foreign narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant foreign narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.313 Significant foreign narcotics trafficker. The term...

  1. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  2. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  3. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  4. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  5. 31 CFR 598.314 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.314 Specially designated narcotics trafficker. The term...

  6. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  7. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  8. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. 25.8 Section 25.8... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.8 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. Operating a motor vehicle... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is...

  9. 77 FR 74915 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entity whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides a statutory framework...

  10. 77 FR 6191 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act'') (21 U.S.C. 1901-1908, 8 U.S.C. 1182). DATES: The... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  11. 77 FR 14859 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin... narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides a statutory framework...

  12. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  13. 15 CFR 265.37 - Narcotics and other drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Narcotics and other drugs. 265.37..., GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.37 Narcotics and other drugs. The possession, sale, consumption, or use on the site of narcotic or other drugs...

  14. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  15. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  16. 78 FR 22620 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act'') (21 U.S.C. 1901-1908, 8 U.S.C. 1182). DATES: The... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  17. 31 CFR 598.314 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.314 Specially designated narcotics trafficker. The term...

  18. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  19. 76 FR 58562 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis with the objective of denying...

  20. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  1. 75 FR 20425 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides a statutory framework...

  2. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. 25.8 Section 25.8... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.8 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. Operating a motor vehicle... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is...

  3. 31 CFR 598.313 - Significant foreign narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant foreign narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.313 Significant foreign narcotics trafficker. The term...

  4. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  5. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  6. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... narcotics. 15.9 Section 15.9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.9 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. At both Mt. Weather and the... beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates or amphetamines as defined in Title 21...

  7. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  8. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. 25.8 Section 25.8... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.8 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. Operating a motor vehicle... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is...

  9. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  10. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  11. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  12. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited....

  13. 15 CFR 265.37 - Narcotics and other drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Narcotics and other drugs. 265.37... other drugs. The possession, sale, consumption, or use on the site of narcotic or other drugs illegal... with respect to the possession, sale, consumption, or use of narcotic or other drugs....

  14. 15 CFR 265.37 - Narcotics and other drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Narcotics and other drugs. 265.37... other drugs. The possession, sale, consumption, or use on the site of narcotic or other drugs illegal... with respect to the possession, sale, consumption, or use of narcotic or other drugs....

  15. The Narcotics Situation and the Prevention of Narcotics Use in Higher Educational Institutions of Krasnoiarsk Krai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevirko, D. D.; Shinkevich, V. E.; Korobitsina, T. V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on narcotics use among students in Russia shows that many are under pressure become involved, and that knowledge of and willingness to participate in clinics and other sources of help are not widespread.

  16. Annotated Bibliography of Literature on Narcotic Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, R. Renee

    Nearly 150 abstracts have been included in this annotated bibliography; its purpose has been to scan the voluminous number of documents on the problem of drug addiction in order to summarize the present state of knowledge on narcotic addiction and on methods for its treatment and control. The literature reviewed has been divided into the following…

  17. ALCOHOL. . . .NARCOTICS EDUCATION, A HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHRISTIAN, FLOYD T.

    THIS HANDBOOK WHICH THE TEACHER MAY USE IN PLANNING COURSES OF STUDY IS INTENDED TO SUPPLY FACTUAL DATA IN REGARD TO THE USES OF ALCOHOL AND NARCOTICS. THE INFORMATION IS APPLICABLE TO ANY GROUP OR GRADE LEVEL, BUT IT IS PRIMARILY DIRECTED FOR K-12 PROGRAMS. THE HANDBOOK IS IN THREE SECTIONS. THE FIRST INCLUDES FACTS ABOUT BEVERAGE ALCOHOL.…

  18. INFORMATION ABOUT NARCOTICS - RESOURCE MATERIAL FOR TEACHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABRAMS, IRVING; HAWKINS, BARBARA A.

    A SHORT HISTORY OF NARCOTICS AND THEIR LEGAL CONTROL IN THE UNITED STATES IS PRESENTED WITH AN EXPLANATION OF ADDICTION AND METHODS OF ITS PREVENTION. TEACHERS ARE INFORMED OF WAYS IN WHICH TO IDENTIFY ADDICTED STUDENTS. FOR EXAMPLE, THEY MAY BE CLOSELY OBSERVED IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES, AND ABNORMALITIES INVESTIGATED BY A PHYSICIAN.…

  19. Narcotics Anonymous: Understanding the "Bridge of Recovery."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronel, Natti

    1998-01-01

    Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is investigated as a subculture of recovery bridging the drug subculture and the prevailing culture. A phenomenological study of NA in Israel is reported. Innovation, cultural conflict, the value of recovery and its norms, supporting social mechanisms, limitations of the program, and intercultural attributes are…

  20. Marathon Group Therapy with Female Narcotic Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.

    This study evaluated the impact of structured and unstructured marathon therapy on institutionalized female narcotic addicts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups: two structured therapy groups, two unstructured therapy groups, and a no-treatment control group. The Personal Orientation Inventory, the Adjective Check List, and a…

  1. Bibliography for Drug Abuse and Narcotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCOPE, Stony Brook, NY.

    The material presented deals with the many facets of: (1) drug abuse, (2) drug addiction, (3) treatment, (4) alcoholism, (5) glue sniffing, (6) narcotic laws, (7) drugs and youth, and (8) the kinds of drugs used. The types of materials listed are: (1) pamphlets, (2) lay periodicals, (3) periodicals and professional articles, (4) books, and (5)…

  2. Comparative cardiac contractile actions of six narcotic analgesics: morphine, meperidine, pentazocine, fentanyl, methadone and l-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM).

    PubMed

    Rendig, S V; Amsterdam, E A; Henderson, G L; Mason, D T

    1980-10-01

    Cardiac muscle contractile responses to six narcotic analgesics (morphine, meperidine, pentazocine, fentanyl, methadone and l-alpha-acetylmethadol), at concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-4) M, both in the presence and absence of the narcotic antagonist, naloxone, were studied in the isolated, isometric cat right ventricular papillary muscle preparation. Measurements of maximum developed tension (T), maximum rate of tension development (dT/dt) and time to peak tension indicated that no major changes in contractile function occurred with any narcotic at concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-6) M except for small but significant (P < .05) increases in all three parameters at 10(-6) M fentanyl, and small but significant increases in dT/dt at 10(-8) to 10(-6) M meperidine. At 10(-5) M narcotic, dT/dt was significantly elevated in meperidine-treated muscles (+7%), but significantly reduced in muscles exposed to pentazocine (-8%) or l-alpha-acetylmethadol (-11%). For all six narcotics, the 10(-4) M drug concentration resulted in depression of contractile function that was often associated with nonresponsiveness to electrical stimulation. Pretreatment of muscles with naloxone (10(-4) M) did not prevent this reduction of contractile performance except at the highest concentration (10(-4) M) of meperidine. Following removal of drug, contractile performance improved to varying degrees (recovery to 72-97% of control T), except in l-alpha-acetylmethadol-treated muscles, in which there was no recovery of T. Isoproterenol (0.8 X 10(-7) M) elicited a positive inotropic response whether administered in the presence of 10(-4) M narcotic or following narcotic removal. We conclude that narcotic analgesics in high concentrations exert a direct myocardial depressant effect which is not prevented by naloxone and therefore is not mediated by interaction with opiate receptors. Rather, several effects, including myocardial depression, its reversibility by both drug removal and isoproterenol and

  3. Calcium antagonists.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ehud; Messerli, Franz H

    2004-01-01

    Calcium antagonists were introduced for the treatment of hypertension in the 1980s. Their use was subsequently expanded to additional disorders, such as angina pectoris, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Raynaud phenomenon, pulmonary hypertension, diffuse esophageal spasms, and migraine. Calcium antagonists as a group are heterogeneous and include 3 main classes--phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and dihydropyridines--that differ in their molecular structure, sites and modes of action, and effects on various other cardiovascular functions. Calcium antagonists lower blood pressure mainly through vasodilation and reduction of peripheral resistance. They maintain blood flow to vital organs, and are safe in patients with renal impairment. Unlike diuretics and beta-blockers, calcium antagonists do not impair glucose metabolism or lipid profile and may even attenuate the development of arteriosclerotic lesions. In long-term follow-up, patients treated with calcium antagonists had development of less overt diabetes mellitus than those who were treated with diuretics and beta-blockers. Moreover, calcium antagonists are able to reduce left ventricular mass and are effective in improving anginal pain. Recent prospective randomized studies attested to the beneficial effects of calcium antagonists in hypertensive patients. In comparison with placebo, calcium antagonist-based therapy reduced major cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death significantly in elderly hypertensive patients and in diabetic patients. In several comparative studies in hypertensive patients, treatment with calcium antagonists was equally effective as treatment with diuretics, beta-blockers, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. From these studies, it seems that a calcium antagonist-based regimen is superior to other regimens in preventing stroke, equivalent in preventing ischemic heart disease, and inferior in preventing congestive heart failure

  4. Profile of narcotic abuse in peninsula Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Buhrich, N; Haq, S

    1980-01-01

    Demographic and drug abuse characteristics of 3,484 new drug abuse contacts presenting to the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia are reported. The large majority were heroin inhalers. They were different from the traditional Eastern opium inhalers and similar to Western heroin injectors in that they were young, male, single, and frequently unemployed. These features and the relative underrepresentation of Chinese suggest that the Chinese of this study did not learn narcotic abuse from opium-smoking relatives. PMID:7446511

  5. Lethal body burdens of polar narcotics: Chlorophenols

    SciTech Connect

    Wezel, A.P. van; Punte, S.S.; Opperhuizen, A.

    1995-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to measure in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) the lethal body burden (LBB) of three chlorophenols that are known as polar narcotic chemicals. The LBBs of the chlorophenols were compared to LBBs of nonpolar narcotic chemicals to consider if the two classes of narcotic chemicals differ on a body burden level. The LBB of the most acidic chlorophenol was measured at two different levels of pH exposure to determine the influence of the degree of ionization on the magnitude of the LBB. Both n-octanol/water partition coefficients and n-hexane/water partition coefficients of the chlorophenols were determined at different pH levels to consider the influence of ionization on the partition coefficient and to determine the importance of a polar group in the organic phase on the partitioning behavior. Partitioning to n-octanol and n-hexane was used as input in a model to simulate the equilibrium partitioning between hydrophobic and nonhydrophobic and target and nontarget compartments in the fish.

  6. Detection of narcotics with an immunoassay film badge

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, H.R.

    1993-12-31

    Efficient personnel performance, a major requirement for a safe nuclear industry, is jeopardized where personnel use narcotics. However, detection of narcotics at nuclear plants is a challenge. The unique specificity and sensitivity of an immunoassay has been implemented in the form of a small, dry immunoassay film badge (IFB) for the detection of vapors emitted by narcotics. The device is suitable as an area monitor, and its characteristics are suitable for use as a breath monitor for the detection of drug use.

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President... economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered...

  8. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency with respect to significant narcotics traffickers centered in...

  9. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President... economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered...

  10. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President... economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered...

  11. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President... economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered...

  12. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  13. 77 FR 39573 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act'') (21 U.S.C. 1901-1908, 8 U.S.C. 1182). OFAC is also.... The Kingpin Act establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign...

  14. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  15. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  16. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  17. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  18. Neonatal Narcotic Dependence. Report Series 29, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    This brief report suggests that it is evident that many uncertainties still remain with regard to neonatal narcotic dependence. Discussion centers on the precise causes and symptoms of neonatal narcotic dependence, the most efficacious treatment procedures, the relative severity of heroin dependence as compared with methadone dependence in the…

  19. Allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics.

    PubMed

    Swerts, S; Van Gasse, A; Leysen, J; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Bridts, C H; Jorens, P G; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

    2014-03-01

    Despite their frequent use, allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics is rarely reported in literature. We present a review of the different classes of drugs of abuse that might be involved in allergies: central nervous system (CNS) depressants (such as cannabis, opioids and kava), CNS stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, khat and ephedra) and hallucinogens such as ketamine and nutmeg. Diagnosis of drug and narcotic allergy generally relies upon careful history taking, complemented with skin testing eventually along with quantification of sIgE. However, for various reasons, correct diagnosis of most of these drug allergies is not straightforward. For example, the native plant material applied for skin testing and sIgE antibody tests might harbour irrelevant IgE-binding structures that hamper correct diagnosis. Diagnosis might also be hampered due to uncertainties associated with the non-specific histamine releasing characteristics of some compounds and absence of validated sIgE tests. Whether the introduction of standardized allergen components and more functional tests, that is, basophil activation and degranulation assays, might be helpful to an improved diagnosis needs to be established. It is anticipated that due to the rare character of these allergies further validation is although necessary. PMID:24588864

  20. Quadrupole resonance spectroscopic study of narcotic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Timothy J.; West, Rebecca; Garroway, Allen N.; Lyndquist, R.; Yesinowski, James P.

    1997-02-01

    Bulk narcotic detection systems based upon Quadrupole Resonance Analysis (QRA) technology have a major advantage over imaging technologies, in that QRA is chemical-specific and consequently has a lower rate of false alarms. QRA is a magnetic resonance technology which occurs as a result of the inherent molecular properties of the atomic nuclei in crystalline and amorphous solids. The QRA response is characterized by 1) the precessional frequency of the nucleus, and 2) the nature of the electric field gradient experienced by the nucleus,due to its molecular environment. Another important detection parameter is linewidth, resonant quality. All of these parameters depend on sample purity and manufacturing process. Quantum Magnetics recently carried out a study on the QRA signatures of various narcotic materials with the support of the US Army, US Customs, and the Office of National Drug Control Policy. The aim of the study was to fully characterize the variation in QRA spectroscopic parameters of different samples of cocaine base and cocaine hydrochloride. The results from this study ar discussed here.

  1. 19 CFR 162.65 - Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs or marihuana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs... Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.65 Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs or marihuana. (a) Cargo or baggage containing unmanifested narcotic drugs or marihuana. When a package of...

  2. 19 CFR 162.66 - Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana... Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.66 Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit. In every case where a narcotic drug or marihuana is unladen without a permit, the...

  3. 19 CFR 162.65 - Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs or marihuana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs... Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.65 Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs or marihuana. (a) Cargo or baggage containing unmanifested narcotic drugs or marihuana. When a package of...

  4. 19 CFR 162.65 - Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs or marihuana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs... Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.65 Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs or marihuana. (a) Cargo or baggage containing unmanifested narcotic drugs or marihuana. When a package of...

  5. 19 CFR 162.66 - Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana... Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.66 Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit. In every case where a narcotic drug or marihuana is unladen without a permit, the...

  6. 19 CFR 162.66 - Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana... Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.66 Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit. In every case where a narcotic drug or marihuana is unladen without a permit, the...

  7. 19 CFR 162.66 - Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana... Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.66 Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit. In every case where a narcotic drug or marihuana is unladen without a permit, the...

  8. 19 CFR 162.65 - Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs or marihuana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs... Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.65 Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs or marihuana. (a) Cargo or baggage containing unmanifested narcotic drugs or marihuana. When a package of...

  9. 19 CFR 162.66 - Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana... Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.66 Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit. In every case where a narcotic drug or marihuana is unladen without a permit, the...

  10. 19 CFR 162.65 - Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs or marihuana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs... Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.65 Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs or marihuana. (a) Cargo or baggage containing unmanifested narcotic drugs or marihuana. When a package of...

  11. Reliability of a Personality Test for Narcotic Addicts in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestner, Elisabeth; Goldstein, Marvin

    1977-01-01

    The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) was used to determine retest reliability (7-day interval) and motivational distortion for a sample of narcotic addicts (N=141) legally committed to treatment and tested by staff for routine diagnostic purposes. (Author)

  12. Short-Term Follow-Up of Narcotic Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, June; Jabara, Raymond

    1974-01-01

    A follow-up questionnaire was mailed to 144 narcotic addict veterans approximately six months after termination from treatment at a multimodality drug program. It was found that 75 percent continued to use drugs, and 38 percent became readdicted. (Author)

  13. Narcotics detection using fast-neutron interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are being investigated for detection of narcotics in luggage and cargo containers. This paper discusses two different fast-neutron techniques. The first uses a pulsed accelerator or sealed-tube source to produce monoenergetic fast neutrons. Gamma rays characteristic of carbon and oxygen are detected and the elemental densities determined. Spatial localization is accomplished by either time of flight or collimators. This technique is suitable for examination of large containers because of the good penetration of the fast neutrons and the low attenuation of the high-energy gamma rays. The second technique uses an accelerator to produce nanosecond pulsed beams of deuterons that strike a target to produce a pulsed beam of neutrons with a continuum of energies. Elemental distributions are obtained by measuring the neutron spectrum after the source neutrons pass through the items being interrogated. Spatial variation of elemental densities is obtained by tomographic reconstruction of projection data obtained for three to five angles and relatively low (2 cm) resolution. This technique is best suited for examination of luggage or small containers with average neutron transmissions greater than about 0.01. Analytic and Monte-Carlo models are being used to investigate the operational characteristics and limitations of both techniques.

  14. Portable narcotics detector with identification capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumer, Tumay O.; Pierce, R. M.; Dotson, K. C.; Jadamec, Joseph R.; Su, Chih-Wu

    1994-10-01

    A portable hand held hidden substance detector has been developed and manufactured. Neutrons from a californium-252 source are emitted through the front face of the Compact Integrated Narcotics Detection Instrument (CINDI) and penetrate dense compartment materials with little change in energy, but are backscattered by hydrogen rich materials such as drugs. These backscattered neutrons can be readily detected. CINDI incorporates a highly sensitive detection scheme which permits the use of weak radioactive sources for safety without compromising detectability. CINDI is able to detect hydrogen-dense materials most effectively directly behind panels made of steel, wood, fiberglass, or even lead-lined materials. This makes it useful for inspecting marine vessels, ship bulkheads, automobiles, structure walls, or small sealed containers. The present CINDI version selectively detects hydrogen rich substances only. The new technique will detect both neutrons and gamma rays simultaneously. The backscatter mechanism of gamma rays and neutrons are sufficiently different that they complement each other and lead to a higher likelihood of identifying the concealed material.

  15. ACTH Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Clark, Adrian John; Forfar, Rachel; Hussain, Mashal; Jerman, Jeff; McIver, Ed; Taylor, Debra; Chan, Li

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) acts via a highly selective receptor that is a member of the melanocortin receptor subfamily of type 1 G protein-coupled receptors. The ACTH receptor, also known as the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), is unusual in that it is absolutely dependent on a small accessory protein, melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP) for cell surface expression and function. ACTH is the only known naturally occurring agonist for this receptor. This lack of redundancy and high degree of ligand specificity suggests that antagonism of this receptor could provide a useful therapeutic aid and a potential investigational tool. Clinical situations in which this could be useful include (1) Cushing's disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome - especially while preparing for definitive treatment of a causative tumor, or in refractory cases, or (2) congenital adrenal hyperplasia - as an adjunct to glucocorticoid replacement. A case for antagonism in other clinical situations in which there is ACTH excess can also be made. In this article, we will explore the scientific and clinical case for an ACTH antagonist, and will review the evidence for existing and recently described peptides and modified peptides in this role. PMID:27547198

  16. ACTH Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Adrian John; Forfar, Rachel; Hussain, Mashal; Jerman, Jeff; McIver, Ed; Taylor, Debra; Chan, Li

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) acts via a highly selective receptor that is a member of the melanocortin receptor subfamily of type 1 G protein-coupled receptors. The ACTH receptor, also known as the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), is unusual in that it is absolutely dependent on a small accessory protein, melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP) for cell surface expression and function. ACTH is the only known naturally occurring agonist for this receptor. This lack of redundancy and high degree of ligand specificity suggests that antagonism of this receptor could provide a useful therapeutic aid and a potential investigational tool. Clinical situations in which this could be useful include (1) Cushing’s disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome – especially while preparing for definitive treatment of a causative tumor, or in refractory cases, or (2) congenital adrenal hyperplasia – as an adjunct to glucocorticoid replacement. A case for antagonism in other clinical situations in which there is ACTH excess can also be made. In this article, we will explore the scientific and clinical case for an ACTH antagonist, and will review the evidence for existing and recently described peptides and modified peptides in this role. PMID:27547198

  17. The Narcotic Bowel Syndrome: Clinical Features, Pathophysiology and Management

    PubMed Central

    Grunkemeier, David M.S.; Cassara, Joseph E.; Dalton, Christine B.; Drossman, Douglas A.

    2007-01-01

    Narcotic bowel syndrome (NBS) is a subset of opioid bowel dysfunction that is characterized by chronic or frequently recurring abdominal pain that worsens with continued or escalating dosages of narcotics. This syndrome is under recognized and may be becoming more prevalent. This may be due in the United States to increases in using narcotics for chronic non-malignant painful disorders, and the development of maladaptive therapeutic interactions around its use. NBS can occur in patients with no prior gastrointestinal disorder who receive high dosages of narcotics after surgery or acute painful problems, among patients with functional GI disorders or other chronic gastrointestinal diseases who are managed by physicians unaware of the hyperalgesic effects of chronic opioids. The evidence for the enhanced pain perception is based on: a) activation of excitatory anti-analgesic pathways within a bimodal opioid regulation system, b) descending facilitation of pain at the Rostral Ventral Medulla and pain facilitation via dynorphin and CCK activation, and c) glial cell activation that produces morphine tolerance and enhances opioid induced pain. Treatment involves early recognition of the syndrome, an effective physician patient relationship, graded withdrawal of the narcotic according to a specified withdrawal program and the institution of medications to reduce withdrawal effects. PMID:17916540

  18. Portable narcotics detector and the results obtained in field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumer, Tumay O.; Su, Chih-Wu; Kaplan, Christopher R.; Rigdon, Stephen W.

    1997-02-01

    A compact integrated narcotics detection instrument (CINDI) has been developed at NOVA R&D, Inc. with funding provided by the U.S. Coast Guard. CINDI is designed as a portable sensitive neutron backscatter detector which has excellent penetration for thick and high Z compartment barriers. It also has a highly sensitive detection system for backscattered neutrons and, therefore, uses a very weak californium-252 neutron source. Neutrons backscatter profusely from materials that have a large hydrogen content, such as narcotics. The rate of backscattered neutrons detected is analyzed by a microprocessor and displayed on the control panel. The operator guides the detector along a suspected area and displays in real time the backscattered neutron rate. CINDI is capable of detecting narcotics effectively behind panels made of steel, wood, fiberglass, or even lead-lined materials. This makes it useful for inspecting marine vessels, ship bulkheads, automobiles, structure walls or small sealed containers. The strong response of CINDI to hydrogen-rich materials such as narcotics makes it an effective tool for detecting concealed drugs. Its response has been field tested by NOVA, the U.S. Coast Guard and Brewt Power Systems. The results of the tests show excellent response and specificity to narcotic drugs. Several large shipments of concealed drugs have been discovered during these trials and the results are presented and discussed.

  19. Buprenorphine treatment for narcotic addiction: not without risks.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    While most clinicians will never prescribe buprenorphine or combined buprenorphine/naloxone, familiarity with the risks of these pharmacological approaches to the treatment of narcotic addiction remains relevant. Overall, medication-assisted treatment has clearly resulted in meaningful gains for a number of individuals who are addicted to narcotics (i.e., opiates and opioids). However, a certain level of risk is inherent with these approaches. For example, both buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone may be diverted and misused (e.g., intravenously injected, intranasally administered), particularly buprenorphine. Likewise, when illicitly injected, both can cause infectious complications as well as result in death from overdose. The risk of death with buprenorphine overdose appears to be heightened with the coadministration of either benzodiazepines or sedative/hypnotics. To conclude, as with all interventions in medicine, buprenorphine treatment for narcotic addiction has a clinically fluctuating risk/benefit equation that must be continually monitored. PMID:25973324

  20. Buprenorphine Treatment for Narcotic Addiction: Not Without Risks

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    While most clinicians will never prescribe buprenorphine or combined buprenorphine/naloxone, familiarity with the risks of these pharmacological approaches to the treatment of narcotic addiction remains relevant. Overall, medication-assisted treatment has clearly resulted in meaningful gains for a number of individuals who are addicted to narcotics (i.e., opiates and opioids). However, a certain level of risk is inherent with these approaches. For example, both buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone may be diverted and misused (e.g., intravenously injected, intranasally administered), particularly buprenorphine. Likewise, when illicitly injected, both can cause infectious complications as well as result in death from overdose. The risk of death with buprenorphine overdose appears to be heightened with the coadministration of either benzodiazepines or sedative/hypnotics. To conclude, as with all interventions in medicine, buprenorphine treatment for narcotic addiction has a clinically fluctuating risk/benefit equation that must be continually monitored. PMID:25973324

  1. 21 CFR 1306.07 - Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.07 Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs. (a) A practitioner may administer or dispense directly (but not prescribe) a narcotic drug listed in any schedule to...

  2. 31 CFR 598.309 - Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Narcotic drug; controlled substance... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.309 Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed...

  3. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  4. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  5. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.8 Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and... the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs is prohibited....

  6. 32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics... concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances. (a) All personnel shall endeavor to prevent and eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled substances within...

  7. 31 CFR 598.309 - Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Narcotic drug; controlled substance... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.309 Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed...

  8. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.8 Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and... the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs is prohibited....

  9. 32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics... concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances. (a) All personnel shall endeavor to prevent and eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled substances within...

  10. 31 CFR 598.309 - Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Narcotic drug; controlled substance... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.309 Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed...

  11. 32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics... concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances. (a) All personnel shall endeavor to prevent and eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled substances within...

  12. 21 CFR 1306.07 - Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.07 Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs. (a) A practitioner may administer or dispense directly (but not prescribe) a narcotic drug listed in any schedule to...

  13. Particle generators for the calibration and testing of narcotic and explosive vapor/particle detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, John P.; Hallowell, Susan F.; Hoglund, David E.

    1994-03-01

    A review of data on narcotics and explosives particulates is presented. Methods to generate particles of narcotics and explosives will be discussed with respect to resulting particle size distribution and mass output. The application of these standards to the testing of narcotic and explosive particle detection systems will be addressed.

  14. 31 CFR 598.309 - Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Narcotic drug; controlled substance... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.309 Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed...

  15. 21 CFR 1306.07 - Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.07 Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs. (a) A practitioner may administer or dispense directly (but not prescribe) a narcotic drug listed in any schedule to...

  16. 21 CFR 1306.07 - Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.07 Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs. (a) A practitioner may administer or dispense directly (but not prescribe) a narcotic drug listed in any schedule to...

  17. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  18. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.8 Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and... the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs is prohibited....

  19. 32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics... concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances. (a) All personnel shall endeavor to prevent and eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled substances within...

  20. 75 FR 42487 - Supplementary Identifying Information of Previously-Designated Individual, Foreign Narcotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Individual, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury... interests in property continue to be blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  1. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  2. 3 CFR - Delegation of Functions Under Subsection 804(h)(2)(A) of the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) of the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May 31, 2013 Delegation of Functions Under Subsection 804(h)(2)(A) of the Foreign Narcotics...) of the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (21 U.S.C. 1903(h)(2)(A)), to the Secretary of...

  3. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.8 Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and... the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs is prohibited....

  4. 32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics... concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances. (a) All personnel shall endeavor to prevent and eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled substances within...

  5. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  6. 31 CFR 598.309 - Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Narcotic drug; controlled substance... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.309 Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed...

  7. 21 CFR 1304.31 - Reports from manufacturers importing narcotic raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... material. (a) Every manufacturer which imports or manufactures from narcotic raw material (opium, poppy... following information shall be submitted for each type of narcotic raw material (quantities are expressed as...) Ending inventory. (c) The following information shall be submitted for each narcotic raw...

  8. 21 CFR 1304.31 - Reports from manufacturers importing narcotic raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... material. (a) Every manufacturer which imports or manufactures from narcotic raw material (opium, poppy... following information shall be submitted for each type of narcotic raw material (quantities are expressed as...) Ending inventory. (c) The following information shall be submitted for each narcotic raw...

  9. 21 CFR 1304.31 - Reports from manufacturers importing narcotic raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... material. (a) Every manufacturer which imports or manufactures from narcotic raw material (opium, poppy... following information shall be submitted for each type of narcotic raw material (quantities are expressed as...) Ending inventory. (c) The following information shall be submitted for each narcotic raw...

  10. 21 CFR 1304.31 - Reports from manufacturers importing narcotic raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... material. (a) Every manufacturer which imports or manufactures from narcotic raw material (opium, poppy... following information shall be submitted for each type of narcotic raw material (quantities are expressed as...) Ending inventory. (c) The following information shall be submitted for each narcotic raw...

  11. No End in Sight: The Abuse of Prescription Narcotics.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Theodore J

    2015-01-01

    From teenagers dying from heroin overdoses to crime tied to Vicodin and OxyContin addiction to road fatalities in which sedatives and muscle relaxants are involved, 20,000 deaths in the United States in 2014 were attributed to problems associated with narcotics and prescription drug use. Our author, whose research involves the neurobiological basis of drug addiction, traces the history and evolution of narcotics and leans on his clinical experience to discuss why certain drugs are powerful, addicting-and dangerous. PMID:27358666

  12. No End in Sight: The Abuse of Prescription Narcotics

    PubMed Central

    Cicero, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Editor’s Note: From teenagers dying from heroin overdoses to crime tied to Vicodin and OxyContin addiction to road fatalities in which sedatives and muscle relaxants are involved, 20,000 deaths in the United States in 2014 were attributed to problems associated with narcotics and prescription drug use. Our author, whose research involves the neurobiological basis of drug addiction, traces the history and evolution of narcotics and leans on his clinical experience to discuss why certain drugs are powerful, addicting—and dangerous. PMID:27358666

  13. 75 FR 64782 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...The Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing the names of 12 entities and 17 individuals whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act'') (21 U.S.C. 1901-1908, 8 U.S.C....

  14. 77 FR 58912 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ...) (individual) Linked To: CONSTRUCTORA FR DE VENEZUELA, C.A. Entity: 2. CONSTRUCTORA FR DE VENEZUELA, C.A. (a.k... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entity whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign...

  15. The Narcotics Situation in Russia as a Social Pedagogical Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the use of narcotics in Russia has been complicated by the spread of new kinds of drugs that are less visible than more traditional kinds. A worsening of the situation must be prevented. This requires studying the accumulation of world experience, searching for up-to-date approaches to prevention, combining the efforts of science…

  16. Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)

  17. Legal Position of School Personnel -- Drugs and Narcotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    California educators have been given broad discretionary powers to control students who misuse drugs or narcotics, and to develop drug education programs. This paper outlines and discusses legislation dealing with disciplinary actions against drug offenders, and delineates school responsibilities for developing and implementing effective drug…

  18. The Vocational Maturity of Inner-City Narcotic Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    The maturity of vocational attitudes of 103 narcotic addicts from New York City and of 46 of their peers was assessed. Comparison between scores of the addicts and their peers showed the former to have significantly lower maturity of vocational attitudes. (Author)

  19. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.9 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. At both Mt. Weather and the..., barbiturates or amphetamines onto the premises unless the Assistant Administrator, the Mt. Weather...

  20. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.9 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. At both Mt. Weather and the..., barbiturates or amphetamines onto the premises unless the Assistant Administrator, the Mt. Weather...

  1. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.9 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. At both Mt. Weather and the..., barbiturates or amphetamines onto the premises unless the Assistant Administrator, the Mt. Weather...

  2. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.9 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. At both Mt. Weather and the..., barbiturates or amphetamines onto the premises unless the Assistant Administrator, the Mt. Weather...

  3. Neonatal Narcotic Dependence. Report Series 29, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    This brief report from the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information is intended to give the general public an overview of the subject of neonatal narcotic dependence. It discusses the problems which the addicted mother and her baby present hospital staffs as they relate to improper postnatal care and infant mortality rates. The report…

  4. State and Local Narcotics Law Enforcement Conference. Hearing before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control.

    This document contains the proceedings from a conference of state and local narcotics enforcement officials from 24 states and 14 city agencies. Statements from three members of the Select Committee on Narcotics are followed by discussions involving committee members, attendees from state and local agencies, and participants from several federal…

  5. Effect of narcotic premedication of scintigraphic evaluation of gallbladder perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Sefczek, D.M.; Sharma, P.; Isaacs, G.H.; Brodmerkel, G.J. Jr.; Adatepe, M.H.; Powell, O.M.; Nichols, K.

    1985-01-01

    A case of gallbladder perforation is presented in which a small bile leak was demonstrated by cholescintigraphy while the patient was receiving meperidine, but not after meperidine was discontinued. The scintigrams obtained during meperidine therapy also showed a pattern of bile-duct obstruction. It is suggested that increased biliary pressure secondary to meperidine admininstration permitted visualization of the leak. Use of narcotic drugs may be a useful pharmocologic intervention in cases of peritonitis due to small obscure bile leaks.

  6. Gamma detectors in explosives and narcotics detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Zubarev, E. V.; Krasnoperov, A. V.; Porohovoi, S. Yu.; Rapatskii, V. L.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Sadovskii, A. B.; Salamatin, A. V.; Salmin, R. A.; Slepnev, V. M.; Andreev, E. I.

    2013-11-01

    Gamma detectors based on BGO crystals were designed and developed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These detectors are used in explosives and narcotics detection systems. Key specifications and design features of the detectors are presented. A software temperature-compensation method that makes it possible to stabilize the gamma detector response and operate the detector in a temperature range from -20 to 50°C is described.

  7. Narcotic effects on phenol red disposition in mice.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, A

    1981-01-01

    Morphine administration reduces phenol red clearance in mice. Increasing subcutaneous morphine doses from 10 to 40 mg/kg caused a progressive increase in plasma phenol red concentrations and reduced dye elimination in urine. Intravenous phenol red given at 50 to 200 mg/kg was cleared from plasma at 24 to 30 microliters/min/kg b. wt. At these dosages of dye plasma clearance of phenol red was reduced at least 33% by morphine pretreatment (20 mg/kg s.c.). Lowered dye clearance by morphine was reflected in smaller apparent volumes of phenol red distribution. The morphine effect on the elimination constant (kel) of phenol red was variable. The narcotic caused a rise in kel at the lowest phenol red dose and lowered this constant at the high phenol red dose. Like morphine, hydromorphone and methadone had an antidiuretic effect in mice and reduced renal elimination of phenol red. Naloxone had no effect on phenol red disposition but reversed completely the effect of morphine. This finding shows that the effect of the narcotic was not due to competition or displacement from transport sites. Morphine did not cause a change in urine pH. Since the urine did not become more acidic after morphine, back diffusion of undissociated due is not likely as the cause of its reduced renal elimination. Reduced renal elimination of phenol red by narcotics is probably due to reduced renal blood flow and glomerular filtration as shown by lowered p-aminohippurate and iothalamate clearance in mice. PMID:7452511

  8. A Moving Target: Reasons Given by Adolescents for Alcohol and Narcotics Use, 1984 and 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmqvist, Riia A.; Martikainen, Liisa K.; von Wright, Maijaliisa Rauste

    2003-01-01

    Studied the reasons given by Finnish adolescents for alcohol use and the use of alcohol and narcotics by others. Findings for 396 adolescents in 1984 and 488 in 1999 suggest that adolescents' attitudes have become more liberal toward alcohol and narcotics use and that prevention campaigns may be aiming at a moving target of cultural opinion. (SLD)

  9. 77 FR 64221 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ..., Washington, October 17, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-25969 Filed 10-18-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by... narcotics traffickers centered in Colombia and the extreme level of violence, corruption, and harm...

  10. Effects of Interventions on Relapse to Narcotics Addiction: An Event-History Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hser, Yih-Ing; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Event-history analysis was applied to the life history data of 581 male narcotics addicts to specify the concurrent, postintervention, and durational effects of social interventions on relapse to narcotics use. Results indicate the advisability of supporting methadone maintenance with other prevention strategies. (SLD)

  11. 21 CFR 1304.31 - Reports from manufacturers importing narcotic raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reports from manufacturers importing narcotic raw material. 1304.31 Section 1304.31 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF REGISTRANTS Reports § 1304.31 Reports from manufacturers importing narcotic raw material. (a) Every manufacturer...

  12. Cost analysis of two implantable narcotic delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Bedder, M D; Burchiel, K; Larson, A

    1991-08-01

    This survey compares costs of two commonly utilized implantable narcotic delivery systems. The systems are classified into type-I (exteriorized system using the DuPen epidural catheter) and type-II (implanted system using the Synchromed pump). Costs were analyzed by reviewing actual patient hospital financial service records and Homecare vendor quotations. From the perspective of cost analysis alone, we conclude that savings accrue when patients requiring treatment beyond 3 months duration are managed with a type-II implanted system compared with a type-I system with an external pump. PMID:1908884

  13. Carbon camera detection of vehicular-transported bulk narcotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trower, W. Peter; Saunders, Anna W.; Shvedunov, Vasiliy I.

    1997-02-01

    We describe a nuclear technique, the carbon camera, with which we have produced images of elemental carbon in concentrations and with surface densities typical in kilo quantities of narcotics. The signal is all high-energy gamma rays detected in a short time interval after irradiation of a target pixel by photons produced with an electron beam. Our carbon marker, the photoproton reaction on the minority carbon isotope, gives a robust signal with no interfering signals. We describe here the physics of the carbon camera and sketch our efforts to develop the technology of a fieldable instrument.

  14. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Narcotics and Other Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other...

  15. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Narcotics and Other Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other...

  16. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Narcotics and Other Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other...

  17. 14 CFR 91.19 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.19 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or... operate a civil aircraft within the United States with knowledge that narcotic drugs, marihuana,...

  18. 14 CFR 91.19 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.19 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or... operate a civil aircraft within the United States with knowledge that narcotic drugs, marihuana,...

  19. 14 CFR 91.19 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.19 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or... operate a civil aircraft within the United States with knowledge that narcotic drugs, marihuana,...

  20. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Narcotics and Other Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other...

  1. 14 CFR 91.19 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.19 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or... operate a civil aircraft within the United States with knowledge that narcotic drugs, marihuana,...

  2. 14 CFR 91.19 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.19 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or... operate a civil aircraft within the United States with knowledge that narcotic drugs, marihuana,...

  3. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Narcotics and Other Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other...

  4. Imaging carbon and nitrogen concentrations for narcotics and explosives screening

    SciTech Connect

    Trower, W.P.

    1993-12-31

    The author describes a nuclear technique for imaging carbon and nitrogen concentrations with surface densities characteristics of bulk narcotics and concealed explosives, the Carbon and the Nitrogen Camera. The physics is rooted in the tightly bound carbon-12 nucleus to which its neighboring isobars, nitrogen-12 and boron-12, decay rapidly (11 and 20 ms), mostly to its ground state, by emitting energetic beta particles (E{sub {beta}}{sup max} {approximately} 13 and 17 MeV) all of which produce bremsstrahlung and some yield annihilate radiation. The signal, photons detected in the multiscalar mode, results from the reactions {sup 13}C({gamma},p){sup 12}{Beta} for the bulk narcotics application and {sup 14}N({gamma},2n){sup 12}N and 14N({gamma},2p){sup 12}{Beta} for explosives detection and are initiated by a stepped pulsed electron beam with energy of {approximately} 30 and {approximately} 50 MeV, respectively. Images of 180 {approximately} 5 cm{sup 2} pixels taken in {approximately} 7 seconds will be presented of the carbon in a kilo of cocaine and the nitrogen in 125 grams of SEMTEX.

  5. Screening technologies for detection of swallowed packages of narcotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Lowell J.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Sheldon, Alan G.; Kumar, Sankaran

    1997-01-01

    An increasingly popular method of transporting modest quantities of narcotics across international borders is to employ 'swallowers'. These are people who typically enter the country as international airline passengers after swallowing small, water-tight packages of heroin and/or cocaine. Rapid and accurate identification of swallowers in the airport environment poses difficult technical changes. Commonly used medical inspection technologies fall into one of two categories. Either they are unsuitable for widespread use, or they do not provide adequate information. An example of the former is x-ray scanning, while an example of the latter is ultrasonic imaging. Quantum Magnetics has developed a system to screen selected airline passengers for the presence of swallowed narcotics. The system utilizes magnetic resonance, which provides the physical basis for the magnetic resonance imaging systems widely used in the medical community as an alternative to x-rays. The system is currently operational, and laboratory performance testing is complete. Both the design of the system and its performance will be discussed. This work was sponsored in part by the Office of National Drug Control Policy and the US Customs Service.

  6. Liquid contents verification for explosives, chemical agents, and dissolved narcotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sankaran; McMichael, W. Casey; Magnuson, Erik E.; Lee, Young K.; Moeller, Charles R.; Czipott, Peter V.; Rayner, Timothy J.; Newman, David E.; Wroblewski, Dariusz

    2001-02-01

    An increasingly important need today is to guard against terrorist attacks at key locations such as airports and public buildings. Liquid explosives can avoid detection at security checkpoints by being concealed as beverages or other benign liquids. Magnetic resonance (MR) offers a safe, non-invasive technology for probing and classifying the liquid contents inside sealed non-metallic containers or packages. Quantum Magnetics has developed a Liquid Explosives Screening System or `Bottle Scanner' to screen for liquid explosives and flammables, described at an earlier SPIE conference in 1996. Since then, the Bottle Scanner's performance has been significantly improved by the incorporation of neural network-based liquid classification. Recently we have shown that the incorporation of additional discrimination parameters can further enhance liquid classification. In addition to screening for explosives and flammables, the Bottle Scanner can be effective against chemical agents, many of which contain fluorine or phosphorous, both of which have MR signatures. Finally, we have evidence that the Bottle Scanner may also be able to detect narcotics dissolved in beverages, one of the methods used to smuggle narcotics across international borders. The development of the Bottle Scanner has been funded by the Federal Aviation Administration.

  7. Prevalence of narcotic bowel syndrome in opioid abusers in iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Bizhan; Arab, Peyman; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Shafieipour, Sara; Drossman, Douglas A; Banivaheb, Ghodseyeh

    2014-10-01

    BACKGROUND In spite of the increasing trend in opioid abusers worldwide, the prevalence of narcotic bowel syndrome (NBS) is undetermined. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of NBS and other opioid bowel dysfunction (OBD) in opioid abusers in Kerman, southeast Iran. According to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the prevalence of NBS in opioid abusers. METHODS By referring to addiction treatment centers in Kerman city and in a cross-sectional study, 577 subjects with opium or opioid subtracts abuse were included in our study. A validated questionnaire was used for OBD assessment and diagnosis of NBS was made according to both the presence of chronic abdominal pain despite increasing the opioid dose and ruling out other causes of abdominal pain. SPSS software version 16 was used for data analysis. p value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS Constipation, regurgitation, and heartburn were the most gastrointestinal complaints that were found in 132(22.9%), 123(21.3%) and 91(15.8%) subjects, respectively. Only 16(2.8%) participants fulfilled all the NBS criteria. Simultaneous use of non-narcotic sedative drugs increased the risk of NBS significantly (the odds ratio 3:1 and p=0.049). CONCLUSION NBS is not rare among opioid abusers and should be considered as a cause of chronic abdominal pain in this group. PMID:25349684

  8. Narcotic addiction: the expectant mother and her baby.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Clune, M; Maguire, R; Griffin, E; O'Connor, J

    1990-12-01

    In a retrospective study of the period 1982-1985, the records of 29 narcotic-addicted mothers and their 42 babies were reviewed. All mothers were from socially deprived backgrounds, had a poor record of ante-natal attendance and had frequent admissions to hospital. Thirteen mothers had a past history of hepatitis B and four were HBsAg positive. The babies had significantly lower mean gestational age and mean birth weight than the control group. Features of withdrawal were recorded in 84% of babies where a history was available. A high incidence of twins (10.5%) was also observed. Testing for HIV antibody in more recent cases has revealed positive results in seven mothers and three babies; one infant has since died from acquired immune deficiency syndrome. PMID:2081667

  9. Recent advances in immunosensor for narcotic drug detection

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Sonu; Suman, Pankaj; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena; Suri, C. Raman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Immunosensor for illicit drugs have gained immense interest and have found several applications for drug abuse monitoring. This technology has offered a low cost detection of narcotics; thereby, providing a confirmatory platform to compliment the existing analytical methods. Methods: In this minireview, we define the basic concept of transducer for immunosensor development that utilizes antibodies and low molecular mass hapten (opiate) molecules. Results: This article emphasizes on recent advances in immunoanalytical techniques for monitoring of opiate drugs. Our results demonstrate that high quality antibodies can be used for immunosensor development against target analyte with greater sensitivity, specificity and precision than other available analytical methods. Conclusion: In this review we highlight the fundamentals of different transducer technologies and its applications for immunosensor development currently being developed in our laboratory using rapid screening via immunochromatographic kit, label free optical detection via enzyme, fluorescence, gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes based immunosensing for sensitive and specific monitoring of opiates. PMID:26929925

  10. Skills of Medical Students and House Officers in Prescribing Narcotic Medications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Stuart A.; Sheidler, Vivian R.

    1985-01-01

    Patient management questions were used to assess ability to convert from one narcotic regimen to an approximately equal analgesic dose of a second regimen. Only eight percent of the answers were within the correct range. (Author/MLW)

  11. Vasopressin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the principal hormone involved in regulating the tonicity of body fluids. Less appreciated is the role that AVP plays in a variety of other physiologic functions including glucose metabolism, cardiovascular homeostasis, bone metabolism, and cognitive behavior. AVP receptor antagonists are now available and currently approved to treat hyponatremia. There is a great deal of interest in exploring the potential benefits that these drugs may play in blocking AVP-mediated effects in other organ systems. The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the expanding role of AVP receptor antagonists and what disease states these drugs may eventually be used for. PMID:25604388

  12. Gender differences in use of prescription narcotic medications among living kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Lentine, Krista L; Lam, Ngan N; Schnitzler, Mark A; Garg, Amit X; Xiao, Huiling; Leander, Sheila E; Brennan, Daniel C; Taler, Sandra J; Axelrod, David; Segev, Dorry L

    2015-10-01

    Prescription narcotic use among living kidney donors is not well described. Using a unique database that integrates national registry identifiers for living kidney donors (1987-2007) in the United States with billing claims from a private health insurer (2000-2007), we identified pharmacy fills for prescription narcotic medications in periods 1-4 and >4 yr post-donation and estimated relative likelihoods of post-donation narcotic use by Cox regression. We also compared narcotic fill rates and medication possession ratios (MPRs, defined as (days of medication supplied)/(days observed)), between donors and age- and sex-matched non-donors. Overall, rates of narcotic medication fills were 32.3 and 32.4 per 100 person-years in periods 1-4 and >4 yr post-donation. After age and race adjustment, women were approximately twice as likely as men to fill a narcotic prescription in years 1-4 (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.86-2.79) and >4 yr (aHR 1.70; 95% CI 1.50-1.93). MPRs in donors were low (<2.5% days exposed), and lower than among age- and sex-matched non-donors. Prescription narcotic medication use is more common among women than men in the intermediate term after live kidney donation. Overall, total narcotic exposure is low, and lower than among non-donors from the general population. PMID:26227016

  13. Opioid Antagonist Impedes Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty spider-phobic adults underwent exposure to 17 phobic-related, graded performance tests. Fifteen subjects were assigned to naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and 15 were assigned to placebo. Naltrexone had a significant effect on exposure, with naltrexone subjects taking significantly longer to complete first 10 steps of exposure and with…

  14. Spiropiperidine CCR5 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Rotstein, David M; Gabriel, Stephen D; Makra, Ferenc; Filonova, Lubov; Gleason, Shelley; Brotherton-Pleiss, Christine; Setti, Lina Q; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Lee, Eun Kyung; Sankuratri, Surya; Ji, Changhua; Derosier, Andre; Dioszegi, Marianna; Heilek, Gabrielle; Jekle, Andreas; Berry, Pamela; Weller, Paul; Mau, Cheng-I

    2009-09-15

    A novel series of CCR5 antagonists has been identified, utilizing leads from high-throughput screening which were further modified based on insights from competitor molecules. Lead optimization was pursued by balancing opposing trends of metabolic stability and potency. Selective and potent analogs with good pharmacokinetic properties were successfully developed. PMID:19674898

  15. Narcotic receptor blockade and its effect on the analgesic response to placebo and ibuprofen after oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Hersh, E V; Ochs, H; Quinn, P; MacAfee, K; Cooper, S A; Barasch, A

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of endogenous opiates to the analgesic response after treatment with placebo, codeine, and ibuprofen after oral surgery. Eighty-one patients undergoing complicated dental extractions were pretreated with either a placebo or the narcotic antagonist naltrexone 50 mg, 30 minutes before surgery. After surgery, patients self administered one of three possible postsurgical medications, which included placebo, codeine 60 mg, and ibuprofen 400 mg, when their pain reached a moderate or severe intensity. The study was double-blind with the three postsurgical treatments being randomly allocated within each presurgical treatment block. Pain intensity, pain relief, pain half gone, and overall evaluations were assessed for up to 6 hours. Ibuprofen was significantly more efficacious (p < .05) than codeine or placebo for most analgesic measures. The administration of naltrexone before surgery reduced the analgesic response to both placebo and codeine. Pretreatment with naltrexone did not diminish the peak analgesic response to ibuprofen, but surprisingly prolonged (p < .05) the duration of its action. The results suggest that a blockade of endogenous opiates by naltrexone diminished the placebo response, but that naltrexone may prolong ibuprofen analgesia by some unknown mechanism. PMID:8387662

  16. Xanthines as Adenosine Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The natural plant alkaloids caffeine and theophylline were the first adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists described in the literature. They exhibit micromolar affinities and are non-selective. A large number of derivatives and analogs have subsequently been synthesized and evaluated as AR antagonists. Very potent antagonists have thus been developed with selectivity for each of the four AR subtypes. PMID:20859796

  17. A review of Alcoholics Anonymous/ Narcotics Anonymous programs for teens.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The investigation of the applicability of Alcoholics Anonymous/Narcotics Anonymous (AA/NA) for teens has only been a subject of empirical research investigation since the early 1990s. In the present review, the author describes teen involvement in AA/NA programming, provides an exhaustive review of the outcomes of 19 studies that used an AA/NA model as part of their formal teen substance abuse treatment programs, and provides data on the effects of AA/NA attendance on abstinence at follow-up, on which youth tend to become involved in AA/NA, and on mediation of the benefits of AA/NA participation. In addition, the author suggests the reasons for somewhat limited participation by teens in more informal, community-based 12-step meetings, and makes suggestions for maximizing participation at meetings in the community. The author concludes that AA/ NA participation is a valuable modality of substance abuse treatment for teens and that much can be done to increase teen participation, though more research is needed. PMID:20164105

  18. 21 CFR 1301.74 - Other security controls for non-practitioners; narcotic treatment programs and compounders for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other security controls for non-practitioners; narcotic treatment programs and compounders for narcotic treatment programs. 1301.74 Section 1301.74 Food... Federal Register citations affecting § 1301.74, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears...

  19. 21 CFR 1301.74 - Other security controls for non-practitioners; narcotic treatment programs and compounders for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other security controls for non-practitioners; narcotic treatment programs and compounders for narcotic treatment programs. 1301.74 Section 1301.74 Food... Federal Register citations affecting § 1301.74, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears...

  20. 21 CFR 1301.74 - Other security controls for non-practitioners; narcotic treatment programs and compounders for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other security controls for non-practitioners; narcotic treatment programs and compounders for narcotic treatment programs. 1301.74 Section 1301.74 Food... Federal Register citations affecting § 1301.74, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears...

  1. 21 CFR 1301.74 - Other security controls for non-practitioners; narcotic treatment programs and compounders for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other security controls for non-practitioners; narcotic treatment programs and compounders for narcotic treatment programs. 1301.74 Section 1301.74 Food... Federal Register citations affecting § 1301.74, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears...

  2. 21 CFR 1301.74 - Other security controls for non-practitioners; narcotic treatment programs and compounders for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other security controls for non-practitioners; narcotic treatment programs and compounders for narcotic treatment programs. 1301.74 Section 1301.74 Food... Federal Register citations affecting § 1301.74, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears...

  3. 21 CFR 1304.25 - Records for treatment programs which compound narcotics for treatment programs and other locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records for treatment programs which compound....25 Records for treatment programs which compound narcotics for treatment programs and other locations. Each person registered or authorized by § 1301.22 of this chapter to compound narcotic drugs for...

  4. 21 CFR 1304.25 - Records for treatment programs which compound narcotics for treatment programs and other locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records for treatment programs which compound....25 Records for treatment programs which compound narcotics for treatment programs and other locations. Each person registered or authorized by § 1301.22 of this chapter to compound narcotic drugs for...

  5. 21 CFR 1304.25 - Records for treatment programs which compound narcotics for treatment programs and other locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records for treatment programs which compound....25 Records for treatment programs which compound narcotics for treatment programs and other locations. Each person registered or authorized by § 1301.22 of this chapter to compound narcotic drugs for...

  6. 21 CFR 1304.25 - Records for treatment programs which compound narcotics for treatment programs and other locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records for treatment programs which compound....25 Records for treatment programs which compound narcotics for treatment programs and other locations. Each person registered or authorized by § 1301.22 of this chapter to compound narcotic drugs for...

  7. 21 CFR 1304.25 - Records for treatment programs which compound narcotics for treatment programs and other locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records for treatment programs which compound....25 Records for treatment programs which compound narcotics for treatment programs and other locations. Each person registered or authorized by § 1301.22 of this chapter to compound narcotic drugs for...

  8. 14 CFR 141.18 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 141.18 Section 141.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... General § 141.18 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or...

  9. 14 CFR 135.41 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 135.41 Section 135.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.41 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant...

  10. 14 CFR 141.18 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 141.18 Section 141.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... General § 141.18 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or...

  11. 14 CFR 121.15 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 121.15 Section 121.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION....15 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If...

  12. 14 CFR 125.39 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 125.39 Section 125.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... AIRCRAFT Certification Rules and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.39 Carriage of narcotic drugs,...

  13. 14 CFR 121.15 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 121.15 Section 121.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION....15 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If...

  14. 78 FR 33941 - Delegation of Functions Under Subsection 804(h)(2)(A) of the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, May 31, 2013 [FR Doc. 2013-13512 Filed 6-4-13... 804(h)(2)(A) of the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act Executive Order 13645--Authorizing the... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act Memorandum for the Secretary of the Treasury By the authority vested in...

  15. 14 CFR 121.15 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 121.15 Section 121.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION....15 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If...

  16. 14 CFR 133.14 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 133.14 Section 133.14 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If the holder of a...

  17. 14 CFR 135.41 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 135.41 Section 135.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.41 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant...

  18. 14 CFR 121.15 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 121.15 Section 121.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION....15 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If...

  19. 14 CFR 135.41 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 135.41 Section 135.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.41 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant...

  20. 14 CFR 125.39 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 125.39 Section 125.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... AIRCRAFT Certification Rules and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.39 Carriage of narcotic drugs,...

  1. 14 CFR 141.18 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 141.18 Section 141.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... General § 141.18 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or...

  2. 14 CFR 121.15 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 121.15 Section 121.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION....15 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If...

  3. 14 CFR 133.14 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 133.14 Section 133.14 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If the holder of a...

  4. 14 CFR 125.39 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 125.39 Section 125.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... AIRCRAFT Certification Rules and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.39 Carriage of narcotic drugs,...

  5. 14 CFR 135.41 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 135.41 Section 135.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.41 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant...

  6. 14 CFR 141.18 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 141.18 Section 141.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... General § 141.18 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or...

  7. 14 CFR 133.14 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 133.14 Section 133.14 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If the holder of a...

  8. 14 CFR 125.39 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 125.39 Section 125.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... AIRCRAFT Certification Rules and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.39 Carriage of narcotic drugs,...

  9. 14 CFR 133.14 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 133.14 Section 133.14 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If the holder of a...

  10. 14 CFR 135.41 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 135.41 Section 135.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.41 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant...

  11. 14 CFR 125.39 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 125.39 Section 125.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... AIRCRAFT Certification Rules and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.39 Carriage of narcotic drugs,...

  12. 14 CFR 133.14 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 133.14 Section 133.14 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If the holder of a...

  13. 14 CFR 141.18 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 141.18 Section 141.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... General § 141.18 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or...

  14. 21 CFR 1312.30 - Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances requiring an import and export permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled... Controlled Substances § 1312.30 Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances requiring an import and export permit. The following Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances...

  15. 21 CFR 1312.30 - Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances requiring an import and export permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled... Controlled Substances § 1312.30 Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances requiring an import and export permit. The following Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances...

  16. 21 CFR 1312.30 - Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances requiring an import and export permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled... Controlled Substances § 1312.30 Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances requiring an import and export permit. The following Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances...

  17. 21 CFR 1312.30 - Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances requiring an import and export permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled... Controlled Substances § 1312.30 Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances requiring an import and export permit. The following Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances...

  18. 21 CFR 1312.30 - Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances requiring an import and export permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled... Controlled Substances § 1312.30 Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances requiring an import and export permit. The following Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances...

  19. Development of a portable preconcentrator/ion mobility spectrometer system for the trace detection of narcotics

    SciTech Connect

    Parmeter, J.E.; Custer, C.A.

    1997-08-01

    This project was supported by LDRD funding for the development and preliminary testing of a portable narcotics detection system. The system developed combines a commercial trace detector known as an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) with a preconcentrator originally designed by Department 5848 for the collection of explosives molecules. The detector and preconcentrator were combined along with all necessary accessories onto a push cart, thus yielding a fully portable detection unit. Preliminary testing with both explosives and narcotics molecules shown that the system is operational, and that it can successfully detect drugs as marijuana, methamphetamine (speed), and cocaine based on their characteristics IMS signatures.

  20. Comparison of a narcotic (oxicone) and a non-narcotic anti-inflammatory analgesic (indoprofen) in the treatment of renal colic.

    PubMed

    Persson, N H; Bergqvist, D; Melander, A; Zederfelt, B

    1985-01-01

    Intravenous indoprofen (400 mg), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, was compared with intramuscular oxicodone hydrochloride (= oxicone 10 mg), a narcotic analgesic agent, in regard to efficacy and side effects in the treatment of renal colic. Oxicone was combined with papaverine (20 mg). Patients were randomized to either treatment, and the drugs were given in double-dummy fashion, i.e. one injection of active drug plus one placebo injection. Pain intensity before and after treatment was registered by the patient (visual analog scale) and by a nurse, who also registered side effects. Oxicone was given to 46 patients and indoprofen to 48. The groups did not differ in body weight, age, sex distribution, or pretreatment intensity of pain. More patients required additional treatment in the oxicone than in the indoprofen group (19 v. 10). At 2-5 min after injection, pain reduction was greater with indoprofen, and more patients in this group had pain relief after 3-5 hours. Side effects were less frequent with indoprofen than with oxicone (1 v. 20 patients), in particular from the central nervous system. This difference probably was related to indoprofen's slow and poor penetration of the blood-brain barrier. The study affirmed that non-narcotic cyclooxygenase inhibitors can replace narcotic analgesics for acute pain alleviation in renal colic. Indoprofen seems to be a useful alternative, with low risk of central nervous side effects. PMID:3890435

  1. Selective orexin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lebold, Terry P; Bonaventure, Pascal; Shireman, Brock T

    2013-09-01

    The orexin, or hypocretin, neuropeptides (orexin-A and orexin-B) are produced on neurons in the hypothalamus which project to key areas of the brain that control sleep-wake states, modulation of food intake, panic, anxiety, emotion, reward and addictive behaviors. These neuropeptides exert their effects on a pair of G-protein coupled receptors termed the orexin-1 (OX1) and orexin-2 (OX2) receptors. Emerging biology suggests the involvement of these receptors in psychiatric disorders as they are thought to play a key role in the regulation of multiple systems. This review is intended to highlight key selective OX1 or OX2 small-molecule antagonists. PMID:23891187

  2. Calmodulin antagonists induce platelet apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhicheng; Li, Suping; Shi, Quanwei; Yan, Rong; Liu, Guanglei; Dai, Kesheng

    2010-04-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) antagonists induce apoptosis in various tumor models and inhibit tumor cell invasion and metastasis, thus some of which have been extensively used as anti-cancer agents. In platelets, CaM has been found to bind directly to the cytoplasmic domains of several platelet receptors. Incubation of platelets with CaM antagonists impairs the receptors-related platelet functions. However, it is still unknown whether CaM antagonists induce platelet apoptosis. Here we show that CaM antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide (W7), tamoxifen (TMX), and trifluoperazine (TFP) induce apoptotic events in human platelets, including depolarization of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, caspase-3 activation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. CaM antagonists did not incur platelet activation as detected by P-selectin surface expression and PAC-1 binding. However, ADP-, botrocetin-, and alpha-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, platelet adhesion and spreading on von Willebrand factor surface were significantly reduced in platelets pre-treated with CaM antagonists. Furthermore, cytosolic Ca(2+) levels were obviously elevated by both W7 and TMX, and membrane-permeable Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM significantly reduced apoptotic events in platelets induced by W7. Therefore, these findings indicate that CaM antagonists induce platelet apoptosis. The elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+) levels may be involved in the regulation of CaM antagonists-induced platelet apoptosis. PMID:20172594

  3. 21 CFR 1306.07 - Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs. 1306.07 Section 1306.07 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... qualifications, security, records, and unsupervised use of the drugs pursuant to the Act. (b) Nothing in...

  4. How Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) Work: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.; Moore, Barbara C.; Kelly, John F.; Laudet, Alexandre B.; White, William L.; Zemore, Sarah E.; Kurtz, Ernest; Strobbe, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from multiple lines of research supports the effectiveness and practical importance of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Conference presenters discussed the relationship between 12-Step participation and abstinence among various populations, including adolescents, women, and urban drug users. Insight from the arts and humanities placed empirical findings in a holistic context. PMID:21785524

  5. How Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) Work: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Krentzman, Amy R; Robinson, Elizabeth A R; Moore, Barbara C; Kelly, John F; Laudet, Alexandre B; White, William L; Zemore, Sarah E; Kurtz, Ernest; Strobbe, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    Evidence from multiple lines of research supports the effectiveness and practical importance of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Conference presenters discussed the relationship between 12-Step participation and abstinence among various populations, including adolescents, women, and urban drug users. Insight from the arts and humanities placed empirical findings in a holistic context. PMID:21785524

  6. AN ADDRESS DELIVERED BEFORE SCOPE'S CONFERENCE FOR EDUCATORS ON NARCOTICS AND SMOKING. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RICE, JULIUS T.

    A SHORT HISTORY OF NARCOTICS USAGE IS PRESENTED. THE TERM DRUG DEPENDENCE IS BEING SUBSTITUTED FOR DRUG ADDICTION AND DRUG HABITUATION. THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VARIOUS ANTIDOTES FOR OPIATES ARE DESCRIBED. THE EFFECTS OF LSD AND MARIJUANA ON PHYSICAL AND MENTAL PROCESSES ARE DESCRIBED. THE USE OF LSD FOR MEDICAL PURPOSES IS DISCUSSED.…

  7. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs. 91.8 Section 91.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS §...

  8. Narcotics Abuse among Young People in the Northern Territories: Characteristics and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anisimova, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    There is a persistent opinion that the spread of narcotics abuse is taking in more and more young people and having an impact on the economic, political, and cultural development of society. Data obtained by sociologists and criminologists make it possible to single out the factors, conditions, and channels of the spread of psychoactive substances…

  9. Transport simulation and image reconstruction for fast-neutron detection of explosives and narcotics

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1995-07-01

    Fast-neutron inspection techniques show considerable promise for explosive and narcotics detection. A key advantage of using fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen), which are the primary constituents of these materials. We are currently investigating two interrogation methods in detail: Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS) and Pulsed Fast-Neutron Analysis (PFNA). FNTS is being studied for explosives and narcotics detection in luggage and small containers for which the transmission ratio is greater than about 0.01. The Monte-Carlo radiation transport code MCNP is being used to simulate neutron transmission through a series of phantoms for a few (3-5) projection angles and modest (2 cm) resolution. Areal densities along projection rays are unfolded from the transmission data. Elemental abundances are obtained for individual voxels by tomographic reconstruction, and these reconstructed elemental images are combined to provide indications of the presence or absence of explosives or narcotics. PFNA techniques are being investigated for detection of narcotics in cargo containers because of the good penetration of the fast neutrons and the low attenuation of the resulting high-energy gamma-ray signatures. Analytic models and Monte-Carlo simulations are being used to explore the range of capabilities of PFNA techniques and to provide insight into systems engineering issues. Results of studies from both FNTS and PFNA techniques are presented.

  10. Understanding the Role of Storytelling in the Transformation of Female Cocaine Addicts in Narcotics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventresca, Melissa Weida

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the role of storytelling in the transformation of female cocaine addicts in Narcotics Anonymous. For this research the primary investigator utilized a theoretical orientation of transformative learning theory and storytelling. The rationale for employing transformative learning theory is that…

  11. Transport simulation and image reconstruction for fast-neutron detection of explosives and narcotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklich, Bradley J.; Fink, Charles L.; Sagalovsky, Leonid

    1995-09-01

    Fast-neutron inspection techniques show considerable promise for explosive and narcotics detection. A key advantage of using fast neutron is their sensitivity to low-Z elements (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen), which are the primary constituents of these materials. We are currently investigating two interrogation methods in detail: fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy (FNTS) and pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA). FNTS is being studied for explosives and narcotics detection in luggage and small containers for which the transmission ration is greater than about 0.01. The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP is being used to simulate neutron transmission through a series of phantoms for a few (3-5) projections angles and modest (2 cm) reolution. Areal densities along projection rays are unfolded from the transmission data. Elemental abundances are obtained for individual voxels by tomographic reconstruction, and the reconstructed elemental images are combined to provide indications of the presence or absence of explosives or narcotics. PFNA techniques are being investigated for detection of narcotics in cargo containers because of the good penetration of the fast neutrons and the low attenuation of the resulting high-energy gamma-ray signatures. Analytic models and Monte Carlo simulations are being used to explore the range of capabilities of PFNA techniques and to provide insight into systems engineering issues. Results of studies from both FNTS and PFNA technqiues are presented.

  12. Dispositional, Ecological and Biological Influences on Adolescent Tranquilizer, Ritalin, and Narcotics Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleary, Sasha A.; Heffer, Robert W.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which two of the three sources of risk-taking--dispositional and ecological--in adolescence and demographic variables were related to Ritalin, tranquilizer and narcotics misuse. The secondary aim of this study was to distinguish subgroups of Ritalin, tranquilizer, and narcotics…

  13. Reliability and Validity of Retrospective Behavioral Self-Report by Narcotics Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reliability and validity of self-reported behavior within a deviant population are examined using data from 2 interviews with 323 narcotics addicts conducted 10 years apart (1974-75 and 1985-86). Results complement existing reliability and validity studies of alcohol use, and suggest that quality information can be obtained from heroin users. (SLD)

  14. 75 FR 64107 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, October 14, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-26355 Filed... Notice of October 14, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics... ] Notice of October 14, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant...

  15. Controlled fabrication of silver nanoneedles array for SERS and their application in rapid detection of narcotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Tanemura, Masaki; Huang, Zhengren; Jiang, Dongliang; Chen, Yuhui; Zhou, Fei; Nogami, Masayuki

    2012-03-01

    Novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with high SERS-activity are ideal for novel SERS sensors, detectors to detect illicitly sold narcotics and explosives. The key to the wider application of SERS technique is to develop plasmon resonant structure with novel geometries to enhance Raman signals and to control the periodic ordering of these structures over a large area to obtain reproducible Raman enhancement. In this work, a simple Ar+-ion sputtering route has been developed to fabricate silver nanoneedles arrays on silicon substrates for SERS-active substrates to detect trace-level illicitly sold narcotics. These silver nanoneedles possess a very sharp apex with an apex diameter of 15 nm and an apex angle of 20°. The SERS enhancement factor of greater than 1010 was reproducibly achieved by the well-aligned nanoneedles arrays. Furthermore, ketamine hydrochloride molecules, one kind of illicitly sold narcotics, can be detected down to 27 ppb by using our SERS substrate within 3 s, indicating the sensitivity of our SERS substrates for trace amounts of narcotics and that SERS technology can become an important analytical technique in forensic laboratories because it can provide a rapid and nondestructive method for trace detection.

  16. Addressing the global tragedy of needless pain: rethinking the United Nations single convention on narcotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Allyn L

    2007-01-01

    The lack of medical availability of effective pain medication is an enduring and expanding global health calamity. Despite important medical advances, pain remains severely under-treated worldwide, particularly in developing countries. This article contributes to the discussion of this global health crisis by considering international legal and institutional mechanisms to promote wider accessibility to critical narcotic drugs for pain relief. PMID:18076508

  17. 76 FR 65353 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ..., October 19, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-27422 Filed 10-19-11; 2:00 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... narcotics traffickers centered in Colombia and the extreme level of violence, corruption, and harm such... States and cause an extreme level of violence, corruption, and harm in the United States and abroad,...

  18. Guide to Films (16mm) About the Use of Dangerous Drugs, Narcotics, Alcohol and Tobacco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    About 230 films and 60 filmstrips dealing with drugs, narcotics, alcohol, and tobacco are synopsized. Approximately half the listings deal with alcohol, a quarter concern tobacco, and the rest deal with drugs. For each item, the length, year of release, and source where the film of filmstrip may be obtained is listed. The distributors identified…

  19. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Narcotics of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    This document contains the hearings before the U. S. Senate's Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Narcotics on the questions of extending and improving the Drug Abuse Education Act of 1970. Because of the concerns inherent in possible repeal of this act, two bills were presented which would greatly improve both the quality and quantity of drug and…

  20. Personality Disorders, Narcotics, and Stimulants; Relationship in Iranian Male Substance Dependents Population

    PubMed Central

    Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Zeinodini, Zahra; Khanjani, Zeynab; Poorsharifi, Hamid; Rajezi Esfahani, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with certain personality disorders, especially the antisocial and borderline personality disorders, are more prone to substance use disorders. Objectives: Regarding the importance of substance use disorders, this study aimed to explore the association between personality disorders and types of used drugs (narcotics and stimulants) in Iranian male substance users. Patients and Methods: The current study was a correlation study. We evaluated 285 male substance users and excluded 25 according to exclusion criteria. A total of 130 narcotic users and 130 stimulant users were recruited randomly in several phases from January 2013 to October 2013. All participants were referred to Substance Dependency Treatment Clinics in Tehran, Iran. Data collection process was accomplished by means of clinical interview based on DSM-V criteria for substance use disorders, Iranian version of addiction severity index (ASI), and Millon clinical multi-axial inventory-III (MCMI-III). Data were analyzed by SPSS 21 using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression, the. Results: There was a significant correlation between stimulant use and histrionic personality disorder (P < 0.001) and antisocial and narcissistic personality disorders (P < 0.05). In addition, correlation between avoidant, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders (P < 0.05) and depressed, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders (P < 0.001) with narcotics consumption were significant. In clusters, there was a significant correlation between cluster B personality disorders, and narcotic and stimulants consumption (P < 0.001). In addition, this association was explored between cluster C personality disorder and narcotics (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study in terms of personality disorders and types of used drugs were in accordance with the previous studies results. It is necessary to design appropriate treatment plans for medical treatment of those with personality

  1. Nalmefene: intravenous safety and kinetics of a new opioid antagonist.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R; Howes, J; Gentile, J; Hsu, H B; Hsiao, J; Garg, D; Weidler, D; Meyer, M; Tuttle, R

    1986-01-01

    In a placebo-controlled, double-blind study we evaluated the safety and kinetics of a new narcotic antagonist, nalmefene, after 2, 6, 12, and 24 mg intravenous doses to healthy men. At each dose level four subjects received active drug and two received placebo. The drug was well tolerated at all dose levels with only mild and transient side effects, the most common of which was lightheadedness. The plasma concentration-time data were best fit with a triexponential equation, and the terminal elimination phase had a harmonic mean t1/2 of 8 to 9 hours. Only about 5% of the dose was excreted in the urine as intact nalmefene, with up to 60% excreted as nalmefene glucuronide. Although intersubject differences were noted, mean or dose-normalized mean kinetic parameters such as clearance, steady-state volume of distribution, terminal t1/2, and AUC showed no consistent trends related to increasing doses, indicating that nalmefene has linear pharmacokinetics. PMID:3943269

  2. [Vitamin K antagonists overdose].

    PubMed

    Groszek, Barbara; Piszczek, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, anticoagulant therapy belongs to the most commonly used forms of pharmacotherapy in modern medicine. The most important representatives of anticoagulants are heparins (unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin) and coumarin derivatives (vitamin K antagonists--VKA). Next to the many advantages of traditional oral anticoagulants may also have disadvantages. In Poland most often used two VKA: acenocoumarol and warfarin. The aim of the work is the analysis of the causes of the occurrence of bleeding disorders and symptoms of overdose VKA in patients to be hospitalized. In the years 2012 to 2014 were hospitalized 62 patients with overdose VKA (40 women and 22 men). The average age of patients was 75.3 years) and clotting disturbances and/or bleeding. At the time of the admission in all patients a significant increase in the value of the INR was stated, in 22 patients INR result was " no clot detected", on the remaining value of the INR were in the range of 7 to 13.1. On 51 patients observed different severe symptoms of bleeding (hematuria, bleeding from mucous membranes of the nose or gums ecchymoses on the extremities, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract--as in 5 patients has led to significant anemia and transfusion of concentrated red blood cells. Up on 33 patients kidney function disorder were found--exacerbated chronic renal failure and urinary tract infection. 8 diagnosed inflammatory changes in the airways. On 13 patients, it was found a significant degree of neuropsychiatric disorders (dementia, cognitive impairment), which made impossible the understanding the sense of treatment and cooperation with the patient. In 6 patients the symptoms of overdose were probably dependent on the interaction with the congestants at the same time (change the preparation of anticoagulant, NSAIDs, antibiotics). In 2 cases, the overdose was a suicide attempt in nature. In addition to the above mentioned disorders, on two of those patients diagnosed

  3. Discovery of Some Piperine-Based Phenylsulfonylhydrazone Derivatives as Potent Botanically Narcotic Agents.

    PubMed

    Qu, Huan; Lv, Min; Yu, Xiang; Lian, Xihong; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    By structural modification of piperine, some piperine-based phenylsulfonylhydrazone derivatives exhibited an unprecedented and potent narcotic activity against the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker). The ND50 values of compounds 6c and 6e against the third-instar larvae of M. separata, which were more potent than those of wilfortrine and wilforgine, were 0.0074 μmol (after 3.5 h), and 0.0075 μmol (after 7 h) per larvae, respectively. By transmission electron microscope, it demonstrated that mitochondria were vacuolated and swollen in the ganglion cell of M. separata after treatment with 6c. More importantly, 6c selectively displayed the inhibition activity on acetylcholine esterase (AchE) of M. separata. This work paved the way for further studying the insecticidal mechanism of 6c as a new and promising botanical narcotic agent. PMID:26268805

  4. Detection of explosives, narcotics, and taggant vapors by an ion mobility spectrometry particle detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Robert K.; Thomson, Paul C.; DeBono, Reno F.; Danylewich-May, Lucy L.; Kim, Lena

    1994-03-01

    Methods of analyzing vapors in an IMS explosives/narcotics detector that is primarily designed for particle collection were investigated, with emphasis on nitroglycerin explosive, and acetic and benzoic acid contaminants in narcotics. A preconcentration step is required because expected vapor concentrations are low. NG adsorption and retention behavior on coated teflon filters that are compatible with the IMS sample desorption system is reported, including the effects of adsorbent, and sampling flow rate, time and volume. Similar investigations were carried out for acetic and benzoic acid vapors, and a gold-plated nickel mesh was selected as the most appropriate IMS-compatible filter for these materials. Vapor sampling flow rates and volumes are much lower than those used in particle sampling. Examples of NG and benzoic acid vapor detection in real and simulated applications are discussed.

  5. Discovery of Some Piperine-Based Phenylsulfonylhydrazone Derivatives as Potent Botanically Narcotic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Huan; Lv, Min; Yu, Xiang; Lian, Xihong; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    By structural modification of piperine, some piperine-based phenylsulfonylhydrazone derivatives exhibited an unprecedented and potent narcotic activity against the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker). The ND50 values of compounds 6c and 6e against the third-instar larvae of M. separata, which were more potent than those of wilfortrine and wilforgine, were 0.0074 μmol (after 3.5 h), and 0.0075 μmol (after 7 h) per larvae, respectively. By transmission electron microscope, it demonstrated that mitochondria were vacuolated and swollen in the ganglion cell of M. separata after treatment with 6c. More importantly, 6c selectively displayed the inhibition activity on acetylcholine esterase (AchE) of M. separata. This work paved the way for further studying the insecticidal mechanism of 6c as a new and promising botanical narcotic agent. PMID:26268805

  6. Experience in the use of hyperspectral data for the detection of vegetation containing narcotic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedelnikov, V. P.; Lukashevich, E. L.; Karpukhina, O. A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper provides the characteristics of an experimental sample of a hyperspectral videospectrometer Sokol-SCP and presents examples of the hyperspectral data received as a result of flight tests. The results of the detection of vegetation containing narcotic substances by spectral attributes using the obtained hyperspectral information are considered. The opportunity for using the hyperspectral data for detection of cannabis and papaver sites, including those in mixed crops with masking vegetation, is confirmed.

  7. Feigning terminal illness to get narcotics: a cautionary tale for hospices.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Faustino; Galante, Mirta

    2012-08-01

    We present the case of a woman who enrolled in the hospice benefit in order to obtain narcotics. We believe this is a cautionary tale for hospices because of our propensity to enroll patients with minimal corroborating information, in order not to delay symptom management. Also we are philosophically predisposed to believe a patient's self-report of pain and other distressing symptoms. PMID:21868431

  8. Rapid identification of a narcotic plant Papaver bracteatum using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Aragane, Masako; Watanabe, Daisuke; Nakajima, Jun'ichi; Yoshida, Masao; Yoshizawa, Masao; Abe, Tomohiro; Nishiyama, Rei; Suzuki, Jin; Moriyasu, Takako; Nakae, Dai; Sudo, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hishida, Atuyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Makabe, So; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2014-10-01

    In May 2011, numerous poppy plants closely resembling Papaver bracteatum Lindl., a type of narcotic plant that is illegal in Japan, were distributed directly from several large flower shops or through online shopping throughout Japan, including the Tokyo Metropolitan area. In order to better identify the narcotic plants, the relative nuclear DNA content at the vegetative stage was measured by flow cytometric (FCM) analysis in 3 closely-related species of the genus Papaver section Oxytona, namely P. orientale, P. pseudo-orientale, and P. bracteatum, based on the difference between the chromosome numbers of these species. The results showed that the nuclear DNA content differed between these 3 species, and that most of the commercially distributed plants examined in this study could be identified as P. bracteatum. The remaining plants were P. pseudo-orientale, a non-narcotic plant. In addition, the FCM results for the identification of P. bracteatum completely agreed with the results obtained by the morphological analysis, the inter-genic spacer sequence of rpl16-rpl14 (PS-ID sequence) of chloroplast DNA, and the presence of thebaine. These results clearly indicate the usefulness of FCM analysis for the identification of P. bracteatum plants, including when they are in their vegetative stage. PMID:24952707

  9. Sexually antagonistic genes: experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Rice, W R

    1992-06-01

    When selection differs between the sexes, a mutation beneficial to one sex may be harmful to the other (sexually antagonistic). Because the sexes share a common gene pool, selection in one sex can interfere with the other's adaptive evolution. Theory predicts that sexually antagonistic mutations should accumulate in tight linkage with a new sex-determining gene, even when the harm to benefit ratio is high. Genetic markers and artificial selection were used to make a pair of autosomal genes segregate like a new pair of sex-determining genes in a Drosophila melanogaster model system. A 29-generation study provides experimental evidence that sexually antagonistic genes may be common in nature and will accumulate in response to a new sex-determining gene. PMID:1604317

  10. THE ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE OF MUSCLE DURING THE ACTION OF NARCOTICS AND OTHER AGENTS.

    PubMed

    Guttman, R

    1939-05-20

    1. The effect of certain inorganic cations upon the electrical impedance of the sartorius muscle of the frog was investigated. While Na, K, and Mg have little effect upon the resistance of muscle, Ba and Ca cause it to fall. The use of physiologically "unbalanced" salt solution does not in itself seem to affect muscle impedance. 2. The time course of the effect upon muscle impedance of the penetration of substances into the intercellular spaces was studied by treating the muscle with sugar solutions. Half of the effect is over in three-quarters of a minute when the sugar solution is permitted to circulate past both sides of the muscle. This sets an upper limit for the time necessary for inorganic cations and organic narcotics to reach the cell surfaces. The action of inorganic cations and organic narcotics upon muscle is slow compared to the time necessary for them to reach the scene of action. The penetration of the sugar solutions into the intercellular spaces of muscle was found to follow the well known diffusion law, the amount diffusing in being proportional to the square root of the time. Average values of 77.7 per cent for rho, the volume concentration of fibers; 231 ohms specific resistance for r(2), the resistance of the interior of the fibers; and 71.0 degrees for theta, the phase angle of the impedance locus, were obtained for the muscle in Ringer's solution. How these values change when the muscle is placed in various concentrations of sugar was also studied. 3. The action of a number of organic narcotics upon muscle was studied. All decrease 1000 cycle resistance if the concentration is sufficiently high. A detailed analysis of the action of the narcotic, iso-amyl carbamate, was made, and it was noted that low concentrations increase resistance while higher concentrations decrease it. By investigating the effect of narcotics upon muscle impedance over a wide frequency range, it was found that during narcosis the resistance of the fiber membranes first

  11. Trace contraband detection field-test by the south Texas specialized crimes and narcotics task force.

    SciTech Connect

    Hannum, David W.; Shannon, Gary W.

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the collaboration between the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force (STSCNTF) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in a field test that provided prototype hand-held trace detection technology for use in counter-drug operations. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)/National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)/Border Research and Technology Center (BRTC) was contacted by STSCNTF for assistance in obtaining cutting-edge technology. The BRTC created a pilot project for Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the STSCNTF for the use of SNLs Hound, a hand-held sample collection and preconcentration system that, when combined with a commercial chemical detector, can be used for the trace detection of illicit drugs and explosives. The STSCNTF operates in an area of high narcotics trafficking where methods of concealment make the detection of narcotics challenging. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Contraband Detection Department personnel provided the Hound system hardware and operational training. The Hound system combines the GE VaporTracer2, a hand-held commercial chemical detector, with an SNL-developed sample collection and preconcentration system. The South Texas Task force reported a variety of successes, including identification of a major shipment of methamphetamines, the discovery of hidden compartments in vehicles that contained illegal drugs and currency used in drug deals, and the identification of a suspect in a nightclub shooting. The main advantage of the hand-held trace detection unit is its ability to quickly identify the type of chemical (drugs or explosives) without a long lag time for laboratory analysis, which is the most common analysis method for current law enforcement procedures.

  12. Decreased narcotic use with an implantable local anesthetic catheter after deep inferior epigastric perforator flap breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Boehmler, James H; Venturi, Mark L; Nahabedian, Maurice Y

    2009-06-01

    This study evaluated narcotic use after deep inferior epigastric perforator flap breast reconstruction when a local anesthetic catheter was used. A retrospective analysis was performed comparing 40 consecutive control patients (no catheter) to 40 consecutive study patients who had received a pain pump catheter. The catheter was left in the abdomen for 72 hours. Using an equianalgesic table, all narcotic doses (oral and intravenous) were converted to intravenous morphine equivalents. Initial average 24-hour morphine requirement for the control group was 42 mg compared with 33 mg for the study group (P = 0.04). Total hospitalization average morphine requirement for the control group was 71 mg compared with 55 mg for the catheter group (P = 0.03). The use of an implantable local anesthetic catheter placed in the abdomen can decrease narcotic use in the postoperative period after deep inferior epigastric perforator flap breast reconstruction. PMID:19461271

  13. A sensitive, selective, and portable detector for contraband: The compact integrated narcotics detection instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Tuemer, T.O.; Doan, L.; Su, C.W.; Baritelle, J.; Rhoton, B.

    2000-07-01

    A Compact Integrated Narcotics Detection Instrument (CINDI) has been developed at NOVA R and D, Inc., in cooperation with the US Coast Guard. This detector utilizes neutrons emitted from {sup 252}Cf. Neutrons emitted from the front face of CINDI penetrate dense compartment barrier materials with little change in energy but are backscattered by hydrogen-rich materials such as drugs. The backscattered neutrons are detected, and the rate is displayed by a microprocessor-controller integrated into CINDI. The operator guides the detector along a suspected area and receives immediate feedback from the state-of-the-art electronics. For user safety, the device incorporates a highly sensitive detection scheme to permit the use of a very weak radioactive source, without compromising detectability. CINDI is capable of detecting narcotics effectively behind panels made of steel, wood, fiberglass, or even lead-lined materials. This makes it useful for inspecting marine vessels, ship bulkheads, automobiles, structure walls, or small sealed containers. Figure 2 shows three views of the CINDI instrument. CINDI responds strongly to hydrogen-rich materials such as narcotics. It has been tested at NOVA, the US Coast Guard, and Brewt Power Systems. The results of the tests show excellent response and specificity to narcotics. CINDI has led to a new technology that shows promise for identifying the concealed contraband. The new technique uses a fusion of two independent but complementary signals for detecting and possibly identifying concealed drugs in a variety of carriers such as vehicles, marine vessels, airplanes, containers, cargo, and luggage. The carriers will be scanned using both neutron and gamma-ray sources. The signal from both the neutron and gamma-ray backscattering and/or transmission can be used simultaneously to detect and possibly identify the contrabands it has been trained for. A system that can produce three-dimensional images for both signals may also be developed

  14. Associations of Pre-transplant Prescription Narcotic Use with Clinical Complications after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lentine, Krista L.; Lam, Ngan N.; Xiao, Huiling; Tuttle-Newhall, Janet E.; Axelrod, David; Brennan, Daniel C.; Dharnidharka, Vikas R.; Yuan, Hui; Nazzal, Mustafa; Zheng, Jie; Schnitzler, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Associations of narcotic use before kidney transplantation with post-transplant clinical outcomes are not well described. Methods We examined integrated national transplant registry, pharmacy records, and Medicare billing claims to follow 16,322 kidney transplant recipients, of whom 28.3% filled a narcotic prescription in the year before transplantation. Opioid analgesic fills were normalized to morphine equivalents (ME) and expressed as mg/kg exposures (approximate quartiles: 0.1– 1.7, 1.8–5.4, 5.5–23.7, and ≥23.8 mg/kg, respectively). Post-transplant cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, accidents, substance abuse, and non-compliance events were identified using diagnosis codes on Medicare billing claims. Adjusted associations of ME level with post-transplant complications were quantified by multivariate Cox regression. Results The incidence of complications at 3 years post-transplant among those with the highest pre-transplant ME exposure compared to no use included: ventricular arrhythmias, 1.1% vs. 0.2% (p<0.001); cardiac arrest, 4.7% vs. 2.7% (p<0.05); hypotension, 14% vs. 8% (p<0.0001); hypercapnia, 1.6% vs. 0.9% (p<0.05); mental status changes, 5.3% vs. 2.7% (p<0.001); drug abuse/dependence, 7.0% vs. 1.7% (p<0.0001); alcohol abuse, 1.8% vs. 0.6% (p=0.0001); accidents, 0.9% vs. 0.3% (p<0.05); and non-compliance, 3.5% vs. 2.3% (p<0.05). In multivariate analyses, transplant recipients with the highest level of pre-transplant narcotic use had approximately 2-to-4-times the risks of post-transplant ventricular arrhythmias, mental status changes, drug abuse, alcohol abuse, and accidents compared with non-users, and 35% to 45% higher risks of cardiac arrest and hypotension. Conclusion Although associations may reflect underlying conditions or behaviors, high-level prescription narcotic use before kidney transplantation predicts increased risk of clinical complications after transplantation. PMID:25832723

  15. Standing Up a Narcotic Confirmation Laboratory for the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense Nuclear Personnel Reliability Program

    SciTech Connect

    LukyanenkoMD, Victor; Eisele, Gerhard R; Coates, Cameron W

    2010-01-01

    Through a cooperative effort between the U. S. Department of Energy and the Russian Federation (RF) Ministry of Defense (MOD) a Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) for the nuclear handlers within the RF MOD has been implemented. A key element in the RF MOD PRP is the detection and confirmation of narcotic use in subject military and civilian personnel. This paper describes the process of narcotics screening and testing in the RF MOD and explains the confirmation process once screening has shown a positive result. Issues of laboratory certification, employee certification, employee training, sample chain-of-custody, and equipment needs will be addressed.

  16. Lethal body concentrations of four non-polar narcotic chemicals in larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    SciTech Connect

    Groetsch, K.; Oris, J.T.; Versteeg, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the lethal body concentrations of tetra chloroethane, dichlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene in the larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). The authors exposed similar populations of larval fathead minnows to a range of concentrations of one of four non-polar, narcotic chemicals. Morbid larvae were collected and the time of collection and internal body concentration were recorded. Example results for pentachlorobenzene show that the concentration of chemical in larvae that die in short time intervals were significantly lower than the concentration of chemical in larvae that died later in the test (ANOVA F-Value = 139, P-Value <.0001). Morbidity occurred between 16 and 210 hours of exposure. After 210 hours, exposed individuals had similar rates of morbidity compared to controls. This study corroborates other research that suggests the existence of a threshold body concentration that causes lethality for non-polar narcotic chemicals. However, individual based tolerance appears to contribute significantly to variability in lethal body concentrations.

  17. New, high-efficiency ion trap mobility detection system for narcotics and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGann, William J.; Bradley, V.; Borsody, A.; Lepine, S.

    1994-10-01

    A new patented Ion Trap Mobility Spectrometer (ITMS) design is presented. Conventional IMS designs typically operate below 0.1% efficiency. This is due primarily to electric field driven, sample ion discharge on a shutter grid. Since 99.9% of the sample ions generated in the reaction region are lost in this discharge process, the sensitivity of conventional systems is limited. The new design provides greater detection efficiency than conventional designs through the use of an `ion trap' concept. The paper describes the plasma and sample ion dynamics in the reaction region of the new detector and discusses the advantages of utilizing a `field-free' space to generate sample ions with high efficiency. Fast electronic switching is described which is used to perturb the field-free space and pulse the sample ions into the drift region for separation and subsequent detection using pseudo real-time software for analysis and display of the data. Many applications for this new detector are now being considered including the detection of narcotics and explosives. Preliminary ion spectra, reduced mobility data and sensitivity data are presented for fifteen narcotics, including cocaine, THC and LSD are reported.

  18. Component analysis of Iranian crack; a newly abused narcotic substance in iran.

    PubMed

    Farhoudian, Ali; Sadeghi, Mandana; Khoddami Vishteh, Hamid Reza; Moazen, Babak; Fekri, Monir; Rahimi Movaghar, Afarin

    2014-01-01

    Iranian crack is a new form of narcotic substance that has found widespread prevalence in Iran in the past years. Crack only nominally resembles crack cocaine as it is widely different in its clinical signs. Thus the present study aims to quantify the chemical combination of this drug. The samples included 18 specimen of Crack collected from different zones of Tehran, Iran. All specimens were in the form of inodorous cream solid powdery substance. TLC and HPLC methods were used to perform semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis of the components, respectively. The TLC analysis showed no cocaine compound in the specimens while they all revealed to contain heroin, codeine, morphine and caffeine. All but two specimens contained thebaine. None of the specimens contained amphetamine, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, aspirin, barbiturates, tramadol and buprenorphine. Acetaminophen was found in four specimens. HPLC revealed heroin to be the foundation substance in all specimens and most of them contained a significant amount of acetylcodeine. The present analysis of the chemical combination of Crack showed that this substance is a heroin-based narcotic which is basically different from the cocaine-based crack used in Western countries. Studies like the present one at different time points, especially when abnormal clinical signs are detected, can reveal the chemical combination of the target substance and contribute to the clinical management of its acute or chronic poisoning. PMID:24734089

  19. Bacteremia in narcotic addicts at the Detroit Medical Center. II. Infectious endocarditis: a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Levine, D P; Crane, L R; Zervos, M J

    1986-01-01

    For one year all narcotic addicts admitted to the Detroit Medical Center with infectious endocarditis (74 cases) were compared with a control group of bacteremic addicts who had other infections (106 cases). Endocarditis was caused by Staphylococcus aureus (60.8% of cases), streptococci (16.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.5%), mixed bacteria (8.1%), and Corynebacterium JK (1.4%). S. aureus endocarditis most frequently involved the tricuspid valve; streptococci infected left-sided valves significantly more often than other organisms (P = .001). Biventricular and multiple-valve infections were commonest in patients with pseudomonas endocarditis (P = .05). Two-dimensional echocardiography, when combined with an abnormal chest roentgenogram, was highly predictive of endocarditis. Bacteremia in the absence of endocarditis was associated with primary skin and soft tissue infection, mycotic aneurysm at the site of narcotic injection, septic arthritis, septic thrombophlebitis, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, mediastinal abscess, and unclassified infection. Polymicrobial bacteremia in the nonendocarditis group was associated with markedly increased morbidity. Mild hyponatremia occurred in 41% of all patients and was also associated with significantly increased morbidity. Analysis of the two groups disclosed similarities and differences with implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of addicts with bacteremic infection. PMID:3755255

  20. The combined toxic effects of nonpolar narcotic chemicals to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shih-Hung; Tsai, Kuo-Pei; Chen, Chung-Yuan

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents the toxicity data of 10 nonpolar narcotic chemicals on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (green algae) assessed by a new algal toxicity testing technique conducted under air-tight environment. Based on DO production, median effective concentration (EC50) varies from 1.73 mg/L (1-octanol) to 8,040 mg/L (2-propanol). The endpoint of algal growth rate reveals similar sensitivity as that from DO production. Compared to literature data, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Nitrosomonas are apparently more sensitive to nonpolar narcotics than other organisms such as minnow, daphnia, and Tetrahymena pyriformis. Furthermore, good correlations between toxic effects observed from Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and other aquatic organisms were found. Hence, algal toxicity test can be considered as a surrogate test for estimating the toxicity of nonpolar chemicals to fathead minnow, Microtox, activated sludge, Daphina magna, and Tetrahymena pyriformis. The combined effects of 13 binary mixtures of nonpolar chemicals were investigated using both additive-index method and isobologram analysis. Overall speaking, the joint actions between these chemicals are strictly additive. Model analyses indicate that these compounds act on identical reaction sites or receptors, which verify that these chemicals are of the same toxicity mechanism (narcosis). PMID:16687162

  1. New high-efficiency ion trap mobility detection system for narcotics and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGann, William J.; Jenkins, Anthony; Ribiero, K.; Napoli, J.

    1994-03-01

    A new patented ion trap mobility spectrometer design is presented. Conventional IMS designs typically operate below 0.1% efficiency. This is due primarily to electrical-field-driven, sample ion discharge on a shutter grid. Since 99.9% of the sample ions generated in the reaction region are lost in this discharge process, the sensitivity of conventional systems is limited. The new design provides greater detection efficiency than conventional designs through the use of an `ion trap' concept. The paper describes the plasma and sample ion dynamics in the reaction region of the new detector and discusses the advantages of utilizing a `field-free' space to generate sample ions with high efficiency. Fast electronic switching is described which is used to perturb the field-free space and pulse the sample ions into the drift region for separation and subsequent detection using pseudo real-time software for analysis and display of the data. Many applications for this new detector are now being considered including the detection of narcotics and explosives. Preliminary ion spectra, reduced mobility data and sensitivity data are presented for fifteen narcotics, including cocaine, THC, and LSD are reported.

  2. Endothelin receptors and their antagonists.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Janet J; Davenport, Anthony P

    2015-03-01

    All three members of the endothelin (ET) family of peptides, ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3, are expressed in the human kidney, with ET-1 being the predominant isoform. ET-1 and ET-2 bind to two G-protein-coupled receptors, ETA and ETB, whereas at physiological concentrations ET-3 has little affinity for the ET(A) receptor. The human kidney is unusual among the peripheral organs in expressing a high density of ET(B). The renal vascular endothelium only expresses the ET(B) subtype and ET-1 acts in an autocrine or paracrine manner to release vasodilators. Endothelial ETB in kidney, as well as liver and lungs, also has a critical role in scavenging ET-1 from the plasma. The third major function is ET-1 activation of ET(B) in in the nephron to reduce salt and water re-absorption. In contrast, ET(A) predominate on smooth muscle, causing vasoconstriction and mediating many of the pathophysiological actions of ET-1. The role of the two receptors has been delineated using highly selective ET(A) (BQ123, TAK-044) and ET(B) (BQ788) peptide antagonists. Nonpeptide antagonists, bosentan, macitentan, and ambrisentan, that are either mixed ET(A)/ET(B) antagonists or display ET(A) selectivity, have been approved for clinical use but to date are limited to pulmonary hypertension. Ambrisentan is in clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. This review summarizes ET-receptor antagonism in the human kidney, and considers the relative merits of selective versus nonselective antagonism in renal disease. PMID:25966344

  3. 21 CFR 1301.73 - Physical security controls for non-practitioners; compounders for narcotic treatment programs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Physical security controls for non-practitioners; compounders for narcotic treatment programs; manufacturing and compounding areas. 1301.73 Section 1301.73 Food..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security Requirements § 1301.73 Physical...

  4. 21 CFR 1301.73 - Physical security controls for non-practitioners; compounders for narcotic treatment programs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Physical security controls for non-practitioners; compounders for narcotic treatment programs; manufacturing and compounding areas. 1301.73 Section 1301.73 Food..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security Requirements § 1301.73 Physical...

  5. 21 CFR 1301.73 - Physical security controls for non-practitioners; compounders for narcotic treatment programs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical security controls for non-practitioners; compounders for narcotic treatment programs; manufacturing and compounding areas. 1301.73 Section 1301.73 Food..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security Requirements § 1301.73 Physical...

  6. 21 CFR 1301.73 - Physical security controls for non-practitioners; compounders for narcotic treatment programs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physical security controls for non-practitioners; compounders for narcotic treatment programs; manufacturing and compounding areas. 1301.73 Section 1301.73 Food..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security Requirements § 1301.73 Physical...

  7. 21 CFR 1301.73 - Physical security controls for non-practitioners; compounders for narcotic treatment programs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physical security controls for non-practitioners; compounders for narcotic treatment programs; manufacturing and compounding areas. 1301.73 Section 1301.73 Food..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security Requirements § 1301.73 Physical...

  8. 14 CFR 137.23 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 137.23 Section 137.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 137.23 Carriage of...

  9. 14 CFR 137.23 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 137.23 Section 137.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 137.23 Carriage of...

  10. 14 CFR 137.23 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 137.23 Section 137.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 137.23 Carriage of...

  11. 14 CFR 137.23 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 137.23 Section 137.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 137.23 Carriage of...

  12. 14 CFR 137.23 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 137.23 Section 137.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 137.23 Carriage of...

  13. Tachykinin antagonists and the airways.

    PubMed

    Joos, G F; Kips, J C; Peleman, R A; Pauwels, R A

    1995-01-01

    There is now convincing evidence for the presence of substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) in human airway nerves. Studies on autopsy tissue, on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and on sputum suggest that SP may be present in increased amounts in the asthmatic airway. Substance P and NKA are potent bronchoconstrictors of human airways, asthmatics being more sensitive than normal persons. The major enzyme responsible for the degradation of the tachykinins, the neutral endopeptidase, is present in the airways and is involved in the breakdown of exogenously administered SP and NKA, both in normal and asthmatic persons. Other, less well documented airway effects of SP and NKA include mucus secretion, vasodilation and plasma extravasation, as well as the chemoattraction and stimulation of various cells presumed to be involved in asthmatic airway inflammation. NK2 receptors and, to a lesser extent, NK1 receptors have been shown to be involved in bronchoconstriction, whereas NK1 receptors were found to be involved in mucus secretion, microvascular leakage and vasodilatation, and in most of the effects on inflammatory cells. The first clinical trial with FK224, a peptide NK1 and NK2 receptor antagonist, and CP99994, a nonpeptide NK1 receptor antagonist, are negative. However, FK224 failed to block the bronchoconstrictor effect of NKA in asthmatics and the dose of CP99994, needed to antagonize tachykinin effects in man, remains to be determined. PMID:7543746

  14. Prescribing narcotics to drug-dependent people in prison: some preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, B; Drelfuss, R; Dobler-Mikola, A

    Switzerland began testing a program in which narcotics are prescribed under medical care for drug-dependent inmates. The goal of the program being run at the Oberschongrun penitentiary is to make drug-dependent people feel better, have the chance of becoming stable in prison, and escape the vicious cycle of committing further drug-related crimes when they are released. Participation in the trial is voluntary. Participants must be at least 20 years of age, been drug dependent for two years, and have undergone unsuccessful drug treatment. An additional selection criterion is illegal consumption of heroin while incarcerated. Issues involved with the trial are described, including the conflicts inherent in prescribing drugs that are usually considered illegal. Preliminary conclusions show that the program is feasible, although there are significant problems in instituting this type of program in an environment that is totalitarian and rigid. The program raises prison role issues of rehabilitation versus punishment. PMID:11365294

  15. Piroxicam and Doxepin—An Alternative to Narcotic Analgesics in Managing Advanced Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, L.; Machado, Antonio F.; Bier, Robert; Cohn, Marthe

    1988-01-01

    To provide an effective continuum of the relief of severe carcinomatous pain with minimal side reactions, we initiated treatment with piroxicam (60 to 120 mg per day) and doxepin hydrochloride (25 to 225 mg per day). Of 30 patients presenting with severe pain of cancer of various origins, 7 continued to death with piroxicam and doxepin therapy. An additional 17 were successfully treated for 6 to 66 weeks with therapy reported here but, as disease progressed, required supplemental narcotics. The remaining six abandoned the use of piroxicam due to complications of therapy, which ranged from diarrhea to gastric perforation; serious complications were associated with patients' failure to adhere to a prescribed regimen of sucralfate. Therapy with piroxicam and doxepin proved to be safe and efficacious. PMID:3363962

  16. A Sensitive, Selective, and Portable Detector for Contraband: The Compact Integrated Narcotics Detection Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    T. O. Tuemer; L. Doan; C. W. Su; J. Baritelle; B. Rhoton

    2000-06-04

    This paper describes the design and operation of a Compact Integrated Narcotics Detection Instrument (CINDI), which utilizes neutrons emitted from {sup 252}Cf. Neutrons emitted from the front face of CINDI penetrate dense compartment barrier materials with little change in energy but are backscattered by hydrogen-rich materials such as drugs. CINDI has led to a new technology that shows promise for identifying the concealed contraband. Carriers such as vehicles, marine vessels, airplanes, containers, cargo, and luggage will be scanned using both neutron and gamma-ray sources. The signal from both the neutron and gamma-ray backscattering and/or transmission can be used simultaneously to detect and possibly identify the contrabands it has been trained for.

  17. [The effect of blood serum proteins from the seal on the analgetic action of narcotic analgesics].

    PubMed

    Aslaniants, Zh K; Melik-Eganov, G R; Evstratov, A V; Ivanov, M P; Batrakov, S G; Korobov, N V; Iasnetsov, V V

    1991-11-01

    The protein fraction isolated from blood of seal, Phoca groenlandica, has been found to produce hyperalgesic effect on rats exposed to thermic or electrocutaneous nociceptive stimulation, but fail to affect writhes provoked by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid solution on mice. When combined with morphine, the fraction lowered completely its narcotic analgetic action in the above mentioned tests. On the contrary, these same proteins combined with promedol or fentanil enhanced and prolonged analgetic effect of the latter. Tested in vitro the protein showed neither opioid nor anti-opioid activity. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that neurophysiological activity of the isolated fraction is due to the peptides formed on enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins in vivo rather than these proteins as such. PMID:1687360

  18. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists.

    PubMed

    Melani, Andrea S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Inhaled bronchodilators are the mainstay of COPD pharmacological treatment. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are a major class of inhaled bronchodilators. Some LAMA/device systems with different characteristics and dosing schedules are currently approved for maintenance therapy of COPD and a range of other products are being developed. They improve lung function and patient-reported outcomes and reduce acute bronchial exacerbations with good safety. LAMAs are used either alone or associated with long-acting β₂-agonists, eventually in fixed dose combinations. Long-acting β₂-agonist/LAMA combinations assure additional benefits over the individual components alone. The reader will obtain a view of the safety and efficacy of the different LAMA/device systems in COPD patients. PMID:26109098

  19. A new alcohol antagonist: Phaclofen

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, A.M. ); Harris, R.A. )

    1989-01-01

    The ability of the GABA{sub B} receptor antagonist, phaclofen to alter behavioral effects of ethanol was evaluated by loss of righting reflex (sleep time), motor incoordination (bar holding), spontaneous locomotion (open field activity) and hypothermia. Pretreatment with phaclofen significantly decreased the effects of ethanol on motor incoordination, locomotor activity and hypothermia. However, phaclofen had no effect on either pentobarbital- or diazepam-induced motor incoordination. Phaclofen slightly increased the ED{sub 50} for loss of the righting reflex but did not alter either the duration of reflex loss produced by ethanol or blood ethanol levels at awakening. Our results suggest phaclofen is rapidly inactivated resulting in difficulty in observing antagonism of long duration ethanol effects. These findings suggest that the GABA{sub B} system may play a role in mediating several important actions of ethanol.

  20. Client Perceptions of Two Antagonist Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, Thomas A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reports results of a questionnaire administered to participants in an antagonist drug outpatient clinic and an antagonist drug work-release program to obtain awareness of acceptance of the program participants. Naltrexone patients recommended an alternative method of administering the drug and changing the money system to award deserving inmates…

  1. USE OF RESPIRATORY-CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES OF RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI) IN IDENTIFYING ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES IN FISH: PART 3. POLAR NARCOTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physiological responses of rainbow trout to acutely lethal aqueous concentrations of the suspected polar narcotics phenol, 2,4,-dimethylphenol, aniline, 2-chloroaniline and 4-chloroaniline were examined. Visible signs of intoxication included tremors that progressed to whole-...

  2. Study to investigate the trace levels of contamination on surfaces when narcotic contraband is concealed in a vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Rod; Brittain, Alan H.

    1997-01-01

    When a vehicle is used to transport narcotic contraband material trace levels of that material can be found on surfaces of the vehicle, people associated with the vehicle and surface they contact. The detection of these trace levels can help to target vehicles associated with the smuggling of the contraband. A study to determine the typical levels of narcotic material that can be detected from these surfaces has been performed by personnel from Graseby, using a variety of drug materials. The size and packaging of the drug materials has been prepared to try to reflect that typically found in smuggling operations. These tests show that for all hard drugs easily detectable traces of drug material can be found on the vehicle, the proxy and secondary surfaces handled by the proxy. For detection of cannabis, the condition of the original material had a great bearing ont he reliability of detection.

  3. [Effect of narcotic analgesics on the cortical control process of impulse transmission in the afferent pathways of the sciatic nerve].

    PubMed

    Churiukanov, V V; Bilibin, D P

    1976-01-01

    The effect produced by narcotic analgetics with their intravenous administration on the process of cortical control over the transmission of impulses along specific routes of the sciatic nerve was studied. The conditioning stimulation of the cortex was effected by using a monopolar electrode through single electric impulses. The interval between conditioning and test (on sciatic nerve) impulses was of 80-120 ms. Morphine (1-2 mg/kg), promedol (trimeperidin) (1-2 mg/kg) and phentanyl (100 gamma/kg) potentiated the inhibition of evoked potentials in the nucleus gracilis and in VPL, observed upon stimulation of the cortex of optic lobuses. The intensification of inhibitory corticifugal mechanisms occurring under the effect of narcotic analgetics takes place both on the level of the medulla oblongata and of the thalamic one. PMID:6310

  4. The use of non-narcotic drugs and other alternatives for analgesia as part of a comprehensive pain management program.

    PubMed

    Aronoff, G M

    1982-01-01

    Chronic pain remains an enigma which mystifies the most experienced clinicians. The traditional approaches to malignant pain employ narcotic analgesics, radiotherapy, surgical intervention, and chemotherapy. Within the context of a "therapeutic community" oriented pain unit, we attack this major public health problem differently. The use of non-narcotic analgesics, mood altering medications, various forms of psychotherapy (individual, group, family, gestalt, psychomotor) and peer pressure when used in conjunction with various physical modalities of treatment (including biofeedback, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator, physical therapy, whirlpool, massage, ice, heat, etc.) appear most efficacious. Frequently, the powerful tools of psychological medicine are taken for granted; yet, depression in the United States is widespread and so significantly complicates medical illness that any treatment program designed for pain patients must be holistic in its orientation if it is to be effective. PMID:6983552

  5. EFFECT OF HIV PREVENTION AND TREATMENT PROGRAM ON HIV AND HCV TRANSMISSION AND HIV MORTALITY AT AN INDONESIAN NARCOTIC PRISON.

    PubMed

    Nelwan, Erni J; Indrati, Agnes K; Isa, Ahmad; Triani, Nurlita; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Herlan, Maria S; Husen, Wahid; Pohan, Herdiman T; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Meheus, Andre; Van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre Jam

    2015-09-01

    Validated data regarding HIV-transmission in prisons in developing countries is scarce. We examined sexual and injecting drug use behavior and HIV and HCV transmission in an Indonesian narcotic prison during the implementation of an HIV prevention and treatment program during 2004-2007 when the Banceuy Narcotic Prison in Indonesia conducted an HIV transmission prevention program to provide 1) HIV education, 2) voluntary HIV testing and counseling, 3) condom supply, 4) prevention of rape and sexual violence, 5) antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners and 6) methadone maintenance treatment. During a first survey that was conducted between 2007 and 2009, new prisoners entered Banceuy Narcotics Prison were voluntary tested for HIV and HCV-infection after written informed consent was obtained. Information regarding sexual and injecting risk behavior and physical status were also recorded at admission to the prison. Participants who tested negative for both HIV and HCV during the first survey were included in a second survey conducted during 2008-2011. During both surveys, data on mortality among HIV-seropositive patients were also recorded. All HIV-seropositive participants receive treatment for HIV. HIV/ AIDS-related deaths decreased: 43% in 2006, 18% in 2007, 9% in 2008 and 0% in 2009. No HIV and HCV seroconversion inside Banceuy Narcotic Prison were found after a median of 23 months imprisonment (maximum follow-up: 38 months). Total of 484.8 person-years observation was done. Participants reported HIV transmission risk-behavior in Banceuy Prison during the second survey was low. After implementation of HIV prevention and treatment program, no new HIV or HCV cases were detected and HIV-related mortality decreased. PMID:26863859

  6. Some Electrophysiological Methods for Studying the Action of Narcotic Agents in Animals, with special reference to Industrial Solvents: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mikisková, Hana; Mikiska, Aloš

    1968-01-01

    Four electrophysiological methods, two based on stimulation (measurement of spinal reflex excitability and of direct excitability of the cerebral motor cortex) and two based on bioelectric recording (electro-encephalography and electrocardiography), were used in intact guinea-pigs and rabbits for studying the action of narcotic and anaesthetic agents, especially of industrial solvents. The authors' results have been reviewed and compared with those of other investigators in an attempt to work out experimental procedures for routine toxicity testing. PMID:4296739

  7. Total pancreatectomy with islet cell transplantation vs intrathecal narcotic pump infusion for pain control in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mokadem, Mohamad; Noureddine, Lama; Howard, Thomas; McHenry, Lee; Sherman, Stuart; Fogel, Evan L; Watkins, James L; Lehman, Glen A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate pain control in chronic pancreatitis patients who underwent total pancreatectomy with islet cell transplantation or intrathecal narcotic pump infusion. METHODS: We recognized 13 patients who underwent intrathecal narcotic pump (ITNP) infusion and 57 patients who underwent total pancreatectomy with autologous islet cell transplantation (TP + ICT) for chronic pancreatitis (CP) pain control between 1998 and 2008 at Indiana University Hospital. All patients had already failed multiple other modalities for pain control and the decision to proceed with either intervention was made at the discretion of the patients and their treating physicians. All patients were evaluated retrospectively using a questionnaire inquiring about their pain control (using a 0-10 pain scale), daily narcotic dose usage, and hospital admission days for pain control before each intervention and during their last follow-up. RESULTS: All 13 ITNP patients and 30 available TP + ICT patients were evaluated. The mean age was approximately 40 years in both groups. The median duration of pain before intervention was 6 years and 7 years in the ITNP and TP + ICT groups, respectively. The median pain score dropped from 8 to 2.5 (on a scale of 0-10) in both groups on their last follow up. The median daily dose of narcotics also decreased from 393 mg equivalent of morphine sulfate to 8 mg in the ITNP group and from 300 mg to 40 mg in the TP + ICT group. No patient had diabetes mellitus (DM) before either procedure whereas 85% of those who underwent pancreatectomy were insulin dependent on their last evaluation despite ICT. CONCLUSION: ITNP and TP + ICT are comparable for pain control in patients with CP however with high incidence of DM among those who underwent TP + ICT. Prospective comparative studies and longer follow up are needed to better define treatment outcomes. PMID:27122666

  8. Plant Evolution: Evolving Antagonistic Gene Regulatory Networks.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Endymion D

    2016-06-20

    Developing a structurally complex phenotype requires a complex regulatory network. A new study shows how gene duplication provides a potential source of antagonistic interactions, an important component of gene regulatory networks. PMID:27326708

  9. Benzodiazepinone Derivatives as CRTH2 Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiwen Jim; Cheng, Alan C; Tang, H Lucy; Medina, Julio C

    2011-07-14

    Multiple CRTH2 antagonists are currently evaluated in human clinical trials for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). During our lead optimization for CRTH2 antagonists, an observation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond in ortho-phenylsulfonamido benzophenone derivatives led to the design and synthesis of conformationally constrained benzodiazepinones as potent CRTH2 antagonists. The benzodiazepinones are 2 orders of magnitude more potent than the original flexible bisaryl ethers in our binding assay. Selected benzodiazepinones, such as compound 6, were also potent in the human eosinophil shape change assay. Analysis of the rigid conformations of these benzodiazepinones and ortho-phenylsulfonamido benzophenones provided an explanation for the structure-activity relationship and revealed the possible bound conformations to CRTH2, which may be useful for building a pharmacophore model of CRTH2 antagonists. PMID:24900341

  10. Tannins as Gibberellin Antagonists 1

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Mary Ritzel; Geissman, T. A.; Phinney, Bernard O.

    1972-01-01

    Fourteen chemically defined hydrolyzable tannins and six impure mixtures of either condensed or hydrolyzable tannins were found to inhibit the gibberellin-induced growth of light-grown dwarf pea seedlings. The highest ratio of tannins to gibberellic acid tested (1000: 1 by weight) inhibited from 80 to 95% of the induced growth for all tannins tested except for two monogalloyl glucose tannins which inhibited only 50% of the induced growth. The lowest ratio tested (10: 1) inhibited the induced growth by less than 25% except for the case of terchebin where 50% inhibition was found. The inhibition of gibberellin-induced growth was found to be completely reversed by increasing the amount of gibberellin in three cases tested. Tannins alone did not inhibit endogenous growth of either dwarf or nondwarf pea seedlings. Eight compounds related to tannins, including coumarin, trans-cinnamic acid, and a number of phenolic compounds were also tested as gibberellin antagonists. Most of these compounds showed some inhibition of gibberellin-induced growth, but less than that of the tannins. At the highest ratio (1000: 1) the greatest inhibition was 55%; at the lowest ratio (10: 1) no more than 17% was observed. These compounds did not inhibit endogenous growth, and the inhibition of gibberellin-induced growth could be reversed by increasing the amount of gibberellin in two cases tested. Six chemically defined tannins were found to inhibit hypocotyl growth induced by gibberellic acid in cucumber seedlings. Growth induced by indoleacetic acid in the same test was not inhibited. The highest ratio of tannin to promotor tested gave strong inhibition of gibberellic acid-induced growth, but actually enhanced the growth induced by indoleacetic acid. This difference in action suggests a specificity between the tannins and gibberellic acid. PMID:16657953

  11. Tetrahydroquinoline derivatives as opioid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cunyu; Westaway, Susan M; Speake, Jason D; Bishop, Michael J; Goetz, Aaron S; Carballo, Luz Helena; Hu, Mike; Epperly, Andrea H

    2011-01-15

    Opioid receptors play an important role in both behavioral and homeostatic functions. We herein report tetrahydroquinoline derivatives as opioid receptor antagonists. SAR studies led to the identification of the potent antagonist 2v, endowed with 1.58nM (K(i)) functional activity against the μ opioid receptor. DMPK data suggest that novel tetrahydroquinoline analogs may be advantageous in peripheral applications. PMID:21193310

  12. The universality of a self-help program of American origin: narcotics anonymous in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ronel, N

    1997-01-01

    A phenomenological field study of Narcotics Anonymous (NA) in Israel focused on the way a self-help program, based on American Christian ideology was adopted in Israel. Acculturation problems were anticipated, due to cultural, demographic and religious differences. Participant observations and open-ended interviews supplied the raw data. Emphasis was placed on the factors and processes definable as typically American: voluntarism and pragmatism, personal sharing as a basis for relationships, spiritual rather than religious faith, the idea of a "personal God" guiding individuals, faith in God without religious tradition and formal ritualism. The results showed that, for the substance-dependents, the issue is generally irrelevant, and they accepted most "American" components of the program unquestioningly. However, two discrete features of Christian ideology required conscious incorporation by NA's Israeli members: (1) the concept of a "Loving God" who is non-punitive, which for many members was opposed to their traditions and upbringing, and (2) kneeling to pray, a recommendation which many members initially found problematic. The conclusion denotes a factor facilitating the transfer of therapeutic programs from one culture to another--that of personal suffering as a universal domain. It transcends all cultural boundaries and generates willingness to accept foreign concepts which reveal suffering and propose a pragmatic way to end it. PMID:9358602

  13. Centrally acting non-narcotic antitussives prevent hyperactivity in mice: Involvement of GIRK channels.

    PubMed

    Soeda, Fumio; Fujieda, Yoshiko; Kinoshita, Mizue; Shirasaki, Tetsuya; Takahama, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    We have previously reported that centrally acting non-narcotic antitussives inhibited G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel-activated currents, and that the antitussives had multiple pharmacological actions on various models of intractable brain diseases in rodents. In this study, the question of whether these antitussives inhibit drug-induced hyperactivity in mice was investigated. Antitussives, such as cloperastine and tipepidine, at cough suppressant doses, inhibited an increase in ambulation of mice neonatally treated with 6-hydroxydopamine. In addition, all antitussives studied inhibited an increase in methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in mice. Methylphenidate, which is used for treatment of ADHD, inhibited 6-hydroxydopamine-lesion-induced, but not methamphetamine-induced, hyperactivity in mice. By the rota-rod test, the drugs had little effect on motor coordination of the hyperactive mice. Significant correlation was found between the ameliorating effects of antitussives on methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and their inhibitory actions on GIRK channel currents (coefficient factor, 0.998). Furthermore, tertiapin, a GIRK channel blocker, prevented an increase in methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity of mice. These results demonstrated that antitussive drugs (cloperastine, tipepidine and caramiphen) possessing inhibitory action on GIRK channels inhibit drug-induced hyperactivity in mice, suggesting that such antitussives may potentially be therapeutic for patients with ADHD. PMID:26892760

  14. A fugacity-based toxicokinetic model for narcotic organic chemicals in fish.

    PubMed

    Celsie, Alena; Mackay, Donald; Parnis, J Mark; Arnot, Jon A

    2016-05-01

    A novel dynamic fugacity-based model is described, developed, and tested that simulates the uptake of narcotic organic chemicals in fish from water as occurs in aquatic bioconcentration and toxicity tests. The physiologically based toxicokinetic model treats the time course of chemical distribution in 4 compartments (tissue groups) in the fish, including the liver, in which biotransformation may occur. In addition to calculating bioconcentration and toxicokinetics, 5 possible toxic endpoints are defined corresponding to chemical concentration, fugacity, or activity reaching a critical value that causes 50% mortality. The mathematical description of multicompartment uptake is simplified by expressing the equations in the fugacity format. The model is parameterized and tested against reported empirical data for the bioconcentration of pentachloroethane in rainbow trout and for uptake and mortality from aquatic exposures to naphthalene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in fathead minnows. Model performance is evaluated, and it is concluded that with suitable parameterization it has potential for application for assessment of both bioconcentration and toxicity expressed as median lethal concentrations, critical body residues, and chemical activity as a function of time to death. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1257-1267. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:27089446

  15. [The development of chemical narcotic and related anesthetic techniques in modern times].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Yan-Rong

    2012-11-01

    Before the 19(th) century, ether and nitrous oxide were synthesized. However, they were just used as a kind of enjoyable things at night gatherings for their hypnotic and analgesic effect. In the 19(th) century, ether and nitrous oxide came into use in clinical anesthesia. Thereafter, more and more chemical narcotics were synthesized and applied to clinical anesthesia. In 1872, chloroform was injected into man's vein for anesthesia. In the 20(th) century, along with many kinds of barbiturates being synthesized, intravenous anesthesia got much development and application. At the same time, related techniques of anesthesia also improved. In the early 19(th) century, open inhalation anesthesia was often used. In 1900, there came a new anesthesia method by blowing into the windpipe through the cut of throat. Later on, the technique of endotracheal anesthesia and artificial respiration anesthesia (1908), the anesthetic instrument of endotracheal intubation and laryngeal mask and laryngoscope were invented. In the mid 19(th) century, the appearance of injection syringe and cocaine made local anesthesia possible. In 1880, local anesthesia also became successful. Thereafter, a variety of local anesthetic drugs were synthesized and applied, companying with various techniques of local anesthesia such as subarachnoid anesthesia (1900), sacral anesthesia (1901), epidural block (1903), plexus block (1902) and so on. In order to control the depth of anesthesia and respiration effectively, people attempted a lot so that anesthesia machine (1910), improved endotracheal anesthesia (1921), cryogenic technique (1902), controlled hypotension (1940s) and artificial hibernation (1950) came into being. PMID:23363851

  16. Narcotics and explosives detection by 14N pure nuclear quadrupole resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garroway, Allen N.; Buess, Michael L.; Yesinowski, James P.; Miller, Joel B.

    1994-03-01

    Pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of 14N nuclei is quite promising as a method for detecting explosives such as RDX and contraband narcotics such as cocaine and heroin in quantities of interest. Pure NQR is conducted without an external applied magnetic field, so potential concerns about damage to magnetically encoded data or exposure of personnel to large magnetic fields are not relevant. Because NQR frequencies of different compounds are quite distinct, we do not encounter false alarms from the NQR signals of other benign materials. We have constructed a proof-of-concept NQR explosives detector which interrogates a volume of 300 liters (10 ft3). With minimal modification to the existing explosives detector, we can detect operationally relevant quantities of (free base) cocaine within the 300-liter inspection volume in 6 seconds. We are presently extending this approach to the detection of heroin base and also examining 14N and 35,37Cl pure NQR for detection of the hydrochloride forms of both materials. An adaptation of this NQR approach may be suitable for scanning personnel for externally carried contraband and explosives. We first outline the basics of the NQR approach, highlighting strengths and weaknesses, and then present representative results for RDX and cocaine detection. We also present a partial compendium of relevant NQR parameters measured for some materials of interest.

  17. Exploring sex disparity in sentencing outcomes: a focus on narcotics offenders in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Richard D; Kwak, Dae-Hoon; Park, Mirang; Lee, Min-Sik

    2011-04-01

    Most research on sentencing outcomes reveals that legally relevant factors such as the seriousness of the offense and prior criminal record are primary determinants. There is, however, a substantial body of research that finds that extralegal factors such as a defendant's sex also influence these outcomes. Most of these latter studies conclude that female defendants receive less severe outcomes compared to their male counterparts. Most of this research, however, is limited to Western societies. To extend this body of research, the current study examines sex differences in sentencing practices for a sample of narcotics offenders in South Korea. Results support previous research; female drug offenders in South Korea are generally treated more leniently than their male counterparts. Tests for interaction effects reveal that the defendant's sex also interacts with other constellations of factors to produce lenient treatment for certain female defendants. These tests, however, also reveal that lenient sentence outcomes are not extended to all female defendants; those with prior drug convictions do not fare better than their male counterparts at the incarceration decision. PMID:20142625

  18. Analgesics in ophthalmic practice: a review of the oral non-narcotic agent tramadol.

    PubMed

    Gaynes, B I; Barkin, R L

    1999-07-01

    This report reviews the causes of ocular pain and discusses the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, adverse effects, and dosage of tramadol, a novel non-narcotic oral analgesic. Tramadol is a synthetic analog of codeine with a dual mechanism of action that involves agonist activity at the mu opioid receptor, as well as inhibition of monoaminergic (norepinephrine and serotonin) re-uptake. Unlike opiate analgesics, tramadol has very low propensity toward physical dependence. Common dose-related adverse effects of tramadol include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, and/or drowsiness. Clinically, tramadol has been shown to be equivalent to acetaminophen (325 mg)-codeine (30 mg) combinations for the treatment of moderate or severe nonocular pain. Tramadol appears to be an effective analgesic agent for pain control due to postoperative surgical trauma, as well as in various chronic malignant and nonmalignant disease states. Tramadol has shown variable effectiveness in the control of pain related to dental procedures. The usefulness of tramadol in pain states from ophthalmic origin has yet to be clinically established. PMID:10445636

  19. On analgesic and narcotic plants: Pliny and his Greek sources, the history of a complex graft.

    PubMed

    Bonet, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Grafting is an important concept in the study of Pliny the Elder, who is a compiler of written sources. We intend to examine how this grafting works in Pliny's discussion of analgesic and narcotic plants, especially the most famous: opium poppy, henbane, mandrake, and hound's berry. We will study Pliny's use of Greek sources and ask how he took up his predecessors' works while integrating the changes that took place during the centuries in the diagnosis and treatment of pain. This cultural graft remains elusive because we do not have access to all of Pliny's Greek sources. When Pliny speaks about these plants, he sometimes copies out information, adding or removing details, and occasionally makes significant mistakes. The graft was particularly difficult in this case because these analgesic plants were considered so special and poisonous that they were sometimes rejected or even condemned. Nevertheless, we can say that this cultural graft succeeded, despite some obstacles, because Pliny assimilated and adapted these old Greek materials to his own time, society, and project. PMID:25195330

  20. Closed to reason: time for accountability for the International Narcotic Control Board

    PubMed Central

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2007-01-01

    For more than two decades, the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB) has tried to stop harm reduction and its HIV prevention programs. This posture is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of their responsibilities and of drug addiction itself – i.e. as a public health and clinical care matter made criminal by decree. A recent focal point for the Board's action has been rejecting the use of supervised injection facilities to reduce morbidity and mortality of drug injectors. They single out individual countries and attempt to bully them into rejecting such programs under the banner of the United Nations (falsely) and in the name of international treaties. Their unrelenting and unjustified badgering of signatories to the international treaties that established the INCB is not only unjustified; it is an affront to one of the core purposes of the Board itself: to ensure adequate medical supplies and safe use of controlled substances. The INCB's ill-conceived obsession with intravenousaddiction as a crime flies in the face of the medical view and policies of the World Health Organization and the universally endorsed principles of the General Assembly of the United Nations. The latest target of the INCB is North America's only supervised injection facility, Insite, located in the inner city of Vancouver, Canada. Using the power of their office to meddle in matters of public health for individual nations is without medical, scientific or legal justification. But, most importantly, it is a matter of lifeand death for these most marginalized of citizens. The empirical evidence remains that a significant portion of the continued growth of the AIDS pandemic is due to injecting drug use, and the INCB's intrusion will inevitably result in additional deaths due to preventable HIV infections and drug overdoses. So we are very pleased to call to our readers' attention to a recent report produced by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the International Harm Reduction

  1. Return to Galileo? The Inquisition of the International Narcotic Control Board

    PubMed Central

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 400 years after Galileo Galilei of Florence was arraigned and convicted of suspected heresy by the ten member Congregation of the Holy Office (Inquisition), the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB) is similarly inserting itself into matters pertaining to innovations in healthcare and the public health response to addiction throughout the world. Like that earlier Inquisition of 1633 that convicted Galileo of heresy for holding that the sun is the centre of the universe with the earth revolving around it (in contradiction to church doctrine of the time) the INCB and its thirteen-member panel, now rails against any evidence out of sync with the established doctrine of the war on drugs – particularly those innovations in public health called harm reduction. The latest healthcare and harm reduction practices to attract the ire of the INCB Inquisition are elements of Canada's most effective and innovative measures to minimize the harms of drugs in Vancouver – supervised injection facilities and, recently, the potential establishment of supervised inhalation rooms – along with the long established practice of providing safer mouthpieces for pulmonary inhalation in British Columbia. This is particularly significant as it comes in the midst of a crucial battle between municipal and provincial authorities in BC with the federal government in Ottawa, which seems determined to undermine all the most effective HR programs that are the result of years of steady local and governmental support in Vancouver and now threatens to derail all these programs and spread doubt about their usefulness despite the overwhelmingly positive findings of serous research. PMID:18462501

  2. Return to Galileo? The Inquisition of the International Narcotic Control Board.

    PubMed

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 400 years after Galileo Galilei of Florence was arraigned and convicted of suspected heresy by the ten member Congregation of the Holy Office (Inquisition), the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB) is similarly inserting itself into matters pertaining to innovations in healthcare and the public health response to addiction throughout the world. Like that earlier Inquisition of 1633 that convicted Galileo of heresy for holding that the sun is the centre of the universe with the earth revolving around it (in contradiction to church doctrine of the time) the INCB and its thirteen-member panel, now rails against any evidence out of sync with the established doctrine of the war on drugs--particularly those innovations in public health called harm reduction. The latest healthcare and harm reduction practices to attract the ire of the INCB Inquisition are elements of Canada's most effective and innovative measures to minimize the harms of drugs in Vancouver--supervised injection facilities and, recently, the potential establishment of supervised inhalation rooms--along with the long established practice of providing safer mouthpieces for pulmonary inhalation in British Columbia. This is particularly significant as it comes in the midst of a crucial battle between municipal and provincial authorities in BC with the federal government in Ottawa, which seems determined to undermine all the most effective HR programs that are the result of years of steady local and governmental support in Vancouver and now threatens to derail all these programs and spread doubt about their usefulness despite the overwhelmingly positive findings of serous research. PMID:18462501

  3. Fast detection of narcotics by single photon ionization mass spectrometry and laser ion mobility spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudien, Robert; Schultze, Rainer; Wieser, Jochen

    2010-10-01

    In this contribution two analytical devices for the fast detection of security-relevant substances like narcotics and explosives are presented. One system is based on an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) with single photon ionization (SPI). This soft ionization technique, unlike electron impact ionization (EI), reduces unwanted fragment ions in the mass spectra allowing the clear determination of characteristic (usually molecular) ions. Their enrichment in the ion trap and identification by tandem MS investigations (MS/MS) enables the detection of the target substances in complex matrices at low concentrations without time-consuming sample preparation. For SPI an electron beam pumped excimer light source of own fabrication (E-Lux) is used. The SPI-ITMS system was characterized by the analytical study of different drugs like cannabis, heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, and some precursors. Additionally, it was successfully tested on-site in a closed illegal drug laboratory, where low quantities of MDMA could be directly detected in samples from floors, walls and lab equipments. The second analytical system is based on an ion mobility (IM) spectrometer with resonant multiphoton ionization (REMPI). With the frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (266 nm), used for ionization, a selective and sensitive detection of aromatic compounds is possible. By application of suited aromatic dopants, in addition, also non-aromatic polar compounds are accessible by ion molecule reactions like proton transfer or complex formation. Selected drug precursors could be successfully detected with this device as well, qualifying it to a lower-priced alternative or useful supplement of the SPI-ITMS system for security analysis.

  4. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wan-Ting; Dai, Ming-Xiang; Xue, Fang-Zheng

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonistic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all of the agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all of the agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups and that agents in the same group collaborate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61203080 and 61473051) and the Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing City (Grant No. CSTC 2011BB0081).

  5. Endothelin receptor antagonists in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Channick, Richard N; Sitbon, Olivier; Barst, Robyn J; Manes, Alessandra; Rubin, Lewis J

    2004-06-16

    Endothelin receptor antagonism has emerged as an important therapeutic strategy in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Laboratory and clinical investigations have clearly shown that endothelin (ET)-1 is overexpressed in several forms of pulmonary vascular disease and likely plays a significant pathogenetic role in the development and progression of pulmonary vasculopathy. Oral endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) have been shown to improve pulmonary hemodynamics, exercise capacity, functional status, and clinical outcome in several randomized placebo-controlled trials. Bosentan, a dual-receptor antagonist, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for class III and IV patients with PAH, based on two phase III trials. In addition to its efficacy as sole therapy, bosentan may have a role as part of a combination of drugs such as a prostanoid or sildenafil. The selective endothelin receptor-A antagonists sitaxsentan and ambrisentan are currently undergoing investigation. PMID:15194180

  6. Histamine-2 Receptor Antagonists and Semen Quality.

    PubMed

    Banihani, Saleem A

    2016-01-01

    Histamine-2 receptor antagonists are a class of drugs used to treat the acid-related gastrointestinal diseases such as ulcer and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Although such drugs, especially ranitidine and famotidine, are still widely used, their effects on semen quality, and hence on male infertility, is still unclear. This MiniReview systematically addresses and summarizes the effect of histamine-2 receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine, nizatidine and famotidine) on semen quality, particularly, on sperm function. Cimetidine appears to have adverse effects on semen quality. While the effects of ranitidine and nizatidine on semen quality are still controversial, famotidine does not appear to change semen quality. Therefore, additional studies will be required to clarify whether histamine-2 receptor-independent effects of these drugs play a role in semen quality as well as further clinical studies including direct comparison of the histamine-2 receptor antagonists. PMID:26176290

  7. Synthesis, modeling, and pharmacological evaluation of UMB 425, a mixed μ agonist/δ antagonist opioid analgesic with reduced tolerance liabilities.

    PubMed

    Healy, Jason R; Bezawada, Padmavani; Shim, Jihyun; Jones, Jace W; Kane, Maureen A; MacKerell, Alexander D; Coop, Andrew; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2013-09-18

    Opioid narcotics are used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain and primarily exert their analgesic effects through μ receptors. Although traditional μ agonists can cause undesired side effects, including tolerance, addition of δ antagonists can attenuate said side effects. Herein, we report 4a,9-dihydroxy-7a-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,4a,5,6-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-7(7aH)-one (UMB 425) a 5,14-bridged morphinan-based orvinol precursor synthesized from thebaine. Although UMB 425 lacks δ-specific motifs, conformationally sampled pharmacophore models for μ and δ receptors predict it to have efficacy similar to morphine at μ receptors and similar to naltrexone at δ receptors, due to the compound sampling conformations in which the hydroxyl moiety interacts with the receptors similar to orvinols. As predicted, UMB 425 exhibits a mixed μ agonist/δ antagonist profile as determined in receptor binding and [(35)S]GTPγS functional assays in CHO cells. In vivo studies in mice show that UMB 425 displays potent antinociception in the hot plate and tail-flick assays. The antinociceptive effects of UMB 425 are blocked by naloxone, but not by the κ-selective antagonist norbinaltorphimine. During a 6-day tolerance paradigm, UMB 425 maintains significantly greater antinociception compared to morphine. These studies thus indicate that, even in the absence of δ-specific motifs fused to the C-ring, UMB 425 has mixed μ agonist/δ antagonist properties in vitro that translate to reduced tolerance liabilities in vivo. PMID:23713721

  8. Synthesis, Modeling, and Pharmacological Evaluation of UMB 425, a Mixed μ Agonist/δ Antagonist Opioid Analgesic with Reduced Tolerance Liabilities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Opioid narcotics are used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain and primarily exert their analgesic effects through μ receptors. Although traditional μ agonists can cause undesired side effects, including tolerance, addition of δ antagonists can attenuate said side effects. Herein, we report 4a,9-dihydroxy-7a-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,4a,5,6-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-7(7aH)-one (UMB 425) a 5,14-bridged morphinan-based orvinol precursor synthesized from thebaine. Although UMB 425 lacks δ-specific motifs, conformationally sampled pharmacophore models for μ and δ receptors predict it to have efficacy similar to morphine at μ receptors and similar to naltrexone at δ receptors, due to the compound sampling conformations in which the hydroxyl moiety interacts with the receptors similar to orvinols. As predicted, UMB 425 exhibits a mixed μ agonist/δ antagonist profile as determined in receptor binding and [35S]GTPγS functional assays in CHO cells. In vivo studies in mice show that UMB 425 displays potent antinociception in the hot plate and tail-flick assays. The antinociceptive effects of UMB 425 are blocked by naloxone, but not by the κ-selective antagonist norbinaltorphimine. During a 6-day tolerance paradigm, UMB 425 maintains significantly greater antinociception compared to morphine. These studies thus indicate that, even in the absence of δ-specific motifs fused to the C-ring, UMB 425 has mixed μ agonist/δ antagonist properties in vitro that translate to reduced tolerance liabilities in vivo. PMID:23713721

  9. Azines as histamine H4 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lazewska, Dorota; Kiec-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Since 2000, when the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) was cloned, it has constituted an interesting target for drug development. Pharmacological studies suggest the potential utility of histamine H4R antagonists/inverse agonists in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, e.g. allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, colitis, or pruritus. The first H4R ligands were non-selective compounds, but intensive chemical and pharmacological work has led to the discovery of highly potent and selective H4R antagonists (e.g. JNJ7777120, CZC-13788, PF-2988403, A-940894, A-987306). The first compound (UR-63325) has finally entered into clinical studies for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases (completing the phase I ascending dose trial) and has been found to be safe and well tolerated. The number of scientific publications and patent applications in the H4 field is increasing annually. Among the diverse chemical structures of the H4R antagonists described a 2-aminopyrimidine scaffold is repeatedly found. This review looked at recent advances in the search for H4R antagonists as reflected in patent applications/patents and peer-reviewed publications over the last two years. The work concerns azines (mono-, di-, triazines) and their fused analogues. The chemistry and pharmacology has been described. PMID:22202103

  10. Oxazolidinones as novel human CCR8 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian; Wang, Yonghui; Wang, Feng; Kerns, Jeffery K; Vinader, Victoria M; Hancock, Ashley P; Lindon, Matthew J; Stevenson, Graeme I; Morrow, Dwight M; Rao, Parvathi; Nguyen, Cuc; Barrett, Victoria J; Browning, Chris; Hartmann, Guido; Andrew, David P; Sarau, Henry M; Foley, James J; Jurewicz, Anthony J; Fornwald, James A; Harker, Andy J; Moore, Michael L; Rivero, Ralph A; Belmonte, Kristen E; Connor, Helen E

    2007-03-15

    High-throughput screening of the corporate compound collection led to the discovery of a novel series of N-substituted-5-aryl-oxazolidinones as potent human CCR8 antagonists. The synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and optimization of the series that led to the identification of SB-649701 (1a), are described. PMID:17267215

  11. The experience of childbrith in first-time mothers who received narcotic analgesics during the first stage of labour.

    PubMed

    Jantjes, L; Strümpher, J; Kotzé, W J

    2007-06-01

    This research has focused on the birthing experience of first-time mothers who received the narcotic analgesic combination of Pethidine and Hydroxyzine during the first stage of labour. A qualitative research methodology was used to collect data. Unstructured interviews were held with first-time mothers to obtain accounts of their experience of childbirth. These narrations were audio-taped while the participants were still being cared for in the postnatal ward of the hospital where delivery took place. Nine interviews were conducted with first-time mothers who gave birth normally vaginally after a normal pregnancy and who received a narcotic analgesic in the first stage of labour. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Tesch's method of descriptive analysis (in Creswell, 1994:115). Four themes with sub-themes emerged from the analysis. The participants reported on the physical experience of labour and described experiencing a lot of pain for which analgesics were given. They also described how these drugs dulled the pain but made them sleepy and unable to cooperate with the midwives. They described their emotional experiences, which included joy and happiness as well as anxiety, anger and despondence. They also reported that they were not sufficiently informed about labour and child-birth. In the last theme they described the methods they used to help them cope with labour including distracting techniques, leaning on a supportive person or praying. Guidelines to help midwives overcome these problems were developed. PMID:17703826

  12. Ion mobility spectrometry nuisance alarm threshold analysis for illicit narcotics based on environmental background and a ROC-curve approach.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Thomas P; Najarro, Marcela

    2016-07-21

    The discriminative potential of an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for trace detection of illicit narcotics relative to environmental background was investigated with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve framework. The IMS response of cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and Δ(9)-tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC) was evaluated against environmental background levels derived from the screening of incoming delivery vehicles at a federal facility. Over 20 000 samples were collected over a multiyear period under two distinct sets of instrument operating conditions, a baseline mode and an increased desorption/drift tube temperature and sampling time mode. ROC curves provided a quantifiable representation of the interplay between sensitivity (true positive rate, TPR) and specificity (1 - false positive rate, FPR). A TPR of 90% and minimized FPR were targeted as the detection limits of IMS for the selected narcotics. MDMA, THC, and cocaine demonstrated single nanogram sensitivity at 90% TPR and <10% FPR, with improvements to both MDMA and cocaine in the elevated temperature/increased sampling mode. Detection limits in the tens of nanograms with poor specificity (FPR ≈ 20%) were observed for methamphetamine and heroin under baseline conditions. However, elevating the temperature reduced the background in the methamphetamine window, drastically improving its response (90% TPR and 3.8% FPR at 1 ng). On the contrary, the altered mode conditions increased the level of background for THC and heroin, partially offsetting observed enhancements to desorption. The presented framework demonstrated the significant effect environmental background distributions have on sensitivity and specificity. PMID:27206280

  13. Discovery of novel and potent CRTH2 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shinji; Terasaka, Tadashi; Zenkoh, Tatsuya; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Hisashi; Nagata, Hiroshi; Imamura, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Miki; Takeuchi, Makoto; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2012-01-15

    High throughput screening of our chemical library for CRTH2 antagonists provided a lead compound 1a. Initial optimization of the lead led to the discovery of a novel, potent and orally bioavailable CRTH2 antagonist 17. PMID:22178554

  14. Federal Drug Law Enforcement and Interdiction. Hearing before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, May 22, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control.

    This document contains testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing on federal drug law enforcement. Statements are given from Congressman Claude Pepper, the staff director of the National Narcotics Border Interdiction System (NNBIS), an administrator from the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), a commissioner from the…

  15. Infants of Narcotic Addicted Mothers: Developmental Status, Maternal Care, Home Environments and Interventive Efforts During the First Three Months of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Sara M.; Hock, Ellen

    This study compared infants born to narcotic addicted mothers with infants born to nonaddicted mothers and described the potential of an intervention program. Infants of five addicted women were matched with infants of five nonaddicted women on the basis of age and socioeconomic class of the mothers and on the basis of gestational ages, birth…

  16. Comparative assessment of blood and urine analyses in patients with acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol in clinical toxicology.

    PubMed

    Ostapenko, Yury Nikolaevich; Lisovik, Zhanna Andreevna; Belova, Maria Vladimirovna; Luzhnikov, Evgeny Alekseevich; Livanov, Alexandr Sergeevich

    2005-01-01

    Acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol are actual in Russia in the recent years. Comparison of analytic facilities of modern analytical techniques: chromatographic (HPLC, GC, GC-MS) and immuno-chemical (FPIA) in clinical toxicology for urgent diagnostics, assessment of the severity of acute poisoning and the efficacy of the treatment in patients with acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs, narcotics and alcohol have been done. The object of the study were serum, blood, urine of 611 patients with acute poisonings by amitriptyline, clozapine, carbamazepine, opiates and also alcohol. Threshold concentrations (threshold, critical and lethal) of the toxicants and their active metabolites which corresponded to different degrees of poisoning severity have been determined. The most comfortable and informative screening method for express diagnostics and assessment of severity of acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs and narcotics showed the HPLC with using automatic analyzers. FPIA using the automatic analyzer could be applied for screening studies, if group identification is enough. GC-FID method is advisable in case of poisoning by medical substances and narcotics in view of repeated investigation for assessment of the efficacy of the therapy. GC-MS could be advisable for confirming the results of other methods. GC-TCD possess high sensitivity and specificity and is optimal for express differential diagnostics and quantitative assessment of acute poisoning by ethanol and other alcohols. PMID:16225131

  17. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  18. Federal Drug Strategy--1983. Hearings before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session (November 1 and 2, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control.

    This document provides transcripts and prepared testimony from the Congressional hearings on narcotics abuse and control. Opening statements by Committee Chairman Charles Rangel and Congressman Benjamin Gilman are provided. Testimony is presented from Congressional representatives and administrators of substance abuse services and hospital…

  19. Women's Dependency on Prescription Drugs; Hearing Before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.

    This record of the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control contains testimonies addressing the problems facing drug abusing women. The extensive prescribing of legal drugs such as tranquilizers, sedatives, pain killers, and stimulants is examined. The problems of polydrug abuse and alcohol abuse in combination with other drugs are also…

  20. Studying Prevalence and Pattern of Taking Narcotic and Ecstasy Drugs by Patients Admitted to Special Care Centers of Shahid Bahonar Hospital, Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Nejad, Mehdi; Jadidi, Fatemeh; Dehghani, Mahmoud Reza; Divsalar, Kouros

    2012-01-01

    Background Addiction is the repeated use of a chemical substance which affects the biological function of the brain and endangers physical health of the addicted person. Prevalence and pattern of taking drugs were assessed in the current study in a Special Cares Trauma Center. So the specialized physician could manage the medical procedure more easily through identification of addicted patients and type of their narcotics. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 545 patients admitted to the Special Cares Center of Shahid Bahonar Hospital, Kerman, Iran, during 2010-2012. The data were collected by special information collection forms and then analyzed using SPSS software. Findings Among the total studied samples, around 55% of admitted patients were addicts. Opium was the most frequently used narcotic among the addicted patients with a percentage of 62%. Smoking was the most common method of taking the narcotics. 90% of addicted persons were male and 95% of them held diploma and under-diploma educational degrees. Among the reasons for admission of addicted patients to the Special Cares Clinic of Trauma Center, head trauma was the dominant cause (51%). Conclusion Addiction is considerably more prevalent among the population admitted to the Special Cares Center compared to the society, indicating greater vulnerability of addicted individuals in the society. Addiction to traditional and indigenous drugs are still the most prevalent, and fortunately, these drugs are easier to substitute and medicate compared to the new industrial narcotics. PMID:24494137

  1. Annual Report for the Year 1983 of the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control.

    This annual report describes the activities of the House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control in 1983 and makes recommendations to the House of Representatives to control the worldwide problem of drug abuse and drug trafficking. An initial section of the report describes the jurisdiction, authority, funding, and organization of the…

  2. Safe medication management and use of narcotics in a Joint Commission International-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Xia, Ping; Chen, Meng; Zhou, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Safe medication management and use of high-alert narcotics should arouse concern. Risk management experiences in this respect in a large-scale Joint Commission International (JCI)-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People's Republic of China during 2011-2015, focusing on organizational, educational, motivational, and information technological measures in storage, prescribing, preparing, dispensing, administration, and monitoring of medication are summarized. The intensity of use of meperidine in hospitalized patients in 2015 was one-fourth that in 2011. A 100% implementation rate of standard storage of narcotics has been achieved in the hospital since December 2012. A "Plan, Do, Check, Act" cycle was efficient because the ratio of number of inappropriate narcotics prescriptions to total number of narcotics prescriptions for inpatients decreased from August 2014 to December 2014 (28.22% versus 2.96%, P=0.0000), and it was controlled below 6% from then on. During the journey to good pain management ward accreditation by the Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China, (April 2012-October 2012), the medical oncology ward successfully demonstrated an increase in the pain screening rate at admission from 43.5% to 100%, cancer pain control rate from 85% to 96%, and degree of satisfaction toward pain nursing from 95.4% to 100% (all P-values <0.05). Oral morphine equivalent dosage in the good pain management ward increased from 2.3 mg/patient before June 2012 to 54.74 mg/patient in 2014. From 2011 to 2015, the oral morphine equivalent dose per discharged patient increased from 8.52 mg/person to 20.36 mg/person. A 100% implementation rate of independent double-check prior to narcotics dosing has been achieved since January 2013. From 2014 to 2015, the ratio of number of narcotics-related medication errors to number of discharged patients significantly decreased (6.95% versus 0.99%, P=0.0000). Taken together, continuous quality improvements have been

  3. Safe medication management and use of narcotics in a Joint Commission International-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xu; Zhu, Ling-ling; Pan, Sheng-dong; Xia, Ping; Chen, Meng; Zhou, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Safe medication management and use of high-alert narcotics should arouse concern. Risk management experiences in this respect in a large-scale Joint Commission International (JCI)-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People’s Republic of China during 2011–2015, focusing on organizational, educational, motivational, and information technological measures in storage, prescribing, preparing, dispensing, administration, and monitoring of medication are summarized. The intensity of use of meperidine in hospitalized patients in 2015 was one-fourth that in 2011. A 100% implementation rate of standard storage of narcotics has been achieved in the hospital since December 2012. A “Plan, Do, Check, Act” cycle was efficient because the ratio of number of inappropriate narcotics prescriptions to total number of narcotics prescriptions for inpatients decreased from August 2014 to December 2014 (28.22% versus 2.96%, P=0.0000), and it was controlled below 6% from then on. During the journey to good pain management ward accreditation by the Ministry of Health, People’s Republic of China, (April 2012–October 2012), the medical oncology ward successfully demonstrated an increase in the pain screening rate at admission from 43.5% to 100%, cancer pain control rate from 85% to 96%, and degree of satisfaction toward pain nursing from 95.4% to 100% (all P-values <0.05). Oral morphine equivalent dosage in the good pain management ward increased from 2.3 mg/patient before June 2012 to 54.74 mg/patient in 2014. From 2011 to 2015, the oral morphine equivalent dose per discharged patient increased from 8.52 mg/person to 20.36 mg/person. A 100% implementation rate of independent double-check prior to narcotics dosing has been achieved since January 2013. From 2014 to 2015, the ratio of number of narcotics-related medication errors to number of discharged patients significantly decreased (6.95% versus 0.99%, P=0.0000). Taken together, continuous quality improvements

  4. Fluorescent Human EP3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tomasch, Miriam; Schwed, J Stephan; Kuczka, Karina; Meyer Dos Santos, Sascha; Harder, Sebastian; Nüsing, Rolf M; Paulke, Alexander; Stark, Holger

    2012-09-13

    Exchange of the lipophilc part of ortho-substituted cinnamic acid lead structures with different small molecule fluorophoric moieties via a dimethylene spacer resulted in hEP3R ligands with affinities in the nanomolar concentration range. Synthesized compounds emit fluorescence in the blue, green, and red range of light and have been tested concerning their potential as a pharmacological tool. hEP3Rs were visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy on HT-29 cells, on murine kidney tissues, and on human brain tissues and functionally were characterized as antagonists on human platelets. Inhibition of PGE2 and collagen-induced platelet aggregation was measured after preincubation with novel hEP3R ligands. The pyryllium-labeled ligand 8 has been shown as one of the most promising structures, displaying a useful fluorescence and highly affine hEP3R antagonists. PMID:24900547

  5. Vasopressin receptor antagonists: Characteristics and clinical role.

    PubMed

    Rondon-Berrios, Helbert; Berl, Tomas

    2016-03-01

    Hyponatremia, the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients is associated with increased risk of mortality even when mild and apparently asymptomatic. Likewise morbidity manifested as attention deficits, gait disturbances, falls, fractures, and osteoporosis is more prevalent in hyponatremic subjects. Hyponatremia also generates a significant financial burden. Therefore, it is important to explore approaches that effectively and safely treat hyponatremia. Currently available strategies are physiologically sound and affordable but lack evidence from clinical trials and are limited by variable efficacy, slow response, and/or poor compliance. The recent emergence of vasopressin receptor antagonists provides a class of drugs that target the primary pathophysiological mechanism, namely vasopressin mediated impairment of free water excretion. This review summarizes the historical development, pharmacology, clinical trials supporting efficacy and safety, shortcomings, as well as practical suggestions for the use of vasopressin receptor antagonists. PMID:27156765

  6. Membrane burdens of chlorinated benzenes lower the main phase transition temperature in dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine vesicles: Implications for toxicity by narcotic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Wezel, A.P. van; Cornelissen, G.; Miltenburg, J.K. van; Opperhuizen, A.

    1996-02-01

    In the membrane of an organism that dies due to exposure to narcotic chemicals, the main phase transition temperature (T{sub tr}) of the phospholipids is decreased and the fluidity is increased. The decrease in T{sub tr} depends on the molar concentration of narcotics in the membrane (membrane burden) and is irrespective of the physicochemical properties of the chemicals. If membrane-water partition coefficients, exposure concentrations, and the amount of lipid in the system are known, membrane burdens of narcotic chemicals can be calculated and compared to membrane burdens that yield toxicity. The partition coefficients of a series of chlorobenzenes between phospholipid vesicles and water (K{sub mw}) were measured at different temperatures in a new experimental set-up. K{sub mw}`s were higher in the liquid-crystalline phase than in the gel phase. Partitioning into the el phase was entropy driven, partitioning into the liquid-crystalline phase was driven by entropy and enthalpy. The fluidity change in phospholipid vesicles, after accumulation of chlorobenzenes, was measured from the change in T{sub tr}. The membrane burdens of various chlorobenzenes needed for a lowering of T{sub tr} were comparable (e.g., 20--60 mmol/kg for a decrease of 1.0 C). The membrane burden needed in vivo for lethality by narcotic chemicals such as chlorobenzenes was calculated to be 40--160 mmol/kg membrane. By combining the in vivo and in vitro data, it can be concluded that in organisms that die due to exposure to narcotic chemicals, the fluidity of the membrane is increased.

  7. Preclinical pharmacology of alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Martin, D J

    1999-01-01

    The implication of a single adrenoceptor subtype in the contractility of prostatic and urethral smooth muscle cells led to the concept that drugs with selectivity for this subtype may exhibit functional uroselectivity. Comparison of the affinities of the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists revealed that few compounds show selectivity for one of the three cloned alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha1a/A, alpha1b/B, alpha1d/D) whereas most of them had a similar affinity for the three subtypes. Moreover, data supporting a relationship between selectivity for the alpha1a/A-adrenoceptor subtype and functional uroselectivity are still lacking and recent data challenged the relevance of the selectivity for a given cloned alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype in predicting functional uroselectivity. In vivo data showed that alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists without adrenoceptor subtype selectivity, like alfuzosin or to a minor extent doxazosin, showed functional uroselectivity whereas prazosin and terazosin were not shown to be uroselective. Compounds considered to be selective for the alpha1a/A-adrenoceptor, like tamsulosin or 5-Me-urapidil, did not show functional uroselectivity since they modified urethral and blood pressures in a manner which was not correlated to their selectivity for the cloned alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes. Meanwhile, the identification in prostatic tissue, of a new sub-family of alpha1-adrenoceptors with low affinity for prazosin and denominated alpha1L gave rise to numerous studies. However, its functional role as well as the affinity of the known antagonists for this receptor subtype remains to be clarified. In conclusion, the existing alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists have different pharmacological profiles in vivo which are yet not predictable from their receptor pharmacology based on the actual state of knowledge of the alpha1-adrenoceptor classification. PMID:10393471

  8. Medicinal chemistry of competitive kainate receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ann M; Bunch, Lennart

    2011-02-16

    Kainic acid (KA) receptors belong to the group of ionotropic glutamate receptors and are expressed throughout in the central nervous system (CNS). The KA receptors have been shown to be involved in neurophysiological functions such as mossy fiber long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity and are thus potential therapeutic targets in CNS diseases such as schizophrenia, major depression, neuropathic pain and epilepsy. Extensive effort has been made to develop subtype-selective KA receptor antagonists in order to elucidate the physiological function of each of the five subunits known (GluK1-5). However, to date only selective antagonists for the GluK1 subunit have been discovered, which underlines the strong need for continued research in this area. The present review describes the structure-activity relationship and pharmacological profile for 10 chemically distinct classes of KA receptor antagonists comprising, in all, 45 compounds. To the medicinal chemist this information will serve as reference guidance as well as an inspiration for future effort in this field. PMID:22778857

  9. Calcium antagonists and their mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Nayler, Winifred G.; Dillon, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    1 The Ca2+ antagonists are a novel group of drugs useful in management of a variety of cardiac disorders. They differ from one another in terms of their chemistry, tissue specificity and selectivity. As a group, however, they share the common property of slowing Ca2+ entry through voltage-activated, ion-selective channels. Some of them exhibit other properties, including that of interfering with Na+ transport. At least one of them, diltiazem, has an intracellular action. 2 Specific high and low affinity binding sites have been identified for two of the major groups of Ca2+-antagonists, with the binding sites for verapamil and its derivatives being distinct from those which can be occupied by the dihydropyridines. The number (Bmax) and affinity (KD) of these binding sites changes under certain pathological conditions—including a reduction in ischaemia and in spontaneous hypertension, an increase in the latter, at present, only demonstrated for the dihydropyridine binding sites. 3 The sensitivity of a particular tissue to these drugs will depend upon a number of factors including the number of binding sites that are present, the contribution made by the Ca2+ entering through the voltage-activated channels to the functioning of the tissue, and properties which are peculiar to a particular type of Ca2+ antagonist, for example, whether, as in the case of verapamil, they exhibit use-dependence. PMID:3019374

  10. The Sexually Antagonistic Genes of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Innocenti, Paolo; Morrow, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    When selective pressures differ between males and females, the genes experiencing these conflicting evolutionary forces are said to be sexually antagonistic. Although the phenotypic effect of these genes has been documented in both wild and laboratory populations, their identity, number, and location remains unknown. Here, by combining data on sex-specific fitness and genome-wide transcript abundance in a quantitative genetic framework, we identified a group of candidate genes experiencing sexually antagonistic selection in the adult, which correspond to 8% of Drosophila melanogaster genes. As predicted, the X chromosome is enriched for these genes, but surprisingly they represent only a small proportion of the total number of sex-biased transcripts, indicating that the latter is a poor predictor of sexual antagonism. Furthermore, the majority of genes whose expression profiles showed a significant relationship with either male or female adult fitness are also sexually antagonistic. These results provide a first insight into the genetic basis of intralocus sexual conflict and indicate that genetic variation for fitness is dominated and maintained by sexual antagonism, potentially neutralizing any indirect genetic benefits of sexual selection. PMID:20305719

  11. From the Cover: Glutamate antagonists limit tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzeski, Wojciech; Turski, Lechoslaw; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy

    2001-05-01

    Neuronal progenitors and tumor cells possess propensity to proliferate and to migrate. Glutamate regulates proliferation and migration of neurons during development, but it is not known whether it influences proliferation and migration of tumor cells. We demonstrate that glutamate antagonists inhibit proliferation of human tumor cells. Colon adenocarcinoma, astrocytoma, and breast and lung carcinoma cells were most sensitive to the antiproliferative effect of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist dizocilpine, whereas breast and lung carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, and neuroblastoma cells responded most favorably to the -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate antagonist GYKI52466. The antiproliferative effect of glutamate antagonists was Ca2+ dependent and resulted from decreased cell division and increased cell death. Morphological alterations induced by glutamate antagonists in tumor cells consisted of reduced membrane ruffling and pseudopodial protrusions. Furthermore, glutamate antagonists decreased motility and invasive growth of tumor cells. These findings suggest anticancer potential of glutamate antagonists.

  12. Management of calcium channel antagonist overdose.

    PubMed

    Salhanick, Steven D; Shannon, Michael W

    2003-01-01

    Calcium channel antagonists are used primarily for the treatment of hypertension and tachyarrhythmias. Overdose of calcium channel antagonists can be lethal. Calcium channel antagonists act at the L-type calcium channels primarily in cardiac and vascular smooth muscle preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decreases in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy and chronotropy. The L-type calcium channel is a complex structure and is thus affected by a large number of structurally diverse antagonists. In the setting of overdose, patients may experience vasodilatation and bradycardia leading to a shock state. Patients may also be hyperglycaemic and acidotic due to the blockade of L-type calcium channels in the pancreatic islet cells that affect insulin secretion. Aggressive therapy is warranted in the setting of toxicity. Gut decontamination with charcoal, or whole bowel irrigation or multiple-dose charcoal in the setting of extended-release products is indicated. Specific antidotes include calcium salts, glucagon and insulin. Calcium salts may be given in bolus doses or may be employed as a continuous infusion. Care should be exercised to avoid the administration of calcium in the setting of concomitant digoxin toxicity. Insulin administration has been used effectively to increase cardiac inotropy and survival. The likely mechanism involves a shift to carbohydrate metabolism in the setting of decreased availability of carbohydrates due to decreased insulin secretion secondary to blockade of calcium channels in pancreatic islet cells. Glucose should be administered as well to maintain euglycaemia. Supportive care including the use of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, adrenergic agents, cardiac pacing, balloon pump or extracorporeal bypass is frequently indicated if antidotal therapy is not effective. Careful evaluation of asymptomatic patients, including and electrocardiogram and a period of observation, is indicated. Patients ingesting a nonsustained

  13. [The evaluation of concentration of certain NSAID in the procedure of screening medicinal and narcotic substances in blood].

    PubMed

    Dvorskaya, K; Kataev, S S; Silina, K; Krokhin, I P

    2016-01-01

    We have undertaken the metrological assessment of the method for the quantitative determination of a number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) including ibuprofen, ketorolac, diclofenac, indomethacin, naproxen, and ketoprofen with the use of gas chromatography mass spectrometry in the model blood samples in the framework of the screening survey of medicinal and narcotic substances. The method was evaluated in terms of the following characteristics: specificity, linearity, correctness, precision (reproducibility), and intra-laboratory precision. The proposed method can be applied for the quantitative evaluation of indomethacin, ketoprofen, and naproxen content as well as for the preliminary quantitative determination of ibuprofen and diclofenac in the framework of the chemico-toxicological and forensic chemical analysis. The method can be employed for the quantitative determination of ketorolac from such characteristics as «linearity» and «reproducibility». PMID:27239768

  14. Antidepressant-like effect of centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive caramiphen in a forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Miki, Risa; Shima, Eriko; Honda, Sokichi; Soeda, Fumio; Shirasaki, Tetsuya; Takahama, Kazuo

    2010-09-13

    Recently, we reported that a centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive (cough suppressant drug), tipepidine produces an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in rats. Because pharmacological properties of tipepidine apparently differ from those of typical antidepressants developed to date, we speculated that caramiphen, another centrally acting antitussive, has an antidepressant-like effect. That effect of caramiphen was studied in rats using the forced swimming test. Caramiphen at 20 and 40mg/kg i.p. significantly reduced immobility. At 40mg/kg i.p., it increased climbing behavior. Even at 40mg/kg, this drug had no effect on locomotor activity. Results suggest that a centrally acting antitussive possessing inhibition of GIRK channels has an antidepressant-like effect. PMID:20621160

  15. Specifics of Chemical Toxilogical Analyses in the Russian Federation for the Purpose of Identification of Narcotics in Biological Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, Cameron W; Eisele, Gerhard R

    2011-01-01

    The Russian Federation (RF) is committed to implementing a comprehensive drug testing program under its Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) for military personnel involved in handling sensitive nuclear materials. This commitment leads to a number of mandatory requirements for the laboratory conducting the confirmation testing to ensure the legitimacy and integrity of the testing process. These requirements are established by the RF Duma to ensure that individuals conducting these tests have adequate training, certifications, and experience to conduct narcotic confirmation tests. This paper describes the facility requirements and personnel qualifications needed for conducting comprehensive drug abuse confirmation testing. Details regarding the personnel training and laboratory experience in the theory and practice of analytical forensic toxicology of drugs of abuse will be presented, as well as the facility requirements for the laboratory conducting such tests. Chain-of-custody, from sample receipt through completion of testing, reporting of results, and continuing until final disposition of specimens will be addressed.

  16. Continued development of a portable widefield hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensor for standoff detection of explosive, chemical, and narcotic residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Matthew P.; Gardner, Charles W.; Klueva, Oksana; Tomas, David

    2014-05-01

    Passive, standoff detection of chemical, explosive and narcotic threats employing widefield, shortwave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) continues to gain acceptance in defense and security fields. A robust and user-friendly portable platform with such capabilities increases the effectiveness of locating and identifying threats while reducing risks to personnel. In 2013 ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) introduced Aperio, a handheld sensor, using real-time SWIR HSI for wide area surveillance and standoff detection of explosives, chemical threats, and narcotics. That SWIR HSI system employed a liquid-crystal tunable filter for real-time automated detection and display of threats. In these proceedings, we report on a next generation device called VeroVision™, which incorporates an improved optical design that enhances detection performance at greater standoff distances with increased sensitivity and detection speed. A tripod mounted sensor head unit (SHU) with an optional motorized pan-tilt unit (PTU) is available for precision pointing and sensor stabilization. This option supports longer standoff range applications which are often seen at checkpoint vehicle inspection where speed and precision is necessary. Basic software has been extended to include advanced algorithms providing multi-target display functionality, automatic threshold determination, and an automated detection recipe capability for expanding the library as new threats emerge. In these proceedings, we report on the improvements associated with the next generation portable widefield SWIR HSI sensor, VeroVision™. Test data collected during development are presented in this report which supports the targeted applications for use of VeroVision™ for screening residue and bulk levels of explosive and drugs on vehicles and personnel at checkpoints as well as various applications for other secure areas. Additionally, we highlight a forensic application of the technology for assisting forensic

  17. Classification of dopamine, serotonin, and dual antagonists by decision trees.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Choo, Hyunah; Cho, Yong Seo; Koh, Hun Yeong; No, Kyoung Tai; Pae, Ae Nim

    2006-04-15

    Dopamine antagonists (DA), serotonin antagonists (SA), and serotonin-dopamine dual antagonists (Dual) are being used as antipsychotics. A lot of dopamine and serotonin antagonists reveal non-selective binding affinity against these two receptors because the antagonists share structurally common features originated from conserved residues of binding site of the aminergic receptor family. Therefore, classification of dopamine and serotonin antagonists into their own receptors can be useful in the designing of selective antagonist for individual therapy of antipsychotic disorders. Data set containing 1135 dopamine antagonists (D2, D3, and D4), 1251 serotonin antagonists (5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C), and 386 serotonin-dopamine dual antagonists was collected from the MDDR database. Cerius2 descriptors were employed to develop a classification model for the 2772 compounds with antipsychotic activity. LDA (linear discriminant analysis), SIMCA (soft independent modeling of class analogy), RP (recursive partitioning), and ANN (artificial neural network) algorithms successfully classified the active class of each compound at the average 73.6% and predicted at the average 69.8%. The decision trees from RP, the best model, were generated to identify and interpret those descriptors that discriminate the active classes more easily. These classification models could be used as a virtual screening tool to predict the active class of new candidates. PMID:16387502

  18. Pharmacodynamic properties of leukotriene receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, S

    1999-06-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are among the most important mediators of asthma; cysteine-containing LTs (cysteinyl-LTs, i.e. LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4) are very potent bronchoconstrictors and participate in the inflammatory component of asthma by inducing mucus hypersecretion, plasma extravasation, mucosal oedema and eosinophil recruitment. Therefore, compounds able to inhibit either the formation or the action of LTs are potential antiasthma drugs and, at present, the cysteinyl-LT receptor antagonists (LTRAs) appear to be the most promising. The receptors for cysteinyl-LTs, termed CysLT receptors, are heterogeneous; at least two different classes have so far been recognized, named CysLT1 (blocked by the so-called classical antagonists, such as FPL 55712, ICI 198,615, ICI 204,219, SK&F 104353, MK-476 and others) and CysLT2 (insensitive to the classical antagonists, but sensitive to BAY u9773). The authors' results indicate that even more receptor subclasses might exist in human airways, which discriminate between LTC4 and LTD4, both asthma mediators. Among the many LTRAs, zafirlukast (Accolate, ICI 204,219), montelukast (Singulair, MK-476) and pranlukast (Onon, ONO-1078) are available for clinical use. All the LTRAs are able to inhibit LTD4-induced bronchoconstriction in humans, albeit with different potencies. With respect to antigen challenge, all of them inhibit the early phase of response, whereas only the most recently developed and potent ones are effective in the late phase. LTRAs are effective in asthma triggered by exercise, cold or aspirin. Furthermore, although they are not bronchodilators per se, they increase basal forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with mild-to-moderate asthma, indicating that, in these individuals, constant cysteinyl-LT release contributes to maintaining increased bronchial tone. Finally, the effect of LTRAs is additive to that of beta-agonists and is potentiated by antihistamine compounds. In conclusion, the available results clearly

  19. Novel paramagnetic AT1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tan, Nichole P H; Taylor, Michelle K; Bottle, Steven E; Wright, Christine E; Ziogas, James; White, Jonathan M; Schiesser, Carl H; Jani, Nitya V

    2011-11-28

    Novel paramagnetic selective angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonists (sartans) bearing nitroxides (3, 4) have been prepared and their pharmacology evaluated in vitro as well as in vivo. Compounds 3, 4 proved to be effective sartans with pK(B) estimates in the range 6.2-9.1. In addition, the sodium salt (11) of 4 (R = Bu) is able to protect against vascular injury in hypertensive rats as determined by its ability to attenuate the development of intimal thickening caused by balloon injury of the carotid artery. PMID:21963998

  20. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and endothelial function

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Bradley A.; Leopold, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperaldosteronism has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired vascular reactivity in patients with hypertension or congestive heart failure. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists spironolactone and eplerenone have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality, in part, by ameliorating the adverse effects of aldosterone on vascular function. Although spironolactone and eplerenone are increasingly utilized in patients with cardiovascular disease, widespread clinical use is limited by the development of gynecomastia with spironolactone and hyperkalemia with both agents. This suggests that the development of newer agents with favorable side effect profiles is warranted. PMID:18729003

  1. Agonists and antagonists for P2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Costanzi, Stefano; Joshi, Bhalchandra V.; Besada, Pedro; Shin, Dae Hong; Ko, Hyojin; Ivanov, Andrei A.; Mamedova, Liaman

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has identified nucleotide agonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors and nucleotide antagonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1 receptors. Selective non-nucleotide antagonists have been reported for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y6, P2Y12, P2Y13, P2X2/3/P2X3 and P2X7 receptors. For example, the dinucleotide INS 37217 (Up4dC) potently activates the P2Y2 receptor, and the non-nucleotide antagonist A-317491 is selective for P2X2/3/P2X3 receptors. Nucleotide analogues in which the ribose moiety is substituted by a variety of novel ring systems, including conformation-ally locked moieties, have been synthesized as ligands for P2Y receptors. The focus on conformational factors of the ribose-like moiety allows the inclusion of general modifications that lead to enhanced potency and selectivity. At P2Y1,2,4,11 receptors, there is a preference for the North conformation as indicated with (N)-methanocarba analogues. The P2Y1 antagonist MRS2500 inhibited ADP-induced human platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 0.95 nM. MRS2365, an (N)-methanocarba analogue of 2-MeSADP, displayed potency (EC50) of 0.4 nM at the P2Y1 receptor, with >10 000-fold selectivity in comparison to P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors. At P2Y6 receptors there is a dramatic preference for the South conformation. Three-dimensional structures of P2Y receptors have been deduced from structure activity relationships (SAR), mutagenesis and modelling studies. Detailed three-dimensional structures of P2X receptors have not yet been proposed. PMID:16805423

  2. Rational discovery of novel nuclear hormone receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schapira, Matthieu; Raaka, Bruce M.; Samuels, Herbert H.; Abagyan, Ruben

    2000-02-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) are potential targets for therapeutic approaches to many clinical conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological diseases. The crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of agonist-bound NRs enables the design of compounds with agonist activity. However, with the exception of the human estrogen receptor-, the lack of antagonist-bound "inactive" receptor structures hinders the rational design of receptor antagonists. In this study, we present a strategy for designing such antagonists. We constructed a model of the inactive conformation of human retinoic acid receptor- by using information derived from antagonist-bound estrogen receptor-α and applied a computer-based virtual screening algorithm to identify retinoic acid receptor antagonists. Thus, the currently available crystal structures of NRs may be used for the rational design of antagonists, which could lead to the development of novel drugs for a variety of diseases.

  3. Synthesis of actively adjustable springs by antagonistic redundant actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Byung-Ju; Freeman, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology for active spring generation is presented based on antagonistic redundant actuation. Antagonistic properties are characterized using an effective system stiffness. 'Antagonistic stiffness' is generated by preloading a closed-chain (parallel) linkage system. Internal load distribution is investigated along with the necessary conditions for spring synthesis. The performance and stability of a proposed active spring are shown by simulation, and applications are discussed.

  4. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

  5. Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling ‘Darwinian paradox’. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

  6. Small molecule TSHR agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Neumann, S; Gershengorn, M C

    2011-04-01

    TSH activates the TSH receptor (TSHR) thereby stimulating the function of thyroid follicular cells (thyrocytes) leading to biosynthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones. Because TSHR is involved in several thyroid pathologies, there is a strong rationale for the design of small molecule "drug-like" ligands. Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH, Thyrogen(®)) has been used in the follow-up of patients with thyroid cancer to increase the sensitivity for detection of recurrence or metastasis. rhTSH is difficult to produce and must be administered by injection. A small molecule TSHR agonist could produce the same beneficial effects as rhTSH but with greater ease of oral administration. We developed a small molecule ligand that is a full agonist at TSHR. Importantly for its clinical potential, this agonist elevated serum thyroxine and stimulated thyroidal radioiodide uptake in mice after its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract following oral administration. Graves' disease (GD) is caused by persistent, unregulated stimulation of thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAbs) that activate TSHR. We identified the first small molecule TSHR antagonists that inhibited TSH- and TSAb-stimulated signalling in primary cultures of human thyrocytes. Our results provide proof-of-principle for effectiveness of small molecule agonists and antagonists for TSHR. We suggest that these small molecule ligands are lead compounds for the development of higher potency ligands that can be used as probes of TSHR biology with therapeutic potential. PMID:21511239

  7. Antagonistic coevolution between quantitative and Mendelian traits.

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Masato; Ellner, Stephen P

    2016-03-30

    Coevolution is relentlessly creating and maintaining biodiversity and therefore has been a central topic in evolutionary biology. Previous theoretical studies have mostly considered coevolution between genetically symmetric traits (i.e. coevolution between two continuous quantitative traits or two discrete Mendelian traits). However, recent empirical evidence indicates that coevolution can occur between genetically asymmetric traits (e.g. between quantitative and Mendelian traits). We examine consequences of antagonistic coevolution mediated by a quantitative predator trait and a Mendelian prey trait, such that predation is more intense with decreased phenotypic distance between their traits (phenotype matching). This antagonistic coevolution produces a complex pattern of bifurcations with bistability (initial state dependence) in a two-dimensional model for trait coevolution. Furthermore, with eco-evolutionary dynamics (so that the trait evolution affects predator-prey population dynamics), we find that coevolution can cause rich dynamics including anti-phase cycles, in-phase cycles, chaotic dynamics and deterministic predator extinction. Predator extinction is more likely to occur when the prey trait exhibits complete dominance rather than semidominance and when the predator trait evolves very rapidly. Our study illustrates how recognizing the genetic architectures of interacting ecological traits can be essential for understanding the population and evolutionary dynamics of coevolving species. PMID:27009218

  8. Studies on effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and electron density of some narcotic drugs in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gounhalli, Shivraj G.; Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption ZPEA,eff, photon interaction ZPI,eff and for electron density Nel, have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for narcotic drugs, such as Heroin (H), Cocaine (CO), Caffeine (CA), Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabinol (CBD), Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). The ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel values have been found to change with energy and composition of the narcotic drugs. The energy dependence ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel is shown graphically. The maximum difference between the values of ZPEA,eff, and ZPI,eff occurs at 30 keV and the significant difference of 2 to 33% for the energy region 5-100 keV for all drugs. The reason for these differences is discussed.

  9. Organic solvent-induced changes in membrane geometry in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells - a common narcotic effect?

    PubMed

    Meulenberg, Cécil J W; de Groot, Aart; Westerink, Remco H S; Vijverberg, Henk P M

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to organic solvents may cause narcotic effects. At the cellular level, these narcotic effects have been associated with a reduction in neuronal excitability caused by changes in membrane structure and function. In order to critically test whether changes in membrane geometry contribute to these narcotic effects, cultured human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells have been exposed to selected organic solvents. The solvent-induced changes in cell membrane capacitance were investigated using the whole-cell patch clamp technique for real-time capacitance measurements. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to the cyclic hydrocarbons m-xylene, toluene, and cyclohexane caused a rapid and reversible increase of membrane capacitance. The aliphatic, nonpolar n-hexane did not cause a detectable change of whole-cell membrane capacitance, whereas the amphiphiles n-hexanol and n-hexylamine caused an increase of membrane capacitance and a concomitant reduction in membrane resistance. Despite a large difference in dielectric properties, the chlorinated hydrocarbons 1,1,2,2-tetrachoroethane and tetrachloroethylene caused a similar magnitude increase in membrane capacitance. The theory on membrane capacitance has been applied to deduce changes in membrane geometry caused by solvent partitioning. Although classical observations have shown that solvents increase the membrane capacitance per unit area of membrane, i.e., increase membrane thickness, the present results demonstrate that solvent partitioning predominantly leads to an increase in membrane surface area and to a lesser degree to an increase in membrane thickness. Moreover, the present results indicate that the physicochemical properties of each solvent are important determinants for its specific effects on membrane geometry. This implies that the hypothesis that solvent partitioning is associated with a common perturbation of membrane structure needs to be revisited and cannot account for the commonly observed narcotic effects of

  10. Development and validation of a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for the analysis of narcotic analgesics in urine and whole blood in forensic context.

    PubMed

    Verplaetse, Ruth; Tytgat, Jan

    2012-02-10

    Narcotic analgesics are widely (ab) used and sometimes only occur in low concentrations in biological samples. Therefore, a highly sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous analysis of 9 narcotic analgesics and metabolites (buprenorphine, O-desmethyltramadol, fentanyl, norbuprenorphine, norfentanyl, pethidine, piritramide, tilidine and tramadol) in urine and whole blood. Sample preparation was performed on a mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction cartridge with an additional alkaline wash step to decrease matrix effects and thus increase sensitivity. Ionization with electrospray ionization was found to be more efficient than atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The use of a mobile phase of high pH resulted in higher electrospray ionization signals than the conventional low pH mobile phases. In the final method, gradient elution with 10mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9) and methanol was performed on a small particle column (Acquity C18, 1.7 μm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm). Selectivity, matrix effects, recovery, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability were validated in urine and whole blood. All parameters were successfully evaluated and the method showed very high sensitivity, which was the major aim of this study. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analysis of several forensic cases involving narcotic analgesics. PMID:21356580

  11. Corticospinal control of antagonistic muscles in the cat.

    PubMed

    Ethier, Christian; Brizzi, Laurent; Giguère, Dominic; Capaday, Charles

    2007-09-01

    We recently suggested that movement-related inter-joint muscle synergies are recruited by selected excitation and selected release from inhibition of cortical points. Here we asked whether a similar cortical mechanism operates in the functional linking of antagonistic muscles. To this end experiments were done on ketamine-anesthetized cats. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and intramuscular electromyographic recordings were used to find and characterize wrist, elbow and shoulder antagonistic motor cortical points. Simultaneous ICMS applied at two cortical points, each evoking activity in one of a pair of antagonistic muscles, produced co-contraction of antagonistic muscle pairs. However, we found an obvious asymmetry in the strength of reciprocal inhibition; it was always significantly stronger on physiological extensors than flexors. Following intravenous injection of a single bolus of strychnine, a cortical point at which only a physiological flexor was previously activated also elicited simultaneous activation of its antagonist. This demonstrates that antagonistic corticospinal neurons are closely grouped, or intermingled. To test whether releasing a cortical point from inhibition allows it to be functionally linked with an antagonistic cortical point, one of three GABA(A) receptor antagonists, bicuculline, gabazine or picrotoxin, was injected iontophoretically at one cortical point while stimulation was applied to an antagonistic cortical point. This coupling always resulted in co-contraction of the represented antagonistic muscles. Thus, antagonistic motor cortical points are linked by excitatory intracortical connections held in check by local GABAergic inhibition, with reciprocal inhibition occurring at the spinal level. Importantly, the asymmetry of cortically mediated reciprocal inhibition would appear significantly to bias muscle maps obtained by ICMS in favor of physiological flexors. PMID:17880397

  12. Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2010-03-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

  13. Antagonistic and Bargaining Games in Optimal Marketing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory approaches to find optimal marketing decisions are considered. Antagonistic games with and without complete information, and non-antagonistic games techniques are applied to paired comparison, ranking, or rating data for a firm and its competitors in the market. Mix strategy, equilibrium in bi-matrix games, bargaining models with…

  14. Microbial antagonists of Verticillium dahliae colonize cotton root system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt remains one of the most severe diseases affecting cotton production in Uzbekistan. We are investigating microbial antagonist to control this pathogen. To this end, we have identified several antagonists of Verticillium dahliae (Bacillus sp. 234, Bacillus sp. 3, Streptomyces roseofl...

  15. Pros and cons of vitamin K antagonists and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Riva, Nicoletta; Ageno, Walter

    2015-03-01

    Anticoagulant treatment can be currently instituted with two different classes of drugs: the vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and the newer, "novel" or non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant drugs (NOACs). The NOACs have several practical advantages over VKAs, such as the rapid onset/offset of action, the lower potential for food and drug interactions, and the predictable anticoagulant response. However, the VKAs currently have a broader spectrum of indications, a standardized monitoring test, and established reversal strategies. The NOACs emerged as alternative options for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Nevertheless, there remain some populations for whom the VKAs remain the most appropriate anticoagulant drug. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of VKAs and NOACs. PMID:25703519

  16. Early gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist start improves follicular synchronization and pregnancy outcome as compared to the conventional antagonist protocol

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Woo; Hwang, Yu Im; Koo, Hwa Seon; Kang, Inn Soo; Yang, Kwang Moon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess whether an early GnRH antagonist start leads to better follicular synchronization and an improved clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). Methods A retrospective cohort study. A total of 218 infertile women who underwent IVF between January 2011 and February 2013. The initial cohort (Cohort I) that underwent IVF between January 2011 and March 2012 included a total of 68 attempted IVF cycles. Thirty-four cycles were treated with the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol, and 34 cycles with an early GnRH antagonist start protocol. The second cohort (Cohort II) that underwent IVF between June 2012 and February 2013 included a total of 150 embryo-transfer (ET) cycles. Forty-three cycles were treated with the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol, 34 cycles with the modified early GnRH antagonist start protocol using highly purified human menopause gonadotropin and an addition of GnRH agonist to the luteal phase support, and 73 cycles with the GnRH agonist long protocol. Results The analysis of Cohort I showed that the number of mature oocytes retrieved was significantly higher in the early GnRH antagonist start cycles than in the conventional antagonist cycles (11.9 vs. 8.2, p=0.04). The analysis of Cohort II revealed higher but non-significant CPR/ET in the modified early GnRH antagonist start cycles (41.2%) than in the conventional antagonist cycles (30.2%), which was comparable to that of the GnRH agonist long protocol cycles (39.7%). Conclusion The modified early antagonist start protocol may improve the mature oocyte yield, possibly via enhanced follicular synchronization, while resulting in superior CPR as compared to the conventional antagonist protocol, which needs to be studied further in prospective randomized controlled trials. PMID:25599038

  17. Pharmacokinetic interactions with calcium channel antagonists (Part I).

    PubMed

    Schlanz, K D; Myre, S A; Bottorff, M B

    1991-11-01

    Calcium channel antagonists are a diverse class of drugs widely used in combination with other therapeutic agents. The potential exists for many clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between these and other concurrently administered drugs. The mechanisms of calcium channel antagonist-induced changes in drug metabolism include altered hepatic blood flow and impaired hepatic enzyme metabolising activity. Increases in serum concentrations and/or reductions in clearance have been reported for several drugs used with a number of calcium channel antagonists. A number of reports and studies of calcium channel antagonist interactions have yielded contradictory results and the clinical significance of pharmacokinetic changes seen with these agents is ill-defined. The first part of this article deals with interactions between calcium antagonists and marker compounds, theophylline, midazolam, lithium, doxorubicin, oral hypoglycaemics and cardiac drugs. PMID:1773549

  18. Re-analysis of narcotic critical body residue data using the equilibrium distribution concept and refined partition coefficients.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi

    2016-08-10

    Narcosis occurs as a result of the accumulation of chemicals in the phospholipid membrane. The toxic threshold concentration in the membrane is thought to be relatively constant across different chemicals and species. Hence, estimating chemical concentrations in the membrane is expected to reduce the variability of narcotic critical body residue (CBR) data. In this study, a high quality CBR dataset for three aquatic species reported recently in the literature was evaluated with the internal equilibrium distribution concept. The raw wet-weight-based CBR values were converted to membrane-weight-based CBR values by assuming that the chemical is distributed in storage lipids, membranes, proteins, and water according to the respective equilibrium partition coefficients. Several sets of partition coefficients were compared for this analysis. The results were consistent with the notion that the use of a structural protein instead of serum albumin as a surrogate for the body protein fraction could reduce the variability of CBRs. Partition coefficients predicted by polyparameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs) reduced the variability of CBRs as much as or even more than experimental partition coefficients did. It is suggested that CBR data for chemicals with larger structural diversity and biological species with more distinct compositions are needed to evaluate further the equilibrium distribution concept and the constant membrane threshold hypothesis. PMID:27136717

  19. Comparison of derivative preprocessing and automated polynomial baseline correction method for classification and quantification of narcotics in solid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Leger, Marc N; Ryder, Alan G

    2006-02-01

    This work offers a real-world comparison of derivative preprocessing and a new polynomial method described by Lieber and Mahadevan-Jansen (LMJ) for baseline correction of Raman spectra with widely varying backgrounds. This comparison is based on their outcomes in factor analysis, analyte discrimination, and quantification. Both correction methods are applied to a Raman spectra data set taken from 85 solid samples of illegal narcotics diluted with various materials. It is found that neither approach outperforms the other, as they give similar principal component analysis (PCA) models and quantification errors: cocaine and heroin show cross-validation errors of approximately 8%, while MDMA is quantified to a cross-validation error of approximately 3-4%. The LMJ method does offer several other advantages, the most significant being the retention of original peak shapes after the correction, which simplifies the interpretation of the preprocessed spectra. The LMJ method is therefore recommended for use as a baseline correction method in future research with Raman spectroscopy. PMID:16542570

  20. Implications of international law for the treatment of cancer: the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the TRIPS Agreement.

    PubMed

    Liberman, J

    2011-12-01

    The development, manufacture, trade and distribution of medicines all take place within a web of international legal obligations that states have accepted under a range of multilateral, plurilateral and bilateral agreements. International law can operate either to facilitate or hinder access, depending on how it is developed and implemented. This article examines two areas of international law that are relevant to cancer treatment: the international drug control system, which regulates opioid analgesics; and the World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Agreement. This article outlines recent developments in relation to both, including in the activities of the Vienna-based agencies that collectively oversee the implementation of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and in the negotiation of the recent United Nations General Assembly Political Declaration on Non-communicable Diseases. While underlining the importance of law, this article notes that battles over law should not distract from the importance of other essential efforts to enhance access to medicines within the context of the strengthening of health systems. PMID:22054908

  1. Prostanoid receptor antagonists: development strategies and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jones, RL; Giembycz, MA; Woodward, DF

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the primary products of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)/prostaglandin synthase(s), which occurred between 1958 and 1976, was followed by a classification system for prostanoid receptors (DP, EP1, EP2 …) based mainly on the pharmacological actions of natural and synthetic agonists and a few antagonists. The design of potent selective antagonists was rapid for certain prostanoid receptors (EP1, TP), slow for others (FP, IP) and has yet to be achieved in certain cases (EP2). While some antagonists are structurally related to the natural agonist, most recent compounds are ‘non-prostanoid’ (often acyl-sulphonamides) and have emerged from high-throughput screening of compound libraries, made possible by the development of (functional) assays involving single recombinant prostanoid receptors. Selective antagonists have been crucial to defining the roles of PGD2 (acting on DP1 and DP2 receptors) and PGE2 (on EP1 and EP4 receptors) in various inflammatory conditions; there are clear opportunities for therapeutic intervention. The vast endeavour on TP (thromboxane) antagonists is considered in relation to their limited pharmaceutical success in the cardiovascular area. Correspondingly, the clinical utility of IP (prostacyclin) antagonists is assessed in relation to the cloud hanging over the long-term safety of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Aspirin apart, COX inhibitors broadly suppress all prostanoid pathways, while high selectivity has been a major goal in receptor antagonist development; more targeted therapy may require an intermediate position with defined antagonist selectivity profiles. This review is intended to provide overviews of each antagonist class (including prostamide antagonists), covering major development strategies and current and potential clinical usage. PMID:19624532

  2. Cannabinoid withdrawal in mice: inverse agonist vs neutral antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Sherrica; Nikas, Spyros P.; Shukla, Vidyanand G.; Vemuri, Kiran; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Järbe, Torbjörn U.C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Previous reports shows rimonabant's inverse properties may be a limiting factor for treating cannabinoid dependence. To overcome this limitation neutral antagonists were developed, to address mechanisms by which an inverse agonist and neutral antagonist elicit withdrawal. Objective Introduces an animal model to study cannabinoid dependence by incorporating traditional methodologies and profiling novel cannabinoid ligands with distinct pharmacological properties/modes of action by evaluating their pharmacological effects on CB1-receptor (CB1R) related physiological/behavioral endpoints. Methods The cannabinergic AM2389 was acutely characterized in the tetrad (locomotor activity, analgesia, inverted screen/catalepsy bar test and temperature); with some comparisons made to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Tolerance was measured in mice repeatedly administered AM2389. Antagonist-precipitated withdrawal was characterized in cannabinoid-adapted mice induced by either centrally acting antagonists, rimonabant and AM4113, or an antagonist with limited brain penetration, AM6545. Results In the tetrad, AM2389 was more potent and longer acting than THC, suggesting a novel approach for inducing dependence. Repeated administration of AM2389 led to tolerance by attenuating hypothermia that was induced by acute AM2389 administration. Antagonist-precipitated withdrawal signs were induced by rimonabant or AM4113, but not by AM6545. Antagonist-precipitated withdrawal was reversed by reinstating AM2389 or THC. Conclusions These findings suggest cannabinoid-precipitated withdrawal may not be ascribed to the inverse properties of rimonabant, but rather to rapid competition with the agonist at the CB1R. This withdrawal syndrome is likely centrally-mediated, since only the centrally acting CB1R antagonists elicited withdrawal, i.e., such responses were absent after the purported peripherally selective CB1R antagonist AM6545. PMID:25772338

  3. Nalmefene: radioimmunoassay for a new opioid antagonist.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R; Hsiao, J; Taaffe, W; Hahn, E; Tuttle, R

    1984-11-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed for the quantitation of a new opioid antagonist, nalmefene, in human plasma. The method employs a rabbit antiserum to an albumin conjugate of naltrexone-6-(O-carboxymethyl)oxime and [3H]naltrexone as the radioligand. Assay specificity was achieved by extraction of nalmefene from plasma at pH 9 into ether prior to RIA. The procedure has a limit of sensitivity of 0.2 ng/mL of nalmefene using a 0.5-mL sample of plasma for analysis. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation did not exceed 5.6 and 11%, respectively. The specificity of the RIA was established by demonstrating excellent agreement (r = 0.99) with a less sensitive and more time consuming HPLC procedure in the analysis of clinical plasma samples. The use of the RIA for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of nalmefene is illustrated with plasma concentration profiles of the drug in humans following intravenous and oral administration. PMID:6520774

  4. Endothelin receptor antagonists in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, J; Hoeper, M M

    2008-02-01

    The endothelin (ET) system, especially ET-1 and the ET(A) and ET(B) receptors, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Together with prostanoids and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, ET receptor antagonists have become mainstays in the current treatment of PAH. Three substances are currently available for the treatment of PAH. One of these substances, bosentan, blocks both ET(A) and ET(B) receptors, whereas the two other compounds, sitaxsentan and ambrisentan, are more selective blockers of the ET(A) receptor. There is ongoing debate as to whether selective or nonselective ET receptor blockade is advantageous in the setting of PAH, although there is no clear evidence that receptor selectivity is relevant with regard to the clinical effects of these drugs. For the time being, other features, such as safety profiles and the potential for pharmacokinetic interactions with other drugs used in the treatment of PAH, may be more important than selectivity or nonselectivity when selecting treatments for individual patients. PMID:18238950

  5. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles

    PubMed Central

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks – the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success. PMID:24624074

  6. Indole-like Trk receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tammiku-Taul, Jaana; Park, Rahel; Jaanson, Kaur; Luberg, Kristi; Dobchev, Dimitar A; Kananovich, Dzmitry; Noole, Artur; Mandel, Merle; Kaasik, Allen; Lopp, Margus; Timmusk, Tõnis; Karelson, Mati

    2016-10-01

    The virtual screening for new scaffolds for TrkA receptor antagonists resulted in potential low molecular weight drug candidates for the treatment of neuropathic pain and cancer. In particular, the compound (Z)-3-((5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-2-oxindole and its derivatives were assessed for their inhibitory activity against Trk receptors. The IC50 values were computationally predicted in combination of molecular and fragment-based QSAR. Thereafter, based on the structure-activity relationships (SAR), a series of new compounds were designed and synthesized. Among the final selection of 13 compounds, (Z)-3-((5-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-N-methyl-2-oxindole-5-sulfonamide showed the best TrkA inhibitory activity using both biochemical and cellular assays and (Z)-3-((5-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-2-oxindole-5-sulfonamide was the most potent inhibitor of TrkB and TrkC. PMID:27318978

  7. Antagonists for acute oral cadmium chloride intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Basinger, M.A.; Jones, M.M.; Holscher, M.A.; Vaughn, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    An examination has been carried out on the relative efficacy of a number of chelating agents when acting as antagonists for oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice. The compounds were administered orally after the oral administration of cadmium chloride at 1 mmol/kg. Of the compounds examined, several were useful in terms of enhancing survival, but by far the most effective in both enhancing survival and leaving minimal residual levels of cadmium in the liver and the kidney, was meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Several polyaminocarboxylic acids also enhanced survival. The most effective of these in reducing liver and kidney levels of cadmium were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), and triethylenetetraminehexaacetic acid (TTHA). D-Penicillamine (DPA) was found to promote survival but also led to kidney cadmium levels higher than those found in the controls. Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) was as effective in promoting survival as DMSA but left levels of cadmium in the kidney and liver that were approximately four times greater than those found with DMSA.

  8. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Richard E; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks - the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success. PMID:24624074

  9. Multiple Targeting Approaches on Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Khanfar, Mohammad A.; Affini, Anna; Lutsenko, Kiril; Nikolic, Katarina; Butini, Stefania; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    With the very recent market approval of pitolisant (Wakix®), the interest in clinical applications of novel multifunctional histamine H3 receptor antagonists has clearly increased. Since histamine H3 receptor antagonists in clinical development have been tested for a variety of different indications, the combination of pharmacological properties in one molecule for improved pharmacological effects and reduced unwanted side-effects is rationally based on the increasing knowledge on the complex neurotransmitter regulations. The polypharmacological approaches on histamine H3 receptor antagonists on different G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes as well as on NO-signaling mechanism are described, supported with some lead structures. PMID:27303254

  10. Endothelin receptor antagonists in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Langleben, David

    2007-03-01

    The recognition that endothelin-1 contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension has led to the development of clinically useful endothelin receptor antagonists that improve symptoms and functional capacity and alter the natural history of the disease in a beneficial way. The antagonists have varying degrees of selectivity for the two classes of endothelin receptor, termed ETA and ETB, and the varying degrees may translate into clinical differences. Endothelin receptor antagonists have become an integral part of therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension, and the indications for their use are expanding. PMID:17338931

  11. Multiple Targeting Approaches on Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Khanfar, Mohammad A; Affini, Anna; Lutsenko, Kiril; Nikolic, Katarina; Butini, Stefania; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    With the very recent market approval of pitolisant (Wakix®), the interest in clinical applications of novel multifunctional histamine H3 receptor antagonists has clearly increased. Since histamine H3 receptor antagonists in clinical development have been tested for a variety of different indications, the combination of pharmacological properties in one molecule for improved pharmacological effects and reduced unwanted side-effects is rationally based on the increasing knowledge on the complex neurotransmitter regulations. The polypharmacological approaches on histamine H3 receptor antagonists on different G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes as well as on NO-signaling mechanism are described, supported with some lead structures. PMID:27303254

  12. The muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and atropine are competitive antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Scopolamine is a high affinity muscarinic antagonist that is used for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are used for the same purpose and are structurally related to scopolamine. To examine whether 5-HT3 receptors are affected by scopolamine we examined the effects of this drug on the electrophysiological and ligand binding properties of 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor-responses were reversibly inhibited by scopolamine with an IC50 of 2.09 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by Schild plot (pA2 = 5.02) and by competition with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists [(3)H]granisetron (Ki = 6.76 μM) and G-FL (Ki = 4.90 μM). The related molecule, atropine, similarly inhibited 5-HT evoked responses in oocytes with an IC50 of 1.74 μM, and competed with G-FL with a Ki of 7.94 μM. The reverse experiment revealed that granisetron also competitively bound to muscarinic receptors (Ki = 6.5 μM). In behavioural studies scopolamine is used to block muscarinic receptors and induce a cognitive deficit, and centrally administered concentrations can exceed the IC50 values found here. It is therefore possible that 5-HT3 receptors are also inhibited. Studies that utilise higher concentrations of scopolamine should be mindful of these potential off-target effects. PMID:27108935

  13. Single exposure of dopamine D1 antagonist prevents and D2 antagonist attenuates methylphenidate effect

    PubMed Central

    Claussen, Catherine M; Witte, Lindsey J; Dafny, Nachum

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is a readily prescribed drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and moreover is used illicitly by youths for its cognitive-enhancing effects and recreation. MPD exposure in rodents elicits increased locomotor activity. Repetitive MPD exposure leads to further augmentation of their locomotor activity. This behavioral response is referred to as behavioral sensitization. Behavioral sensitization is used as an experimental marker for a drug’s ability to elicit dependence. There is evidence that dopamine (DA) is a key player in the acute and chronic MPD effect; however, the role of DA in the effects elicited by MPD is still debated. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of D1 and/or D2 DA receptors in the acute and chronic effect of MPD on locomotor activity. The study lasted for 12 consecutive days. Seven groups of male Sprague Dawley® rats were used. A single D1 or D2 antagonist was given before and after acute and chronic MPD administration. Single injection of D1 DA antagonist was able to significantly attenuate the locomotor activity when given prior to the initial MPD exposure and after repetitive MPD exposure, while the D2 DA antagonist partially attenuated the locomotor activity only when given before the second MPD exposure. The results show the role, at least in part, of the D1 DA receptor in the mechanism of behavioral sensitization, whereas the D2 DA receptor only partially modulates the response to acute and chronic MPD. PMID:27186140

  14. Development of a handheld widefield hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensor for standoff detection of explosive, chemical, and narcotic residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Matthew P.; Basta, Andrew; Patil, Raju; Klueva, Oksana; Treado, Patrick J.

    2013-05-01

    The utility of Hyper Spectral Imaging (HSI) passive chemical detection employing wide field, standoff imaging continues to be advanced in detection applications. With a drive for reduced SWaP (Size, Weight, and Power), increased speed of detection and sensitivity, developing a handheld platform that is robust and user-friendly increases the detection capabilities of the end user. In addition, easy to use handheld detectors could improve the effectiveness of locating and identifying threats while reducing risks to the individual. ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) has developed the HSI Aperio™ sensor for real time, wide area surveillance and standoff detection of explosives, chemical threats, and narcotics for use in both government and commercial contexts. Employing liquid crystal tunable filter technology, the HSI system has an intuitive user interface that produces automated detections and real-time display of threats with an end user created library of threat signatures that is easily updated allowing for new hazardous materials. Unlike existing detection technologies that often require close proximity for sensing and so endanger operators and costly equipment, the handheld sensor allows the individual operator to detect threats from a safe distance. Uses of the sensor include locating production facilities of illegal drugs or IEDs by identification of materials on surfaces such as walls, floors, doors, deposits on production tools and residue on individuals. In addition, the sensor can be used for longer-range standoff applications such as hasty checkpoint or vehicle inspection of residue materials on surfaces or bulk material identification. The CISS Aperio™ sensor has faster data collection, faster image processing, and increased detection capability compared to previous sensors.

  15. Biomolecular recognition of antagonists by α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: Antagonistic mechanism and structure-activity relationships studies.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Ding, Fei

    2015-08-30

    As the key constituent of ligand-gated ion channels in the central nervous system, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and neurodegenerative diseases are strongly coupled in the human species. In recently years the developments of selective agonists by using nAChRs as the drug target have made a large progress, but the studies of selective antagonists are severely lacked. Currently these antagonists rest mainly on the extraction of partly natural products from some animals and plants; however, the production of these crude substances is quite restricted, and artificial synthesis of nAChR antagonists is still one of the completely new research fields. In the context of this manuscript, our primary objective was to comprehensively analyze the recognition patterns and the critical interaction descriptors between target α7 nAChR and a series of the novel compounds with potentially antagonistic activity by means of virtual screening, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation, and meanwhile these recognition reactions were also compared with the biointeraction of α7 nAChR with a commercially natural antagonist - methyllycaconitine. The results suggested clearly that there are relatively obvious differences of molecular structures between synthetic antagonists and methyllycaconitine, while the two systems have similar recognition modes on the whole. The interaction energy and the crucially noncovalent forces of the α7 nAChR-antagonists are ascertained according to the method of Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area. Several amino acid residues, such as B/Tyr-93, B/Lys-143, B/Trp-147, B/Tyr-188, B/Tyr-195, A/Trp-55 and A/Leu-118 played a major role in the α7 nAChR-antagonist recognition processes, in particular, residues B/Tyr-93, B/Trp-147 and B/Tyr-188 are the most important. These outcomes tally satisfactorily with the discussions of amino acid mutations. Based on the explorations of three-dimensional quantitative structure

  16. Complications of TNF-α antagonists and iron homeostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    TNF-α is a central regulator of inflammation and its blockade downregulates other proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Subsequently, TNF-α antagonists are currently used in treatment regimens directed toward several inflammatory diseases. Despite a beneficia...

  17. [Obligatory documentation for narcotic drugs over the course of time : the morphine and cocaine book for physicians according to the 1930 parliamentary law gazette].

    PubMed

    Wedig, M P

    2009-12-01

    According to the opium law and prescription statute of 1930, physicians were duty-bound to maintain a stock ledger to allow a traceable record of the location of narcotic drugs. If a simplification of the prescription of opiates was welcomed 10 years ago then 2 years after amendment of the addictive drugs statute thought should be give to safe use, as can be concluded from a morphine logbook from the time of the introduction of the Federal opium law. "Receipt and issue... deliverer and recipient" must be able to be extracted from the documentation, which means the delivery and the dispensing but not the individual application. PMID:19756768

  18. Anthropomorphic finger antagonistically actuated by SMA plates.

    PubMed

    Engeberg, Erik D; Dilibal, Savas; Vatani, Morteza; Choi, Jae-Won; Lavery, John

    2015-10-01

    Most robotic applications that contain shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators use the SMA in a linear or spring shape. In contrast, a novel robotic finger was designed in this paper using SMA plates that were thermomechanically trained to take the shape of a flexed human finger when Joule heated. This flexor actuator was placed in parallel with an extensor actuator that was designed to straighten when Joule heated. Thus, alternately heating and cooling the flexor and extensor actuators caused the finger to flex and extend. Three different NiTi based SMA plates were evaluated for their ability to apply forces to a rigid and compliant object. The best of these three SMAs was able to apply a maximum fingertip force of 9.01N on average. A 3D CAD model of a human finger was used to create a solid model for the mold of the finger covering skin. Using a 3D printer, inner and outer molds were fabricated to house the actuators and a position sensor, which were assembled using a multi-stage casting process. Next, a nonlinear antagonistic controller was developed using an outer position control loop with two inner MOSFET current control loops. Sine and square wave tracking experiments demonstrated minimal errors within the operational bounds of the finger. The ability of the finger to recover from unexpected disturbances was also shown along with the frequency response up to 7 rad s(-1). The closed loop bandwidth of the system was 6.4 rad s(-1) when operated intermittently and 1.8 rad s(-1) when operated continuously. PMID:26292164

  19. Suppressing antagonistic bioengineering feedbacks doubles restoration success.

    PubMed

    Suykerbuyk, Wouter; Bouma, Tjeerd J; van der Heide, Tjisse; Faust, Cornelia; Govers, Laura L; Giesen, Wim B J T; de Jong, Dick J; van Katwijk, Marieke M

    2012-06-01

    In a seagrass restoration project, we explored the potential for enhancing the restoration process by excluding antagonistic engineering interactions (i.e., biomechanical warfare) between two ecosystem engineers: the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina and the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltii Hornem. Applying a shell layer underneath half of our seagrass transplants successfully reduced adult lugworm density by over 80% and reduced lugworm-induced microtopography (a proxy for lugworm disturbance) at the wave-sheltered site. At the wave-exposed site adult lugworm densities and microtopography were already lower than at the sheltered site but were further reduced in the shell-treated units. Excluding lugworms and their bioengineering effects corresponded well with a strongly enhanced seagrass growth at the wave-sheltered site, which was absent at the exposed site. Enhanced seagrass growth in the present study was fully assigned to the removal of lugworms' negative engineering effects and not to any (indirect) evolving effects such as an altered biogeochemistry or sediment-stabilizing effects by the shell layer. The context-dependency implies that seagrass establishment at the exposed site is not constrained by negative ecosystem-engineering interactions only, but also by overriding physical stresses causing poor growth conditions. Present findings underline that, in addition to recent emphasis on considering positive (facilitating) interactions in ecological theory and practice, it is equally important to consider negative engineering interactions between ecosystem-engineering species. Removal of such negative interactions between ecosystem-engineering species can give a head start to the target species at the initial establishment phase, when positive engineering feedbacks by the target species on itself are still lacking. Though our study was carried out in a marine environment with variable levels of wave disturbance, similar principles may be

  20. Azogabazine; a photochromic antagonist of the GABAA receptor.

    PubMed

    Huckvale, Rosemary; Mortensen, Martin; Pryde, David; Smart, Trevor G; Baker, James R

    2016-07-12

    The design and synthesis of azogabazine is described, which represents a highly potent (IC50 = 23 nM) photoswitchable antagonist of the GABAA receptor. An azologization strategy is adopted, in which a benzyl phenyl ether in a high affinity gabazine analogue is replaced by an azobenzene, with resultant retention of antagonist potency. We show that cycling from blue to UV light, switching between trans and cis isomeric forms, leads to photochemically controlled antagonism of the GABA ion channel. PMID:27327397