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The paper describes lessons learned about the design of a form for interactive narrative. The lessons are based on an initial prototype and have ramifications for both a next-step implementation and for broader understanding of the form. Key lessons pertain to pacing, narrative structure, giving feedback through the interface, and contexts for use.
The response of a clinical chaplain to a casestudy of chaplaincy with an elderly African-American male with Parkinson's disease is presented. The casestudy offers two novel aspects: first, it explicitly describes interventions by the chaplain, and second, the chaplain's clinical approach was guided throughout by an underlying theory (narrative theory). The casestudy seeks to shift the paradigm from chaplains as "agenda-less" companions to clinicians with a repertoire of interventions which they should claim. The chaplain's use of narrative theory is examined. Future casestudies may draw on narrative theory in chaplaincy with older males with different chronic disease, with women who have Parkinson's, and may seek to develop a theory of chaplaincy from within the profession. PMID:23844843
While narrative is studied in any number of fields as a form of discourse, only in communication studies has it been claimed that all forms of discourse can be viewed as types of narrative. One way of testing such an all?encompassing interpretation of narrative is to apply the assumptions of the narrative paradigm to works that traditionalists would not consider
This paper introduces the idea that a tourist attraction can fruitfully be regarded as anarrative, and that the vocabulary of narrative analysis can be used to study tourist attractions of all types. The article presents a case where the major attraction is graffiti scratched into the rock face of two small islands separated by a deep sound called Gäddtarmen, or
|Illuminates Kenneth Burke's characteristics of a mystical rhetoric as they issue from "purpose" as a dominant dramatistic element. Offers a casestudy in mystical rhetoric by identifying the essential qualities of a mystical narrative and demonstrating how these qualities operate in Chiara Lubich's 1977 Templeton Prize Acceptance Speech. (SR)|
|The purpose of this action research was to examine how a narrativecasestudy in an online asynchronous world religions course affected learners' understandings, appreciation, and respect for the beliefs and values of others. The world religions course examined a variety of religions including Islam. Ten participants received information about…
This study aims to further the understanding of how innovative moments (IMs), which are exceptions to a client's problematic self-narrative in the therapy dialogue, progress to the construction of a new self-narrative, leading to successful psychotherapy. The authors' research strategy involved tracking IMs, and the themes expressed therein (or protonarratives), and analysing the dynamic relation between IMs and protonarratives within and across sessions using state space grids in a good-outcome case of constructivist psychotherapy. The concept of protonarrative helped explain how IMs transform a problematic self-narrative into a new, more flexible, self-narrative. The increased flexibility of the new self-narrative was manifested as an increase in the diversity of IM types and of protonarratives. Results suggest that new self-narratives may develop through the elaboration of protonarratives present in IMs, yielding an organizing framework that is more flexible than the problematic self-narrative. PMID:20981625
Ribeiro, António P; Bento, Tiago; Salgado, Joăo; Stiles, William B; Gonçalves, Miguel M
BACKGROUND: The development of Herceptin® is welcomed as a major advance in breast cancer treatment, while Myriad's development of BRACAnalysis® is a widely used diagnostic. However useful and successful this product is, its presence in the public eye is tainted by predominantly negative press about gene patenting and business practices. DISCUSSION: While retrospection invites a sharp contrast between Genentech's triumphal narrative of scientific achievement and Myriad's public image as a controversial monopolist, a comparative history of these companies' products reveals two striking consistencies: patents and public discontent. Despite these similarities, time has reduced the narrative to that of hero versus villain: Genentech is lauded - at least for the final outcome of the Herceptin® story - as a corporate good citizen, Myriad as a ruthless mercenary. Since patents undergird both products yet the narratives are so different, the stories raise the question: why have patents taken the fall as the scapegoat in current biotechnology policy debate? SUMMARY: A widely publicized lawsuit and accompanying bad press have cast Myriad as a villain in the evolving narrative of biotechnology. While the lawsuit suggests that this villainy is attributable to Myriad's intellectual property, we suggest through a comparative casestudy that, at least in the Myriad case, it is not simply about the patents but also other business strategies the company chose to pursue. Patents were a necessary but not sufficient cause of controversy. PMID:23369278
This article explores the use of narrative analysis to provide a methodology for student learning research with a sociocultural orientation. The narrative which is the primary focus of this article is drawn from a study in which a series of individual interviews was conducted with a class of senior engineering students. The interview with a…
This article explores the use of narrative analysis to provide a methodology for student learning research with a sociocultural orientation. The narrative which is the primary focus of this article is drawn from a study in which a series of individual interviews was conducted with a class of senior engineering students. The interview with a particular student emerged as a
|This study investigated gender differences in science learning between two pedagogical approaches: traditional lecture and narrativecasestudies using personal response systems ("clickers"). Thirteen instructors of introductory biology classes at 12 different institutions across the USA and Canada used two types of pedagogy (Clicker Cases and…
This study investigated gender differences in science learning between two pedagogical approaches: traditional lecture and narrativecasestudies using personal response systems ("clickers"). Thirteen instructors of introductory biology classes at 12 different institutions across the USA and Canada used two types of pedagogy (Clicker Cases and…
Background: Studies of aphasic sentence production have identified a number of promising approaches to improving performance at the single sentence level, but these studies have typically failed to show measurable effects on multi?sentence productions (spontaneous or narrative speech). The difficulty for aphasic speakers of producing connected speech during therapy is likely to contribute to this effect. Computer software that allows
Denise McCall; Telana Virata; Marcia C. Linebarger; Rita Sloan Berndt
A brain death case is presented and reinterpreted using the narrative approach. In the case, two Japanese parents face a dilemma about whether to respect their daughter's desire to donate organs even though, for them, it would mean literally killing their daughter. We argue that the ethical dilemma occurred because the parents were confronted with two conflicting narratives to which they felt a "narrative responsibility," namely, the responsibility that drives us to tell, retell, and coauthor the (often unfinished) narratives of loved ones. We suggest that moral dilemmas arise not only from conflicts between moral justifications but also from conflicts between narratives and human relationships. PMID:21053084
Narratives are important tools in constructing an organization, and individual and collective narratives about key actors\\u000a and critical events compete in defining the organization and making sense of the challenges faced in organizational change\\u000a processes.\\u000a \\u000a This article introduces narrative interviewing and narrative analysis as qualitative methods relevant to international business\\u000a research, with illustrations from a casestudy of a cross-border
Narrative approaches to understanding personality and psychotherapy are widely accepted. This article proposes that a constructionist approach to supervision allows an integration of narrative approaches with the supervisory process. Supervision and case formulation are discussed as the result of a dialogue between the supervisor and supervisee about the client’s story, the supervisee’s story about the client, and the professional story
This article seeks to expand our understanding on narrative and the analysis of stories researchers invite and collect in the domain of aging studies. To do so, we first offer an understanding of what narrative inquiry can be by laying out a theoretical basis for this kind of research, and making a case for the relevance of narrative as an
|Digital games have matured substantially as a narrative medium in the last decade. However, there is still much work to be done to more fully understand the poetics of story-based-games. Game narrative remains an important issue with significant cultural, economic and scholarly implications. In this article, we undertake a critical analysis of…
|This paper examines the linguistic and cultural development of three US university students in a one-month study-abroad program in Mexico, as represented in their bilingual journals. Through narrative analysis, the paper explores students' varied evaluations of their study-abroad experiences, as well as how these evaluations seemed to affect…
This paper examines the linguistic and cultural development of three US university students in a one-month study-abroad program in Mexico, as represented in their bilingual journals. Through narrative analysis, the paper explores students' varied evaluations of their study-abroad experiences, as well as how these evaluations seemed to affect their…
Although there are many alternative schools that strive for the successful education of their students, negative images of alternative schools persist. While some alternative schools are viewed as ‘idealistic havens’, many are viewed as ‘dumping grounds’ or ‘juvenile detention centers’. Employing narrative inquiry, this article interrogates how a student, Kevin Gonzales, experiences his alternative education and raises questions about the
This casestudy of two Iowa cities argues that news images hold cultural representations that can easily be defined within dominant society and the news institution itself. News narratives, the telling of a common story to help readers and journalists alike understand a current news event, have traditionally been identified within the words of news texts. This paper furthers the
Narrative approaches to health communication research have often been characterized by assumptions of the therapeutic and ameliorative effect of narratives. In this article, I call these assumptions into question by critically engaging extant research in narrative health communication research in light of testimony by a participant in South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Drawing on his personal narrative, numerous retellings
This paper investigates the representation of micro-narratives in contemporary Chinese art by examining the multi-layered narratives in Cao Fei's Pearl River Delta Anti-heroes performed at the opening of the 2 Guangzhou Triennial in 2005. I consider Cao's work as a hyper-realistic portrayal of the micro-narratives of the Pearl River Delta region in a mediated form highly influenced by the media,
This casestudy examines the narrative form of communication as used by educational leaders and their constituencies for quality school improvement. The school portfolio was used as an alternative accreditation process in one public school of over 800 students. This narrative approach used observation, interviews, and document analysis to validate…
This article seeks to expand our understanding of narrative and the analysis of stories researchers invite and collect in the domain of disability studies. What narrative inquiry is and various reasons why researchers might opt to choose to turn to narratives are highlighted. Painting with broad strokes, narrative analysis is then considered…
Narrative policy analysis provides a way of analyzing those highly uncertain and complex policy issues whose truth-value cannot be ascertained and about which the only thing practicing policy analysts know are the stories policymakers use in articulating these issues. One extremely well-documented controversy, the 1980-82 California Medfly Crisis, illustrates how a comparison and analysis of the structure of the dominant
This article explores the life story of a young man who experienced a spinal cord injury (SCI) and became disabled though playing the sport of rugby union football. His experiences post SCI illuminate the ways in which movement from one form of embodiment to another connects him to a dominant cultural narrative regarding recovery from SCI that is both tellable and acceptable in terms of plot and structure to those around him. Over time, the obdurate facts of his impaired and disabled body lead him to reject this dominant narrative and move into a story line that is located on Norrick's (2005) upper-bounding side of tellability. This makes it transgressive, frightening, difficult to hear, and invokes the twin processes of deprivation of opportunity and infiltrated consciousness as described by Nelson (2001). These, and the effects of impairment, are seen to have direct consequences for the tellability of embodied experiences along with identity construction and narrative repair over time. Finally, some reflections are offered on how the conditions that negate the telling of his story might be challenged. PMID:18290933
In chapter 1 I present the narrative method as I use it, and outline its application to philosophy in sections 1.1-1.2. In section 1.3 I discuss the important recent achievements as to methods and vision in Solovyov studies, in order to show the obvious shift from general doxographical, biographical, and historiographical approaches to studies of either separate works by Solovyov
Although some literature has emerged to examine the validity and constituent skills required for psychological profiling, little research has scrutinized how the technique works. This study examined the effects of case material on profiling proficiency. This was accomplished by alternating the case material available to participants in a profiling exercise. Groups of participants were presented with either a full case package, only narrative or visual case material, narrative material with a written description of the visual material, or a control condition where no case material was provided. All participants then completed a profiling exercise designed to measure the accuracy of their predictions. The results found that profiling proficiency is influenced by the amount of case material available, with optimal proficiency likely achieved by the presence of all forms of material. A trend was also observed where participants supplied with only the narrativecase materials surpassed those with visual materials. PMID:14661386
Multiple narrative perspectives can guide narrative research. The complexity of health narratives presents a significant challenge. Trauma recovery accounts are health narratives demonstrating successes as well as struggles. In this article, I describe a large-scale narrativestudy in which specific qualitative methods were combined to fit research aims, stories elicited, and emergent questions in the analysis process. Under my direction, an interdisciplinary team conducted this constructivist, feminist, narrativestudy describing the trauma recovery process. The study was focused on success or thriving in women surviving childhood maltreatment. I took an advocacy stance in favor of participants' interests, as is commensurate with a critical feminist standpoint. Through initial analyses the research team constructed a trauma recovery process termed "becoming resolute." Subanalyses were focused on key relationships, life trajectories, self-strategies, and perceptual changes. My purpose is to explain the various kinds and levels of analysis used here to provide options for others studying recovery narratives. PMID:20663939
Research interest in the analysis of stories has increased as researchers in many disciplines endeavor to see the world through the eyes of others. We make the methodological case for narrative inquiry as a unique means to get inside the world of health promotion practice. We demonstrate how this form of inquiry may reveal what practitioners value most in and
In the seven decades since Leopold's groundbreaking 1939 study, there has been no longitudinal study covering more than two years of a Japanese bilingual subject's development. Despite the lack of longitudinal research, however, we have been broadly informed by the veritable outpouring of research on a short-term basis since the late twentieth century. This longitudinal study tracks a Japanese–English bilingual
|In the seven decades since Leopold's groundbreaking 1939 study, there has been no longitudinal study covering more than two years of a Japanese bilingual subject's development. Despite the lack of longitudinal research, however, we have been broadly informed by the veritable outpouring of research on a short-term basis since the late twentieth…
In the seven decades since Leopold's groundbreaking 1939 study, there has been no longitudinal study covering more than two years of a Japanese bilingual subject's development. Despite the lack of longitudinal research, however, we have been broadly informed by the veritable outpouring of research on a short-term basis since the late twentieth…
|Although there is a growing body of research on the effects of peer mentoring in higher education, the individual learning of mentors themselves is largely unexplored. In this narrative inquiry study, peer mentors working with a first-year learning communities program shared and analyzed stories about their experiences. The resulting narrative…
A casestudy of an exemplary third grade teacher’s use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language\\u000a arts standards is described. Data from the researcher’s field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document\\u000a how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science and language arts curriculum.\\u000a This teacher’s early life
This study features use of case-based pedagogy as a context for exploring science teacher education reform. A central premise of the study is that science teacher education reform is a complex process characterised by the individual and collective narrative histories of teachers. The study was conducted at West Visayas State University in the Philippines as a collaborative research endeavour involving two US and four Filipino science teacher educators. The centrepiece of this study was a case experience prompted by reflection on prospective and practicing elementary teachers' written cases. Results of the study are presented here as a layered narrative. An initial layer explores how a case, written by a prospective teacher, was interwoven with her past and future life history. A second layer looks at sociocultural and professional tensions that mediated the participants' case experience. A third layer represents how the case experience provided a community that supported critical reflection among the research team members. Implications from the study emphasise that case-based pedagogy can serve as a basis for critical reflection to inform community-based approaches to science teacher education pedagogical and research reform.
Objective A combination of quantitative data and illustrative narratives may allow cancer survivorship researchers to disseminate their research findings more broadly. We identified recent, methodologically rigorous quantitative studies on return to work after cancer, summarized the themes from these studies, and illustrated those themes with narratives of individual cancer survivors. Methods We reviewed English-language studies of return to work for adult cancer survivors through June, 2008, and identified 13 general themes from papers that met methodological criteria (population-based sampling, prospective and longitudinal assessment, detailed assessment of work, evaluation of economic impact, assessment of moderators of work return, and large sample size). We drew survivorship narratives from a prior qualitative research study to illustrate these themes. Results Nine quantitative studies met 4 or more of our 6 methodological criteria. These studies suggested that most cancer survivors could return to work without residual disabilities. Cancer site, clinical prognosis, treatment modalities, socioeconomic status, and attributes of the job itself influenced the likelihood of work return. Three narratives - a typical survivor who returned to work after treatment, an individual unable to return to work, and an inspiring survivor who returned to work despite substantial barriers - illustrated many of the themes from the quantitative literature while providing additional contextual details. Conclusion Illustrative narratives can complement the findings of cancer survivorship research if researchers are rigorous and transparent in the selection, analysis, and retelling of those stories.
Steiner, John F.; Nowels, Carolyn T.; Main, Deborah S.
This essay explores the possibility of applying narrative analysis as a tool for the socio-cultural study of law. Narrative\\u000a is understood to be both a form of representation of reality, as well as a starting point into the enquiry about the nature\\u000a of reality itself. Consequently, an analysis of legal narratives could help to assess law’s impact on our understanding
This study evaluated the use of two different casestudy formats (clinically-oriented cases versus personally-oriented cases) to determine which was most effective in promoting long-term retention of clinically significant microbiology concepts, developing patient empathy, improving comprehension of patient compliance problems, and facilitating student understanding of transcultural health care concerns. The analysis was conducted in multiple sections of three different introductory microbiology classes targeting specific cohorts: nursing students, pharmacy students and other allied health students (pre-med, pre-PA, CLS, etc.). Retention of course content was determined by evaluation of multiple-choice and short answer examinations at least three weeks after completing casestudies. Evaluation of patient empathy, understanding of patient compliance issues and transcultural health care concerns were determined via student surveys. The results of the study indicated that personalized cases significantly improved long-term retention of course content. In addition, student responses indicated that personalized casestudies were more effective in developing patient empathy and aiding students in understanding issues patients have with complying with treatment recommendations. Finally, personalized casestudies were effective tools for introducing students to the challenges of transcultural health care.
The story of Cain and Abel is a concise short story marked by an elliptic use of language. A narrativestudy of the actions of the three protagonists YHWH, Cain and Abel demonstrates that the actions of (not) looking are the main ones. These actions are all concerned with the theme of brotherhood. YHWH is the only one in this
BACKGROUND: Although abortion or termination of pregnancy (TOP) has become an increasingly normalized component of women's health care over the past forty years, insufficient attention has been paid to women's experiences of surgical or medical methods of TOP. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a narrative review of qualitative studies of women's experiences of TOP and their perspectives on surgical or medical methods.
This autoethnographic study addresses the newly appointed counselling trainer's question ‘How did I get here?’ The procedure is described, and findings are presented as partial narratives of the Wounded Dancer, poems and prose written from different voices. Themes are revealed of love, healing, risk taking, unconventionality, physicality and overcoming physical limitations. ‘Wounded healer’ stories are inscribed alongside ‘powerful body’\\/‘subversive body’
|This autoethnographic study addresses the newly appointed counselling trainer's question "How did I get here?" The procedure is described, and findings are presented as partial narratives of the Wounded Dancer, poems and prose written from different voices. Themes are revealed of love, healing, risk taking, unconventionality, physicality and…
|A study examined what a third grader might understand about composing a common genre like the narrative, given the degree of variance among approaches and experience. Data were collected from different school sites over a period of several years. These sites shared common geographical areas: three schools were located in the Sonoran desert shared…
Background Little data exists on the effectiveness of psychological interventions for children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that has resulted from exposure to war or conflict-related violence, especially in non-industrialized countries. We created and evaluated the efficacy of KIDNET, a child-friendly version of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET), as a short-term treatment for children. Methods Six Somali children suffering from PTSD aged 12–17 years resident in a refugee settlement in Uganda were treated with four to six individual sessions of KIDNET by expert clinicians. Symptoms of PTSD and depression were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at nine months follow-up using the CIDI Sections K and E. Results Important symptom reduction was evident immediately after treatment and treatment outcomes were sustained at the 9-month follow-up. All patients completed therapy, reported functioning gains and could be helped to reconstruct their traumatic experiences into a narrative with the use of illustrative material. Conclusions NET may be safe and effective to treat children with war related PTSD in the setting of refugee settlements in developing countries.
The present paper argues the use of narratives as the most appropriate evaluation method in cases of atypical language production. Narrative as a genre has an ecological validity that other genres used in language research and evaluation do not have. Narratives develop naturally from very early, they are independent of education and academic skills, and they are meaningful because of
The present paper argues the use of "narratives" as the most appropriate evaluation method in cases of atypical language production. Narrative as a genre has an ecological validity that other genres used in language research and evaluation do not have. Narratives develop naturally from very early, they are independent of education and academic…
Post-modern theorists have challenged the totalizing and unifying ambitions of change management practices. This paper explores how a narrative action research approach may be used to combine our modernist commitment to facilitate change and collaboration in the land management context with a post-modern sensitivity to complexity and difference. It critically examines the way in which this approach was implemented within
|This descriptive casestudy investigated the role of narrative in multimedia learning and teaching and observed how teachers applied their understanding of narrative, and new constructivist technologies, to design multimedia presentations for instruction. The study looked specifically at the cognitive strategies, visual narrative concepts, and…
In studying religious and spiritual experiences (RSEs), psychologists of religion have relied heavily on narratives. How sound is this practice? Using the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI), we diagnosed basic features of RSEs as narrated by 39 participants. This information permitted comparison with third-party ratings of narratives of the same experiences using the PCI's phenomenological categories. Analyzing participant ratings against
This article is a narrative analysis of an entrepreneurship case performed from a post-structuralist feminist perspective. Acknowledging the social construction of reality, gender is conceptualized as performed rather than as an essential quality attached to male and female bodies. The analysis finds that the case reproduces discriminatory gender relations. While using such cases in entrepreneurship training may teach pragmatic lessons,
Selective mutism (SM) is a rare and complex disorder associated with anxiety symptoms and speech-language deficits; however, the nature of these language deficits has not been studied systematically. A novel cross-disciplinary assessment protocol was used to assess anxiety and nonverbal cognitive, receptive language, and expressive narrative abilities in 7 children with SM and a comparison group of 7 children with social phobia (SP). The children with SM produced significantly shorter narratives than children with SP, despite showing normal nonverbal cognitive and receptive language abilities. The findings suggest that SM may involve subtle expressive language deficits that may influence academic performance and raise additional questions for further research. The assessment procedure developed for this study may be potentially useful for language clinicians. PMID:15719897
This study explores the way in which adolescents who have engaged in self-harm make sense of their self-harm and its relationship to the events that have occurred in their lives. The six adolescents (aged between 13 and 18 years) who had been engaging in self-harm were invited to tell their life stories. The analysis explored both the content and the structure of these narratives in order to identify what they regarded to be key events in their lives and also what appeared to have been defended and less fully integrated features of their lives. A primary finding was that the adolescents perceive a severe lack of understanding from others about self-harm, which appeared to inhibit them from developing coherent narratives. They also found it difficult to discuss and integrate the difficulties behind their self-harm, giving narratives that were poorly integrated with little true resolution. One prominent story shared by this group was a story of self-harm as a way of directing their anger inwards. The findings highlight the importance for adolescents of access to conversations where difficult past events can be processed and understood within the context of a life story, and the implications for identity formation. PMID:22104364
This article is intended to be an introduction to narrative analysis. It introduces key terms in narrative theory (e.g. story and plot), discusses various types of narratives relevant for social studies and features three selected analytical approaches to narratives: a poetic classification, a tripartite way of reading and a deconstructive analysis. The conclusion presents some reflections on narratives as ways
The case of Allen Elementary School presents tangled narratives and wicked problems describing the multidimensionality of school community work. Using multiple converging and diverging vignettes, the case points to the distinctiveness of individual experience in schools; the ways institutionalized organizational narratives become cultural…
Nguyen, Thu Suong Thi; Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Crow, Gary M.
|The case of Allen Elementary School presents tangled narratives and wicked problems describing the multidimensionality of school community work. Using multiple converging and diverging vignettes, the case points to the distinctiveness of individual experience in schools; the ways institutionalized organizational narratives become cultural…
Nguyen, Thu Suong Thi; Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Crow, Gary M.
NeoSlave Narratives is a study in the political, social, and cultural content of a given literary form--the novel of slavery cast as a first-person slave narrative. After discerning the social and historical factors surrounding the first appearance of that literary form in the 1960s, NeoSlave Narratives explores the complex relationship between nostalgia and critique, while asking how African American intellectuals
|Narrative writing has been used to promote reflection and increased self-awareness among physicians. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of prompted narrative writing on reflection. Thirty-two interns at 9 internal medicine residency programs participated in a year-long qualitative study about personal growth beginning in July…
Levine, Rachel B.; Kern, David E.; Wright, Scott M.
Despite the fact that both men and women carry the human papillomavirus (HPV) and jointly contribute to its status as an epidemic, the promotion of Gardasil, a vaccine that blocks infection from four strains of HPV, has largely been designated as a women's-only health issue. The following casestudy contributes to ongoing efforts in the field of health communication to identify problematic assumptions informing contemporary health policy and practices. Specifically, I analyze how Merck Pharmaceuticals, the creator of Gardasil, strategically imbues direct-to-consumer advertisements with contradiction to preserve traditional notions of both women and medicine. I found that three gendered dialectics characterize Merck's efforts to invoke complacency among female consumers: public/secret, education/ignorance, and structured/individualist. In the case of the HPV vaccination, the implications of these dialectics are the perpetuation of complacency among female audiences that threatens both the success of this particular technology and the overall status of women and health. In line with conclusions offered by Thompson (2010a ), this study extends a call for health and communication scholars to continue to deconstruct dominant medical discourses and presents possibilities for re-storying narratives that mediate women's experiences with health. PMID:23402269
|This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5;8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5;6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and…
Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Olmos, Joan Guardia; MacWhinney, Brian
|The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic…
Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey
The organizing goal of the present study was to analyze and understand the “discursive presentation” of the Egyptian psychiatric patient through the texts, or narratives, contained within the patient medical charts. It is argued that the medical record, as a written document blending overt medical imperatives with more unexamined cultural assumptions about self-hood and abnormality, is an unusually rich source
Background Although abortion or termination of pregnancy (TOP) has become an increasingly normalized component of women's health care over the past forty years, insufficient attention has been paid to women's experiences of surgical or medical methods of TOP. Objective To undertake a narrative review of qualitative studies of women's experiences of TOP and their perspectives on surgical or medical methods. Methods Keyword searches of Medline, CINAHL, ISI, and IBSS databases. Manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary articles. Results Qualitative studies (n = 18) on women's experiences of abortion were identified. Analysis of the results of studies reviewed revealed three main themes: experiential factors that promote or inhibit the choice to seek TOP; experiences of TOP; and experiential aspects of the environment in which TOP takes place. Conclusion Women's choices about TOP are mainly pragmatic ones that are related to negotiating finite personal and family and emotional resources. Women who are well informed and supported in their choices experience good psychosocial outcomes from TOP. Home TOP using mifepristone appears attractive to women who are concerned about professionals' negative attitudes and lack of privacy in formal healthcare settings but also leads to concerns about management and safety.
This article draws on a conceptualization of the link between science and politics based on discourse analysis. The public objects of science are theorized as discursive creatures. This political concept encapsulates the predetermination of politics by scientific discourse. This framework has been used to study the legitimation of in vitro fertilization in the UK. Through different linguistic and textual mechanisms
The casestudy of Theodore Bundy compares his personal characteristics and criminal behavior with the contemporary violent sexual murder typologies. The Theodore (Ted) Bundy casestudy exemplifies violent sexual homicide offense characteristics. The casestudy will illustrate that Ted Bundy, as a single case, is the prototypical violent sexual murderer. Moreover, the Ted Bundy casestudy provides a unique validation
Uprooting and displacement are a common part of everyday life for millions of girls and young women throughout the world. While much of the discourse has centered on movement from one country to another, uprooting and displacement are also a reality for many within Canada. Notably, a growing population of homeless girls and Aboriginal girls also have experienced uprooting and dislocation from home, community, and in some cases, family. For many of these girls, multiple forms of individual and systemic violence are central features of their lives. The primary purpose of this critical narrativestudy is to examine how uprooting and displacement have shaped mental health among three groups: (1) newcomers to Canada (immigrant and refugee girls); (2) homeless girls; and (3) Aboriginal girls. In-depth narrative interviews were conducted with 19 girls in Southwestern Ontario. Narrative themes revealed that although there is much diversity within and between these groups, uprooting and displacement create social boundaries and profound experiences of disconnections in relationships. Barriers to re/establishing connections generate dangerous spaces within interlocking systems of oppression. However, in negotiating new spaces, there is the potential for the forming and re-forming of alliances where sources of support hold the promise of hope. It is within these spaces of hope and pathways of engagement where connections offer a renewed sense of belonging and well-being. The findings highlight the relevance of the construct of uprootedness in girls' lives, provide beginning directions for the design of gender-specific and culturally meaningful interventions, and comprise a substantial contribution to the growing body of research related to girls and young women. PMID:19544125
This article considers the pedagogical theory of constructivism in the integration of curricular content areas and the infusion of the arts in the context of the recent terrorist attacks. It uses products created by third-grade students to illustrate how drawing and discussion can be used as precursors to narrative composition. (Contains…
Narrative analysis is presented as continuous with personal storytelling in the work of remoralizing what Weber identified as disenchanted modernity. Critics of contemporary storytelling seem to misunderstand what kind of authenticity of self is expressed in stories. Against those whom Charles Taylor calls \\
This paper is based on 10 firsthand accounts of black women who graduated from historically white institutions. Four of the narratives came from autobiographies, those of educators Fanny Jackson and Lena Beatrice Morton, social activist Mary Church Terrell, and political activist and author Angela Davis. Three of the other accounts were taken from…
Narrative identity is the internalized, evolving story of the self that each person crafts to provide his or her life with a sense of purpose and unity. A proliferation of empirical research studies focused on narrative identity have explored its relationship with psychological well-being. The present study is the first prospective, multiwave longitudinal investigation to examine short-term personality change via an emphasis on narrative identity as it relates to mental health. Forty-seven adults wrote rich personal narratives prior to beginning psychotherapy and after every session over 12 assessment points while concurrently completing a measure of mental health. Narratives were coded for the themes of agency and coherence, which capture the dual aims of narrative identity: purpose and unity. By applying in-depth thematic coding to the stories of participants, the present study produced 47 casestudies of intraindividual personality development and mental health. By employing multilevel modeling with the entire set of nearly 600 narratives, the present study also identified robust trends of individual differences in narrative changes as they related to improvements in mental health. Results indicated that, across participants, the theme of agency, but not coherence, increased over the course of time. In addition, increases in agency were related to improvements in participants' mental health. Finally, lagged growth curve models revealed that changes in the theme of agency occurred prior to the associated improvements in mental health. This finding remained consistent across a variety of individual-difference variables including demographics, personality traits, and ego development. PMID:21910554
Signed languages such as American Sign Language (ASL) are natural human languages that share all of the core properties of spoken human languages, but differ in the modality through which they are communicated. Neuroimaging and patient studies have suggested similar left hemisphere (LH)-dominant patterns of brain organization for signed and spoken languages, suggesting that the linguistic nature of the information, rather than modality, drives brain organization for language. However, the role of the right hemisphere (RH) in sign language has been less explored. In spoken languages, the RH supports the processing of numerous types of narrative-level information, including prosody, affect, facial expression, and discourse structure. In the present fMRI study, we contrasted the processing of ASL sentences that contained these types of narrative information with similar sentences without marked narrative cues. For all sentences, Deaf native signers showed robust bilateral activation of perisylvian language cortices, as well as the basal ganglia, medial frontal and medial temporal regions. However, RH activation in the inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus was greater for sentences containing narrative devices, including areas involved in processing narrative content in spoken languages. These results provide additional support for the claim that all natural human languages rely on a core set of LH brain regions, and extend our knowledge to show that narrative linguistic functions typically associated with the RH in spoken languages are similarly organized in signed languages.
This paper suggests that a ‘narrative’ perspective can provide a fruitful way to o learn from rural development experiences and improve the organizational capacity of development projects. In this paper a number of conceptual windows are suggested for the analysis of narratives in projects. Our view is that narratives contribute to explain how actors align themselves within local processes of
In this article I explore how theoretical metaphors about the contemporary rescaling of the capitalist economy are used by local policy actors to justify an entrepreneurial urban policy. I develop a new theoretical concept (scalar narrative), suggest an analytical approach (cultural politics of scales) and give evidence of a particular case (Bilbao). The article is structured in the following way.
|The purpose of this teacher research study was to examine narrative inquiry as a method for student engagement with course material and the local community. This study sought to understand how students perceived themselves within Mexican American history. While a number of studies have used oral history and narrative effectively, these studies…
Narrative text can be a useful means of identifying injury in routine data collections. An analysis of data from a near real-time emergency department surveillance system (NREDSS) in New South Wales (NSW, Australia) was conducted to determine if sports injuries can be identified from routine narrative text recorded in emergency departments. Around one-third of all emergency department (ED) presentations during
Rebecca Mitchell; Caroline Finch; Soufiane Boufous; Gary Browne
Background: Some psychiatric patients are presented as hopeless, burned out, and devoid of social graces. Staff of mental health centers and hospitals are not encouraged to view these people differently. A narrative perspective allows anyone to emerge as a richly complex human being. Method: A course presented students with the opportunity to create narrative descriptions of patients presented by medical staff as hopeless. Results: One student's narrative of “Murphy the Motor Mouth” is presented; it shows the validity and usefulness of the narrative approach in reconstructing a person to be avoided as an interesting, valuable, and richly complex human being. Conclusion: Murphy in story emerges as more interesting and worthy of knowing than the clinical Murphy constructed by medical staff. Narrative approaches offer a richness and intimacy that fosters a more therapeutic and effective relationship between patients and staff.
|In an experimental study (N = 209), the authors compared the effects of exposure to typical middle-school written science content when presented in the context of the scientific discovery narrative and when presented in a more traditional nonnarrative format on 7th and 8th grade students in the United States. The development of texts was…
The study examined: (a) the role of phonological, grammatical, and rapid automatized naming (RAN) skills in reading and spelling development; and (b) the component processes of early narrative writing skills. Fifty-seven Turkish-speaking children were followed from Grade 1 to Grade 2. RAN was the most powerful longitudinal predictor of reading…
This article examines lay narratives about abortion among adult men and women in Nyeri district, central Kenya. The women studied do not champion or defend abortion and they do not necessarily condemn it. To them, abortion shields not merely against the shame of mistimed or socially unviable entry into recognized motherhood but more importantly against the negative socioeconomic consequences of
Chimaraoke O. Izugbara; Kennedy J. Otsola; Alex Chika Ezeh
The organizing goal of the present study was to analyze and understand the 'discursive presentation' of the Egyptian psychiatric patient through the texts, or narratives, contained within the patient medical charts. It is argued that the medical record, as a written document blending overt medical imperatives with more unexamined cultural assumptions about self-hood and abnormality, is an unusually rich source of discursive data concerning the 'cultural negotiations' implicit in the construction of the patient according to the two (often competing) world views represented by western biomedicine and traditional Egyptian culture. Psychiatry in Egypt is much more than a 'foreign transplant'; to assume this is to deny the culturally constructed nature of western biomedicine and psychiatry, which have their roots in historical and cultural notions of self, society, the individual, and normality versus abnormality (Transcultural Psychiat. 35(3) (1998) 352). Egyptian psychiatry is the product of an ongoing active blending of two very different conceptualizations of these issues. PMID:12850115
Details a casestudy of using narrative theater to engage with a wider variety of subject matter. Defines narrative theater as a group performance that features narrative as the primary expressive vehicle. Outlines the process of writing and directing a student performance of Tim O'Brien's novel "The Things They Carried," which deals with the…
|Details a casestudy of using narrative theater to engage with a wider variety of subject matter. Defines narrative theater as a group performance that features narrative as the primary expressive vehicle. Outlines the process of writing and directing a student performance of Tim O'Brien's novel "The Things They Carried," which deals with the…
Purpose: This study investigated the effect of a literate narrative intervention on the macrostructural and microstructural language features of the oral narratives of 3 children with neuromuscular impairment and co-morbid receptive and expressive language impairment. Method: Three children, ages 6-8 years, participated in a multiple baseline…
Petersen, Douglas B.; Gillam, Sandra Laing; Spencer, Trina; Gillam, Ronald B.
The transfer student phenomenon in higher education is as increasingly complex as the transfer students causing the phenomenon. The collection of narratives in this study reflected transfer experiences of theatre students who were navigating the educational pipeline from community colleges to four-year institutions to major in the theatre discipline. An analysis of the narratives using Schlossberg's transition theory (1984) and
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of culture on the creative and stylistic features children employ when producing narratives based on wordless picture books. Method: Participants included 60 first- and second-grade African American, Latino American, and Caucasian children. A subset of narratives based on wordless…
Gorman, Brenda K.; Fiestas, Christine E.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Clark, Maya Reynolds
How are old people treated in courts? How do judges construct old age? To what extent judicial decisions regarding older persons reflect ageist attitudes? Historically, these questions have received relatively little attention in gerontological literature. This Israeli case-study tries to add a new dimension to the growing literature in the field of jurisprudential gerontology, in a context that so far received little attention: narrative justice. More specifically, this study combines a narrative-justice theoretical approach, with a legal case-study methodology, in order to explore the relationships between judicial narratives and ageism. The narrative analysis presented in this casestudy exposes how in contrast to common perception, which views legal decisions as objective and unimaginative texts, reality is different. The judicial casestudied in this article exemplify how in real life, judges often construct a socio-judicial narrative, embellished by personal bias and prejudices regarding old age. PMID:22246391
This paper presents preliminary results from a narrative- ethnographic field study of a small mobile software development com- pany. Initial ethnographic findings are presented, and further narrative analysis is proposed in the areas of stories relating to programmer stereo- typing, war stories, and humour. It is expected that the study will form the first case-study for a broader comparative investigation
Introduction. Treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer is under discussion. Differences between clinical and pathological staging and risk factors such as positive surgical margins and seminal vesicle involvement challenge the individual treatment decisions. Case Presentation. Clinical tumor stage before treatment was assessed to be T2. After radical prostatectomy, pathological examination revealed the stage pT3b N0 M0 including positive surgical margin and seminal vesicle involvement. Early adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy and late adjuvant radiation therapy were added in response to the pathological risk factors. No evidence of disease was observed for 15 years after the treatment. The unexpected pathological findings were not explained by the physicians in charge. Discussion. A narrative review of the recent literature showed that multiple treatment modalities including adjuvant radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy are consistent with current recommendations. The multimodal approach has possibly cured a high-risk patient and may also work successfully in other patients. An alternative treatment option with better preservation of health-related quality of life might have also achieved a similar good overall survival.
Introduction. Treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer is under discussion. Differences between clinical and pathological staging and risk factors such as positive surgical margins and seminal vesicle involvement challenge the individual treatment decisions. Case Presentation. Clinical tumor stage before treatment was assessed to be T2. After radical prostatectomy, pathological examination revealed the stage pT3b N0 M0 including positive surgical margin and seminal vesicle involvement. Early adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy and late adjuvant radiation therapy were added in response to the pathological risk factors. No evidence of disease was observed for 15 years after the treatment. The unexpected pathological findings were not explained by the physicians in charge. Discussion. A narrative review of the recent literature showed that multiple treatment modalities including adjuvant radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy are consistent with current recommendations. The multimodal approach has possibly cured a high-risk patient and may also work successfully in other patients. An alternative treatment option with better preservation of health-related quality of life might have also achieved a similar good overall survival. PMID:23346453
This article challenges the strong presumption that narrative, capable as it is of expression in different media, is constituted by a medium-independent content. It draws upon Neil Gaiman's Sandman comics series in order to interrogate the role of the medium in narrative, and the foundational narrative concept of the event, and elaborates a concept of narrative as a cognitive faculty.
Few studies examine whether and how parental attitudes towards genetic testing change over time. In this study we interviewed\\u000a parents of 14 children with newly identified hearing loss at two time points: after referral to genetics and 1 year later.\\u000a Qualitative analyses of parental narratives indicate that parental attitudes did not change significantly over this time.\\u000a Parents who perceived genetic testing
Girija Kaimal; Annie G. Steinberg; Sara Ennis; Sue Moyer Harasink; Rachel Ewing; Yuelin Li
|This report discusses a study that examined the perceived credibility of children with learning disabilities once they received instruction in a procedure to increase recall during narrative testimony. Narrative Elaboration Training (NET) helps children to develop memory skills by teaching strategies for remembering the details that are expected…
After completing a longitudinal study of co?principal shared leadership initiatives in Aotearoa\\/New Zealand, the author discusses some of the issues raised by her research design and methods. First, she explains the storying techniques she used to construct casenarratives of each initiative. While these accounts drew largely on the participants’ own words, she shows how her own narrative analysis shaped
This study employs narrative methods to give a holistic view of the experiences of five mature age preservice teachers in\\u000a a semester unit of science education. The unit was designed to help teachers examine and make explicit their ideas about science\\u000a and science teaching and consider ways in which they might put those ideas into practice. The pivotal theme, around
The study examined: (a) the role of phonological, grammatical, and rapid automatized naming (RAN) skills in reading and spelling\\u000a development; and (b) the component processes of early narrative writing skills. Fifty-seven Turkish-speaking children were\\u000a followed from Grade 1 to Grade 2. RAN was the most powerful longitudinal predictor of reading speed and its effect was evident\\u000a even when previous reading
This study investigated whether or not gender-based differences are evident in the language (North American English) children use to tell a story. An equal number of boys and girls representing 3 developmental stages (7;2, 10;10, and 13;8) were asked to perform a 3 part guided narrative task, which involved telling 3 stories from 2 wordless picture books. The language of
Relevant literature demonstrates the absolute necessity of Special Operations Forces (SOF) clinical narratives to the medics they teach and care they deliver, and discusses the concept of narrative pedagogy via review of extant literature and also SOF-specific clinical literature. SOF clinicians (medics, physicians? assistants, physicians, etc.) provide advanced trauma, clinical, and preventive care in the most austere of combat environments. SOF clinicians have adopted specific paradigms for schooling, teaching, learning, and practice. An overarching theme within SOF-generated clinical literature is that of hermeneutics and the narrative pedagogy; SOF clinicians generate their evidence from experience and frequently tell stories to educate their peers, colleagues, and student medics to increase the knowledge of the entire community. PMID:22113722
Although some literature has emerged to examine the validity and constituent skills required for psychological profiling, little research has scrutinized how the technique works. This study examined the effects of case material on profiling proficiency. This was accomplished by alternating the case material available to participants in a profiling exercise. Groups of participants were presented with either a full case
The relationship between acculturation attitudes and attitudes toward collective narratives is explored in the context of Palestinian adolescents, citizens of the State of Israel. Employing Berry's acculturation framework, we expected that approaching the hegemonic Israeli Jewish culture would be related to higher acceptance of its collective…
China watchers have predicted that corruption would lead to a crisis for the ruling regime. Instead, the Chinese Communist Party has somehow managed to retain and even strengthen its political legitimacy. This article analyzes corruption not as a crime or a political problem but as a topic of political narratives, thereby revealing the political processes which led to this result.
This essay proposes a theory of human communication based on a conception of persons as homo narrans. It compares and contrasts this view with the traditional rational perspective on symbolic interaction. The viability of the narrative paradigm and its attendant notions of reason and rationality are demonstrated through an extended analysis of key aspects of the current nuclear war controversy
This guide is designed to help secondary school teachers include African literature in their classes. It furnishes English and social studies teachers with a foundation for teaching African literature by offering critical commentary on the texts themselves. A synthesis of anthropological and historical material is presented to help both teachers…
Resilience research forms the basis of this study examining first person accounts of youth in and alumni youth from care. Resilience opportunities are strengthened when the various systems supporting children and youth work in interconnected and cross-buttressed ways to promote positive coping and healthy development post adversity. It can be challenging to cull meaningful child welfare interventions from the literature's
The majority of social scientists continue to dismiss literary narratives as data that might lead to complex understandings of human phenomena. Introducing a method I call "novel inquiry", I argue that literary narratives merit inclusion as a source of data for educational inquiry. Utilizing literary narratives as a data source expands and…
Studies of how 10 to 11 year old children understand event- based program descriptions based on comic strips showed that narrative interpretations of such programs were common. A narrative perspective was taken both when using paper prototypes and computer prototypes, but was stronger on paper than on the computer. While a narrative model of programming can interfere with the creation
A casestudy is an excellent way to help students think like scientists as they work to solve a dilemma. This article describes a casestudy of elk in Yellowstone National Park. Students read short narratives, based on scientific research data, about the puzzling question of why some elk live substantially longer than others in certain areas of…
A casestudy is an excellent way to help students think like scientists as they work to solve a dilemma. This article describes a casestudy of elk in Yellowstone National Park. Students read short narratives, based on scientific research data, about the
Our research into the physical activity experiences of people with severe mental illness has led us to take seriously the social and cultural environment in which physical activity is delivered. In this study, through narrative methodology, we examine service user accounts of physical activity to illuminate the characteristics of physical activity groups that are experienced as positive, helpful, or beneficial. We present several qualities and show how effective leadership and coaching is central to these qualities being present. We conclude that it is not so much what activity is delivered, but how it is delivered that is critical for sustained participation and positive outcomes. PMID:22364428
In this article, we question narrative inquiry's predominant ethics of benefit when engaging in narrative research on trauma and social suffering. Through a particular focus on the use of a narrative methodology in a refugee health study, we explore the potential risk and protective function of narrative trauma research with vulnerable respondents. A review of ethical questions emerging during the course of a multiple-casestudy with refugee families documents how narrative methods' characteristics clearly revisit the impact of traumatization on autonomy, narrativity, and relationship building in participants and, thus, evoke the replay of traumatic experience within the research relationship itself. Blurring a straightforward ethics of benefit, this reactivation of trauma accounts for the research relationship's balancing movement between reiterating and transforming traumatic distress, and urges for the need to contain coexisting aspects of both harm and benefit in developing narrative research with traumatized participants. PMID:20663941
De Haene, Lucia; Grietens, Hans; Verschueren, Karine
|Presents a selection of 21 brief (about two pages) narratives by primary and secondary teachers on STELLA (Standards for Teachers of English Language and Literacy in Australia) panels in Victoria and Queensland. Notes that each narrative describes a moment of "good" English/literacy teaching. (RS)|
|This study examines the indexicality of discourse markers (DMs) in Chinese conversational narrative. Drawing upon theoretical and methodological principles related to narrative dimensions (Ochs & Capps, 2001), narrative desires (Ochs, 1997, 2004), and narrative positioning (Bamberg, 1997), this work proposes an integrated analytical framework for…
The past 10–15 years have seen a rapid increase in the study of narrative across all the social sciences. It is sometimes assumed that narrative has the same meaning irrespective of the context in which it is expressed. This article considers different levels of narrative analysis within health psychology. Specifically, it considers the character of health and illness narratives as
The focus of this work is to find ways of enhancing the ability of individual children with autism to deal with narrative.\\u000a In particular to further understand how to construct computer software that adapts to get the best out of a child in order\\u000a to directly effect improvement in narrative comprehension or identify aspects of narrative where therapeutic intervention\\u000a could
Megan Davis; Kerstin Dautenhahn; Chrystopher Nehaniv; S. Powell
For patients at the end of life, it is crucial to address the psychological, existential, and spiritual distress of patients. Medical education research suggests trainees feel unprepared to provide the whole person, humanistic care held as the ideal. This study used an empirically based narrative intervention, the dignity interview, as an educational intervention with first year residents. The interview helps patients tell and make meaning of their life story. The intervention was aimed at addressing trainee perceived gaps in the non-physical aspects of end-of-life care. It was also intended to stimulate broader reflection on lessons learned in medical education about the value of narrative as part of humanistic care. Twelve first year residents administered a 1 h interview to dying patients. The resident returned to read the transcribed story back to the patient. Semi-structured interviews of the residents were transcribed and analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify emergent themes. This experience was seen as distinct from the 'traditional" medical interview. Residents reflected on lessons learned from patients and on their own professional and personal lives. Residents felt conversations with dying patients, and more broadly the art of soliciting a patient's story are poorly taught and modeled. More concerning, the hidden curriculum seems to be sending messages that learning a patient's story is not the domain of a physician and that it is not valued like the curing and technical imperatives. These findings have implications for medical education's ongoing attempts to better produce humanistic physicians. PMID:23053870
Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions. PMID:20001120
Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara
Dementia alters the patient's ability to accept conventional dental treatment and conflict situations arise involving moral dilemmans in judgements and actions. The aim of the study is to disclose how the dentists think, feel and act in such conflict situations and their ethical reasoning. Qualitative methods are used in interpretation of 21 tape-recorded narratives from hospital dentists. In all narratives, the problem emerged from uncertainty about what comprise an appropriate treatment. The ethical dilemma could either be narrated as internal, within the dentist or external between the dentist's opinion and opinions to the contrary from co-actors in the story. In a climate of restraints in public spending in health care a discourse from the perspectives of ethics is essential to ensure respect for human integrity in society, fundamental for all caring, including dental care of patient with dementia. PMID:9646393
\\u000a Narrative identity is the internalized and evolving story of the self that a person constructs to make sense and meaning out\\u000a of his or her life. The story is a selective reconstruction of the autobiographical past and a narrative anticipation of the\\u000a imagined future that serves to explain, for the self and others, how the person came to be and
Narratives can provide insight into the values through which people interpret their own lives and the meaning which they ascribe to them. Gay men, since the 1970s, have developed a pattern of narratives whereby they choose to be open and honest about their homosexuality as opposed to being secretive or dishonest about it. This paper explores the ways in which
This paper addresses the process of patterning reconfigurable video narrative using architectural theory, through a case-study of practice-based research on the interactive, reconfigurable small-screen movie Gormenghast Explore. It focuses on the topography of cinematic narrative as architectural construction, refashioning Kevin Lynch's urban categories and Christian Norberg-Schulz's concept of place to support a design ontology for dramatic fictive narrativity. This architectural
The study of narrative processes as part of the immediate factors that shape criminal action is limited by the lack of a methodology for differentiating the narrative themes that characterise specific crime events. The current study explores how the roles offenders see themselves as playing during an offence encapsulate their underlying crime narratives and thus provide the basis for a quantitative methodology. To test this possibility, a 33-item Narrative Roles Questionnaire (NRQ) was developed from intensive interviews with offenders about their experience of committing a recent offence. A multidimensional analysis of the NRQ completed by 71 convicted offenders revealed life narrative themes similar to those identified in fiction by Frye and with noncriminals by McAdams, labelled The Professional, Victim, Hero, and Revenger offence roles. The NRQ thus is a first step in opening up the possibility of empirical studies of the narrative aetiological perspective in criminology. PMID:22247223
Narrative identity is the internalized, evolving story of the self that each person crafts to provide his or her life with a sense of purpose and unity. A proliferation of empirical research studies focused on narrative identity have explored its relationship with psychological well-being. The present study is the first prospective, multiwave longitudinal investigation to examine short-term personality change via
Purpose – To investigate the relationship between learning, organizational change, organizational culture and narratives. The issues are explored on the basis of a casestudy of an automotive supplier based in North-East England where learning is deeply integrated in the daily routines of the company. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The project reported upon in this paper was of qualitative and interpretive nature,
I have presented the findings from a longitudinal casestudy of one child's writing from kindergarten to grade 3, across different curriculum contexts, with a focus on writing in mathematics, social studies, science, and music. I describe changes in textual features of the child's writing over time, which support Newkirk's (1987) developmental schema for non-narrative writing and extend my previous
|As the transnational movement of academics continues to increase, some are arguing it is time to look more closely at the challenges faced by new international academic staff. This article reports on a narrative research study exploring the experiences and perceptions of eight international academic staff at a large, research-intensive university…
|This narrativestudy will allow my reader a glimpse into real situations I have faced as an asynchronous online instructor in hopes to help me and my audience better understand how I, as a self-directed online practitioner, utilized action research recorded in a journal as a method to build capacity for continuous professional development to…
Background: Writing about traumatic or emotional events can result in improvements in physical and psychological health. The objective of the current pilot study is to evaluate the impact of an expressive writing group on the psychological functioning of individuals living with HIV. Methods: Thirty-one participants with HIV completed measures of psychological distress prior to and following the Narrative Competence Psychotherapy
Allan Peterkin; Mary Jane Esplen; Julie Hann; Andrea Lawson
|The transfer student phenomenon in higher education is as increasingly complex as the transfer students causing the phenomenon. The collection of narratives in this study reflected transfer experiences of theatre students who were navigating the educational pipeline from community colleges to four-year institutions to major in the theatre…
Two contrastive studies of personal experience narration in two mother-child pairs are reported. The relationship between patterns of narrative elicitation and the children's developing narrative skill are investigated. Three sets of data were analysed: mother's utterances during mother-child elicitation, children's spontaneously provided contextual orientation in narratives elicited by a neutral researcher when the children were between 27 and 44 months
With a powerful narration by Dr. Maya Angelou, the opening frames of the Slave Narratives website pique even the most casual visitorsÂ interest immediately. Created by the Museum of the African Diaspora (based in San Francisco), the site features an innovative interface that allows users to roll over a series of multicolored dots to learn about the first-hand perspectives of slaves such as Francis Bok, Mary Prince, Fountain Hughes, Harriet Jacobs, and Juan Francisco Manzano. As Dr. AngelouÂs voice intones an introduction to each individualÂs narrative, visitors can read a transcript of their story, or just listen along. Visitors who wish to learn more will want to consult the ÂResourcesÂ area which includes bibliographic information for related works that tell of such experiences.
Narratives are ever more frequent in qualitative studies seeking to interpret experiences and the different viewpoints of individuals in a given context. Starting from this concept, the tradition that addresses narrative is reexamined, including the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur, the historical perspective of Walter Benjamin and the field of medical anthropology grounded in phenomenology. In Ricoeur, with hermeneutics as a variation derived from phenomenology, narrative is linked to temporality. In Benjamin, narrative comprised of bits and pieces, always inconclusive, emerges in spite of the official stories. If Ricoeur retrieves tradition from Gadamer as a fundamental component for the construction of the world of a text that makes imitation of life possible, Benjamin, faced with the collapse of tradition, suggests the invention of narrative forms outside the traditional canons, making it possible to hark to the past in order to change the present. Assumptions of medical anthropology are also presented, as they consider narrative a dimension of life and not its abstraction, namely an embodied and situated narrative. Lastly, three distinct research projects in mental health that use narrative linked to the theoretical concepts cited with their differences and similarities are presented. PMID:24061011
Onocko-Campos, Rosana Teresa; Palombini, Analice de Lima; Leal, Erotildes; Serpa Junior, Octavio Domont de; Baccari, Ivana Oliveira Preto; Ferrer, Ana Luiza; Diaz, Alberto Giovanello; Xavier, Maria Angélica Zamora
Clinical case reporting in the form of case reports and case series reports has always been an integral part of medical literature. From the late 1970s the genre appeared to fall from grace and was marginalized in many medical journals. There was controversy as to its value as a research method. From the late 1990s and onwards, there has been an increased demand for and publication of case reports and case series. The various causes for its decline and subsequent return are discussed with an emphasis on the recent historical context. PMID:23476729
|Teachers actively engaged in responding to their students' written narratives should be mindful of the many influences on their students' writing, including the abuses of the language by government bureaucracies and the media. Examples of these abuses are (1) the lack of density and direction or purpose in bureaucratic writing, (2) the…
Objective Many traumatised refugees suffer from both persistent pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To date, no specific guidelines exist for treatment of this group of patients. This paper presents data on a pilot treatment study conducted with 15 traumatised refugees with persistent pain and PTSD. Methods Participants received 10 sessions of pain-focused treatment with biofeedback (BF) followed by 10 sessions of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET). Structured interviews and standardised questionnaires were used to assess symptoms of pain intensity, pain disability, PTSD and quality of life directly before and after treatment and at 3 months follow-up. Results Following the combined intervention, participants showed a significant reduction in both pain and PTSD symptoms, as well as improved quality of life. Additionally, biofeedback increased motivation for subsequent trauma-focused therapy, which in turn was related to larger PTSD treatment gains. Conclusion This pilot study provides initial evidence that combining BF and NET is safe, acceptable, and feasible in patients with co-morbid persistent pain and PTSD.
People with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have difficulties with mentalizing, empathy, and narrative comprehension. A new test of social and narrative cognition, the Moral Dilemmas Film Task, was developed to probe individuals' spontaneous understanding of naturalistic film scenes. Twenty-eight individuals with ASC and 28 neurotypical controls, matched for age, sex, and IQ, watched four short emotionally charged film clips each depicting a moral dilemma, and were asked to write about what they had seen. Individuals with ASC produced significantly shorter film-based narratives and showed a smaller bias for mental states over objects in their narratives than controls. A significant correlation was found between verbal IQ and the level of mentalizing in film narratives for the ASC group, but not the control group, while the reverse pattern was found with a measure of self-reported cognitive and affective empathy. These results suggest that to the extent that both groups succeed in viewing moral dilemmas in terms of mental content, they do so in different ways, with individuals with ASC using verbal scaffolding to increase their ability to draw meaning from social scenes. The well-established empathy deficit in ASC extends to spontaneous interpretation of moral dilemmas. This new film task has the potential to assay different aspects of how the social world is represented differently in ASC, including during moral comprehension. PMID:19575384
Barnes, Jennifer L; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon
|In this article the extent to which stories and personal narratives can and should be used to inform education policy is examined. A range of studies describable as story or personal narrative is investigated. They include life-studies, life-writing, life history, narrative analysis, and the representation of lives. We use "auto/biography" as a…
Describes an ethnographic study of African American toddlers and families that focused on children's productive competence in naturally occurring narrativelike conversation. Examines emergence of narrative competence; posits definition incorporating minimal requirements for child participation within the fundamental essence of narrative structure.…
|In this paper I present a narrative approach to environmental education research. This approach evolved through a dynamic interplay between research questions, theory, experience, conversation, and reflection. I situate the approach with respect to narrative inquiry and clarify the key conceptual metaphors underpinning my study, including…
Drawing on post?Marxist screen reception studies in Malaysia, our article establishes a theoretical framework enabling analysis of consumer identification with\\/cultural distancing from television advertising and its aesthetics. We develop a hermeneutic model of audience response to audio?visual text as ludic or play?like in cognitively pursuing a meaning for veridical (mediated yet transparently accessible) marketing narrative sketches of everyday life transcended.
This paper argues that case-based and problem-based approaches to teaching educational administration are inherently anchored in positivist notions of science. Both approaches are embedded in prepartitioned landscapes, or "metanarratives." The metanarrative world view rejects the premise that there is one way to view the discipline and that…
Summary Background Primary intra-thoracic desmoids are exceedingly rare borderline tumors, with 34 reported cases in the English-language literature. The characteristic localized infiltrative growth and the high rate of recurrence can result in life-threatening conditions. Radical surgical resection is considered to be the primary treatment. Achieving negative surgical margins is a challenge. Cases with positive surgical margins are associated with a high rate of local recurrence; therefore, other multimodal approaches play a large role in their therapy. Case Reports The authors reviewed the relevant literature and presented examples of long-term follow-up of 3 intra-thoracic desmoid tumour patients, multidisciplinarily treated between 2000 and 2008. All reports of intra-thoracic desmoid tumors that the authors could find on PubMed or in the reference sections of these PubMed located articles were included using the search terms: intra-thoracic, desmoid, aggressive fibromatoses. Conclusions Because of the rarity of the disease and the heterogeneity of the cases, it is difficult to assess the importance of the information for everyday clinical practice. It does however provide a useful guide for reference.
This article illustrates what can be learned about reflection through exploring narrative inquiry as a productive research method in the study of teachers’ experiences of school reform. By focusing on five qualities of narrative inquiry: (1) research in the midst; (2) research on the boundaries; (3) knowing through relationship; (4) narrative truth; and (5) following where the story leads, the
|In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…
Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally
Narratives are an intimate part of our lives. Based on beha-vioral research suggesting that older adults tend to process text better at discourse level, this study investigates the im-pact of narrative structure on the enjoyment level of older game players. Two variations of a casual memory mobile game were built, one with a narrative and the other one without. Nineteen
Sharon Lynn Chu Yew Yee; Henry Been-Lirn Duh; Francis K. H. Quek
This chapter describes the history of casestudy teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various casestudy methods. (Contains 1 figure.)
|This chapter describes the history of casestudy teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various casestudy methods. (Contains 1 figure.)|
For some time there has been a focus in higher education research towards understanding the student experience of learning. This article presents a narrative analysis of the experience of a teacher who re-entered the learning world of undergraduate students by enrolling in a challenging chemical engineering course. The analysis identifies multiple…
Case, Jennifer M.; Marshall, Delia; Linder, Cedric J.
|We evaluated the narrative and expository writing samples of 12 adolescents with language-learning disabilities (LLD) in Grades 6 to 12 for elements of microstructure (e.g., productivity, grammatical complexity) and macrostructure (genre-specific text structure elements) using an experimental measure. Writing samples were elicited with…
This article discusses the narratives of Dutch schoolchildren from varied cultural-ethnic backgrounds discussing experiences of being betrayed by a friend, and the lessons they learned from the experience. In line with earlier social constructivist research in western societies, the authors found that peers and friends acted as highly emotional…
Most empirical evaluations of machine learningalgorithms are casestudies -- evaluationsof multiple algorithms on multiple databases.Authors of casestudies implicitly or explicitlyhypothesize that the pattern of theirresults, which often suggests that one algorithmperforms significantly better thanothers, is not limited to the small numberof databases investigated, but instead holdsfor some general class of learning problems.However, these hypotheses are rarely supportedwith...
Much research, including that by Koreans (e.g., Mo, 1999), agrees on two major points relating to the inequitable and unequal condition of women in the scientific community: (1) the fact that the under-representation of women in the scientific community has been taken for granted for years (e.g., Rathgeber, 1998), and (2) documenting women's lives has been largely excluded in women's studies (e.g., Sutton, 1998). The basis for the design of this study relates to the aforementioned observations. This study addresses two major research questions: how do social stereotypes exist in terms of gender equity and equality in the South Korean scientific and educational fields, and how do these stereotypes influence women and men's socializations, in terms of gender equity and equality, in the South Korean scientific and educational fields? To investigate the research questions, this qualitative study utilizes a life history narrative approach in examining various theoretical perspectives, such as critical theory, post-structuralism, and postmodernism. Through the participants' perceptions and experiences in the scientific community and in South Korean society, this study fords gendered stereotypes, practices, and socializations in school, family, and the scientific community. These findings demonstrate asymmetric gendered structures in South Korea. Moreover, with the comparison among male and female participants, this study shows how they perceive and experience differently in school, family, and the scientific community. This study attempts to understand the South Korean scientific community as represented by four student scientists through social structures. Education appears to function significantly as an hegemonic power in conveying legitimating ideologies. This process reproduces man-centered social structures, especially in the scientific community. This suggests that to emancipate women's under-representations in the scientific community, educational administrators and teachers should carefully consider gendered practices, stereotypes, and socialization in science classes. There have been significant findings of educative authenticity criteria (Guba & Lincoln, 1989) that stimulate the needs of future studies on gender, especially women in the scientific community in general and, more specifically, in South Korea. These findings suggest the importance of active involvement by women participants to enhance a more detailed examination, by women's studies, of the scientific community.
The present study analyses the Family Language Policy (FLP) in regards language literacy development of children in Ethiopian immigrant families. Bridging the gap between linguistic literacy at home and at school hinders a smooth societal integration and a normative literacy development. This study describes the home literacy patterns shaped by internal and external forces in parent–child interaction among 60 Ethiopian
Purpose – The aim of the paper is to discuss a possible extension of narrative analysis to a new medium of expression of consumer behaviour, specifically YouTube. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Marketing and consumer behaviour studies often apply narrative analysis to understand consumption. The consumer is a source of introspective narratives that are studied by scholars. However, consumption has a narrative nature
In this article, we propose that one way of engaging pre-service and practicing high school Social Studies and English teachers in critical conversations about social class is through the use of life-based literary narratives. By expanding upon Phillion and He's (2004) work around the pedagogical and curricular potential of using life-based literary narratives in multicultural education courses with pre-service teachers,
This study investigated the effect of a small-group storybook-based intervention on kindergarten students’ vocabulary and narrative development, which is important to later reading achievement. Twenty-eight kindergarten children from a high-poverty urban school, all significantly behind their peers on standardized measures of language development (semantic and syntactic) and narrative (understanding and production), were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group.
This study explored the effectiveness of group narrative therapy for improving the school behavior of a small sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fourteen clinics referred 9- to 11-year-old girls with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD were randomly assigned to treatment and wait-list control groups. Posttreatment ratings by teachers showed that narrative therapy had a significant effect on reducing ADHD symptoms 1 week after completion of treatment and sustained after 30 days. PMID:22999036
The Native American CaseStudies collection includes more than 80 original, research-based teaching cases focusing on contemporary issues in Indian Country. Teaching notes accompany each case. These can be downloaded and used at no cost. Additional website resources include information on teaching with cases and assessment. Guidelines for submitting cases are also available.
College, The E.; College, Northwest I.; College, Salish K.; College, Grays H.
This is a casestudy for high school and/or undergraduate students in physical anthropology. In particular this casestudy explores skull anatomy. Users of the National Center for CaseStudy Teaching in Science will be required to register (free) to gain access to the answer key (and must be of teaching status to receive the key). Included in the resource are the case overview, objectives, casestudy, teaching notes and answer key.
Elizabeth Strasser (Sacramento State Anthropology)
Reviews the important pedagogical, clinical, and ethical issues involved in the design and use of casestudies in the study of aging. Reviews literature in narrative and clinical ethics on casestudies as stories, including consideration of facts and values, debate on generalization versus specificity, and the need for interpreters. Considers the…
Purpose – While conventional wisdom suggests that sensemaking is targeted towards consensual understanding of the organization's intent and action, the objective of this study is to explore a different angle of sensemaking, namely, a situation of change and crisis in which the sensemaking process focuses on presenting the organization's members with an alternative understanding of its worldview, norms, and values.
In this article I ask to what extent geographers can draw on psychoanalytic theory when examining interview data. I consider Freud's theory of the mind and its unconscious processes to ask how bringing the unconscious to bear on identity studies potentially impacts qualitative research on subjectivity and identification. Existing geographic debate on psychoanalytic theory and methods provides an organizing framework
Critics of the case method have argued that cases too frequently overempha-size the formal and rational aspects of organizational functioning. Responding to these concerns, Harvard Business School (HBS) announced a commitment to broaden case content. In this study, narrative analysis is used to investigate the content of the 36 most popular HBS cases of 1996. It reveals that these cases
The narrativesstudied by schema-based models or story grammars are generally simpler than those found in literary texts, such as short stones or novels. Literary narratives are indeterminate, exhibiting conflicts between schemata and frequent ambiguities in the status of narrative elements. An account of the process of comprehending such complex narratives is beyond the reach of purely cognitive models. It
Literary theorists have developed tools to analyze the kind and degree of a narrator's presence in narration. The analytical concepts mostly assume effects of ‘narrative distance’ on the readers; however, empirical evidence is still very rare. This article presents two identically constructed experimental studies testing hypotheses about effects of narrative distance on readers' feelings of involvement, appreciation, and perception of
Objective While essential for patient care, information related to medication is often written as free text in clinical records and, therefore, difficult to use in computerized systems. This paper describes an approach to automatically extract medication information from clinical records, which was developed to participate in the i2b2 2009 challenge, as well as different strategies to improve the extraction. Design Our approach relies on a semantic lexicon and extraction rules as a two-phase strategy: first, drug names are recognized and, then, the context of these names is explored to extract drug-related information (mode, dosage, etc) according to rules capturing the document structure and the syntax of each kind of information. Different configurations are tested to improve this baseline system along several dimensions, particularly drug name recognition—this step being a determining factor to extract drug-related information. Changes were tested at the level of the lexicons and of the extraction rules. Results The initial system participating in i2b2 achieved good results (global F-measure of 77%). Further testing of different configurations substantially improved the system (global F-measure of 81%), performing well for all types of information (eg, 84% for drug names and 88% for modes), except for durations and reasons, which remain problematic. Conclusion This study demonstrates that a simple rule-based system can achieve good performance on the medication extraction task. We also showed that controlled modifications (lexicon filtering and rule refinement) were the improvements that best raised the performance.
In this lesson, students will gain experience using Punnett Squares. The casestudy determines the probability of children having freckles from a freckled father and non-freckled mother. Illustrations guide each step of the casestudy.
The Share Food CaseStudy was prepared for use in the 2007 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Examiner Preparation Course. The Share Food CaseStudy describes a fictitious nonprofit organization. There is no connection between the fictitious Share Fo...
Media specialists are increasingly assuming professional development roles as they collaborate with teachers to design instruction that combines content with technology. I am a media specialist in an independent school, and collaborated with two science teachers over a three-year period to integrate technology with their instruction. This action study explored integration of a digital narrative project in three eighth-grade earth science units and one ninth-grade physics unit with each unit serving as a cycle of research. Students produced short digital documentaries that combined still images with an accompanying narration. Students participating in the project wrote scripts based on selected science topics. The completed scripts served as the basis for the narratives. These projects were compared with a more traditional science writing project. Barriers and facilitators for implementation of this type of media project in a science classroom were identified. Lack of adequate access to computers proved to be a significant mechanical barrier. Acquisition of a laptop cart reduced but did not eliminate the technology access issues. The complexity of the project increased implementation time in comparison with traditional alternatives. Evaluation of the completed media projects presented problems. Scores by outside evaluators reflected evaluator unfamiliarity with assessing multimedia projects rather than student performance. Despite several revisions of the assessment rubric, low inter-rater reliability remained a concern even in the last cycle. This suggests that evaluation of media could present issues for teachers who attempt projects of this kind. A writing frame was developed to facilitate production of scripts. This reduced the time required to produce the scripts, but produced writing that was formulaic in the teacher's estimate. A graphic organizer was adopted in the final cycle to address this concern. New insights emerged as the study progressed through the four cycles of the study. At the conclusion of the study, the two teachers and I had a better understanding of barriers that can prevent smooth integration of a technology-based project.
|Casestudy research aims to explore and depict a setting with a view to advancing understanding. This note explores the dimensions of casestudy research in higher education, with special reference to geographical fieldwork. It explores Stake's three categories of casestudy research: intrinsic, instrumental and collective. It provides guidelines…
Casestudy research aims to explore and depict a setting with a view to advancing understanding. This note explores the dimensions of casestudy research in higher education, with special reference to geographical fieldwork. It explores Stake's three categories of casestudy research: intrinsic, instrumental and collective. It provides guidelines…
The LITEE team has developed casestudies designed to enhance student learning through direct participation in the decision-making process and development of higher-level cognitive skills. Casestudies increase student interest in the engineering field and improve retention in engineering programs. CaseStudies include lessons incorporating several different types of business models and are available to view online for free.
This paper seeks to explain how constructivism addresses career as narrative. First, the narrative approach to career is briefly contrasted with traditional ones. Next, the theory of narrative is outlined, and some of the relevance of narrative for understanding career is presented. The notion of constructivism is then discussed from the…
Objective To explore the individual experiences of those who had experienced the death of a parent(s) before the age of 18, and investigate how such experiences were perceived to impact on adult life. Design An exploratory qualitative design using written (n = 5) and oral (n = 28) narratives and narrative analysis was adopted to explore the experiences 33 adults (7 men and 26 women) who had experienced parental death during childhood. Setting UK Participants Individuals living in the North West of England who had lost a parent(s) before the age of 18. Main outcome measures Views of adults bereaved of a parent before the age of 18 of impact of parental loss in adult life. Results While individual experiences of bereavement in childhood were unique and context bound, the narratives were organized around three common themes: disruptions and continuity, the role of social networks and affiliations and communication and the extent to which these dynamics mediated the bereavement experience and the subsequent impact on adult life. Specifically they illustrate how discontinuity (or continuity that does not meet the child's needs), a lack of appropriate social support for both the child and surviving parent and a failure to provide clear and honest information at appropriate time points relevant to the child's level of understanding was perceived to have a negative impact in adulthood with regards to trust, relationships, self-esteem, feeling of self-worth loneliness and isolation and the ability to express feelings. A model is suggested for identifying and supporting those that may be more vulnerable to less favourable outcomes in adult life. Conclusions The findings suggest that if the negative consequences are to be minimized it is crucial that guidelines for ‘best practice’ that recognize the complex nature of the bereavement experience are followed.
Ellis, Jackie; Dowrick, Chris; Lloyd-Williams, Mari
|This casestudy describes a 20-year journey of educational transformation from 1985 to 2005 in a bellwether, or highly developed, instance of one school, family, and community partnership--the Kileely Community Project--situated in a large social housing project in Limerick City in the Midwestern region of the Republic of Ireland. The study is a…
We have investigated the experience of improvisers as they perform to better understand how narrative is constructed by group performance in improvisational theatre. Our study was conducted with improvisers who would perform improv "games" with each iteration video recorded. Each individual participant was shown the video in a retrospective protocol collection, before reviewing it again in a group interview. This process is meant to elicit information about how the cognition involved develops narrative during an improvisation performance. This paper presents our initial findings related to narrative development in improvisational theatre with an ambition to use these and future analyses in creating improvisational intelligent agents. These findings have demonstrated that the construction of narrative is crafted through the making and accepting of scene-advancing offers, which expert improvisers are more readily capable of performing.
Although forced migration research on refugee family functioning clearly points to the potential breakdown of parental availability and responsiveness in the context of cumulative migration stressors, studies exploring attachment security in refugee children are surprisingly lacking so far. The authors report their findings from a 2-site, small-scale administration of an attachment measure, adapted for use with refugee children aged between 4 and 9 years from a reliable and validated doll-play procedure. We evaluated interrater reliability and conducted a qualitative analysis of refugee children's narrative response to identify migration-specific representational markers of attachment quality. The level of agreement among 3 independent coders ranged between .54 to 1.00 for both study samples, providing initial psychometric evidence of the measure's value in assessing child attachment security in this population. The exploratory analysis of migration-related narrative markers pointed to specific parameters to be used in parent-child observational assessments in future validation of the attachment measure, such as parental withdrawal or trauma-communication within the parent-child dyad. PMID:23737300
The casestudy approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the casestudy approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related casestudies, we reflect on the different types of casestudy design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising proposals for conducting casestudy research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of casestudy reports.
The environmental and social costs of consumer societies have increasingly been recognized. Achieving sustainable household consumption requires an understanding of the underlying roots of current consumption levels. Using the casestudy of menstrual care practices, different theoretical frameworks--or narratives--for understanding household…
|Narratives and activity theory are useful as socially constructed data collection tools that allow a researcher access to the social, cultural and historical meanings that research participants place on events in their lives. This casestudy shows how these tools were used to promote reflection within a cultural-historical activity theoretically…
In this thesis, I explore the carrier narratives of Mary Mallon, or “Typhoid Mary,” and their intersections with developments in medical science and immigration policies at the time. To construct this case, I sought texts within the much larger study of the history of science and medicine underway in many different fields—from history to sociology to psychology to literature. From
|This essay investigates how various perspectives differ and converge in the span of an afternoon, thus illustrating how divergent narratives, through their very difference, enhance one's understanding of the past. The casestudy of the 1925 Fort Union Indian Congress points to the process of narrativizing experience and underscores how meaning is…
|The environmental and social costs of consumer societies have increasingly been recognized. Achieving sustainable household consumption requires an understanding of the underlying roots of current consumption levels. Using the casestudy of menstrual care practices, different theoretical frameworks--or narratives--for understanding household…
Over the last 3 decades or so, English and its related disciplines of Rhetoric and Composition have adopted new tools of research--tools other than the traditional ones of narrative and description. These other tools are empirical or scientific, those that are common to the social sciences, including experiments, casestudies, surveys, and…
The environmental and social costs of consumer societies have increasingly been recognized. Achieving sustainable household consumption requires an understanding of the underlying roots of current consumption levels. Using the casestudy of menstrual care practices, different theoretical frameworks—or narratives—for understanding household consumption are evaluated. The author argues that theories of consumption that focus on individual choice based on assessments of
Narratives and activity theory are useful as socially constructed data collection tools that allow a researcher access to the social, cultural and historical meanings that research participants place on events in their lives. This casestudy shows how these tools were used to promote reflection within a cultural–historical activity theoretically shaped research project on multi-professional collaborative practice. The tools are
This article reviews the reform trends and policies on the College Entrance Examination (CEE) in Shanghai, one of China's most developed cities. The author divides the CEE reforms in Shanghai into three historical stages: 1977 to 1992, 1992 to 1999, and 2000 to present. Employing the method of casestudies, the author analyzes the rationales and…
|This article reviews the reform trends and policies on the College Entrance Examination (CEE) in Shanghai, one of China's most developed cities. The author divides the CEE reforms in Shanghai into three historical stages: 1977 to 1992, 1992 to 1999, and 2000 to present. Employing the method of casestudies, the author analyzes the rationales and…
The psychosocial consequences following a stroke are known to be challenging, influencing the stroke survivors' ability to participate in and carry out the taken-for-granted roles and activities in family life. This study explored how living with the consequences of stroke impacted on family life in the late recovery phase, that is, six months or more after stroke onset. Twenty-two stroke survivors aged 20–61 years were interviewed in-depth six months to nine years after stroke onset. The interviews were analyzed applying a narrative, hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The findings revealed challenges that varied with time, from an initial struggle to suffice in and balance the relationships and roles within the family early after the stroke, towards a more resigned attitude later on in the stroke trajectory. The struggles are summarized in two main themes: “struggling to reenter the family” and “screaming for acceptance.” Nonestablished people living with stroke and stroke survivors in parental roles seem to be particularly vulnerable. Being provided with opportunities to narrate their experiences to interested and qualified persons outside the home context might be helpful to prevent psychosocial problems.
Within the caring science paradigm, variations of a method of interpretation inspired by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur's theory of interpretation are used. This method consists of several levels of interpretation: a naďve reading, a structural analysis, and a critical analysis and discussion. Within this paradigm, the aim of this article is to present and discuss a means of creating distance in the interpretation and the text structure by using narration in a poetic language linked to the meaning of the text. Ricoeur's 'Hermeneutical function of distanciation' will be introduced, and this concept of distanciation will be illustrated with reference to narrations from a study of patient's life experiences living with chronic illness and home mechanical ventilation in Denmark. Distanciation in the interpretation objectifies the text, and narration in a poetic language creates a particular kind of mediation in the interpretation. That narration represents an interpreted understanding of the whole, which facilitates an appropriate and evocative presentation of the interpreted data. This way of objectifying the text through narration can contribute yet another perspective to Ricoeur's rich and varied theory of interpretation. PMID:19228305
Using Goffman's theory and the methods of narrative analysis, the paper examines the divorce account of a white working-class man with advanced multiple sclerosis to show how he constructs a definition of his divorcing situation, and a positive masculine identity, despite massive disability. He accomplishes this positive self through narrative retelling of key events in his biography, healing discontinuities by the way he structures his account in interaction with the listener. The strategic choice of genre, or forms of narrative, guides the impression we form of him. From this casestudy, I show the usefulness of close textual analysis of biographical accounts of illness. PMID:2360055
The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) published a series of casestudies from 28 states to showcase examples of how ARRA EETT ("American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Enhancing Education Through Technology") grant funds have impacted teaching and learning. SETDA collected data for the casestudies through a variety…
State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2012
Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often show impaired linguistic and\\/or narrative abilities. The present study aimed to document the features of narrative discourse impairment in a group of adults with TBI. 14 severe TBI non-aphasic speakers (GCS<8) in the phase of neurological stability and 14 neurologically intact participants were recruited for the experiment. Their cognitive, linguistic and narrative skills
Researchers have found narratives useful in the study of occupation and occupational science. The imperative to understand and apply narrative approaches to occupational science research and occupational therapy practice cannot be overestimated for its utility in ensuring effective, efficient client-centered and occupation-based research, services, and outcomes.\\u000aThis proposal intends to spark discussion on the relationship of narrative and occupation. The
This paper examines the use of casestudies in ethics education. While not dismissing their value for specific purposes, the paper shows the limits of their use. While agreeing that casestudies are narratives, although rather thin stories, the paper argues that the claim that casestudies could represent reality is difficult to sustain. Instead, the paper suggests a way of using stories in ethics teaching that could be more real for students, while also giving them a way of thinking about their own professional practices. The paper shows how the method can be used to develop a more critical and reflective practice for students in the health care professions. Some immediate problems with the method are discussed. Key Words: Casestudy • narrative • reflexivity • identity • ethical practice
This paper considers how the integral theory model of Nancy Davis and Laurie Callihan might be enacted using a different qualitative methodology, in this case the narrative methodology. The focus of narrative research is shown to be on `what meaning is being made' rather than `what is happening here' (quadrant 2 rather than quadrant 1). It is suggested that in using the integral theory model, a qualitative research project focuses primarily on one quadrant and is enhanced by approaches suggested in the other quadrants.
|Objective: To explore attachment narratives in children diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Method: We compared attachment narratives, as measured by the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task, in a group of 33 children with a diagnosis of RAD and 37 comparison children. Results: The relative risk (RR) for children with RAD having…
Minnis, Helen; Green, Jonathan; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Liew, Ashley; Glaser, D.; Taylor, E.; Follan, M.; Young, D.; Barnes, J.; Gillberg, C.; Pelosi, A.; Arthur, J.; Burston, A.; Connolly, B.; Sadiq, F. A.
To examine the neural mechanism of co-speech gesture production, we measured brain activity of bilinguals during an animation-narration task using near-infrared spectroscopy. The task of the participants was to watch two stories via an animated cartoon, and then narrate the contents in their first language (Ll) and second language (L2),…
|To examine the neural mechanism of co-speech gesture production, we measured brain activity of bilinguals during an animation-narration task using near-infrared spectroscopy. The task of the participants was to watch two stories via an animated cartoon, and then narrate the contents in their first language (Ll) and second language (L2),…
Rita Silverman, Bill Welty, and I have used my description of the classroom event at the end of the preface as a basis for composing our essays in this special issue of Innovative Higher Education. They present this material as a case, while I have written it as a story, to illustrate the strengths of narrative for reflective teaching practice.
This is a casestudy for undergraduate students in anatomy, physiology, and/or anatomy and physiology. In particular this casestudy explores anatomy and physiology of the brain. Users of the National Center for CaseStudy Teaching in Science will be required to register (free) to gain access to the answer key (and must be of teaching status to receive the key). Included in the resource are the case overview, objectives, casestudy, teaching notes and answer key.
Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide\\u000a meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four casestudies\\u000a centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire. Through an interpretive,\\u000a holistic analysis of the personal narratives of youth,
Phillip L. Hammack; Elisabeth Morgan Thompson; Andrew Pilecki
This article presents the results of an inductive, interpretive casestudy. We have adopted a narrative approach to the analysis\\u000a of organizational processes in order to explore how individuals in a financial institution dealt with relatively novel issues\\u000a of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The narratives that we reconstruct, which we label ‚idealism and altruism’, ‚economics\\u000a and expedience’ and ‚ignorance and
Assuming that human beings are necessarily self-healing psychologists who develop their own self adjustment processes, a more systematic means of facilitating the development of these processes is portrayed, re-authored photo-self-narratives. The resolution of intrapersonal conflict is in and through the images describing alterations of the photo-self-narrative. A casestudy is presented of the auto-counselling process wherein the person recreates the
The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of casestudies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study an otherwise healthy 9 month old infant is presented with hydrocephalus. The casestudy provides test results and images along with microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.
|In this article, the author weaves narrative medicine and performance together to consider what might it mean to call narrative medicine a performance. To name narrative medicine as performance is to recognize the texts and bodies, the stories and selves, that participate in its practice--patients' and physicians' embodied stories as well as the…
It has been the thesis of this symposium that medicine is a narrative enterprise. We have presented our case that the work in is largely narrative. If that is true, then one of the goals of medical education should be to create methods of improving the narrative competencies in learners and practitioners of medicine. This final paper will explore the field of Narrative Medicine and briefly discuss methods currently in use in American Medical Education and conclude with the experience at the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine over the past ten years. PMID:19998735
Peuan Mit is a Lao organization working to address the needs of children and youth living and working on the streets. This casestudy outlines how a trusted and strong relationship with local police provides mutual benefit.
... Web pages for Derma-Smoothe Body Oil. Download the following materials to perform the Derma-Smoothe CaseStudy: ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/surveillance
The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of casestudies to help both students and instructors. The patient in this particular case is a 64-year-old male with difficulty swallowing anything other than liquids. Patient history and both the gross and microscopic descriptions, which include images, are included in this casestudy. The contributing doctors provide a detailed discussion of the patientĂ˘ÂÂs condition in the Ă˘ÂÂFinal DiagnosisĂ˘ÂÂ section. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.
Barnes, Leon, 1941-; Fusco, Gregory P.; Perez, Mia C.
|Issues of equity remain an essential theme throughout the study and practice of physical education (PE), youth sport and health. This important new book confronts and illuminates issues of equity and difference through the innovative use of narrative method, telling stories of difference that enable students, academics and professionals alike to…
Issues of equity remain an essential theme throughout the study and practice of physical education (PE), youth sport and health. This important new book confronts and illuminates issues of equity and difference through the innovative use of narrative method, telling stories of difference that enable students, academics and professionals alike to…
|This longitudinal study compared the development of oral language and more specifically narrative skills (storytelling and story retelling) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) with and without literacy delay. Therefore, 18 children with SLI and 18 matched controls with normal literacy were followed from the last year of…
In this study, we compared dream narratives of children and adolescents living under conditions of enduring interpersonal violence (n = 220) versus those living in peaceful surroundings (n = 99) on content variables that have been associated with traumatic experiences in Rorschach (Exner, 1995) imagery. As predicted, children and adolescents living in circumstances of enduring violence reported a higher proportion
Jan H. Kamphuis; Nynke Tuin; Marieke Timmermans; Raija-Leena Punamäki
|The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of classroom-based phonological sensitivity intervention (PSI) using a narrative platform for children in first grade who are at risk for a reading disability. Participants consisted of 59 first graders identified as at risk for later reading impairments. At-risk designation was dictated…
|In this article, we propose that one way of engaging pre-service and practicing high school Social Studies and English teachers in critical conversations about social class is through the use of life-based literary narratives. By expanding upon Phillion and He's (2004) work around the pedagogical and curricular potential of using life-based…
Husband abuse has been and continues to be a topic of controversy within the field of family violence. Although arguments persist over methodology, prevalence, and ideology, this study analyzes the narratives of 12 men who claimed to have been abused by their partners and compares their stories to the narratives and findings of past studies of wife abuse. In so
|For this qualitative casestudy (Patton, 2003), we used narrative inquiry (Erlandson, Harris, Skipper, & Allen, 1993) and sought to analyze extended interviews and field notes based on interactions with three rural superintendents working in high-needs, public PK-12 school districts in Texas. We collected data with regard to these…
Maxwell, Gerri Marie; Locke, Leslie Ann; Scheurich, James Joseph
The casestudy of the Battle of Midway incorporates the principles of war from AFM 1-1, the definition of friction of war and illustrates those concepts using the events from the Battle of Midway. It was designed as a reading and study guide for sophomore...
This text presents casestudies in nuclear medicine which emphasize the diagnosis of the patient's problem rather than the technical performance of the procedure. The book is arranged by organ systems and each section begins with a description of the technique and findings in a normal study.
This study investigated the narrative scaffolding styles of Spanish-speaking and English-speaking mothers as they engaged their preschool-aged children in family reminiscing and book sharing interactions. Specifically, the study examined the dimensions of narrative elaboration and participation in mothers' scaffolding styles across the 2 narrative…
Melzi, Gigliana; Schick, Adina R.; Kennedy, Joy L.
This study investigates the use of relative clauses in French children's narrative monologues. Narrative texts were collected from French- speaking monolinguals in four age groups (five, seven, ten years and adults). Twenty subjects from each group were asked to tell a story based on a picture book consisting of twenty-four images without text (Frog, Where are you?). Relative constructions were
A study investigated the use of a narrative discourse task to test oral English proficiency in non-native speakers for screening and placement. The subjects were Japanese university freshmen entering a five-level course in spoken English. The subjects were shown an animated cartoon of a Japanese folk tale, with narration in Japanese, and later…
|Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often show impaired linguistic and/or narrative abilities. The present study aimed to document the features of narrative discourse impairment in a group of adults with TBI. 14 severe TBI non-aphasic speakers (GCS less than 8) in the phase of neurological stability and 14 neurologically intact participants…
Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often show impaired linguistic and/or narrative abilities. The present study aimed to document the features of narrative discourse impairment in a group of adults with TBI. 14 severe TBI non-aphasic speakers (GCS less than 8) in the phase of neurological stability and 14 neurologically intact participants…
Evaluation plays a role in the telling and understanding of narratives, in communicative interaction, emotional understanding, and in psychological well?being. This article reports a study of evaluation by describing how readers monitor the concerns of characters over the course of a narrative. The main hypothesis is that readers tract the well?being via the expression of a character's internal states. Reader
|Adolescents sometimes cut themselves to relieve distress; however, the mechanism is unknown. Previous studies have linked self-injury to deficits in processing emotions symbolically through language. To investigate expressive language of adolescent cutters, the authors analyzed 100 narratives posted on the Internet. Most narratives (n = 66)…
This article starts from the narrative turn in the humanities and the social sciences in general and social work in particular to explore the study of fictional narratives in social work education. Rhetoric is presented as an important perspective for social work by focusing on the work of the rhetorician and literary critic Kenneth Burke (1897–1993), specifically on his theory
Background: This study examined the narrative skills of Cantonese-speaking school-age children to fill a need for a normative language test for school-age children. Purpose: To provide a benchmark of the narrative skills of Cantonese-speaking children; to identify which of the microstructure components was the best predictor of age; and to…
To, Carol Kit-Sum; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Cheung, Hin-Tat; T'sou, Benjamin
|Purpose: The current study focuses on describing the English language narrative skills of children who have been exposed to the Filipino language. Method: Eight children between the ages of 6;0 (years;months) and 7;7 who spoke primarily English but who were exposed to the Filipino language at home participated. Each child produced three narrative…
Lofranco, Lee Ann L.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.
|Elaborates on some issues in the debate between Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental approach and a narrative, relativistic, approach to studies of moral development. Reviews the concept of self in both approaches, ideas on the Cartesian rationality underlying Kohlberg's theories, and the reliance of the self on language in narrative approaches.…
The main objective of this study is to analyze narratives by Ethiopian immigrants in the Denver metropolitan area, as they share their immigrant experiences while attempting to integrate into the host culture. More specifically, this paper attempts to see how Ethiopian immigrants use narrative as a vehicle for constructing their identity as mainstream citizens in the United States. Focusing on
This paper theorizes that children segue into digital narrative game play easily and 'without pause' because of the perception of narrative they develop through their early print narrative experiences. These experiences are multimodal and socially constructed and are similar in nature to the engagement children enjoy with narrative gameplay. Rather than privileging the traditional forms of narrative considered the norm,
Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four casestudies centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire. Through an interpretive, holistic analysis of the personal narratives of youth, we examine the integration of same-sex desire, behavior, and identity in the general life story and the selective appropriation of elements of "master narratives" of sexual identity development. Narratives were characterized by challenges to integrate desire, behavior, and identity into a configuration that conformed to the received sexual taxonomy. Implications for theory and further research on sexual identity development are discussed. PMID:19636732
Hammack, Phillip L; Thompson, Elisabeth Morgan; Pilecki, Andrew
The associations were studied between early mother–child co-construction of a separation–reunion narrative and children's concurrent and later (a) emotion narratives and (b) behavior problems. Fifty-one children and their mothers were observed during a co-construction task when the children were age 4˝. At ages 4˝. and 5˝, children's narratives were elicited using the MacArthur Story-Stem Battery (MSSB), and mothers completed the
David Oppenheim; Ayelet Nir; Susan Warren; Robert N. Emde
This special issue presents quantitative and qualitative research on how narratives can be used as learning tools to promote school readiness. The articles focus on interventions investigating how families' oral narrating style impacts children's school readiness and how schools introduce children to narratives via teacher instruction, books, and testing assessments. The sample populations in the studies range in diversity from
|This study found that narratives of 41 parents of 29 autistic children were similar in length to controls' narratives but were less complex and less coherent. A subgroup of the parents produced either skeletal or rambling narratives, consistent with the hypothesis of a genetic liability for mild forms of autism that include impaired language…
A study was conducted to examine the issues of accuracy and reliability for transcription and analysis of oral narratives from Spanish-English bilingual children. Findings reveal that oral narrative data from ELL children can be accurately transcribed and the narrative measures are stable over time.
Informed by the narrative inquiry approach (Connelly & Clandinin, 1990), this qualitative study examined preservice teachers' narratives to investigate what they think, know, and believe in teaching English learners. Beyond just telling stories, narrative structures and meanings were examined with the goal of gaining insight of the preservice…
ABS TRACT Sociological approaches to understanding narratives of illness usually begin with oral or textual discourse. This article extends the study of illness narratives beyond oral and textual accounts to photographs. It takes the position that attempts to distinguish clearly images and words, or verbal and visual narratives, are utopian projects. It examines three photographs taken by British feminist Jo
Illness Narratives in Nineteenth-Century German Instrumental music identifies the illness narrative as a distinct genre and shows how composers organized their experience of illness in music. For years the discipline of musicology has investigated plot archetypes or narrative models that underlie structures of musical works, bringing critical theory developed in literature to the study of music. Concurrently, researchers in medicine,
Landscape narrative, combining landscape and narrative, has been employed to create storytelling layouts and interpretive information in some famous botanic gardens. In order to assess the educational effectiveness of using “landscape narrative” in landscape design, the Heng-Chun Tropical Botanical Garden in Taiwan was chosen as research target for an empirical study. Based on cognitive theory and the affective responses of
This research seeks to contribute to advancing qualitative methodologies at the intersection of qualitative geographic information systems (GIS), narrative analysis, 3D GIS-based time-geographic methods, and computer-aided qualitative data analysis. The approach to GIS-based narrative analysis developed in the study, called “geo-narrative,” is based on extending current GIS capabilities for the analysis and interpretation of narrative materials such as oral histories,
Educational media serve as informal educators within the home by supplementing young children's development. Substantial evidence documents the contributions of educational television to preschoolers' acquisition of a variety of skills; however, television's natural capacity as storyteller and the role it plays in preschoolers' early literacy development has been largely overlooked. This study examined the effects of viewing different TV program types on 311 at-risk preschoolers' story knowledge and narrative skills. Children were assigned to one of 4 viewing conditions (i.e. watching up to 40 episodes of a particular program type): no viewing; expository; embedded narrative; or traditional narrative. Story knowledge scores were higher for those viewing either narrative type. In contrast, viewing specific narrative types differentially affected the component skills of narrative competence. Story retelling and identification of explicit story events were higher after repeat viewing of embedded narratives while generating implicit story content was higher after repeat viewing of traditional narratives. PMID:19972662
|This article employs rhetoric to examine the poetic dimensions of one performed narrative in teaching. The analysis stems from a larger study of oral narratives in classroom talk during a Holocaust unit in a middle school language arts classroom. A corpus of seventy-five teacher and student narratives was transcribed and analyzed for the broader…
Narratives are an integral part of human expression. In the graphic form, they range from cave paintings to Egyptian hieroglyphics, from the Bayeux Tapestry to modern day comic books (Kunzle, 1973; McCloud, 1993). Yet not much research has addressed the structure and comprehension of narrative images, for example, how do people create meaning out of sequential images? This piece helps fill the gap by presenting a theory of Narrative Grammar. We describe the basic narrative categories and their relationship to a canonical narrative arc, followed by a discussion of complex structures that extend beyond the canonical schema. This demands that the canonical arc be reconsidered as a generative schema whereby any narrative category can be expanded into a node in a tree structure. Narrative "pacing" is interpreted as a reflection of various patterns of this embedding: conjunction, left-branching trees, center-embedded constituencies, and others. Following this, diagnostic methods are proposed for testing narrative categories and constituency. Finally, we outline the applicability of this theory beyond sequential images, such as to film and verbal discourse, and compare this theory with previous approaches to narrative and discourse. PMID:23163777
In this study the effect of story-telling (oral-narrative) strategies on student understanding of ideas about the physics of sound was investigated. A midwestern 4th grade sample of convenience was selected for this study. An experienced elementary science teacher with a special interest and talent for the oral tradition of storytelling taught a commercially available sound unit to two separate groups
Narrativecase research has been widely utilized in educational inquiry to investigate different and changing positions and perspectives on questions of identity, curriculum and classroom practice. Despite the fact that case-study research of this kind is well suited to the investigation of changing technologies and their interpretation in…
The idea of narrative has been widely discussed in the recent health care literature, including nursing, and has been portrayed as a resource for both clinical work and research studies. However, the use of the term 'narrative' is inconsistent, and various assumptions are made about the nature (and functions) of narrative: narrative as a naive account of events; narrative as the source of 'subjective truth'; narrative as intrinsically fictional; and narrative as a mode of explanation. All these assumptions have left their mark on the nursing literature, and all of them (in our view) are misconceived. Here, we argue that a failure to distinguish between 'narrative' and 'story' is partly responsible for these misconceptions, and we offer an analysis that shows why the distinction between them is essential. In doing so, we borrow the concept of 'narrativity' from literary criticism. Narrativity is something that a text has degrees of, and our proposal is that the elements of narrativity can be 'sorted' roughly into a continuum, at the 'high narrativity' end of which we find 'story'. On our account, 'story' is an interweaving of plot and character, whose organization is designed to elicit a certain emotional response from the reader, while 'narrative' refers to the sequence of events and the (claimed) causal connections between them. We suggest that it is important not to confuse the emotional persuasiveness of the 'story' with the objective accuracy of the 'narrative', and to this end we recommend what might be called 'narrative vigilance'. There is nothing intrinsically authentic, or sacrosanct, or emancipatory, or paradigmatic about narrative itself, even though the recent health care literature has had a marked tendency to romanticize it. PMID:15787904
Research has indicated that schizophrenia patients report similar amounts of experienced emotion in response to emotional material compared with nonpatients. However, less is known about how schizophrenia patients describe and make sense of their emotional life events. We adopted a narrative approach to investigate schizophrenia patients' renderings of their emotional life experiences. In Study 1, patients' (n = 42) positive
This qualitative study involved action research to explore one woman's narrative of awareness, emotions and thoughts during treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU). The overarching aim is to increase insight into the thoughts, feelings and bio-psychosocial needs of the patient receiving treatment in ICU. Data was collected by means of narrative discourse analysis. Literature on the psychosocial and spiritual implications of ICU treatment is limited, and often patients have no recall of their treatment in an ICU at all. Documenting the illness narrative of this individual case is valuable as the participant could recall a certain amount of awareness, thoughts and emotions. These experiences included delirium, anxiety, helplessness, frustration and uncertainty. Once sedation was decreased, the patient's consciousness increased and she was confronted with thoughts and emotions that were unrealistic and frightening. It was found in this study that the opportunity to share a narrative on the emotions and awareness during treatment in an ICU had cathartic value and the participant suffered little symptoms of post traumatic stress syndrome, often associated with long term treatment in an ICU. Further research on this topic is necessary to improve ICU treatment, not only on a physical level, but with emphasis on the psychosocial and spiritual needs of the patient. PMID:22980374
Reproducible research is a concept of providing access to data and software along with published scientific findings. By means of some casestudies from different disciplines, we will illustrate reasons why readers should be given the possibility to look at the data and software independently from the authors of the original publication. We report results of a survey comprising 100 papers recently published in Bioinformatics. The main finding is that authors of this journal share a culture of making data available. However, the number of papers where source code for simulation studies or analyzes is available is still rather limited. PMID:21278369
Created by the Department of Statistics at UCLA, this collection of casestudies includes the following topics: stock prices; breast cancer research; effect of fitness program; water use in Los Angeles; oral hygiene in the ICS-II project; Brinks v. New York City; effect of exercise on heart disease; national assessment of educational progress; The London Underground; suicides of women and men; temperature in San Francisco; lead intake; voting for Johnson; salaries of Yale men; K-Mart cookie sales; skeleton differences between tribes; advertising for detergents; did Mendel fudge his data; rainfall in the United Kingdom; jury selection in Alameda County; racial bias in jury selection: Swain v. Alabama; gender bias in jury selection: the case of Dr. Spock; the ELISA test for the AIDS virus; school careers in the Netherlands in 1959; the Northridge Earthquake of January 1994 and the trial of the Pix. This large collection is great for anyone in the field of statistics.
|Presents six brief (about one page) narratives by primary and secondary teachers arising from STELLA (Standards for Teachers of English Language and Literacy in Australia) workshops and interpretive discussions. Notes that each narrative describes a moment of "good" English/literacy teaching. (SG)|
|According to the narrative perspective on personality development, personality is constructed largely by interpreting and representing experience in story format (scripts) over the course of the lifespan. The focus of this paper is to describe briefly the narrative perspective on personality development during childhood and adolescence, to…
Risk is a probabilistic notion which has been used by scientists since the sixteenth century. It is not a perception but a calculation or a narration. This paper proposes an historical perspective to show how risk jumped from mathematical calculation to the narrative. A book by Daniel Defoe, A Journal of the Plague Year, which was published in 1720, is
What is the device of framing, in narratives, but a formal stylization of people's annoying habit of interrupting their discourses and switching messages? The device, for which the Thousand and One Nights is famous, is used by narrative artists everywhere, though most favored in stratified societies. Modes of criticism and commentary also function as frames, for interpretive purposes. The varieties
|While narrative history has been the prevailing mode in historical scholarship, its preeminence has not gone unquestioned. In the 1980s, the role of narrative in historical writing was "the subject of extraordinarily intense debate." The historical backdrop of this debate can be traced to the preceding two decades, when four groups of thinkers…
Substantial narratives, literary and otherwise, present situated protagonists whose actions express conceptions of the good and styles of pursuing it. Anna Karenina prefers undertaking an affair with Vronsky to remaining trapped within a loveless marriage to Karenin. The Wordsworth whose actions and experiences are narrated in the Prelude finds revolutionary French democratic individualism at first exhiliratingly inspiring and then maddeningly
According to the narrative perspective on personality development, personality is constructed largely by interpreting and representing experience in story format (scripts) over the course of the lifespan. The focus of this paper is to describe briefly the narrative perspective on personality development during childhood and adolescence, to discuss…
While narrative history has been the prevailing mode in historical scholarship, its preeminence has not gone unquestioned. In the 1980s, the role of narrative in historical writing was "the subject of extraordinarily intense debate." The historical backdrop of this debate can be traced to the preceding two decades, when four groups of thinkers…
Annals and chronicles may be the foundation of accounting, but writers of stories and histories have long known that they seldom render a satisfactory account of complex events. In place of a simple chronological list, narrative instead organizes our account in new sequences in order to illuminate the interplay of actors and events. We want hypertext narrative to do things
This is a pulmonary pathology casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55 year old female has spontaneously occurring hemoptysis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, radiology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.
This is a casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.
This is a casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 26-year-old woman has had a 13-year history of poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Visitors are given both the patient history and laboratory results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.
Pasculle, A. W.; Anhalt, John P.; Torbenson, Michael; Sheaffer, John; Macauley, Robert
This study examined the role that mothers' scaffolding plays in the autobiographical memory (AM) and storybook narratives of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Seven 4-5-year-old children and their mothers co-constructed narratives in both contexts. We also compared children's narratives with mothers to their narratives with an…
Purpose: This research was conducted to develop a clinical tool--the Index of Narrative Microstructure (INMIS)--that would parsimoniously account for important microstructural aspects of narrative production for school-age children. The study provides field test age- and grade-based INMIS values to aid clinicians in making normative judgments…
Justice, Laura M.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Ukrainetz, Teresa A.; Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Gillam, Ronald B.
Examines the creative manipulation of certain narrative devices in modern Greek and in Tosk Albanian to show (1) how narrative performances become ways of relating historical events and past experiences in present-day life; and (2) that studies of language death should more intensely use ethnography of the speaking paradigm to detect sensitive…
This article further explores patterns and traditions in classical accounts of pestilence. Recurring themes and expressions show that classical authors often copied earlier narratives, although literary analysis reveals that they sometimes embellished or distorted facts for their own purposes. PMID:11048986
Museums today are faced with a number of challenges and are currently searching for ways to attract and retain audiences and engage with the public. In order to address these issues, researchers have called for studies to help construct a more complete understanding of the visitor experience. Few studies employ methodological approaches that provide in-depth accounts of the museum experience.
I focus on three critical autobiographies in the field of composition studies: Mike Rose's "Lives on the Boundary: A Moving Account of the Struggles and Achievements of America's Educationally Underprepared," Keith Gilyard's "Voices of the Self: A Study of Language Competence," and Victor Villanueva, Jr.'s "Bootstraps: From an American Academic of…
|This article summarizes the results of a qualitative study of career transition experiences of middle-aged male scientists and engineers in the current socioeconomic environment in the United States. The study addresses the effects of the transitions from psychosocial perspectives. The authors selected participants from research organizations,…
Liu, Yosen; Englar-Carlson, Matt; Minichiello, Victor
The study investigated how San students of Botswana, in a junior community secondary school, understood literacy in school and at home. A qualitative, narrativecasestudy approach was used to gain a deeper understanding of what students value and understand by literacy from co-participants' and informants' perspectives. Findings across…
This is a casestudy for undergraduate students in anatomy or anatomy lab. In particular this casestudy explores the anatomy of the brain. Users of the National Center for CaseStudy Teaching in Science will be required to register (free) to gain access to the answer key (and must be of teaching status to receive the key). Included in the resource are the case overview, objectives, casestudy, teaching notes and answer key.
This is a casestudy for undergraduate students in anatomy, physiology, and/or anatomy and physiology. In particular this casestudy explores anatomy and physiology associated with cell physiology and tissue anatomy. Users of the National Center for CaseStudy Teaching in Science will be required to register (free) to gain access to the answer key (and must be of teaching status to receive the key). Included in the resource are the case overview, objectives, casestudy, teaching notes and answer key.
Brent JF Hill (University of Central Arkansas Biology)
|Describes a unit of study for a basic writing class that incorporates the writing of a dramatic monologue as a first step in learning to write a narrative essay. Discusses how one student's monologue changed as the unit progressed. (RS)|
This paper explains the creation and validation of the Narrative Comprehension of Picture Books task (NC task), an assessment of young childrens comprehension of wordless picture books. Study 1 explored developmental improvements in the task, as well as r...
Discusses two sets of neurological case histories: A. R. Luria's "The Man with a Shattered World," and Oliver Sack's "Awakenings." Argues that these histories display two paradigmatic explanations for the mind/brain relation, and that the movement from one paradigm to another also necessitates a movement to different forms of discourse. (MM)
|Learning to teach ESL entails not only knowledge of linguistics, pedagogy, and curriculum, but it also entails negotiating challenges to identity, cultural sensibilities, and emotional relations. In order to make sense of these challenges, I inquire into the experiences of pre-service TESOL teachers teaching and learning experiences in a study…
Review of eight studies evaluating strategies for teaching nursing research found they emphasized contextual rather than internal or external validity. A typology for research on teaching strategies was proposed using the categories of purpose, methodological assumptions, types of validity, and sample size. (Contains 45 references.) (SK)
Signed languages such as American Sign Language (ASL) are natural human languages that share all of the core properties of spoken human languages but differ in the modality through which they are communicated. Neuroimaging and patient studies have suggested similar left hemisphere (LH)-dominant patterns of brain organization for signed and spoken languages, suggesting that the linguistic nature of the information,
Aaron J. Newman; Ted Supalla; Peter C. Hauser; Elissa L. Newport; Daphne Bavelier
Delphi Automotive Systems and the Los Alamos National Laboratory worked together to develop PREDICT, a new methodology to characterize the reliability of a new product during its development program. Rather than conducting testing after hardware has been built, and developing statistical confidence bands around the results, this updating approach starts with an early reliability estimate characterized by large uncertainty, and then proceeds to reduce the uncertainty by folding in fresh information in a Bayesian framework. A considerable amount of knowledge is available at the beginning of a program in the form of expert judgment which helps to provide the initial estimate. This estimate is then continually updated as substantial and varied information becomes available during the course of the development program. This paper presents a casestudy of the application of PREDICT, with the objective of further describing the methodology. PREDICT has been honored with an R&D 100 Award presented by R&D Magazine.
Kerscher, W. J. (William J.) III; Booker, J. M. (Jane M.); Meyer, Mary A.
|This article offers an overview of the method of narrative inquiry and explores competing trends in the use of the approach. It not only examines the theories relating to the method but also offers practical guidance on using narrative inquiry, including an exploration of what might count as a narrative and ways of analysing narrative data. The…
Coles, The Call of Stories Monk, Winslade, Crocket and Epston: Narrative Therapy in Practice: The Archelogy of Hope, Jossey Bass. Powell, Mark Allan. What Is Narrative Criticism? Polkinghorne, Donald E. Narrative Knowing and the Human Sciences Ruffing, Janet. Uncovering Stories of Faith, Spiritual Direction and Narrative. ( ote: This book is out of print. The publisher has given permission to
Coles, The Call of Stories Monk, Winslade, Crocket and Epston: Narrative Therapy in Practice: The Archeology of Hope, Jossey Bass. Powell, Mark Allan. What Is Narrative Criticism? Polkinghorne, Donald E. Narrative Knowing and the Human Sciences Ruffing, Janet. Uncovering Stories of Faith, Spiritual Direction and Narrative. ( ote: This book is out of print. The publisher has given permission to
Narrative inquiry refers to a subset of qualitative research designs in which stories are used to describe human action. The term narrative has been employed by qualitative researchers with a variety of meanings. In the context of narrative inquiry, narrative refers to a discourse form in which events and happenings are configured into a temporal unity by means of a
The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…
|The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…
This article takes a retrospective look at how the folks in business schools look at the case method. The legacy of cases in business may seem short in the eyes of some but it is positively ancient when compared to the use of the casestudy in the sciences, which began to take hold in the 1990s. Surprisingly, in spite of its impeccable academic pedigree, there seems to be little literature on the success of the method; virtually no assessment data in business, law, or public policy teaching seems to exist.
This article explores how gender and religious belief come together in an elderly woman's experience of suffering. It is based on qualitative research that explored experiences of suffering in a group of community-dwelling elders (80+) living in a North American city. We use the casestudy method to introduce themes that show suffering's uniqueness to the individual whose narrative we report, as well as similarity to themes that emerged in other participants' narratives. In this case, an elderly woman's gender and religious identities merge in her stories of suffering, which include the memory of a childhood disability and an incident of clergy abuse that occurred 70 years previously. A key finding in this paper is that key themes in her story of suffering, which are disablement and clergy abuse, resonate to the general themes of suffering found in our study, which are (1) threats to personal identity; (2) loss of a valued item, quality, or relationship; and (3) a lack of control over self or the circumstances of life. PMID:22033671
Background The rationale for the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) has been questioned. There has been little analysis, however, of what drove the NCSP’s establishment and how it was implemented. Such analysis will help inform the future development of the NCSP. This study used a qualitative, theory-driven approach to evaluate the rationale for the NCSP’s establishment and implementation. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 14 experts in chlamydia screening were undertaken. The interview data were analysed with policy documents and commentaries from peer-reviewed journals (published 1996–2010) using the Framework approach. Results Two themes drove the NCSP’s establishment and implementation. The first, chlamydia control, was prominently referenced in documents and interviews. The second theme concerned the potential for chlamydia screening to advance wider improvements in sexual health. In particular, screening was expected to promote sexual health services in primary care and encourage discussion of sexual health with young people. While this theme was only indirectly referenced in policy documents, it was cited by interviewees as a strong influence on implementation in the early years. However, by full rollout of the Programme, a focus on screening volume may have limited the NCSP’s capacity to improve broader aspects of sexual health. Conclusions A combination of explicit and implicit drivers underpinned the Programme’s establishment. This combination may explain why there was widespread support for its introduction and why implementation of the NCSP was inconsistent. The potential to improve young people’s sexual health more comprehensively should be made explicit in future planning of the NCSP.
Several cases and incidents caused by reverse waterhammer in hydraulic systems are analyzed. The paper describes the fundamentals of mathematical models for analysis of hydraulic transients in Kaplan turbines based upon the theory of the rigid waterhammer. The case of the air introduction into the intake structure behind the inlet wheel gate is described by a system of differential equations.
The present study examines the associations between narrative processing, narrative production, and cardiac rate and variability in children. Heart period (HP) and vagal tone (VT) were computed for fifty-eight 7-year-olds (29 males) during a resting baseline and during epochs in which the children listened to and completed a selected set of story-stems from the MacArthur Story- Stem Battery (I. Bretherton,
Yair Bar-Haim; Nathan A. Fox; Kirsten M. VanMeenen; Peter J. Marshall
|Using a framework of organizational arenas (rational, human, political, symbolic), narrative analysis of the content of 36 Harvard Business School casestudies revealed an overwhelming emphasis on the rational to the virtual exclusion of other domains. Four perceptual hazards (metathemes) that characterize rationality bias were elaborated:…
This narrativecasestudy examines the news and information role played by WWL Radio and the United Radio Broadcasters of New Orleans during the real life drama of Hurricane Katrina. The performance of United demonstrates that media consolidation, deregulation and the threat of emerging technologies do not justify abandoning the idea that broadcasters still have a moral and ethical responsibility
Casestudy research can make important contributions to the field of professional communication if the research is carried out with rigor. The paper discusses inaccurate uses of the term “casestudy” and then presents ideas for conducting more rigorous casestudies. Advantages and disadvantages are described, as well as typical techniques, such as interviews, logs, and visual and verbal protocols
This paper makes a case for narrative criminology by describing the storied nature of mass murder by Jim David Adkisson in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Drawing on interviews with and writings by David, I suggest that his narrated identity was central to his violence. The ways in which he conjured himself, his personal and political situation, and despised others, animated his
We distinguish narrative structures as master frames from stories as actual telling of events, and show how they operated in the case of the Catholic church closings in Detroit in the late 1980s. Narrative structures drawn from Detroit industrial history and from reform in the Catholic church were imposed on the actual events constituting the closing process, and powerfully defined
We have investigated the experience of improvisers as they perform to better understand how narrative is constructed by group\\u000a performance in improvisational theatre. Our study was conducted with improvisers who would perform improv “games” with each\\u000a iteration video recorded. Each individual participant was shown the video in a retrospective protocol collection, before reviewing\\u000a it again in a group interview. This
Before 2005, time accrued on the lung transplant waiting list counted towards who was next in line for a donor lung. Then in 2005 the lung allocation scoring system was implemented, which meant the higher the illness severity scores, the higher the priority on the transplant list. Little is known of the lung transplant candidates who were listed before 2005 and were caught in the transition when the lung allocation scoring system was implemented. A narrative analysis was conducted to explore the illness narratives of seven lung transplant candidates between 2006 and 2007. Arthur Kleinman's concept of illness narratives was used as a conceptual framework for this study to give voice to the illness narratives of lung transplant candidates. Results of this study illustrate that lung transplant candidates expressed a need to tell their personal story of waiting and to be heard. Recommendation from this study calls for healthcare providers to create the time to enable illness narratives of the suffering of waiting to be told. Narrative skills of listening to stories of emotional suffering would enhance how healthcare providers could attend to patients' stories and hear what is most meaningful in their lives.
Yelle, Maria T.; Stevens, Patricia E.; Lanuza, Dorothy M.
This article is about the simultaneous subversion and perpetuation of political borders ‘from below’. Using the state boundary between the cities of Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Gisenyi in Rwanda as a casestudy, this article shows how people make sense of their border-related social world. By analyzing everyday narratives and practices of people who live on
|This casestudy explored sociocultural forces that influenced three 10th grade public high school biology teachers' instructional goals, instructional acts, and identity narratives related to the teaching of evolution. Primary data included field observations of classroom instruction and teacher interviews. Secondary data included informal…
Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four casestudies centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire.…
Hammack, Phillip L.; Thompson, Elisabeth Morgan; Pilecki, Andrew
|Privileging the voices of 12 recent Chinese immigrant adolescents, this multiple-casenarrativestudy examined their home and school experiences from the critical sociocultural perspective. The adolescent stories about home testified to the significant influence of immigrant poverty, parental sacrificial altruism, and disciplinary Chinese…
|One of the central challenges globalization and immigration present to education is how to construct school language policies, procedures, and curricula to support academic success of immigrant youth. This case-study compares and contrasts language experience narratives along Elena's developmental trajectory of becoming an urban science teacher.…
Privileging the voices of 12 recent Chinese immigrant adolescents, this multiple?casenarrativestudy examined their home and school experiences from the critical sociocultural perspective. The adolescent stories about home testified to the significant influence of immigrant poverty, parental sacrificial altruism, and disciplinary Chinese parenting in their academic achievement. The adolescent experiences at school revealed their appreciation of Canadian liberal education,
The article focuses on narratives of clients' experiences of using/misusing alcohol and drugs and includes comments on their therapeutic process during treatment for dependency on psychoactive drugs. It discusses the role of narratives that focus on clients' experiences of understanding the use/misuse of psychoactive drugs, emphasizing the importance of the narratives. Narrative therapy for substance-use-related dependency is discussed. Insight into the treatment processes of dependency, based on narrativecase illustrations, is also provided. PMID:24087873
Caring for J.D. was a stressful experience. The extent of her wounds, pain, and limited options for treatment was very frustrating for the nursing staff. Although she did not survive, patient outcomes were met to some degree. Her pain was controlled to a greater extent, and there was less infection present in her wounds. The nurses worked with J.D. closely to improve her pain control and facilitate less painful dressing changes. They were vigilant in assessing the progress of her wound healing and communicating any increased signs of infections from her wounds. They sang with her to help distract her from the pain she was experiencing and to help her cope with her lengthy 8-month hospitalization. Providing care for J.D. was also a very important learning experience for nurses in terms of appropriate pain management for patients with CUA, wound care, and the need to sustain adequate nutrition to promote wound healing. CUA is a rare but potentially fatal disease that occurs in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent the devastating effects of this disease. Nephrology nurses need to reinforce the importance of keeping calcium, phosphorous, and parathyroid levels within normal ranges for their patients on dialysis. They also need to be vigilant in monitoring for potential CUA skin lesions to prevent and treat it early. To date, treatment options are mostly based on findings from case reports. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach with input from nephrologists, nurses, pain specialists, infectious disease specialists, and surgeons. The major goals of treatment are controlling risk factors, controlling pain, and preventing wound infection and possible sepsis. More studies need to be conducted to test interventions that may help treat CUA. PMID:23094342
In this article, the author discusses how media can provide great sources for casestudies. However, he cautions that teachers should look for events in media that will grab their students' interest and allow them to develop a case that will teach discipline. He also suggests that teachers need to develop a case-study mindset, an ability to see…
Incorporating a casestudy format into a senior seminar course is a novel method of teaching the components of a successful seminar. Within this format, seminar presenters familiarize their audience with relevant background information, present a case stu
Our research was focused on a false-memory editing operation that is posited in fuzzy-trace theory-recollection rejection. The main objectives were (a) to extend model-based measurement of this operation to a narrative task that ought to ensure high levels of recollection rejection and (b) to study five manipulations that ought to influence recollection rejection by affecting the accessibility of verbatim traces of narrative statements: recency of narrative presentation, narrative repetition, type of false-memory item, testing delay, and repeated testing. The results showed that the narrative task did indeed yield high levels of recollection, with an estimated 49% of gist-consistent distractors being rejected in this way on initial memory tests. Consistent with current theoretical conceptions of false-memory editing, the results also showed that recollection rejection increased as a function of manipulations that should enhance the accessibility of verbatim traces of narrative statements, with repeated testing delivering especially large increases in verbatim accessibility. PMID:16829486
This study explored relationships between perspective-taking, emotion understanding, and children's narrative abilities. Younger (23 5-/6-year-olds) and older (24 7-/8-year-olds) children generated fictional narratives, using a wordless picture book, about a frog experiencing jealousy. Children's emotion understanding was assessed through a standardized test of emotion comprehension and their ability to convey the jealousy theme of the story. Perspective-taking ability was assessed with respect to children's use of narrative evaluation (i.e., narrative coherence, mental state language, supplementary evaluative speech, use of subjective language, and placement of emotion expression). Older children scored higher than younger children on emotion comprehension and on understanding the story's complex emotional theme, including the ability to identify a rival. They were more advanced in perspective-taking abilities, and selectively used emotion expressions to highlight story episodes. Subjective perspective taking and narrative coherence were predictive of children's elaboration of the jealousy theme. Use of supplementary evaluative speech, in turn, was predictive of both subjective perspective taking and narrative coherence. PMID:21288255
This casestudy explores the experience of one client participating in a project evaluating the use of dreams in short-term counselling within the National Health Service. The client received 24 sessions of counselling and completed a post-counselling semi-structured questionnaire. This was followed by a semi-structured interview, which confirmed the internal coherence within the participant's narrative and allowed a more detailed
The specific needs of the smaller computer user for software maintenance are discussed. Implementation problems and third party support are considered. The major areas of concern are seen to be preventative maintenance, system backup and recovery, application enhancement, and use of third party expertise. Several actual case histories are discussed, and the cost of failure is addressed.
Stories register in human memory in special ways, and stories about neurological cases can entertain and move a reader while simultaneously being an important part of any neuroscience curriculum. Here we describe a course taught in the context of the liberal arts curriculum of Baldwin-Wallace College. Students from a variety of disciplines learned basic neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and neurochemistry and then used this information to help them understand published neurological casestudies, which were analyzed for their literary as well as scientific qualities. Later in the course, students were paired with a person with a neurological disorder and they investigated their cases in some depth. The capstone experience was a monograph that aimed to be both good science and good story telling. Narratives and Neurons was team taught by faculty from the Neuroscience and English departments. However, the casestudies were shaped and improved by all the class participants using writing workshop methods common to creative writing classes. Assessments of this course were very favorable, suggesting that students find that the work enhanced their resourcefulness and challenged their abilities to critically evaluate and problem solve. Some of the cases have found their way into the peer-reviewed literature. Moreover, the interaction between students and individuals with neurological disorders provided a diversity of experiences that enriched the lives of all the participants.
Narratives have been used in the past to enhance technical documents such as research proposals by implementing a single-user writing tool called CANS (Computer-Aided Narrative Support). This study has now been extended to collaborative writing (CW); another area that can greatly benefit from a narrative- based writing tool. Before implementing such an asynchronous, multi-user system, however, it was imperative to
Students use as the basis for a casestudy a journal article investigating whether people who claimed to have severe lactose intolerance really were unable to digest lactose. This type of case is referred to as an "issues" or "analysis" type of case in wh
Just as comedians find content for their material in newspapers and on television, it is possible for educators to use the media as a great source of material. As casestudy teachers it is important to look for hooks in the media; events that will grab our student's interest and allow us to develop a case that will teach our discipline. To do this we need to have a "casestudy frame of mind."
|The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…
|This paper is a review of current practice in narrative therapy with a focus on how it is attractive and useful for therapists who wish to work for social justice. The authors describe narrative therapy's roots in poststructuralist philosophy and social science. They illustrate its major theoretical constructs, including the "narrative metaphor,"…
This paper is a review of current practice in narrative therapy with a focus on how it is attractive and useful for therapists who wish to work for social justice. The authors describe narrative therapy's roots in poststructuralist philosophy and social science. They illustrate its major theoretical constructs, including the "narrative metaphor,"…
One of the core problems in Narrative Intelligence is maintaining the narrative nature of event sequences that emerge owing to user participation. This paper challenges the common premises and assumptions about the nature of human action and experience that underlie common approaches to finding a solution to the problem of narrative structuration. An in-depth analysis of the temporality of human
Data visualization is regularly promoted for its ability to reveal stories within data, yet these “data stories” differ in important ways from traditional forms of storytelling. Storytellers, especially online journalists, have increasingly been integrating visualizations into their narratives, in some cases allowing the visualization to function in place of a written story. In this paper, we systematically review the design
The initial cognitive ability to coordinate experience into a hierarchically organized, multi-episode narrative occurs in\\u000a youth, beginning a narrative record of ego identity development that continues throughout the life span (Habermas and Bluck\\u000a in Psychological Bulletin 126:748–769, 2000; Habermas and de Silveira in Developmental Psychology 44:707–721, 2008). The following casestudies explore how two high-functioning women integrate potentially conflicting bicultural
This series, Holding These Truths: Empowerment and Recognition in Action, presents casestudies for a future conflict resolution textbook. It has been successfully piloted with several international classes. Those, who benefit most, stress the importance of carefully studying this introduction. Because the casestudy format is intentionally unique, written in an interactive and non-linear workbook style, unlike many introductions, the
From the Institute for International Economics, CaseStudies in Economic Sanctions presents, at present, eight in-depth casestudies of the effects of economic sanctions in countries including Cuba, Libya, Pakistan, Iran, India, and Myanmar. Each casestudy is presented in three compact pages beginning with a detailed timeline of the history of the sanctions. The second page offers more information, including the chronological goals of the sender country, response of the target country, attitude of other countries, and legal notes. The final page contains economic statistics, assessments by economists, and concise authors's summaries. Worthy of note are the lengthy bibliographies that accompany each casestudy.
Abstract Objective: Using electronic rather than paper-based record systems improves clinicians' information retrieval from patient narratives. However, few studies address how data should be organized for this purpose. Information retrieval from clinical narratives containing free text involves two steps: searching for a labeled segment and reading its content. The authors hypothesized that physicians can retrieve information better when clinical narratives are divided into many small, labeled segments (“high granularity”). Design: The study tested the ability of 24 internists and 12 residents at a teaching hospital to retrieve information from an electronic medical record—in terms of speed and completeness—when using different granularities of clinical narratives. participants solved, without time pressure, predefined problems concerning three voluminous, inpatient case records. To mitigate confounding factors, participants were randomly allocated to a sequence that was balanced by patient case and learning effect. Results: Compared with retrieval from undivided notes, information retrieval from problem-partitioned notes was 22 percent faster (statistically significant), whereas retrieval from notes divided into organ systems was only 11 percent faster (not statistically significant). Subdividing segments beyond organ systems was 13 percent slower (statistically significant) than not subdividing. Granularity of medical narratives affected the speed but not the completeness of information retrieval. Conclusion: Dividing voluminous free-text clinical narratives into labeled segments makes patient-related information retrieval easier. However, too much subdivision slows retrieval. Study results suggest that a coarser granularity is required for optimal information retrieval than for structured data entry. Validation of these conclusions in real-life clinical practice is recommended.
Tange, Huibert J.; Schouten, Harry C.; Kester, Arnold D. M.; Hasman, Arie
Norway's living kidney donation-rate is among the highest in the world (36 per million). According to questionnaire-results, donors enjoy better than average health, presumably due to the strict medical criteria for being allowed to donate and life long medical follow up. However, in recent years international studies have cast doubt on the predominantly positive picture of donors and recipients, particularly regarding psychological aspects of transplantation surgery and donor evalutation. Findings in this study derive from anthropological fieldwork lasting 36 months at three university hospitals in the Oslo-basin. 18 end stage kidney disease patients and their potential donors were recruited opportunistically and interviewed (separately) in three or more semi-structured conversations during the evaluation process and after transplantation. 3 cases are discussed in detail. Notes were transcribed and analysed according to narrative theory. Focus was to explore the content of donors' and recipients' pre- and post-transplantation narratives and to examine whether these accounts warrant a need for more comprehensive psychological assessment than is current practice in Norway. Donor- and recipient-narratives are well suited as a tool to improve living kidney donation-decisions. The material indicates a need to offer psychological care to LKD-partners, before and after transplantation. PMID:21826514
Retroperitoneal sarcoma represents approximately 12-15% of all sarcomas and between 0.2 and 0.5% of all neoplasia. They very rarely metastasize, and the main cause of death is local recurrence. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy still do not represent valid therapeutic alternatives, therefore radical surgery remains the only valid option. We would like to present the following case of a 48-year-old male patient. After episodes of right-side renal colic, a 19x16x19 cm mass was found, which was palpable in the right quadrants, englobed the right ureter and caused ipsilateral hydroureteronephrosis of medium grade. Surgery allowed total excision of this neoplasm (which was tenaciously attached to various organs), with the sacrifice of the right kidney. The final histological examination on a sample taken during surgery confirmed that the neoplasm was a spindle-cell sarcoma at an intermediate grade of malignancy. One year after surgery the patient is disease free. PMID:21948137
In this paper the author proposes a possible typology of the use of narrative in occupational science based on an analysis of journal articles from occupational therapy and occupational science literature. The resulting typology identifies usages of narrative that fall into three categories: (a) everyday life, (b) clinical reasoning, and (c) research methodology. The theoretical and methodological interrelations among these categories are explored. This typology contributes to a clearer conceptualization of the various uses of narrative, minimizes terminological confusion, and suggests new extensions through which narrative can be used to study occupation. Recommendations for how this typology can be used to diminish confusion and encourage dialogue are provided. PMID:21309639
Examines a white preservice teacher's experiences in an inner city school. Analysis of interviews, written reflections, and group discussions describes a journey from initial culture shock, eliciting both emotional and cognitive dissonance, to cultural assimilation as she adapted to concerns about her students, worries about working with her…
|There are still many South African teachers who are challenged by the implementation of the relatively new system of education. They have to explore a variety of strategies as they try to transform their pedagogy to enhance learning in their classrooms. This post-apartheid system also challenges educators to be transformative individuals who…
Abstract This paper draws upon fieldwork among,a Muslim community,in the Qinghai- Gansu borderland areas to explore how the desire of Muslims to achieve social mobility through education is blocked by the larger society which regards them as ‘familiar strangers’. This can be understood,as a tension between their desire for full social citizenship in the form of rights to employment,and education
Self narratives of older adults often include themes of loss and devaluation. These negative perceptions arise from personal experiences, such as widowhood or health impairments, and also the socially constructed images of older adults as dependent and unproductive. Narrative therapy provides a meaning-making strategy that can be used to assist older clients in altering their life stories. Within narrative therapy,
Narratives convey feelings and communicate ideas that the listener needs to hear. As such, they make powerful tools in all endeavors of human interaction. The use of narratives has been especially successful in educational settings. The time has come for the patient narrative to take back its rightful place after having been displaced in the name…
The present study examined aspects of identity development in a sample of adolescent boys from two approaches: individuation and narrative. To extend the more recent research on narrative identity development, we also examined relations between narrative identity, well-being, and age. Narrative meaning making was predicted by themes of…
McLean, Kate C.; Breen, Andrea V.; Fournier, Marc A.
With this issue, The Consultant Pharmacist begins a new series, CaseStudies in Geriatric Pharmacotherapy. This column will present casestudies in which the pharmacist identifies actual or potential patient medication-related problems, presents an evidence-based discussion of options, and develops a patient management plan. As part of this evaluation, the pharmacist consults with both the patient's physicians and family members.
Casestudy learning was integrated into a course designed to improve students' potential for academic success and increase student retention. Casestudies related to self-regulation of behavior, motivation, and cognition for academic tasks were used to prompt students' critical thinking and facilitate deep learning of self-regulation topics,…
|This article presents three casestudies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first casestudy, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…
Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda
|Original stories can provide a wealth of opportunity for forensics competitors. Original storytelling requires the sharing of a personal experience or family narrative that is adaptable to audiences differing in age and education. Community organizations and groups are invited to participate as audience members and vary from round to round.…
|In primary teacher education, using a multimedia learning environment, we challenge student teachers to develop narratives of paradigmatic classroom situations. In this digital environment they observe footage of classroom practice (mathematics lessons) and discuss, analyse, and interpret these episodes. The environment will stimulate student…
|The author personally started making narrative collaged necklaces about 10 years ago, after being inspired by an artist friend. She would take mini images from magazines and collage them together onto laminate tile samples from a hardware store. She then adds colorful brads and stickers, and then paint and oil pastel over them, finally sealing…
The general aim of this presentation is to explore how video games, supported by conversations and theatrical performances in the classroom, contribute to the development of narrative thought as present in written compositions. Given that one of the primary ecological influences on children is the mass media, we need to consider how media
Abstract Story generation is experiencing a revival, despite disappointing preliminary results from the preceding three decades. One of the principle reasons for previous inadequacies was the low level of writing quality, which resulted from the excessive focus of story grammars,on plot design. Although these systems leveraged narrative theory via corpora analyses, they failed to thoroughly extend those analyses to all
Story generation is experiencing a revival, despite disappointing preliminary results from the preced- ing three decades. One of the principle reasons for previous inadequacies was the low level of writing quality, which resulted from the excessive focus of story grammars on plot design. Although these sys- tems leveraged narrative theory via corpora analy- ses, they failed to thoroughly extend those
This article addresses how mental illness and psychiatry are dealt with in fictional narrative. The starting point is Charlotte Bronte's novel Jane Eyre. The characterisation of madness in that novel provides the basis for exploring how the physical and psychological differences of mentally ill people are portrayed, and how violence and the institutional care of people with mental illnesses are
America has always been a wonderfully diverse place, a country where billions of stories spanning centuries and continents converge under the rubric of a Constitution that unites them in an ongoing narrative of national self-creation. Rather than rehearse familiar debates over what our Constitution means, this essay explores what the Constitution does. It treats the Constitution as a verb a
The objective of this volume of contributed chapters is to present a series of applications of geostatistics. These range from a careful variographic analysis on uranium data, through detailed studies on geologically complex deposits, right up to the latest nonlinear methods applied to deposits with highly skewed data contributions. Applications of new techniques such as the external drift method for
Two studies examined age differences in autobiographical reasoning within narratives about personal experiences. In Study 1 (n = 63), people completed brief interviews about turning points and crises in their lives. Older participants were more likely to narrate crises in ways that connected the experience to the speaker's sense of self, that is, to show autobiographical reasoning. This increase was
|How does the spouse of a person with depression take part in constructing narratives of depression in couple therapy? In this study we examined couples' ways of co-constructing narratives of depression in couple therapy. Three couple therapy processes were chosen for the study, one spouse in each couple having been referred to an outpatient…
Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. PMID:22034342
The objective of this volume of contributed chapters is to present a series of applications of geostatistics. These range from a careful variographic analysis on uranium data, through detailed studies on geologically complex deposits, right up to the latest nonlinear methods applied to deposits with highly skewed data contributions. Applications of new techniques such as the external drift method for combining well data with seismic information have also been included. The volume emphasizes geostatistics in practice. Notation has been kept to a minimum and mathematical details have been relegated to annexes.
This compendium of casestudies describes the benefits of investing in workforce development as part of an integrated strategy to improve performance. Each of the featured companies faced operational challenges that constrained productivity and profitabil...
Mental health nurses need to know their clients at depth, and to comprehend their social contexts in order to provide holistic care. Knowing persons through their stories, narratives they tell, provides contextual detail and person-revealing characteristics that make them individuals. Narratives are an everyday means of communicating experience, and there is a place for storytelling in nearly all cultures. Thus narrative is a culturally congruent way to ascertain and understand experiences. This means the nurse should ask questions such as “How did that come about?” versus why questions. A narrative approach stands in contrast to a yes/no algorithmic process in conversing with clients. Eliciting stories illustrates the social context of events, and implicitly provides answers to questions of feeling and meaning. Here we include background on narrative, insights from narrative research, and clinical wisdom in explaining how narratively understanding the person can improve mental health nursing services. Implications for theory, practice, and research are discussed.
Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of casestudies. A casestudy on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case
Iron biomarkers were developed to define the size of iron stores and the adequacy of the iron supply required to meet functional needs. Approximately 80% of the iron delivered to tissues through the circulating plasma pool will be incorporated into hemoglobin. Consequently, with the exception of serum ferritin, iron biomarkers are measures of iron sufficiency for erythrocyte production. They have proven to be very valuable in the determination of the cause of anemia in the clinical setting in which additional information about factors that affect the patient's health is available. However, all current biomarkers are affected by factors other than iron status, which limit their utility for the determination of the prevalence of iron deficiency in some populations, particularly in populations who live in developing countries. Furthermore, relations between iron status and functional outcomes such as neonatal and infant mortality; motor, cognitive, and emotional development in infants; and severe morbidity from malaria in young children are inadequately characterized. There is a need to identify and standardize biomarkers that have the highest predictive value for specific functional outcomes in each setting. The most appropriate biomarkers may vary with the setting and be influenced by age, sex, gestational stage of pregnancy, and environmental factors such as repeated or chronic infections. There is also an urgent need for improved technology to permit the use of specific biomarkers in field studies in resource-poor regions. Finally, more research is required to define the potential role of hepcidin and non–transferrin-bound iron assays.
This casestudy presents a psychodynamic approach to clinical social work practice with the father of a child who suffered from separation anxiety disorder symptoms. The theoretical background of the study is initially presented, followed by a description of the research setting and its participants. The clinician presents his work through critical incidents of parent and practitioner narratives during the
|"Becoming a Teacher" revisits the concept of Teacher Lore (Schubert and Ayers, 1992), by providing a cross-disciplinary approach linking elements of narrative theory to all aspects of pre- and in-service teaching. In essence, it embraces the notion that what teachers say matters. The rationale behind this text is the idea that narrative can not…
Blake, Robert W., Jr., Ed.; Blake, Brett Elizabeth, Ed.
"Becoming a Teacher" revisits the concept of Teacher Lore (Schubert and Ayers, 1992), by providing a cross-disciplinary approach linking elements of narrative theory to all aspects of pre- and in-service teaching. In essence, it embraces the notion that what teachers say matters. The rationale behind this text is the idea that narrative can not…
Blake, Robert W., Jr., Ed.; Blake, Brett Elizabeth, Ed.
Doing narrative research around the topic of spiritual and cultural knowledge is an honor. Listening to participant narrators share stories of deep spiritual experiences related to their cultural and religious history has the effect of helping both the teller and the listener unfold their own inner wisdom; as the teller relates and shares powerful memory of spiritual experiences it evokes
Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often show impaired linguistic and/or narrative abilities. The present study aimed to document the features of narrative discourse impairment in a group of adults with TBI. 14 severe TBI non-aphasic speakers (GCS<8) in the phase of neurological stability and 14 neurologically intact participants were recruited for the experiment. Their cognitive, linguistic and narrative skills were thoroughly assessed. The group of non-aphasic individuals with TBI had normal lexical and grammatical skills. However, they produced narratives with increased errors of cohesion and coherence due to the frequent interruption of ongoing utterances, derailments and extraneous utterances that made their discourse vague and ambiguous. They produced a normal amount of thematic units (i.e. concepts) in their narratives. However, this information was not correctly organized at micro- and macrolinguistic levels of processing. A Principal Component Analysis showed that a single factor accounted for the production of global coherence errors, and the reduction of both propositional density at the utterance level and proportion of words that conveyed information. It is hypothesized that the linguistic deficits observed in the participants with TBI may reflect a deficit at the interface between cognitive and linguistic processing rather than a specific linguistic disturbance. PMID:21723304
The paper examines the implementation of an external written curriculum in the classroom. The study is based on observation of and interviews with 26 Israeli Bible teachers who followed a formal curriculum and used a teachers' guide. The study identified three types of curriculum narrative: the frame narrative, the task narrative, and the…
“Teen drama” television programs use sexual scripts that provide a framework for narrating virginity loss (Gagnon & Simon, 1973). Drawing on the work of Carpenter (2005), this study identifies the following sexual scripts in virginity-loss narratives: (a) the abstinence script, which places a high value on virginity and emphasizes delaying virginity loss; (b) the urgency script, which defines virginity as
|In the West, "transsexual" emerged as a narrative position (Prosser, 1998). In order to begin to understand the complex relations between the discursive formation and the dangerous lived experience of male-to-female transsexuals, in this narrative analysis, which is a part of a larger study, the author examines how male-to-female transsexual is…
The concepts of “text” and “narrative” are reviewed in terms of their appropriate application to the study of dreams. It is proposed that, once experienced, all dreams are texts, but that not all of these texts are narratives. Blending Jung's proposal for the form of the average dream with basic terms from narratology, dream data are employed in order to
|THE NARRATIVE MODE CAN BEST BE UNDERSTOOD THROUGH A STUDY OF THE CONVENTIONS WHICH SHAPE A STORY'S FORM AND SUBSTANCE. OF PARTICULAR IMPORTANCE IN PERCEIVING THE INTENTION OF THE NARRATIVE IS TO LOOK AT THE CONVENTION OF POINT OF VIEW--THE "DOCUMENTARY,""FIRST-PERSON-SINGULAR,""OMNISCIENT-AUTHOR,""MIDDLE-GROUND," AND "STREAM-OF-CONSCIOUSNESS."…
Through a systematic study of consumer narratives, this article models how technology ideologies influence consumer-level thought, speech, and action. Applying critical discourse analysis and articulation theory approaches, a semiotic square model represents the relations between Techtopian, Green Luddite, Work Machine, and Techspressive ideological elements in an ideological field. The narratives of individual consumers move between ideological elements in ways suggested
|We present data collected from the research project funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of Spain entitled "Audiovisual Narratives and Intercultural Relations in Education." One of the aims of the research was to determine the nature of thought processes occurring during audiovisual narratives. We studied the possibility of getting to…
Narrative analysis helps us better understand how writers handle complex business communication challenges. This study analyzed shareholder reports of equity mutual funds whose total returns were high in absolute terms, but low in relative terms. These reports were complex in that the returns were ambiguous and, although the subject matter was technical, the readership was broad. Narrative analysis reveals that
|Narrative analysis offers a powerful and accessible means of understanding the ways in which individuals experience learning across a range of educational sites. Drawing on a recent study that explored "dyspraxic" pupils' experiences of drawing from observation, this paper offers an insight into the potential that narrative analysis has for…
|Purpose: This study analyzed the development of expressive elaboration in fictional narratives for school-age children. Method: The analysis was derived from high-point analysis, but it was tailored to capture the artful aspects of fictional storytelling. Narratives were elicited with a short picture sequence of a likely life event from 293…
Ukrainetz, Teresa A.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Gillam, Ronald B.; Harm, Heide M.
Unlike past American wars, the current war on terror has not been associated with a centrally proff ered narrative providing some guidance and orientation for those administering government services under state-of- war conditions. War is as much a cultural endeavor as it is a military undertaking, and the absence of a clear sensemaking narrative was detected in this study of
Kathe Callahan; Melvin J. Dubnick; Dorothy Olshfski
These CaseStudies in Maritime Innovation were developed for the Maritime Transportation Research Board's Committee on Innovation and Technology Transfer in the Maritime Industry. They are published here in a volume separate from the committee's final rep...
F. G. Ebel J. G. Wirt L. L. Jenstrom W. H. Penrose L. A. Renehan
Commercially available solar collectors have the potential to provide a large fraction of the energy consumed for industrial process heat (IPH). Detailed casestudies of individual industrial plants are required in order to make an accurate assessment of ...
Kawasaki disease is a rash/fever illness of early childhood in which coronary artery aneurysms (CAA), sometimes fatal, may develop in up to 25 percent of untreated children. Because its etiology and pathophysiology are unknown and no diagnostic laboratory test exists, diagnosis is made via a list of clinical signs; however, a significant number of children fail to meet the clinical criteria and go on to develop CAA. We suspected a connection between these missed cases and the continuing difficulty in identifying the etiological agent(s) and mechanisms for CAA. In search of that connection, we launched a historical investigation into the institutionalization of the clinical criteria, and explored how this process influenced the framing of research questions. Our findings suggest that the canonization of the Kawasaki disease case definition was as much due to the enshrinement of the historical narrative as to compelling scientific findings. The Kawasaki disease narrative encompasses interrelated issues of definition, discovery, and naming; these, in turn, have profoundly influenced diagnosis, treatment, and research. "Atypical" cases, despite being at risk for CAA, often fail to receive prompt diagnosis and treatment; consequently, research has been limited to the population that meets the diagnostic criteria for Kawasaki disease, rather than including those who are at risk of CAA. Although clinical concerns prompted this investigation, it nevertheless has important implications for the history of medicine: it provides an illustration of how a historical interrogation of a syndrome's construction can free medical researchers to pursue novel approaches. Equally important, it demonstrates how historians can make unique contributions as collaborators in clinical care and medical research. PMID:15211054
Kushner, Howard I; Turner, Christena L; Bastian, John F; Burns, Jane C
This article presents a tripartite model of identity that integrates cognitive, social, and cultural levels of analysis in a multimethod framework. With a focus on content, structure, and process, identity is defined as ideology cognized through the individual engagement with discourse, made manifest in a personal narrative constructed and reconstructed across the life course, and scripted in and through social interaction and social practice. This approach to the study of identity challenges personality and social psychologists to consider a cultural psychology framework that focuses on the relationship between master narratives and personal narratives of identity, recognizes the value of a developmental perspective, and uses ethnographic and idiographic methods. Research in personality and social psychology that either explicitly or implicitly relies on the model is reviewed. PMID:18469303
In this experiment, we investigated metamemory for narrative text passages. Subjects read two stories and made memory predictions\\u000a for the idea units in one and rated the importance of ideas in the other. Half of the subjects were asked to recall the story\\u000a immediately after reading the passages and half were asked to recall 1 week later; half received passages
|This study examined the effects of a reading intervention on narrative production, narrative comprehension, and reading motivation interest in children with hearing loss. Seven school children between the ages of 9 and 11 were paired with younger "reading buddies" (without hearing loss). The children with hearing loss read storybooks to an…
This research investigated the link between oral narrative and reading skills in the first 3 years of reading instruction.\\u000a Study 1 consisted of 61 children (M = 6:1 years) who had experienced 1 year of reading instruction on average. Children’s story retelling was scored for memory\\u000a and narrative quality. The quality of children’s narratives correlated positively with their reading skill at this age, but\\u000a narrative
Elaine Reese; Sebastian Suggate; Jennifer Long; Elizabeth Schaughency
\\u000a LUCAS participated in our longitudinal study of 8-, 12-, 16-, and 20-year olds, who narrated and re-narrated 4 years later\\u000a their life stories in a free-standing monologue. He initiates his second life narrative at time 2 by referring to his first\\u000a life narrative at time 1 or at least to the stories he remembers having told then. He also lets
The current study investigated the inclusion of goal-based story events in the online story narrations of children with attention\\u000a deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as compared with their peers, and explored the effect of stimulant medication on the\\u000a narrations in children with ADHD. Children completed a narration task on two separate occasions. Children with ADHD (n = 17) completed one narration on medication
Karen J. Derefinko; Ursula L. Bailey; Richard Milich; Elizabeth P. Lorch; Elizabeth Riley
The purpose of this study was to examine two of the salient elements of instructional narratives as a guide to instructional practice. The literature summarized in this report discusses the theoretical basis for narrative impact on comprehension and retention, enumerates and defines possible salient narrative elements from the literature, and examines the instructional impact of two of these elements: concrete
Recent studies in education for children with autism demonstrated that computer assisted learning can increase children's narrative understanding. However, software interfaces which include autonomous intelligent agents have yet to be explored in this context. In this paper we investigate how a narrative storytelling environment which is populated with virtual characters may help children with autism to understand narrative structure and
|To be consistent with narrative career theory, effective career interventions should result in changes to individuals' occupational narratives over time. This exploratory study sought to present and examine the efficacy of the Future Career Autobiography (FCA), which is a narrative tool designed to identify and measure change or lack of change in…
It is thought that “transportation”—absorption into the narrative flow of a story—may play a role in influencing resistance to persuasion. We hypothesized that advertising that disrupts the experience of narrative transportation may be adversely appraised by audiences. This study aimed to explore the influence of two types of television programs: narratives (dramas, comedies, and soap operas) versus nonnarratives (light entertainment,
This study compared oral personal and fictional narratives of diverse (African American and Caucasian) students with and without learning disabilities. Naturalistic conversation with embedded narrative prompts and supports provided the context for narrative elicitation. The participants were 82 fourth to seventh graders from urban and suburban…
As a genre of talk, narratives represent important building blocks in children's learning in many fields. The purpose of the study presented in this article is to examine how teachers can encourage children's learning about people's beliefs through narrating. Narratives play an important part in children's learning to understand other people and…
The researcher employed Hastings's (2000) use of fractured identities to analyze recovery in 5 married couples’ narratives of parental bereavement. The research question guiding this study asked what forms of communicative support are described in bereaved parents’ narratives that promote the recovery of their fractured identities. Through narratives from in-depth interviews three forms of communication that support recovery were identified:
The author of this essay comments upon the contents of the other articles in this issue of The Journal of Educational Research. He locates both similarities and differences within several dimensions of narrative research by the authors of these articles. These dimensions relate to: the definition(s) of narrative research, decisions about whose experiences are worthy of study by narrative researchers
In this article, the author discusses how narratives, which are part of the common currency of the day, have dramatically changed over the years. Grand narratives, which grew exponentially in the mid-nineteenth century, have now been replaced by two different narratives: life narratives and small-scale narratives. He also discusses how small…
The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology casestudies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientĂ˘ÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.
Smith, Sharyn; Lownie, Steven P.; Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.
This casestudy is centered upon the recent debate concerning the decision by Texas Governor Rick Perry to mandate the compulsory vaccination of girls in the Texas public school system against the human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to entering the sixth grade. The interrupted case method is particularly appropriate for this subject with the case sections providing a general overview of the disease, the reasons for such a mandatory vaccination program, the reasons against such a program, and finally a disclosure of what ultimately transpired in Texas.
|A global professional discourse has emerged among career specialists inviting a critical examination of conventional career theory and calling for innovative, postmodern approaches that capture the complex, unique and evolving needs of diverse and disadvantaged students. Using a narrativecasestudy the authors evaluate and describe the…
Using the casestudy of an infamous murder scandal, this article uncovers some of the more complex relations and misleading perceptions about the Bolshevik and Musavat parties in Baku, Azerbaijan, during the Russian Revolution and civil war. It explores the power of rumour-making to configure and emplot their competing narratives of the revolution: informed either by the imperatives for social
This article presents a casestudy of a patient diagnosed with dysfunction of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle, a condition which can result in head and face pain, nausea, dizziness, coryza, and lacrimation. In this particular case, the SCM muscle had developed tightness and weakness with presence of multiple trigger points within both heads. A combination of passive and active treatments were utilized to successfully treat this condition.
Strategically introducing students to a controversial science case--before they read it, watch it, or listen to it--motivates them to learn from it and paves the way for successful discussion and debate. A strategic introduction also provides an opportunity for the instructor to demonstrate scientific reasoning and share guidelines for the discussion and debate. In this article, the authors describe and illustrate how instructors should introduce students to a controversial case and prepare them for debating issues related to it.
This thirty-page booklet was written by Mark E. Walls and Sydney Rogers during SEATEC which preceded The Case Files project. The conceptual underpinnings for the Case Files project are described in detail in this foundational document. Charts, diagrams and other visual representations help to better illustrate the topics discussed in the paper. References to external resources are provided at the back-end of this lesson. The document is available in pdf format.
Background Meta-narrative review is one of an emerging menu of new approaches to qualitative and mixed-method systematic review. A meta-narrative review seeks to illuminate a heterogeneous topic area by highlighting the contrasting and complementary ways in which researchers have studied the same or a similar topic. No previous publication standards exist for the reporting of meta-narrative reviews. This publication standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards) project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for meta-narrative reviews. Methods We (a) collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in meta-narrative reviews; (b) considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published reviews, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c) used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, meta-narrative reviews, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d) provided real-time support to ongoing meta-narrative reviews and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e) synthesized expert input, evidence review and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified nine published meta-narrative reviews, provided real-time support to four ongoing reviews and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature, and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 33 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 20 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 90%. Conclusion This project used multiple sources to draw together evidence and expertise in meta-narrative reviews. For each item we have included an explanation for why it is important and guidance on how it might be reported. Meta-narrative review is a relatively new method for evidence synthesis and as experience and methodological developments occur, we anticipate that these standards will evolve to reflect further theoretical and methodological developments. We hope that these standards will act as a resource that will contribute to improving the reporting of meta-narrative reviews. To encourage dissemination of the RAMESES publication standards, this article is co-published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing and is freely accessible on Wiley Online Library (http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jan). Please see related articles http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/21 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/22
|This paper is a casestudy of a Chicana former migrant in her first year of college through CAMP (College Assistance Migrant Program), and how she negotiated the challenges of family, romance, and the desire to reach her goals. Through narrative analysis, the authors examine the thoughts, words, and experiences of Luz's life to provide insight to…
This paper considers the ways that narratives can be used in groups to create meaning, organize the past, explain the present and consider alternatives for the future. Narratives are formats for self-creation; they can also be used to provide support or education, promote self-understanding and interpersonal effectiveness. Already familiar in self-help groups and reminiscence groups for the elderly, narrative approaches
Work study is a management tool to improve efficiency without big capital expenditure. This report covers three cases in which substantial benefits were obtained through work study: Transport of bales to the blow room; low productivity and high waste in a...
The role of subjective client narratives in health care represents a clinical and therapeutic tool, useful in complementing objective, scientific data. Of particular interest to mental health practitioners is the role narratives play as a therapeutic tool to guide clinical practice. This paper lays a foundation for understanding the importance of narrative in the psychotherapeutic process. It provides a brief overview of narrative theory and methods of structural analysis in order to provide a theoretical approach that can be utilized by nurses to address clients’ needs.
Gale, Deborah Dysart; Mitchell, Ann M.; Garand, Linda; Wesner, Susan
Casestudies, developed with criteria from Yin's CaseStudy Research: Design and Methods (1994), probed single mental constructs of four introductory college biology students who were recent high school graduates. Data sources included autobiographical essays, interviews, coconstructed concept maps (Wandersee & Abrams, 1993), a videotape questionnaire, and graphics. A multisensory microscopy experiment provided the setting for the construction of shared meanings by the participants. Concept maps were used then to explore the existing cognitive framework of the participants. This research affirmed the value of supporting graphic organizers for understanding science (Good & Berger, 1998; Hyerle, 1996; Trowbridge & Wandersee, 1998). Ausubelian cognitive learning theory (Ausubel, Novak, and Hanesian, 1978) was the theoretical foundation for this research. The heuristic device of concept mapping was used as a method to aid the student in externalizing and understanding the development and integration of relevant concepts. Ausubel (1968), Novak and Gowin (1984) recognize the positive results of knowledge construction from laboratory experiences. Expanding the student's immediate knowledge of microscopy with instruction by the researcher helped students connect scale relationships with microscopy. Results of this study suggest (a) that there are anticipatable and addressable gaps in their knowledge of size, scale, measurement, and micrometry that introductory college biology students bring to the science laboratory, and (b) that these gaps and misunderstandings will otherwise impede their learning from microscopy-based laboratory experiences and frustrate their ability to measure and to grasp the relative size of microstructures and microorganisms meaningfully. Results also suggest that, the MicroMeasure(TM) grid system in particular may offer a new and more effective way to help students learn to interpret the magnification powers used in presenting the objects pictured in the commonplace electron micrograph images appearing so frequently on the pages of today's biology textbooks. A better introduction to and progressive articulation of the precursor concepts needed to understand microscopic images during the K--12 school experience apparently would smooth the transition from high school to college biology laboratory learning from microscopes and microscopic images.
The most recent guide from Inc.com offers casestudies in business ethics and includes coverage of businesses striving to become more environmentally aware, provide community growth, and activate global change. One of the casestudies follows Fetzer Vineyards, a California winery committed to reducing its own waste; another describes the way that the Philadelphia restaurant White Dog Cafe donates ten percent of its $4.4 million profit to a variety of nonprofit organizations. The casestudies are generally quite short and easy to read; additionally, they link to several online polls that test users's business ethics skills. For more information on Guides @ Inc.com, see the August 10, 2000 Scout Report for Business and Economics.
This module is intended to be taught in an AP environmental science introductory unit and consists of 5 casestudies. APES students choose one case based on their interest and work in a group to complete. Each casestudy includes an introduction with a news article or op-ed piece to start students thinking about their own opinions on the issue. Students then have time to research and build their background knowledge. Labs or activities are included to introduce students to methods used by scientists to study issues such as dendrochronology or ice core analysis. Students then analyze a real world set of data and create a presentation to present their findings to their class. Presentations include conclusions and recommendations for action to help solve the issue.
Anne Jones has pointed out that over the last three decades, stories have been important to medical ethics in at least three ways: (1). Stories as cases for teaching principle-based medical ethics (2). Narratives for moral guides on what is considered living a good life (3). Stories as testimonials written by both patients and physicians. A pioneer in this effort, particularly in regard to using narratives as moral guides, has been the ethicist and philosopher Stanley Hauerwas. Heavily influenced by virtue ethics, Hauerwas believes that it is a person's particular narrative tradition that provides one with convictions that form the basis of one's morality. Befitting a Protestant theologian, he is particularly concerned with the Christian narrative. From a Jewish perspective, there has been much less written on the use of narrative in medical ethics. However, it is a mistake to think that narrative has little, if any, role in Rabbinic ethical decision making. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the centrality of narrative in the thought of Orthodox Jewish decisors and the problems inherent in this methodology. PMID:22395754
|This article examines how Black girlhood is constructed through fiction. The following research question guided this study: How do writers represent the heterogeneity of urban teenage girls in school-sanctioned African American young adult literature? Five popular narratives that exemplify the contemporary lives of urban African American female…
This qualitative exploration of rural and urban teaching experiences encapsulates the experiences of 8 Western Canadian teachers. A literature review outlines the benefits and challenges of rural and urban education. Stemming from narrative inquiry data, I present the study's results in the form of two composite stories, which depict the lived…
This study provided 5 weeks of direct strategy instruction about narrative elements and relations in 4 first-grade classrooms (n = 83), all with materials that made minimal decoding demands on children's reading. Two comparison classrooms (n = 40) received comparable instruction on language development and poetry. A battery of assessments given at…
|This qualitative exploration of rural and urban teaching experiences encapsulates the experiences of 8 Western Canadian teachers. A literature review outlines the benefits and challenges of rural and urban education. Stemming from narrative inquiry data, I present the study's results in the form of two composite stories, which depict the lived…
Preschool children's understanding and use of goals were studied in two experiments. Children heard stories in the presence of pictures or props. The stories were varied by goal success occurring early or late in the story, with late goal success resulting in more causal connections in the narrative. The results showed that children recalled goals spontaneously and that their recall
|In a previous study a group of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were found to have considerable difficulties with narratives, performing several standard deviations below the criteria for the Information score of the Bus Story Test (BST). To examine in depth the performance of children with CP and a control group with typically developing (TD)…
|This study provided 5 weeks of direct strategy instruction about narrative elements and relations in 4 first-grade classrooms (n = 83), all with materials that made minimal decoding demands on children's reading. Two comparison classrooms (n = 40) received comparable instruction on language development and poetry. A battery of assessments given…
The study was based on the non-participant involvement of the researcher in four six-to-eight weeks' mindfulness meditation training courses led by chartered psychologists. The participants suffered from stress/sleeplessness, depression or agoraphobia in the presented cases. They were selected on the basis of recommendations by the psychologist who was the course instructor, who described them as positive and suitable. The participants wrote diaries on a weekly basis, and they were interviewed at the beginning, middle and end of the course. An in-depth analysis of three individual cases will be presented in the form of narratives constructed from their own words. The narratives demonstrate the unique and embodied changes of the individual participant's experiences during the training course. The purpose was to illustrate richly what happens and how changes happen during these weeks of learning and practicing mindfulness meditation. It is not the intention to give evidence about the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation in general, but to present the whats and hows of cases where mindfulness meditation appears to improve quality of life, health and well-being. PMID:20523884
Advances in the management of HIV disease have increasingly focused attention on the possibilities of return to employment for individuals with HIV disease. However whilst mortality has decreased and life expectancies have lengthened, life for the individual with HIV remains both complex and unpredictable. This article explores the notion of return to work as narrative theme. A casestudy highlighting the narrative nature of how return to work might be conceptualised by the HIV positive individual is presented; ahead of a brief discussion as to how the lived reality of combination therapy may impact upon the individual's conceptualisation of employment in the broader context of their life story. PMID:17006007
Elders with memory loss often experience anxiety and depression as they feel their identities slip out of their own control.\\u000a The paper argues that narrative therapy can help people with dementia revise their stories and reclaim their identities as\\u000a their personal histories become less accessible to them. The paper presents case examples in which unique outcomes emerged\\u000a when elders with
Strong claims are made for the potential educational effectiveness of narrative-based adventure games, but evidence about how to construct effective educational games is needed (Clark, Yates, Early, & Moulton, 2010; O'Neil & Perez, 2008). College students played a computer-based narrative discovery learning game called Crystal Island (Spires et al., 2010), in which they learned about pathogens (in Experiment 1), or
Deanne M. Adams; Richard E. Mayer; Andrew MacNamara; Alan Koenig; Richard Wainess
|In this paper we explore the significance of metaphor and dominant cultural narratives in current autism discourse. We briefly explore the history of metaphor in autism discourse, and outline the contemporary struggle between the culturally dominant metaphor of autism as disease and the emergent counter-narrative of autism within neurodiversity.…
In this paper we explore the significance of metaphor and dominant cultural narratives in current autism discourse. We briefly explore the history of metaphor in autism discourse, and outline the contemporary struggle between the culturally dominant metaphor of autism as disease and the emergent counter?narrative of autism within neurodiversity. We argue that metaphor serves very specific purposes in autism discourse,
|The researcher examined 54 oral proficiency interviews (OPIs) with L2 Russian speakers ranging from Intermediate High through Superior (predominantly Advanced Mid) for narrative as defined by Labov. Descriptors adapted from episodic analysis were also used. While the author found that OPIs provided relatively weak prompts for narrative, Superior…
|In contrast to traditional definitions of career identity as an individual construct, this article argues for a discursive approach to career identity as a narrative practice. Career identity is conceptualized as a practice of articulating, performing and negotiating identity positions in narrating career experiences. By using the concept of…
This gynecologic pathology casestudy, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 57-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding. The patientĂ˘ÂÂs history, and results from a pelvic ultrasound are included in the casestudy to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorĂ˘ÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientĂ˘ÂÂs conditions.
This study analyzes the effectiveness of airpower versus terrorism using three casestudies. The first casestudy is Operation El Dorado Canyon, America's response to Libyan state-sponsored terrorism. The second casestudy is Operation Infinite Reach, Ame...
This article examines the place of religion in the narratives of mothers of children with fragile X syndrome. In semistructured interviews, a majority of women combined narratives of religious practice with illness narratives, interpreting their children’s disabilities within a religious framework. Informed by Arthur Frank’s (1995) concept of “wounded storytellers,” the authors articulate a reconciliation narrative that mothers commonly used to describe their transition from viewing disability as a burden or challenge to seeing it as a blessing, or as a part of God’s purpose or plan for their lives. The authors discuss the significance of narrative for better understanding religious perspectives on disability and conclude with the implications of these findings for practitioners and future research.
|Presents the casestudy involving a fictitious company's English-only policy and threats of legal action based on that policy. Includes the following responses: "Legal Issues Posed in the Language Dilemma" (Gregory S. Walden); "English Only: A Workplace Dilemma" (Alan Pakiela); "Problems with English-Only Policies" (Barbara Lynn Speicher); and…
A recognition and analysis of the complexity involved in trying to understand what creativity is and how the creative process works is the essence of this paper. I chose to record as a casestudy the creative process involved in developing a children’s book based upon the achievements and experiences of three Massachusetts women who participated in the All American
This collection of casestudies, based on factual situations which have challenged broadcast managers in recent years, is designed to stimulate thinking about and solving of "real world" problems in commercial radio and television operations. Topics of a serious, long-run nature include enlarging the radio audience; station revenue and economy;…
|This collection of nine casestudies in applied mathematics was written primarily for the use of the instructor by a Conference sponsored by the Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics (CUPM). Each chapter contains exercises of varying degrees of difficulty and several include student projects. The materials were used on a trial…
Mathematical Association of America, Washington, DC.
Presents the casestudy involving a fictitious company's English-only policy and threats of legal action based on that policy. Includes the following responses: "Legal Issues Posed in the Language Dilemma" (Gregory S. Walden); "English Only: A Workplace Dilemma" (Alan Pakiela); "Problems with English-Only Policies" (Barbara Lynn Speicher); and…
|This article presents a due process hearing casestudy of a mother who contended that his son, D.J., has been denied of a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) of his School District after being suspended from school. D.J., an elementary student, had been described as hyperactive, inattentive, defiant, and often volatile. He was identified…
|This article presents casestudies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)|
|Casestudy investigation refers to the relatively uncontrolled and subjectively described study of a single case. Several different types of casestudies are reviewed including nontherapeutic, assessment, and therapeutic/intervention. Suggestions for improving casestudy investigations and recommendations for future casestudy research in school…
This neuropathology case, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, illustrates the process of diagnosing the cause of a patientĂ˘ÂÂs progressive weakening of the limbs. Microscopic images of a biopsy specimen are included in the casestudy along with a gross description and image of the specimen. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorĂ˘ÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic process and techniques.
What can a healer learn from theatre and performance studies? What can theatre and performance studies bring to healing practices? Both disciplines are distinct in Western societies, at times merged into miscellaneous forms of 'art therapy'. What lessons can we learn from traditions that do not separate these competencies and have always integrated them as being naturally complementary? In a consultation of cultural psychiatry, both patients and healers are actively aware of various degrees of merging of art and medicine. Narration, then, cannot be limited to verbal case-history making and verbal therapeutic approaches. Bringing patients and healers on a stage and using all forms of text and performance allow for another way of (re)constructing case histories. Expanding the narrative process opens doors to exploring traditions: their origin, their apprenticeship, their performance and their transmission. PMID:18799638
While hypertext was originally conceived as an approach to the management of scientific and technical information, it has been embraced with great enthusiasm by several members of the literary community for the promises it offers towards new approaches to narrative. Experiments with hypertext-based interactive narrative were originally based solely on verbal text but have more recently extended to include digital
The narrative power of astrobiology: Telling the story of the quest to understand life's origins and the search for evidence of extraterrestrial life INTRODUCTION The story of the origins and evolution of life is a narrative with nearuniversal appeal. The story of life on Earth is meaningful to all people, and the search for life elsewhere is appealing across cultural
|Narrative research methodology embraces multiple ways of representing lived experience discursively, regardless of a participant's levels of literacy, education or formal occupation. This article explores some of the dilemmas of "doing" narrative research in comparative and international education, with particular emphasis on the postcolonial…
ILast fall, the critical, educational, and literary movement known as narrative medicine received the definitive stamp of public recognition when it was the subject of feature coverage both in the New York Times and on National Public Radio. Both pieces concentrated on the introduction of narrative writing and discussion groups into the third-year clerkships at the College of Physicians and
It is generally accepted that the practice of medicine could be improved by turning to the humanities in general, and to narrative and text interpretation in particular. Neverthless, there is hardly any agreement as to the nature of the clinical text, whether it be the patient's narrative that needs to be richly understood, or the patient as patient who must
This book presents 22 personal narratives in which library directors, program administrators, teachers, tutors, librarians, and adult learners explain firsthand how literacy programs at libraries across the United States have changed people's lives. The following narratives are included: "Gloria's Story: 'She Wanted Me to Be Somebody'"; A Learner…
|This book presents 22 personal narratives in which library directors, program administrators, teachers, tutors, librarians, and adult learners explain firsthand how literacy programs at libraries across the United States have changed people's lives. The following narratives are included: "Gloria's Story: 'She Wanted Me to Be Somebody'"; A Learner…
Media-sharing Web sites are facilitating modern versions of storytelling activities. This study investigates the use of photo-based\\u000a narratives to support young parents who are geographically separated from their aging parents to share stories about their\\u000a young children. The case analyses Malaysian young mothers living in the UK, communicating regularly with their families back\\u000a home, sharing experiences living in another country,
In this article, we attempt to map out the “in-between” space between global and cultural narratives that mediates women's educational trajectories. Casestudies of women living on the U.S.–Mexico border make visible these spaces, sites of “practices of emergence”: the practices that emerge from incommensurable economic demands and social prescriptions and produced in the act of social survival. In negotiating
Anna Ochoa OLeary; Norma E. González; Gloria Ciria Valdez-Gardea
\\u000a The biographic background and the art of landscape description of Karl May, one of the most prominent European travel writers\\u000a and novelists is presented. Based on meticulous studies of up-to-date atlases and geographic scientific publications he developed\\u000a most realistic depictions of the settings of his novels which are, in most cases, first-person narratives. Having influenced\\u000a generations of not only Germanspeaking
This hematopathology casestudy, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 40-year-old woman presenting with a nodule in the skin on the left jaw line. Images from a biopsy of the nodule provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientĂ˘ÂÂs diagnosis. A description of these images, and the patientĂ˘ÂÂs immunohistochemistry and molecular studies are also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorĂ˘ÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientĂ˘ÂÂs conditions.
|Describes life during the Depression era by studyingnarrative and visual portrayals of African American children in both rural and urban settings. Sources include Richard Wright's "12 Million Black Voices" and Stella Gentry Sharpe's "Tobe" as well as work that critically analyzes these narrative and visual documentations of the Depression. (GR)|
The present article draws from the biographical narratives of three South African high school female principals which are part of a larger research study in which 26 aspiring and practicing women school leaders were interviewed. Narratives were constructed from in-depth interviews with each participant and analyzed for themes that provided…
Mogadime, Dolana; Mentz, P. J.; Armstrong, Denise E.; Holtam, Beryl
This is a neuropathology casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 49 year old woman has visual disturbances. Visitors are given the microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.
Bilbao, Juan M., 1938-; Vidal, Sergio; Syro, Luis; Uribe, Humberto; Kovacs, Kalman; Horvath, Eva, Ph.D.
10 minute excerpt from a web seminar with Mike Ashby (February 2011) describes a casestudy that can be used to introduce sustainability concepts to introductory level students. Based on Powerpoint lecture unit 12 which can also be found on the Granta Design site at http://teaching.grantadesign.com/open/eco.htm or on MatDL at http://matdl.org/repository/view/matdl:1058.
The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology casestudies to aid students and instructors in learning. This neuropathology case is centered on a 22-month-old female patient with a history of posterior neck discomfort, episodic crying, scratching, and hard coughing. MRI images of the patient along with the patient's history and microscopic descriptions allow readers to test their diagnostic skills and develop an understanding of the patient's condition. The "Final Diagnosis" section contains the official conclusions of the patient's condition. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.
This pediatric pathology casestudy, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. The learning objectives located at the top of the page are a great way for students to evaluate their learning progress. This case involves a 12-year-old girl presenting with recurrent lung nodules. Images from chest x-rays and a lung biopsy provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientĂ˘ÂÂs diagnosis. A description of these images is also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorĂ˘ÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientĂ˘ÂÂs conditions.
The Australian curriculum to be introduced in all Australian schools over the next few years provides two competing narratives about curriculum. An overt narrative provides an unproblematic view of curriculum where the rhetoric and discourse that promotes a ‘world-class curriculum’ effectively obscures a second narrative. This second narrative indicates that the bases of the proposed curriculum are actually narrow and
We use the concept of film pace, expressed through the audio, to analyse the broad level nar- rative structure of film. The narrative structure is divided into visual narration, action sections, and audio narration, plot development sections. We hypothesise that changes in the narrative structure signal a change in audio content, which is reflected by a change in audio pace.
The Australian curriculum to be introduced in all Australian schools over the next few years provides two competing narratives about curriculum. An overt narrative provides an unproblematic view of curriculum where the rhetoric and discourse that promotes a "world-class curriculum" effectively obscures a second narrative. This second narrative…
This paper discusses the relationship between concepts of narrative, patterns of interaction within computer games constituting gameplay gestalts, and the relationship between narrative and the gameplay gestalt. The repetitive patterning involved in gameplay gestalt formation is found to undermine deep narrative immersion. The creation of stronger forms of interactive narrative in games requires the resolution of this confl ict. The
|Arguments for the value of casestudy are vitiated by assumptions about the need for generalisation in the warrant of social scientific inquiry--and little generalisation is legitimate from casestudy, although an argument exists for the role of the case in the establishment of a form of generalisation in a certain kind of theory, a line of…
This design tool, from The Case Files and CITE, can be used to guide development each component of a problem-based casestudy. The document includes information about articulating the context, outcomes, standards, assessment strategies, evaluation, media, resources, individual activities, and reflection for the development of a casestudy.
This is a casestudy for undergraduate and graduate students in biology and can be adapted for anatomy, physiology, and/or anatomy and physiology courses. In particular this casestudy explores anatomy and physiology associated with reproductive biology. Users of the National Center for CaseStudy Teaching in Science will be required to register (free) to gain access to the answer key (and must be of teaching status to receive the key). Included in the resource are the case overview, objectives, casestudy, teaching notes and answer key.
Joann B Powell (Clark Atlanta University Biological Sciences)
This is a casestudy for undergraduate students in anatomy, physiology, and/or anatomy and physiology. In particular this casestudy explores anatomy and physiology associated with seasonal affective disorder (retina, pineal gland, melatonin). Users of the National Center for CaseStudy Teaching in Science will be required to register (free) to gain access to the answer key (and must be of teaching status to receive the key). Included in the resource are the case overview, objectives, casestudy, teaching notes and answer key.
This article examines the narrative of adultery by placing two apparently unrelated texts into dialog the North American legal case Emile C. Berckmans v. Sara E. Berckmans (1865), and the Venezuelan novel MimĂ (1898) by the writer, lawyer and politician Rafael Cabrera Malo. Although the legal case and novel function in different contexts and are governed by different codes, each
This is a casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.
This is a casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 34-year-old is experiencing complications following a liver transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.
This is a casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman who presented with two months of back pain. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.
This is a clinical chemistry casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 57-year-old female has longstanding hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Visitors are given catheterization procedure data and retroperitoneal ultrasound findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.
This is a casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old man is complaining of abdominal pain. Visitors are given the radiology, gross and microscopic descriptions, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostics, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.
This is a casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.
This is a casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 22-year-old previously healthy woman was admitted to the hospital following a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Visitors are given admission data, CT scan images as well as microscopic description and images in order to provide the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.
This is a neuropathology casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 4-year-old girl has early onset puberty. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology medicine.
This is a casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old woman with systemic rheumatoid arthritis has developed renal insufficiency. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, electron microscopy exam results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.
This is a casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman with a 20-year history of gait disorders and dizziness. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.
The authors investigated narrative competence, sociocognitive abilities and emotion comprehension in a 9-year-old child (FS) with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome (CdCS) who had only a mild mental delay and relatively preserved language. Considering that the production of narratives is a major step in development and in the acquisition of learning skills related to conceptual, linguistic, structural, and pragmatic knowledge, and in the development of psychological lexicon, that is, the ability to use theory of mind (ToM) processes also in atypical development, this case provided an opportunity to study aspects of this genetic syndrome never investigated before. The authors found that the child's performance on different stories was comparable to that of chronological age controls for several narrative and emotional competences and even better than that of mental age controls. However, her ability to reason was still incomplete according ToM; in fact, FS was able to express her mental states, but she was unable to understand emotions, specifically mixed emotions. This finding suggests that in CdCS children with a well-developed language narrative and emotional competence could be a point of strength for improving their social skills with important effects on their familiar and school life. Also in CdCS children with the typical poor developed language, the narrative discourse could be introduced in their communication by means of any type of alternative language (i.e., sign language or augmentative and alternative communication) to improve their social abilities and to reduce behavioral disorders due to the difficulty in expressing their personal experiences. PMID:23534097
The analysis of narrative text involves various levels of description. On the lowest level are word meanings and syntactic structure within single sentences. On a higher level there are problems of generating inferences and integrating information into me...
We outline a simple taxonomy of approaches to modelling narrative, explain how these might be realised ontologically, and describe our continuing work to apply these techniques to the problem of Memo- ries for Life.
This study found that three oral discourse genres (script, picture description, and replica play narration) were able to characterize development in discourse abilities in 6 children (ages 5-7) with brain injury and 43 nondisabled children. Brain-injured children produced shorter discourse performances with more off-task talk but showed…
Narrative media health messages have proven effective in preventing adolescents' substance use, but few measures exist to assess perceptions of them. Without such a measure it is difficult to evaluate the role these messages play in health promotion or to differentiate them from other message forms. In response to this need, a study was conducted to evaluate the Perception of
Jeong Kyu Lee; Michael L. Hecht; Michelle Miller-Day; Elvira Elek
This is a casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 16-year-old female who presented with a seven-month history of headaches and difficulty with gait. Visitors are given examination findings, imaging studies, and pathological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Diagnosis and Discussion" section provides the findings, discussion of the disease, along with references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.
Cummings, Thomas J.; McLendon, Roger E., 1957-; Ebert, Robert H.; Provenzale, James M.
Recent years have seen increasing interest in narrative-centered learning environments. However, the same qualities that make them engaging can also introduce seductive details that invite off-task behavior. This paper examines off- task behavior in the CRYSTAL ISLAND narrative-centered learning environment. Results from an empirical study examining the relationships between student test performance, individual differences, and off-task behavior are presented. The
Jonathan P. Rowe; Scott W. Mcquiggan; Jennifer L. Robison; James C. Lester
This is a casestudy for undergraduate students in anatomy and/or physiology. In particular this casestudy explores brain anatomy and physiology, hemostasis and blood clotting. Users of the National Center for CaseStudy Teaching in Science will be required to register (free) to gain access to the answer key (and must be of teaching status to receive the key). Included in the resource are the case overview, objectives, casestudy, teaching notes and answer key.
This is a casestudy for high school and undergraduate students in anatomy and physiology. In particular this casestudy explores anatomy of the cardiovascular and muscular systems. Users of the National Center for CaseStudy Teaching in Science will be required to register (free) to gain access to the answer key (and must be of teaching status to receive the key). Included in the resource are the case overview, objectives, casestudy, teaching notes and answer key.
Michael Hudecki (University of Buffalo Biological Sciences)
This is a casestudy for undergraduate and graduate students in anatomy. In particular this casestudy explores anatomy of the nervous system. Users of the National Center for CaseStudy Teaching in Science will be required to register (free) to gain access to the answer key (and must be of teaching status to receive the key). Included in the resource are the case overview, objectives, casestudy, teaching notes and answer key.
Patrick Field (Kean University Department of Biological Sciences)
This paper argues that the representation of psychiatric malingering in literary and cinematographic narratives informs societal stereotypes, and thus influences the clinical phenomenology of malingering. The study aims to identify sociocultural models of malingering in contemporary Western society based on the narrative analysis of about 60 fictional and non-fiction texts. Two behavioural patterns derived from the Foucauldian categories folly and madness are recognisable in naďve conceptualisations of fake insanity. Fabricated significations of deviation originate in grand societal narratives rather than in medical discourse, and construct characters such as animal like underdeveloped simpletons or detached, irrational, violent madmen. Each pattern stems from its own archaic conceptual basis and dictates a distinct framework for strategies of malingering. The semiotic structure of artistic narratives of malingering is discussed in comparison with the symptomatology of existing psychiatric models. PMID:23673796
This paper discusses issues relating to therapeutic practice based upon the narrative metaphor. A case of someone suffering the effects of Dissociative Identity disorder is used to illustrate the difficulties that clients can experience with the “expert” knowledge conception of therapy. The value of the “respectful” and “non-expert” emphasis of Narrative Practice emerges even when the therapist believes that he
Adult co-construction with children who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) has been found to facilitate child communicative competence in general, but few studies have examined adult co-construction during the telling of personal narratives. This study explored the use of adult co-constructive strategies during personal storytelling with a child who used AAC. Casestudy discourse analysis methodology was utilized to
The body, in the occidental culture, was for many centuries rejected, feared and devaluated; today, differently, it is super valued and became a precious good, for this reason it is well-taken care of and shaped, due to successes and virtues of the individual contemporary being attributed to it. In the search for an ideal body, many people look for aesthetic surgeries as solution for their problems and improvement of their self-esteem. This article aims to understand the relation of the aesthetic surgery with the Public Health and the promotion of health. We carried out a qualitative study, using the casestudy method, with the objective of understanding the underlying beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and cultural processes to the narratives of the college's students submitted to aesthetic surgery and of the plastic surgeons. The results demonstrate that the body must be understood as something more complex than the physical and visible body, because many of those who look for aesthetic surgery continue unsatisfied, seeing that their dissatisfactions attributed to their body are also a matter of them being attributed to their soul. We conclude that aesthetic beauty is becoming a medical subject and that aesthetic surgery is a question of public health, as the results depend on the motivations and expectations of who searches for this procedure. PMID:20169234
Leal, Virginia Costa Lima Verde; Catrib, Ana Maria Fontenelle; Amorim, Rosendo Freitas de; Montagner, Miguel Angelo
This study examined what kinds of sexual scripts were found in Finnish girls' narratives, what elements those scripts included and how different scripts were associated with sexually risky behavior. The data were comprised of the narratives of 173 14-15-year-old girls regarding their experiences in sexually motivating situations. The narratives…
|This dissertation investigates Wolof Sufi oral narrative structure and its relationship with the context of production of the narratives. The findings of this study indicate that the structure of these narratives is characterized by (1) the salience of the complicating action, (2) the presence a pre-story stage, which announces the general topic,…
This paper reports on a participant-observation study examining how clients use narratives to convey information during ERP requirements analysis interviews. Techniques drawn from narrative analysis are used to analyze the structure and content of different types of narratives clients tell during requirements analysis interviews. First, findings reveal that interviewees organized their experience, sought to persuade listeners, and conveyed information to
Recent work on narrative has begun to rethink the functions of characters in stories. Research on life stories, for example, has shown that characters are not simply preexisting contents packaged in certain kinds of clauses, but rather complex, emergent products of the interplay between narrative design and narrative processing. Such wide-focus studies need to be complemented by finer-grained, microstructural investigations
|This study examined what kinds of sexual scripts were found in Finnish girls' narratives, what elements those scripts included and how different scripts were associated with sexually risky behavior. The data were comprised of the narratives of 173 14-15-year-old girls regarding their experiences in sexually motivating situations. The narratives…
Using content analysis of written narratives, this qualitative study explored the mental representations pharmacy students used to explain their own negative health behaviors. In a behavioral pharmacy recitation class, 150 students wrote narratives in response to a question about their own negative health behaviors. Each narrative was content analyzed. The top three adverse health behaviors were poor diet, smoking and
This is a casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 54 year-old woman presented with a Ă˘ÂÂleft breast nodule.Ă˘ÂÂ Visitors are given the patientĂ˘ÂÂs history, mammogram image, and the results from a fine needle aspiration (including images), and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Students can check their conclusions by clicking on the Ă˘ÂÂFinal DiagnosisĂ˘ÂÂ section, which provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease.
Started in 2005, the peer-reviewed, open-access journal Pragmatic CaseStudies in Psychotherapy (PCSP) provides "innovative, quantitative and qualitative knowledge about psychotherapy process and outcome, for both researchers and practitioners." The publication is sponsored by the Rutgers University Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, and first-time visitors can get a feel for their work by looking over the table of contents of the current issue on the right-hand side of their homepage. Visitors should also feel free to browse through the archives, register to receive the latest edition of PCSP via email, and also learn about their submission policies. Additionally, visitors can also sign up for their RSS feed and create their own collection of PCSP articles.
This is a casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 46-year-old gentleman with a persistent right lower lobe pulmonary mass after a successfully treated cavitary pneumonia 5 months ago." Visitors are given patient history along with radiology findings and images. They are also given gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.
Yousem, Sam; Johnson, Douglas R.; Gregorio, Remigio; Nodit, Laurentia
Approximately 300,000 people experience sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) per year. The percentage of people who survive to discharge from the hospital is a dismal 10% to 25%. After SCA and the administration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, these individuals can suffer what is known as "post resuscitation syndrome." This syndrome includes post-cardiac arrest brain injury, a cycle of cerebral edema and cell death that can lead to permanent neurological damage. In two landmark studies, therapeutic hypothermia (TH) was found to improve the chances of being discharged from the hospital post SCA by significant percentages. Despite endorsements, from the American Heart Association and other professional organizations, TH is not a well-known intervention. There are many reasons why this may be true. Despite its proven usefulness, TH does have some side effects that are best handled in the setting of intensive care units. This article describes a case of therapeutic hypothermia and its implications for perianesthesia nursing care. PMID:20511084
This is a casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 43 year old man with a "seizure" of dizziness associated with difficulty in walking and performing simple movements. Visitors are provided with patient history along with neuroimaging and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.
This is a casestudy presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.
Pasculle, A. W.; Lourduraj, Leena T.; Iscoll, Eileen
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) as an area of clinical and educational practice involves a myriad of decisions related to the symbols, devices, and strategies from which each client must choose. These decision-making points can be productively informed through evidence from comparative intervention studies. The purpose of this review was to synthesize comparative AAC intervention studies using single-subject experimental designs
General practitioners (GPs) treat more than 90 per cent of patients with mental disease. Time restriction is often seen as a hindrance to their engagement in psychological treatment. This study aimed to explore GPs' experiences of time when delivering 'talking therapy' and to analyse how time influenced the treatment of emotional problems in routine consultations. A qualitative approach was chosen, the data consisted of interviews with 14 GPs and observation of consecutive consultations in four of the participants' practices. Analysis was made by Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Eleven participants delivered talking therapy, five (therapeutically minded participants) often. Three aspects of time emerged: (1) the chronological time of the schedule; (2) the inner time with another rhythm and flow of thought; (3) the longitudinal time where meeting repeatedly for short consultations promoted a trusting relationship where problems were disclosed gradually and a narrative was created. With therapeutic participants the same aspects of time could be identified in routine consultations. Stress and a heavy workload counteracted the perception of inner time. Theories of time and narrative from psychotherapeutic thinking could be applied, form links to the unconscious and the narrative time and could possibly be made more explicit in general practice. Awareness of the different time aspects is necessary for improving the treatment of mental health in primary care. Political and organizational willingness to secure the necessary working conditions is, however, equally important for optimal treatment. PMID:20603306
In this article the authors explore the experience of craving of methamphetamine users and seek to illuminate how differences in craving contribute to use patterns. Using in-depth interviewing, data were collected from 82 active methamphetamine users in the metropolitan Atlanta area. The constant comparison method common in grounded theory guided the data analysis. Narrative responses corresponded with three types of craving described in the literature: cue-, drug- and withdrawal-induced. However, the narratives also problematize this typological view as well as the characterization of craving as invariably leading to drug use. Types of craving cues were sometimes inseparable, and users indicated that the different types of craving could occur in the same situation. Further, many users described being able to overcome craving through personalized methods of control. This study complements the largely quantitative work on craving and highlights the importance of improving drug abuse treatment and harm reduction programs. PMID:17357530
Bruehl, Alexandra M; Lende, Daniel H; Schwartz, Melissa; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk