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Sample records for narrative case study

  1. The Role of the Narrator in Narrative Inquiry in Education: Construction and Co-Construction in Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bignold, Wendy; Su, Feng

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores narratives as an effective means of capturing multiple identities of research participants in complex social environments in education research. In doing so, it explores the role of the narrator in two case studies in two modes of narrative inquiry. Both studies present narratives of young people, focusing on multiple…

  2. Chaplaincy and narrative theory: a response to Risk's case study.

    PubMed

    Grossoehme, Daniel H

    2013-01-01

    The response of a clinical chaplain to a case study of chaplaincy with an elderly African-American male with Parkinson's disease is presented. The case study offers two novel aspects: first, it explicitly describes interventions by the chaplain, and second, the chaplain's clinical approach was guided throughout by an underlying theory (narrative theory). The case study seeks to shift the paradigm from chaplains as "agenda-less" companions to clinicians with a repertoire of interventions which they should claim. The chaplain's use of narrative theory is examined. Future case studies may draw on narrative theory in chaplaincy with older males with different chronic disease, with women who have Parkinson's, and may seek to develop a theory of chaplaincy from within the profession. PMID:23844843

  3. Narrative research methods in palliative care contexts: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Carol; Reeve, Joanne; Bingley, Amanda; Brown, Janice; Payne, Sheila; Lynch, Tom

    2009-05-01

    Narrative methods have played a minor role in research with dying patients to date, and deserve to be more widely understood. This article illustrates the utility and value of these methods through the narrative analysis of semi-structured interview data gathered in a series of interviews with two terminally ill cancer patients and their spouses. The methods and findings associated with these two case studies are outlined and discussed. The authors' contention is that an analytical focus on the naturalistic storytelling of patients and informal carers can throw new light on individuals' perceived illness states and symptoms, care-related needs, behaviors, and desires. In addition, the juxtaposition of two cases that share a number of markers of risk and need at the end of life illustrates how the narrative analysis of patients' experiential accounts can assist in uncovering important distinctions between cases that are of relevance to care management. PMID:18954961

  4. Suicide is a Baobab Tree: A Narrative Medicine Case Study.

    PubMed

    Facioli, Adriano Machado; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira; De Almeida, Karlo Jozefo Quadros; Trindade, Eliana Mendonça Vilar

    2015-01-01

    This case study is an example of applying narrative medicine as a useful tool for health professionals to manage an existential and complex scenario such as the suicide of a sibling. Some suicides are like baobab trees—these large and resilient trees grow deep roots for many years, only spreading their limbs above ground once they are firmly established. Like the baobab, when suicide or a suicide attempt occurs, suicidal ideations are well cultivated and have often already been repeatedly planted. Consequently, suicide is often difficult to prevent: once the death seed is planted, it is difficult to recreate life. Every year, more than 800,000 people die by suicide worldwide (1.4% of all deaths), which is approximately 1 person every 40 seconds. These unexpected deaths, predominantly occuring among young and middle-aged adults, have a continuing ripple effect and result in a huge economic, social, and psychological burden for individuals, families, communities, and countries. The complexity of suffering and pain experienced by suicidal individuals and their families, regardless of the success or failure of the suicidal act, is intensified by strong stigmas attached to traditional concepts of sin and eternal damnation. This unfortunate reality emerges in the narrative as a tragic family drama, which is permeated by deep feelings of helplessness. But suicide is preventable. Prevention requires 3 important factors: knowledge, public support, and creation of strategies to enact social change. Now is the time to act and make suicide prevention an imperative goal. PMID:26176576

  5. Suicide is a Baobab Tree: A Narrative Medicine Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Facioli, Adriano Machado; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira; de Almeida, Karlo Jozefo Quadros; Trindade, Eliana Mendonça Vilar

    2015-01-01

    This case study is an example of applying narrative medicine as a useful tool for health professionals to manage an existential and complex scenario such as the suicide of a sibling. Some suicides are like baobab trees—these large and resilient trees grow deep roots for many years, only spreading their limbs above ground once they are firmly established. Like the baobab, when suicide or a suicide attempt occurs, suicidal ideations are well cultivated and have often already been repeatedly planted. Consequently, suicide is often difficult to prevent: once the death seed is planted, it is difficult to recreate life. Every year, more than 800,000 people die by suicide worldwide (1.4% of all deaths), which is approximately 1 person every 40 seconds. These unexpected deaths, predominantly occuring among young and middle-aged adults, have a continuing ripple effect and result in a huge economic, social, and psychological burden for individuals, families, communities, and countries. The complexity of suffering and pain experienced by suicidal individuals and their families, regardless of the success or failure of the suicidal act, is intensified by strong stigmas attached to traditional concepts of sin and eternal damnation. This unfortunate reality emerges in the narrative as a tragic family drama, which is permeated by deep feelings of helplessness. But suicide is preventable. Prevention requires 3 important factors: knowledge, public support, and creation of strategies to enact social change. Now is the time to act and make suicide prevention an imperative goal. PMID:26176576

  6. Philip Roth's Patrimony: narrative and ethics in a case study.

    PubMed

    Erde, E L

    1995-09-01

    I assess the ethical content of Philip Roth's account of his father's final years with, and death from a tumor. I apply this to criticisms of the nature and content of case reports in medicine. I also draw some implications about modernism, postmodernism and narrative understandings. PMID:8533114

  7. Humanistic Education in Gerontology--A Case Study Using Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattuso, Suzy; Saw, Celia

    1998-01-01

    Undergraduates in occupational therapy and nursing used narratives about older people to explore stereotypes and new metaphors about aging. The narrative approach led to greater clarity about issues, heightened critical awareness, and recognition of personal stereotypes. (SK)

  8. On Limiting the Narrative Paradigm: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    Tests Walter R. Fisher's claim that all forms of discourse can be viewed as types of narrative by applying the narrative paradigm to three works that cannot traditionally be considered stories. Finds that the narrative approach is of little use when applied to discourse that does not tell a story. (SR)

  9. Chaplaincy and Narrative Theory: A Response to Risk’s Case Study

    PubMed Central

    GROSSOEHME, DANIEL H.

    2015-01-01

    The response of a clinical chaplain to a case study of chaplaincy with an elderly African-American male with Parkinson’s disease is presented. The case study offers two novel aspects: first, it explicitly describes interventions by the chaplain, and second, the chaplain’s clinical approach was guided throughout by an underlying theory (narrative theory). The case study seeks to shift the paradigm from chaplains as “agenda-less” companions to clinicians with a repertoire of interventions which they should claim. The chaplain’s use of narrative theory is examined. Future case studies may draw on narrative theory in chaplaincy with older males with different chronic disease, with women who have Parkinson’s, and may seek to develop a theory of chaplaincy from within the profession. PMID:23844843

  10. Using Narrative Case Studies in an Online World Religions Course to Stimulate Deep Learning about Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Sherman Lee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to examine how a narrative case study in an online asynchronous world religions course affected learners' understandings, appreciation, and respect for the beliefs and values of others. The world religions course examined a variety of religions including Islam. Ten participants received information about the…

  11. Chiara Lubich's 1977 Templeton Prize Acceptance Speech: Case Study in the Mystical Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cali, Dennis D.

    1993-01-01

    Illuminates Kenneth Burke's characteristics of a mystical rhetoric as they issue from "purpose" as a dominant dramatistic element. Offers a case study in mystical rhetoric by identifying the essential qualities of a mystical narrative and demonstrating how these qualities operate in Chiara Lubich's 1977 Templeton Prize Acceptance Speech. (SR)

  12. Narrative reconstruction therapy for prolonged grief disorder—rationale and case study

    PubMed Central

    Peri, Tuvia; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Garber, Sharon; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Boelen, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) is a potentially disabling condition affecting approximately 10% of bereaved people. It has been suggested that the impaired integration of the loss memory, as expressed in recurrent memories of the loss and disorganization of memory, is involved in the development of PGD. Narrative reconstruction (NR), originally designed for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in an integrative therapy module, and consisting of exposure to the loss memory, detailed written reconstruction of the loss memory narrative and an elaboration of the personal significance of that memory for the bereaved, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of intrusion symptoms. Objective In light of findings that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), including cognitive restructuring and exposure, is effective in the treatment of PGD, we suggest the implementation of a somewhat novel therapy module, NR, for the treatment of intrusive phenomena in bereaved patients. Method The rationale for the implementation of NR for PGD and a case study of the treatment of a woman suffering from PGD after the death of her father are presented. Therapy took place in a university outpatient training clinic. Results Evaluations conducted before and after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up demonstrated the effectiveness of NR in reducing symptoms of PGD and depression. The analysis of spontaneous narratives recorded before and after treatment showed an increased organization of the narratives. Conclusions This case report demonstrates an adaptation of NR for the treatment of PGD. The results provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of NR for PGD. The significance of the study and its limitations are discussed. Highlights of the article Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) affects approximately ten percent of bereaved people. Narrative Reconstruction (NR), an integrative therapy module originally used for PTSD patients, was adapted for PGD. NR consists

  13. Integrating Professional and Indigenous Therapies: An Urban American Indian Narrative Clinical Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Dennis C.; Gone, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    We present a narrative case study of an urban American Indian male college student who integrated Indigenous and professional therapies during an acute period of stress, loss, and depression. The first published case of an American Indian in an urban context, this article expands on previous clinical cases by focusing on the perspective of the client relative to his own conceptions of help-seeking behaviors. Based on qualitative analysis of five audio-recorded interviews, this case utilizes an innovative methodology to portray four approaches to healing (medication, counseling, bonding, and spirituality), which contribute to holistic well-being. Implications for counseling psychologists include being aware of how some American Indian clients may (a) view professional treatment dynamics through a Native cultural lens (e.g., seeing ideal communication as a “rhythm”); (b) utilize an expanded range of therapeutic agents; (c) resist medication for cultural and spiritual reasons; and (d) refrain from discussing spiritual matters with professionals. PMID:27594708

  14. Rethinking "Disadvantage" in Higher Education: A Paradigmatic Case Study Using Narrative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Delia; Case, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of narrative analysis to provide a methodology for student learning research with a sociocultural orientation. The narrative which is the primary focus of this article is drawn from a study in which a series of individual interviews was conducted with a class of senior engineering students. The interview with a…

  15. Narrative-Based Intervention for Word-Finding Difficulties: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ian; Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with word-finding difficulties manifest a high frequency of word-finding characteristics in narrative, yet word-finding interventions have concentrated on single-word treatments and outcome measures. Aims: This study measured the effectiveness of a narrative-based intervention in improving single-word picture-naming and…

  16. Gender Differences in Student Performance in Large Lecture Classrooms Using Personal Response Systems ("Clickers") with Narrative Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hosun; Lundeberg, Mary; Wolter, Bjorn; delMas, Robert; Herreid, Clyde F.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in science learning between two pedagogical approaches: traditional lecture and narrative case studies using personal response systems ("clickers"). Thirteen instructors of introductory biology classes at 12 different institutions across the USA and Canada used two types of pedagogy (Clicker Cases and…

  17. Love and the Value of Life in Health Care: A Narrative Medicine Case Study in Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Pentiado, Jorge Alberto Martins; De Almeida, Helcia Oliveira; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira; Facioli, Adriano Machado; Trindade, Eliana Mendonça Vilar; De Almeida, Karlo Jozefo Quadros

    2016-01-01

    This case study is an example of narrative medicine applied to promote self-awareness and develop humanistic contents in medical education. The impact and the human appeal of the narrative lie in the maturity and empathy shown by a student when reporting his dramatic experience during the care given to a newborn (with Patau syndrome and multiple malformations diagnosed at birth) and to her mother. The narrative approach helped the student to be successful in bringing out the meaning behind the story and to position himself from the mother's and newborn's perspective. The student's introspection changed a seemingly scary interaction into a positive experience, overcoming many initial negative emotions, such as fear, disappointment, horror, hopelessness, and insecurity in the face of the unexpected. It is uplifting how the student was strengthened by the power of maternal love to the point of overcoming any remaining feelings of eugenics or rejection. Other important lessons emerging from the case study were the art of listening and the value of silence. This narrative shows how the development of narrative competence can help establish a good physician-patient relationship, because the physician or the student with such competence usually confirms the patient's value and demonstrates concern for them, focusing on what they say and allowing genuine contact to be established, which is necessary for effective therapeutic alliance. The student's interpretations of the meaning of love and value of life inspired him on his reframing process of a medical practice marked by vicarious suffering. PMID:26901271

  18. Synchronous Computer-Mediated Dynamic Assessment: A Case Study of L2 Spanish Past Narration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darhower, Mark Anthony

    2014-01-01

    In this study, dynamic assessment is employed to help understand the developmental processes of two university Spanish learners as they produce a series of past narrations in a synchronous computer mediated environment. The assessments were conducted in six weekly one-hour chat sessions about various scenes of a Spanish language film. The analysis…

  19. Narratives, memorable cases and metaphors of night nursing: findings from an interpretative phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Zannini, Lucia; Ghitti, Maria Grazia; Martin, Sonia; Palese, Alvisa; Saiani, Luisa

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of night nurses. An interpretative phenomenological study was undertaken, and 35 nurses working in Italian medical, surgical and intensive care units were purposely recruited. Data were gathered in 2010 by semi-structured interviews, collecting nurses' narratives, memorable cases and metaphors, aimed at summarising the essence of work as a nurse during the night. The experience of night nursing is based on four interconnected themes: (i) working in a state of alert, (ii) growing by expanding autonomy and responsibility, (iii) assuring sensitive surveillance and (iv) experiencing deep intimacy. Memorable episodes were polarised along (i) expected/unexpected events; (ii) positive/negative epilogues; and (iii) life/death issues. Many of the emergent metaphors described working during the night as being in the middle of a space where an apparent calm scene takes place, but unpredictable factors may suddenly change the order of events and the outcomes, creating chaos. Working during the night alerts nurses, who increase autonomy, expanding their role and assuming more responsibility with respect to that assumed during daily shifts. The nurses' clinical reasoning is based on data they carefully listen to, and on the meaning that nurses give time by time to different noises and silence. While in the past a sense of companionships was reported, a loneliness or a 'neutral' experience concerning the relationships with colleagues seems to prevail during night nursing. Working night shifts is a complex task, and specific training must be assured to students/novices. PMID:25693848

  20. Constructing narratives of heroism and villainy: case study of Myriad's BRACAnalysis® compared to Genentech's Herceptin®

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of Herceptin® is welcomed as a major advance in breast cancer treatment, while Myriad's development of BRACAnalysis® is a widely used diagnostic. However useful and successful this product is, its presence in the public eye is tainted by predominantly negative press about gene patenting and business practices. Discussion While retrospection invites a sharp contrast between Genentech's triumphal narrative of scientific achievement and Myriad's public image as a controversial monopolist, a comparative history of these companies' products reveals two striking consistencies: patents and public discontent. Despite these similarities, time has reduced the narrative to that of hero versus villain: Genentech is lauded - at least for the final outcome of the Herceptin® story - as a corporate good citizen, Myriad as a ruthless mercenary. Since patents undergird both products yet the narratives are so different, the stories raise the question: why have patents taken the fall as the scapegoat in current biotechnology policy debate? Summary A widely publicized lawsuit and accompanying bad press have cast Myriad as a villain in the evolving narrative of biotechnology. While the lawsuit suggests that this villainy is attributable to Myriad's intellectual property, we suggest through a comparative case study that, at least in the Myriad case, it is not simply about the patents but also other business strategies the company chose to pursue. Patents were a necessary but not sufficient cause of controversy. PMID:23369278

  1. Love and the Value of Life in Health Care: A Narrative Medicine Case Study in Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Pentiado, Jorge Alberto Martins; de Almeida, Helcia Oliveira; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira; Facioli, Adriano Machado; Trindade, Eliana Mendonça Vilar; de Almeida, Karlo Jozefo Quadros

    2016-01-01

    This case study is an example of narrative medicine applied to promote self-awareness and develop humanistic contents in medical education. The impact and the human appeal of the narrative lie in the maturity and empathy shown by a student when reporting his dramatic experience during the care given to a newborn (with Patau syndrome and multiple malformations diagnosed at birth) and to her mother. The narrative approach helped the student to be successful in bringing out the meaning behind the story and to position himself from the mother’s and newborn’s perspective. The student’s introspection changed a seemingly scary interaction into a positive experience, overcoming many initial negative emotions, such as fear, disappointment, horror, hopelessness, and insecurity in the face of the unexpected. It is uplifting how the student was strengthened by the power of maternal love to the point of overcoming any remaining feelings of eugenics or rejection. Other important lessons emerging from the case study were the art of listening and the value of silence. This narrative shows how the development of narrative competence can help establish a good physician-patient relationship, because the physician or the student with such competence usually confirms the patient’s value and demonstrates concern for them, focusing on what they say and allowing genuine contact to be established, which is necessary for effective therapeutic alliance. The student’s interpretations of the meaning of love and value of life inspired him on his reframing process of a medical practice marked by vicarious suffering. PMID:26901271

  2. Facebook, Political Narrative, and Political Change: A Case Study of Palestinian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenderes, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I aim to advance political narrative theory by exploring the use of political narrative on Facebook and the possibility for Facebook to be used among Palestinian youth for political change. To examine the concepts of political narrative and political change, I developed a model for political change based on the changing…

  3. "Mass Effect 2": A Case Study in the Design of Game Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizzocchi, Jim; Tanenbaum, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Digital games have matured substantially as a narrative medium in the last decade. However, there is still much work to be done to more fully understand the poetics of story-based-games. Game narrative remains an important issue with significant cultural, economic and scholarly implications. In this article, we undertake a critical analysis of the…

  4. Teachers Performing Gender and Belonging: A Case Study of How SENCOs Narrate Inclusion Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolhouse, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how the narratives Special Educational Needs Co-ordinators (SENCOs) tell can be framed as social, discursive practices and performances of identity by analysing accounts offered in focus groups and life history interviews. I explore how the narratives deployed demonstrate an engagement with a rhetoric about who works in…

  5. A Case Study of Conflicting Narratives of Language and Culture in a Foreign Language Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Julian Andres

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this qualitative research project is to analyze the narratives of a foreign language student teacher who decided to join a masters program to become a certified foreign language teacher in the American K-12 setting. The research focus of this study used Narrative Inquiry as applied to teacher education (Clandinin and Connelly, 1995,…

  6. Bilingual Development in Study-Abroad Journal Narratives: Three Case Studies from a Short-Term Program in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard-Warwick, Julia; Palmer, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the linguistic and cultural development of three US university students in a one-month study-abroad program in Mexico, as represented in their bilingual journals. Through narrative analysis, the paper explores students' varied evaluations of their study-abroad experiences, as well as how these evaluations seemed to affect their…

  7. Narrative Inquiry into (Re)imagining Alternative Schools: A Case Study of Kevin Gonzales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Although there are many alternative schools that strive for the successful education of their students, negative images of alternative schools persist. While some alternative schools are viewed as "idealistic havens", many are viewed as "dumping grounds" or "juvenile detention centers". Employing narrative inquiry, this article interrogates how a…

  8. Designing Video Narratives to Contextualize Content for ESL Learners: A Design Process Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Joseph B.; Gabbitas, Bruce; Merrill, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how the Brigham Young University Technology Assisted Language Learning Group (BYU TALL Group) develops video-based dramatic narratives to increase the amount of context we provide to English as a second language (ESL) learners. First, we discuss the problem of decontextualization in education, the contextualism…

  9. Creating teaching objects: a case study of delivering recorded narrations in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Lim, Anecita Gigi; Doherty, Iain; Honey, Michelle L L

    2011-02-01

    This article evaluates the use of PowerPoint presentations and recorded narrations (developed and saved as Flash content using software called Articulate Presenter) as a tool to help postgraduate nursing students taking a pharmacology course to learn key pharmacological and pharmacotherapeutic concepts. Students found that the teaching objects, provided as additional resources to assist students in learning about difficult concepts, supported them in their learning. Additionally, students reported that while they appreciated the provision of the teaching objects, the objects lacked an interactive component and did not replace interaction with the teacher. Articulate Presenter, as a tool to create a recorded narration, was easy for the teacher to use and promoted teacher independence in the creation of teaching objects. PMID:20975542

  10. Creating teaching objects: a case study of delivering recorded narrations in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Lim, Anecita Gigi; Doherty, Iain; Honey, Michelle L L

    2011-06-01

    This article evaluates the use of PowerPoint presentations and recorded narrations (developed and saved as Flash content using software called Articulate Presenter) as a tool to help postgraduate nursing students taking a pharmacology course to learn key pharmacological and pharmacotherapeutic concepts. Students found that the teaching objects, provided as additional resources to assist students in learning about difficult concepts, supported them in their learning. Additionally, students reported that while they appreciated the provision of the teaching objects, the objects lacked an interactive component and did not replace interaction with the teacher. Articulate Presenter, as a tool to create a recorded narration, was easy for the teacher to use and promoted teacher independence in the creation of teaching objects. PMID:21701274

  11. Facts and Narrative - the Concept of 4d Capturing of Heritage Building; a Case Study of Sompur Mahavihara, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Md. M.; Rahaman, H.

    2013-07-01

    This study embarked upon a premise that considers architecture of building as a dynamic phenomenon. A building from its conception is susceptible to change due to various reasons. An historical building that is several hundred years old must have undergone through changes due to political, social, religious and most importantly functional reasons. Hence capturing building and its dynamic evolution is necessary to appreciate its architecture as well as its heritage value. Whereas the conventional method of fact based historiography only captures the building in particular moment. It makes architectural historians to become perplexed over to which particular moment to be documented. It is a great challenge for the architectural historians to bring back these dynamic characters of the building that are mostly inconspicuous in nature from this point of time. In this situation the historical discourse also remains elusive and blurred. The idea of 4d capturing comes in front in this scenario. Current research would venture into this emerging idea to record the architecture of the early period. This paper highlights the need for a flexible tool to capture this dynamic character of the building. By citing the case study of the 7th century Buddhist Monastery in Bengal, this paper thus argues for the need of capturing the narrative of a historical building than the facts to get a complete picture of its architecture. This study aims at capturing the narrative of Sompur Mahavihara, the UNESCO World Heritage site in Bangladesh, which is currently in ruinous condition. However, it's few hundred years life suggests that as architecture it was subject to change due to different reasons, mainly political, religious and rituals. Being a monument that belongs to the flourishing phase of a society, traditionally this monastery architecture certainly played a role as a stage for religious and political pageantry as well as different religious performances. As architecture it works as

  12. Case Studies of School Community and Climate: Success Narratives of Schools in Challenging Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Darlene Ciuffetelli; Grenville, Heather; Flessa, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a Canadian qualitative case study project funded by the Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario. The paper describes success stories of students and communities affected by poverty from a diverse sample of eleven elementary schools throughout the province of Ontario. Over the period of one school year (2007-2008) and…

  13. Cultural Fantasy Narratives and Heritage Language Learning: A Case Study of Adult Heritage Learners of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coryell, Joellen E.; Clark, M. Carolyn; Pomerantz, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the case of 7 female heritage learners of Spanish who have chosen, as adults, to enroll in online Spanish language instruction at the postsecondary level. Drawing on symbolic convergence theory, it identifies a cultural fantasy metanarrative that participants collectively constructed as they made sense of their language…

  14. Narrative pedagogy with evolving case study--A transformative approach to gerontic nursing practice for undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Laver, Shaorn; Croxon, Lyn

    2015-09-01

    Engaging nursing students in the complexities of care across community, acute, rehabilitation and residential aged care settings is challenging. Equally challenging is conceptualising and promoting diverse and comprehensive health assessments across care settings that reflect clinical reality, inform clinical decision making, traverse theory and practice, and transform clinical practice knowledge. This article describes the use of narrative and evolving case study as a teaching-learning tool utilised by the authors in a third year undergraduate gerontic nursing subject in a pre-service nursing degree at a rural university. Principles of transformative learning and strengths based nursing were drawn upon in the development of the case study. The aim of the approach was to draw on embedded knowledge and the experiences of students and academics from assorted practice settings to facilitate understanding of the lived experiences of an older community dwelling couple. Using social learning strategies students were encouraged to analyse and think critically and creatively about the situations they were presented with. They identified possible solutions that would be acceptable to the couple. Building on the older couple's strengths, achievements and personal social capital, the aim was to develop a positive paradigm for health and the way older people are viewed by nursing students. PMID:25960064

  15. Narrative Approaches to Organizational Development: A Case Study of Implementation of Collaborative Helping.

    PubMed

    Madsen, William C

    2016-06-01

    Across North America, community agencies and state/provincial jurisdictions are embracing family-centered approaches to service delivery that are grounded in strength-based, culturally responsive, accountable partnerships with families. This article details a collaborative consultation process to initiate and sustain organizational change toward this effort. It draws on innovative ideas from narrative theory, organizational development, and implementation science to highlight a three component approach. This approach includes the use of appreciative inquiry focus groups to elicit existing best practices, the provision of clinical training, and ongoing coaching with practice leaders to build on those better moments and develop concrete practice frameworks, and leadership coaching and organizational consultation to develop organizational structures that institutionalize family-centered practice. While the article uses a principle-based practice framework, Collaborative Helping, to illustrate this process, the approach is applicable with a variety of clinical frameworks grounded in family-centered values and principles. PMID:27080245

  16. Some life lessons in the work place: personal narrative/case study.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Michael Schwartz, a lawyer deaf since birth, describes his journey as a professional for the last 32 years since his graduation from NYU School of Law in 1981. He offers a case study of his experiences with accommodations on the job as required by federal and state law. The study includes specific examples of what worked and what did not work for a deaf lawyer like him working at his craft. Schwartz wraps up with the lessons he learned over the last three decades as we moved from the model of non-compliance to that of compliance, even beyond compliance, with the mandates of law in the employment context. PMID:24284683

  17. The Path of History: Narrative Analysis of History Textbooks--A Case Study of Belgian History Textbooks (1945-2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanhulle, Bert

    2009-01-01

    The philosophical background of the subject history in secondary education has been mainly addressed through research based on "obvious" source types (curricula, discussions in committees or journals, ...). This article proposes a narrative method of analysing history textbooks in order to study the underlining historical philosophy of history…

  18. McFadden, Wyoming: A case study in narrating our changing energy landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Carly-Ann Marie

    This thesis uses McFadden, Wyoming, and the Rock Creek Valley to discuss Wyoming's changing energy landscapes and argues that a cultural landscape approach to documenting our historic and cultural resources can contribute to properly siting energy developments. Though Wyoming stands to gain from the construction of wind farms, they should be carefully sited in order to balance environmental and cultural resource preservation with energy needs. Wyoming has a long history as an energy hinterland and provides a significant portion of energy to the U.S. However, the nation's demand for energy should not take precedence over preserving the cultural resources and vast open landscapes that represent Wyoming's heritage. A history of the Rock Creek Valley as a home to Native Americans, a transportation corridor, oil field, and wind farm site is presented along with a discussion of energy consumption and Wyoming's role in the energy market. The thesis also considers the importance of education, public discourse, and narrative as tools for planning a sustainable future with regard to energy, the environment, and cultural resources.

  19. Suicide of a close family member through the eyes of a child: A narrative case study report.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; Peters, Kath; Murphy, Gillian

    2015-12-01

    A narrative case study approach was used to collect a storied account from Joseph about his recollections and experience of the completed suicide of a family member with whom he lived with at 13 years of age. Data are presented longitudinally to capture Joseph's perceptions and recollections of events leading up to, surrounding and following the suicide. Findings reveal that, as a child Joseph felt strong responsibility to keep his uncle safe and maintain his uncle's life; and perceived a lack of support for himself and his family throughout the events. Today as a young man, Joseph remains profoundly affected by this suicide and the events surrounding it, and experiences flashbacks and intrusive thoughts, though his distress remains largely invisible to others. It is important that the acute and longer term needs of children affected by suicidality and suicide are recognised. We argue that increased awareness on the part of health professionals about the ongoing grief and distress surrounding suicide survivorship can create opportunities for opportunistic assessment and review of child survivor welfare. PMID:24486819

  20. The Use of Communicative Strategies in Narrative Discourse: A Case Study of a Learner of Moroccan Arabic as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakhri, Ahmed

    1984-01-01

    Investigates interaction between application of communicative strategies and narrative discourse features. The data draws upon research in narrative discourse collected from one student of Moroccan Arabic. The study suggests that the subject resorted to a number of strategies to compensate for her linguistic deficiencies and that application of…

  1. Evaluating Organizational Quality through Narrative: A Case for Accreditation Using the School Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisch, Buddy

    2010-01-01

    This case study examines the narrative form of communication as used by educational leaders and their constituencies for quality school improvement. The school portfolio was used as an alternative accreditation process in one public school of over 800 students. This narrative approach used observation, interviews, and document analysis to validate…

  2. The Use of Dynamic Assessment to Evaluate Narrative Language Learning in Children with Hearing Loss: Three Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asad, Areej Nimer; Hand, Linda; Fairgray, Liz; Purdy, Suzanne Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The primary objectives of this research were to establish whether dynamic assessment could be implemented in children with hearing loss with a range of language abilities and to obtain pilot data to support the use of dynamic assessment for determining narrative language learning difficulties in children with hearing loss. Participants were three…

  3. A Case Study of the Features of Oral Narratives Produced by a Small Group of Children with Sensory Processing Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Helen Chen

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that oral narrative is the discourse form that functions as a bridge between conversational oral language and language skills that contribute to the acquisition of literacy in children (Westby, 1991). Learning to tell stories, therefore, is important to children's literacy development. Mastering extended discourse tasks such as…

  4. Social comparison processes, narrative mapping and their shaping of the cancer experience: a case study of an elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, Andrew C; Pérez-Samaniego, Víctor; Smith, Brett

    2012-09-01

    Drawing on data generated by life history interviews and fieldwork observations we illuminate the ways in which a young elite athlete named David (a pseudonym) gave meaning to his experiences of cancer that eventually led to his death. Central to this process were the ways in which David utilized both social comparisons and a narrative map provided by the published autobiography of Lance Armstrong (2000). Our analysis reveals the selective manner in which social comparison processes operated around the following key dimensions: mental attitude to treatment; the sporting body; the ageing body; and physical appearance. The manner in which different comparison targets were chosen, the ways in which these were framed by Armstrong's autobiography, and the work that the restitution narrative as an actor did in this process are also examined. Some reflections are offered regarding the experiential consequences of the social comparison processes utilized by David when these are shaped by specific forms of embodiment and selective narrative maps of cancer survival. PMID:22199179

  5. Narrative and Its Potential Contribution to Disability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brett; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to expand our understanding of narrative and the analysis of stories researchers invite and collect in the domain of disability studies. What narrative inquiry is and various reasons why researchers might opt to choose to turn to narratives are highlighted. Painting with broad strokes, narrative analysis is then considered…

  6. Agency in the Reconstruction of Language Identity: A Narrative Case Study from the Island of San Andrés

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of the English language paradigm and the subsequent implementation of bilingual policies worldwide are generating new linguistic hierarchies. These have an effect on the linguistic diversity at the sub-national level and on individuals' linguistic human rights. This article reports the results of a case study on an individual's…

  7. On Narrative Method, Biography and Narrative Unities in the Study of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, F. Michael; Clandinin, D. Jean

    This paper outlines a narrative method for the study of teaching which has as its principle feature the reconstruction of classroom meaning in terms of narrative unities in the lives of classroom participants. This purpose is achieved by comparatively outlining similarities and differences with closely associated lines of work. This study of…

  8. Narrative methods in a study of trauma recovery.

    PubMed

    Hall, Joanne M

    2011-01-01

    Multiple narrative perspectives can guide narrative research. The complexity of health narratives presents a significant challenge. Trauma recovery accounts are health narratives demonstrating successes as well as struggles. In this article, I describe a large-scale narrative study in which specific qualitative methods were combined to fit research aims, stories elicited, and emergent questions in the analysis process. Under my direction, an interdisciplinary team conducted this constructivist, feminist, narrative study describing the trauma recovery process. The study was focused on success or thriving in women surviving childhood maltreatment. I took an advocacy stance in favor of participants' interests, as is commensurate with a critical feminist standpoint. Through initial analyses the research team constructed a trauma recovery process termed "becoming resolute." Subanalyses were focused on key relationships, life trajectories, self-strategies, and perceptual changes. My purpose is to explain the various kinds and levels of analysis used here to provide options for others studying recovery narratives. PMID:20663939

  9. Linguistic and Narrative Development in a Japanese-English Bilingual's First Language Acquisition: A 14-Year Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taura, Hideyuki; Taura, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In the seven decades since Leopold's groundbreaking 1939 study, there has been no longitudinal study covering more than two years of a Japanese bilingual subject's development. Despite the lack of longitudinal research, however, we have been broadly informed by the veritable outpouring of research on a short-term basis since the late twentieth…

  10. Reflective and Agentive Functions of Narrative Writing: a Qualitative Study on the Narratives of University Students.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Giovanna; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-06-01

    There is a lively debate in the literature on reflective processes and on the necessity to view them as consisting with differing levels of complexity. Within a semiotic and psychodynamic perspective, we present a conceptualization on reflective processes which distinguishes between reflection and reflectivity and articulates their relationship with narrative devices.The study analyzes 224 narratives of critical events written by 77 underachieving university students that took part in group training courses during the INSTALL European project.The corpus was subjected to a qualitative analysis of narrative function, with the aim of detecting narrative functions of reflection, reflectivity and agency, the latter being considered as an interconnected construct to the reflective process.The functions were discussed both on the basis of how the narrators reacted to the discontinuity in their self-image caused by the critical event, and based upon different types of narrative coherence (chronological, causal, thematic, autobiographical).The results highlighted that narratives with a reflection function, attribute the discontinuity generated by the event to the self, and show a causal coherence; those whose function is reflectivity interpret the discontinuity attributing it to the self in relation to others and present a thematic coherence; those of agency ascribe the discontinuity to a potential selves in action, and are characterized by an autobiographical coherence.The implications of the study will be discussed with reference to the value of narrative writing in promoting reflective-agentive processes. PMID:26264763

  11. Exploring the Attitudes of Parents of Young Children with Autism Towards the TEACCH Conceptual Model: A Narrative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Natalie Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the attitudes of parents of young children with autism towards the Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children Program's (TEACCH) conceptual model, known as the Culture of Autism. One primary research question guided the study: What are the attitudes of…

  12. Socio-Cultural Power Dynamics and Coping Functions: A Narrative Case Report of a Female Paralympian

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Anaurene

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This case study explores the lived experiences of an elite female Paralympic powerlifting athlete. The focus is on restrictions and coping responses employed to manage the daily hassles within the cultural and ethnic requirements for achieving athletic excellence. Methods With an unstructured interview, the narrative was acquired which ranged to a total of 75 minutes (approx) and 20 single spaced pages. The data was analyzed using Foucauldian discourse analysis in conjuncture to feminist poststructuralist theory. Results The results highlight the issues relating to femininity, culture and ethnicity with regard to athletic career. The analysis elicits extracts from the narrative to describe the coping functions reflecting proactive coping, anticipatory coping, and preventative coping. Conclusions The narrative draws attention to the socio-cultural restrictions and coping functions that the athlete adopted to overcome the barriers of femininity, culture, ethnicity requirements and athleticism. PMID:22943000

  13. Use of the Outdoor Classroom and Nature-Study to Support Science and Literacy Learning: A Narrative Case Study of a Third-Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    A case study of an exemplary third grade teacher's use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language arts standards is described. Data from the researcher's field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science…

  14. Researching practice: the methodological case for narrative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Riley, Therese; Hawe, Penelope

    2005-04-01

    Research interest in the analysis of stories has increased as researchers in many disciplines endeavor to see the world through the eyes of others. We make the methodological case for narrative inquiry as a unique means to get inside the world of health promotion practice. We demonstrate how this form of inquiry may reveal what practitioners value most in and through their practice, and the indigenous theory or the cause-and-consequence thinking that governs their actions. Our examples draw on a unique data set, i.e. 2 two years' of diaries being kept by community development officers in eight communities engaged in a primary care and community development intervention to reduce postnatal depression and promote the physical health of recent mothers. Narrative inquiry examines the way a story is told by considering the positioning of the actor/storyteller, the endpoints, the supporting cast, the sequencing and the tension created by the revelation of some events, in preference to others. Narrative methods may provide special insights into the complexity of community intervention implementation over and above more familiar research methods. PMID:15479707

  15. Morvan Syndrome: A Case Report With Patient Narrative and Video.

    PubMed

    Maskery, Mark; Chhetri, Suresh K; Dayanandan, Rejith; Gall, Claire; Emsley, Hedley C A

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old gentleman was admitted to the regional neurosciences center with encephalopathy, myokymia, and dysautonomia. Chest imaging had previously identified an incidental mass in the anterior mediastinum, consistent with a primary thymic tumor. Antivoltage-gated potassium channel (anti-VGKC) antibodies were positive (titer 1273 pmol/L) and he was hypokalemic. Electromyogram and nerve conduction studies were in keeping with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndrome, and an electroencephalogram was consistent with encephalopathy. A diagnosis of Morvan syndrome was made, for which he was initially treated with high-dose steroids, followed by a 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. He also underwent thymectomy, followed by a postexcision flare of his symptoms requiring intensive care management. Further steroids, plasmapheresis, and IVIG achieved stabilization of his clinical condition, enabling transfer for inpatient neurorehabilitation. He was commenced on azathioprine and a prolonged oral steroid taper. A subsequent presumed incipient relapse responded well to further IVIG treatment. This case report documents a thymoma-associated presentation of anti-VGKC-positive Morvan syndrome supplemented by patient and carer narrative and video, both of which provide valuable further insights into this rare disorder. There are a limited number of publications surrounding this rare condition available in the English literature. This, combined with the heterogenous presentation, association with underlying malignancy, response to treatment, and prognosis, provides a diagnostic challenge. However, the association with anti-VGKC antibody-associated complexes and 2 recent case series have provided some scope for both accurate diagnosis and management. PMID:26740856

  16. Putting Nature to the Rack: Narrative Studies as Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David

    Narrative study of teachers and teaching is seen as sited at the intersection of many current intellectual and professional concerns. These include not only classroom practice and professional careers, but also the Self, Experience, Memory, Identity, Autobiography, Life History, Agency, and Structure. Narrative as genre presents post-modernist…

  17. Use of the Outdoor Classroom and Nature-Study to Support Science and Literacy Learning: A Narrative Case Study of a Third-Grade Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eick, Charles J.

    2012-11-01

    A case study of an exemplary third grade teacher's use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language arts standards is described. Data from the researcher's field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science and language arts curriculum. This teacher's early life experiences supported her strong interest in science and nature in the outdoors and experiencing it with her children. Children interacted with the outdoor classroom throughout the day as a context for science and literacy learning. All but one child successfully met Annual Yearly Progress (AYP) goals in reading at the end of the school year.

  18. The female athlete triad: a case series and narrative overview

    PubMed Central

    Laframboise, Michelle A.; Borody, Cameron; Stern, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To illustrate the varying presentations of the female athlete triad and to inform the practitioner of the potential sequelae of this common condition. Clinical Features: Four patients presented with a variety of signs and symptoms of the female athlete triad including low caloric intake, osteoporosis, amenorrhea and/or endothelial dysfunction. Intervention and Outcome: A conservative treatment approach was utilized in each case including education on the female athlete triad, education on increased caloric intake and a referral to the family physician. Conclusion: Health care practitioners should be aware of the different clinical presentations of the female athlete triad. A narrative review of the literature is provided to educate practitioners on the components of the female athlete triad, proper diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:24302779

  19. The Use of Personal Narrative in Classroom Case Study Analysis to Improve Long-term Knowledge Retention and Cultivate Professional Qualities in Allied Health Students

    PubMed Central

    Young, Linda M.; Anderson, Rodney P.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of two different case study formats (clinically-oriented cases versus personally-oriented cases) to determine which was most effective in promoting long-term retention of clinically significant microbiology concepts, developing patient empathy, improving comprehension of patient compliance problems, and facilitating student understanding of transcultural health care concerns. The analysis was conducted in multiple sections of three different introductory microbiology classes targeting specific cohorts: nursing students, pharmacy students and other allied health students (pre-med, pre-PA, CLS, etc.). Retention of course content was determined by evaluation of multiple-choice and short answer examinations at least three weeks after completing case studies. Evaluation of patient empathy, understanding of patient compliance issues and transcultural health care concerns were determined via student surveys. The results of the study indicated that personalized cases significantly improved long-term retention of course content. In addition, student responses indicated that personalized case studies were more effective in developing patient empathy and aiding students in understanding issues patients have with complying with treatment recommendations. Finally, personalized case studies were effective tools for introducing students to the challenges of transcultural health care. PMID:23653708

  20. Narrative Exposure Therapy as a treatment for child war survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder: Two case reports and a pilot study in an African refugee settlement

    PubMed Central

    Onyut, Lamaro P; Neuner, Frank; Schauer, Elisabeth; Ertl, Verena; Odenwald, Michael; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Background Little data exists on the effectiveness of psychological interventions for children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that has resulted from exposure to war or conflict-related violence, especially in non-industrialized countries. We created and evaluated the efficacy of KIDNET, a child-friendly version of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET), as a short-term treatment for children. Methods Six Somali children suffering from PTSD aged 12–17 years resident in a refugee settlement in Uganda were treated with four to six individual sessions of KIDNET by expert clinicians. Symptoms of PTSD and depression were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at nine months follow-up using the CIDI Sections K and E. Results Important symptom reduction was evident immediately after treatment and treatment outcomes were sustained at the 9-month follow-up. All patients completed therapy, reported functioning gains and could be helped to reconstruct their traumatic experiences into a narrative with the use of illustrative material. Conclusions NET may be safe and effective to treat children with war related PTSD in the setting of refugee settlements in developing countries. PMID:15691374

  1. Narrative Inquiry as Travel Study Method: Affordances and Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cheryl J.; Zou, Yali; Poimbeauf, Rita

    2014-01-01

    This article maps how narrative inquiry--the use of story to study human experience--has been employed as both method and form to capture cross-cultural learning associated with Western doctoral students' travel study to eastern destinations. While others were the first to employ this method in the travel study domain, we are the first to…

  2. Narrative ethics for narrative care.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Clive

    2015-08-01

    Narrative permeates health care--from patients' stories taken as medical histories to the development of health policy. The narrative approach to health care has involved the move from narratives in health care as objects of study to the lens through which health care is studied and, more recently, to narrative as a form of care. In this paper, I argue that narrative care requires a move in the field of ethics--from a position where narratives are used to inform ethical decision making to one in which narrative is the form and process of ethical decision making. In other words, I argue for a narrative ethics for narrative care. The argument is relatively straightforward. If, as I argue, humans are narrative beings who make sense of themselves, others, and the world in and through narrative, we need to see our actions as both narratively based and narratively contextual and thus understanding the nature, form, and content of the narratives of which we are a part, and the process of narrativity, provides an intersubjective basis for ethical action. PMID:26162740

  3. A Phenomenological Narrative Study: Elementary Charter School Principals' Managerial Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetinkaya, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study was a phenomenological narrative research investigating the managerial roles of elementary charter school principals. Managerial leadership practices were investigated under three categories personnel management, student management, and finance management. Elementary charter school principals provided positive feedback for having small…

  4. Third Grade Written Narratives: A Cross-Linguistic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, George Ann

    A study examined what a third grader might understand about composing a common genre like the narrative, given the degree of variance among approaches and experience. Data were collected from different school sites over a period of several years. These sites shared common geographical areas: three schools were located in the Sonoran desert shared…

  5. Embodied Narratives in Becoming a Counselling Trainer: An Autoethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meekums, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    This autoethnographic study addresses the newly appointed counselling trainer's question "How did I get here?" The procedure is described, and findings are presented as partial narratives of the Wounded Dancer, poems and prose written from different voices. Themes are revealed of love, healing, risk taking, unconventionality, physicality and…

  6. Physicians' messages in problematic sickness certification: a narrative analysis of case reports

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many physicians find sickness certification tasks problematic. There is some knowledge about situations that are experienced as problematic, whereas less is understood about how physicians respond to the problems they face. One way to acquire such knowledge is to consider "reflection-in-action", aspects of which are expressed in the physician's interpretation of the patient's story. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about the meaning content of case reports about problematic sickness certification. Specifically, we looked for possible messages to the colleagues intended to read the reports. Methods A narrative approach was used to analyse reports about problematic sickness certification cases that had been written by GPs and occupational health service physicians as part of a sickness insurance course. The analysis included elements from both thematic and structural analysis. Nineteen case reports were used in the actual analysis and 25 in the validation of the results. Main narrative qualities and structural features of the written case reports were explored. Results Five types of messages were identified in the case reports, here classified as "a call for help", "a call for understanding", "hidden worries", "in my opinion", and "appearing neutral". In the reports, the physicians tried to achieve neutrality in their writing, and the patients' stories tended to be interpreted within a traditional biomedical framework. In some cases there was an open request for help, in others it was not obvious that the physician had any problems. Overall, the messages were about having problems as such, rather than the specific features of the problems. Conclusions The case reports clearly demonstrated different ways of writing about problems that arise during sickness certification, from being neutral and not mentioning the problems to being emotionally involved and asking for help. The general character of the messages suggests that they are also relevant

  7. The Role of Narrative in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Myrna Elyse

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive case study investigated the role of narrative in multimedia learning and teaching and observed how teachers applied their understanding of narrative, and new constructivist technologies, to design multimedia presentations for instruction. The study looked specifically at the cognitive strategies, visual narrative concepts, and…

  8. Change Management and Complexity: The Case for Narrative Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxelaar, Lucia; Paine, Mark; Beilin, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Post-modern theorists have challenged the totalizing and unifying ambitions of change management practices. This paper explores how a narrative action research approach may be used to combine our modernist commitment to facilitate change and collaboration in the land management context with a post-modern sensitivity to complexity and difference.…

  9. A Narrative Approach to Studying the Diversification of Inquiry Learning across Instructional Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutten, Nico; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; Haverkamp-Hermans, Gerdi G. N.; Bogner, Franz X.; Kretschmer, Thomas; Stracke, Christian M.; Lameras, Petros; Chioccariello, Augusto; Doran, Rosa; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Kastrinogiannis, Timotheos; Maravic, Jasminka; Crotty, Yvonne; Kelly, Claire; Markaki, Vassiliki; Lazoudis, Angelos; Koivula, Jani; Polymatidis, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    In this study we used a narrative approach to investigate the function that digital, interactive tools can fulfill in inquiry teaching and learning. Such a narrative can be conceived of as "talking through" a lesson in which a teacher supports inquiry with technology. By subsequently coding these narratives, we studied the functions that…

  10. The Narrative Turn and the Poetics of Resistance: Towards a New Language for Critical Educational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the adoption of a new language in critical educational studies through the "narrative turn", a turn that politicizes knowledge by drawing attention to questions concerning the meaning, construction and authorship of narratives. In the authors' interpretation going back to the poetics of early narrative forms they…

  11. Narrative Counseling for Professional School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafziger, Jacinta; DeKruyf, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces narrative counseling concepts and techniques for professional school counselors. The authors provide a case study of narrative school counseling with an elementary student struggling with selective mutism. Examples also demonstrate how a narrative approach could be used at elementary, middle, and high school levels within…

  12. Narrative Inquiry for Science Education: Teachers' repertoire-making in the case of environmental curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seyoung

    2011-04-01

    This paper considers how the school science curriculum can be conceptualised in order to address the contingent and complex nature of environmental and sustainability-related knowledge and understanding. A special concern lies in the development of research perspectives and tools for investigating ways, in which teachers are faced with complex and various situations in the sense-making of science-related issues, and subsequent pedagogic issues. Based on an empirical examination of Korean teachers' sense-making of their curricular practice, the paper develops a narrative approach to teachers' perspectives and knowledge by considering the value of stories as sense-making tools for reflective questioning of what is worth teaching, how and why. By employing the idea of 'repertoire', the study regards teachers' stories about their environment-related personal and teaching experiences as offering angles with which to understand teachers' motivation and reflection in curricular development and implementation. Furthermore, three empirical cases present ways in which the nature of knowledge and understanding is recognised and potentially integrated into pedagogies through teachers' narratives. Finally, the paper argues for the need to reconsider the role of the science teacher in addressing environmental and sustainability-related issues, in ways that facilitate teachers' reflexive interpretation of meanings in cultural texts and the construction of pedagogic text.

  13. Tangled Narratives and Wicked Problems: A Complex Case of Positioning and Politics in a Diverse School Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thu Suong Thi; Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Crow, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    The case of Allen Elementary School presents tangled narratives and wicked problems describing the multidimensionality of school community work. Using multiple converging and diverging vignettes, the case points to the distinctiveness of individual experience in schools; the ways institutionalized organizational narratives become cultural…

  14. Narratives of the Leadership Development of Adults Who Served as Summer Camp Staff in the Mennonite Setting: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Problem: Leaders today need a new set of knowledge and skills to be effective in collaborative environments. The focus of this study was to investigate how collaborative environments can contribute to leadership development. The purpose of this study was to describe how the collaborative environment of summer camp helped shape emerging adults as…

  15. Cultural Studies Methodologies and Narrative Family Therapy: Therapeutic Conversations About Pop Culture.

    PubMed

    Tilsen, Julie; Nylund, David

    2016-06-01

    Therapists recognize that popular media culture is an influential force that shapes identities and relationships in contemporary society. Indeed, people have serious relationships with the commodities and practices that emerge from pop culture. However, they often lack the conceptual and conversational resources to engage meaningfully with clients about pop culture's influence in their lives. Cultural studies is introduced as an interdisciplinary approach that provides frameworks for both theory and practice that position therapists and clients to critically examine the role of pop culture in their lives. Cultural studies and narrative therapy are discussed as praxis allies that share a populist political intention and counter-hegemonic discursive practices. The integration of cultural studies methodologies into narrative therapy practice with a parent and her teenage daughter is illustrated through a case vignette. PMID:26879558

  16. Young people's stories of self-harm: a narrative study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kerry; Dallos, Rudi

    2012-07-01

    This study explores the way in which adolescents who have engaged in self-harm make sense of their self-harm and its relationship to the events that have occurred in their lives. The six adolescents (aged between 13 and 18 years) who had been engaging in self-harm were invited to tell their life stories. The analysis explored both the content and the structure of these narratives in order to identify what they regarded to be key events in their lives and also what appeared to have been defended and less fully integrated features of their lives. A primary finding was that the adolescents perceive a severe lack of understanding from others about self-harm, which appeared to inhibit them from developing coherent narratives. They also found it difficult to discuss and integrate the difficulties behind their self-harm, giving narratives that were poorly integrated with little true resolution. One prominent story shared by this group was a story of self-harm as a way of directing their anger inwards. The findings highlight the importance for adolescents of access to conversations where difficult past events can be processed and understood within the context of a life story, and the implications for identity formation. PMID:22104364

  17. Bringing Ethics into the Classroom: Making a Case for Frameworks, Multiple Perspectives and Narrative Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Sarup R.; Corley, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues for the need to discuss the topic of ethics in the classroom and presents five frameworks of ethics that have been applied to education. A case analysis used in workshops with educators in the field of Special Education is described, and the benefits of sharing narratives are discussed. The authors offer suggestions, grounded…

  18. Is Pain Suffering? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Helen K.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the case study of an elderly woman shows how bodily pain and suffering meld in her narrative, not as the subjective and objective sides of the same event, but as distinct experiences in which both constructs emerge separately or come together based on the meaning she imputes to the event. The case study shows the clear…

  19. Research studies on patients' illness experience using the Narrative Medicine approach: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fioretti, Chiara; Mazzocco, Ketti; Oliveri, Serena; Masiero, Marianna; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Objective Since its birth about 30 years ago, Narrative Medicine approach has increased in popularity in the medical context as well as in other disciplines. This paper aims to review Narrative Medicine research studies on patients' and their caregivers' illness experience. Setting and participants MEDLINE, Psycinfo, EBSCO Psychological and Behavioural Science, The Cochrane Library and CINAHL databases were searched to identify all the research studies which focused on the Narrative Medicine approach reported in the title, in the abstract and in the keywords the words ‘Narrative Medicine’ or ‘Narrative-based Medicine’. Primary and secondary outcome measures: number of participants, type of disease, race and age of participants, type of study, dependent variables, intervention methods, assessment. Results Of the 325 titles screened, we identified 10 research articles fitting the inclusion criteria. Our systematic review showed that research on Narrative Medicine has no common specific methodology: narrative in Medicine is used as an intervention protocol as well as an assessment tool. Patients' characteristics, types of disease and data analysis procedures differ among the screened studies. Conclusions Narrative Medicine research in medical practice needs to find clear and specific protocols to deepen the impact of narrative on medical practice and on patients' lives. PMID:27417197

  20. Confessions of a pharmaceutical company: voice, narrative, and gendered dialectics in the case of Gardasil.

    PubMed

    Malkowski, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that both men and women carry the human papillomavirus (HPV) and jointly contribute to its status as an epidemic, the promotion of Gardasil, a vaccine that blocks infection from four strains of HPV, has largely been designated as a women's-only health issue. The following case study contributes to ongoing efforts in the field of health communication to identify problematic assumptions informing contemporary health policy and practices. Specifically, I analyze how Merck Pharmaceuticals, the creator of Gardasil, strategically imbues direct-to-consumer advertisements with contradiction to preserve traditional notions of both women and medicine. I found that three gendered dialectics characterize Merck's efforts to invoke complacency among female consumers: public/secret, education/ignorance, and structured/individualist. In the case of the HPV vaccination, the implications of these dialectics are the perpetuation of complacency among female audiences that threatens both the success of this particular technology and the overall status of women and health. In line with conclusions offered by Thompson (2010a), this study extends a call for health and communication scholars to continue to deconstruct dominant medical discourses and presents possibilities for re-storying narratives that mediate women's experiences with health. PMID:23402269

  1. Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents two case studies using online surveys for evaluation. The authors begin with an example of a needs assessment survey designed to measure the amount of help new students at a university require in their first year. They then discuss the follow-up survey conducted by the same university to measure the effectiveness of the…

  2. Teaching Freedom of Speech through the Case Study Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E.

    The use of case studies or case histories of Supreme Court cases concerning freedom of speech often provides the "real world" dimension that is too often lacking in the teaching of this area. The case study or case history is a coherent narrative of the historical events designed to illuminate the issues involved in a specific situation. Such…

  3. A longitudinal study of narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-08-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity and narrative structure. However, there was no evidence of growth in syntactic complexity or narrative length. Mental age and comprehension skills at Time 1 predicted scores in all 4 areas at Time 3. Expressive language skills added further to the prediction of syntactic complexity and story length. PMID:22861134

  4. A Study of the EFL Writing of Chinese Learners: A Critical Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Writing is often a massive challenge for the learners who study English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Many EFL practitioners are searching for solutions to help learners improve the level of their writing. In this auto-ethnographic study, two narratives are discussed. In the first narrative, the primary challenges of EFL writing encountered by a…

  5. The Impact of Prompted Narrative Writing during Internship on Reflective Practice: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Rachel B.; Kern, David E.; Wright, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Narrative writing has been used to promote reflection and increased self-awareness among physicians. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of prompted narrative writing on reflection. Thirty-two interns at 9 internal medicine residency programs participated in a year-long qualitative study about personal growth beginning in July of…

  6. Intertextuality and Narrative Practices of Young Deaf Students in Classroom Contexts: A Microethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minjeong

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how intertextuality influences the narrative practices of young deaf children in two classrooms. Specifically, the study examines how variations in what texts are made available to juxtapose and variations in how texts are juxtaposed influence the narratives young deaf children produce. A major premise underlying these two…

  7. The Influence of Asynchronous Video Communication on Learner Social Presence: A Narrative Analysis of Four Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borup, Jered; West, Richard E.; Graham, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Online courses are increasingly using asynchronous video communication. However, little is known about how asynchronous video communication influences students' communication patterns. This study presents four narratives of students with varying characteristics who engaged in asynchronous video communication. The extrovert valued the efficiency of…

  8. Narratives, Artifacts and Cultural Identities: An Ethnographic Study of Communicative Practices in Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Kate

    2004-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnographic research project looking at the communicative practices of children and parents in a multilingual area of London. One focus in the study was on participants' use of narrative to convey cultural identities. Narratives in the families were evoked through shared discussions of artifacts and objects displayed…

  9. Narrative Comprehension and Production in Children with SLI: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Olmos, Joan Guardia; MacWhinney, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5;8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5;6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…

  11. Memory keepers: a narrative study on siblings never known.

    PubMed

    Kempson, Diane; Murdock, Vicki

    2010-09-01

    Drawing on literature relevant to the impact of sibling death, the authors examined the invisible loss of siblings never known. This article presents findings of a phenomenological study of 15 adult siblings who "storied" the psychological presence and power of a deceased infant sibling never known but who acted as memory keepers for their unknown sibling. Transcriptions of the 15 interviews were analyzed usng NVivo software to support development of thematic categories. The initial 29 subthemes were collapsed into 3 overarching themes of personal loss/ unacknowledged loss, continuing bonds/memory keeping and sense-making. The participants' experiences reflect support for unaddressed and unacknowledged loss for the phenomenon of loss of an unknown sibling. The retrospective narratives echo their perceived roles as memory keepers of their unknown siblings. For many participants, the research process itself was the first recognition of a sense of loss. PMID:24482848

  12. Narrative Perspectives in Psychosocial Intervention Following Adverse Life Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, William

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates how narrative perspectives provide means of conceptualizing brief psychotherapy following negative life outcomes. Representative case studies illustrate three types of narrative construction following adverse experiences and show how narrative perspectives shift focus from disability and dysfunction to concern for client strengths,…

  13. A Second Opinion: A Case Narrative on Clinical Ethics Mediation.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Contrasting traditional and common forms of ethics consultation with bioethics mediation, I describe the case of a "second opinion" consultation in the care of a patient with advanced cancer for whom treatment was futile. While the initial ethics consultation, performed by a colleague, led to a recommendation that some may deem ethical, the process failed to involve key stakeholders and failed to explore the underlying values and reasons for the opinions voiced by various stakeholders. The process of mediation ultimately led to creative solutions in which all stakeholders could reach consensus on a plan of care. PMID:26752388

  14. A Second Opinion: A Case Narrative on Clinical Ethics Mediation.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Contrasting traditional and common forms if ethics consultation with bioethics mediation. I describe the case of a "second opinion" consultation in the care of a patient with advanced cancer for whom treatment was futile. While the initial ethics consultation, performed by a colleague, let to a recommendation that some may deem ethical, the process failed to involve key stakeholders and failed to explore the underlying values and reasons for the opinions voiced by various stakeholders. The process of mediation ultimately led to creative solutions in which all stakeholders could reach consensus on a plan of care. PMID:27024896

  15. From Parallel to Intersecting Narratives in Cases of Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Bletzer, Keith V; Koss, Mary P

    2011-12-27

    Restorative justice alternatives to criminal justice are designed to balance the needs of victims, offenders, families, friends, and the community at large to achieve social justice, repair of victims, and deterrence of crime. In the model we evaluated from RESTORE (Responsibility and Equity for Sexual Transgressions Offering a Restorative Experience), each offender and victim received individual services and met in guided conferencing to mutually determine reparative actions for the offender. At the exit meeting, the offender, as the responsible person, read a written apology to the survivor/victim. In this article, we analyze the expression of empathy in the apology, in which the initial mitigation of responsibility in early documents was replaced by acknowledgment of harm to the survivor/victim and acceptance of responsibility for the assault. Those accused of felony rape and those targeting a visible person in cases of misdemeanor indecent exposure expressed greater regret and remorse than offenders of indecent exposure with an indeterminate victim. PMID:22203383

  16. From parallel to intersecting narratives in cases of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Bletzer, Keith V; Koss, Mary P

    2012-03-01

    Restorative justice alternatives to criminal justice are designed to balance the needs of victims, offenders, families, friends, and the community at large to achieve social justice, repair of victims, and deterrence of crime. In the model we evaluated from RESTORE (Responsibility and Equity for Sexual Transgressions Offering a Restorative Experience), each offender and victim received individual services and met in guided conferencing to mutually determine reparative actions for the offender. At the exit meeting, the offender, as the responsible person, read a written apology to the survivor/victim. In this article, we analyze the expression of empathy in the apology, in which the initial mitigation of responsibility in early documents was replaced by acknowledgment of harm to the survivor/victim and acceptance of responsibility for the assault. Those accused of felony rape and those targeting a visible person in cases of misdemeanor indecent exposure expressed greater regret and remorse than offenders of indecent exposure with an indeterminate victim. PMID:22307958

  17. Experiences of abortion: A narrative review of qualitative studies

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Mabel LS; Robson, Stephen C; May, Carl R

    2008-01-01

    Background Although abortion or termination of pregnancy (TOP) has become an increasingly normalized component of women's health care over the past forty years, insufficient attention has been paid to women's experiences of surgical or medical methods of TOP. Objective To undertake a narrative review of qualitative studies of women's experiences of TOP and their perspectives on surgical or medical methods. Methods Keyword searches of Medline, CINAHL, ISI, and IBSS databases. Manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary articles. Results Qualitative studies (n = 18) on women's experiences of abortion were identified. Analysis of the results of studies reviewed revealed three main themes: experiential factors that promote or inhibit the choice to seek TOP; experiences of TOP; and experiential aspects of the environment in which TOP takes place. Conclusion Women's choices about TOP are mainly pragmatic ones that are related to negotiating finite personal and family and emotional resources. Women who are well informed and supported in their choices experience good psychosocial outcomes from TOP. Home TOP using mifepristone appears attractive to women who are concerned about professionals' negative attitudes and lack of privacy in formal healthcare settings but also leads to concerns about management and safety. PMID:18637178

  18. Uprooted and displaced: a critical narrative study of homeless, Aboriginal, and newcomer girls in Canada.

    PubMed

    Berman, Helene; Mulcahy, Gloria Alvernaz; Forchuk, Cheryl; Edmunds, Kathryn Ann; Haldenby, Amy; Lopez, Raquel

    2009-07-01

    Uprooting and displacement are a common part of everyday life for millions of girls and young women throughout the world. While much of the discourse has centered on movement from one country to another, uprooting and displacement are also a reality for many within Canada. Notably, a growing population of homeless girls and Aboriginal girls also have experienced uprooting and dislocation from home, community, and in some cases, family. For many of these girls, multiple forms of individual and systemic violence are central features of their lives. The primary purpose of this critical narrative study is to examine how uprooting and displacement have shaped mental health among three groups: (1) newcomers to Canada (immigrant and refugee girls); (2) homeless girls; and (3) Aboriginal girls. In-depth narrative interviews were conducted with 19 girls in Southwestern Ontario. Narrative themes revealed that although there is much diversity within and between these groups, uprooting and displacement create social boundaries and profound experiences of disconnections in relationships. Barriers to re/establishing connections generate dangerous spaces within interlocking systems of oppression. However, in negotiating new spaces, there is the potential for the forming and re-forming of alliances where sources of support hold the promise of hope. It is within these spaces of hope and pathways of engagement where connections offer a renewed sense of belonging and well-being. The findings highlight the relevance of the construct of uprootedness in girls' lives, provide beginning directions for the design of gender-specific and culturally meaningful interventions, and comprise a substantial contribution to the growing body of research related to girls and young women. PMID:19544125

  19. Narrative interviewing.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Claire; Kirkpatrick, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Narrative interviews place the people being interviewed at the heart of a research study. They are a means of collecting people's own stories about their experiences of health and illness. Narrative interviews can help researchers to better understand people's experiences and behaviours. Narratives may come closer to representing the context and integrity of people's lives than more quantitative means of research. Methodology Researchers using narrative interview techniques do not set out with a fixed agenda, rather they tend to let the interviewee control the direction, content and pace of the interview. The paper describes the interview process and the suggested approach to analysis of narrative interviews, We draw on the example from a study that used series of narrative interviews about people's experiences of taking antidepressants. Limitations Some people may find it particularly challenging to tell their story to a researcher in this way rather than be asked a series of questions like in a television or radio interview. Narrative research like all qualitative research does not set out to be generalisable and may only involve a small set of interviews. PMID:26613739

  20. Living into the story: agency and coherence in a longitudinal study of narrative identity development and mental health over the course of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Adler, Jonathan M

    2012-02-01

    Narrative identity is the internalized, evolving story of the self that each person crafts to provide his or her life with a sense of purpose and unity. A proliferation of empirical research studies focused on narrative identity have explored its relationship with psychological well-being. The present study is the first prospective, multiwave longitudinal investigation to examine short-term personality change via an emphasis on narrative identity as it relates to mental health. Forty-seven adults wrote rich personal narratives prior to beginning psychotherapy and after every session over 12 assessment points while concurrently completing a measure of mental health. Narratives were coded for the themes of agency and coherence, which capture the dual aims of narrative identity: purpose and unity. By applying in-depth thematic coding to the stories of participants, the present study produced 47 case studies of intraindividual personality development and mental health. By employing multilevel modeling with the entire set of nearly 600 narratives, the present study also identified robust trends of individual differences in narrative changes as they related to improvements in mental health. Results indicated that, across participants, the theme of agency, but not coherence, increased over the course of time. In addition, increases in agency were related to improvements in participants' mental health. Finally, lagged growth curve models revealed that changes in the theme of agency occurred prior to the associated improvements in mental health. This finding remained consistent across a variety of individual-difference variables including demographics, personality traits, and ego development. PMID:21910554

  1. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  2. Narrative methods in quality improvement research

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, T; Russell, J; Swinglehurst, D

    2005-01-01

    

 This paper reviews and critiques the different approaches to the use of narrative in quality improvement research. The defining characteristics of narrative are chronology (unfolding over time); emplotment (the literary juxtaposing of actions and events in an implicitly causal sequence); trouble (that is, harm or the risk of harm); and embeddedness (the personal story nests within a particular social, historical and organisational context). Stories are about purposeful action unfolding in the face of trouble and, as such, have much to offer quality improvement researchers. But the quality improvement report (a story about efforts to implement change), which is common, must be distinguished carefully from narrative based quality improvement research (focused systematic enquiry that uses narrative methods to generate new knowledge), which is currently none. We distinguish four approaches to the use of narrative in quality improvement research—narrative interview; naturalistic story gathering; organisational case study; and collective sense-making—and offer a rationale, describe how data can be collected and analysed, and discuss the strengths and limitations of each using examples from the quality improvement literature. Narrative research raises epistemological questions about the nature of narrative truth (characterised by sense-making and emotional impact rather than scientific objectivity), which has implications for how rigour should be defined (and how it might be achieved) in this type of research. We offer some provisional guidance for distinguishing high quality narrative research in a quality improvement setting from other forms of narrative account such as report, anecdote, and journalism. PMID:16326792

  3. A Preliminary Study of Demonstratives in Aklanon Narratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Kristine; Barlaan, Rodolfo

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the spatiotemporal, discourse and emotional or connotative functions of demonstratives in Aklanon narrative discourse. The demonstrative system of Aklanon in terms of the spatial relation between speaker and hearer is described. Discourse functions of demonstratives (exophoric, endophoric, cataphoric, and anaphoric reference)…

  4. Smoking Decisions from a Teen Perspective: A Narrative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillie, Lynne; Lovato, Chris Y.; Johnson, Joy L.; Kalaw, Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the transitional phase between experimental and regular smoking from the perspective of teens. Method: Narrative analysis of semistructured, individual interviews. Results: The need to belong and immediate social gain are major themes influencing teen smoking decisions. Conclusions: Our findings have significance for public…

  5. Using "Master Narratives" to Teach History: The Case of the Civil Rights Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Narratives encompass ways of thinking historically and several skills of the historian, and Tom Holt believes it is imperative that educators teach--and their students learn--how to construct historical narratives. Understanding and constructing history as narratives opens up the historical project for students. Moreover, demonstrating how…

  6. Readers of narratives take the protagonist's geographical perspective. Evidence from an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    García-Marco, Enrique; Beltrán, David; León, Inmaculada; de Vega, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    This ERP study explores how the reader's brain is sensitive to the protagonist's perspective in the fictitious environment of narratives. Participants initially received narratives describing a protagonist living in a given geographical place. Later on they were given short paragraphs describing another character as "coming" or "going" to a place either close to or distant from the protagonist. Paragraphs referring to distant places elicited larger negative waves than those with places close to the protagonist. Moreover, narratives with the verb to come incoherent with the protagonist's perspective (e.g., "she came to the distant place") elicited larger negative-going waves in the 320-400ms time window than coherent paragraphs (e.g., "she came to the close place"). These results indicate that readers of narratives were able to take the protagonist's geographical perspective, showing discourse-level coherence effects when they read motion sentences with the marked deictic verb to come. PMID:26866764

  7. On narrative method, personal philosophy, and narrative unities in the story of teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, F. Michael; Clandinin, D. Jean

    This article outlines a narrative method for the study of classrooms. The main feature of the method is the reconstruction of classroom meaning in terms of narrative unities in the lives of classroom participants. The theoretical character of the work is introduced through comparison and contrast with Schön's The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action (1983). The empirical basis of the work is drawn from an in-depth, long term, case study with selected science teachers in schools. Paradigmatic material drawn from studies with two teachers is used to illustrate the narrative method in this article and to develop the notions of personal philosophy and narrative unities as part of participants' personal practical knowledge. The article concludes with possibilities of the narrative method for the study of teaching and outlines how the notion of participants' narrative unities contributes to our understanding of science classrooms and of school improvement.

  8. Prosodic and narrative processing in American Sign Language: An fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Aaron J.; Supalla, Ted; Hauser, Peter; Newport, Elissa; Bavelier, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    Signed languages such as American Sign Language (ASL) are natural human languages that share all of the core properties of spoken human languages, but differ in the modality through which they are communicated. Neuroimaging and patient studies have suggested similar left hemisphere (LH)-dominant patterns of brain organization for signed and spoken languages, suggesting that the linguistic nature of the information, rather than modality, drives brain organization for language. However, the role of the right hemisphere (RH) in sign language has been less explored. In spoken languages, the RH supports the processing of numerous types of narrative-level information, including prosody, affect, facial expression, and discourse structure. In the present fMRI study, we contrasted the processing of ASL sentences that contained these types of narrative information with similar sentences without marked narrative cues. For all sentences, Deaf native signers showed robust bilateral activation of perisylvian language cortices, as well as the basal ganglia, medial frontal and medial temporal regions. However, RH activation in the inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus was greater for sentences containing narrative devices, including areas involved in processing narrative content in spoken languages. These results provide additional support for the claim that all natural human languages rely on a core set of LH brain regions, and extend our knowledge to show that narrative linguistic functions typically associated with the RH in spoken languages are similarly organized in signed languages. PMID:20347996

  9. Exploring the Experiences of Successful Completers of a System of Care for Children and Their Families through Case Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jeffrey A.; McIntyre, Janet S.; Somers, John W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of three young people with emotional and behavioral challenges and their families as they entered, participated in, and completed a community-based system of care. Using a case narrative approach, the characteristics and experiences of the children and families who successfully completed the Dawn Project system…

  10. Using Science Teaching Case Narratives to Evaluate the Level of Acceptance of Scientific Inquiry Teaching in Preservice Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The National Science Education Standards have outlined flexible processes children perform when engaging in scientific inquiry. Cases narratives are a common component of many university science education courses but rarely are they used as a tool to evaluate the preservice teachers within these courses. This article describes the construction of…

  11. When narrative medicine helps in the diagnosis of conjunctival melanoma – an exceptional case report

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Ana Teresa; Almeida, Leonor; Crujo, Conceição; Monteiro-Grillo, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Conjunctival melanoma is a relatively rare ocular malignancy with substantial associated morbidity and mortality. It can arise in previously unblemished and unpigmented regions (approximately 10% of cases), from a preexisting nevus (approximately 20% of cases), or from the flat, spreading pigmentation of primary acquired melanosis with atypia (60–70% of cases), actually called conjunctival melanocytic intraepithelial neoplasia (C-MIN) with atypia (histopathologically more accurately term). Purpose: The authors describe an extremely rare case of malignant conjunctival melanoma, with a long evolution, in a young black woman. Results: Until now the patient has not shown any sign of relapse of this melanoma, after local excision. Conclusion: Conjunctival melanoma is a condition of concern because of its rarity and lethal potential. Advances in the understanding and management of this neoplasm have markedly reduced the mortality and possibly the morbidity associated with this malignancy. We observe that there are some cases of conjunctival melanoma that might be cured with only a local excision with posterior cryotherapy without more aggressive methods. The practice of narrative medicine brings new possibilities in the diagnosis and collection of classical history.

  12. Elk Habitat: A Case Study of Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, C. John

    2009-01-01

    A case study is an excellent way to help students think like scientists as they work to solve a dilemma. This article describes a case study of elk in Yellowstone National Park. Students read short narratives, based on scientific research data, about the puzzling question of why some elk live substantially longer than others in certain areas of…

  13. The Relationship between Oral and Written Narratives: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study of Narrative Cohesion, Coherence, and Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Giuliana; Tarchi, Christian; Bigozzi, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between oral language and the writing process at early acquisition stages and the ways the former can enhance or limit the latter has not been researched extensively. Aims: The predictive relationship between kindergarten oral narrative competence and the first- and second-grade written narrative competence was…

  14. Supervised learning events in the Foundation Programme: a UK-wide narrative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Charlotte E; Cleland, Jennifer A; Dennis, Ashley; Kelly, Narcie; Mattick, Karen; Monrouxe, Lynn V

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore Foundation trainees’ and trainers’ understandings and experiences of supervised learning events (SLEs), compared with workplace-based assessments (WPBAs), and their suggestions for developing SLEs. Design A narrative interview study based on 55 individual and 19 group interviews. Setting UK-wide study across three sites in England, Scotland and Wales. Participants Using maximum-variation sampling, 70 Foundation trainees and 40 trainers were recruited, shared their understandings and experiences of SLEs/WPBAs and made recommendations for future practice. Methods Data were analysed using thematic and discourse analysis and narrative analysis of one exemplar personal incident narrative. Results While participants volunteered understandings of SLEs as learning and assessment, they typically volunteered understandings of WPBAs as assessment. Trainers seemed more likely to describe SLEs as assessment and a ‘safety net’ to protect patients than trainees. We identified 333 personal incident narratives in our data (221 SLEs; 72 WPBAs). There was perceived variability in the conduct of SLEs/WPBAs in terms of their initiation, tools used, feedback and finalisation. Numerous factors at individual, interpersonal, cultural and technological levels were thought to facilitate/hinder learning. SLE narratives were more likely to be evaluated positively than WPBA narratives overall and by trainees specifically. Participants made sense of their experiences, emotions, identities and relationships through their narratives. They provided numerous suggestions for improving SLEs at individual, interpersonal, cultural and technological levels. Conclusions Our findings provide tentative support for the shift to formative learning with the introduction of SLEs, albeit raising concerns around trainees’ and trainers’ understandings about SLEs. We identify five key educational recommendations from our study. Additional research is now needed to explore further

  15. With an Eye on "We": A Teacher Research Study of Students Using Narrative Inquiry to Critique Mexican American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this teacher research study was to examine narrative inquiry as a method for student engagement with course material and the local community. This study sought to understand how students perceived themselves within Mexican American history. While a number of studies have used oral history and narrative effectively, these studies…

  16. How To Tell a True War Story: The Dramaturgy and Staging of Narrative Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft-Kaufman, Jill

    2000-01-01

    Details a case study of using narrative theater to engage with a wider variety of subject matter. Defines narrative theater as a group performance that features narrative as the primary expressive vehicle. Outlines the process of writing and directing a student performance of Tim O'Brien's novel "The Things They Carried," which deals with the…

  17. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  18. Narrative comprehension and production in children with SLI: An eye movement study

    PubMed Central

    ANDREU, LLORENÇ; SANZ-TORRENT, MONICA; OLMOS, JOAN GUÀRDIA; MACWHINNEY, BRIAN

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5; 8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5; 6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with SLI. The comprehension task involved the recording of eye movements during the visual exploration of successive scenes in a story, while listening to the associated narrative. With regard to production, the children were asked to retell the story, while once again looking at the scenes, as their eye movements were monitored. During narrative production, children with SLI look at the most semantically relevant areas of the scenes fewer times than their age-matched controls, but no differences were found in narrative comprehension. Moreover, the analyses of speech productions revealed that children with SLI retained less information and made more semantic and syntactic errors during retelling. Implications for theories that characterize SLI are discussed. PMID:21453036

  19. Characterizing lifespan development of three aspects of coherence in life narratives: a cohort-sequential study.

    PubMed

    Köber, Christin; Schmiedek, Florian; Habermas, Tilmann

    2015-02-01

    The ability to narrate stories and a synchronic self-concept develop in the pre- and primary school years. Life story theory proposes that both developments extend to an even later developmental stage, that is, to adolescents' acquisition of a coherent life story. Cross-sectional evidence supports the emergence of a life story in adolescence, but is mixed in terms of later life span development. The present study examines longitudinally the development of global coherence in life narratives across almost the entire life span. Starting in 2003, a total of 172 participants narrated their lives over the course of 8 years (aged 16, 20, 24, 28, 44, and 69 when last tested) resulting in up to 4 life narratives per person. Three aspects of global life narrative coherence--temporal, causal-motivational, and thematic coherence--were measured with global ratings and predicted by their respective textual indicators. Children lacked most aspects of global coherence. Almost all indicators of temporal and causal-motivational coherence increased substantially across adolescence up to early adulthood, as did thematic coherence, which continued to develop throughout middle adulthood. PMID:25621758

  20. Narrative comprehension and production in children with SLI: an eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Llorenç; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Guàrdia Olmos, Joan; Macwhinney, Brian

    2011-09-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5;8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5;6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with SLI. The comprehension task involved the recording of eye movements during the visual exploration of successive scenes in a story, while listening to the associated narrative. With regard to production, the children were asked to retell the story, while once again looking at the scenes, as their eye movements were monitored. During narrative production, children with SLI look at the most semantically relevant areas of the scenes fewer times than their age-matched controls, but no differences were found in narrative comprehension. Moreover, the analyses of speech productions revealed that children with SLI retained less information and made more semantic and syntactic errors during retelling. Implications for theories that characterize SLI are discussed. PMID:21453036

  1. Extension Agents and Conflict Narratives: A Case of Laikipia County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension…

  2. Humanizing Patients through Narrative Approaches: The Case of Murphy, the “Motor-Mouth”

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Michael Pickren; Mehl-Madrona, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Background: Some psychiatric patients are presented as hopeless, burned out, and devoid of social graces. Staff of mental health centers and hospitals are not encouraged to view these people differently. A narrative perspective allows anyone to emerge as a richly complex human being. Method: A course presented students with the opportunity to create narrative descriptions of patients presented by medical staff as hopeless. Results: One student's narrative of “Murphy the Motor Mouth” is presented; it shows the validity and usefulness of the narrative approach in reconstructing a person to be avoided as an interesting, valuable, and richly complex human being. Conclusion: Murphy in story emerges as more interesting and worthy of knowing than the clinical Murphy constructed by medical staff. Narrative approaches offer a richness and intimacy that fosters a more therapeutic and effective relationship between patients and staff. PMID:20740118

  3. Classroom-Based Narrative and Vocabulary Instruction: Results of an Early-Stage, Nonrandomized Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Olszewski, Abbie; Fargo, Jamison; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This nonrandomized feasibility study was designed to provide a preliminary assessment of the impact of a narrative and vocabulary instruction program provided by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) in a regular classroom setting. Method: Forty-three children attending 2 first-grade classrooms participated in the study. Children in each…

  4. Narrative strategies in medical discourse: constructing the psychiatric 'case' in a non-western setting.

    PubMed

    Coker, Elizabeth M

    2003-09-01

    The organizing goal of the present study was to analyze and understand the 'discursive presentation' of the Egyptian psychiatric patient through the texts, or narratives, contained within the patient medical charts. It is argued that the medical record, as a written document blending overt medical imperatives with more unexamined cultural assumptions about self-hood and abnormality, is an unusually rich source of discursive data concerning the 'cultural negotiations' implicit in the construction of the patient according to the two (often competing) world views represented by western biomedicine and traditional Egyptian culture. Psychiatry in Egypt is much more than a 'foreign transplant'; to assume this is to deny the culturally constructed nature of western biomedicine and psychiatry, which have their roots in historical and cultural notions of self, society, the individual, and normality versus abnormality (Transcultural Psychiat. 35(3) (1998) 352). Egyptian psychiatry is the product of an ongoing active blending of two very different conceptualizations of these issues. PMID:12850115

  5. A 10-year longitudinal fMRI study of narrative comprehension in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Altaye, Mekibib; Rajagopal, Akila; Eaton, Kenneth; Meng, XiangXiang; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K.

    2012-01-01

    Comprehension of spoken narratives requires coordination of multiple language skills. As such, for normal children narrative skills develop well into the school years and, during this period, are particularly vulnerable in the face of brain injury or developmental disorder. For these reasons, we sought to determine the developmental trajectory of narrative processing using longitudinal fMRI scanning. 30 healthy children between the ages of 5 and 18 enrolled at ages 5, 6, or 7, were examined annually for up to 10 years. At each fMRI session, children were presented with a set of five, 30s–long, stories containing 9, 10, or 11 sentences designed to be understood by a 5 year old child. FMRI data analysis was conducted based on a hierarchical linear model (HLM) that was modified to investigate developmental changes while accounting for missing data and controlling for factors such as age, linguistic performance and IQ. Performance testing conducted after each scan indicated well above the chance (p < 0.002) comprehension performance. There was a linear increase with increasing age in bilateral superior temporal cortical activation (BA 21 and 22) linked to narrative processing. Conversely, age-related decreases in cortical activation were observed in bilateral occipital regions, cingulate and cuneus, possibly reflecting changes in the default mode networks. The dynamic changes observed in this longitudinal fMRI study support the increasing role of bilateral BAs 21 and 22 in narrative comprehension, involving non-domain-specific integration in order to achieve final story interpretation. The presence of a continued linear development of this area throughout childhood and teenage years with no apparent plateau, indicates that full maturation of narrative processing skills has not yet occurred and that it may be delayed to early adulthood. PMID:22951258

  6. Creative and Stylistic Devices Employed by Children during a Storybook Narrative Task: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Brenda K.; Fiestas, Christine E.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Clark, Maya Reynolds

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of culture on the creative and stylistic features children employ when producing narratives based on wordless picture books. Method: Participants included 60 first- and second-grade African American, Latino American, and Caucasian children. A subset of narratives based on wordless…

  7. The Role of the Scientific Discovery Narrative in Middle School Science Education: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arya, Diana J.; Maul, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In an experimental study (N = 209), the authors compared the effects of exposure to typical middle-school written science content when presented in the context of the scientific discovery narrative and when presented in a more traditional nonnarrative format on 7th and 8th grade students in the United States. The development of texts was…

  8. A Narrative Study of Women Leading within the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlvig, Jolyn E.

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a 3-year narrative study that tells the stories of five women leading within the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU). Women leaders are under-represented within this sector of higher education compared to other religious and/or private higher education institutions even though women comprise approximately…

  9. Residents Learning from a Narrative Experience with Dying Patients: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Glendon R.; Hodges, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    For patients at the end of life, it is crucial to address the psychological, existential, and spiritual distress of patients. Medical education research suggests trainees feel unprepared to provide the whole person, humanistic care held as the ideal. This study used an empirically based narrative intervention, the dignity interview, as an…

  10. African American Women in Higher Education Attainment: A Qualitative Narrative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maples, Inga D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative narrative study was to look at how African American women who are learners or who have been learners in higher education settings have internalized and interpreted the issues that have occurred in their teaching-learning environments and what coping mechanisms they have used to resolve or deflect negative…

  11. A Qualitative Narrative Phenomenological Study: Parental Perceptions in Choosing Online Educational Classes for Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Kirsten L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative narrative phenomenological study was to explore the experiences of parents of gifted student children who live in the United States, who have gone through the process of locating and selecting an online class, and who have worked with the online educational environment offering the class. Parents often select online…

  12. Component Processes of Early Reading, Spelling, and Narrative Writing Skills in Turkish: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babayigit, Selma; Stainthorp, Rhona

    2010-01-01

    The study examined: (a) the role of phonological, grammatical, and rapid automatized naming (RAN) skills in reading and spelling development; and (b) the component processes of early narrative writing skills. Fifty-seven Turkish-speaking children were followed from Grade 1 to Grade 2. RAN was the most powerful longitudinal predictor of reading…

  13. Empowering Interviews: Narrative Interviews in the Study of Information Literacy in Everyday Life Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckerdal, Johanna Rivano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents a way to design and conduct interviews, within a sociocultural perspective, for studying information literacy practices in everyday life. Methods: A framework was developed combining a socio-cultural perspective with a narrative interview was developed. Interviewees were invited to participate by talking and using…

  14. The Use of Reported Speech in Children's Narratives: A Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Hesketh, Anne; Ashworth, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of structural priming on children's use of indirect speech clauses in a narrative context. Forty-two monolingual English-speaking 5-year-olds in two primary classrooms took part in a story-retelling task including reported speech. Testing took place in three individual sessions (pre-test, post-test 1,…

  15. The Confucian Educational Philosophy and Experienced Teachers' Resistance: A Narrative Study in Macau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Huang; Vong, Sou Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates experienced teachers' resistance in an era of neoliberalism in Macau. The narratives of three experienced teachers are examined under a post-structuralist framework. The findings indicate that the traditional Chinese Confucian ideology of education guides the experienced teachers' professional practice and offers them an…

  16. A Developmental Study of the Retention of Narrative Material. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimiles, Herbert; Kuhns, Margaret

    A Sample of 576 children participated in a study to determine the manner in which children retain narrative material, what information they retain, and the effects of sex and age upon these aspects of memory. The children, ranging in age from six to eight years, listened to a tape recorded story in individual sessions. Half of them were asked to…

  17. Coronary thrombosis and marijuana smoking: a case report and narrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Daniela; Spagnolo, Angelico; De Matteis, Valentino; Filograna, Laura; De Giovanni, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    We encountered evidence of myocardial infarction due to coronary thrombosis in an autopsy of an occasional marijuana smoker. These findings prompted us to perform a narrative review of the literature to determine when post-mortem toxicological tests may support a temporal relationship between marijuana smoking and cardiovascular disease. Toxicological examination showed the presence of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, its main metabolite and cannabinol in blood and urine. Quali-quantitative analysis revealed that Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol was taken within 2 h of the onset of cardiovascular symptoms, according to circumstantial data. Post-mortem toxicological results must take into account the degradation and post-mortem redistribution of analytes. However, for any inference about the specific cardiovascular triggering effect of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol intake, we maintain that cannabinoid analysis in blood samples must be considered an essential requirement to estimate the time of last intake and avoid incomplete documentation. The literature, combined with the present case report, highlights an association between marijuana use and negative cardiovascular events, although few authors have supported their conclusions with toxicological results. Thus, additional research is needed. PMID:26607055

  18. Gesturing towards Teaching: A Teacher's Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnamurthy, Gopalakrishna

    2012-01-01

    This is a study of a 20 minute video recorded narrative of a participant-teacher at an inservice teacher education seminar in South India. My analysis involves the close observation of oral and visual elements of this narrative. I employ and deploy this as a telling case to study the conduct and consequences of teaching and educational relations…

  19. Case Study Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  20. Structured narrative retell instruction for young children from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a preliminary study of feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; McLeod, Angela N.; Leftwich, Brianne

    2014-01-01

    Successful acquisition of literacy depends on adequate development of decoding skills as well as broader, meaning-related knowledge and skills for text comprehension. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds are often challenged in both domains, relative to peers who are not economically disadvantaged. The efficacy of code-focused instructional programs for at-risk preliterate children is well supported, but less evidence is available regarding interventions to improve broader language and comprehension skills. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a new intervention, “structured narrative retell instruction” (SNRI), and explored its potential to enhance meaning-related knowledge and skills, including vocabulary, listening comprehension, and narrative skills, in pre-literate, low SES children. SNRI used authentic children's books to model comprehension processes, explicitly teach story grammar, and implicitly target microstructural aspects of narratives. Participants included 9 children with a mean age of 60 months, who were randomly assigned to SNRI or to code-focused literacy instruction (CFLI). Each group received 12, 40-min instructional sessions over 6 weeks. Pre- and post-tests were administered to assess vocabulary, listening comprehension, narrative macrostructure and narrative microstructure, as well as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print. The feasibility of SNRI was demonstrated by completion of the designed study, moderately high treatment fidelity, and qualitative feedback from interventionists. The SNRI group also made significant gains on 4 of the 7 meaning-related measures (p < 0.10). In comparison, the CFLI group made significant gains on 2 of 7 meaning-related measures. We conclude that SNRI is feasible and shows potential for improving language skills related to comprehension and that further research investigating its efficacy is warranted. PMID:24847295

  1. Structured narrative retell instruction for young children from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a preliminary study of feasibility.

    PubMed

    Adlof, Suzanne M; McLeod, Angela N; Leftwich, Brianne

    2014-01-01

    Successful acquisition of literacy depends on adequate development of decoding skills as well as broader, meaning-related knowledge and skills for text comprehension. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds are often challenged in both domains, relative to peers who are not economically disadvantaged. The efficacy of code-focused instructional programs for at-risk preliterate children is well supported, but less evidence is available regarding interventions to improve broader language and comprehension skills. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a new intervention, "structured narrative retell instruction" (SNRI), and explored its potential to enhance meaning-related knowledge and skills, including vocabulary, listening comprehension, and narrative skills, in pre-literate, low SES children. SNRI used authentic children's books to model comprehension processes, explicitly teach story grammar, and implicitly target microstructural aspects of narratives. Participants included 9 children with a mean age of 60 months, who were randomly assigned to SNRI or to code-focused literacy instruction (CFLI). Each group received 12, 40-min instructional sessions over 6 weeks. Pre- and post-tests were administered to assess vocabulary, listening comprehension, narrative macrostructure and narrative microstructure, as well as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print. The feasibility of SNRI was demonstrated by completion of the designed study, moderately high treatment fidelity, and qualitative feedback from interventionists. The SNRI group also made significant gains on 4 of the 7 meaning-related measures (p < 0.10). In comparison, the CFLI group made significant gains on 2 of 7 meaning-related measures. We conclude that SNRI is feasible and shows potential for improving language skills related to comprehension and that further research investigating its efficacy is warranted. PMID:24847295

  2. Enhancing the Completeness of the Narrative Accounts in Children with Learning Disabilities To Increase Witness Credibility in Cases of Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruegg, Erica

    This report discusses a study that examined the perceived credibility of children with learning disabilities once they received instruction in a procedure to increase recall during narrative testimony. Narrative Elaboration Training (NET) helps children to develop memory skills by teaching strategies for remembering the details that are expected…

  3. Listening to "How the Patient Presents Herself": A Case Study of a Doctor-Patient Interaction in an Emergency Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbene, Roxana

    2015-01-01

    This is a case-study based on a micro-ethnography analyzing a doctor-patient interaction in an emergency room (ER) in New York City. Drawing on the framework of narrative medicine (Charon, 2006), the study examines how a phenomenological approach to listening to the patient facilitated the patient's narrative orientation not only to relevant…

  4. Pain, power and patience - A narrative study of general practitioners' relations with chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic pain patients are common in general practice. In this study "chronic pain" is defined as diffuse musculoskeletal pain not due to inflammatory diseases or cancer. Effective patient-physician relations improve treatment results. The relationship between doctors and chronic pain patients is often dysfunctional. Consultation training for physicians and medical students can improve the professional ability to build effective relations, but this demands a thorough understanding of the problems in the relation. Several studies have defined the issues that frequently cause problems, but few have described the process. The aim of this study was to understand and illustrate what GPs' experience in contact with chronic pain patients and what works and does not work in these consultations. Methods Our theoretical perspective is constructivist, based upon the relativist view that individuals construct realities to understand and navigate the world. Five Swedish General Practitioners (GPs), two male and three female, were interviewed and asked to tell a story about a difficult encounter with a chronic pain patient. Tapes of the interviews were transcribed and analysed using narrative analysis. Three GPs told narratives suited for our analytic tools and these were included in the final results. Results Each narrative highlights a certain dilemma and a strategy. The dilemmas were: power game; good intentions that fail when a patient is persuaded against her own conviction; persuasion of the unwilling; transferred tiredness; distrust and dissociation from the patient. Professional strategies of listening, encouraging and teamwork were central to handling difficult situations. Conclusions The narratives show that GP's consultations with chronic pain patients sometimes are characterized by conflicts and difficult situations. They are facilitated by methods such as active listening and teamwork, but still may remain hard to handle. This has not before been studied

  5. Narrative visualization: telling stories with data.

    PubMed

    Segel, Edward; Heer, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Data visualization is regularly promoted for its ability to reveal stories within data, yet these “data stories” differ in important ways from traditional forms of storytelling. Storytellers, especially online journalists, have increasingly been integrating visualizations into their narratives, in some cases allowing the visualization to function in place of a written story. In this paper, we systematically review the design space of this emerging class of visualizations. Drawing on case studies from news media to visualization research, we identify distinct genres of narrative visualization. We characterize these design differences, together with interactivity and messaging, in terms of the balance between the narrative flow intended by the author (imposed by graphical elements and the interface) and story discovery on the part of the reader (often through interactive exploration). Our framework suggests design strategies for narrative visualization, including promising under-explored approaches to journalistic storytelling and educational media. PMID:20975152

  6. No shit, there I was: the case for narrative-based clinical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Froede, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Relevant literature demonstrates the absolute necessity of Special Operations Forces (SOF) clinical narratives to the medics they teach and care they deliver, and discusses the concept of narrative pedagogy via review of extant literature and also SOF-specific clinical literature. SOF clinicians (medics, physicians? assistants, physicians, etc.) provide advanced trauma, clinical, and preventive care in the most austere of combat environments. SOF clinicians have adopted specific paradigms for schooling, teaching, learning, and practice. An overarching theme within SOF-generated clinical literature is that of hermeneutics and the narrative pedagogy; SOF clinicians generate their evidence from experience and frequently tell stories to educate their peers, colleagues, and student medics to increase the knowledge of the entire community. PMID:22113722

  7. One Science Teacher's Professional Development Experience: A Case Study Exploring Changes in Students' Perceptions of Their Fluency with Innovative Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenezer, Jazlin; Columbus, Russell; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Zhang, Lin; Ebenezer, Devairakkam Luke

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case-study is to narrate a secondary science teacher's experience of his professional development (PD) education and training in innovative technologies (IT) in the context of engaging students in environmental research projects. The sources from which the narrative is derived include (1) the science teacher's reflective…

  8. Acculturation Attitudes and Perceptions of Collective Narratives: The Case of Israeli Arab Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Ariel; Sagy, Shifra

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between acculturation attitudes and attitudes toward collective narratives is explored in the context of Palestinian adolescents, citizens of the State of Israel. Employing Berry's acculturation framework, we expected that approaching the hegemonic Israeli Jewish culture would be related to higher acceptance of its collective…

  9. Case Studies Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, David M.

    The case histories of five students enrolled in a university course in how to study are reported. The students ranged in age from 18 to 35, included two males and three females, and varied in school experience from no college in one case and some college in two cases to college degrees in two cases. Students were initially taught to chart their…

  10. Dominant Cultural Narratives, Racism, and Resistance in the Workplace: A Study of the Experiences of Young Black Canadians.

    PubMed

    Hasford, Julian

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined lived experiences of racism and resistance in various contexts, relatively little research has examined such experiences among Black youth within the workplace-particularly in the Canadian context. In this study I use qualitative analyses of narrative interviews with 24 Black Canadian youth and young adults (aged 16-35) to examine the impact of dominant cultural narratives on lived experiences of workplace racism and resistance. Findings are presented using theatrical games as a central conceptual metaphor, suggesting that: (a) dominant cultural narratives have a major impact on relational dynamics of oppression in the workplace; (b) identity performance is a critical strategy for negotiating dominant cultural narratives in the workplace; and (c) panopticism (the internalized gaze) is a significant aspect of internalized oppression. Implications for future research and action are discussed. PMID:27217319

  11. Constructing fictional stories: a study of story narratives by children with autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    King, Diane; Dockrell, Julie; Stuart, Morag

    2014-10-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are reported to have difficulties with narrative language but little is known about how this affects their production of fictional stories. In this study, we aimed to establish whether fictional narratives of children with ASD differed from those of typically developing children and if performance was commensurate with levels of oral language. Fictional stories produced by 27 high functioning children with ASD, aged 11-14 yrs, were compared with those of language and age matched groups of typically developing children. Differences were found between the children with ASD and comparison groups in structural, evaluative and global features of their stories indicating specific difficulties with this form of narrative. Stories of the ASD group were shorter and contained fewer causal statements than those of both comparison groups and sentences were less grammatically complex than those of the age match but not the language match group. In global measures, the stories of the ASD group were impoverished relative to both comparison groups. The results are discussed in relation to cognitive theories of autism and language development. PMID:24981193

  12. Adult attachment insecurity and narrative processes in psychotherapy: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Sarah I F

    2011-01-01

    Different types of client attachment insecurity may affect the psychotherapeutic process in distinct ways. This exploratory study compared the in-session discourse of clients with dismissing and preoccupied attachment states of mind on Adult Attachment Interviews conducted prior to therapy in the context of a randomized clinical trial of psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. In a subsample of six sessions from each of eight therapy dyads, preoccupied clients were found to talk more and have longer speaking turns than dismissing clients, who in turn generated more pauses. Using the Narrative Processes Coding System, preoccupied clients were found to show more narrative initiative; whereas, differences in terms of narrative process modes were not as clearly interpretable. Contrary to expectations, the two insecure states of mind were equally different in the relationship-focused psychoanalytic therapy and in the symptom-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy. Suggestions for further investigations of the in-session discourse of clients with different attachment states of mind are given.  PMID:21110406

  13. The case study approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising proposals for conducting case study research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of case study reports. PMID:21707982

  14. A Teacher's Guide to African Narratives. Studies in African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Sara Talis

    This guide is designed to help secondary school teachers include African literature in their classes. It furnishes English and social studies teachers with a foundation for teaching African literature by offering critical commentary on the texts themselves. A synthesis of anthropological and historical material is presented to help both teachers…

  15. Memory Keepers: A Narrative Study on Siblings Never Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempson, Diane; Murdock, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on literature relevant to the impact of sibling death, the authors examined the invisible loss of siblings never known. This article presents findings of a phenomenological study of 15 adult siblings who "storied" the psychological presence and power of a deceased infant sibling never known but who acted as memory keepers for their unknown…

  16. Narrative Skills in Children with Selective Mutism: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnes, Alison; Fung, Daniel; Manassis, Katharina; Fiksenbaum, Lisa; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare and complex disorder associated with anxiety symptoms and speech-language deficits; however, the nature of these language deficits has not been studied systematically. A novel cross-disciplinary assessment protocol was used to assess anxiety and nonverbal cognitive, receptive language, and expressive narrative…

  17. Beneath and beyond Truth: Studying Literary Narratives to Research Human Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Stacy

    2007-01-01

    The majority of social scientists continue to dismiss literary narratives as data that might lead to complex understandings of human phenomena. Introducing a method I call "novel inquiry", I argue that literary narratives merit inclusion as a source of data for educational inquiry. Utilizing literary narratives as a data source expands and…

  18. Mission Drift in Qualitative Research, or Moving Toward a Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies, Moving Back to a More Systematic Narrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kip

    2004-01-01

    The paper argues that the systematic review of qualitative research is best served by reliance upon qualitative methods themselves. A case is made for strengthening the narrative literature review and using narrative itself as a method of review. A technique is proposed that builds upon recent developments in qualitative systematic review by the…

  19. Small Schools Reform Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Beth M.; Berghoff, Beth

    2013-01-01

    This study explored complicated personal narratives of school reform generated by participants in response to a particular small schools reform initiative. Narrative data was dialogically generated in interviews with nine past participants of an urban high school conversion project planned and implemented over a span of five years toward the goal…

  20. [Qualitative case study].

    PubMed

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised. PMID:27338694

  1. SETDA Case Studies 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) published a series of case studies from 28 states to showcase examples of how ARRA EETT ("American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Enhancing Education Through Technology") grant funds have impacted teaching and learning. SETDA collected data for the case studies through a variety…

  2. Narrativity and enaction: the social nature of literary narrative understanding

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Yanna B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones. PMID:25202286

  3. Queer blindfolding: a case study on difference "blindness" toward persons who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lance C; Shin, Richard Q

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce and explore the narrative strategy of queer blindfolding. Utilizing psycho-discursive qualitative methodology, the authors will draw from a case study to demonstrate how some beneficent, well-intended persons who identify as heterosexual adopt the narrative strategy of queer blindfolding as they negotiate the discourse of heteronormativity. We will map this narrative strategy, compare and contrast it to racial colorblindness, and unpack the accompanying intra-psychic conflict and defense mechanisms that are utilized by the participant in the case study. We will also demonstrate how this discursive strategy positions participants within systemic heterosexism. PMID:24325178

  4. Teacher Narratives and Student Engagement: Testing Narrative Engagement Theory in Drug Prevention Education

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Krieger, Janice L.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Shin, YoungJu; Graham, John

    2015-01-01

    Testing narrative engagement theory, this study examines student engagement and teachers’ spontaneous narratives told in a narrative-based drug prevention curriculum. The study describes the extent to which teachers share their own narratives in a narrative-based curriculum, identifies dominant narrative elements, forms and functions, and assesses the relationships among teacher narratives, overall lesson narrative quality, and student engagement. One hundred videotaped lessons of the keepin’ it REAL drug prevention curriculum were coded and the results supported the claim that increased narrative quality of a prevention lesson would be associated with increased student engagement. The quality of narrativity, however, varied widely. Implications of these results for narrative-based prevention interventions and narrative pedagogy are discussed. PMID:26690668

  5. Narrative Skills in Written Texts by Deaf and Hearing Bilingual Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teruggi, Lilia A.; Gutiérrez-Cáceres, Rafaela

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on narrative competence have focused on monolingual subjects, and there are very few studies which address this issue in bilingual subjects dealing with two language systems. In the present case study we analyzed and compared the textual and narrative written skills of three deaf and three hearing adolescents attending eighth grade at…

  6. The use of laser therapy for dental implant surface decontamination: a narrative review of in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Marina Salah; Khosa, Amardeep; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Leichter, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this narrative review was to critically evaluate in vitro studies assessing the efficacy of lasers in the bacterial decontamination of titanium implant surfaces. The MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and Embase electronic databases were used to search for articles relating to the use of lasers in the bacterial decontamination of titanium specimen surfaces using predetermined search statements. Clinical studies, case reports, case series, review articles and animal models were excluded. Study selection was carried out independently and then cross-checked by two authors through abstract viewing. Eighteen articles were selected for full-text analysis. Erbium-doped yttrium-aluminium-garnet lasers had a wide range of powers capable of inducing bacterial decontamination. While carbon dioxide and gallium-aluminium-arsenide diode lasers demonstrated the ability to produce bacterial decontamination, the bacterial sensitivity to each varied depending on the species involved. There is no concensus on the laser type or settings that are optimal for bacterial decontamination of titanium implant surfaces as studies employ various test specimens, contamination methodologies, irradiation settings and protocols, and outcome measures resulting in limited study comparability. More investigations are required to provide guidelines for the use of laser therapy in the decontamination of implant surfaces. PMID:23907604

  7. A narrative review of secondary hazards in hospitals from cases of chemical self-poisoning and chemical exposure.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Evans, James L; Sharman, Andrew; Isaac, James

    2013-10-01

    Secondary hazards are an important consideration when dealing with both self-poisoned and chemically contaminated patients. Secondary exposure of hospital staff following the admission of a poisoned patient is relatively rare but potentially serious. Risks usually arise from chemical conversion of a deliberately ingested toxic substance and subsequent offgassing, but there may be toxic substances on the victim or their clothing. Surface contamination is a more common concern in cases where patients have been exposed to chemical releases. This paper presents a narrative review that considers some of the more commonly encountered toxic chemicals and situations that may present secondary hazards in hospitals. Risks to staff can be lowered by reducing the potential for, and duration of, exposure wherever possible. Good communication with the first responders at the scene, consultation with experts, decontamination and use of personal protective equipment, together with regular training, can minimize risks in the hospital environment. PMID:23263649

  8. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  9. MULTIPLE CONTAMINANTS CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information taken from the arsenic demonstration program projects that have treatment systems removing multiply contaminants from drinking water. The case studies sited in the presentation consist of projects that have arsenic along with either nitrate, ...

  10. Laos case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Peuan Mit is a Lao organization working to address the needs of children and youth living and working on the streets. This case study outlines how a trusted and strong relationship with local police provides mutual benefit. PMID:22769869

  11. Discourse Markers in Chinese Conversational Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Yang

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the indexicality of discourse markers (DMs) in Chinese conversational narrative. Drawing upon theoretical and methodological principles related to narrative dimensions (Ochs & Capps, 2001), narrative desires (Ochs, 1997, 2004), and narrative positioning (Bamberg, 1997), this work proposes an integrated analytical framework for…

  12. How Do Finnish Children Express Care and Justice in Comic Strips and Written Narratives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Juha; Hannula, Markku S.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored how children's moral expressions like love and violence differ according to the mode of narrative, comic strips or written narratives. Sixteen third-grade children from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. Children's moral expressions were divided into justice and care. Reading frequency of fairy…

  13. The Role of Narrative in the Design of an Educational Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakesley, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how designers "perceived" and "used" narrative during the creation of an educational video game. A qualitative, ethnographic, single case study approach was used to collect and analyze data pertaining to the narrative design trajectory of the game design team as well as Citizen Science, the game artifact…

  14. Residents learning from a narrative experience with dying patients: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Tait, Glendon R; Hodges, Brian D

    2013-10-01

    For patients at the end of life, it is crucial to address the psychological, existential, and spiritual distress of patients. Medical education research suggests trainees feel unprepared to provide the whole person, humanistic care held as the ideal. This study used an empirically based narrative intervention, the dignity interview, as an educational intervention with first year residents. The interview helps patients tell and make meaning of their life story. The intervention was aimed at addressing trainee perceived gaps in the non-physical aspects of end-of-life care. It was also intended to stimulate broader reflection on lessons learned in medical education about the value of narrative as part of humanistic care. Twelve first year residents administered a 1 h interview to dying patients. The resident returned to read the transcribed story back to the patient. Semi-structured interviews of the residents were transcribed and analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify emergent themes. This experience was seen as distinct from the 'traditional" medical interview. Residents reflected on lessons learned from patients and on their own professional and personal lives. Residents felt conversations with dying patients, and more broadly the art of soliciting a patient's story are poorly taught and modeled. More concerning, the hidden curriculum seems to be sending messages that learning a patient's story is not the domain of a physician and that it is not valued like the curing and technical imperatives. These findings have implications for medical education's ongoing attempts to better produce humanistic physicians. PMID:23053870

  15. Racial Microaggressions: The Narratives of African American Faculty at a Predominantly White University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Chavella T.

    2012-01-01

    What role does race play in the lives of fourteen African American (7 women, 7 men) faculty on a predominantly White campus? This case study focuses on their narratives which revealed that racial microaggressions were a common and negative facet of their lives on campus. Specifically, their narratives suggest interactions of microinvalidations…

  16. In Her Own Voice: A Narrative Study of the Persistence Strategies of Eight African American Women Vice Presidents for Student Affairs at Predominately White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, Dahlia Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    This narrative study explored the personal and professional experiences of eight African American women vice presidents for student affairs (VPSA) employed at predominately White institutions (PWIs) and the persistence strategies they used while working at a PWI. Through the use of narrative inquiry methods, I utilized a purposeful sample of eight…

  17. Combating Hegemonic Discourse in an Online Multicultural Leadership Course: A Narrative Study of an Instructor and Student Working in Tandem for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osanloo, Azadeh F.; Hand, Tim W.

    2012-01-01

    This narrative study examines hegemonic discourse in an online multicultural leadership course by translating e-narrative analysis findings into implications for social justice and recommendations for andragogical strategies. These strategies specifically address hegemonic discourse within an online educational environment. The setting for this…

  18. Telling Tales: A Narrative Research Study of the Experiences of New International Academic Staff at an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Wendy; Myatt, Paula

    2011-01-01

    As the transnational movement of academics continues to increase, some are arguing it is time to look more closely at the challenges faced by new international academic staff. This article reports on a narrative research study exploring the experiences and perceptions of eight international academic staff at a large, research-intensive university…

  19. Dialectical Communication of Cultural Narrative Codes in the Discourse of Multi-Cultural Children: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venturelli, Shalini S.

    An ethnographic study of a pre-school classroom explored an unconventional triangulated framework using literary theory, cultural and critical theory for communication inquiry into the narrative experiences of multicultural children. Field observations were conducted during 1991 in a pre-kindergarten class in a western United States university…

  20. A Narrative Study of How an Online Practitioner Used a Personal Action Research Journal as a Form of Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Floyd, La-Kicia K.

    2011-01-01

    This narrative study will allow my reader a glimpse into real situations I have faced as an asynchronous online instructor in hopes to help me and my audience better understand how I, as a self-directed online practitioner, utilized action research recorded in a journal as a method to build capacity for continuous professional development to…

  1. Aestheticism and Spiritualism: A Narrative Study of the Exploration of Self through the Practice of Chinese Calligraphy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-Tak

    2010-01-01

    The heritage of calligraphy reflects the culture and history of a race and a nation. It hence has very great educational value. This study aims to examine the cultural meaning of Chinese calligraphy in general and specifically the connection of its aesthetic to spirituality. The methodologies of narrative approach and textual analysis were…

  2. Transfer Students in Theatre: A Narrative Study of Transferring from Community Colleges to Four-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry Boyenga, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The transfer student phenomenon in higher education is as increasingly complex as the transfer students causing the phenomenon. The collection of narratives in this study reflected transfer experiences of theatre students who were navigating the educational pipeline from community colleges to four-year institutions to major in the theatre…

  3. Investigating ESL Graduate Students' Intercultural Experiences of Academic English Writing: A First Person Narration of a Streamlined Qualitative Study Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Lianhong

    2012-01-01

    This report is a first person narration of the entire process of a qualitative study exploring the impact of ESL students' native cultural and rhetorical conventions, as well as classroom cultures on their academic English writing in American universities. Data were collected through semistructured interviews. A coding system was constructed to…

  4. "I Know Down to My Ribs": A Narrative Research Study on the Embodied Adult Learning of Creative Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Jennifer A.; Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that used narrative analysis to explore the role of embodied learning in the writing processes of creative writers. From a theoretical framework that draws on Merleau-Ponty's philosophy of the body, Gendlin's concepts of felt sense and focusing, and Jordi's analysis of reflection for…

  5. Intentional Control and Operational Constraints in Prosodic Phrasing: A Study of Picture-Elicited Narrations by French Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vion, Monique; Colas, Annie

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the determinants of prosodic phrasing in French schoolchildren's narratives. Children (aged 7 to 11) told picture stories to a silent same-age peer. The establishment of temporal and/or causal relations between the events was more or less guided by the drawings (ordered vs. arbitrary sequences). The comprehension of the…

  6. Narrative Enhancement and Cognitive Therapy (NECT) Effectiveness: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Roe, David; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Derhy, Oren; Lysaker, Paul H.; Yanos, Philip T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Accumulated evidence suggests that approximately one third of people with a serious mental illness (SMI) experience elevated self-stigma. Narrative enhancement and cognitive therapy (NECT) is a structured group-based intervention aimed to reduce self-stigma. The current study aims to examine the effectiveness of NECT. A quasi-experimental design. Design Baseline and follow-up data were collected and outcomes were compared between 63 persons with SMI who participated in NECT and 56 persons who received treatment as usual. Results The NECT treatment group showed significant (p < .05) reductions in self-stigma and increases in self-esteem, quality of life, and Hope-Agency scores between pre- and posttreatment assessments, compared with the control group. Conclusions The current results provide preliminary support for the use of NECT as an effective treatment to reduce self-stigma and its implications for treatment and practice are discussed. PMID:24114797

  7. Project Narrative

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Mary C.

    2012-07-12

    The Project Narrative describes how the funds from the DOE grant were used to purchase equipment for the biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics departments. The Narrative also describes how the equipment is being used. There is also a list of the positive outcomes as a result of having the equipment that was purchased with the DOE grant.

  8. Methodological Pluralism and Narrative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers how the integral theory model of Nancy Davis and Laurie Callihan might be enacted using a different qualitative methodology, in this case the narrative methodology. The focus of narrative research is shown to be on "what meaning is being made" rather than "what is happening here" (quadrant 2 rather than…

  9. Geothermal Case Studies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Young, Katherine

    2014-09-30

    database.) In fiscal year 2015, NREL is working with universities to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough dataset to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  10. Case Studies in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  11. Are specific emotions narrated differently?

    PubMed

    Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions. PMID:20001120

  12. Performing a Choice-Narrative: A qualitative study of the patterns in STEM students' higher education choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstrup Holmegaard, Henriette

    2015-06-01

    Students' science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students' choices of higher education are performed and to uncover the patterns of students' construction of their choice-narratives. The paper is based on a qualitative study among 38 Danish upper secondary school students. The theoretical framework is narrative psychology combined with post-structural thinking. The study shows that constructing a choice-narrative is complicated identity-work. First, the students felt encouraged to identify their interests, not only the ones related to the subject matter, but also various interests that were equally negotiated in relation to each other. Second, the choice-narratives were personalised; on the one side articulated as not too predictable, and on the other side appearing realistic and adjusted to the students' sense of self. Third, the choice-narratives were informed, validated and adjusted in the students' social network providing the students with a repertoire of viable pathways. The study demonstrates how cultural discourses about how a proper choice is made set the scene for the students' choices. The study raises some concerns for science education. Improving students' interests in science alone might not lead to increased admission as several interests equally intervene. To attract more students to science, we must consider how to actively engage them in crafting their own education, as a way to support them in making personal sense.

  13. Do Live versus Audio-Recorded Narrative Stimuli Influence Young Children's Narrative Comprehension and Retell Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to examine whether different ways of presenting narrative stimuli (i.e., live narrative stimuli versus audio-recorded narrative stimuli) influence children's performances on narrative comprehension and oral-retell quality. Method: Children in kindergarten (n = 54), second grade (n = 74), and fourth…

  14. Sounding Narrative Medicine: Studying Students’ Professional Identity Development at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eliza; Balmer, Dorene; Hermann, Nellie; Graham, Gillian; Charon, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To learn what medical students derive from training in humanities, social sciences, and the arts in a narrative medicine curriculum and to explore narrative medicine’s framework as it relates to students’ professional development. Method On completion of required intensive, half-semester narrative medicine seminars in 2010, 130 second-year medical students at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons participated in focus group discussions of their experiences. Focus group transcriptions were submitted to close iterative reading by a team who performed a grounded-theory-guided content analysis, generating a list of codes into which statements were sorted to develop overarching themes. Provisional interpretations emerged from the close and repeated readings, suggesting a fresh conceptual understanding of how and through what avenues such education achieves its goals in clinical training. Results Students’ comments articulated the known features of narrative medicine—attention, representation, and affiliation—and endorsed all three as being valuable to professional identity development. They spoke of the salience of their work in narrative medicine to medicine and medical education and its dividends of critical thinking, reflection, and pleasure. Critiques constituted a small percentage of the statements in each category. Conclusions Students report that narrative medicine seminars support complex interior, interpersonal, perceptual, and expressive capacities. Students’ lived experiences confirm some expectations of narrative medicine curricular planners while exposing fresh effects of such work to view. PMID:24362390

  15. Narrative Pedagogies in Science, Mathematics and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Linda; Davis, Rob

    2013-06-01

    Despite years of research, there remains serious concern regarding the engagement of students in science, mathematics and technology education. In this paper, the authors explore how narrative pedagogies are used in science, mathematics and technology in order to make the subjects meaningful. The paper focuses specifically on the role and aesthetic nature of narrative as a pedagogical approach in these school subjects and between school sectors. Case study methodology was used to compare the findings of two independent studies investigating the role of narrative-based pedagogies in mathematics and science (first author) and technology (second author). Based on this comparison, this paper proposes two perspectives on narrative-based pedagogies that deal with the connection of students with the subject: inward-looking that situated the learner within the story generated around artefact creation, and outward-looking that situated the stories of the content into students' lifeworlds. The use of this comparative lens enabled a higher level of analysis that could not have been achieved by each research programme, generating a broader narrative that provided deeper insight into the teaching and learning experience.

  16. Narrativity and non-Narrativity.

    PubMed

    Strawson, Galen

    2010-11-01

    I argue against two popular claims. The first is a descriptive, empirical claim about the nature of ordinary human experience which I call the psychological Narrativity thesis (PNT). According to PNT, 'each of us constructs and lives a "narrative" … this narrative is us, our identities' (Sacks O. The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. London: Duckworth; 1985, 110). The second is a normative, ethical claim which I call the ethical Narrativity thesis (ENT). According to ENT, we ought to live our lives narratively, or as a story: a 'basic condition of making sense of ourselves is that we grasp our lives in a narrative' and have an understanding of our lives 'as an unfolding story' (Taylor C. Sources of the Self. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1989, 47-52). On this view a person 'creates his identity (only) by forming an autobiographical narrative-a story of his life', and must be in possession of a full and 'explicit narrative (of his life) to develop fully as a person' (Schechtman M. The Constitution of Selves. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press; 1996, 93. WIREs Cogn Sci 2010 1 775-780 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271776

  17. Narrative message targets within the decision-making process to undergo screening colonoscopy among Latinos: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hennelly, Marie Oliva; Sly, Jamilia R; Villagra, Cristina; Jandorf, Lina

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a preventable yet leading cause of cancer mortality among Latinos in the USA. Cultural targeting and narrative messaging are two strategies to increase the low screening colonoscopy rates among Latinos. This study identifies key messages for educational interventions aiming to increase screening colonoscopy used among Latinos and proposes a model to understand the relationship between factors involved in colonoscopy decision-making. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 Latino participants primarily of Puerto Rican descent on the topics of CRC knowledge, barriers and facilitators to colonoscopy use, and the use of narrative in colorectal health messaging. Knowledge about colorectal anatomy and the anesthesia component of colonoscopy procedure is low. Fear of procedure-related pain and fear of treatment-related burden following a cancer diagnosis are significant barriers to colonoscopy. Fear of disease-related suffering and death following a cancer diagnosis and fear of regret are strong facilitators and can be augmented by cancer narratives. Storytelling is commonly used in Latino culture and is an acceptable method to educate the Latino community about CRC screening via colonoscopy. Machismo is a unique barrier to colonoscopy for Latino men via homophobia and reluctance to seek healthcare. A preliminary model to understand factors in colonoscopy decision-making among Latinos is presented. Counseling practices and educational interventions that use culturally targeted narrative health messaging to mediate fears and increase colonoscopy knowledge may increase screening colonoscopy use among Latinos. PMID:25516413

  18. Atrial fibrillation case study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Wilson, Tracey

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the irregular heart rhythm caused by atrial fibrillation (AF). A brief overview of the pathophysiology will be provided. A case study is discussed to highlight the treatment and management of AF. The care provision describes common signs and symptoms and also the treatment and management of AF within the maternity care setting. The importance of maintaining the mother-baby dyad is highlighted. For the purpose of maintaining confidentiality the woman will be referred to as Shama. PMID:27044188

  19. That Other Scene of Pedagogy: A Psychoanalytic Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britzman, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    My discussion embraces the subjective qualities of the psychoanalytic clinical case study as a method for writing narratives of pedagogy dedicated to interpreting the latency of communication: what has been held back, forgotten, acted out and unconsciously repeated. At the heart of the case study is the literary dilemma of putting to words the…

  20. From Stories to Scientific Models and Back: Narrative framing in modern macroscopic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Hans U.

    2015-04-01

    Narrative in science learning has become an important field of inquiry. Most applications of narrative are extrinsic to science-such as when they are used for creating affect and context. Where they are intrinsic, they are often limited to special cases and uses. To extend the reach of narrative in science, a hypothesis of narrative framing of natural and technical scenes is formulated. The term narrative framing is used in a double sense, to represent (1) the enlisting of narrative intelligence in the perception of phenomena and (2) the telling of stories that contain conceptual elements used in the creation of scientific models of these phenomena. The concrete case for narrative framing is made by conceptual analyses of simple stories of natural phenomena and of products related to modern continuum thermodynamics that reveal particular figurative structures. Importantly, there is evidence for a medium-scale perceptual gestalt called force of nature that is structured metaphorically and narratively. The resulting figurative conceptual structure gives rise to the notion of natural agents acting and suffering in storyworlds. In order to show that formal scientific models are deeply related to these storyworlds, a link between using (i.e. simulating) models and storytelling is employed. This link has recently been postulated in studies of narrative in computational science and economics.

  1. Narrative means to manage responsibility in life narratives across adolescence.

    PubMed

    De Silveira, Cybèle; Habermas, Tilmann

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a passage from dependence to adult responsibility. Alongside identity development, social-cognitive development, and the ability to construct a life story, adolescents become increasingly aware of both their potential responsibility in an expanded sphere of life and of complex, contextual influences on their lives. This was partially tested in a cross-sectional study, both in terms of linguistic means and content expressed in life narratives. Indicators were defined for narrative agency, grading of responsibility, serendipity, and turning points, and tested for age differences in relative frequencies in 102 life narratives from age groups of 8, 12, 16, and 20 years, balanced for gender. Narrative grading of responsibility, serendipity, and turning points increased throughout adolescence. The relative frequency of narrative agency, in contrast, remained constant across age groups. Results are interpreted in the context of adolescent development of narrative identity. PMID:21452749

  2. Breast cancer patients' narrative experiences about communication during the oncology care process: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Abt Sacks, A; Perestelo-Perez, L; Rodriguez-Martin, B; Cuellar-Pompa, L; Algara López, M; González Hernández, N; Serrano-Aguilar, P

    2016-09-01

    To analyse the perception about the information and communication received to evaluate oncologic care of breast cancer patients in Spain. Qualitative study based on conducting in-depth interviews. An inductive thematic analysis of the illness narratives was performed. Intentional theoretical sampling of 41 people diagnosed with breast cancer. The information provided during care process is assessed as appropriate, as it includes personalised skills focused on communication and considers organisational and contextual issues. In some cases, the information was considered partial, heterogeneous and at times contradictory, which revealed a lack of continuity. To provide and adequately cover information needs from the patient perspective, it is necessary to ensure access, both in its physical (material) and intellectual (comprehension) dimension, keeping in mind elements of social capital (social networks) and cultural capital (values, beliefs, non-verbal language) that facilitate or hinder access. The current state of transition to a horizontal model in the doctor-patient relationship, could account for the difficulties, deficits and contradictions in communication and information that breast cancer patients perceive in many contexts. PMID:26412025

  3. Profiling oral narrative ability in young school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if oral narrative comprehension and production measures derived in a fictional story retelling task could be used to create a profile of strengths and weaknesses in oral narrative ability (Profile of Oral Narrative Ability: PONA) in young school-aged children. The story retelling task was field-tested with 169 typically developing children, aged between 5;0 and 7;6 years. Children listened twice to an unfamiliar story while looking at the pictures in a book. Comprehension questions were asked after the first exposure. Following the second exposure, children were asked to retell the story without the use of the pictures. Story retellings were analysed on measures of semantics, morphosyntax, verbal productivity, and narrative quality. Results indicated sensitivity for age on measures of comprehension, narrative quality, semantics, and verbal productivity, but not for morphosyntactic measures. Factor analysis indicated that oral narrative performance comprised three factors, explaining more than 80% of the variance. Two clinical case examples are presented, which show the potential of the PONA to reveal different patterns of strengths and weaknesses across the oral narrative measures. Although early evidence suggests the potential usefulness of the PONA, further research is now needed to test the validity, reliability and clinical application of this tool. PMID:20433337

  4. Multidisciplinary treatment of intra-thoracic desmoid tumors: Case series and narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Tóth, László; Szentirmay, Zoltán; Papp, János; Langmár, Zoltán; Kásler, Miklós

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Primary intra-thoracic desmoids are exceedingly rare borderline tumors, with 34 reported cases in the English-language literature. The characteristic localized infiltrative growth and the high rate of recurrence can result in life-threatening conditions. Radical surgical resection is considered to be the primary treatment. Achieving negative surgical margins is a challenge. Cases with positive surgical margins are associated with a high rate of local recurrence; therefore, other multimodal approaches play a large role in their therapy. Case Reports The authors reviewed the relevant literature and presented examples of long-term follow-up of 3 intra-thoracic desmoid tumour patients, multidisciplinarily treated between 2000 and 2008. All reports of intra-thoracic desmoid tumors that the authors could find on PubMed or in the reference sections of these PubMed located articles were included using the search terms: intra-thoracic, desmoid, aggressive fibromatoses. Conclusions Because of the rarity of the disease and the heterogeneity of the cases, it is difficult to assess the importance of the information for everyday clinical practice. It does however provide a useful guide for reference. PMID:22367132

  5. The O.J. Simpson Case as an Exercise in Narrative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakoff, Robin

    1997-01-01

    Illustrates ways the theories and methods of linguistics can be used to analyze discourse. Uses reports from American print media discussing facets of the O.J. Simpson case, its verdict, and subsequent events. Suggests that this discourse, viewed as a composite whole, represents a culture's creation, disillusion, and reestablishment of its sense…

  6. Artfulness in Young Children's Spoken Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Breit-Smith, Allison; Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: Artfulness is rarely considered as an indicator of quality in young children's spoken narratives. Although some studies have examined artfulness in the narratives of children 5 and older, no studies to date have focused on the artfulness of preschoolers' oral narratives. This study examined the artfulness of fictional spoken…

  7. Clarifying the Narrative Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Walter R.

    1989-01-01

    Replies to Rowland's article (same issue) on Fisher's views of the narrative paradigm. Clarifies the narrative paradigm by discussing three senses in which "narration" can be understood, and by indicating what the narrative paradigm is not. (SR)

  8. Conducting and Reporting Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Merilyn; Taylor, Satomi Izumi

    Issues and elements of case study research are explored and illustrated with the example of a case study of a kindergarten in a suburb of Tokyo (Japan). Case study research is a type of qualitative research that concentrates on a single unit or entity, with boundaries established by the researcher. The case is an example drawn from a larger class,…

  9. [Chronic pain and suicide attempt in the elderly through a case narration].

    PubMed

    Gaillardou, Denise; Matusevich, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We sought to reconstruct the case of an elderly patient who made a suicide attempt. We have isolated and identified certain risk factors which could have determined the patient's final decision, such as chronic pain, social isolation, narcissistic personality traits, depression and family suicidality. We analyze the difficulties and limitations found in the current treatment of these patients, with an aim to raise greater interest in the research and treatment of them. PMID:25546546

  10. Patient-initiated camera phone images in general practice: a qualitative study of illustrated narratives

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lawrence; Hu, Wendy; Brooker, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Background Camera phones have become ubiquitous in the digital age. Patients are beginning to bring images recorded on their mobile phones to share with their GP during medical consultations. Aim To explore GP perceptions about the effect of patient-initiated camera phone images on the consultation. Design and setting An interview study of GPs based in rural and urban locations in Australia. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews with nine GPs about their experiences with patient-initiated camera phone images. Results GPs described how patient-initiated camera phone photos and videos contributed to the diagnostic process, management and continuity of care. These images gave GPs in the study additional insight into the patient’s world. Potential harm resulting from inappropriate use of camera phones by patients was also identified. Conclusion Patient-initiated camera phone images can empower patients by illustrating their narratives, thus contributing to improved communication in general practice. Potential harm could result from inappropriate use of these images. GPs shown images on patients’ camera phones should make the most of this opportunity for improved understanding of the patient’s world. There are however, potential medicolegal implications such as informed consent, protection of patient and doctor privacy, and the risk of misdiagnosis. PMID:24771843

  11. A narrative study of novice elementary teachers' perceptions of science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrell, Roberta

    It is hoped that, once implemented, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will engage students more deeply in science learning and build science knowledge sequentially beginning in Kindergarten (NRC, 2013). Early instruction is encouraged but must be delivered by qualified elementary teachers who have both the science content knowledge and the necessary instructional skills to teach science effectively to young children (Ejiwale, 2012, Spencer, Vogel, 2009, Walker, 2011). The purpose of this research study is to gain insight into novice elementary teachers' perceptions of science instruction. This research suggests that infusion of constructivist teaching in the elementary classroom is beneficial to the teacher's instruction of science concepts to elementary students. Constructivism is theory that learning is centered on the learner constructing new ideas or concepts built upon their current/past knowledge (Bruner, 1966). Based on this theory, it is recommended that the instructor should try to encourage students to discover principles independently; essentially the instructor presents the problem and lets students go (Good & Brophy, 2004). Discovery learning, hands-on, experimental, collaborative, and project-based learning are all approaches that use constructivist principles. The NGSS are based on constructivist principles. This narrative study provides insight into novice elementary teachers' perceptions of science instruction considered through the lens of Constructivist Theory (Bruner, 1960).

  12. Etiology of obsessions and compulsions: a meta-analysis and narrative review of twin studies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steven

    2011-12-01

    The relative importance of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms is unclear. Cognitive-behavioral models propose that shared environment (e.g., parenting style) is important. Family segregation studies suggest that nonadditive genetic factors may be involved. To investigate the etiology of OC symptoms, a meta-analysis was conducted of 37 twin samples from 14 studies, supplemented by a narrative review. Results indicated that in terms of mean effect sizes, (a) additive genetic effects and nonshared environment accounted for most of the variance in OC symptoms, (b) shared environment and nonadditive genetic effects made little or no contribution; (c) these findings did not vary with sex or symptom severity; (d) variance due to nonshared environment increased with age; (e) gene-environment interactions play an etiologic role; (f) OC symptoms are shaped by etiologic factors common to all types of OC symptoms but also have symptom-specific etiologies; and (g) OC symptoms are also shaped by very general etiologic factors (e.g., those influencing negative emotionality). Overall, the findings indicate that OC symptoms have a complex etiologic architecture that is not adequately explained by contemporary etiological models. PMID:22024245

  13. Case Study of Three Rural Texas Superintendents as Equity Oriented Change Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Gerri Marie; Locke, Leslie Ann; Scheurich, James Joseph

    2013-01-01

    For this qualitative case study (Patton, 2003), we used narrative inquiry (Erlandson, Harris, Skipper, & Allen, 1993) and sought to analyze extended interviews and field notes based on interactions with three rural superintendents working in high-needs, public PK-12 school districts in Texas. We collected data with regard to these superintendents'…

  14. Multiple Perspectives on Elementary Teachers' Science Identities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Lauren; Wiebe, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This narrative case study examined the relationship between teacher identity and elementary science teaching. Teacher identity was described using a modification of Gee's framework incorporating three perspectives: the teachers' self-described identity, the researchers' view of teacher identity, and the students' views of…

  15. A Case Study on Enrichment Seminar and the Socioemotional Needs of Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Joanne Denise

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore gifted alumni perceptions of how participating in an Enrichment Seminar course met their socioemotional needs as they related to identity formation, and whether or not their academic achievement was influenced. The researcher used interviews, narrative questions, and surveys to gather data.…

  16. The Effect of Gender on Perception of Case Studies and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    The case study method of teaching uses real-world narratives to teach concepts and content. This method of teaching encourages active learning, which has been shown to have a positive effect on student performance in many disciplines including science. Although more females than males pursue a postsecondary degree, more males than females pursue…

  17. Mapping Civic Engagement: A Case Study of Service-Learning in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Jessica; Casebeer, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study uses social cartography to map student perceptions of a co-curricular service-learning project in an impoverished rural community. As a complement to narrative discourse, mapping provides an opportunity to visualize not only the spatial nature of the educational experience but also, in this case, the benefits of civic engagement. The…

  18. Moral dilemmas film task: A study of spontaneous narratives by individuals with autism spectrum conditions.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jennifer L; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2009-06-01

    People with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have difficulties with mentalizing, empathy, and narrative comprehension. A new test of social and narrative cognition, the Moral Dilemmas Film Task, was developed to probe individuals' spontaneous understanding of naturalistic film scenes. Twenty-eight individuals with ASC and 28 neurotypical controls, matched for age, sex, and IQ, watched four short emotionally charged film clips each depicting a moral dilemma, and were asked to write about what they had seen. Individuals with ASC produced significantly shorter film-based narratives and showed a smaller bias for mental states over objects in their narratives than controls. A significant correlation was found between verbal IQ and the level of mentalizing in film narratives for the ASC group, but not the control group, while the reverse pattern was found with a measure of self-reported cognitive and affective empathy. These results suggest that to the extent that both groups succeed in viewing moral dilemmas in terms of mental content, they do so in different ways, with individuals with ASC using verbal scaffolding to increase their ability to draw meaning from social scenes. The well-established empathy deficit in ASC extends to spontaneous interpretation of moral dilemmas. This new film task has the potential to assay different aspects of how the social world is represented differently in ASC, including during moral comprehension. PMID:19575384

  19. Vertebral Angiosarcoma. Case Study.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Bone angiosarcomas, especially vertebral angiosarcomas, are very rare. There are no studies based on large clinical samples in the literature, and only a few single case reports can be found. The symptoms of the disease are not specific. It is usually detected incidentally or at a late stage when pathological vertebral fractures or neurological complications occur. Diagnostic imaging and history help to recognize the tumour behind the symptoms, but do not allow accurate clinical diagnosis. The basis for a diagnosis is the histopathological examination supported by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays. The case of a 26-year-old woman with an angiosarcoma involving the eighth thoracic vertebra we report reflects diagnostic problems adversely affecting the efficacy and accuracy of treatment offered to patients. The patient underwent three surgeries of the spine, including two biopsies. A needle biopsy did not provide sufficient information for the diagnosis. An open excisional biopsy, which at the same time temporarily reduced neurological deficits in the patient, was the only chance to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The third surgery was posterior decompression of the spinal cord due to the rapidly escalating paraparesis. It was not until 8 weeks later that the final diagnosis was established. At that time, the patient could not be qualified for any supplementary treatment. The patient died in hospital 6 months after the onset of disease. PMID:26468177

  20. A narrative study of refugee women who have experienced violence in the context of war.

    PubMed

    Berman, Helene; Girón, Estella Rosa Irías; Marroquín, Antonia Ponce

    2006-12-01

    Although women are rarely on the frontlines of battle, as in many other realms of contemporary life they bear a disproportionate burden of the consequences of war. Many have experienced torture firsthand or been witnesses to the torture or killing of family, friends, and loved ones. The use of rape and other forms of sexual torture has been well documented. For those who are forced to flee their homes and countries, separation from spouses, children, and other family members is common. Because of the sheer magnitude of global conflict, the number of refugees and displaced persons throughout the world has risen exponentially. It has been estimated that women constitute more than half of the world's refugee population. The purpose of this narrative study was to examine the experiences of refugee women who experienced violence in the context of war. Data analysis revealed 8 themes: lives forever changed, new notions of normality, a pervasive sense of fear, selves obscured, living among and between cultures, a woman's place in Canada, bearing heavy burdens--the centrality of children, and an uncaring system of care. Implications for research and practice, including limitations associated with individualized Western approaches, are discussed. PMID:17290954

  1. A narrative study of refugee women who have experienced violence in the context of war.

    PubMed

    Berman, Helene; Girón, Estella Rosa Irías; Marroquín, Antonia Ponce

    2009-03-01

    Although women are rarely on the frontlines of battle, as in many other realms of contemporary life they bear a disproportionate burden of the consequences of war. Many have experienced torture firsthand or been witnesses to the torture or killing of family, friends, and loved ones. The use of rape and other forms of sexual torture has been well documented. For those who are forced to flee their homes and countries, separation from spouses, children, and other family members is common. Because of the sheer magnitude of global conflict, the number of refugees and displaced persons throughout the world has risen exponentially. It has been estimated that women constitute more than half of the world's refugee population. The purpose of this narrative study was to examine the experiences of refugee women who experienced violence in the context of war. Data analysis revealed 8 themes: lives forever changed, new notions of normality, a pervasive sense of fear, selves obscured, living among and between cultures, a woman's place in Canada, bearing heavy burdens--the centrality of children, and an uncaring system of care. Implications for research and practice, including limitations associated with individualized Western approaches, are discussed. PMID:19485050

  2. Digital Storytelling as a Narrative Health Promotion Process: Evaluation of a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    DiFulvio, Gloria T; Gubrium, Aline C; Fiddian-Green, Alice; Lowe, Sarah E; Del Toro-Mejias, Lizbeth Marie

    2016-04-01

    Digital storytelling (DST) engages participants in a group-based process to create and share narrative accounts of life events. The process of individuals telling their own stories has not been well assessed as a mechanism of health behavior change. This study looks at outcomes associated with engaging in the DST process for vulnerable youth. The project focused on the experiences of Puerto Rican Latinas between the ages of 15 to 21. A total of 30 participants enrolled in a 4-day DST workshops, with 29 completing a 1 to 3-minute digital story. Self-reported data on several scales (self-esteem, social support, empowerment, and sexual attitudes and behaviors) were collected and analyzed. Participants showed an increase in positive social interactions from baseline to 3-month post workshop. Participants also demonstrated increases in optimism and control over the future immediately after the workshop, but this change was not sustained at 3 months. Analysis of qualitative results and implications are discussed. PMID:27166356

  3. Narratives of Literacy: Connecting Composition to Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniell, Beth

    1999-01-01

    Examines various narratives about literacy, and how they influence the thinking of people in composition studies. Uses J. Lyotard's notions of the grand narratives of modernism and the little narratives of postmodernism to examine: conflicted politics of composition studies; the relationship of theory and ideology; ethical questions of research;…

  4. A call for narrative: the patient's story and anesthesia training.

    PubMed

    Shafer, A; Fish, M P

    1994-01-01

    Narrative plays a key role in medical education and knowledge, via the case history, the case presentation, or even the patient's chart. Hospitalization for elective surgery provides the structure for a discrete story in a person's life. The details make the story unique for each patient. By analyzing themes and content of narratives obtained from patients and medical trainees, the reader gains insight into the realms of patients' and residents' lives. We believe that even anesthesiologists, who work at the procedure-oriented end of the spectrum of patient care, can benefit from a narrative approach to understanding the patient's perspective. An unanticipated reward of the study is the therapeutic benefit that some of the patients express in their narratives. Patients write that they hope future patients will benefit ("Use this information to the betterment of anyone in need & etc" [patient 15]) or physicians and nurses will improve their interactive skills (patient 09). Perhaps physicians may share the rewards of narrative creation that patient 10 expresses when he triumphantly exclaims, "EUREKA!!! ... I hope you learn something from it (as I have from remembering it)." Patients can provide medical personnel not only with signs and symptoms, but also with insight into the human aspects of the medical process. Reading or writing narratives about such processes may enhance physicians' understanding of their patients' experiences. PMID:8007726

  5. PREDICT : A CASE STUDY.

    SciTech Connect

    Kerscher, W. J. III; Booker, J. M.; Meyer, Mary A.

    2001-01-01

    Delphi Automotive Systems and the Los Alamos National Laboratory worked together to develop PREDICT, a new methodology to characterize the reliability of a new product during its development program. Rather than conducting testing after hardware has been built, and developing statistical confidence bands around the results, this updating approach starts with an early reliability estimate characterized by large uncertainty, and then proceeds to reduce the uncertainty by folding in fresh information in a Bayesian framework. A considerable amount of knowledge is available at the beginning of a program in the form of expert judgment which helps to provide the initial estimate. This estimate is then continually updated as substantial and varied information becomes available during the course of the development program. This paper presents a case study of the application of PREDICT, with the objective of further describing the methodology. PREDICT has been honored with an R&D 100 Award presented by R&D Magazine.

  6. Language Policy and Literacy Practices in the Family: The Case of Ethiopian Parental Narrative Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavans, Anat

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyses the Family Language Policy (FLP) in regards language literacy development of children in Ethiopian immigrant families. Bridging the gap between linguistic literacy at home and at school hinders a smooth societal integration and a normative literacy development. This study describes the home literacy patterns shaped by…

  7. Early Development of Narrative Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Linda L.; Sperry, Douglas E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an ethnographic study of African American toddlers and families that focused on children's productive competence in naturally occurring narrativelike conversation. Examines emergence of narrative competence; posits definition incorporating minimal requirements for child participation within the fundamental essence of narrative structure.…

  8. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Autobiographical Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…

  9. Reframing Narrative Cases for Ill-Structured Contexts: The Design with Learners in Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ching-Huei

    2009-01-01

    This study reviews theories supporting the construction of student knowledge and found they rely upon theoretical operations with few pragmatic applications. A new paradigm of learning needs to emerge which focuses on how students actually construct their own knowledge, based on reconstructing current/past knowledge or experience, and their…

  10. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  11. Case Studies in Wilderness Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Melissa; Tarter, Shana Lee

    Five case studies explore issues in wilderness medicine, with emphasis on evacuation decision making. The cases describe medical problems encountered during wilderness trips involving college or high school students. In each case, the situation and facts of the case are outlined, including the patient's medical history and vital signs, and at…

  12. Sable Queens in Bondage: Reading, Independent Study, and Research on the American Slave Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denniston, Dorothy L.

    This paper examines the scope and historical significance of biographies and autobiographies of ex-slaves. The document focuses primarily on accounts of black women published from 1820-1860, but also discusses several narratives from colonial times. Exploits of famous women slaves including Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth are analyzed along…

  13. Characterizing Lifespan Development of Three Aspects of Coherence in Life Narratives: A Cohort-Sequential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köber, Christin; Schmiedek, Florian; Habermas, Tilmann

    2015-01-01

    The ability to narrate stories and a synchronic self-concept develop in the pre- and primary school years. Life story theory proposes that both developments extend to an even later developmental stage, that is, to adolescents' acquisition of a coherent life story. Cross-sectional evidence supports the emergence of a life story in adolescence,…

  14. A Constructivist Study of Middle School Students' Narratives and Ecological Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary L.; Flatt, Barbara; York, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Using participant observation, we describe/interpret the results of teaching a constructivist unit that empowered students in narrative writing and illustration. Participant observation methods included daily note taking, pre-post questioning, and photographing artworks. We analyzed students' stories and illustrations with borrowed and emerging…

  15. Narrative Competence in Children with Pragmatic Language Impairment: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelaars, Mieke P.; Jansonius, Kino; Cuperus, Juliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) show impairments in the use of language in social contexts. Although the issue has been gaining attention in recent literature, not much is known about the developmental trajectories of children who experience pragmatic language problems. Since narrative competence is an important…

  16. Narrative and Expository Writing of Adolescents with Language-Learning Disabilities: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Mills, Shannon; Apel, Kenn

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the narrative and expository writing samples of 12 adolescents with language-learning disabilities (LLD) in Grades 6 to 12 for elements of microstructure (e.g., productivity, grammatical complexity) and macrostructure (genre-specific text structure elements) using an experimental measure. Writing samples were elicited with…

  17. African American women and breast cancer: notes from a study of narrative.

    PubMed

    Moore, R J

    2001-02-01

    Survival after breast cancer and after all cancers is significantly worse for African American women than for others. Although many reasons have been proposed, no studies have explored the reception of messages about breast cancer by African American survivors of this disease, and how public images and discourses about breast cancer affects both their perceived risk for this disease and their experiences of illness. Narrative accounts of their lived experiences with breast cancer were collected from 23 African American survivors of breast cancer. Three themes have emerged: (a) Breast cancer is perceived to be a white woman's disease; (b) cancer is caused by experiences of repeated traumatic heartbreak; and finally, (c) there is a perceived lack of social support and understanding for the unique life experiences of the African American survivor of breast cancer. Nurses are on the front line of patient care. In the context of the managed care environment, they spend more time with patients than other health care providers and are soundboards for many patient concerns. As such, they can use the information provided in this study to inform high-risk women, current patients, partners, and other individuals in the medical community of how African American women might inaccurately access their personal risks for breast cancer, despite the public emphasis on this disease. Through the use of culturally sensitive pamphlets, nurses and other medical practitioners can also open discussions with underserved and minority patients as a means of realistically addressing some of these women's fears about breast cancer. These fears are barriers to effective cancer prevention because these individuals may consciously or unconsciously link a diagnosis of breast cancer, or even behaviors related to cancer prevention, to a potential death sentence. PMID:11219421

  18. Termination: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed. PMID:26583444

  19. Gender equity and equality on Korean student scientists: A life history narrative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Changsoo

    Much research, including that by Koreans (e.g., Mo, 1999), agrees on two major points relating to the inequitable and unequal condition of women in the scientific community: (1) the fact that the under-representation of women in the scientific community has been taken for granted for years (e.g., Rathgeber, 1998), and (2) documenting women's lives has been largely excluded in women's studies (e.g., Sutton, 1998). The basis for the design of this study relates to the aforementioned observations. This study addresses two major research questions: how do social stereotypes exist in terms of gender equity and equality in the South Korean scientific and educational fields, and how do these stereotypes influence women and men's socializations, in terms of gender equity and equality, in the South Korean scientific and educational fields? To investigate the research questions, this qualitative study utilizes a life history narrative approach in examining various theoretical perspectives, such as critical theory, post-structuralism, and postmodernism. Through the participants' perceptions and experiences in the scientific community and in South Korean society, this study fords gendered stereotypes, practices, and socializations in school, family, and the scientific community. These findings demonstrate asymmetric gendered structures in South Korea. Moreover, with the comparison among male and female participants, this study shows how they perceive and experience differently in school, family, and the scientific community. This study attempts to understand the South Korean scientific community as represented by four student scientists through social structures. Education appears to function significantly as an hegemonic power in conveying legitimating ideologies. This process reproduces man-centered social structures, especially in the scientific community. This suggests that to emancipate women's under-representations in the scientific community, educational administrators

  20. The Emotional Complexities of Teaching Conflictual Historical Narratives: The Case of Integrated Palestinian-Jewish Schools in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekerman, Zvi; Zembylas, Michalinos

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Emotions often accompany discussions of ethnic matters, yet there have been few sustained investigations in education of how, and with what implications, emotional responses are (de)legitimized in the classroom, especially when conflicting historical narratives are involved. Emotions have remained in the margins of educational…

  1. Extracting medical information from narrative patient records: the case of medication-related information

    PubMed Central

    Grouin, Cyril; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Objective While essential for patient care, information related to medication is often written as free text in clinical records and, therefore, difficult to use in computerized systems. This paper describes an approach to automatically extract medication information from clinical records, which was developed to participate in the i2b2 2009 challenge, as well as different strategies to improve the extraction. Design Our approach relies on a semantic lexicon and extraction rules as a two-phase strategy: first, drug names are recognized and, then, the context of these names is explored to extract drug-related information (mode, dosage, etc) according to rules capturing the document structure and the syntax of each kind of information. Different configurations are tested to improve this baseline system along several dimensions, particularly drug name recognition—this step being a determining factor to extract drug-related information. Changes were tested at the level of the lexicons and of the extraction rules. Results The initial system participating in i2b2 achieved good results (global F-measure of 77%). Further testing of different configurations substantially improved the system (global F-measure of 81%), performing well for all types of information (eg, 84% for drug names and 88% for modes), except for durations and reasons, which remain problematic. Conclusion This study demonstrates that a simple rule-based system can achieve good performance on the medication extraction task. We also showed that controlled modifications (lexicon filtering and rule refinement) were the improvements that best raised the performance. PMID:20819863

  2. Calciphylaxis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kauric-Klein, Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Caring for J.D. was a stressful experience. The extent of her wounds, pain, and limited options for treatment was very frustrating for the nursing staff. Although she did not survive, patient outcomes were met to some degree. Her pain was controlled to a greater extent, and there was less infection present in her wounds. The nurses worked with J.D. closely to improve her pain control and facilitate less painful dressing changes. They were vigilant in assessing the progress of her wound healing and communicating any increased signs of infections from her wounds. They sang with her to help distract her from the pain she was experiencing and to help her cope with her lengthy 8-month hospitalization. Providing care for J.D. was also a very important learning experience for nurses in terms of appropriate pain management for patients with CUA, wound care, and the need to sustain adequate nutrition to promote wound healing. CUA is a rare but potentially fatal disease that occurs in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent the devastating effects of this disease. Nephrology nurses need to reinforce the importance of keeping calcium, phosphorous, and parathyroid levels within normal ranges for their patients on dialysis. They also need to be vigilant in monitoring for potential CUA skin lesions to prevent and treat it early. To date, treatment options are mostly based on findings from case reports. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach with input from nephrologists, nurses, pain specialists, infectious disease specialists, and surgeons. The major goals of treatment are controlling risk factors, controlling pain, and preventing wound infection and possible sepsis. More studies need to be conducted to test interventions that may help treat CUA. PMID:23094342

  3. Teaching Pharmacology by Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)

  4. Self-defining memories, scripts, and the life story: narrative identity in personality and psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Singer, Jefferson A; Blagov, Pavel; Berry, Meredith; Oost, Kathryn M

    2013-12-01

    An integrative model of narrative identity builds on a dual memory system that draws on episodic memory and a long-term self to generate autobiographical memories. Autobiographical memories related to critical goals in a lifetime period lead to life-story memories, which in turn become self-defining memories when linked to an individual's enduring concerns. Self-defining memories that share repetitive emotion-outcome sequences yield narrative scripts, abstracted templates that filter cognitive-affective processing. The life story is the individual's overarching narrative that provides unity and purpose over the life course. Healthy narrative identity combines memory specificity with adaptive meaning-making to achieve insight and well-being, as demonstrated through a literature review of personality and clinical research, as well as new findings from our own research program. A clinical case study drawing on this narrative identity model is also presented with implications for treatment and research. PMID:22925032

  5. Writing Latina/o Historical Narratives: Narratives at the Intersection of Critical Historical Inquiry and LatCrit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Cinthia S.; Fránquiz, María E.; Rodríguez, Noreen Naseem

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines the experiences of Latina prospective teachers enrolled in a bilingual social studies methods course that focused attention upon critical historical inquiry. The students built historical narratives that deliberately addressed oft-ignored histories of Communities of Color. The analysis argues however that…

  6. The experience of living with chronic heart failure: a narrative review of qualitative studies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is the leading cause of all hospitalisations and readmissions in older people, accounting for a large proportion of developed countries' national health care expenditure. CHF can severely affect people's quality of life by reducing their independence and ability to undertake certain activities of daily living, as well as affecting their psychosocial and economic capacity. This paper reports the findings of a systematic narrative review of qualitative studies concerning people's experience of living with CHF, aiming to develop a wide-ranging understanding of what is known about the patient experience. Methods We searched eight relevant electronic databases using the terms based on the diagnosis of 'chronic heart failure', 'heart failure' and 'congestive heart failure' and qualitative methods, with restrictions to the years 1990-May 2008. We also used snowballing, hand searching and the expert knowledge of the research team to ensure all relevant papers were included in the review. Of 65 papers collected less than half (n = 30) were found relevant for this review. These papers were subsequently summarised and entered into QSR NVivo7 for data management and analysis. Results The review has identified the most prominent impacts of CHF on a person's everyday life including social isolation, living in fear and losing a sense of control. It has also identified common strategies through which patients with CHF manage their illness such as sharing experiences and burdens with others and being flexible to changing circumstances. Finally, there are multiple factors that commonly impact on patients' self care and self-management in the disease trajectory including knowledge, understanding and health service encounters. These health service encounters encompass access, continuity and quality of care, co-morbid conditions, and personal relationships. Conclusions The core and sub-concepts identified within this study provide health

  7. Child's Play: Therapist's Narrative

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228

  8. The Effect of a Narrative Intervention on Story Retelling and Personal Story Generation Skills of Preschoolers with Risk Factors and Narrative Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Trina D.; Slocum, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    Narration, or storytelling, is an important aspect of language. Narrative skills have academic and social importance. This study evaluated the effects of a narrative intervention on story retelling and personal story generation skills of preschoolers with risk factors and narrative language delays. Narrative intervention was delivered in a small…

  9. Barriers and facilitators for integrating digital narratives in secondary school science instruction: A media specialist's action research study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midland, Susan

    Media specialists are increasingly assuming professional development roles as they collaborate with teachers to design instruction that combines content with technology. I am a media specialist in an independent school, and collaborated with two science teachers over a three-year period to integrate technology with their instruction. This action study explored integration of a digital narrative project in three eighth-grade earth science units and one ninth-grade physics unit with each unit serving as a cycle of research. Students produced short digital documentaries that combined still images with an accompanying narration. Students participating in the project wrote scripts based on selected science topics. The completed scripts served as the basis for the narratives. These projects were compared with a more traditional science writing project. Barriers and facilitators for implementation of this type of media project in a science classroom were identified. Lack of adequate access to computers proved to be a significant mechanical barrier. Acquisition of a laptop cart reduced but did not eliminate the technology access issues. The complexity of the project increased implementation time in comparison with traditional alternatives. Evaluation of the completed media projects presented problems. Scores by outside evaluators reflected evaluator unfamiliarity with assessing multimedia projects rather than student performance. Despite several revisions of the assessment rubric, low inter-rater reliability remained a concern even in the last cycle. This suggests that evaluation of media could present issues for teachers who attempt projects of this kind. A writing frame was developed to facilitate production of scripts. This reduced the time required to produce the scripts, but produced writing that was formulaic in the teacher's estimate. A graphic organizer was adopted in the final cycle to address this concern. New insights emerged as the study progressed through the

  10. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…