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1

Flushing submarine canyons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continental slope is a steep, narrow fringe separating the coastal zone from the deep ocean. During low sea-level stands, slides and dense, sediment-laden flows erode the outer continental shelf and the continental slope, leading to the formation of submarine canyons that funnel large volumes of sediment and organic matter from shallow regions to the deep ocean1. During high sea-level

Miquel Canals; Pere Puig; Xavier Durrieu de Madron; Serge Heussner; Albert Palanques; Joan Fabres

2006-01-01

2

Sedimentary facies in submarine canyons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine canyons are the major conduits by which sediment, pollutants and nutrients are transported from the continental shelf out into the deep sea. The sedimentary facies within these canyons are remarkably poorly understood because it has proven difficult to accurately sample these heterogeneous and bathymetrically complex environments using traditional ship-based coring techniques. This study exploits a suite of over 100 precisely located vibracores collected using remotely operated vehicles in ten canyons along the northern Californian margin, enabling better understanding of the facies that exist within submarine canyons, their distribution, and the processes responsible for their formation. The dataset reveals three major facies types within the submarine canyons: extremely poorly sorted, coarse-grained sands and gravels with complex and indistinct internal grading patterns and abundant floating clasts; classical normally graded thin bedded turbidites; and a variety of fine-grained muddy deposits. Not all facies are observed within individual canyons, in particular coarse-grained deposits occur exclusively in canyons where the canyon head cuts up to the modern day beach, whereas finer grained deposits have a more complex distribution that relates to processes of sediment redistribution on the shelf. Pairs of cores collected within 30 meters elevation of one another reveal that the coarse-grained chaotic deposits are restricted to the basal canyon floor, with finer-grained deposits at higher elevations on the canyon walls. The remarkable heterogeneity of the facies within these sediment cores illustrate that distinctive processes operate locally within the canyon. In the authors' experience the canyon floor facies represent an unusual facies rarely observed in ancient outcrops, which potentially results from the poor preservation of ancient coarse-grained canyon deposits in the geological record.

Sumner, E.; Paull, C. K.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; Lundsten, E. M.; McGann, M.

2013-12-01

3

Currents in monterey submarine canyon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flow fields of mean, subtidal, and tidal frequencies between 250 and 3300 m water depths in Monterey Submarine Canyon are examined using current measurements obtained in three yearlong field experiments. Spatial variations in flow fields are mainly controlled by the topography (shape and width) of the canyon. The mean currents flow upcanyon in the offshore reaches (>1000 m) and downcanyon in the shallow reaches (100-m amplitude isotherm oscillations and associated high-speed rectilinear currents. The 15-day spring-neap cycle and a ???3-day??? band are the two prominent frequencies in subtidal flow field. Neither of them seems directly correlated with the spring-neap cycle of the sea level.

Xu, J. P.; Noble, M. A.

2009-01-01

4

Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (Northwest Mediterranean) was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby number and Burger number were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively) and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (?) was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10 day model period, however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. Offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m). Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate) as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies were explained within this new dynamic framework.

Spurgin, J. M.; Allen, S. E.

2014-05-01

5

Wilmington Submarine Canyon: a marine fluvial-like system.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Midrange sidescan sonar data show that a system of gullies and small channels feeds into large submarine canyons on the Middle Atlantic Continental Slope of the US. The surveyed canyons all have relatively flat floors, but they have different channel morphologies. Wilmington Canyon has a meandering channel that extends down the Continental Slope and across the Continental Rise, whereas two canyons south of Wilmington Canyon have straight channels that trend directly downslope onto the rise. The morphology of these submarine canyon systems is remarkably similar to that of terrestrial fluvial systems.-Authors

McGregor, B.; Stubblefield, W. L.; Ryan, W. B. F.; Twichell, D. C.

1982-01-01

6

Contemporary Sediment-Transport Processes in Submarine Canyons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine canyons that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, canyon-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through canyons. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within canyons and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-canyon reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-canyon by large sediment failures.

Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo

2014-01-01

7

Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine canyons.  

PubMed

Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine canyons that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, canyon-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through canyons. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within canyons and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-canyon reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-canyon by large sediment failures. PMID:23937169

Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo

2014-01-01

8

A submarine canyon conduit under typhoon conditions off Southern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of a submarine conduit under typhoon conditions is examined. The study site is the Kao-ping river, shelf, and submarine canyon (KPRSC) system located off southern Taiwan on a wave-dominated microtidal coast. The head of the canyon is located approximately 1km off the river mouth. Two comprehensive 1-month field experiments were carried out in 2000 and 2002 during the

James T. Liu; Hui-Ling Lin; Jia-Jang Hung

2006-01-01

9

Suspended Sediment over Redondo Submarine Canyon and Vicinity, Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Redondo Canyon, which is the southern half of Santa Monica Bay, is one of several deeply-incised submarine valleys which cross the nearshore shelf off southern California. Sediments in the vicinity of the canyon consist primarily of fine sands and sandy s...

R. M. Beer

1969-01-01

10

Submarine slides and submarine canyons on the continental slope off Canterbury, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continental slope off the Canterbury Plains, New Zealand, is a progradational feature dissected by submarine canyons to the north and by submarine slides to the south.To the north, during lower Pleistocene sea levels, fine sand was transported from the continental shelf to the upper continental slope by strong, northward-flowing bottom currents. Mud in suspension was also carried beyond the

Richard H. Herzer

1979-01-01

11

Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (< 10 cm) turbidites, they are inferred to be part of a veneer of recent sediment covering pre-canyon host sediments that underpin the terraces. The combined use of state of the art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E. J.

2013-01-01

12

Physical modeling of tidal resonance in a submarine canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

observations in submarine canyons poleward of 30° are usually dominated by the semidiurnal (M2) tidal frequency, which is superinertial at these latitudes. Observations from a submarine canyon at 44°N (the Gully, Nova Scotia) suggest that canyons can be dominated by the subinertial (K1) tidal frequency if length scales are correct for resonance of the K1 frequency. A model of the Gully was constructed in a tank on a rotating table and tidal currents generated to determine factors that influence resonance. Resonance curves were fit to measurements from the laboratory canyon for a range of stratifications, background rotation rates, and forcing amplitudes. Dense water was observed upwelling onto the continental shelf on either side of the laboratory canyon and traveled at least one canyon width along the shelf. Friction values measured in the laboratory were much higher than expected, probably due to upwelled water surging onto the shelf on each tidal cycle, similar to a tidal bore. By scaling observations from the laboratory to the ocean and assuming friction in the ocean is also affected by water traveling onto the shelf, a resonance curve for the ocean was created. Because of the broad resonance curve, the diurnal tide remains strong year round at the Gully, even as stratification at the shelf break changes. Dense water surging onto the shelf on tidal frequencies may affect friction and mixing at other nonresonant canyons.

Souëf, K. E.; Allen, S. E.

2014-02-01

13

Morpho-sedimentary features and sediment dispersal of the Fangliao Submarine Canyon in the active margin offshore SW Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using newly collected multi-channel seismic profiles and bathymetric data this paper characterizes morphology and relates it to structural and sedimentary processes in the Fangliao Submarine Canyon and contrasts with the nearby Kaoping Canyon about 20 km in distance by the sediment dispersal in terms of source to sink. The Fangliao Canyon consists of three distinct morphologic parts: an upper canyon, a lower canyon and a distal submarine fan. The upper canyon indents into and begins at the shelf edge and extends downsope in a relatively straight course for a distance of about 22 km and ends at water depth of about 600 where the canyon turns sharply to the southwest. The deflection of canyon course is caused by the presence of a structural high of diapiric mud ridge. The lower canyon runs southwestwards along the western edge of the elongate ridge for a distance of about 45 km and is in water depth of about of 900 m where the canyon mouth opens and sediments disperse laterally and downslope, forming a relatively small submarine fan of about 400 square kilometers. The upper canyon is represented by a relatively narrow (3-4.5 km), V-shaped valley with canyon relief less than 300 m. Seismic profiles reveal terminations of parallel reflectors against steep canyon walls and slumping and sliding features, suggesting erosional canyon down-cutting. In the lower canyon, the canyon width increases to 12 km wide and canyon relief greater than 400 meters, indicating intense down-cutting of canyon floor and lateral erosion of canyon walls. However, the cross-sectional morphology is characterized by varying V-and U-shaped valleys. Relatively flat reflectors onlap the canyon floor and result in U-shaped cross sections, indicating combined effects of erosion and deposition. The distal submarine fan is a low-relief depositional feature probably resulting from channelized and overbank deposition. Although under the same conditions of climate, sea-level changes and tectonics of the SW Taiwan margin the Fangliao Canyon differs greatly from the nearby Kaoping Canyon in terms of sediment dispersal. The sediment source of the Fangliao Canyon is mainly derived from the canyon head indenting the shelf edge where neither major rivers nor deltas are close to or present, resulting in limited sediment supply from the shelf to the canyon head. Therefore, the Fangliao Canyon serves as a sediment pathway fed by limited sediments from the shelf edge, allowing to transport sediments for a relatively short distance of about 70 km and depositing them at the upper continental slope in water depth of about 1000 m, forming a small fan, the ultimate sediment sink. In contrast, the head of Kaoping canyon is connected to the Kaoping River, a small mountainous river with a high sediment yield. Recurrent hyperpycnal flows during the flood seasons are transporting great amounts of sediments to the Kaoping canyon head to generate powerful down-slope sediment flows, transporting sediments for a long distance of about 260 km across the entire continental slope and reaching the deep-sea Manila Trench, the ultimate sediment sink. Without continuous and large supply of sediments to the canyon head the Fangliao Canyon can be considered as a sediment pathway with limited capacity for transporting shallow marine sediments to the deep sea. Key words: submarine canyon, morphology, sediment dispersal, seismics,Taiwan

Chang, Y. H.; Chiang, C. S.; Yu, H. S.

2009-04-01

14

Transient wind-driven upwelling in a submarine canyon: A process-oriented modeling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrodynamic model is employed to study flow near a submarine canyon during conditions of upwelling-favorable coastal winds. Findings reveal that up-canyon flow is the rapid geostrophic adjustment to barotropic pressure gradients establishing across the canyon. Stratification leads to the formation of a cyclonic eddy within the canyon, trapping neutrally buoyant matter, and limits the upwelling depth only when a

Jochen Kämpf

2006-01-01

15

Submarine canyons as important habitat for cetaceans, with special reference to the Gully: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been much research interest in the use of submarine canyons by cetaceans, particularly beaked whales (family Ziphiidae), which appear to be especially attracted to canyon habitats in some areas. However, not all submarine canyons are associated with large numbers of cetaceans and the mechanisms through which submarine canyons may attract cetaceans are not clearly understood. This paper reviews some of the cetacean associations with submarine canyons that have been anecdotally described or presented in scientific literature and discusses the physical, oceanographic and biological mechanisms that may lead to enhanced cetacean abundance around these canyons. Particular attention is paid to the Gully, a large submarine canyon and Marine Protected Area off eastern Canada for which there exists some of the strongest evidence available for submarine canyons as important cetacean habitat. Studies demonstrating increased cetacean abundance in the Gully and the processes that are likely to attract cetaceans to this relatively well-studied canyon are discussed. This review provides some limited evidence that cetaceans are more likely to associate with larger canyons; however, further studies are needed to fully understand the relationship between the physical characteristics of canyons and enhanced cetacean abundance. In general, toothed whales (especially beaked whales and sperm whales) appear to exhibit the strongest associations with submarine canyons, occurring in these features throughout the year and likely attracted by concentrating and aggregating processes. By contrast, baleen whales tend to occur in canyons seasonally and are most likely attracted to canyons by enrichment and concentrating processes. Existing evidence thus suggests that at least some submarine canyons are important foraging areas for cetaceans, and should be given special consideration for cetacean conservation and protection.

Moors-Murphy, Hilary B.

2014-06-01

16

Significance of the fine drainage pattern for submarine canyon evolution: The Foix Canyon System, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine gullies are relatively small valleys that occur in a variety of submarine slopes. They are very common in continental slopes and in submarine canyon heads and flanks, where they often form tributary networks. Gullies are smaller than submarine canyons, though there is no standardised size criterion to distinguish between them. Gullies and gully networks have been often viewed as initial steps in the development of larger submarine canyons and more mature drainage networks. The shelf-incising submarine Foix Canyon System (FCS) is located in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Numerous, well-developed and morphologically diverse gullies carve its two heads and flanks. The objective of this study is to analyse the drainage network of the FCS and decipher the role of gullies in its evolution. Submarine gully and canyon networks were extracted from swath bathymetry data of 50 m grid size using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A systematic morphometric analysis was carried out on drainage network of the FCS by using the Horton-Strahler method. Our results show that the FCS is formed by 1660 streams, 1000 km in total length, which can be classified to six stream orders. To detect relevant morphological changes along valley sections, the drainage density, the stream frequency and the drainage area relief parameters were applied. Furthermore, a branching index (Ib) was developed to characterise the geometry of the submarine drainage network. In the canyon heads Ib values are ~ 1.7, which correspond to a dendritic network, whereas Ib in the canyon branches displays values of ~ 2.2 corresponding to a pinnate one. At a finer scale, we have identified two types of canyon flank gullies, namely "rim gullies" and "toe gullies": (1) rim gullies form large, dendritic networks that extend from the canyon thalweg up to the canyon rim, and (2) toe gullies form smaller pinnate networks restricted to the lower part of the canyon flanks. The formation and development of rim gullies are interpreted as the main process responsible for canyon head growth and across-flank transport of material from the continental shelf. Toe gullies, on the other hand, are the morphological expression of the rejuvenation of rim gullies and the canyon itself. Axial incision and toe gully formation are interpreted as the result of bottom-to-top erosive processes acting at different scales, in response to regional and local changes of the factors controlling the system, respectively. This study helps to identify a variety of gullies and the processes they result from and provides a morphometric methodology to characterise submarine drainage networks at fine resolution scales.

Tubau, Xavier; Lastras, Galderic; Canals, Miquel; Micallef, Aaron; Amblas, David

2013-02-01

17

Submarine landsliding and canyon evolution on the northern KwaZulu-Natal continental shelf, South Africa, SW Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphometric and geomorphological analysis of landslides found within several submarine canyons of varying sizes and morphologies from the northern KwaZulu-Natal continental shelf, South Africa, provides insight into submarine canyon evolution. Six large shelf indenting canyons are recognised (Leven, North and South Leadsman, Diepgat, Wright, and White Sands) interspersed with smaller canyons that occur prominently in the northernmost Mabibi area.

Andrew Green; Ron Uken

2008-01-01

18

Axial Channel Morphology Fill and Movement Within Submarine Canyons off California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axial channels of seven submarine canyons off California have recently been investigated with ultrahigh resolution multibeam surveys. Vibracores collected from remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) provide ground truth data on the materials within the axis of six of these canyons. Acoustic beacons were used to track movement of the seafloor within the axis of Monterey Canyon. Multibeam bathymetry (0.15 m vertical

C. K. Paull; D. W. Caress; W. Ussler; E. Lundsten; H. Thomas

2008-01-01

19

Ascension Submarine Canyon, California - Evolution of a multi-head canyon system along a strike-slip continental margin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ascension Submarine Canyon, which lies along the strike-slip (transform) dominated continental margin of central California, consists of two discrete northwestern heads and six less well defined southeastern heads. These eight heads coalesce to form a single submarine canyon near the 2700 m isobath. Detailed seismic stratigraphic data correlated with 19 rock dredge hauls from the walls of the canyon system, suggest that at least one of the two northwestern heads was initially eroded during a Pliocene lowstand of sea level ???3.8 m.y. B.P. Paleogeographic reconstructions indicate that at this time, northwestern Ascension Canyon formed the distal channel of nearby Monterey Canyon and has subsequently been offset by right-lateral, strike-slip faulting along the San Gregorio fault zone. Some of the six southwestern heads of Ascension Canyon may also have been initially eroded as the distal portions of Monterey Canyon during late Pliocene-early Pleistocene sea-level lowstands (???2.8 and 1.75 m.y. B.P.) and subsequently truncated and offset to the northwest. There have also been a minimum of two canyon-cutting episodes within the past 750,000 years, after the entire Ascension Canyon system migrated to the northwest past Monterey Canyon. We attribute these late Pleistocene erosional events to relative lowstands of sea level 750,000 and 18,000 yrs B.P. The late Pleistocene and Holocene evolution of the six southeastern heads also appears to have been controlled by structural uplift of the Ascension-Monterey basement high at the southeastern terminus of the Outer Santa Cruz Basin. We believe that uplift of this basement high sufficiently oversteepened submarine slopes to induce gravitational instability and generate mass movements that resulted in the erosion of the canyon heads. Most significantly, though, our results and interpretations support previous proposals that submarine canyons along strike-slip continental margins can originate by tectonic trunction and lateral offset. ?? 1986.

Nagel, D. K.; Mullins, H. T.; Greene, H. G.

1986-01-01

20

Hudson Submarine Canyon Head Offshore New York and New Jersey: A Dynamic Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hudson Canyon is the largest submarine canyon on the U. S. Atlantic continental margin. Having completed a surface ship multi-beam bathymetric map of the Hudson Canyon region (resolution 100m; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1441/index/html), we report preliminary results of mapping portions of the canyon head (75 square km, water depth 200-500 m) using the Eagle Ray autonomous underwater vehicle (Explorer 27- BO1-2200 AUV, ISE Ltd.) of the University of Southern Mississippi. The AUV was equipped with a Simrad EM2000 multi-beam sonar system and flown 50 m above the seafloor for resolution (3 m), and with a CTD to map water column properties. Shipboard CTD casts were also made and water sampled from the shelf break (depth 200 m) to the upper continental rise (3000 m) for detection of methane. The canyon head is of interest as an essential fish habitat (squid, hake, tilefish, and lobster) that may contribute to sustain a regional fishery and that may conduct sediment to the ocean basin. A shallow trough, the Hudson Shelf Valley, extends ~185 km across the continental shelf connecting the mouth of the Hudson River to the canyon head where it indents the seaward edge of the shelf. The canyon head bifurcates with branch 1 (6 km-long) oriented NW-SE aligned with the Shelf Valley, and branch 2 (4 km-long) oriented N-S. The two branches merge into a segment 10 km-long oriented NW-SE aligned with branch 1. Branch 1 has symmetric walls with mean inclinations of 10 degrees and smooth seafloor, suggesting that it is presently inactive and accumulating a cover of hemipelagic sediment. In contrast, the walls of both the N-S branch 2 and of the contiguous NW-SE segment are asymmetric. The walls of the NW-SE segment have a mean inclination of 15 degrees and exhibit semicircular escarpments 800-900 m long and 600-700 m wide, separated by narrow ravines perpendicular to the canyon axis. Slump blocks with sharp rims occur where N-S branch 1 joins the NW- SE segment. Two circular depressions (diameter 100 and 300 m; relief c.15 m; depths 345 m and 390 m) occur at the base of the SW wall of the segment and may be collapse features related to gas discharge evidenced by a high methane anomaly at the shelf edge. The head of Hudson Canyon encompasses diverse habitats and is a dynamic interface between shelf and slope processes. We thank NOAA's National Undersea Research Program for support.

Rona, P.; Guida, V.; Sullivan, M.; Haag, S.; Macelloni, L.; Sweeney, E.; Scranton, M.; Hobbs, J.; Asper, V.

2007-12-01

21

Dispersal of natural and anthropogenic lead through submarine canyons at the Portuguese margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submarine canyons represent natural conduits for preferential transport of particulate material, including anthropogenic contaminants, from coastal zones directly to the deep sea. To assess related dispersal of natural and anthropogenic lead (Pb), we analyzed Pb concentrations and stable isotope ratios in surface sediments and sediment trap particulate material from the Portuguese margin Nazaré and Setúbal\\/Lisbon canyons. Geochemical data are integrated

T. O. Richter; H. C. de Stigter; W. Boer; C. C. Jesus; T. C. E. van Weering

2009-01-01

22

Delaware River: Evidence for its former extension to Wilmington Submarine Canyon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic-reflection profiles indicate that during the Pleistocene the Delaware River flowed across the continental shelf east of Delaware Bay and emptied into Wilmington Submarine Canyon. The ancestral valley (width, 3 to 8 kilometers; relief, 10 to 30 meters) is buried, is not reflected in the surface topography, and probably predates the formation of the present canyon head.

Twichell, D. C.; Knebel, H. J.; Folger, D. W.

1977-01-01

23

Hanging canyons of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada: Fault-control on submarine canyon geomorphology along active continental margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faulting commonly influences the geomorphology of submarine canyons that occur on active continental margins. Here, we examine the geomorphology of canyons located on the continental margin off Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, that are truncated on the mid-slope (1200-1400 m water depth) by the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone (QCFZ). The QCFZ is an oblique strike-slip fault zone that has rates of lateral motion of around 50-60 mm/yr and a small convergent component equal to about 3 mm/yr. Slow subduction along the Cascadia Subduction Zone has accreted a prism of marine sediment against the lower slope (1500-3500 m water depth), forming the Queen Charlotte Terrace, which blocks the mouths of submarine canyons formed on the upper slope (200-1400 m water depth). Consequently, canyons along this margin are short (4-8 km in length), closely spaced (around 800 m), and terminate uniformly along the 1400 m isobath, coinciding with the primary fault trend of the QCFZ. Vertical displacement along the fault has resulted in hanging canyons occurring locally. The Haida Gwaii canyons are compared and contrasted with the Sur Canyon system, located to the south of Monterey Bay, California, on a transform margin, which is not blocked by any accretionary prism, and where canyons thus extend to 4000 m depth, across the full breadth of the slope.

Harris, Peter T.; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Conway, Kim W.; Greene, H. Gary

2014-06-01

24

Holocene sedimentary activity in a non-terrestrially coupled submarine canyon: Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cook Strait Canyon system, located between the North and South islands of New Zealand, is a large (1800 km2), multi-branching, shelf-indenting canyon on an active subduction margin. The canyon comes within 1 km of the coast, but does not intercept fluvial or littoral sediment systems and is therefore defined as a non-terrestrially coupled system. Sediment transport associated with a strong tidal stream, and seafloor disturbance related to numerous high-activity faults, is known from previous studies. Little is known, however, about the rates of sedimentary activity in the canyon and the processes driving it. A substantial dataset of EM300 multibeam bathymetry, gravity cores, 3.5 kHz seismic reflection profiles, camera and video transects and current meter data have been collected across the region between 2002 and 2011. The canyon system therefore provides an excellent study area for understanding sediment transport in a non-coupled submarine canyon system. Analysis of the data reveals a two-staged sediment transport system where: (1) oceanographic (tidal) processes mobilise sediment from the continental shelf and transport it to depocentres in the upper-central canyons, and (2) tectonic (earthquake) processes remobilise sediment that is transported through the lower canyon to the deep ocean. Tidal boundary-layer currents within the canyon reach velocities up to 0.53 m/s and are capable of mobilising fine sand in the central reach of the upper canyons. The velocity is higher at the canyon rim and capable of mobilising coarse sand. Sediment depocentres resulting from this tidally forced sediment transport have a well formed geomorphology within the mid-upper canyon arms of Cook Strait and Nicholson Canyons. Pseudo-static stability modelling, supported by sediment core analysis, indicates that sediment accumulated in the upper canyons fails during seismic events approximately every 100 years. The 100 year return period ground shaking-level (peak ground acceleration, ignoring the effect of the water column above the seabed) at this site is estimated to be 0.23g. Fresh rock outcrops and bed-scour in the lower canyon floor indicate that remobilised material is transported to the deep ocean. The processes identified here are likely to be analogous to those occurring in many non-coupled shelf-indenting canyons on active margins globally, and provide a framework within which the biological response to geomorphic processes in submarine canyons can be assessed.

Mountjoy, J. J.; Micallef, A.; Stevens, C. L.; Stirling, M. W.

2014-06-01

25

Discovery of two new large submarine canyons in the Bering Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Beringian continental margin is incised by some of the world's largest submarine canyons. Two newly discovered canyons, St. Matthew and Middle, are hereby added to the roster of Bering Sea canyons. Although these canyons are smaller and not cut back into the Bering shelf like the five very large canyons, they are nonetheless comparable in size to most of the canyons that have been cut into the U.S. eastern continental margin and much larger than the well-known southern California canyons. Both igneous and sedimentary rocks of Eocene to Pliocene age have been dredged from the walls of St. Matthew and Middle Canyons as well as from the walls of several of the other Beringian margin canyons, thus suggesting a late Tertiary to Quaternary genesis of the canyons. We speculate that the ancestral Yukon and possibly Anadyr Rivers were instrumental in initiating the canyon-cutting processes, but that, due to restrictions imposed by island and subsea bedrock barriers, cutting of the two newly discovered canyons may have begun later and been slower than for the other five canyons. ?? 1984.

Carlson, P. R.; Karl, H. A.

1984-01-01

26

Submarine canyons: hotspots of benthic biomass and productivity in the deep sea.  

PubMed

Submarine canyons are dramatic and widespread topographic features crossing continental and island margins in all oceans. Canyons can be sites of enhanced organic-matter flux and deposition through entrainment of coastal detrital export, dense shelf-water cascade, channelling of resuspended particulate material and focusing of sediment deposition. Despite their unusual ecological characteristics and global distribution along oceanic continental margins, only scattered information is available about the influence of submarine canyons on deep-sea ecosystem structure and productivity. Here, we show that deep-sea canyons such as the Kaikoura Canyon on the eastern New Zealand margin (42 degrees 01' S, 173 degrees 03' E) can sustain enormous biomasses of infaunal megabenthic invertebrates over large areas. Our reported biomass values are 100-fold higher than those previously reported for deep-sea (non-chemosynthetic) habitats below 500 m in the ocean. We also present evidence from deep-sea-towed camera images that areas in the canyon that have the extraordinary benthic biomass also harbour high abundances of macrourid (rattail) fishes likely to be feeding on the macro- and megabenthos. Bottom-trawl catch data also indicate that the Kaikoura Canyon has dramatically higher abundances of benthic-feeding fishes than adjacent slopes. Our results demonstrate that the Kaikoura Canyon is one of the most productive habitats described so far in the deep sea. A new global inventory suggests there are at least 660 submarine canyons worldwide, approximately 100 of which could be biomass hotspots similar to the Kaikoura Canyon. The importance of such deep-sea canyons as potential hotspots of production and commercial fisheries yields merits substantial further study. PMID:20444722

De Leo, Fabio C; Smith, Craig R; Rowden, Ashley A; Bowden, David A; Clark, Malcolm R

2010-09-22

27

Evolution of Paleogene submarine Canyon-Fan systems, southern Sacramento basin, California  

SciTech Connect

The evolutionary development of the Paleogene Martinez and Meganos Submarine Canyon and Fan systems of the southern Sacramento basin was controlled by a complex interplay of eustatic sea level change and tectonism. In this brief synthesis, the authors postulated that eustatic sea level changes were the dominant or controlling factor, and tectonism, although significant, was of secondary importance. The development of the Paleogene canyon and fan systems is correlated with low sea level stands or regressions at 60 Ma and 56 Ma. Intermittent tectonism, beginning at least 5-10 m.y. earlier, particularly along the western and southwestern margins of the Sacramento basin, controlled the location of the canyon and fan systems. The controlling tectonic elements of the southern basin were north-trending, high-angle faults related to the Kirby Hills and Midland fault zones and the Diablo-Kirby Hills(.) uplift. Both canyons were probably active (that is, channeling coarse sediment to their fans) during most of the late Paleocene. The authors suggest that canyon activity was maintained by south-flowing longshore drift or feeder systems, down-canyon gravity flows (turbidites, etc) and up-down canyon current systems, all of which are typical of modern, active submarine canyon and fan systems. The canyons filled with fine-grained sediments when the canyons were beheaded or separated from the longshore drift system by rising sea level, or when tectonism(.) shifted the major river drainage that supplied the canyon with sediment. Truncation and erosion of the canyon-fill and fan facies of the late Paleocene-early Eocene Meganos Formation along the Diablo outcrop belt was primarily due to the major early middle Eocene lowstand (49.5 Ma).

Fischer, P.J.; Cherven, V.B.; Almgren, A.A.

1986-04-01

28

Internal wave behaviour in the submarine canyons of the Celtic Sea Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Celtic Sea, located off the south coast of Ireland, is a 100-200m deep shelf sea that is notable for the presence of large tidal currents and strong seasonal fluctuations in surface heating and cooling. The shelf edge is a region of rough topography and barotropic tidal flows generate internal waves and associated baroclinic energy fluxes. These internal tides are reflected if they encounter topographic features. The reflection is dependent on the relative topographic slope and can be subcritical (waves continue to shoal), supercritical (waves are reflected back into deep water) or critical (nonlinear effects, potential wave breaking and turbulent mixing). Submarine canyons are a common bathymetric feature along the Celtic Sea shelf edge and are known to trap and focus internal waves towards the head of the canyon, leading to high levels of turbulent mixing. This mixing may drive vertical nutrient fluxes and enhance primary productivity at the shelf edge. Celtic Sea submarine canyons are typically dendritic and vary in cross sectional profile along the length of their axis, providing many different topographic slope values. Using a numerical model, I will investigate the propagation of internal waves through both idealised canyons and realistic canyon bathymetry from the Celtic Sea shelf edge. Using the results I will attempt to parameterise submarine canyon morphology based on its effect on the internal wave field.

Aslam, Tahmeena; Hall, Rob; Heywood, Karen; Dye, Stephen

2014-05-01

29

Marine Protected Area Design and the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Cetaceans in a Submarine Canyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gully, the largest submarine canyon off the coast of eastern Canada, is currently under consid- eration as a marine conservation area, primarily because of the increasing interest in oil and gas production on the Scotian Shelf. Cetaceans, as a guild of abundant, large organisms that are relatively sensitive to such threats, provide a reliable means to determine the boundaries

Sascha K. Hooker; Hal Whitehead; Shannon Gowans

1999-01-01

30

Headless submarine canyons and fluid flow on the toe of the Cascadia accretionary complex  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Headless submarine canyons with steep headwalls and shallowly sloping floors occur on both the second and third landward vergent anticlines on the toe of the Cascadia accretionary complex off central Oregon (45 ??N, 125?? 30??W). In September 1993, we carried out a series of nine deep tow camera sled runs and nine ALVIN dives to examine the relationship between fluid venting, structure and canyon formation. We studied four canyons on the second and third landward vergent anticlines, as well as the apparently unfailed intercanyon regions along strike. All evidence of fluid expulsion is associated with the canyons; we found no evidence of fluid flow between canyons. Even though all fluid seeps are related to canyons, we did not find seeps in all canyons, and the location of the seeps within the canyons differed. On the landward facing limb of the second landward vergent anticline a robust cold seep community occurs at the canyon's inflection point. This seep is characterized by chemosynthetic vent clams, tube worms and extensive authigenic carbonate. Fluids for this seep may utilize high-permeability flow paths either parallel to bedding within the second thrust ridge or along the underlying thrust fault before leaking into the overriding section. Two seaward facing canyons on the third anticlinal ridge have vent clam communities near the canyon mouths at approximately the intersection between the anticlinal ridge and the adjacent forearc basin. No seeps were found along strike at the intersection of the slope basin and anticlinal ridge. We infer that the lack of seepage along strike and the presence of seeps in canyons may be related to fluid flow below the forearc basin/slope unconformity (overpressured by the impinging thrust fault to the west?) directed toward canyons at the surface.

Orange, D. L.; McAdoo, B. G.; Moore, J. C.; Tobin, H.; Screaton, E.; Chezar, H.; Lee, H.; Reid, M.; Vail, R.

1997-01-01

31

Export of terrigenous organic carbon along submarine canyons driven by dense shelf water cascading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At current highstand in sea level, shelves are considered major sites of terrigenous organic carbon (OCterr) accumulation with relatively little connectivity to the ocean interior. In recent years, the process of dense water cascading from the continental shelf, which occurs in numerous places around the world, has been suggested as carrier for OCterr to the deep ocean. The land-locked Mediterranean Sea is characterized by intense and recurrent cascades of dense shelf water. In winter, cold and dry winds cause the formation of dense water over the shelf that may overflow it and travel down to the outer margin and basin. Moored instruments were deployed in the canyons of the Gulf of Lion (France-Spain) and the Adriatic Sea (Italy) to intercept particulate material escaping the shelf and to investigate hydrodynamic and physical properties of the water column. Surface sediments along the shelves were also sampled to evaluate their contribution to the particle fluxes. The relative fractions of autochthonous and advected OC in sediment trap samples were investigated using biogeochemical proxies including alkaline CuO oxidation products (lignin phenols, dicarboxylic acids, and fatty acids), radiocarbon measurements (Ä14C), and elemental and carbon stable isotope (ä13C) compositions. Lignin-derived CuO products were a powerful biogeochemical tool that allowed us to identify the provenance of the material from the continental margin and to assess the amount of OCterr transferred across the slope in both Mediterranean regions. The results indicate that the composition of OC escaping the shelf through submarine canyons depends on the geomorphological setting. At the present sea level stage, cascading on a broad shelf limits the transport of OCterr, promoting instead the down-slope export of material accumulated in the mid- and outer-shelf. In contrast, cascade events on narrow shelves lead to the efficient export of OCterr from shallower regions of the margin along with the dense water formed on the inner-shelf.

Tesi, T.; Puig, P.; Goni, M.; Canals, M.; Langone, L.; Palanques, A.; Miserocchi, S.; Heussner, S.; Trincardi, F.; Calafat, A.; Turchetto, M.; Fabres, J.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Boldrin, A.

2008-12-01

32

Event-driven sediment flux in Hueneme and Mugu submarine canyons, southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Vertical sediment fluxes and their dominant controlling processes in Hueneme and Mugu submarine canyons off south-central California were assessed using data from sediment traps and current meters on two moorings that were deployed for 6 months during the winter of 2007. The maxima of total particulate flux, which reached as high as 300+ g/m2/day in Hueneme Canyon, were recorded during winter storm events when high waves and river floods often coincided. During these winter storms, wave-induced resuspension of shelf sediment was a major source for the elevated sediment fluxes. Canyon rim morphology, rather than physical proximity to an adjacent river mouth, appeared to control the magnitude of sediment fluxes in these two submarine canyon systems. Episodic turbidity currents and internal bores enhanced sediment fluxes, particularly in the lower sediment traps positioned 30 m above the canyon floor. Lower excess 210Pb activities measured in the sediment samples collected during periods of peak total particulate flux further substantiate that reworked shelf-, rather than newly introduced river-borne, sediments supply most of the material entering these canyons during storms.

Xu, J. P.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Noble, M.; Li, A. -C.

2010-01-01

33

Spatial and temporal variability of meiobenthic density in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meiofaunal density distribution was studied from 400 m to 1500 m depth inside Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean), and on the eastern open slope in autumn 2003 and spring 2004. Our multidisciplinary approach allowed to study the hydrodynamics and sedimentary processes in the Blanes Canyon that characterize it as highly heterogeneous environment. Inside the canyon area, particle fluxes were higher than on the slope area, increased from autumn to spring and mostly consisted of lithogenic material. Moreover the canyon’s locations experienced more intense bottoms’ currents and sediment disturbance, being reflected in a greater variability of meiobenthic densities, both between stations and sampling times than on the open slope. No clear trends (e.g. declining densities) associated with increasing depths were observed. Contrary in the open slope, current velocities were relatively lower compared with the canyon area and showed lower temporal variability. At the same time, the nutritional quality of the particle fluxes at deeper grounds were higher, probably allowing the meiofaunal densities not to change over time. In conclusion, the meiobenthos in our system apparently showed a higher temporal variability, inside the canyon area, strongly affected by particle fluxes or erosive and sediment-mixing processes linked to current modifications induced by the canyon topography.

Romano, C.; Coenjaerts, J.; Flexas, M. M.; Zúñiga, D.; Vanreusel, A.; Company, J. B.; Martin, D.

2013-11-01

34

Composition, export and faunal utilization of drift vegetation in the salt river submarine canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine canyons may be particularly important in the transport process of drift seagrasses and seaweeds from highly productive shallow lagoon areas to deeper water. We studied the composition, export, and faunal utilization of shallow, nearshore benthic vegetation as it was transported to offshore areas via the Salt River submarine canyon on the island of St Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. The study was conducted using a saturation diving system (NULS-1: Hydrolab) during two missions in April and August, 1980. Using bottom drifters deployed in Salt River Bay and the submarine canyon, we recorded net benthic current flow up to 2 cm s -1 moving out of the lagoon and down the canyon to deeper water. Using bottom nets set up at the canyon head and at the 29 m isobar, and from transect surveys and drift clump samples, we determined drift plant export rates and drift clump biomass and species composition. The dominant drift plants were Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme and algae in the genera Dictyota, Dictyopterus, and Diloplus. During the second mission, the seagrass Halophila decipiens became more abundant, both in the drift and in large patches along the canyon floor. In both missions, more drift was collected in the nets during high wind conditions than during calmer days. Calculated turnover times ranged from 0·01 to 4·4 days for algae in the order Dictyotales and 4·4 to 18 days for Thalassia blades. Total exported biomass of drift vegetation varied between 1·4 to 65·1 kg wet wt day -1. Samples of drift vegetation contained mostly juvenile forms of both invertebrates and fishes, but in relatively low numbers. Faunal numbers were most strongly related to rate of drift movement.

Josselyn, Michael N.; Cailliet, Gregor M.; Niesen, Thomas M.; Cowen, Robert; Hurley, Ann C.; Connor, Judith; Hawes, Sandra

1983-10-01

35

Impact of the continental shelf slope on upwelling through submarine canyons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine canyons that cut into the continental shelf are regions of enhanced upwelling. The depth of upwelling and flux through the canyons determines their role in exchange between the shelf and the open ocean. Scaling analyses that relate these quantities to the strength of the flow, stratification, Coriolis parameter, and topographic shape parameters allow their estimation in the absence of a full numerical simulation or a detailed field study. Here we add the effect of the continental shelf slope to the scaling of the depth of upwelling, upwelling flux, and deep water stretching. The scaling is then tested using a three-dimensional primitive equation model over 18 distinct geometries. The impact of the continental shelf is significant for real canyons with changes in the depth of upwelling of up to 11% and of the flux of upwelling of up to 70%. The numerical simulations clearly show three types of canyon upwelling, a symmetric time-dependent flux, the dominant advection-driven flux, and a new flux that appears to be related to internal waves. They also suggest that the canyon width is more important than the upstream canyon shape in determining the strength of the flow across the canyon.

Howatt, T. M.; Allen, S. E.

2013-10-01

36

Reconstruction of submarine canyon systems associated with proto-Stockton arch during Late Cretaceous  

SciTech Connect

A hypothetical depositional model of the middle Great Valley gas fields of California includes the area from the Southwest Vernalis gas field in the south (T3S) to the Nicolaus gas field in the north (T12N). The model assumes that (1) the early Campanian Dobbins Shale Member was deposited at or near the shelf/slope break, and (2) the absence of the Dobbins Shale Member indicates scouring processes of active submarine canyon systems. A striking correlation exists between the proposed distribution of the Dobbins Shale Member scour channels and the position of river systems operating today in the valley. The model distinguishes six submarine canyon systems: (1) Feather River/Nicolaus, (2) American River/Florin, (3) Cosumnes River/Poppy Ridge, (4) Mokelumne River/Lodi, (5) Calaveras delta/Mulligan Hill, and (6) Stanislaus River/East Collegeville. The model implies that an extensive delta system was associated with the Calaveras River during deposition of the Dobbins Shale Member, before its erosive exit southwest of the Mulligan Hill gas field, just east of the Los Medanos, Concord, and Willow Pass fields. The presence of possible equivalents of the Dobbins Shale Member of this latter area suggests an early Campanian highland, the proto-Stockton arch. Subsequent Forbes Formation deposition appears to involve apronlike drapes or overlaps of the early Campanian canyons. However, during deposition of the Kione Formation, the canyon systems were reactivated, and canyon scour predominated, matching the scour patterns of the Dobbins Shale Member. From these ancestral canyons, younger canyons could have evolved easily.

Rider, J.

1986-04-01

37

Turbulent mixing and internal tides in Gaoping (Kaoping) Submarine Canyon, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbulent overturning on scales greater than 10 m is observed near the bottom and in mid-depth layers within the Gaoping (formerly spelled Kaoping) Submarine Canyon (KPSC) in southern Taiwan. Bursts of strong turbulence coexist with bursts of strong sediment concentrations in mid-depth layers. The turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rate in some turbulence bursts exceeds 10?4 W kg?1, and the eddy diffusivity exceeds

I-Huan Lee; Ren-Chieh Lien; James T. Liu; Wen-ssn Chuang

2009-01-01

38

Morphology of Submarine Canyons in the Palomares Margin (East of Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphological analysis on the Palomares Margin has been done using high-resolution swath bathymetry data collected during the MARSIBAL-06 (2006) cruise on board of the R/V BIO Hespérides. Complemented with data from GEBCO 2000 and Ifremer (Medimap Group, 2007) the data-set provides the first complete bathymetric mosaic of the Palomares Margin. The bathymetric mosaic allows to study the physiographic provinces of the Palomares Margin and to conduct, for the first time, a detailed morphological analysis of the two main sediment-transfer conduits: the Gata and the Alias-Almanzora Canyons. The Gata Canyon extends for 64km from the outer shelf to the base of the slope with a general W-E direction. A tributary system of canyons originates at the shelf break and continues on the slope until they merge at 1230m water depth. The walls of the canyons are characterized by repeated slides. Perpendicular profiles to the Canyon pathway reveal gentle transversal "V" asymmetrical shapes with a marked axial incision on the canyon floor (highs between 65 to 103m in the southern flank, and between 30-90m in the northern flank ). The transition from an erosional canyon to a deposition channel is located at 2100m water depth, and is characterized by trapezoidal shapes on transversal profiles accompanied of lower relieves (40-65m). At the mouth of the canyon-channel system no sedimentary lobes are observed. The Alias-Almanzora canyon (73km long and preferential direction W-E) is located North of the Gata Canyon and extends from the continental shelf to the base of the slope. A tributary system to the Alias- Almanzora canyon-head locates less than 150m from the coast, facing a fluvial drainage system onland. Proximal tributary canyons and gullies feed the main canyon until it merges in the continental slope at 1516m water depth. The tributary system exhibits a marked "V" shape in transverse profiles and marked axial incisions. Down slope, transversal profiles have trapezoidal shapes. Longitudinal profiles show convex-up sections along the tributary system and concave-up sections from the merge in the main canyon down slope. The transition from an erosional canyon to a depositional channel is located at 2100m water depth. The mouth of the Alias-Almanzora Canyon-channel system is characterized by distributaries channels and lobated features. Morphological analyses from these Canyons indicate they have different origin and evolution. The connection of the Alias-Almanzora Canyon to a fluvial drainage system offshore suggests the canyon formed by erosion of the continental shelf edge during sea-level low stand periods, when entrapment of sediment on deltas and reduced sediment transport through submarine canyons occurred. The Gata Canyon has instead developed by head wards erosion and gravitational instabilities. Both canyon systems are highly influenced by recent tectonics, and structural trends influence their location and changes in pathways. Contribution from Projects SAGAS CTM2005-08071-03-01 and TOPO-IBERIA CSD2006-00041 (R & D National Plan of the Ministry of Science and Technology and FEDER funding, Spain).

Perez-Hernandez, S.; Comas, M. C.; Escutia, C.

2009-04-01

39

Dispersal of natural and anthropogenic lead through submarine canyons at the Portuguese margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine canyons represent natural conduits for preferential transport of particulate material, including anthropogenic contaminants, from coastal zones directly to the deep sea. To assess related dispersal of natural and anthropogenic lead (Pb), we analyzed Pb concentrations and stable isotope ratios in surface sediments and sediment trap particulate material from the Portuguese margin Nazaré and Setúbal/Lisbon canyons. Geochemical data are integrated with previously obtained data on near-bottom hydrodynamics and processes and pathways of sediment transport. The two canyon systems are located in close geographic proximity to each other, but represent contrasting settings in terms of sediment input and down-canyon sediment transport processes. Concentration-isotope diagrams and three-isotope plots ( 206Pb/ 207Pb vs. 208Pb/ 206Pb) suggest binary mixing between natural and anthropogenic end members. The inferred isotopic signature of pollutant Pb ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.143 [1.134-1.149, 95% confidence interval]) is most consistent with industrial Pb; ongoing influence from gasoline Pb additives is at most of minor importance. Two proposed natural end members most likely bracket the isotopic signature of natural Pb. Accordingly, binary mixing calculations indicate that on average 20-45% vs. 35-55% of total Pb is derived from anthropogenic sources in the Nazaré and Setúbal-Lisbon canyon systems, respectively. Enhanced anthropogenic influence in the latter area is consistent with its proximity to heavily populated and industrialized areas and with sediment input from the Tagus and Sado rivers, potential major carriers of pollutant particles. In both canyon systems, the anthropogenic component generally decreases with increasing water depth. Isotopic signatures of sediment trap particulate material are generally consistent with surface sediment data at similar water depth, but show large variability in the upper Nazaré canyon and major deviations from surface sediments in the lower canyon. In the lower canyon, Pb isotopic ratios of sediment trap particulate material mostly reflect low pelagic fluxes from the overlying water column, whereas surface sediment signatures are dominated by episodic down-canyon mass transport events. Such gravity flows appear to incorporate older (pre-industrial) material masking the isotopic signature of pollutant Pb. Large variability in the upper canyon reflects continuous sediment resuspension by bottom currents. Stronger average bottom currents are associated with higher 206Pb/ 207Pb ratios of sediment trap particulate material and hence decreased influence of pollutant Pb. This may reflect preferential resuspension of natural Pb at the canyon floor and/or additional remobilization of older, less-polluted sediment in adjacent areas such as the canyon walls.

Richter, T. O.; de Stigter, H. C.; Boer, W.; Jesus, C. C.; van Weering, T. C. E.

2009-02-01

40

Sedimentary regime of deep submarine canyons around Fylla Banke, northeastern Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary regime of deep submarine canyons around the Fylla Banke, northeastern Labrador Sea Dorthe Paulsen (1), Antoon Kuijpers (2), Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz (3) and Tove Nielsen (2) 1) Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K 2) Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgde 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K. 3) Centre for Past Climate Studies, Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University. Hoegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C The southern end of the Davis Strait, the comparatively shallow-water area separating the Labrador Sea from the Baffin Bay, is cut by two deep submarine canyons of west Greenland, on the western and eastern side of the Fylla Banke, respectively. The purpose of this study is to investigate Late Pleistocene sedimentary processes governing the area of the two canyons in order to test if gravity flows or ocean currents are the most important factors governing canyon sedimentary processes in this region. Furthermore, an account is given on the formation of the two canyons in order to explain the significant difference between them. The study was carried out based on seismic profiles combined with bathymetric information, and a single sidescan sonar profile from one of the canyons (western canyon). Sedimentary information and an age model are derived from of a 5-m long gravity core (TTR13-AT-479G) collected from the mouth of the western canyon (southern end). The data indicates that the sedimentary regime is today highly affected by northward transport of the ocean currents and that gravity flows (southward from shallower to deep waters) are only of limited significance today. The deep southern end of the canyons are influenced by the upper parts of the deep North Atlantic Deep Water, but the majority of the sediment transport is linked to the strong northward flow of the lower parts of the West Greenland Current. For comparison the sediment transport is held up against earlier studies from the Davis Strait area, where 2D seismic profiles were carried out several places of the west coast of Greenland. These studies are from a contourite drift complex at the Davis Strait and north of Labrador Sea. A further possible process operating in maintaining active sediment transport through the canyon may be the cascading of dense winter water formed on the West Greenland shelf.

Paulsen, Dorthe; Kuijpers, Antoon; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Nielsen, Tove

2014-05-01

41

Typhoon associated hyperpycnal turbidity current in a submarine canyon off a river mouth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the result of the interplay between frequent earthquake occurrence, typhoon invasion, and heavy rainfall, many rivers in Taiwan have the potential to generate hyperpycnal plume especially when the typhoon passes through the Taiwan Island and brings a large amount of rainfall. In order to capture the hyperpcnal turbidity current signal, two moorings each configured with an SCTD and ADCP, one with an additional non-sequential sediment trap, were deployed in the head region of the Gaoping Submarine Canyon three days after the typhoon-induced peak of the river discharge and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of the Gaoping River in southern Taiwan. Our data show a demarcation between a tidal and hyperpycnal regimes. The latter lasted for the first 5 days for the 18-day deployment, as defined by higher water density due to high suspended sediment concentration. Several lines of evidence indicate the presence of the tail end of a hyperpycnal turbidity current (HTC), including the retention of warm water near the canyon floor, high SSC, down-canyon directed flow and its vertical structure, and high terrestrial fraction (larger than 70%) of the organic particles carried in the flow. The decreasing mass flux during the passing of the HTC is also an indication of a waning HTC. Our findings also show that the vertical flow structure and the direction of the gravity-driven down-canyon HTC were little affected by the instantaneous tidal oscillations in the canyon. Typhoon Fanapi hit Taiwan on Sep. 19th. (a) The satellite image indicated the cyclonic clouds covered all over the island. (b) The heavy rainfall accumulated over 1000 mm in one day in the southwestern Taiwan. Especially, the high precipitation was concentrated mostly in the drainage basin of the Gaoping River in the southern central range. (Graphs in a and b are by courtesy of Central Weather Bureau-CWB in Taiwan) (c) This graph was taken by FORMOSAT-2 on Sep. 21st and superimposed by the Gaoping Submarine Canyon bathy contour (From Center for Space and Remote Sensing Research-CSRSR, National Central University, Taiwan). The pink line illustrated the thalweg of the submarine canyon. Two mooring's locations were pointed out by red circle in the thalweg. Another red circle was the weather buoy site maintained by CWB.

Hsu, R. T.; Liu, J. T.

2013-12-01

42

Geomorphic characterization of four shelf-sourced submarine canyons along the U.S. Mid-Atlantic continental margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shelf-sourced submarine canyons are common features of continental margins and are fundamental to deep-sea sedimentary systems. Despite their geomorphic and geologic significance, relatively few passive margin shelf-breaching canyons worldwide have been mapped using modern geophysical methods. Between 2007 and 2012 a series of geophysical surveys was conducted across four major canyons of the US Mid-Atlantic margin: Wilmington, Baltimore, Washington, and Norfolk canyons. More than 5700 km2 of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and 890 line-km of sub-bottom CHIRP profiles were collected along the outer shelf and uppermost slope (depths of 80-1200 m). The data allowed us to compare and contrast the fine-scale morphology of each canyon system. The canyons have marked differences in the morphology and orientation of canyon heads, steepness and density of sidewall gullies, and the character of the continental shelf surrounding canyon rims. Down-canyon axial profiles for Washington, Baltimore and Wilmington canyons have linear shapes, and each canyon thalweg exhibits morphological evidence for recent, relatively small-scale sediment transport. For example, Washington Canyon displays extremely steep wall gradients and contains ~100 m wide, 5-10 m deep, v-shaped incisions down the canyon axis, suggesting modern or recent sediment transport. In contrast, the convex axial thalweg profile, the absence of thalweg incision, and evidence for sediment infilling at the canyon head, suggest that depositional processes strongly influence Norfolk Canyon during the current sea-level high-stand. The north walls of Wilmington, Washington and Norfolk canyons are steeper than the south walls due to differential erosion, though the underlying cause for this asymmetry is not clear. Furthermore, we speculate that most of the geomorphic features observed within the canyons (e.g., terraces, tributary canyons, gullies, and hanging valleys) were formed during the Pleistocene, and show only subtle modification by Holocene processes active during the present sea-level high-stand.

Obelcz, Jeffrey; Brothers, Daniel; Chaytor, Jason; Brink, Uri ten; Ross, Steve W.; Brooke, Sandra

2014-06-01

43

A comparison of megafaunal communities in five submarine canyons off Southern California, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remotely operated vehicle surveys were conducted in five submarine canyons off Southern California during research expeditions in 2005 and 2010. Video transects from a range of depths were analysed to produce presence/absence data of megafauna for each site. A comparison of benthic communities at various depths, locales, and canyons was performed. No significant difference was found between canyon communities based on the level of sediment transport activity, however this may be due to the unbalanced sampling of this opportunistic study. There was significant variation in biological community composition and abundance amongst water depths. These depth-related trends are in agreement with the findings of the previous studies and are likely tied to depth-correlated variables such as hydrostatic pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen concentration. Species richness was found to initially increase with depth before declining rapidly at the mouths of the studied canyons. Low oxygen levels in the Santa Monica Basin, into which four of the surveyed canyons empty, may explain this.

Duffy, Grant A.; Lundsten, Lonny; Kuhnz, Linda A.; Paull, Charles K.

2014-06-01

44

Lateral advection of organic matter in cascading-dominated submarine canyons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Gulf of Lions (GoL), dense water overflowing off the shelf occurs seasonally and represents the main mechanism affecting the shelf-slope exchange of particulate organic matter (OM). Most of the dense water export takes place in the south-western GoL and in particular through Cap de Creus (CdC) submarine canyon. Here, benthic instruments were deployed to collect down-canyon particulate fluxes whereas surface sediments were taken after the cascading event along the sediment dispersal system on the shelf, in CdC canyon and in the nearby Lacaze-Duthiers (LD) canyon. The chemical composition of the suspended material and surface sediments were investigated using several proxies including organic and inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, biogenic silica, ? 13C, ? 14C, and alkaline CuO oxidation products. Thermohaline anomalies and high current speed events were measured in CdC canyon since December 2004 until mid-April 2005 indicating a marked off-shelf export of dense water trough the canyon. During the cascading, mud and relatively coarse shelf and upper canyon sediments were the major component of the mass flux. Conversely, advection of fine material via nepheloid layers dominated down-slope fluxes during pre- and post-cascading. The resulting change in grain-size affected the flux of mineral-bound terrigenous OC, indicating that the down-canyon transport of land-derived OM did not occur as bulk but rather its composition is driven by sediment sorting associated with different transport mechanisms. Both surface sediments and sediment trap samples indicated that CdC canyon is well connected to the GoL terrigenous dispersal system. Conversely, our results suggest an overall limited influence of land-derived OM in LD canyon. In spite of the reduced fluvial nutrient supply, a significant pulsed input of modern marine OM was observed in April 2005 at the end of the cascading period. Both intense mixing and lack of strong water column stratification likely played a key role allowing for both diffusion of nutrients-rich waters into the euphotic zone and efficient vertical sink of marine OC. On its way toward the seafloor, this fresh pool of OC interacted with the dense plume overflowing off the shelf, becoming part of the material laterally advected to the slope.

Tesi, T.; Puig, P.; Palanques, A.; Goñi, M. A.

2010-03-01

45

Hudson Submarine Canyon Head Offshore New York and New Jersey: a Dynamic Interface II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hudson Canyon is the largest submarine canyon on the US Atlantic continental margin. Our multidisciplinary study focuses on the canyon head from where it begins as an indentation in the outer continental shelf (water depth 100 m) to 75 km seaward along the canyon axis (water depth 2000 m). A shallow trough, the Hudson Shelf Valley extends about 185 km across the continental shelf and connects the mouth of the Hudson River where the river discharges into New York Bay to the head of the canyon. Our study comprises high-resolution bathymetry using Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Eagle Ray (100 square km area),and delineation of interacting shelf and slope water masses using shipboard and AUV hydrocasts including water samples for methane analysis. The initial 10 km of the canyon head (axial depth 100 m to 300 m) bifurcates where it indents the outer shelf, with one branch aligned NW-SE with the Hudson Shelf Valley and a second branch aligned N-S along the shelf. The walls and floor of the NW-SE branch are smoothed by sediment accumulation and appear inactive in terms of sediment transport. The N-S branch is rough and appears active. Ravines orthogonal to the axis progressively increase in frequency and relief seaward through successive 10 km-long N-S and NW-SE trending sections of the canyon attaining a 1 km spacing. Two circular depressions (diameters 100 m and 300 m; relief c.15 m; depths 345 m and 390 m) occur at the base of the W wall of the N-S segment. The depressions may be collapse features related to gas discharge evidenced by a high methane anomaly (50 nM) detected in the adjacent canyon axis (water depth 421 m). Multiple layers of inter-leaved shelf (fresh) and slope (warm, salty) water masses were observed in the canyon head in summer 2007 and 2008. The dynamic interaction of these water masses is being studied in context of shelf-slope exchange and potential influence on canyon topography and ecosystems. We thank NOAA for support.

Rona, P.; Guida, V.; Scranton, M.; Gong, D.; Sullivan, M.; Haag, S.; Diercks, A.; Asper, V.

2008-12-01

46

Geotechnical Considerations Of Submarine Canyon Formation: The Case Of Cap De Creus Canyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portion of the Cap de Creus canyon, situated in the Gulf of Lion, has been selected for a detailed analysis of slope instability.\\u000a This sector has been chosen because of morphological evidence for slide. Three piston cores have been taken at different water\\u000a depths along an axis perpendicular to the thalweg and a box core has also been taken

M. Sansoucy; Jacques Locat; H. Lee

47

Biodiversity of macrofaunal assemblages from three Portuguese submarine canyons (NE Atlantic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macrofaunal assemblages from three Portuguese submarine canyons, Nazaré, Cascais and Setúbal were studied from samples collected at their upper (900-1000 m), middle (3200-3500 m) and lower sections (4200-4500 m) and at the adjacent open slopes (˜1000 m), during the HERMES cruises D297 (R.R.S. Discovery, 2005) CD179 (R.R.S. Charles Darwin, 2006) and 64PE252 (R.V. Pelagia, 2006). The taxonomic composition and patterns in biodiversity, abundance and community structure of the benthic macrofauna were described. Annelida (42.1% of total abundance; 137 species) and Arthropoda (20.6%; 162 species) were, respectively, the most abundant and the most species-rich Phyla among the 342 taxa identified during this study. Multivariate analyses showed significant differences between and within canyons and between canyons and open slope assemblages. At their upper section, canyons supported higher macrofauna abundance but slightly lower biodiversity than the adjacent slopes at similar depth. In all canyons abundance reached the highest value in the middle section and the lowest in the upper section, with marked fluctuations in Nazaré (474-4599 ind. m -2) and lower variability in Cascais (583-1125 ind. m -2). The high abundance and dominance of the assemblages in the middle section of Nazaré and Setúbal was accompanied by depressed biodiversity, while in Cascais, Hurlbert's expected species richness showed increasing values from the upper to the middle canyon, and maintained the high values at the lower section. Overall, the Nazaré Canyon showed the lowest expected species richness (ES (100): 16-39) and the Cascais Canyon the highest (39-54). There was a significant negative Kendall's correlation between total organic carbon concentrations in the superficial sediments and ES (100) and a significant positive correlation between total nitrogen and macrofauna density. The influences of organic enrichment, sediment heterogeneity and hydrodynamic regime on the abundance, diversity and community structure of the macrofauna are discussed. It is suggested that altered and localised environmental conditions in the Portuguese canyons play an important role in modifying more common abundance and diversity bathymetric patterns evident in many continental slope environments.

Cunha, Marina R.; Paterson, Gordon L. J.; Amaro, Teresa; Blackbird, Sabena; de Stigter, Henko C.; Ferreira, Clarisse; Glover, Adrian; Hilário, Ana; Kiriakoulakis, Konstadinos; Neal, Lenka; Ravara, Ascensão; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Tiago, Áurea; Billett, David S. M.

2011-12-01

48

The surface sediment distribution and sedimentary environment of the Pearl River Submarine Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The grain size composition, particle size parameters, clay mineral, and detrital mineral of surface sediment of this The Pearl River Submarine Canyon (the PRSC, for short) area have been measured and analyzed, which were took sampling in 2005 and 2006 in the northern South China Sea. The results show that the isolines distribution features of these parameters have very good corresponding relation with the geomorphology of the PRSC. On the continental-shelf slope break of the PRSC head (123m-1500m water depth), the close interval isolines of the surface sediment particle size percentage content and size parameters nearly parallel with the water depth isolines. The data of sand percentage content and mean grain size, sorting coefficient and skewness decreases with the increase of water depth. The other way around, the silt and clay percentage content and kurtosis value increase with deeper water. These show that in the canyon head sediment distribution was controlled by the material source (mainly comes from the Pearl River), slope and the northern South China Sea offshore current. In the main PRSC area, the surface sediment grain size composition content and grain size parameter numerical isolines have become a isoline platform which has the similar shape with the main PRSC and extended to the northeast and southwest deep sea basin. This means that the sedimentary environment of main canyon is apparently different with the head environment, that is affected by the high-temperature and high-salt the South China Sea Branch of by the Kuroshio along the 3500 m water depth isoline and alone the canyon to bending. The 25% percentage content isoline of the calcium biological and 45% percentage content isoline of the light mineral show a broadband distribution along the head and upside of the PRSC, and reduces in the entrance with the water depth isolines, apparently influenced by the South China Sea Branch of the Kuroshio. A high value area of the silt, clay mineral, light mineral, heavy mineral, silicon biological, and calcium biological appears to the entrance of the PRSC, which may be controlled by a perennial anticlockwise current. But how the materials passed through the South China Sea Branch of the Kuroshio and sediment here still is not be solved. The distribution of clay minerals close to the distribution of grain size, around the main canyon with more loose and uniform interval value isolines. It is lower of the percentage content isolines value of the Illite, Kaolinite and Chlorite in the canyon than the values around the canyon (specially at northeast, northwest, southwest ). And the Smectite percentage content has the opposite distribution, the value is higher in the canyon than out the canyon. Which means that the Traditional knowledge about ocean clay minerals distribution is influenced by the latitude is not adaptive at submarine canyon area. To sum up, the existence of the PRSC has changed the material transport mode from land to deep ocean basin in the northern South China Sea. Not only it played a transfer passageway, but also it played the role of the sorting and aggregation, which is beneficial to the formation and gathering of certain minerals. This work were supported by the NSFC (41106046), the Youth Ocean Science Fund Project, SOA(2011333) and the Basic Scientific Researching Specific Funds of SIO, SOA (JT1002)

Han, X.; Chu, F.; Li, J.; Xu, D.; Zhang, W.

2012-12-01

49

Tales of Two Turbidity Currents Recorded in Monterey Submarine Canyon, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of turbidity currents to carry sand and coarser sediment from shallow to deep regions in submarine environment has attracted the attention of researchers from different disciplines. Yet not only field measurements of oceanic turbidity currents are a rare achievement but also when such measurements do occur they consist mostly of velocity records with very limited or no data of suspended sediment concentration and grain size distribution. This work focus on two turbidity currents measured in the Monterey Canyon in 2002 with emphasis on suspended sediment from unique samples collected within the body of these currents. It is shown that concentration and grain size of the suspended material, defined by the source of the gravity flows, play a significant role in shaping the characteristics of the currents as they travel downstream the canyon. Before the flows reach their normal state, which is defined by bed slope, bed roughness, and suspended grain size, they might pass through an adjusting preliminary stage where they are subject to capacity-driven deposition releasing heavy material in excess. Flows composed with fine (silt/clay) sediments tend to be thicker than those with sands. The measured velocity and concentration data confirm the different flow patterns between the front and body of turbidity currents and that, even after reaching normal state, the flow regime can be radically disrupted by abrupt changes in canyon morphology.

Xu, J.; Sequeiros, O.; Noble, M. A.

2013-12-01

50

The effects of submarine canyons and the oxygen minimum zone on deep-sea fish assemblages off Hawai'i  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine canyons are reported to be sites of enhanced fish biomass and productivity on continental margins. However, little is known about the effects of canyons on fish biodiversity, in particular on oceanic islands, which are imbedded in regions of low productivity. Using submersibles and high-definition video surveys, we investigated demersal fish assemblages in two submarine canyons and slope areas off the island of Moloka'i, Hawai'i, at depths ranging from 314 to 1100 m. We addressed the interactions between the abundance, species richness and composition of the fish assemblage, and organic matter input and habitat heterogeneity, testing the hypotheses that heterogeneous bottom habitats and higher organic matter input in canyons enhance demersal fish abundance, and species density, richness and diversity, thereby driving differences in assemblage structure between canyons and slopes. Sediment type, substrate inclination, water-mass properties (temperature and dissolved oxygen) and organic matter input (modeled POC flux and percent detritus occurrence) were put into multivariate multiple regression models to identify potential drivers of fish assemblage structure. A total of 824 fish were recorded during ˜13 h of video yielding 55 putative species. Macrouridae was the most diverse family with 13 species, followed by Congridae (5), Ophidiidae (4) and Halosauridae (3). Assemblage structure changed markedly with depth, with the most abrupt change in species composition occurring between the shallowest stratum (314-480 m) and intermediate and deep strata (571-719 m, 946-1100 m). Chlorophthalmus sp. dominated the shallow stratum, macrourids and synaphobranchid eels at intermediate depths, and halosaurs in the deepest stratum. Assemblages only differed significantly between canyon and slope habitats for the shallow stratum, and the deep stratum at one site. Dissolved oxygen explained the greatest proportion of variance in the multivariate data, followed by POC flux and percent organic-detritus occurrence. Fish abundances were generally higher in canyons but only statistically significant for the deepest stratum. Reduced fish abundances both in canyon and slope transects occurred at intermediate depths within the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Species density, diversity and richness and abundance were usually higher in the canyons, but only statistically higher in the deepest stratum. Possible causes for increased abundance and species densities and richness in the deepest stratum in canyons include reduced disturbance at deeper depths. We conclude that submarine canyons on oceanic islands are likely to be sites of enhanced fish abundance and species richness, but that these enhancing effects are offset when oxygen concentrations fall below ˜0.7 ml l-1 in OMZs.

De Leo, Fabio C.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Vetter, Eric W.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Smith, Craig R.

2012-06-01

51

The summer assemblage of large pelagic Crustacea in the Gully submarine canyon: Major patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the trawl-vulnerable crustacean micronekton and macrozooplankton of the Gully, a large, shelf-incising submarine canyon off Nova Scotia, Canada, and a Marine Protected Area. Over 68 species of pelagic crustacea were collected with an International Young Gadoid Pelagic Trawl during three annual summer surveys at one fixed station in the canyon. Depths sampled ranged from the surface to the upper bathypelagic zone, concentrated in the upper 1250 m, with a maximum depth of 1500 m. The crustacean fauna was dominated by cold temperate species typical of mid- to higher-latitudes in the North Atlantic. Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Eusergestes arcticus were particularly dominant in terms of both observed biomass and abundance above 750 m depth. At least 17 species were new records for Canadian waters. The species assemblage of the station varied primarily with depth and diel cycle, the only dominant members of the assemblage showing pronounced inter-annual variations in catch being M. norvegica and Themisto gaudichaudii, both relatively shallow living species.

MacIsaac, K. G.; Kenchington, T. J.; Kenchington, E. L. R.; Best, M.

2014-06-01

52

The Role of Submarine Canyons in the Development of Large-scale Shoreline Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carchuna, located in the Spanish Mediterranean Coast, is a 5 km long beach characterized by the presence of large scale shoreline features (horns) which do not appear to be periodically spaced. A leading hypothesis for their formation is the generation of circulation patterns associated with highly oblique wave propagation over submarine canyons present in the bathymetry (Ortega-Sánchez et al, Marine Geology, 2003). The dynamics of such a circulatory system are explored over the idealized case of linear contours down to 6 m, superimposed over the deeper true bathymetry. A time-dependent 2DH circulation model (Özkan-Haller and Kirby, JGR, 1999) forced using radiation stress gradients derived from a spectral wave model is used. The coupled wave- circulation model can predict the spatial location of large offshore directed flows (rip currents), showing their influence on the development of Carchuna beach features. As well, the model provides spatial and temporal variations in the circulation system due to possible instabilities of the cross-shore and longshore currents. Low-frequency gravity motions, such as edge waves, are also observed. Three different energy sea state contents are considered, each arriving from the most probable wave incoming wave direction. These results will provide insight regarding the possible role of wave propagation and wave-induced circulation patterns along canyon walls in the development of large-scaled shoreline morphology.

Ortega-Sanchez, M.; Ozkan-Haller, T.; Losada, M. A.

2006-12-01

53

Modeled alongshore circulation and morphologic evolution onshore of a large submarine canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alongshore circulation and morphologic evolution observed at an ocean beach during the Nearshore Canyon Experiment, onshore of a large submarine canyon in San Diego, CA (USA), are investigated using a two-dimensional depth-averaged numerical model (Delft3D). The model is forced with waves observed in ~500 m water depth and tidal constituents derived from satellite altimetry. Consistent with field observations, the model indicates that refraction of waves over the canyon results in wave focusing ~500 m upcoast of the canyon and shadowing onshore of the canyon. The spatial variability in the modeled wave field results in a corresponding non-uniform alongshore circulation field. In particular, when waves approach from the northwest the alongshore flow converges near the wave focal zone, while waves that approach from the southwest result in alongshore flow that diverges away from the wave focal zone. The direction and magnitude of alongshore flows are determined by a balance between the (often opposing) radiation stress and alongshore pressure gradients, consistent with observations and previous results. The largest observed morphologic evolution, vertical accretion of about 1.5 m in about 3 m water depth near the wave focal zone, occurred over a one-week period when waves from the northwest reached heights of 1.8 m. The model, with limited tuning, replicates the magnitude and spatial extent of the observed accretion and indicates that net accretion of the cross-shore profile was owing to alongshore transport from converging alongshore flows. The good agreement between the observed and modeled morphology change allows for an in-depth examination of the alongshore force balance that resulted in the sediment convergence. These results indicate that, at least in this case, a depth-averaged hydrodynamic model can replicate observed surfzone morphologic change resulting from forcing that is strongly non-uniform in the alongshore. Funding was provided by the Office of Naval Research, The National Science Foundation, a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and United States Geological Survey joint postdoctoral fellowship, and a National Security Science and Engineering Faculty Fellowship.

Hansen, J. E.; Raubenheimer, B.; List, J. H.; Elgar, S.; Guza, R. T.; Lippmann, T. C.

2012-12-01

54

Slope basins, headless canyons, and submarine palaeoseismology of the Cascadia accretionary complex  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A combination of geomorphological, seismic reflection and geotechnical data constrains this study of sediment erosion and deposition at the toe of the Cascadia accretionary prism. We conducted a series of ALVIN dives in a region south of Astoria Canyon to examine the interrelationship of fluid flow and slope failure in a series of headless submarine canyons. Elevated head gradients at the inflection point of canyons have been inferred to assist in localized failures that feed sediment into a closed slope basin. Measured head gradients are an order of magnitude too low to cause seepage-induced slope failure alone; we therefore propose transient slope failure mechanisms. Intercanyon slopes are uniformly unscarred and smooth, although consolidation tests indicate that up to several metres of material may have been removed. A sheet-like failure would remove sediment uniformly, preserving the observed smooth intercanyon slope. Earthquake-induced liquefaction is a likely trigger for this type of sheet failure as the slope is too steep and short for sediment flow to organize itself into channels. Bathymetric and seismic reflection data suggest sediment in a trench slope basin between the second and third ridges from the prism's deformation is derived locally. A comparison of the amounts of material removed from the slopes and that in the basin shows that the amount of material removed from the slopes may slightly exceed the amount of material in the basin, implying that a small amount of sediment has escaped the basin, perhaps when the second ridge was too low to form a sufficient dam, or through a gap in the second ridge to the south. Regardless, almost 80% of the material shed off the slopes around the basin is deposited locally, whereas the remaining 20% is redeposited on the incoming section and will be re-accreted.

McAdoo, B. G.; Orange, D. L.; Screaton, E.; Lee, H.; Kayen, R.

1997-01-01

55

Tidal and flood signatures of settling particles in the Gaoping submarine canyon (SW Taiwan) revealed from radionuclide and flow measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment transport and sedimentation processes in the Gaoping submarine canyon were studied using sediment trap and current meter moorings deployed at a location during the winter (January-March) and the summer (July-September) months in 2008. At the end of each deployment, sediment cores were also collected from the canyon floor at the mooring site. Samples from sediment traps and sediment cores were analyzed for 210Pb and 234Th by gamma spectrometry. In conjunction with particle size and flow measurements, the datasets suggest that sediment transport in the canyon is tidally-modulated in the drier winter season and flood (river)-dominated in the wetter summer season. From the magnitude and temporal variation of sediment flux in the canyon with respect to the burial flux and sediment budget on the open shelf and slope region, we reaffirm that, on annual or longer timescales, the Gaoping submarine canyon is an effective conduit transporting sediments from the Gaoping River's drainage basin (the source) to the deep South China Sea (the ultimate sink). ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Huh, C. -A.; Liu, J. T.; Lin, H. -L.; Xu, J. P.

2009-01-01

56

Analysis of Submarine Landslides and Canyons along the U.S. Atlantic Margin Using Extended Continental Shelf Mapping Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies of the U.S. Atlantic continental slope and rise aim to understand the: 1) the role of submarine landslides in tsunami generation, and 2) the linkages between margin morphology and sedimentary processes, particularly in and around submarine canyon systems. Data from U.S. Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) and numerous subsequent mapping surveys have facilitated the identification and characterization of submarine landslides and related features in fine detail over an unprecedented spatial extent. Ongoing analysis of USGS collected piston cores, sub-bottom and multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiles, and an extensive suite of legacy MCS data from two landslides, the Southern New England landslide zone and the Currituck Landslide, suggest that the most recent major landslide events are pre-Holocene, but that failures were complex and most likely multi-phase, at times resulting in extensive overlapping debris deposits. Piston core records plus visual observations of the seafloor from recent TowCam deployments and NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer ROV dives reveal ongoing development of colluvial wedge-style debris aprons at the base of scarps within these landslides, showing that these regions continue to evolve long after the initial failure events. Multibeam bathymetry data and MCS profiles along the upper slope reveal evidence for vertical fluid migration and possible seabed gas expulsion. These observations underscore the need to reevaluate the sources of pore fluid overpressure in slope sediments and their role in landslide generation. ECS and more recent multibeam mapping have provided the opportunity to investigate the full extent of submarine canyon morphology and evolution from Cape Hatteras up to the US-Canadian EEZ, which has led to better understanding of the important role of antecedent margin physiography on their development. Six submarine canyon systems along the margin (Veatch, Hydrographer, Hudson, Wilmington-Baltimore, Norfolk-Washington, and Hatteras) are being investigated from the canyon heads down to their deep-water submarine fans in an effort to characterize their sediment transport history and constrain the influences of external processes on their morphology. Each canyon-fan system is morphologically unique and is strongly controlled by source region, antecedent margin morphology, landslide and debris flow processes, and the long-term influence of deep-water (along-slope) currents.

Chaytor, J. D.; Brothers, D. S.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Hoy, S. K.; Baxter, C.; Andrews, B.

2013-12-01

57

Relationship between environment and the occurrence of the deep-water rose shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a multidisciplinary study characterizing the relationships between hydrodynamic conditions (currents and water masses) and the presence and abundance of the deep-water rose shrimp Aristeus antennatus in a submarine canyon (Blanes canyon in the NW Mediterranean Sea). This species is heavily commercially exploited and is the main target species of a bottom trawl fishery. Seasonal fluctuations in landings are

F. Sardà; N. Bahamón; G. Rotllant; M. M. Flexas; J. D. Sánchez; D. Zúñiga; J. Coenjaerts; D. Orellana; G. Jordà; J. Puigdefábregas; A. Sánchez-Vidal; A. Calafat; D. Martín; M. Espino

2009-01-01

58

Composition and provenance of terrigenous organic matter transported along submarine canyons in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous projects in the Gulf of Lion have investigated the path of terrigenous material in the Rhone deltaic system, the continental shelf and the nearby canyon heads. This study focuses on the slope region of the Gulf of Lion to further describe particulate exchanges with ocean’s interior through submarine canyons and atmospheric inputs. Nine sediment traps were deployed from the heads to the mouths of Lacaze-Duthiers and Cap de Creus submarine canyons and on the southern open slope from October 2005 to October 2006. Sediment trap samples were analyzed by CuO oxidation to investigate spatial and temporal variability in the yields and compositional characteristics of terrigenous biomarkers such as lignin-derived phenols and cutin acids. Sediment trap data show that the Dense Shelf Water Cascading event that took place in the months of winter 2006 (January, February and March) had a profound impact on particle fluxes in both canyons. This event was responsible for the majority of lignin phenol (55.4%) and cutin acid (42.8%) inputs to submarine canyons, with lignin compositions similar to those measured along the mid- and outer-continental shelf, which is consistent with the resuspension and lateral transfer of unconsolidated shelf sediment to the canyons. The highest lithogenic-normalized lignin derived phenols contents in sediment trap samples were found during late spring and summer at all stations (i.e., 193.46 ?g VP g-1 lithogenic at deep slope station), when river flow, wave energy and total particle fluxes were relatively low. During this period, lignin compositions were characterized by elevated cinnamyl to vanillyl phenol ratios (>3) at almost all stations, high p-coumaric to ferulic acid ratios (>3) and high yields of cutin acids relative to vanillyl phenols (>1), all trends that are consistent with high pollen inputs. Our results suggest marked differences in the sources and transport processes responsible for terrigenous material export along submarine canyons, mainly consisting of fluvial and shelf sediments during winter and atmospheric dust inputs during spring and summer.

Pasqual, Catalina; Goñi, Miguel A.; Tesi, Tommaso; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Calafat, Antoni; Canals, Miquel

2013-11-01

59

Microbial communities in sunken wood are structured by wood-boring bivalves and location in a submarine canyon.  

PubMed

The cornerstones of sunken wood ecosystems are microorganisms involved in cellulose degradation. These can either be free-living microorganisms in the wood matrix or symbiotic bacteria associated with wood-boring bivalves such as emblematic species of Xylophaga, the most common deep-sea woodborer. Here we use experimentally submerged pine wood, placed in and outside the Mediterranean submarine Blanes Canyon, to compare the microbial communities on the wood, in fecal pellets of Xylophaga spp. and associated with the gills of these animals. Analyses based on tag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene showed that sunken wood contained three distinct microbial communities. Wood and pellet communities were different from each other suggesting that Xylophaga spp. create new microbial niches by excreting fecal pellets into their burrows. In turn, gills of Xylophaga spp. contain potential bacterial symbionts, as illustrated by the presence of sequences closely related to symbiotic bacteria found in other wood eating marine invertebrates. Finally, we found that sunken wood communities inside the canyon were different and more diverse than the ones outside the canyon. This finding extends to the microbial world the view that submarine canyons are sites of diverse marine life. PMID:24805961

Fagervold, Sonja K; Romano, Chiara; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Borowski, Christian; Nunes-Jorge, Amandine; Martin, Daniel; Galand, Pierre E

2014-01-01

60

Microbial Communities in Sunken Wood Are Structured by Wood-Boring Bivalves and Location in a Submarine Canyon  

PubMed Central

The cornerstones of sunken wood ecosystems are microorganisms involved in cellulose degradation. These can either be free-living microorganisms in the wood matrix or symbiotic bacteria associated with wood-boring bivalves such as emblematic species of Xylophaga, the most common deep-sea woodborer. Here we use experimentally submerged pine wood, placed in and outside the Mediterranean submarine Blanes Canyon, to compare the microbial communities on the wood, in fecal pellets of Xylophaga spp. and associated with the gills of these animals. Analyses based on tag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene showed that sunken wood contained three distinct microbial communities. Wood and pellet communities were different from each other suggesting that Xylophaga spp. create new microbial niches by excreting fecal pellets into their burrows. In turn, gills of Xylophaga spp. contain potential bacterial symbionts, as illustrated by the presence of sequences closely related to symbiotic bacteria found in other wood eating marine invertebrates. Finally, we found that sunken wood communities inside the canyon were different and more diverse than the ones outside the canyon. This finding extends to the microbial world the view that submarine canyons are sites of diverse marine life.

Fagervold, Sonja K.; Romano, Chiara; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Borowski, Christian; Nunes-Jorge, Amandine; Martin, Daniel; Galand, Pierre E.

2014-01-01

61

Spatial scale-dependent habitat heterogeneity influences submarine canyon macrofaunal abundance and diversity off the Main and Northwest Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mapping of biodiversity on continental margins on landscape scales is highly relevant to marine spatial planning and conservation. Submarine canyons are widespread topographic features on continental and island margins that enhance benthic biomass across a range of oceanic provinces and productivity regimes. However, it remains unclear whether canyons enhance faunal biodiversity on landscape scales relevant to marine protected area (MPA) design. Furthermore, it is not known which physical attributes and heterogeneity metrics can provide good surrogates for large-scale mapping of canyon benthic biodiversity. To test mechanistic hypotheses evaluating the role of different canyon-landscape attributes in enhancing benthic biodiversity at different spatial scales we conducted 34 submersible dives in six submarine canyons and nearby slopes in the Hawaiian archipelago, sampling infaunal macrobenthos in a depth-stratified sampling design. We employed multivariate multiple regression models to evaluate sediment and topographic heterogeneity, canyon transverse profiles, and overall water mass variability as potential drivers of macrobenthic community structure and species richness. We find that variables related to habitat heterogeneity at medium (0.13 km2) and large (15-33 km2) spatial scales such as slope, backscatter reflectivity and canyon transverse profiles are often good predictors of macrobenthic biodiversity, explaining 16-30% of the variance. Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux and distance from shore are also important variables, implicating food supply as a major predictor of canyon biodiversity. Canyons off the high Main Hawaiian Islands (Oahu and Moloka'i) are significantly affected by organic enrichment, showing enhanced infaunal macrobenthos abundance, whereas this effect is imperceptible around the low Northwest Hawaiian Islands (Nihoa and Maro Reef). Variable canyon alpha-diversity and high rates of species turnover (beta-diversity), particularly for polychaetes, suggest that canyons play important roles in maintaining high levels of regional biodiversity in the extremely oligotrophic system of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. This information is of key importance to the process of MPA design, suggesting that canyon habitats be explicitly included in marine spatial planning. The low-islands of Nihoa and Maro Reef in the NWHI showed a lack of sustained input of terrestrial and macrolagae detritus, likely having an influence on the observed low macrofaunal abundances (see further discussion of ‘canyon effects’ in Section 4.3), and showing the fundamental role of coastal landscape characteristics in determining the amount and nature of allochthonous organic matter entering the system. Total and highly-mobile invertebrate megafauna abundances were two to three times higher in the submarine canyons and slopes of the MHI contrasted with the NWHI (Vetter et al., 2010), also demonstrating the role of this larger contribution of terrestrial and coastal organic enrichment in the MHI contrasted with the NWHI.

De Leo, Fabio C.; Vetter, Eric W.; Smith, Craig R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; McGranaghan, Matthew

2014-06-01

62

Limited depth zonation among bathyal epibenthic megafauna of the Gully submarine canyon, northwest Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gully is a large submarine canyon incised into the Scotian Shelf, in the northwest Atlantic. A submersible-mounted camera was used to collect 17 km of high resolution video imagery of the soft sediment flanks and floor of the canyon between 1000 and 2500 m depth. A depth-stratified random survey design with two transects per stratum was followed. Depth strata were drawn at 1000-1500 m, 1500-2000 m and 2000-2500 m reflecting global and regional faunal boundaries. The 47,614 individuals or colonies observed on the transects were identified into 49 unique taxa drawn from 7 phyla, while 21 additional taxa were observed between the transect lines. Cnidaria was the most diverse phylum (22 taxa) on the transects, followed by the Echinodermata (15 taxa). Most fauna were sessile or sedentary suspension feeders. A species of Xenophyophorida, likely Syringammina sp., was the most abundant taxon. Cluster analysis of transects based on a Bray-Curtis (BC) matrix of species abundance identified one cluster of five transects and one independent transect - the deepest transect (2406 m average depth). A similarity profile test indicated that this structure is not random. There was a significant change in the megafaunal assemblage with depth over scales of 10s of kilometers, accounting for 65% of the variation in the BC matrix. Both total organic carbon and labile carbon were higher in cores from the 1000-1500 m stratum than at greater depth, consistent with transport of food and sediments into the canyon from shallower waters. The first principal component calculated from species abundances separated the two transects from the 1000-1500 m depth stratum from the others indicating that sediment food supply influences community structure and composition. Over small spatial scales (?10 m), eight groups of species associations were identified. However, the associations between the species within each group were not strong with the highest correlation between the Xenophyophorida and the Pennatulacea (?=0.66). At this spatial scale substrate type was an important factor, with hard and soft bottom species associations being identified.

Kenchington, E. L.; Cogswell, A. T.; MacIsaac, K. G.; Beazley, L.; Law, B. A.; Kenchington, T. J.

2014-06-01

63

Multiple drivers of particle fluxes in the Blanes submarine canyon and southern open slope: Results of a year round experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To characterize the temporal and spatial variability of total mass fluxes in the Blanes submarine canyon and the nearby southern open slope, eight near-bottom sediment traps were deployed at 300, 900, 1200 and 1500 m along the canyon axis, and at 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 m of water depth on the southern open slope from November 2008 to November 2009. The results obtained show that mass fluxes were higher into the canyon, ranging from 0.05 to 82.67 g m-2 d-1, compared with those from the open slope that ranged from 0.01 to 9.91 g m2 d-1. Both environments were highly influenced by atmospheric forcing and showed increased total mass fluxes during autumn and winter months. The spatial distribution of total mass fluxes and major constituents (organic matter, carbonate, opal and lithogenics) highlights the contrasts amongst the two physiographic domains in the study area (canyons vs. open slope). The temporal evolution of particle fluxes shows three distinct situations succeeding each other along the year. These are determined by: (1) storms in autumn and winter, driving 60% of the annual total mass flux in Blanes Canyon and 44% in the open slope stations, and also 60% and 40% of the annual OC flux in Blanes Canyon and the southern open slope, respectively; (2) open sea convection in late winter and spring, which is accompanied by a phytoplankton bloom and drives 13% of the settling OC in the canyon and 34% in the open slope; and (3) dust inputs and resuspension by bottom trawling in late spring and -summer months, driving 17% of the annual OC flux in the canyon and 18% in the slope.

Lopez-Fernandez, Pilar; Calafat, Antoni; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Mar Flexas, M.; Cateura, Jordi; Company, Joan B.

2013-11-01

64

Epibiotic relationships on Zygochlamys patagonica (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae) increase biodiversity in a submarine canyon in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continental slope of the southern SW Atlantic Ocean has many distinguishable deep submarine canyons, varying in depth and extension. The benthic fauna within one of them, detected in April 2005 by means of a multibeam SIMRAD EM1002 sonar, and located at 43°35?S to 59°33?W, 325 m depth, was studied to discuss faunal affinities with the neighbouring Patagonian scallop fishing grounds located at upper slope depths. In order to add faunal information to the previous general study, we studied the epibiotic species settled on Patagonian scallops (the dominant species in the area) collected in the reference sampling site using a 2.5-m mouth-opening dredge, 10 mm mesh size. We sampled 103 scallops with shell heights between 22 and 69 mm; epibionts were recorded on both valves. We found 53 epibiotic taxa, which were most conspicuous on the upper valve. Bryozoa was the most diverse group (34 species) while Polychaeta was the most abundant group, recorded on 94% of the scallops. Stylasteridae (2 species) and Clavulariidae (Cnidaria) conform newly recorded epibionts on Z. patagonica and the sponge Tedania (Tedaniopsis) infundibuliformis also represents a new record for the SW Atlantic Ocean.

Schejter, Laura; López Gappa, Juan; Bremec, Claudia Silvia

2014-06-01

65

Deep-sea telepresence: a proposed exploration of the Hudson submarine canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ observation and exploration of the deep-sea environment presents considerable challenges and hazards. Teleoperation of remotely piloted vehicles (RPV) provides an opportunity for continuous telepresence, however, such missions are energy intensive both for propulsion and illumination. Tethered vehicles are limited in range and the need for a weather-dependent surface support ship. An approach is presented which utilizes a shore-based power line/fiber optic cable connected to a deep-sea recharge site. Free flying RPVs periodically recharge batteries and send video and data back to the surface. The recharge site can be relocated to expand the exploration area, and the entire mission remains underwater for the mission duration. The Hudson submarine canyon provides an ideal test site due to its proximity to a large user population area (New York City) and its geological and biological diversity. Alternate test sites and vehicle design issues are detailed. An access fee structure over the Internet for general public participation is discussed, and the possibility of an economically self-supporting venture when conducted on a sufficiently large scale is also considered.

Konesky, Gregory A.

2002-02-01

66

Distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae in submarine canyons and adjacent continental slope areas in Toyama Bay, Sea of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The horizontal and vertical distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae, which included larval stages and postlarval or later stages, were investigated in Toyama Bay located in central Japan. The horizontal distributions in the inner part of the bay were investigated by oblique hauls from 10 m above the sea-bottom to the surface using a Remodeled NORPAC net (LNP net) in May, August, November 2005, January, March, April, July, September, December 2006, March-September, November-December 2007, and January-March 2008. The vertical distributions were investigated by concurrent horizontal hauls at the depths of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 m using a Motoda net (MTD net) in January, March, April, July, September, and December 2006. Mean density of larvae was higher in submarine canyons which dissect the continental shelf and run to the mouth of river, than adjacent continental slope areas. Larvae densely aggregated in the canyon head. Vertical distribution of the larval stages concentrated in the depth range of 100-150 m in both daytime and nighttime, and larvae in the postlarval or later stages showed diel vertical distribution over a wider depth range than larval stages. Our results indicate the possibility of a larval aggregation in energy-rich habitats, and indicated two important roles of submarine canyons, which were larval retention and high food supply.

Nanjo, Nobuaki; Katayama, Satoshi

2014-09-01

67

Sedimentary features and processes in the Nazaré and Setúbal submarine canyons, west Iberian margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present part of the first complete sidescan sonar dataset of the Nazaré and Setúbal Canyons, west Iberian margin, which, in combination with multibeam bathymetry, shallow seismic profiles and precise piston coring of intra-canyon targets, are used to characterise the sedimentary dynamics of these deep-sea settings. The results show that Nazaré and Setúbal Canyons are highly complex environments. They

Raquel G. Arzola; Russell B. Wynn; Galderic Lastras; Douglas G. Masson; Philip P. E. Weaver

2008-01-01

68

Deep flow variability in a deeply incised Mediterranean submarine valley (Blanes canyon)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep flow variability in Blanes canyon is analyzed by means of a unique dataset in which the canyon was instrumented at its axis and at the two canyon walls, from March 2003 to July 2004. The mean intensity of deep currents range between 3.5 cm s-1 (at the canyon axis, 1500 m) and 5.4 cm s-1 (upstream canyon wall, 900 m). A wavelet analysis shows that the energy is concentrated in the 2-30 day band, and it is mainly associated to single (not periodical, not wave-related) events, uncoupled at the different canyon sites. An empirical orthogonal function analysis shows two main patterns of current variability explaining 65% of the total variance. The first mode represents intensifications of the typical along-bathymetry pattern of currents over the canyon. The second mode corresponds to near-bottom upwelling events along the canyon axis with water exiting the canyon through the canyon head. After discussing possible forcing mechanisms, it is here suggested that such deep upwelling events are associated to offshore displacements of the Northern Current. Namely, the interaction of the current with the particular shape of the canyon topography at large depths (>1800 m) would be responsible for the observed deep upwelling events.

Jorda, G.; Flexas, M. M.; Espino, M.; Calafat, A.

2013-11-01

69

Accumulation of dioxins in deep-sea crustaceans, fish and sediments from a submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine canyons are efficient pathways transporting sediments and associated pollutants to deep sea. The objective of this work was to provide with the first assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) levels and accumulation in deep-sea megafauna (crustacean and fish) and sediments in the Blanes submarine canyon (North-Western Mediterranean Sea). The influence of the selected species habitats (pelagic, nektobenthic, and benthic) and the trophic chain level on the accumulation of dioxins was also investigated. Bottom sediment and biota samples were collected at different depths and locations inside the canyon and in the adjacent slope outside the canyon influence. ?2,3,7,8-PCDD/F concentrations in sediments varied from 102 to 680 pg g-1 dry weight (d.w.) (1-6 WHO98-TEQ pg g-1 d.w.). Dioxins are enriched in bottom sediments at higher depths inside the canyon and in particular in the deepest parts of the canyon axis (1700 m depth), whereas no enrichment of dioxins was verified at the deepest sediments from the adjacent open slope outside the canyon influence. The proportion of ?2,3,7,8-PCDF (furans) to ?2,3,7,8-PCDD (dioxins) increased for sediments with higher soot carbon content consistent with the higher affinity of PCDF for sorption onto soot carbon. Higher ?2,3,7,8-PCDD/F levels were found in crustaceans than in fish, ranging from 220 to 795 pg g-1 lipid weight (l.w.) (13-90 WHO98-TEQ pg g-1 l.w.) and 110 to 300 pg g-1 l.w. (22-33 WHO98-TEQ pg g-1 l.w.) in crustaceans and fish, respectively. Dioxin highest concentrations were found in nektobenthic organisms, i.e., benthic organism with swimming capabilities (both fish and crustaceans). These higher levels are consistent with the higher trophic level and predicted biomagnification factors (BMFs) of nektobenthic species. The reduced availability of sediment-bound PCDD/F for benthic species mainly due to soot and organic carbon sorption of these contaminants most probably influenced this result too. While biomagnification exerts a clear influence on the total dioxin concentrations in biota, life habits seem to exert an influence in the differential congener-specific accumulation of dioxins rather than in the total concentration. Thus, pelagic species reflected the estimated congener pattern from the surface water dissolved phase and phytoplankton, whereas the dioxin pattern in benthic and nektobenthic species was more similar to the estimated pattern in the deep-water dissolved phase and the sediment. The three crustacean species considered in this study bioaccumulated higher amounts of other dioxin congeners (non-2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs) compared to fish. An interplay of several factors, such as biota habitats, differential uptake of water column dioxin (dissolved and particle-bound fractions), and different metabolization capabilities and rates (CYP-mediated metabolism) may explain the differences observed in dioxin patterns among crustacean species and between fish and crustaceans in the Blanes submarine canyon.

Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Rotllant, Guiomar; Ábalos, Manuela; Parera, Jordi; Dachs, Jordi; Company, Joan B.; Calafat, Antoni; Abad, Esteban

2013-11-01

70

The use of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a particulate tracer in the water column of Gaoping (Kaoping) Submarine Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-series samples of settling particles were collected in the water column of Gaoping (formerly spelled Kaoping) Submarine Canyon (KPSC) with two sediment traps on taut-line moorings deployed at two different depths (60 and 280 m) between May 26 and June 27, 2004. Average total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations of upper and lower trap array samples were 310 ± 61 ng g - 1 dw (range: 200-440) and 240 ± 36 ng g - 1 dw (range: 180-290), respectively. Principal component analysis results suggest that PAH sources in the trap-collected particles included diesel vehicle/coal burning, diagenetic sources, and petroleum release. PAH downward fluxes based on settling particles were estimated to be 12-44 ?g m - 2 d - 1 . These values are higher than those reported in the literature for most coastal areas. During the sampling period, both traps were significantly tilted by tidal current and fluctuated vertically. The upper traps experienced greater vertical movements, thus their particle characteristics (e.g., POC, particle mass, and fine particle fraction) varied more than those of the lower traps. Hourly depth variations of the tilted sediment trap array were echoed by the corresponding total PAH concentrations. Moreover, the PAH composition of the collected particles was related to the flow direction and speed. These observations suggest that PAHs can be used as an effective chemical tracer for the transport of terrestrial and marine particulates in a complex aquatic environment like Gaoping (Kaoping) Submarine Canyon.

Fang, Meng-Der; Chang, Wei-Kai; Lee, Chon-Lin; Liu, James T.

2009-03-01

71

Trawling-induced daily sediment resuspension in the flank of a Mediterranean submarine canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial bottom trawling is one of the anthropogenic activities causing the biggest impact on the seafloor due to its recurrence and global distribution. In particular, trawling has been proposed as a major driver of sediment dynamics at depths below the reach of storm waves, but the issue is at present poorly documented with direct observations. This paper analyses changes in water turbidity in a tributary valley of the La Fonera (=Palamós) submarine canyon, whose flanks are routinely exploited by a local trawling fleet down to depths of 800 m. A string of turbidimeters was deployed at 980 m water depth inside the tributary for two consecutive years, 2010-2011. The second year, an ADCP profiled the currents 80 m above the seafloor. The results illustrate that near-bottom water turbidity at the study site is heavily dominated, both in its magnitude and temporal patterns, by trawling-induced sediment resuspension at the fishing ground. Resuspended sediments are channelised along the tributary in the form of sediment gravity flows, being recorded only during working days and working hours of the trawling fleet. These sediment gravity flows generate turbid plumes that extend to at least 100 m above the bottom, reaching suspended sediment concentrations up to 236 mg l-1 close to the seafloor (5 m above bottom). A few hours after the end of daily trawling activities, water turbidity progressively decreases but resuspended particles remain in suspension for several hours, developing bottom and intermediate nepheloid layers that reach background levels ?2 mg l-1 before trawling activities resume. The presence of these nepheloid layers was recorded in a CTD+turbidimeter transect conducted across the fishing ground a few hours after the end of a working day. These results highlight that deep bottom trawling can effectively replace natural processes as the main driving force of sediment resuspension on continental slope regions and generate increased near-bottom water turbidity that propagates from fishing grounds to wider and deeper areas via sediment gravity flows and nepheloid layer development.

Martín, Jacobo; Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Ribó, Marta

2014-06-01

72

Formation of pockmarks and submarine canyons associated with dissociation of gas hydrates on the Joetsu Knoll, eastern margin of the Sea of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study, based on 3.5 kHz SBP, 3D seismic data and long piston cores obtained during MD179 cruise, elucidated the timing and causes of pockmark and submarine canyon formation on the Joetsu Knoll in the eastern margin of the Sea of Japan. Gas hydrate mounds and pockmarks aligned parallel to the axis on the top of the Joetsu Knoll are associated with gas chimneys, pull-up structures, faults, and multiple bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs), suggesting that thermogenic gas migrated upward through gas chimneys and faults from deep hydrocarbon sources and reservoirs. Seismic and core data suggest that submarine canyons on the western slope of the Joetsu Knoll were formed by turbidity currents generated by sand and mud ejection from pockmarks on the knoll. The pockmark and canyon formation probably commenced during the sea-level fall, lasting until transgression stages. Subsequently, hydropressure release during the sea level lowering might have instigated dissociation of the gas hydrate around the base of the gas hydrate, leading to generation and migration of large volumes of methane gas to the seafloor. Accumulation of hydrate caps below mounds eventually caused the collapse of the mounds and the formation of large depressions (pockmarks) along with ejection of sand and mud out of the pockmarks, thereby generating turbidity currents. Prolonged pockmark and submarine canyon activities might have persisted until the transgression stage because of time lags from gas hydrate dissociation around the base of the gas hydrate until upward migration to the seafloor. This study revealed the possibility that submarine canyons were formed by pockmark activities. If that process occurred, it would present important implications for reconstructing the long-term history of shallow gas hydrate activity based on submarine canyon development.

Nakajima, Takeshi; Kakuwa, Yoshitaka; Yasudomi, Yukihito; Itaki, Takuya; Motoyama, Isao; Tomiyama, Takayuki; Machiyama, Hideaki; Katayama, Hajime; Okitsu, Osamu; Morita, Sumito; Tanahashi, Manabu; Matsumoto, Ryo

2014-08-01

73

Submarine canyons of north-western Sicily (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea): Variability in morphology, sedimentary processes and evolution on a tectonically active margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swath-bathymetry, mono-channel and multi-channel seismic reflection records acquired during the last two decades on the northern Sicilian margin have unveiled a dense network of submarine canyons within the depth range of 80-2100 m. The canyons display a relevant variability in their geometry, morphology and sedimentary processes. The margin shows a young, tectonically active shelf to slope setting, linking the Sicilian-Maghrebian Thrust Belt to the Tyrrhenian oceanic realm, developed during the Neogene-Quaternary time span. The aim of this study is to highlight the main governing factors that contributed to the evolution and differentiation of the northern Sicilian canyons, mainly focusing on the Gulf of Palermo and on the Gulf of Castellammare. Tectonic control is more evident in the canyons of the Gulf of Palermo, with submarine landslides retrograding on a steep slope and mainly controlling their evolution. Otherwise, canyons, tributaries and gullies mapped in the Gulf of Castellammare developed on a less steep substrate and display sinuous to meandering paths, with a relevant role of coastal/shelf sedimentary inputs and downslope turbidity processes in their formation. Results suggest that, despite the geographically close proximity of the two study areas, the different structural settings of the Castellammare and Palermo Basins are mainly responsible for canyon variability. Data indicate likely on-going uplift and tilting movements along the Sicilian margin, influencing the development of the studied canyons, which have probably been more active during the Quaternary glacial maxima than they are in the present day.

Lo Iacono, Claudio; Sulli, Attilio; Agate, Mauro

2014-06-01

74

Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: Spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VME) in the deep Mediterranean Sea have been identified by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean as consisting of communities of Scleractinia (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata), Pennatulacea (Funiculina quadrangularis) and Alcyonacea (Isidella elongata). This paper deals with video data recorded in the heads of French Mediterranean canyons. Quantitative observations were extracted from 101 video films recorded during the MEDSEACAN cruise in 2009 (Aamp/Comex). Qualitative information was extracted from four other cruises (two Marum/Comex cruises in 2009 and 2011 and two Ifremer cruises in 1995 and 2010) to support the previous observations in the Cassidaigne and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons. All the species, fishing impacts and litter recognized in the video films recorded from 180 to 700 m depth were mapped using GIS. The abundances and distributions of benthic fishing resources (marketable fishes, Aristeidae, Octopodidae), Vulnerable Marine Species, trawling scars and litter of 17 canyons were calculated and compared, as was the open slope between the Stoechades and Toulon canyons. Funiculina quadrangularis was rarely observed, being confined for the most part to the Marti canyon and, I. elongata was abundant in three canyons (Bourcart, Marti, Petit-Rhône). These two cnidarians were encountered in relatively low abundances, and it may be that they have been swept away by repeated trawling. The Lacaze-Duthiers and Cassidaigne canyons comprised the highest densities and largest colony sizes of scleractinian cold-water corals, whose distribution was mapped in detail. These colonies were often seen to be entangled in fishing lines. The alcyonacean Callogorgia verticillata was observed to be highly abundant in the Bourcart canyon and less abundant in several other canyons. This alcyonacean was also severely affected by bottom fishing gears and is proposed as a Vulnerable Marine Species. Our studies on anthropogenic impacts show that seafloor disturbance by benthic fishing is mainly attributable to trawling in the Gulf of Lion and to long lines where rocky substrates are present. The bauxite residue (red mud) expelled in the Cassidaigne canyon was seen to prevent fauna from settling at the bottom of the canyon and it covered much of the flanks. Litter was present in all of the canyons and especially in considerable quantities in the Ligurian Sea, where the heads of the canyons are closer to the coast. Three Marine Protected Areas and one fishing area with restricted access have recently been established and should permit the preservation of these deep ecosystems.

Fabri, M.-C.; Pedel, L.; Beuck, L.; Galgani, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Freiwald, A.

2014-06-01

75

Scavenging rates and particle characteristics in and near the Lacaze-Duthiers submarine canyon, northwest Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better understand the particle exchange processes across the Pyrenean continental margin, sampling was conducted in 1994 and 1995 at stations in and near the Lacaze-Duthiers canyon in the northwestern Mediterranean. Moored current meters provide evidence of water transport along the canyon axis (cross-slope) and along-slope with the prevailing regional circulation. Turbidity measurements show surficial nepheloid layers (SNL) roughly coincident with fluorescence resulting from biological productivity. Recurrent benthic nepheloid layers (BNL) (as observed at a station on the outer-shelf) are advected into the canyon, forming intermediate nepheloid layers (INL). The mineralogical composition of suspended particles collected at stations on the outer-shelf and head of the canyon indicates an illite and chlorite-rich assemblage with minor magnesian calcite, indicative of materials resuspended from the adjacent shelf sediments. The mineralogy of suspended particles at stations farther in the canyon shows the presence of material derived from the Rhone River and likely transported along-slope by the Liguro-Provençal current. Measurements of the short-lived naturally occurring radionuclide 234Th show that it is actively scavenged from the nepheloid layers. Within the canyon, scavenging (as indicated by the mean residence time of dissolved Th with respect to uptake onto particles) is similar in both the SNL (30-58 d) and INL (25-85 d). Residence times of particulate Th with respect to removal from the water column follow the same trends, with values of about 5 d (1994) and 12-19 d (1995) in the SNL and 11-20 d (1994) and 15-23 d (1995) in the INL. This research suggests that while the Lacaze-Duthiers canyon serves as a conduit through which sediment associated with nepheloid layers detached from the shelf are transported, the rates of scavenging of Th in the canyon are not appreciably different from those on the adjacent shelf.

Frignani, M.; Courp, T.; Cochran, J. K.; Hirschberg, D.; Vitoria i Codina, L.

2002-10-01

76

Typhoon- and earthquake-enhanced concentration and inventory of dissolved and particulate trace metals along two submarine canyons off southwestern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of typhoon and earthquake events on the distributions of dissolved and particulate trace metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) is evaluated along the Gaoping Canyon and Fangliao Canyon in a tectonically active margin off southwestern Taiwan. The Fangliao Canyon was mightily struck by a large Pingtung Earthquake (ML 7.0) in winter when terrestrial inputs were insignificant. This large earthquake clearly enhanced the concentration and inventory of total suspended matter (TSM), dissolved and particulate metals by 2-5 fold in Fangliao Canyon and nearby Gaoping Canyon, as compared to those in normal winter conditions. The Gaoping Canyon is typically inundated with massive amounts of terrestrial materials during summer typhoons from the mountainous Gaoping River. Strong contrast of particle and metal distributions can be found between summer and winter and between typhoon and regular summer periods in the Gaoping Canyon, which was apparently caused by various strengths of river inputs followed by sediment resuspension and lateral advection at intermediate and near-bottom depths along the canyon. The water-column and canyon-wide inventories of TSM, dissolved and particulate metals increased up to 2-fold higher during the post-typhoon period than during the rainy period in summer in the Gaoping Canyon. After extreme events, most metals tend to increase their release into the dissolved phase through the increase of TSM concentration. In addition to huge river inputs during typhoon, both typhoon and earthquake induce energetic sea conditions that cause sediment resuspension and enhance the concentration and inventory of particles and metals in submarine canyons.

Hung, J.-J.; Ho, C.-Y.

2014-01-01

77

Bioluminescence in the Monterey Submarine Canyon: image analysis of video recordings from a midwater submersible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video images of bioluminescence were recorded in situ during a 1985 study of the midwater environment of the Monterey Canyon, using a single-person, untethered submersible. Gelatinous organisms were responsible for the most brilliant bioluminescent displays, often exhibiting elaborate kinetics in response to mechanical stimulation. Images of bioluminescent displays recorded from identified organisms are shown and display patterns are described. All

E. A. Widder; S. A. Bernstein; D. F. Bracher; J. F. Case; K. R. Reisenbichler; J. J. Torres; B. H. Robison

1989-01-01

78

Geological exploration in an East Coast submarine canyon from a research submersible  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large talus blocks litter the flat floor of Oceanographer Canyon at a depth of 1460 meters; they indicate down-axis mass transport of floor sediment at an unknown time and rate. From 1460 to 1310 meters the sidewall is covered by unconsolidated sediment lying at 35?? to 40?? from the horizontal. An outcrop of Pleistocene or younger sediment at 1460 meters is probably a remnant of a former fill.

Trumbull, J. V. A.; McCamis, M. J.

1967-01-01

79

A picture on the wall: innovative mapping reveals cold-water coral refuge in submarine canyon.  

PubMed

Cold-water corals are azooxanthellate species found throughout the ocean at water depths down to 5000 m. They occur in patches, reefs or large mound structures up to 380 m high, and as ecosystem engineers create important habitats for a diverse fauna. However, the majority of these habitats are now within reach of deep-sea bottom trawling. Many have been severely damaged or are under threat, despite recent protection initiatives. Here we present a cold-water coral habitat type that so far has been overlooked--quite literally--and that has received minimal impact from human activities. Vertical and overhanging cliffs in deep-sea canyons, revealed using an innovative approach to marine habitat mapping, are shown to provide the perfect substratum for extensive cold-water coral-based communities. Typical canyon-related processes, including locally enhanced internal tides and focussed downslope organic carbon transport, provide favourable environmental conditions (current regime, food input) to sustain the communities, even outside the optimal depth and density envelopes reported elsewhere in the NE Atlantic. Our findings show that deep-sea canyons can form natural refuges for faunal communities sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance, and have the potential to fulfil the crucial role of larval sources for the recolonisation of damaged sites elsewhere on the margin. PMID:22194903

Huvenne, Veerle A I; Tyler, Paul A; Masson, Doug G; Fisher, Elizabeth H; Hauton, Chris; Hühnerbach, Veit; Le Bas, Timothy P; Wolff, George A

2011-01-01

80

A Picture on the Wall: Innovative Mapping Reveals Cold-Water Coral Refuge in Submarine Canyon  

PubMed Central

Cold-water corals are azooxanthellate species found throughout the ocean at water depths down to 5000 m. They occur in patches, reefs or large mound structures up to 380 m high, and as ecosystem engineers create important habitats for a diverse fauna. However, the majority of these habitats are now within reach of deep-sea bottom trawling. Many have been severely damaged or are under threat, despite recent protection initiatives. Here we present a cold-water coral habitat type that so far has been overlooked – quite literally – and that has received minimal impact from human activities. Vertical and overhanging cliffs in deep-sea canyons, revealed using an innovative approach to marine habitat mapping, are shown to provide the perfect substratum for extensive cold-water coral-based communities. Typical canyon-related processes, including locally enhanced internal tides and focussed downslope organic carbon transport, provide favourable environmental conditions (current regime, food input) to sustain the communities, even outside the optimal depth and density envelopes reported elsewhere in the NE Atlantic. Our findings show that deep-sea canyons can form natural refuges for faunal communities sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance, and have the potential to fulfil the crucial role of larval sources for the recolonisation of damaged sites elsewhere on the margin.

Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Doug G.; Fisher, Elizabeth H.; Hauton, Chris; Huhnerbach, Veit; Le Bas, Timothy P.; Wolff, George A.

2011-01-01

81

Defining biological assemblages (biotopes) of conservation interest in the submarine canyons of the South West Approaches (offshore United Kingdom) for use in marine habitat mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, the upper part of a submarine canyon system located in water depths between 138 and 1165 m in the South West (SW) Approaches (North East Atlantic Ocean) was surveyed over a 2 week period. High-resolution multibeam echosounder data covering 1106 km2, and 44 ground-truthing video and image transects were acquired to characterise the biological assemblages of the canyons. The SW Approaches is an area of complex terrain, and intensive ground-truthing revealed the canyons to be dominated by soft sediment assemblages. A combination of multivariate analysis of seabed photographs (184-1059 m) and visual assessment of video ground-truthing identified 12 megabenthic assemblages (biotopes) at an appropriate scale to act as mapping units. Of these biotopes, 5 adhered to current definitions of habitats of conservation concern, 4 of which were classed as Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems. Some of the biotopes correspond to descriptions of communities from other megahabitat features (for example the continental shelf and seamounts), although it appears that the canyons host modified versions, possibly due to the inferred high rates of sedimentation in the canyons. Other biotopes described appear to be unique to canyon features, particularly the sea pen biotope consisting of Kophobelemnon stelliferum and cerianthids.

Davies, Jaime S.; Howell, Kerry L.; Stewart, Heather A.; Guinan, Janine; Golding, Neil

2014-06-01

82

From Kings Peak to the Delgado submarine canyon: Tracking littoral inputs to the deep sea at the Mendocino Triple Junction, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravel coarse enough to overcome viscous damping and impact bedrock underwater is thought prerequisite for incision of submarine canyons, yet with few exceptions, canyons off the California coast have headwalls >2 km offshore at the shelf edge and below storm wave base. This suggests effective disconnection from modern coarse littoral sediment fluxes, and implies they are relict Pleistocene features only actively incised during glacial periods. North of the Transverse Ranges only five submarine canyons approach shore closer than 500 m, and are coincident areas of rapid uplift. Although canyons occur adjacent to major upland-draining streams that transport coarse sediment, submarine canyon headwalls are often laterally offset from stream mouths by ~1-2 km. Coarse stream sediment thus requires littoral transport to enter canyon heads and induce incision. To better understand the evolution of coarse sediment through the littoral system, we measured the texture and composition of coarse sediment in streams and beaches directly onshore of the Delgado submarine canyon, which lies offshore of the fastest uplifting segment of the King Range and onshore the Mendocino Triple Junction. Adjacent to the Delgado Canyon inlet, coarse (d50 > 360 mm) sediment enters the littoral zone from three streams, and is transported alongshore in a predominantly southeast direction. Stream-derived alluvium is comprised of a poorly to moderately sorted mixture of angular to subrounded clasts of well-cemented sandstone (d50 = 256-725 mm) and fissile siliciclastic mudstone (d50 = 90-256 mm). Well sorted and rounded beach gravels adjacent to stream mouths are similarly coarse, and clasts larger than 1 m diameter extend 200-400 meters eastward from stream mouths. In contrast, sediment entering the littoral zone from hillslope erosion between streams is finer (d50 ~16 mm) and is exclusively comprised of pervasively-folded siliciclastic mudstone. Immediately adjacent the Delgado canyon headwall, beach sediments are nearly two orders of magnitude finer than sediment at stream mouths (d50 = 16 mm). However, sandstone clasts are coarser (d50 = 32 mm), comprise ~30% of the total mass, and approximately 10% of these clasts exceed 128 mm in diameter. The mudstone fraction in contrast is much finer (d50 = 4 mm). Particles finer than 0.25 mm represent less than 10% of beach sediment, consistent with effective removal of fines from the littoral environment. Lithologic contrast between sandstone and mudstone rock types is the basis for a multi-lithologic downstream fining model that routes sediment through the littoral system. Inputs of sediment are calculated according to upstream catchment area for 200 m segments of coastline and scaled according to lithologically based erosion rates, with differential diminuation as it is routed through the littoral zone. Initial model results indicate that differential abrasion of mudstone clasts relative to sandstone clasts is important to achieving grain size and lithologic distributions observed at the canyon head, and the presence of clasts >100 mm diameter ~1 km from their input via stream to the littoral zone provides tools needed for incision submarine bedrock.

Davidson, C. J.; Di Fiori, R. V.; Smith, M. E.; Mueller, E. R.

2011-12-01

83

Trophic relationships at intrannual spatial and temporal scales of macro and megafauna around a submarine canyon off the Catalonian coast (western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal changes of near-bottom macrofauna (suprabenthos and macroplankton) and the trophic relationships of megabenthic decapod crustaceans were analyzed off the Catalonian coasts (western Mediterranean) around Berenguera submarine canyon in four periods (April and December 1991, March and July 1992) and four zones (within Berenguera Canyon at ca. 450 m, and on adjacent slope at ca. 400, 600 m and 1200 m). In March 1992, we found the highest macrofauna abundance and the smallest sizes in the canyon, suggesting a positive effect of river discharges on suprabenthos recruitment. By contrast, macroplankton (decapods, fishes and euphausiids) did not show higher recruitment into canyons. After analyzing the diet of 23 decapod crustaceans, we found a significant segregation between guilds feeding on zooplankton and on benthos. Zooplankton (euphausiids and Pasiphaeidae) and infauna (polychaetes, Calocaris macandreae and ophiuoroids) were consistently the main prey exploited by decapod crustaceans around Berenguera Canyon. We also found some macrophyte ( Posidonia oceanica) consumption, which was higher in periods of water column homogeneity (winter-spring and late autumn). Positive correlations between decapods' gut fullness ( F) and decapod abundance indicate feeding aggregations, while positive correlations were also found between F and Llobregat River (situated ca. 18 km from Berenguera head) flow 1 to 2 months before sampling. Increases in F were delayed only 1 month when zooplankton feeders were analyzed alone, while benthos feeders did not show significant relationships with any environmental variables. That indicates that the response of megabenthic decapods feeding on benthos to environmental shifts is slower than that of zooplankton feeders. The importance of river flows in enhancing food supply of macro- and megabenthos dwelling close to submarine canyons was apparent, with a delay in the fauna response of 0-2 months after river flow peaks.

Cartes, Joan E.; Fanelli, Emanuela; Papiol, Vanesa; Maynou, Francesc

2010-04-01

84

Demography and movement patterns of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) aggregating near the head of a submarine canyon along the open coast of southern California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The demography, spatial distribution, and movement patterns of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) aggregating near the head of a submarine canyon in La Jolla, California, USA, were investigated to resolve the causal explanations for this and similar shark aggregations. All sharks sampled from the aggregation site (n=140) were sexually mature and 97.1 % were female. Aerial photographs taken during tethered balloon surveys revealed high densities of milling sharks of up to 5470 sharks ha-1. Eight sharks were each tagged with a continuous acoustic transmitter and manually tracked without interruption for up to 48 h. Sharks exhibited strong site-fidelity and were generally confined to a divergence (shadow) zone of low wave energy, which results from wave refraction over the steep bathymetric contours of the submarine canyon. Within this divergence zone, the movements of sharks were strongly localized over the seismically active Rose Canyon Fault. Tracked sharks spent most of their time in shallow water (?2 m for 71.0 % and ?10 m for 95.9 % of time), with some dispersing to deeper (max: 53.9 m) and cooler (min: 12.7 °C) water after sunset, subsequently returning by sunrise. These findings suggest multiple functions of this aggregation and that the mechanism controlling its formation, maintenance, and dissolution is complex and rooted in the sharks' variable response to numerous confounding environmental factors.

Nosal, D. C.; Cartamil, D. C.; Long, J. W.; Luhrmann, M.; Wegner, N. C.; Graham, J. B.

2013-01-01

85

Large-scale stratigraphic architecture and sequence analysis of an early Pleistocene submarine canyon fill, Monte Ascensione succession (Peri-Adriatic basin, eastern central Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Monte Ascensione succession (c. 2.65-2.1 Ma) is a well-exposed example of an exhumed submarine canyon fill embedded within slope hemipelagic mudstones. This gorge represented a long-lasting pathway for sediment transport and deposition and during the Gelasian delivered Apennine-derived clastic sediment to the adjacent Peri-Adriatic basin. A total of six principal lithofacies types, representing both canyon-confining hemipelagic deposits and canyon-filling turbidity current and mass-transport deposits, can be delineated in the studied sedimentary succession. The canyon-fill deposits display a marked cyclic character and the component lithofacies succeed one another to form at least fifteen fining-upward stratal units, which are interpreted to represent high-frequency, unconformity-bounded depositional sequences. Variability in the vertical repetition of constituent lithofacies allows the identification of three basic styles of sequence architecture that can be interpreted in terms of differing positions along a conceptual down-canyon depositional profile. An integrated chronology, based on biostratigraphic data and on palaeomagnetic polarity measurements, strongly supports a one-to-one correlation between the sequence-bounding surfaces and oxygen isotope stages G2-78, suggesting that the most feasible sequence-engendering mechanism is that of orbitally dictated glacio-eustatic changes in sea level, which regulated timing of sediment storage on the shelf and its redistribution beyond the shelf edge. One of the most significant aspects of this study is the demonstration that processes occurring within upper slope canyons can be expected to be strongly influenced by variations in sea level; that is, the erosional and depositional features evident in these deposits can be strongly controlled by allocyclic processes rather than autocyclic or random processes.

Di Celma, Claudio; Teloni, Riccardo; Rustichelli, Andrea

2014-04-01

86

Hazard assessment for a submarine landslide generated local-source tsunami from Kaikoura Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kaikoura Canyon, sediment sink for the Canterbury rivers north of Christchurch, comes to within 500 meters of shore at Goose Bay and accumulates approximately 1.5x106 m3 of sediment each year (Lewis and Barnes, 1999). This sediment, which has accumulated to about seventy meters in thickness (Walters et al., 2006), exhibits tensional fractures, is located in a tectonically active area and could result in catastrophic failure and potentially a local-source tsunami (Lewis and Banes, 1999; Lewis, 1998; Walters et al, 2006). Evidence suggests that this may have happened in the last two hundred years (Lewis, 1998; Lewis and Barnes 1999) and with a return period on the nearby Alpine and Hope faults also in the range of a one to two hundred years (Walters et al, 2006) could happen again relatively soon. A review of the historical record and oral traditions for Kaikoura shows that historically Kaikoura has been affected by 11 events of which 10 are from distant sources and one, though debatable, is possibly from a local source. There are some preserved traditions for the Kaikoura area. These taniwha stories from near Oaro and from the Lyell Creek have been repeated and changed though time though the general essence remains the same. These taniwha legends, though not conclusive, indicate a dangerous shoreline where people have been killed in the past, possibly by flooding or tsunami. Archaeological investigations at Kaikoura found evidence of a Maori occupational layers interrupted by water-worn stones, a "lens of clean gravel between occupation layers" and in other areas of the excavation, the gravels separate discontinuous periods of occupation (Fomison 1963; Foster, 2006). Additionally "pea-gravel" sized greywacke pebbles were found dispersed throughout sections of the South Bay shore platforms, though they were attributesd to slopewash (Duckmanton, 1974) this is less likely since the nearby hills are limestone. A geological investigation along the Kaikoura Coast, at five sites from South Bay to Oara, corroborates this. At four of the sites a similar greywacke pebble bearing layer was found which was not present at test sites to the North and South of the peninsula (Kiwa Rd Campsites and Claverly respectively). These deposits contain diatoms indicating marine provenance. Surveys of Kaikoura peninsula households and businesses showed low levels of preparedness for a local source event. In regards to local-source tsunamis the district council has indicated that they "are unpredictable [and] it is impractical to include rules to mitigate their effects. Instead, the Council is committed to a Civil Defence network which provides an educative role and which sets in place a process for dealing with the results of any tsunami" (Kaikoura District Plan, 2010). Plans and an education strategy need to be formulated and implemented. They need to address considerations such as the fact that about 60% of those surveyed expect some sort of siren warning and the limitations inherent in such a warning system along with signage and public tsunami hazard maps and evacuation zones.

DuBois, J.

2012-04-01

87

Structure-Forming Corals and Sponges and Their Use as Fish Habitat in Bering Sea Submarine Canyons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continental margins are dynamic, heterogeneous settings that can include canyons, seamounts, and banks. Two of the largest canyons in the world, Zhemchug and Pribilof, cut into the edge of the continental shelf in the southeastern Bering Sea. Here currents and upwelling interact to produce a highly productive area, termed the Green Belt, that supports an abundance of fishes and squids

Robert J. Miller; John Hocevar; Robert P. Stone; Dmitry V. Fedorov

2012-01-01

88

Structure-forming corals and sponges and their use as fish habitat in Bering Sea submarine canyons.  

PubMed

Continental margins are dynamic, heterogeneous settings that can include canyons, seamounts, and banks. Two of the largest canyons in the world, Zhemchug and Pribilof, cut into the edge of the continental shelf in the southeastern Bering Sea. Here currents and upwelling interact to produce a highly productive area, termed the Green Belt, that supports an abundance of fishes and squids as well as birds and marine mammals. We show that in some areas the floor of these canyons harbors high densities of gorgonian and pennatulacean corals and sponges, likely due to enhanced surface productivity, benthic currents and seafloor topography. Rockfishes, including the commercially important Pacific ocean perch, Sebastes alutus, were associated with corals and sponges as well as with isolated boulders. Sculpins, poachers and pleuronectid flounders were also associated with corals in Pribilof Canyon, where corals were most abundant. Fishes likely use corals and sponges as sources of vertical relief, which may harbor prey as well as provide shelter from predators. Boulders may be equivalent habitat in this regard, but are sparse in the canyons, strongly suggesting that biogenic structure is important fish habitat. Evidence of disturbance to the benthos from fishing activities was observed in these remote canyons. Bottom trawling and other benthic fishing gear has been shown to damage corals and sponges that may be very slow to recover from such disturbance. Regulation of these destructive practices is key to conservation of benthic habitats in these canyons and the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:22470486

Miller, Robert J; Hocevar, John; Stone, Robert P; Fedorov, Dmitry V

2012-01-01

89

Biophysical Factors Affecting the Distribution of Demersal Fish around the Head of a Submarine Canyon Off the Bonney Coast, South Australia  

PubMed Central

We sampled the demersal fish community of the Bonney Canyon, South Australia at depths (100–1,500 m) and locations that are poorly known. Seventy-eight species of demersal fish were obtained from 12 depth-stratified trawls along, and to either side, of the central canyon axis. Distributional patterns in species richness and biomass were highly correlated. Three fish assemblage groupings, characterised by small suites of species with narrow depth distributions, were identified on the shelf, upper slope and mid slope. The assemblage groupings were largely explained by depth (?w?=?0.78). Compared to the depth gradient, canyon-related effects are weak or occur at spatial or temporal scales not sampled in this study. A conceptual physical model displayed features consistent with the depth zonational patterns in fish, and also indicated that canyon upwelling can occur. The depth zonation of the fish assemblage was associated with the depth distribution of water masses in the area. Notably, the mid-slope community (1,000 m) coincided with a layer of Antarctic Intermediate Water, the upper slope community (500 m) resided within the core of the Flinders Current, and the shelf community was located in a well-mixed layer of surface water (<450 m depth).

Currie, David R.; McClatchie, Sam; Middleton, John F.; Nayar, Sasi

2012-01-01

90

Architecture and development of a multi-stage Baiyun submarine slide complex in the Pearl River Canyon, northern South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baiyun submarine slide complex (BSSC) along the Pearl River Canyon of the northern South China Sea has been imaged by multibeam bathymetry and 2D/3D seismic data. By means of maximum likelihood classification with slope aspect and gradient as inputs, the BSSC is subdivided into four domains, denoted as slide area I, II, III and IV. Slide area I is surrounded by cliffs on three sides and has been intensely reshaped by turbidity currents generated by other kinds of mass movement outside the area; slide area II incorporates a shield volcano with a diameter of approximately 10 km and unconfined slides possibly resulting from the toe collapse of inter-canyon ridges; slide area III is dominated by repeated slides that mainly originated from cliffs constituting the eastern boundary of the BSSC; slide area IV is distinguished by a conical seamount with a diameter of 6.5 km and a height of 375 m, and two slides probably having a common source that are separated from each other by a suite of residual strata. The BSSC is interpreted to be composed of numerous slide events, which occurred in the period from 10.5 to 5.5 Ma BP. Six specific factors may have contributed to the development of the BSSC, i.e., gas hydrate dissociation, gas-bearing sediments, submarine volcanic activity, seismicity, sedimentation rate and seafloor geomorphology. A 2D conceptual geological model combining these factors is proposed as a plausible mechanism explaining the formation of the BSSC. However, the BSSC may also have been affected by the Dongsha event (10 Ma BP) as an overriding factor.

Wang, Lei; Wu, Shi-Guo; Li, Qing-Ping; Wang, Da-Wei; Fu, Shao-Ying

2014-05-01

91

Morphology, sedimentary features and evolution of a large palaeo submarine canyon in Qiongdongnan basin, Northern South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large Miocene-aged palaeo canyon that extents through the Qiongdongnan basin (QDNB) and Yinggehai basin (YGHB) of Northern South China Sea has been of considerable interest both economically and scientifically over the past decade. Stemmed from this, significant research has been employed into understanding the mechanism for its existence, incision, and sedimentary fill, yet debate remains. In the first case the canyon itself is actually quite anomalous. Alone from the size (over 570 km in length and more than 8 km in width (Yuan et al., 2009)), which is considerably more than most ancient deep-water channels (REFS), the canyon's sedimentary fill is also distinctly different. Some explanations have been given to explain the canyon's origin and existence, these include increased sediment supply from the Red River which is genetically linked to uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, lowstand turbidite and mass-transport activity, reactivation and dextral displacement of the Red River Fault zone inducing erosive gravity-flows, regional tilt of the QDNB and YGHB, paleo-seafloor morphology and seal-level fluctuations. With the application of new data obtained from interpretations of a large number of 2D seismic profiles, core and well log data, and tectonic and sedimentary analysis this contribution aims to: (1) Present models to explain the Canyon's sedimentary fill and basin plain deposits, which provided significant understanding of processes pre-, syn- and post-incision and; (2) review the plausibility and likelihood of each of the controlling mechanisms, hoping to shed light on this controversial aspect. We conclude that the final erosive event that shaped the canyon is dated at 5.5 Ma. The Canyon's unusual fill is a product of variation in the interaction between turbidity currents and MTD that blocked the canyon's axis, and the reduction in gravity flow energy through time; and therefore the complete succession represents one major erosive and cut event at 5.5 Ma and thereafter multi-gravity currents fills unlike in most slope channel-fills.

Li, Xiangquan; Fairweather, Luke; Wu, Shiguo; Ren, Jianye; Zhang, Hongjie; Quan, Xiayun; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Cheng; Su, Ming; He, Yunlong; Wang, Dawei

2013-01-01

92

Habitat associations of deep-water rockfishes in a submarine canyon: an example of a natural refuge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?A multidisciplinary assess- ment,of benthic ,rockfishes,(genus Se- bastes) and associated,habitats,in deep water,was ,conducted ,in Soquel ,Sub- marine Canyon, Monterey Bay, Califor- nia. Rock habitats,at depths,to 300 m

Mary M. Yoklavich; H. Gary Greene; Gregor M. Cailliet; Deidre E. Sullivan; Robert N. Lea; Milton S. Love

93

Acoustic facies and depositional processes in the upper submarine canyon Swatch of No Ground (Bay of Bengal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swatch of No Ground (SoNG) is a canyon that incises the Bengal shelf deeply over more than 100km length landward of the shelf edge and ?100km west of the Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna river mouth. It acts as conduit for the fluvially discharged sediment that bypasses the shelf and reaches the deep sea fan. What transport, deposition and mass-wasting processes contribute to

B. Kottke; T. Schwenk; M. Breitzke; M. Wiedicke; H. R Kudrass; V. Spiess

2003-01-01

94

The Dnepr Canyon: evidence for a continuous submarine channel link between the outer shelf and the deep-sea basin of the northwestern Black Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multibeam bathymetric surveys and single-beam profiles were collected in 2003-2010 from aboard the Ukrainian RV Professor Vodyanitskiy (cruises PV-58 and PV-60, 2003 and 2004), and the German RV Meteor (cruise M-72, legs 1 and 4, 2007) and RV Maria S. Merian (cruise MSM-15, leg 2, 2010) along the continental margin of the NW Black Sea. Integrating published, reprocessed and novel data has revealed the existence of a major continuous channel extending from the Dnepr paleo-delta into greater water depths. It is more than 90 km long, 1.1 km wide and up to 125 m deep. On the upper slope (120-960 m water depth), a number of smaller channels merge into the large, Y-shaped Dnepr Canyon, which then continues obliquely downslope via this submarine channel to at least 1,815 m water depth off the Crimean continental margin, NW Black Sea. The channel could be an important, hitherto unknown link between the shallow oxic and deep anoxic environments of the Black Sea, along which sediment and organic matter could be funneled into the deep-sea basin. This would have far-reaching implications for investigations dealing with marine geology and biology, climate change, as well as oil and natural gas exploitation. The unusual alignment of the channel along the margin of the basin, as well as the location and mode of channel termination in deeper waters deserve future research.

Gulin, Sergei B.; Artemov, Yuriy G.; Egorov, Viktor N.; Evtushenko, Dmitriy B.

2013-08-01

95

Submarine canyon, slope, and shelf sedimentation in an upper Eocene-Oligocene progradational system (Limnos Island, north Aegean Sea, Greece)  

SciTech Connect

The only well-exposed outcrops of a post-Alpine late Eocene-Oligocene basin in the north Aegean Sea are at Limnos Island. These mostly consist of typical slope deposits overlain by remnants of shallow marine shelf and continental (braided-river) deposits. Three main slope lithofacies are distinguished. Canyon deposits consist of thick-bedded, massive, and pebbly sandstones (facies B), conglomerates (facies A), pebbly mudstone where the matrix shows flow (facies F), rock falls (nummulitic limestones), and zones of slump folds in sandstones (facies F). Channelized facies of massive sandstones, classical turbidites, and thin interbeds of sandstone and mudstone (facies E - probably overbank or levee deposits) are associated with canyon deposits. Pelagic and hemipelagic slope deposits consist of mudstone (facies G) and thin-bedded sandstone (facies D) with occasional small to medium-scale slump folds. These mud-rich slope deposits are incised by several channels filled with conglomerates, thick massive sandstones with well-developed dish structures, and turbidites interbedded with thin layers of mudstone (facies C). This unit composes a typical thinning and fining-upward sequence.

Roussos, N. (Public Petroleum Corp. of Greece, Athens)

1988-08-01

96

Primary Initiation of Submarine Canyons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of close-to-star gas-giant exo-planets lends support to the idea of Earth's origin as a Jupiter-like gas-giant and to the consequences of its compression, including whole-Earth decompression dynamics that gives rise, without requiring mantle convection, to the myriad measurements and observations whose descriptions are attributed to plate tectonics. I propose here another, unanticipated consequence of whole-Earth decompression dynamics: namely,

J. Marvin Herndon

2011-01-01

97

Primary Initiation of Submarine Canyons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of close-to-star gas-giant exo-planets lends support to the\\u000aidea of Earth's origin as a Jupiter-like gas-giant and to the consequences of\\u000aits compression, including whole-Earth decompression dynamics that gives rise,\\u000awithout requiring mantle convection, to the myriad measurements and\\u000aobservations whose descriptions are attributed to plate tectonics. I propose\\u000ahere another, unanticipated consequence of whole-Earth decompression dynamics:\\u000anamely,

J. Marvin Herndon

2011-01-01

98

High resolution morphobathymetric analysis and short-term evolution of the upper part of the Capbreton submarine canyon (south-east Bay of Biscay - French Atlantic coast)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Capbreton Canyon stands out by its deep incision through continental shelf and slope and its present turbidite activity. The head of the canyon is anthropically disconnected from the Adour River since 1310 AD, but is located close enough to the coast to allow a direct supply by longshore drift. Sedimentary processes in upper part of the Capbreton Canyon are poorly documented. Several evidences, including sandy slide scars in the head, suggest that this area plays a major role in triggering downstream gravity currents). However, no modern sedimentary activity in the upper canyon had so far been evidenced. Our study is based on the analysis and comparison of several sets of multibeam bathymetric data acquired in 1998, 2010 and 2012 (up to 1.5 m resolution). The morphobathymetric analysis brought the following key observations: - The upper part of the canyon is characterised by a meandering talweg underlined by two kinds of terraces: (1) small elongated terraces standing only 10 to 15 m above the talweg axis and (2) large terraces standing 45 to 100 m above the talweg axis. - The regular 1° longitudinal slope of the talweg is interrupted by several 10 m high knickpoints. - The floor of the talweg shows some rough areas scattered with transversal bedforms similar to the sediment waves described in the Monterey Canyon upper part (Smith et al, 2005). The morphological evolutions in the upper part of the canyon over the last 14 years especially affect the floor of the talweg: - Between 1998 and 2010, we observe a downstream succession of accretion areas (up to 11m thick) and erosion areas (reaching -25 m). The largest and highest terraces remain stable over this period, whereas the smallest and lowest elongated terraces show active sedimentation (+5 to +8 m). - Difference between 2010 and 2012 DEMs reveals three localized erosion spots corresponding to 200 m backward stepping of the knickpoints. Such observation confirms the active headward erosion in this part of the canyon. - Conversely, the flanks of this part of the canyon do not show significant evolution. We did not observe any large lateral slide such as the canyon flank collapse recently recognised in the upper part of the Monterey or Cap Lopez canyons. (1)Since the lateral sediment supply in the canyon seems to be limited (no significant evolution of the canyon wall), we consider that most of the sediments deposited in this area is supplied from the canyon head. (2)We propose that the lowest elongated terraces are the remnant of sandy slides confined in the upper talweg and later overdeepened by the regressive erosion. This process contrasts with the downstream part of the canyon, where the terraces are constructed by the spilling of turbidity current. (3)These results are consistent with the process evidenced in the head of the canyon and support the assumption that the turbidite processes in modern canyons are related to sandy mass sliding from the head of the canyon.

Gillet, Hervé; Mazières, Alaïs; Mulder, Thierry; Cremer, Michel

2013-04-01

99

Geomorphology and evolution of the gigantic Murray canyons on the Australian southern margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Murray canyons are a group of deeply incised submarine canyons on a steep 400?km section of the continental slope off Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Some of the canyons are amongst the largest on Earth. The canyons, some 80?km long, descend from the shelf edge to the abyssal plain 5200?m deep. Sprigg Canyon, the deepest and one of the largest,

Hill Pj; P. De Deckker; Exon Nf

2005-01-01

100

Topographic analysis of submarine cable failures offshore southwestern taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006, there was large scale of the submarine cable failures offshore southern Taiwan right after the Pingtung Earthquake. Apparently the December 26 Pingtung Earthquake triggered submarine mass movements which generated turbidity currents in the submarine canyons and damaged cables lying across the canyons. In addition, the Typhoon Morakot on August 8-9, 2009 and the Jiashian Earthquake on March 4, 2010 also caused many submarine cable failures offshore southwestern Taiwan. The most of broken cable sites are along the axis of the Gaoping Submarine Canyon (GPSC) and Fangliao Submarine Canyon (FLSC), topography should be an important factor controlling transport processes of submarine mass movement. The cable broken sites indicate that there were submarine mass movement pass through. Therefore, the topographic factor of the cable broken sites can be the threshold to index submarine mass movement. And as, submarine cables are distributed widely offshore southwestern Taiwan, why only a total of 35 sites of submarine cable failures occurred in 2006, 2009 and 2010? We use bathymetry data, CHIRP (compressed high-intensity radar pulse) sonar profile data and the time series of the cable breakage to investigate the characteristics of submarine mass movement and to develop a model for the series of submarine cable failure. Using the Geographic Information System (GIS) software, we analyze the bathymetric data collected before the 35 sites of submarine cable failures offshore southwestern Taiwan. Applying the hydrology in GIS software, the flow movement could be derived from the factors of slope and aspect. We quantify the transport process of submarine mass movement and combine with the time series of the cable breakage to discuss the effect between submarine cable failures. Based on the CHIRP sonar data, we identified the distinct CHIRP echo character patterns after the submarine cable failures and classify the distinct CHIRP echo characters. Using the threshold of topographic factor to expect where will be potential area of submarine mass movement and evidence the result by CHIRP sonar profile data.

Hsia, Pei Cheng; Shine Liu, Char; Hsu, Ho Han

2013-04-01

101

Unusual occurrence and stratigraphic significance of the Glossifungites ichnofacies in a submarine paleo-canyon — Example from a Pliocene shelf-edge delta, Southeast Trinidad  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary rocks belonging to the upper-slope shelf-margin delta of the Paleo-Orinoco River are present at the southeast coastline of Trinidad in the Columbus Basin. The Pliocene Mayaro Formation, exposed as foreshore cliffs, represents the wave-influenced delta front and mouth bar of this system. These deposits consist of thick to very thick hummocky cross-stratified sandstone beds and thin-bedded to laminated heterolithic sediments. They also contain abundant soft-sediment deformation structures and sparse well-preserved softground burrows (e.g. Ophiomorpha nodosa). Towards the north-central part of the outcrop, the delta front deposits are cut across by a paleo-canyon filled with younger mud-dominated prodeltaic sediments. The rare exposure of the canyon-wall exhibits an unusual occurrence of Glossifungites ichnofacies. Contrastingly distinct from archetypal examples, this monospecific suite contains a low abundance of firmground Thalassinoides filled with mud rather than sand. The tracemakers burrowed into a firm medium-grained sandy substrate of the delta front, and the burrows were subsequently passively filled by the mud from the overlying prodeltaic sediments filling the canyon. The deep-tier firmground Thalassinoides suite crosscuts the pre-existing softground trace fossils. Integration of ichnologic, sedimentologic and sequence-stratigraphic datasets indicates that the older delta front sediments are separated from the prodeltaic deposits by distinct episodes of fluctuating relative sea-level controlled by the basin-bounding growth-fault activities and the development of the canyon. Whereas the entire shelf-margin megasequence might have been deposited through a regional scale sea-level lowstand, the local fluctuations in accommodation space resulting from the growth-fault movements and the incision of the canyon were responsible for the shifting positions of the depositional architectural elements of the shelf-edge delta.

Dasgupta, Sudipta; Buatois, Luis A.

2012-08-01

102

The trophic biology of the holothurian Molpadia musculus: implications for organic matter cycling and ecosystem functioning in a deep submarine canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Megafaunal organisms play a key role in ecosystem functioning in the deep-sea through bioturbation, bioirrigation and organic matter cycling. At 3500 m water depth in the Nazaré Canyon, NE Atlantic, very high abundances of the infaunal holothurian Molpadia musculus were observed. To quantify the role of M. musculus in sediment cycling, sediment samples and holothurians were collected using an ROV and in situ experiments were conducted with incubation chambers. The biochemical composition of the sediment (in terms of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids), the holothurians' gut contents and holothurians' faecal material were analysed. In the sediments, proteins were the dominant organic compound, followed by carbohydrates and lipids. In the holothurian's gut contents, protein concentrations were higher than the other compounds, decreasing significantly as the material passed through the digestive tract. Approximately 33±1% of the proteins were digested by the time sediment reached the mid gut, with a total digestion rate equal to 67±1%. Carbohydrates and lipids were ingested in smaller amounts and digested with lower efficiencies (23±11% and 50±11%, respectively). As a result, the biopolymeric C digestion rate was on average 62±3%. We estimated that the population of M. musculus could remove approximately 0.49±0.13 g biopolymeric C and 0.13±0.03 g N m-2 d-1 from the sediments. These results suggest that M. musculus plays a key role in the benthic tropho-dynamics and biogeochemical processes in the Nazaré Canyon.

Amaro, T.; Bianchelli, S.; Billett, D. S. M.; Cunha, M. R.; Pusceddu, A.; Danovaro, R.

2010-08-01

103

Attack submarines  

SciTech Connect

This issue discusses missions for submarines, technology proliferation; implications for U.S. security; U.S. SSN-21 Seawolf versus other submarines; stability and arms control; nuclear propulsion and nuclear proliferation; air independent propulsion.

Not Available

1991-01-01

104

Crustal deformation and submarine canyon incision in a Meso-Cenozoic first-order transfer zone (SW Iberia, North Atlantic Ocean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a dense grid of high-quality 2D seismic profiles, dredge and outcrop data, the offshore prolongation of a first-order transfer zone, the Messejana-Plasencia Fault Zone (MPFZ), is explained within the context of oblique rifting between Southwest Iberia, Newfoundland, and West Tethys. The offshore MPFZ is shown to comprise a 5-10 km wide region of deformation, oblique to the continental margin, reactivated in the Mesozoic as part of a wider transcurrent domain, the São Vicente sub-basin. Here, the geometry of faults and strata denotes the generation of a pull-apart basin during the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. In contrast, its Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic evolution favours left-lateral transpression during the counter-clockwise rotation and eastward migration of Iberia towards its present position. Erosion was subsequently enhanced in the São Vicente sub-basin due to the reactivation of syn-rift structures. By documenting the evolution of the São Vicente sub-basin, and adjacent MPFZ, this work demonstrates: 1) the temporal and spatial scales in which first-order transfer zones accommodate crustal movements during continental rifting and subsequent inversion episodes; 2) the generation of an extensive region of strain accommodation in the vicinity of the MPFZ, an observation with profound implications to future palaeogeographic reconstructions of the North Atlantic Ocean; and 3) that the São Vicente Canyon, the physiographic expression of the MPFZ, incised the margin as early as the latest Cretaceous-Paleocene, synchronously with the onset of tectonic uplift in Southwest Iberia. In such a setting, the São Vicente sub-basin and MPFZ formed important by-pass corridors for sediment sourced from proximal areas of the margin. At present, the MPFZ comprises a complex releasing-restraining bend accommodating important vertical and horizontal movements in Southwest Iberia. Based on earthquake data from similar transfer zones, the MPFZ should be able to generate large-magnitude earthquakes and potentially destructive tsunamis.

Pereira, Ricardo; Alves, Tiago M.

2013-08-01

105

Linking subaerial erosion wih submarine geomorphology in the northern Ionian Sea, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supply of sediment from continental sources is commonly suspected to have exerted a strong influence on the development of canyons and other morphological features on the continental slopes, but rarely is the sediment supply known quantitatively to make this link. Here, we outline an area where offshore morphology, in the northern Ionian Sea, may be linked to supply of sediment from subaerial erosion in NE Sicily and SW Calabria. Shelves in this area are very narrow (< 1 km), and the bathymetry shows that rivers and adjacent submarine channels are almost directly connected. Integrated topographic analyses were performed on a merged digital evelation model (DEM) of ASTER data for subaerial topography and multibeam sonar data for submarine bathymetry. Spatial variations in onshore erosion were assesed using a variety of methods, namely: long-term sediment flux from Pleistocene uplift rates, decadal sediment flux from landslides; published long-term exhumation rates from 10Be cosmogenic nuclide concentrations and published recent sediment yields determined using the Gavrilovic Method. Submarine channels associated with rivers delivering larger sediment fluxes have broad channels, high relief and smooth concave-upward longitudinal profiles. Conversely, submarine channels that lie offshore small-flux rivers have straight longitudinal profiles, low relief and steep gradients. Where river catchments supply a greater sediment flux offshore, shelves tend to be wider (~400 m) and submarine channels have gentler gradients. In contrast, where catchments supply less sediment flux, shelves are narrow (250-300 m) and offshore channel gradients are steeper. How morphology varies with tectonic uplift rate was also studied, but we find that, unlike onshore terrains where tectonics is commonly an important factor influencing channel morphology, in the submarine landscapes, sediment flux appears to dominate.

Goswami, Rajasmita; Mitchell, Neil C.; Argnani, Andrea

2014-05-01

106

Internal waves in Hudson Canyon with possible geological implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from an array of instruments in Hudson Submarine Canyon for 15 weeks are qualitatively consistent with theoretical and laboratory results concerning the concentration of internal wave energy by canyon topographies. Internal wave energy was intensified at the head and near the floor of the canyon, with phase lags suggestive of propagation of internal waves up the canyon from the deep sea. Significant diurnal and semidiurnal internal tides were present, indicating their generation at the topographic relief around the canyon. Internal wave energy is apparently dissipated by mixing at the head of the canyon. A major storm during the experiment induced strong currents in the canyon. These currents are probably more important than internal waves as carriers of sediment except in the very head of the canyon.

Hotchkiss, Frances S.; Wunsch, Carl

1982-04-01

107

Development of the Astoria Canyon-Fan physiography and comparison with similar systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A detailed bathymetric study of Astoria Canyon and Astoria Fan provides a model for typical submarine canyon-fan systems. The present canyon head is 9 miles (17 km) west of the Columbia River mouth but buried Pleistocene channels appear to have connected the two features in the past. The canyon, which is distinguished by its relief, V-shaped profiles, and numerous tributaries, winds sinuously and is coincident with apparent structural trends across the continental shelf and slope. At the fan apex, the canyon mouth merges smoothly into Astoria Channel, which is characterized by its U-shaped profiles, lower walls of even height, and levee development. Astoria Channel and the fan valley at the base of the continental slope are the most recently active of a series of main fan valleys that appear to have: (1) progressively "hooked left"; (2) migrated from north to south across the fan during its formation; and (3) been partly responsible for the asymmetrical shape of the fan. The deep, narrow upper fan valleys that characterize the steep (> 1:100, or 0??35???) and rough (10-30 fathoms, or 18-55 m) upper fan surface break into distributaries on the middle fan, where there is the sharpest change in gradient. The main valleys become broader and shallower down the fan, while the generally concave fan surface grades to nearly a flat seafloor (to gradients < 1:1000, or 0??0.5???), (< 10 fathoms, or 18 m relief). Similarity of Astoria Canyon-Fan system with other deep-sea fan and alluvial fan systems, suggests the hypothesis that size of drainage basin, sediment size, and sediment load control the size, gradient, and valley development of any fan system. Data from bathymetry, seismic refraction stations, and sediment load of the Columbia River indicate that the cutting of Astoria Canyon and the deposition of the unconsolidated sediment layer forming Astoria Fan could have been accomplished during the Pleistocene. A similar history can be suggested for other major submarine canyon-fan systems. ?? 1970.

Nelson, C. H.; Carlson, P. R.; Byrne, J. V.; Alpha, T. R.

1970-01-01

108

Submarine Atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmosphere control in submarines has developed to meet the operational requirements. Until\\u000a the end of WWII submarines were primarily semi-submersibles spending most of their time on the surface\\u000a and submerged for periods of 12 h or less. However, rudimentary control of oxygen and carbon\\u000a dioxide was available in some WWI boats. In the latter years of WWII, the requirement for longer

Waldemar Mazurek

109

Canyon conditions impact carbon flows in food webs of three sections of the Nazaré canyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submarine canyons transport large amounts of sediment and organic matter (OM) from the continental shelf to the abyssal plain. Three carbon-based food web models were constructed for the upper (300–750m water depth), middle (2700–3500m) and lower section (4000–5000m) of the Nazaré canyon (eastern Atlantic Ocean) using linear inverse modeling to examine how the food web is influenced by the characteristics

Dick van Oevelen; Karline Soetaert; R. Garcia; Henko C. de Stigter; Marina R. Cunha; Antonio Pusceddu; Roberto Danovaro

2011-01-01

110

White submarine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While not everyone gets to live in a yellow submarine, the scientific community may get to have a decommissioned U.S. Navy nuclear submarine dedicated to it. The Sturgeon class of submarines, which scientists say are the ideal choice for the project, will be coming up for decommissioning in this next decade. So the time is ripe, scientists say. Two weeks ago, oceanographers, submarine specialists, marine biologists, and geophysicists, among others met at AGU headquarters in Washington to discuss how to get the project in the water. If all goes well, the project would be the "biggest thing that ever happened in ocean and Earth science," according to Lloyd Keigwin of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, who convened the meeting. For example, the submarine could make many types of "compelling" research possible that can not be done now by other means, such as studies in the Arctic that may have significant bearing on global change research, Keigwin says. However, the imposing hurdles that the project must overcome are as big as the opportunities it offers. Foremost, there is a question as to who will pick up the tab for such an endeavor.

111

North Atlantic slope and canyon study. Volume 1. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

A field program to investigate the currents and sediment transport along the outershelf and upper slope along the southern flank of Georges Bank was conducted between 1980 and 1984. A major part of the field experiment was conducted in Lydonia Canyon, a large submarine canyon which cuts northward about 20 km into the continental shelf from the shelfbreak. A smaller experiment was conducted in Oceanographer Canyon to compare the currents in these two major canyons. The long-term current observations made in Lydonia and Oceanographer Canyons show that the current regime in these topographic features differs from the adjacent slope, and between canyons. Sediments near the head (depths shallower than about 600 m) in both Lydonia and Oceanographer are frequently resuspended. This frequent resuspension may allow the sediments to strip pollutants from the water column. Currents in Oceanographer Canyon are stronger and the sediments coarser than in Lydonia at comparable depths.

Butman, B.

1986-12-01

112

The Nearshore Canyon Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations collected in Fall 2003 during the Nearshore Canyon Experiment (NCEX) will be used to test hypotheses about the effect of complex continental-shelf bathymetry on surface gravity waves and on wave-driven circulation. Refraction, diffraction, reflection, scattering, and trapping by abrupt shelf bathymetry can result in dramatic alongshore variations in wave height and direction. Onshore of the irregular bathymetry, alongcoast changes in breaking waves can force complicated circulation, including alongshore flows that reverse direction across the surf zone and along the shoreline, and strong offshore-directed rip currents that may be an important mechanism for transport of water, sediment, and pollution between the surf zone and inner shelf. Observations for NCEX will be obtained along the southern California coast near two steep submarine canyons (separated alongshore by a few km) that cross the shelf from about 300-m water depth to just seaward of the surfzone near Black's Beach (famous for large waves) and La Jolla Shores (well known as a calm area with small waves). Frequency-directional spectra of incident waves estimated from observations offshore of the canyons will be used to initialize models that predict the effect of the canyons on infragravity waves, swell, sea, and wave-driven circulation. Model predictions will be tested with observations from alongshore arrays deployed near, between, and onshore (including the surf and swash zones) of the canyons. Arrays also will be deployed to investigate wave reflection and scattering from the steep canyon walls, and cross-shore changes in surf and swash zone circulation. Additional instrumentation will be used to study alongcoast changes in wave breaking and set-up, details of surface currents in the surf and swash, and breaking-induced turbulence and dissipation. The NCEX instrument arrays will be designed in collaboration with modelers, and near-real time data will be used to initialize and test model predictions. In addition, model forecasts will be used to guide placement of movable sensors, allowing predictions of nearshore waves and currents to be tested during the observational period. NCEX~team~members~are~listed~on http://science.whoi.edu/PVLAB/NCEX/ncex.html. Funding for NCEX is provided by the US Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation.

Elgar, S.

2002-12-01

113

Bioerosion by chemosynthetic biological communities on Holocene submarine slide scars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomorphic, stratigraphic, and faunal observations of submarine slide scars that occur along the flanks of Monterey Canyon in 2.0–2.5 km water depths were made to identify the processes that continue to alter the surface of a submarine landslide scar after the initial slope failure. Deep-sea chemosynthetic biological communities and small caves are common on the sediment-free surfaces of the slide scars,

C. K. Paull; W. Ussler; H. G. Greene; J. Barry; R. Keaten

2005-01-01

114

Automated drainage extraction in mapping the Monterey submarine drainage system, California margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drainage-extraction algorithms traditionally used for extracting river networks and watersheds from gridded land topography are applied to gridded multibeam bathymetry of the mid-California margin. The algorithms are used to automatically map two regional tributary networks of submarine canyons and deepsea channels draining Monterey Bay, the principal conduits of which are Acension and Monterey Canyons. The algorithms reliably map subaqueous drainage

Lincoln F. Pratson; William B. F. Ryan

1996-01-01

115

Hot Canyon  

SciTech Connect

This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

None

2012-06-18

116

Hot Canyon  

SciTech Connect

This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

None

2012-01-01

117

Hot Canyon  

ScienceCinema

This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

None

2013-03-01

118

How Submarines Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, presented by HowStuffWorks.com, shows how a submarine dives and surfaces in the water. It also shows how life support is maintained, how the submarine gets its power, how a submarine finds its way in the deep ocean and how submarines might be rescued. The article addresses many points effectively and is a good survey of the topic.

Brain, Marshall; Freudenrich, Craig

2008-10-09

119

Potential for SGD induced submarine geohazard off southwestern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is not only play important roles on material exchange between land and sea, it may also trigger liquefaction process and induce further submarine geohazards in coastal zone. Since 2006, Southern Taiwan was experienced a series of natural hazards including earthquakes and typhoon that induced severe landslides and flooding and caused huge human lives and economics losses. These natural hazards also touched off submarine cable-break incidents off southwestern Taiwan from Gaoping Slope to the northern terminus of the Manila Trench. After the 2006 Pingtung Earthquake, the local fishermen reported disturbed waters at the Fangliao submarine canyon head. Although many researches conjectured the disturbed waters may caused by the eruption of submarine volcanoes which has been widely discovered off the southwestern Taiwan. The subbottom profiles reveal a series of faults and liquefaction strata exist near the head of Fanliao submarine canyon and acoustically transparent sediments with doming structures also observed at the adjacent area. Moreover, we also found pockmarks with acoustic blanking under it on the Gaoping Shelf and a series of gaseous pluming gushed from the seafloor was also observed in the shallow waters. Integrate all these data, we may reasonably infer the disturbed waters which reported by the fishermen may caused by the liquefaction process on the seafloor. In addition to geophysical observations, natural geochemical tracers (radon and radium) in conjunction with side-scan sonar were used to evaluate the distribution of SGD system in the study area. All the evidences indicate that the large earthquake in conjunction with high pore fluid pressures in the surface sediment might have easily triggered liquefaction process and generated large debris flow and swept the submarine cables away from the Fangliao submarine canyon head to the abyss.

Su, C.; Lin, C.; Cheng, Y.; Chiu, H.

2013-12-01

120

North Atlantic slope and canyon study. Volume 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A field program to investigate the currents and sediment transport along the outershelf and upper slope along the southern flank of Georges Bank was conducted between 1980 and 1984. A major part of the field experiment was conducted in Lydonia Canyon, a large submarine canyon which cuts northward about 20 km into the continental shelf from the shelfbreak. A smaller experiment was conducted in Oceanographer Canyon to compare the currents in these two major canyons. Long-term current observations were made at 20 locations in or adjacent to Lydonia Canyon, and at 9 stations on the continental slope. Detailed semi-synoptic hydrographic observations were made on 9 cruises. The currents associated with Gulf Stream warm core rings (WCR's) strongly affect the flow along the outer shelf and upper slope; eastward currents in excess of 75cm/s were associated with WCR's.

Butman, B.

1986-12-01

121

Obstacle avoidance sonar for submarines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Mine Detection Sonar (AMDS) system was designed to operate in poor environments with high biological and/or shallow-water boundary conditions. It provides increased capability for active detection of volume, close-tethered, and bottom mines, as well as submarine and surface target active/passive detection for ASW and collision avoidance. It also provides bottom topography mapping capability for precise submarine navigation in uncharted littoral waters. It accomplishes this by using advanced processing techniques with extremely narrow beamwidths. The receive array consists of 36 modules arranged in a 15-ft-diameter semicircle at the bottom of the submarine sonar dome to form a chin-mounted array. Each module consists of 40 piezoelectric rubber elements. The modules provide the necessary signal conditioning to the element data prior to signal transmission (uplink) through the hull. The elements are amplified, filtered, converted to digital signals by an A/D converter, and multiplexed prior to uplink to the inboard receiver. Each module also has a downlink over which it receives synchronization and mode/gain control. Uplink and downlink transmission is done using fiberoptic telemetry. AMDS was installed on the USS Asheville. The high-frequency chin array for Virginia class submarines is based on the Asheville design.

Dugas, Albert C.; Webman, Kenneth M.

2002-05-01

122

Constructional canyons built by sheet-like turbidity currents: Observations from offshore Brunei Darussalam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine canyon formation and deepening are typically attributed to erosional processes. We present data from an industry-grade seismic volume located offshore Brunei Darussalam illustrating how topography typically associated with erosional processes can be produced under conditions of net sediment deposition. This data was generated via subsurface mapping in the vicinity of a shale-cored anticline on the Quaternary continental- slope. Three canyons traverse the structure at right-angles to the crest line with maximum canyon relief of 165 m. Subsurface mapping reveals that the structure is a site of net sediment deposition and defines a background sedimentation pattern that decreases gradually with distance from the shelf-edge. Profiles down canyon axes reveal local minima in deposit thickness over the anticline hinge that are associated with high downstream gradients. Deposition on ridges adjacent to canyons also displays local minima at the anticline hinge, but these minima are not correlated with gradient. A comparison of canyon axis and ridge deposition shows that somewhat higher rates of sedimentation on the ridges resulted in the preservation and growth of the submarine canyons with time. Laterally persistent seismic reflectors and depositional packages suggest that the canyon forming currents were sheet-like flows, extending for many kilometers in the strike direction. The currents drained into canyons as they approached the anticline hinge, leaving only a small supra-canyon fraction available to deposit sediment on the non-channelized zones.

Straub, K. M.; Mohrig, D.

2007-12-01

123

Holocene canyon activity under a combination of tidal and tectonic forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of submarine canyon systems that are active during sea level highstands are coupled to terrestrial or littoral sediment transport systems (e.g. high sediment-yield rivers, wave-base sediment disturbance). However, non-coupled canyon systems can also exhibit sedimentary activity. Characterising the nature, origin, and spatial and temporal influence of the processes responsible for this sedimentary activity is important to understand the extent of sediment and carbon transfer to the deep sea, the impact of sedimentary flows on biological colonisation and diversity, and the control of recent seafloor processes on canyon morphology. The Cook Strait canyon system, between the North and South islands of New Zealand, is a large (1800 km2), multi-branching, shelf-indenting canyon on an active subduction margin. The canyon comes within 1 km of the coast, but does not intercept fluvial or littoral sediment systems and is therefore defined as a non-terrestrially-coupled system. Sediment transport on the continental shelf, associated with a strong tidal stream, and seafloor disturbance related to numerous high-activity faults is known from previous studies. Little is known, however, about the rates of sedimentary activity in the canyon and the processes driving it. The canyon system therefore provides an excellent study area for understanding sediment transport in a non-coupled submarine canyon system. Analysis of EM300 multibeam bathymetry, gravity cores, 3.5 kHz seismic reflection profiles, camera and video transects and current meter data reveals a system where oceanographic (tidal) and tectonic (earthquake) processes are moving sediment from the continental shelf, through the upper canyon, and finally to the deep ocean. Sediment accumulation rates may reach several mm/yr in the upper canyons, with data suggesting minimum rates of 0.5 mm/yr. We demonstrate that tidal currents are sufficient to mobilise fine to medium sand around and within the upper canyon heads, and transported sediment is accumulating in upper canyon depocentres. Based on pseudo-static stability modelling, and supported by sediment core records, we estimate that earthquake triggered failure occurs approximately every 100 years. Lower canyon geomorphology indicates that failed material is being conveyed down the length of the canyon system to the deep ocean. Thus, while flushing rates may be low, the Cook Strait Canyon system can be considered to be an active sedimentary system during the current sea level high stand. The processes identified here are likely to be analogous to those occurring in many non-coupled shelf indenting canyons on tectonically active margins globally, and provide a framework within which the biological response to intermediate disturbance geomorphic processes in submarine canyons can be assessed.

Mountjoy, Joshu; Micallef, Aaron; Stevens, Craig; Stirling, Mark

2013-04-01

124

Bioavailability of sinking organic matter in the Blanes canyon and the adjacent open slope (NW Mediterranean Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine canyons are sites of intense energy and material exchange between the shelf and the deep adjacent basins. To test the hypothesis that active submarine canyons represent preferential conduits of available food for the deep-sea benthos, two mooring lines were deployed at 1200 m depth from November 2008 to November 2009 inside the Blanes canyon and on the adjacent open slope (Catalan Margin, NW Mediterranean Sea). We investigated the fluxes, biochemical composition and food quality of sinking organic carbon (OC). OC fluxes in the canyon and the open slope varied among sampling periods, though not consistently in the two sites. In particular, while in the open slope the highest OC fluxes were observed in August 2009, in the canyon the highest OC fluxes occurred in April-May 2009. For almost the entire study period, the OC fluxes in the canyon were significantly higher than those in the open slope, whereas OC contents of sinking particles collected in the open slope were consistently higher than those in the canyon. This result confirms that submarine canyons are effective conveyors of OC to the deep sea, particles transferred are predominantly of inorganic origin, significantly higher than that reaching the open slope at a similar water depth. Using multivariate statistical tests, two major clusters of sampling periods were identified: one in the canyon that grouped trap samples collected in December 2008, concurrently with the occurrence of a major storm at the sea surface, and associated with increased fluxes of nutritionally available particles from the upper shelf. Another cluster grouped samples from both the canyon and the open slope collected in March 2009, concurrently with the occurrence of the seasonal phytoplankton bloom at the sea surface, and associated with increased fluxes of total phytopigments. Our results confirm the key ecological role of submarine canyons for the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, and highlight the importance of canyons in linking episodic storms and primary production occurring at the sea surface to the deep sea floor.

Lopez-Fernandez, P.; Bianchelli, S.; Pusceddu, A.; Calafat, A.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Danovaro, R.

2012-12-01

125

Seismic stratigraphy and development of Avon canyon in Benin (Dahomey) basin, southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpretation of a grid of high resolution seismic profiles from the offshore eastern part of the Benin (Dahomey) basin in southwestern Nigeria area permitted the identification of cyclic events of cut and fill associated with the Avon canyon. Seismic stratigraphic analysis was carried out to evaluate the canyon morphology, origin and evolution. At least three generations of ancient submarine canyons and a newly formed submarine canyon have been identified. Seismic reflection parameters of the ancient canyons are characterized by transparent to slightly transparent, continuous to slightly discontinuous, high to moderate amplitude and parallel to sub-parallel reflections. Locally, high amplitude and chaotic reflections were observed. The reflection configurations consist of regular oblique, chaotic oblique, progradational and parallel to sub-parallel types. These seismic reflection characteristics are probably due to variable sedimentation processes within the canyons, which were affected by mass wasting. Canyon morphological features include step-wise and spoon-shaped wall development, deep valley incision, a V-shaped valley, similar orientation in the southeast direction, and simple to complex erosion features in the axial floor. The canyons have a composite origin, caused partly by lowering of the sea level probably associated with the formation of the Antarctic Ice Sheet about 30 Ma ago and partly by complex sedimentary processes. Regional correlation with geological ages using the reflectors show that the canyons cut through the Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sediments while the sedimentary infill of the canyon is predominantly Miocene and younger. Gravity-driven depositional processes, downward excavation by down slope sediment flows, mass wasting from the canyon walls and variation in terrigenous sediment supply have played significant roles in maintaining the canyons. These canyons were probably conduits for sediment transport to deep-waters in the Gulf of Guinea during their period of formation.

Olabode, S. O.; Adekoya, J. A.

2008-03-01

126

Tectonic development of Baltimore Canyon trough  

Microsoft Academic Search

New well data and a new gravity model across the southern end of Baltimore Canyon Trough provide a more complete history of the basin's tectonic evolution and deep crustal structure than was previously known. The basin, which formed during the separation of North America from Africa, narrows and shallows along strike, as basement depth decreases from about 18 km (59,000

B. A. Swift; C. W. Poag; D. S. Sawyer; J. A. Grow

1984-01-01

127

Tectonic development of Baltimore Canyon Trough  

Microsoft Academic Search

New well data and a new gravity model across the southern end of Baltimore Canyon Trough provide a more complete history of the basin's tectonic evolution and deep crustal structure than was previously known. The basin, which formed during the separation of North America from Africa, narrows and shallows along strike, as basement depth decreases from about 18 km (59,000

B. A. Swift; C. W. Poag; D. S. Sawyer; J. A. Grow

1984-01-01

128

Morphology and forcing agents of the Monterey Canyon System: a quantitative geomorphic analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landforms are shaped by tectonics and climate, which control deformation, deposition, and erosion at the fluid/solid interface. The recent re-emergence of geomorphology was spurred by the realization that the shape of the land is not only the result of many processes, but it also affects them. Tectonics builds mountains and geomorphic agents and climate conditions modify them. Thus geomorphologic processes and tectonics are major agents of change and landform is the variable that links them, the expression of a steady-state equilibrium controlled by multiple feed-backs. Measuring and parameterizing the shape of the landscape is the first step in understanding many natural processes critical to environment, such as terrain instability and fluid circulation. Furthermore, a multidimensional parameterization of the land surface (e.g., geomorphic indices) is useful in comparing different landforms and in isolating the effect of specific factors, such as the level of tectonic activity. So far geomorphology has dealt primarily with land areas, but an expansion to the sub-aqueous environment is already in the making due to high-resolution bathymetry increase. This research compares submarine and land morphology as they manifest tectonics in a rapidly transform continental margin. To this end the research has analyzed high-resolution multibeam bathymetry to interpret modern submarine processes from a study of geomorphic change. This research is applied on the Monterey Bay (California) due to the complex geomorphology of both the Coast Ranges and the seafloor. Tectonic has controlled the evolution and the present geometry of the branches and meanders of the Monterey Canyon system, one of the largest submarine canyon systems in the world. In particular the Monterey Canyon is an erosional, presently active feature, which has resulted from both canyon cutting and mass wasting. The deeper parts of the canyon have been progressively offset from the headward part by strike-slip faulting, and are now located in northern Monterey Bay. In this context a clear understanding of the physical processes that trigger submarine slumps has been the basis of the research. The high-resolution multibeam record of the seafloor of the MBR collected by MBARI will be analyzed to measure the parameters describing the geometry of the submarine canyons of the Monterey Canyon System. Our quantitative geomorphologic analysis will include slope angle, sinuosity, and width of the canyon axis and of the thalweg. The interpretation of these geomorphologic parameters will help to define active processes along the submarine canyons of the MBR and to unveil the relationships between continental deformation and canyon formation in a transform continental margin. Moreover, to broaden constraints on geophysical properties and evolution of the area, we had used landform surface high resolution DEM.

Taramelli, A.; Aiello, I. W.; Melelli, L.; Seeber, L.; Sorichetta, A.

2007-12-01

129

Paint-Stirrer Submarine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss a unique and challenging laboratory exercise called, the paint-stir-stick submarine, that keeps the students enthralled. The paint-stir-stick submarine fits beautifully with the National Science Education Standards Physical Science Content Standard B, and with the California state science standards for physical…

Young, Jocelyn; Hardy, Kevin

2007-01-01

130

Submarine slumps, slides, and flows dominate sculpting of Beringian Margin, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1,400 km long Beringian margin is characterized by several very large submarine canyons and by a large oceanic plateau at the southern end. GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery provides a perspective of this margin that is unattainable with conventional acoustic profiles. The broad coverage of GLORIA images emphasizes that, of all the sedimentary processes affecting this vast margin, mass movement is

P. R. Carlson; H. A. Karl; B. D. Edwards; J. V. Gardner; R. Hall

1990-01-01

131

Canyon conditions impact carbon flows in food webs of three sections of the Nazaré canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine canyons transport large amounts of sediment and organic matter (OM) from the continental shelf to the abyssal plain. Three carbon-based food web models were constructed for the upper (300-750 m water depth), middle (2700-3500 m) and lower section (4000-5000 m) of the Nazaré canyon (eastern Atlantic Ocean) using linear inverse modeling to examine how the food web is influenced by the characteristics of the respective canyon section. The models were based on an empirical dataset consisting of biomass and carbon processing data, and general physiological data constraints from the literature. Environmental conditions, most notably organic matter (OM) input and hydrodynamic activity, differed between the canyon sections and strongly affected the benthic food web structure. Despite the large difference in depth, the OM inputs into the food webs of the upper and middle sections were of similar magnitude (7.98±0.84 and 9.30±0.71 mmol C m -2 d -1, respectively). OM input to the lower section was however almost 6-7 times lower (1.26±0.03 mmol C m -2 d -1). Carbon processing in the upper section was dominated by prokaryotes (70% of total respiration), though there was a significant meiofaunal (21%) and smaller macrofaunal (9%) contribution. The high total faunal contribution to carbon processing resembles that found in shallower continental shelves and upper slopes, although the meiofaunal contribution is surprisingly high and suggest that high current speeds and sediment resuspension in the upper canyon favor the role of the meiofauna. The high OM input and conditions in the accreting sediments of the middle canyon section were more beneficial for megafauna (holothurians), than for the other food web compartments. The high megafaunal biomass (516 mmol C m -2), their large contribution to respiration (56% of total respiration) and secondary production (0.08 mmol C m -2 d -1) shows that these accreting sediments in canyons are megafaunal hotspots in the deep-sea. Conversely, carbon cycling in the lower canyon section was strongly dominated by prokaryotes (86% of respiration) and the food web structure therefore resembled that of lower slope and abyssal plain sediments. This study shows that elevated OM input in canyons may favor the faunal contribution to carbon processing and create hotspots of faunal biomass and carbon processing along the continental shelf.

van Oevelen, Dick; Soetaert, Karline; Garcia, R.; de Stigter, Henko C.; Cunha, Marina R.; Pusceddu, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

2011-12-01

132

Submarine: Lift Bag Lander  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 4), learners create a submarine using a plastic sandwich bag. This is a fun way to learn about buoyancy and how captured gas can cause objects to float. Note: You will also need access to a tank or swimming pool to watch your submarine dive. Safety note: Learners will need an adult's help to drill holes in the film canister.

Cameron, James; Hardy, Kevin

2013-01-01

133

Bioavailability of sinking organic matter in the Blanes canyon and the adjacent open slope (NW Mediterranean Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine canyons are sites of intense energy and material exchange between the shelf and the deep adjacent basins. To test the hypothesis that active submarine canyons represent preferential conduits of available food for the deep-sea benthos, two mooring lines were deployed at 1200 m depth from November 2008 to November 2009 inside the Blanes canyon and on the adjacent open slope (Catalan Margin, NW Mediterranean Sea). We investigated the fluxes, biochemical composition and food quality of sinking organic carbon (OC). OC fluxes in the canyon and the open slope varied among sampling periods, though not consistently in the two sites. In particular, while in the open slope the highest OC fluxes were observed in August 2009, in the canyon the highest OC fluxes occurred in April-May 2009. For almost the entire study period, the OC fluxes in the canyon were significantly higher than those in the open slope, whereas OC contents of sinking particles collected in the open slope were consistently higher than those in the canyon. This result confirms that submarine canyons are effective conveyors of OC to the deep sea. Particles transferred to the deep sea floor through the canyons are predominantly of inorganic origin, significantly higher than that reaching the open slope at a similar water depth. Using multivariate statistical tests, two major clusters of sampling periods were identified: one in the canyon that grouped trap samples collected in December 2008, concurrently with the occurrence of a major storm at the sea surface, and associated with increased fluxes of nutritionally available particles from the upper shelf. Another cluster grouped samples from both the canyon and the open slope collected in March 2009, concurrently with the occurrence of the seasonal phytoplankton bloom at the sea surface, and associated with increased fluxes of total phytopigments. Our results confirm the key ecological role of submarine canyons for the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, and highlight the importance of canyons in linking episodic storms and primary production occurring at the sea surface to the deep sea floor.

Lopez-Fernandez, P.; Bianchelli, S.; Pusceddu, A.; Calafat, A.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Danovaro, R.

2013-05-01

134

The Grand Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site from PBS.org, called Lost in the Canyon (1), offers an excellent online learning experience. Visitors learn about John Wesley Powell's expedition down the Colorado River, covered in transcripts from the companion television show and a timeline of Powell's life. Other features include an interactive lesson on running rapids and a look at the unique geologic history of the area. Next, from StudyWorks! Online comes the lesson entitled Sleuthing at the Grand Canyon: Using Rocks to Tell Us About the Past (2). Through basic descriptions, photographs, and illustrations, students learn how rocks form, how scientists use them to find out about past environments, and much more. The third site is provided by the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center called The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center Fiscal Year 2000-2004 Monitoring and Research Strategic Plan (3). Readers will discover the mission of the center, history of monitoring in the area, management strategies, research activities, and much more. Next is a site offered by Richard S. Naylor of Northeastern University's Department of Geology called Unconformities in the Grand Canyon (4). Visitors will find descriptions and photographs of several sites in the Grand Canyon that exhibit geologic unconformities or surfaces that represent a break in the geologic record. The fifth site is maintained by kaibob.org called the Geology of Grand Canyon (5). This site contains basic information on how the canyon was formed, where all the rock came from, why it looks like it does, and when it all happened. From NASA's Visible Earth Web site comes the 3-D View of Grand Canyon (6) page. The canyon can be viewed in a low or high resolution JPEG format, which shows the surrounding area, part of the Colorado river, and the canyon itself in dynamic colors. Part of Northern Arizona University, the seventh site is entitled Canyons, Culture, and Environmental Change: An Introduction to the Land Use History of the Colorado Plateau (7). The site provides an introduction to the environmental history of the Colorado Plateau and summarizes a vast body of research from multiple disciplines in an easily accessible format. The last site from NOAA's Colorado River Basin Forecast Center is the River Forecasts and Data page (8). Provided are data from various sites along the river that offer a wide range of relevant information such as simulated hydrographs.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

135

Submarine: Soda Cup Lander  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 2), learners create a submarine using a plastic cup. This is a fun way to learn about buoyancy and density. Extensions for this activity, such as adding a propeller or manometer, are also included. Note: You will also need access to a tank or swimming pool to watch your submarine dive. Safety note: Learners will need an adult's help to drill holes in the film canister. Learners will also need an adult's help if they use a glue gun to attach the film canister to the plastic cup.

Cameron, James; Hardy, Kevin

2013-01-01

136

Paint-Stirrer Submarine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In today's fast-paced, technological world, it is a constant struggle for teachers to find new and exciting ways to challenge and engage our students. The Paint-Stirrer Submarine is a unique and challenging laboratory exercise that keeps the students enthralled. They won't even realize they are learning because they will be having too much fun. This inquiry-based, hands-on experience in building a submarine allows the students to learn about buoyancy, buoyant force, Archimedes' principle, and motion in an engaging manner. It will be an experience neither you nor your students will ever forget.

Young, Jocelyn; Hardy, Kevin

2007-02-01

137

Hells Canyon Environmental Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of an environmental investigation of the nonpower impacts on the Hells Canyon Complex resulting from water budget participation are presented. The water budget plan would increase flows in the Columbia and Snake Rivers between April 15 and Jun...

1984-01-01

138

Distribution and transport of suspended particulate matter in Monterey Canyon, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From August 1993 to August 1994, six moorings that measure current, temperature, salinity, and water clarity were deployed along the axis of Monterey Canyon to study the circulation and transport of water and suspended particulate matter through the canyon system. The moorings occupied three sites that are morphologically different: a narrow transverse section (axis width 900 m) at 1450 m water depth, a wide transverse section at 2837 m, and a third site in the fan valley axis farther offshore at 3223 m that recorded for 3 yr. In addition, CTD/transmissometer casts were conducted within and near the Monterey Canyon during four cruises. Our data show a mainly biogenic, surface turbid layer, a limited intermediate nepheloid layer, and a bottom nepheloid layer. There is a consistent presence of a turbid layer within the canyon at a water depth of about 1500 m. Tidal flow dominates at all sites, but currents above the canyon rim and within the canyon appear to belong to two distinct dynamic systems. Bottom intensification of currents plays an important role in raising the near-bottom shear stress high enough that bottom sediments are often, if not always, resuspended. Mean flow pattern suggests a convergence zone between the narrow and wide site: the near-bed (100 m above bottom where the lowest current meter was located) mean transport is down-canyon at the 1450-m site, while the near-bottom transport at the 2837-m site is up-canyon, at a smaller magnitude. Transport at the 3223-m site is dominantly NNW, cross-canyon, with periods of up-canyon flow over 3 yr. A very high-turbidity event was recorded 100 m above the canyon bottom at the narrow site. The event started very abruptly and lasted more than a week. This event was not detected at either of the deeper sites. A canyon head flushing event is likely the cause. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Xu, J. P.; Noble, M.; Eittreim, S. L.; Rosenfeld, L. K.; Schwing, F. B.; Pilskaln, C. H.

2002-01-01

139

Coastal and submarine instabilities distribution in the tectonically active SW margin of the Corinth Rift (Psathopyrgos, Achaia, Greece)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Corinth Rift, one of the most active rifts in the world as local extension trending NE-SW reaches the amount of 14±2 mm/yr, corresponds to one of the largest zones of seismically active normal faulting. The formation, growth and migration southwards of the prevailing fault systems, which evolve simultaneously with the intense morphogenetic processes, are overprinted in the age, facies and thickness of the Plio-Pleistocene sequences constructing the south margin of the western Gulf of Corinth. The dominant fault blocks, defined by east-west trending, north dipping normal faults, are accompanied by several morphological features and anomalies, noticed in both the terrestrial and the marine environment. Our main aim has been to examine how the tectonic evolution, in combination with the attendant fierce erosional and sedimentary processes, has affected the morphology through geodynamic processes expressed as failures in the wider coastal area. High resolution multibeam bathymetry in combination with the available land surface data have contributed to submarine and subaerial morphological mapping. These have been used as a basis for the detection of all those geomorphic features that indicate instabilities probably triggered, directly or indirectly, by the ongoing active tectonic deformation. The interpretation of the combined datasets shows that the southwestern margin of the Corinth Rift towards Psathopyrgos fault zone is characterized by intense coastal relief and a narrow, almost absent, continental shelf, which passes abruptly to steep submarine slopes. These steep slope values denote the effects of the most recent brittle deformation and are related to coastal and submarine instabilities and failures. High uplift rates and rapid sedimentation, indicative of the regional high-energy terrestrial and submarine environment, are subsequently balanced by the transportation of the seafloor currents, especially where slope gradients decrease, disintegrating the probable slide deposits. Conversely, the nearby active -but older- tectonic structure of the Heliki fault, is related to less steep slopes. Canyons are extensive and sediment mass failures appear as retrogressive landslide scars identified near the headwalls. The mass movements evolving near the coastal and shallow marine areas may have a high tsunamigenic potential, which depends on the volumes of the mobilized materials. As a special interest has been arisen nowadays concerning risk assessment and management, the results of our study can be further evaluated from a geohazard perspective.

Simou, Eirini; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Lykousis, Vasilios; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Vassilakis, Emmanuel

2014-05-01

140

Giant submarine landslides off NW-Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The passive continental margin off Northwest Africa is dominated by high terrigenous sediment input (fluvial and aeolian) and high primary production in upwelling areas. The redeposition of these sediments is controlled by both gravitational and bottom current induced along slope sediment transport. Some sections of the margin show repeated instabilities, while other regions are stable for a long time. Two prominent examples for large scale landslides are the Dakar Slide offshore Senegal and Sahara Slide offshore West-Sahara. High resolution seismic and hydro-acoustic data acquired during Cruise MSM11/2 in spring 2009 in addition to data from cruise M65/2 in 2005 reveal an giant submarine slide offshore Senegal named Dakar Slide. The slide shows a headwall with a length of at least 90km along slope in between water depths of 3.100 to 3.400m. The slide is confined by the Dakar Canyon in the north and the Diola Canyon in the south. The northern sidewall runs for 90 km into the deep-sea where it crosses the distal part of the Dakar Canyon. Seismic data show that the distal part of the Canyon was repeatedly destroyed and filled by slide deposits. Erosion structures in former canyon fill shows reactivation of the Canyon in the past. The area above the slide does not show major mass-wasting events even though the slope gradient there with 3° is steeper than the slope angle of 0.5-1° in the headwall region of the slide. Beneath the northern headwall and sidewall of the Dakar Slide the seismic data show a large scale wavy sediment structure, which covers at least 400 km² and is up to 1km thick. The crests of the waves strike in an along slope direction, and we interpret this feature as listric faults, which might have originated from creeping prior to the main catastrophic failure event. Furthermore upslope of this area between 1.300 and 2.000 meters bathymetric and high resolution seismic data show additional signs for (active/recent) creeping in the form of down slope orientated bulges. Until now, however, it is unclear if there is a relation between the creeping and the slope failure. The Dakar and the Diola Canyon seem to limit the slide to this area and therefore restrict the expansion of the slide further along the slope. As indicated by the repeated slide deposits filling the Dakar Canyon and the abundance of deeper lying chaotic to transparent sediment structures in the seismic data, mass-wasting events prior to Dakar Slide were common. Seismic data from cruise M58/1 in 2003 and new bathymetric data of the headwall area of the Sahara-Slide also collected during Cruise MSM11/2 show a mega slide with a length of ~700km and an estimated volume of ~600km. The age of the main slide event is 50-60ka. The distal part of this slide complex is well studied, while data in the source-area are sparse. Available data of the source area indicate vertically stacked slide deposits and a relatively recent reactivation of the headwall. To investigate this observation in more detail additional data will be acquired during the upcoming Poseidon P395 Cruise in February 2010.

Meyer, Mathias; Geersen, Jacob; Schwenk, Tillmann; Krastel, Sebastian

2010-05-01

141

Common Submarine Radio Room.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CSRR program represents a paradigm shift in the way radio room equipment is procured in the submarine fleet. This program is managed under PEO C4I by SPAWAR PMW 770. This thesis examines the cost, schedule, and performance parameters of the CSRR progr...

S. S. Roderick

2011-01-01

142

Making a Submarine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Archimedes principle and why a ship sinks when it gets a hole in it. Suggests an activity for teaching the concept of density and water displacement through the construction of a simple submarine. Includes materials and procedures for this activity. (KHR)

Cornacchia, Deborah J.

2002-01-01

143

On Helicopters and Submarines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bernoulli vs. Archimedes - Whenever you see a movie that's got a vehicle that's part helicopter and part submarine, you know you're in for a real treat. What could be cooler? One second, the hero's being pursued by some fighter jets piloted by some nasty dudes with bad haircuts, dodging air-to-air missiles and exchanging witty repartee over the radio with

Marshall T. Rose

2003-01-01

144

Yellow, Yellow submarin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recollections reports on a trip by author to Severodvinsk on the White Sea border (in the Russian Federation), where one of the Buroes and the Soviet atomic submarins Factory was placed. The factory and the buroe is placed there till present. A biography of one of the constructors is given.

Gaina, Alex

2009-12-01

145

Newly recognized submarine slide complexes in the southern California Bight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New high-resolution bathymetric and seismic-reflection surveys have imaged large (<0.5 km3) submarine landslides offshore southern California that have not been previously recognized in the Borderland. The new data show several large slides or slide complexes that include: 1) a slide complex consisting of numerous (>7) individual overlapping slides along the western margin of Santa Cruz Basin (SCB slide); 2) a series of slumps and slide scars on the slope south of San Pedro shelf (SPS slide); and 3) a slope failure along the shelf edge in northern San Diego County, termed the Del Mar slide. The SCB slide complex extends for 30 km along the western slope of Santa Cruz Basin, with debris lobes extending 5-8 km into the basin. Head scarps of some of these slides are 50-75 m high. The SPS slide complex also appears to consist of multiple slides, which roughly parallel the Palos Verdes Fault and the San Gabriel Canyon submarine channel on the shelf edge and slope south of San Pedro shelf. Slide deposits associated with this complex are only partially mapped due to limited high-resolution bathymetric coverage, but extend to the south in the area SW of Lasuen Knoll. Seismic-reflection profiles show that some of these deposits are up to 20 m thick. The Del Mar slide is located about 10 km north of La Jolla Canyon and extends about 6 km along the shelf edge. The head scarp lies along the trend of a branch of the Rose Canyon Fault Zone. Radiocarbon ages of sediment overlying this slide indicate the Del Mar slide is approximately 12-16 ka. These large slide complexes have several characteristics in common. Nearly all occur in areas of tectonic uplift. All of the complexes show evidence of recurrent slide activity, exhibiting multiple headwall scarps and debris lobes, and where available, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles of these slide areas provide evidence of older, buried mass transport deposits. Assuming typical sedimentation rates, the recurrence interval of major slide events appears to be on the order of tens of thousands of years. Most of the slide complexes do not appear to be located in areas of high sediment input. The SCB and Del Mar slides are in areas receiving relatively small terrestrial sediment input from fluvial sources, as are most other previously recognized submarine slides in the Borderland. Only the SPS slide, which lies adjacent to the San Gabriel Canyon submarine channel, is associated with a significant fluvial sediment source.

Conrad, J. E.; Lee, H. J.; Edwards, B. D.; McGann, M.; Sliter, R. W.

2012-12-01

146

Is Perceptual Narrowing Too Narrow?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing list of examples illustrating that infants are transitioning from having earlier abilities that appear more "universal," "broadly tuned," or "unconstrained" to having later abilities that appear more "specialized," "narrowly tuned," or "constrained." Perceptual narrowing, a well-known phenomenon related to face, speech, and…

Cashon, Cara H.; Denicola, Christopher A.

2011-01-01

147

Anomalous topography on the continental shelf around Hudson Canyon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent seismic-reflection data show that the topography on the Continental Shelf around Hudson Canyon is composed of a series of depressions having variable spacings (< 100 m to 2 km), depths (1-10 m), outlines, and bottom configurations that give the sea floor an anomalous "jagged" appearance in profile. The acoustic and sedimentary characteristics, the proximity to relict shores, and the areal distribution indicate that this rough topography is an erosional surface formed on Upper Pleistocene silty sands about 13,000 to 15,000 years ago by processes related to Hudson Canyon. The pronounced southward extension of the surface, in particular, may reflect a former increase in the longshore-current erosion capacity caused by the loss of sediments over the canyon. Modern erosion or nondeposition of sediments has prevented the ubiquitous sand sheet on the Middle Atlantic shelf from covering the surface. The "anomalous" topography may, in fact, be characteristic of areas near other submarine canyons that interrupt or have interrupted the longshore drift of sediments. ?? 1979.

Knebel, H. J.

1979-01-01

148

Ancient Observatories: Chaco Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Exploratorium site offers an online "tour" of the sites and structures within Chaco Canyon, thought to have once been an ancient solar observatory. The different pages on the tour detail several of the most famous sites where significant solar alignments occur each year. A section called "seasons and solstices" provides further information.

2009-03-12

149

Mars: Canyon and Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image of Mars includes a brief description and a zoom-in feature to view the image at closer range. The center of the scene shows the entire Valles Marineris canyon system. An audio option allows one to listen to the caption. A glossary is also provided.

150

Black Canyon Outreach Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal features links to K-12 outreach education units on the Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park and Curecanti National Recreation Area. They focus on topics such as trees, habitats, fossils, animal adaptations, seasons, weather, the water cycle, mapping and geology. There are also downloadable activities for sutdents to perform either before or after their visits to the area.

151

The narrow, shallow, low-accommodation shelf of central Brazil: Sedimentology, evolution, and human uses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continental shelf off the coast of central Brazil, extending from 10 to 16°S, is unusually narrow (~ 20 km) and rests on the São Francisco craton. The shelf break is located between the 45 and 50 m isobaths and coincides with major hinge-lines of the marginal basins. The shelf was exposed for most of the Quaternary period, particularly during the last 1 my, when the average sea level was - 62 m. Submarine geomorphology is strongly influenced by this extended sub-aerial exposure and reduced subsidence, resulting in widespread incisions on the shelf. During the limited episodes of shelf inundation, as is the case today, a few meters of non-framework grain assemblages dominated by coralline algae accumulated on the outer shelf, while quartz sands were restricted to water depths of less than 10-15 m. Mud accumulation on this unusually shallow shelf is aided by additional accommodation space provided by incisions and canyon heads indenting the shelf. Artisanal fisheries, targeting high-value commercial species associated with hard bottoms located on the outer shelf and shelf break, are the most important human use of this shelf. Data used in this study have been compiled from theses and previously conducted surveys and consist of four piston cores, 509 km of chirp subbottom profiles and side scan recordings, and 711 bottom grab samples that have been analyzed for various textural and compositional aspects.

Dominguez, José Maria Landim; da Silva, Rian Pereira; Nunes, Alina Sá; Freire, Antonio Fernando Menezes

2013-12-01

152

MESMA: AIP system for submarines  

Microsoft Academic Search

MESMA (autonomous submarine energy module) is an AIP system (air independent propulsion) which has been developed in order to equip submarine vehicles. Good results were obtained during the trials carried out on a primary loop prototype made the French Directorate for Naval Construction (DCN) and Bertin Company (owner of patents) who worked together to study a MESMA version for conventional

P. Kerros; C. Inizan; D. Grousset

1994-01-01

153

Current submarine atmosphere control technology.  

PubMed

Air purification in submarines was introduced towards the end of World War II and was limited to the use of soda lime for the removal of carbon dioxide and oxygen candles for the regeneration of oxygen. The next major advances came with the advent of nuclear-powered submarines. These included the development of regenerative and, sometimes, energy-intensive processes for comprehensive atmosphere revitalization. With the present development of conventional submarines using air-independent propulsion there is a requirement for air purification similar to that of the nuclear-powered submarines but it is constrained by limited power and space. Some progress has been made in the development of new technology and the adoption of air purification equipment used in the nuclear-powered submarines for this application. PMID:11876194

Mazurek, W

1998-01-01

154

Mapping the True 3D Morphology of Deep-Sea Canyons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of submarine canyons as ecosystem hotspots and sediment transport pathways has been recognised for decades (e.g. Heezen et al., 1955; Vetter & Dayton, 1998). However, studying canyon systems in detail is a challenge, because of the complexity and steepness of the terrain. Acoustic surveys are hampered by side-echoes, while the high slope angles cause most types of sampling equipment, deployed from surface vessels, to fail. Ship-borne bathymetric surveys tend to represent the canyon topography in an overly smoothed way as a result of their limited resolution in deep water compared to the scale of the terrain variability. Moreover, it is clear that overhanging cliffs cannot be mapped correctly with traditional, downward looking multibeam echosounders. The increasing availability of underwater vehicles, however, opens new opportunities. During summer 2009, we mapped several submarine canyon habitats in detail, using the UK deep-water Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) ISIS. In particular, we developed a new methodology to map vertical cliffs and overhangs by placing the high-resolution Simrad SM2000 multibeam system of the ROV in a forward-looking position rather than in the traditional downward-looking configuration. The cliff morphology was then mapped by moving the ROV laterally in parallel passes at different depths. Repeating this approach at different distances from the cliff face, we obtained maps of varying resolution and extent. The low resolution maps provide an overview of the general geological framework, while individual strata and faunal colonies can be recognised on the highest resolution maps. Using point-cloud models, we combined the ship-borne bathymetry with the ROV-based data, in order to obtain a true 3D seabed morphology of the canyon study site, which can be used for fly-throughs, geomorphological analysis or habitat mapping. With this approach, we could visualise the spatial structure and density distribution of a unique and previously unknown cold-water coral reef, formed as a hanging garden under a 1600 m long and 120 m high overhanging wall, at 1350 m water depth in the Whittard Canyon, NE Atlantic margin. Heezen, B.C., Ewing, M. and Menzies, R. (1955). The influence of submarine turbidity currents on abyssal productivity. Oikos, 6, 170-182. Vetter, E.W. & Dayton, P.K. (1998). Macrofaunal communities within and adjacent to a detritus-rich submarine canyon system. Deep-Sea Research II, 45, 25-54.

Huvenne, V. A.; Masson, D.; Tyler, P. A.; Huehnerbach, V.

2010-12-01

155

Optimizing submarine berthing with a persistence incentive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submarine berthing plans reserve mooring locations for inbound U.S. Navy nuclear submarines prior to their port entrance. Once in port, submarines may be shifted to different berthing locations to allow them to better receive services they require or to make way for other shifted vessels. However, submarine berth shifting is expensive, labor inten- sive, and potentially hazardous. This article presents

Gerald G. Brown; Kelly J. Cormican; Siriphong Lawphongpanich; Daniel B. Widdis

1997-01-01

156

The Grand Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the ecology of the Grand Canyon area. Students act as scientists investigating the damming of the Colorado River by the Glen Canyon dam and experimental flooding that took place in 1996. They then write a proposal as to whether or not more experimental flooding should be done on the area considering the ecological effects. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

157

Submarine slumps, slides, and flows dominate sculpting of Beringian Margin, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

The 1,400 km long Beringian margin is characterized by several very large submarine canyons and by a large oceanic plateau at the southern end. GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery provides a perspective of this margin that is unattainable with conventional acoustic profiles. The broad coverage of GLORIA images emphasizes that, of all the sedimentary processes affecting this vast margin, mass movement is clearly the dominant shaping process. Styles of failure include mud and debris flows, slumps, and massive block slides, some covering areas greater than 1,500 km{sup 2}. GLORIA imagery and seismic-reflection profiles show evidence for a wide variety of slides and slumps in the canyons of the northern margin, Navarin and Pervenets. The 100 km long shelf edge between these two canyons is characterized by a series of scalloped slide scars and incipient scars associated with blocks of sedimentary material, 1 to 2 km across. One of the largest single slide masses is a huge block tens of kilometers wide that occurs on the rise in the central part of the margin beyond the mouth of Zhemchug Canyon. Sliding of this block may have initiated the incision of the world's largest submarine canyon. The removal of this block accelerated headward erosion by retrograde failure until Zhemchug Canyon was cut back to a fault parallel to the shelf edge. Mass movement along the southern margin is widespread at the edges of Umnak Plateau. One mass failure, well-defined by GLORIA, is about 30 km wide and 55 km long. This and other slides along the plateau are associated with diapiric-like structures, suggesting relatively recent tectonism.

Carlson, P.R.; Karl, H.A.; Edwards, B.D.; Gardner, J.V.; Hall, R. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-06-01

158

Ancient Observatories: Chaco Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in the northwest corner of New Mexico, Chaco Canyon is a shallow, ten-mile canyon accessible only by washboard dirt roads. It is an area of tremendous cultural importance, as it was once the center of an elaborate system of buildings, roadways, and other construction. Intense building activity continued at the site until about AD 1150, and then it was quickly abandoned. Today, it is a National Historic Park and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. On this site created by the Exploratorium in San Francisco, visitors can learn about this unique place via sections that provide insight into its layout, its history of human habitation, and also its various celestial alignments. First-time visitors can click on the Sense of Place tab to view a time-lapse video of the site. The Time area is remarkable, as visitors can read an essay titled "How Old Is It?" and then watch "Migration Stories," which talks about the experiences that humans have had there over the centuries. The site is rounded out by the Observation area, which allows users to learn about how the canyon's unique qualities have fascinated visitors, explorers, and others.

159

Geomorphologic Features and Age Estimation of Submarine Landslides in the Southwestern Colombian Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed ~17000 km2 of high-resolution-bathymetric data in the southwestern Caribbean Sea of Colombia between the La Aguja Submarine Canyon (LASC) and the Gulf of Urabá. The data allowed us to identify and describe submarine landslides and to calculate their ages based on scarp dating by using numerical solutions of the diffusion equation. The ages are presented in terms of the constant k of diffusivity due to the absence of well constrained values for submarine environments. In the northeastern sector of the study area we differentiated 31 submarine failures associated with the LASC flanks, between 1200 and 3285 m depth, with escarpments slopes ranging between 6.1° and 36.8°; estimated ages suggest ranges between ~407 and ~103.5 k (m2). Triggering mechanisms of these landslides are close related to the occurrence of earthquakes originated in the convergence zone of the Santa Marta and Oca fault systems, and to the flanks instabilities product of the mud diapirism phenomena that is present in the area. In the central sector of the study zone, the continental margin is dominated by the presence of the Magdalena Submarine Fan (MSF). Here, most of the submarine failures are disintegrative (i.e. with no obvious deposit near or at the base of the scar) and all are related to a system of canyons belonging to the Magdalena turbidite system and to an abrupt slope break at the border of the continental shelf. Scarp dating suggests a wide range of ages fluctuating between ~207.1 and ~146427.8 k (m2). Landslides at southernmost sector of the study zone are mainly associated to anticline-related ridges of the Sinú Accretionary Prism. These ridges are structural highs cut by channels and canyons, and are associated with slopes of 10°-25°. In many cases, the failures are disintegrative and it is probable that the associated landslide deposits are buried by subsequent sediments related to broad fans forming in the mouth of channels and canyons. Additionally, some cohesive landslides identified exhibit blocky deposits with rubbles up to 50 m high and runout distances between 3.6 and 11 km. Ages of these failures range between ~182.9 and ~15476.3 k (m2)

Idarraga Garcia, J.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.

2013-05-01

160

Flow structure in submarine meandering channels, a continuous discussion on secondary flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of the flow structure in deep-sea turbidity currents is important for the formation of submarine meandering channels. Similarly to the case of subaerial channels, several types of secondary flows include turbulence-, curvature- and bed morphodynamic-driven flow structures that modulate sediment transport and channel bed morphodynamics. This study focuses on [1] a review of long-time research effort (Abad et al., 2011) that tackles the description of the secondary flow associated with a subaqueous bottom current (saline) in a high-curvature meandering channel and [2] ongoing numerical simulations of similar settings as the experiments to describe the entire flow structure. In the case of subaerial channels, the classical Rozovskiian paradigm is often invoked which indicates that the near-bottom secondary flow in a bend is directed inward. It has recently been suggested based on experimental and theoretical considerations, however, that this pattern is reversed (near-bottom secondary flow is directed outward) in the case of submarine meandering channels. Experimental results presented here, on the other hand, indicate near-bottom secondary flows that have the same direction as observed in a river (normal secondary flow). The implication is an apparent contradiction between experimental results. This study combines theory, experiments, reconstructions of field flows and ongoing simulations to resolve this apparent contradiction based on the flow densimetric Froude number. Three ranges of densimetric Froude number are found, such that a) in an upper regime, secondary flow is reversed, b) in a middle regime, it is normal and c) in a lower regime, it is reversed. These results are applied to field scale channel-forming turbidity currents in the Amazon submarine canyon-fan system (Amazon Channel) and the Monterey canyon and a saline underflow in the Black Sea flowing from the Bosphorus. Our analysis indicates that secondary flow should be normal throughout most of the Amazon submarine fan reach, lower-regime reversed in the case of the Black Sea underflow, and upper-regime reversed in the case of the Monterey canyon. The analysis predicts both normal and reversed regimes in the Amazon submarine canyon reach. This research presents insights on the importance of flow structure not only to describe subaqueous bed morphodynamics, but also to understand evolution of submarine meandering channels, therefore its importance for developing accurate morphodynamic models. Reference: Abad, J. D., Sequeiros, O. E., Spinewine, B., Pirmez, C., Garcia, M. H., Parker, G. (2011). SECONDARY CURRENT OF SALINE UNDERFLOW IN A HIGHLY MEANDERING CHANNEL: EXPERIMENTS AND THEORY. In press, Journal of Sedimentary Research

Abad, J. D.; Parker, G.; Sequeiros, O.; Spinewine, B.; Garcia, M. H.; Pirmez, C.

2011-12-01

161

Influence of the Nazaré Canyon, central Portuguese margin, on late winter coccolithophore assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a first attempt to characterize coccolithophore assemblages occurring in the context of an active submarine canyon. Coccolithophores from the upper-middle sections of the Nazaré Canyon (central Portuguese margin) - one of the largest canyons of the European continental margin - were investigated during a late winter period (9-12 March 2010). Species distributions were analyzed in a multiparameter environmental context (temperature, salinity, turbidity, Chl-a and nutrient concentrations). Monthly averaged surface water Chl-a concentrations between 2006 and 2011 assessed from satellite data are also presented, as a framework for interpreting spatial and temporal distribution of phytoplankton in the Nazaré Canyon. The Nazaré Canyon was observed to act as a conduit for advection of relatively nutrient-poor oceanic waters of ENACWst origin into nearshore areas of the continental shelf (less than 10 km off the coast), whilst at the surface a nutrient-rich buoyant plume resulting from intensive coastal runoff prior and during the beginning of the cruise was spreading in oceanward direction. Two distinct coccolithophore assemblages appear representative for the coast to open-ocean gradient: (1) Emiliania huxleyi together with Gephyrocapsa ericsonii and Coronosphaera mediterranea dominated the more productive assemblage present within coastal-neritic surface waters; and (2) Syracosphaera spp. and Ophiaster spp. displayed a higher affinity with open-ocean conditions, and also generally a broader vertical distribution. Local “hotspots” of coccolithophore and phytoplankton biomass potentially associated with perturbations of surface water circulation by the canyon are discussed.

Guerreiro, Catarina; Sá, Carolina; de Stigter, Henko; Oliveira, Anabela; Cachão, Mário; Cros, Llu?sa; Borges, Carlos; Quaresma, Luis; Santos, Ana I.; Fortuño, José-Manuel; Rodrigues, Aurora

2014-06-01

162

Evidence for submarine landslides and continental slope erosion related to fault reactivation during the last glaciation offshore eastern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have proposed that reactivation of dormant faults during deglaciation is a source of neotectonic activity in glaciated regions, but few have demonstrated the relationship to submarine landslides. In this study, seabed morphology and shallow geology of the outer continental margin adjacent to the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone off Newfoundland, Canada was investigated for evidence of this relationship. The glacial history and morphology of the margin suggest that the entire continental shelf in the area, coincident with major continental crustal lineaments, was ice-covered during the Last glacial cycle, and transverse troughs delineate the paleo-icestream drainage patterns. A recent investigation of Notre Dame Trough revealed the existence of large sediment failures on the shelf. The current study investigates complex seafloor erosion and widespread mass transport deposition (MTD) on the continental slope seaward of Notre Dame Trough, using recently-acquired high resolution seismic reflection data and piston cores. The new data reveal that a trough mouth fan (TMF) is present on the slope seaward of Notre Dame Trough. The Notre Dame TMF is characterized by a succession of stacked debris flows, but does not show a lobate shape in plan view like other classic TMFs. Instead, the Notre Dame TMF has abruptly-truncated margins suggesting post-depositional failure and erosion of the fan deposits. Seismic reflection data show that the locations of the failures along the TMF margin are coincident with a set of shallow faults; however the current dataset does not image the deeper portion of the faults. On the upper slope immediately south of the TMF, a narrow and deeply incised canyon is located along-trend with the Notre Dame Trough. The location of this canyon appears to be controlled by a fault. Downslope from this canyon, along the southern margin of the TMF, a 25 km wide, flat-floored, U-shaped valley was eroded into a succession of stacked MTD-filled channels. Seismic stratigraphic analysis shows that the valley developed around the same time as the adjacent TMF, however, the valley morphology and evidence for repeated slope failure suggests that the processes responsible for its formation were different than the processes that formed the nearby TMF. Age control provided from piston cores suggest that the last major slope failure that contributed to valley formation probably occurred at ~29 ka. Geotechnical measurements from piston cores show slightly underconsolidated sediments. The results indicate that this part of the margin is more unstable than Orphan Basin and Labrador slope regions. Given the low factor of safety and the complex fault system, low energy earthquake from the surrounding area could be enough to potentially trigger landslides.

Saint-Ange, F.; Campbell, C.; MacKillop, K.; Mosher, D. C.; Piper, D. J.; Roger, J.

2012-12-01

163

Timing of occurrence of large submarine landslides on the Atlantic Ocean margin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Submarine landslides are distributed unevenly both in space and time. Spatially, they occur most commonly in fjords, active river deltas, submarine canyon-fan systems, the open continental slope and on the flanks of oceanic volcanic islands. Temporally, they are influenced by the size, location, and sedimentology of migrating depocenters, changes in seafloor pressures and temperatures, variations in seismicity and volcanic activity, and changes in groundwater flow conditions. The dominant factor influencing the timing of submarine landslide occurrence is glaciation. A review of known ages of submarine landslides along the margins of the Atlantic Ocean, augmented by a few ages from other submarine locations shows a relatively even distribution of large landslides with time from the last glacial maximum until about five thousand years after the end of glaciation. During the past 5000??yr, the frequency of occurrence is less by a factor of 1.7 to 3.5 than during or shortly after the last glacial/deglaciation period. Such an association likely exists because of the formation of thick deposits of sediment on the upper continental slope during glacial periods and increased seismicity caused by isostatic readjustment during and following deglaciation. Hydrate dissociation may play a role, as suggested previously in the literature, but the connection is unclear.

Lee, H. J.

2009-01-01

164

Photomosaics and logs of trenches on the San Andreas Fault at Mill Canyon near Watsonville, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present photomosaics and logs of the walls of trenches excavated for a paleoseismic study at Mill Canyon, one of two sites along the San Andreas fault in the Santa Cruz Mtns. on the Kelley-Thompson Ranch. This site was a part of Rancho Salsipuedes begining in 1834. It was purchased by the present owner’s family in 1851. Remnants of a cabin/mill operations still exist up the canyon dating from 1908 when the area was logged. At this location, faulting has moved a shutter ridge across the mouth of Mill Canyon ponding Holocene sediment. Recent faulting is confined to a narrow zone near the break in slope.

Fumal, Thomas E.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Flowers, Rebecca; Hamilton, John C.; Heingartner, Gordon F.; Kessler, James; Samrad, Laura

2004-01-01

165

Exhaust Gas Turbocharged Submarine Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Supercharged submarine propulsion systems have the following technical and economic advantages: Higher power density, lower fuel consumption, maximum identity with standard propulsion systems. The design and successful tests of a new supercharger (simple ...

V. M. W. Jost

1984-01-01

166

Next Generation Strategic Submarine Navigator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the last forty-five years, Strategic Systems Programs (SSP) has been entrusted with total life cycle responsibility for the United States and the Royal (United Kingdom) Navy's Strategic Submarine (SSBN) launched ballistic missile weapons systems. SSP'...

M. J. Ringlein N. J. Barnett M. B. May

2000-01-01

167

Obstacle avoidance sonar for submarines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Mine Detection Sonar (AMDS) system was designed to operate in poor environments with high biological and\\/or shallow-water boundary conditions. It provides increased capability for active detection of volume, close-tethered, and bottom mines, as well as submarine and surface target active\\/passive detection for ASW and collision avoidance. It also provides bottom topography mapping capability for precise submarine navigation in

Albert C. Dugas; Kenneth M. Webman

2002-01-01

168

Relationship Between a Submarine's Maximum Speed And its Evasive Capability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experiences of submarine warfare from WWI and WWII have generally dictated maximum speed when designing conventional submarines. Technological development of submarine and antisubmarine weapons, however, requires examination of submarine warfare and t...

K. R. Armo

2000-01-01

169

Germanium isotopic compositions in Canyon Diablo spheroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using ICP-MS, we have measured the concentrations and isotopic abundances of Ge in the following samples: (1) the iron meteorites Camp Verde, Toluca, Picacho, and Canyon Diablo; (2) Canyon Diablo spheroids; and (3) oxide rims and metallic cores obtained by grinding Canyon Diablo spheroids. Whole Canyon Diablo spheroids contain appreciably more Ge than does the bulk meteorite. Germanium is

S. Xue; Y.-L. Yang; G. S. Hall; G. F. Herzog

1997-01-01

170

A proposed Laramide proto-Grand Canyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of “rim gravels” north of Grand Canyon and of “Canaan Peak-type” gravels south of Grand Canyon suggests that a paleocanyon, which intersected the transport of these gravels north and south, may have begun forming in the Laramide in approximately the same position as today's central Grand Canyon. This Laramide-age canyon is envisioned as having flowed generally from the

C. A. Hill; W. D. Ranney

2008-01-01

171

The Energy Balance of an Urban Canyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the energy exchanges occurring within an urban canyon. It considers not only the energy balances of each of the canyon component surfaces (walls and floor), but also the balance of the canyon system and of the air volume contained therein. The results are based on measurements conducted in a specially instrumented canyon during a period of fine

M. Nunez; T. R. Oke

1977-01-01

172

Submarine hydrothermal fossils confirmed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers from Princeton University (D. Crerrar et al, Econ. Geol., May 1982) have documented, in considerable detail, evidence for the formation of some of the 800 or more manganiferous chert deposits occurring in the central belt of the Fransiscan formation in northwestern California. They confirm the surprisingly old conclusion o f Tiaferro and Hudson (Cal. Div. Mines Bull., 125, 217-276, 1943) that the Fransiscan chert deposits probably represent the fossil remains of submarine hydrothermal vents.The deposits resemble recently discovered hydrothermal mounds near the Galapagos rift, the Gulf of Aden, and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. As the Princeton investigators point out, there are important implications of the existence of deep hydrothermal circulation systems at oceanic spreading centers throughout geologic time. They note that the calculated annual flow of hydrothermal fluids in such processes is about 1017 g, which implies that the entire volume of the oceans could circulate completely every 10 million years. With such circulation, the hydrothermal processes along midocean ridges could control the composition of seawater and strongly influence the geochemical flux of elements in the marine environment.

Bell, Peter M.

173

Nutrition Education And Diet Modification Aboard Submarines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During a one year period, 534 male, US Navy submariners participated in a nutrition research project designed to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. The research was carried out on board USN Trident Submarines before, during, and following actual pa...

C. L. Shake C. L. Schlichting

1996-01-01

174

Fuel Cell Air Independent Propulsion of Submarines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conventional diesel-electric submarines must surface periodically to recharge their batteries by using generators driven by air breathing diesel engines. During this time, submarines are most vulnerable to detection. Air independent propulsion (AIP) syste...

P. L. Mart J. Margeridis

1995-01-01

175

Analysis of Submarine Tender Manning Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The increased workload at submarine Intermediate Maintenance Activities (IMAs) and problems in adequately manning these facilities could affect submarine maintenance. This research memorandum contains a brief analysis of the personnel and requirements iss...

A. J. Marcus M. F. Hayes

1988-01-01

176

On sonobuoy placement for submarine tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of detecting and tracking an unknown number of submarines in a body of water using a known number of moving sonobuoys. Indeed, we suppose there are N submarines collectively maneuvering as a weakly interacting stochastic dynamical system, where N is a random number, and we need to detect and track these submarines using M moving

Michael A. Kouritzin; David J. Ballantyne; Hyukjoon Kim; Yaozhong Hu

2005-01-01

177

Assembly challenges in submarine system optical components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hallmark of components for submarine applications is reliability. Assembly and manufacture of these components requires scrupulous control of incoming parts and assembly processes, particularly the fiber pigtail. Although there are many aspects to assembly of submarine system optical components, this talk will focus on our experience with handling fibers, controlling suppliers, monitoring processes and assuring reliability for submarine system

R. C. Schweizer; K. A. Miller; G. M. Palmer; K. C. Robinson

1998-01-01

178

Canyon waste dump case study  

SciTech Connect

This data packet contains the Canyonville Canyon Waste Dump results of the various physical environmental sampling. Core samples were taken from the on site waste material. Vertical grab samples were made from these borings. The waste samples were screened fro volatile organic compounds (VOC) and logged for lithology. Soil samples were also tested for VOC. Composite sediment samples were taken using a coring device known as a clam gun. No surface water was available for testing from the intermittent Canyon Wash. The hydrogeology of the Canyon Waste Dump was inferred from lithologic logs and hydraulic data from the five monitoring wells located along the canyon floor. Groundwater was monitored through five wells. The soil vapor and air screening techniques used were adaptations of the EPA ERT and NIOSH methodologies. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

Land, M.D.; Brothers, R.R. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)); McGinn, C.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-01-01

179

1996 Grand Canyon Flood Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mark Manone, Northern Arizona University Summary Analyze the effect of a 1996 controlled flood on a sandbar in Grand Canyon. This exercise uses Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst Context Type and level of course ...

Manone, Mark

180

236-Z Canyon Utilization Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 236-Z canyon contains equipment for repurification of plutonium and recovery of plutonium from scrap material. To meet production requirements of Fast Flux Test Facility/Clinch River Breeder Reactor oxide with the existing plant, several new pieces of...

D. R . Dixon

1977-01-01

181

Applications of Physical Modeling to the Evolution of Slot Canyon Morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abrasion-dominated fluvial erosion generates slot canyons with intricately undulating wall morphology. Flows in slot canyons are unique in that the walls comprise a significant portion of the wetted perimeter of the flow. Wire Pass, UT incises through massive cross-bedded Navajo Sandstone. The canyon ranges in width from <1 m to ˜5 m in the slotted sections, and in depth from ˜5 m to ˜25 m. Incision in Wire Pass and related slots is limited to ephemeral flash floods; paleoflood debris indicates that the depth-to-width ratios of these flows are at least 1:1. Sub-meter resolution field mapping of a 20 m length of Wire Pass shows that the wall morphology is a complicated combination of both in-phase (meander-like), and out-of-phase (pinch and swell) type undulations. In order to understand the evolution of slot canyon wallforms, and the influence of these shapes on flow dynamics, we recorded the evolution of four distinct canyon wall morphologies in a 2.4 m flume box at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. In a substrate consisting of approximately 3:2 mixtures of F110 sand and plaster of Paris, we molded in-phase and out-of-phase undulations, and wide (6.5 cm) and narrow (4 cm) straight initial wall profiles. Sediment-laden water flowed through each canyon at discharges ranging from 2.6 L/s to 4.2 L/s. We made velocity measurements in three dimensions in sections of each canyon. At 5 hr intervals we documented wall and bed morphology at 0.5 cm resolution using a Keyance LK-500 laser mounted on a moving cart. Initial results show that wall faces in both undulating canyons evolve at different rates, and their flow fields are strongly asymmetric. Upstream-facing walls in undulating canyons eroded most rapidly. In the straight-walled canyons, small perturbations developed in the walls. Each canyon incised downward and headward from a knickpoint generated by a consistent lower boundary. Incision depths averaged ˜6 cm. Incision generally propagated around small cracks in the substrate and in potholes formed around small pebbles. The location and shape of scallops on the bed of each canyon was strongly controlled by wall morphology. Continued analysis of slot canyon dynamics in the field and laboratory should further the understanding of bedrock canyons dominated by abrasion.

Carter, C. L.; Anderson, R. S.

2003-12-01

182

On sonobuoy placement for submarine tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the problem of detecting and tracking an unknown number of submarines in a body of water using a known number of moving sonobuoys. Indeed, we suppose there are N submarines collectively maneuvering as a weakly interacting stochastic dynamical system, where N is a random number, and we need to detect and track these submarines using M moving sonobuoys. These sonobuoys can only detect the superposition of all submarines through corrupted and delayed sonobuoy samples of the noise emitted from the collection of submarines. The signals from the sonobuoys are transmitted to a central base to analyze, where it is required to estimated how many submarines there are as well as their locations, headings, and velocities. The delays induced by the propagation of the submarine noise through the water mean that novel historical filtering methods need to be developed. We summarize these developments within and give initial results on a simplified example.

Kouritzin, Michael A.; Ballantyne, David J.; Kim, Hyukjoon; Hu, Yaozhong

2005-05-01

183

Plio-Quaternary canyons evolution on South Colombian convergent margin : Tectonic causes and implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of seafloor morphology and sediment deposits associated with the incision of the South Colombia active margin by a major submarine canyon system are used to reveal out-of-sequence fault activity at least since the Middle Pleistocene. The South Colombian convergent margin is located along Northwestern South America, where the Nazca plate underthrusts eastward the South America plate with a 58 mm.yr-1 convergence rate. The morphology and deep multichannel seismic reflection lines obtained across the margin reflect a frontal accretionnary wedge, as well as antiform and faulted internal structural highs that locally extend up to near the continental shelf, suggesting wide-spread Plio-Quaternary tectonic activity. The Amadeus cruise conduced in 2005 brought new seismic and sedimentary data together with 150m and 60m-resolution EM12D multibeam bathymetry. The newly mapped Mira and Patia canyons system incises the South Colombian margin slope over a distance of ~90 and ~150 km respectively, forming an unequivocal Z-shape in map view, breaching the deformation front and feeding a 30-km wide trench fan system. The morphology of the canyon exhibits meanders, steep over-incised walls (~25-30 degrees), alternation between concave-up and convex-up downstream profiles, slope failures scars, and buried channels. These features reflect interactions between tectonics, sedimentation and the canyon evolution. A synthesis of all the data reveals that: A) Uplifting structural highs control canyons path and incision stages. B) Canyons developed asynchronously across the upper, mid and lower margin slopes according to three main stages: a) upper slope incision by downward cutting during Pleistocene, and possibly by retrogressive headward erosion, b) infill of a mid-slope basin bounded by uplifting structural highs, and c) overspill of the slope basin, and breaching its seaward bounding ridge, and the accretionary prism ~150 kyr ago. These processes led to the construction of sedimentary lobes in the trench, and then to a well-developed channel-levees system. C) Occurrences of antecedence, canyon walls over steepening, and convex-up bathymetric profiles of the canyons imply uplift of the fault-controlled structural highs at least during the last ~150 kyr supporting active out-of-sequence tectonic shortening. The long-term causes of the out-of-sequence tectonic could be linked to interplate coupling and basal friction variations. This study strongly reflects the interplay between tectonic deformation and canyon evolution thus providing a good example of the use of canyon morphology and associated deposits as markers of active tectonic deformation

Ratzov, Gueorgui; Sosson, Marc; Collot, Jean-Yves; Migeon, Sebastien

2010-05-01

184

Human powered submarine propeller design  

Microsoft Academic Search

While all parts of a submarine contribute to its overall performance, the propeller blade design is often neglected due to the difficulties in analyzing the impact in design changes combined with a lack of previous research in blade designs for the power and speed requirements as dictated by a human powered vehicle. To aid us in the design of our

B. Ellis; D. Wacholder

2003-01-01

185

Hydroplaning and submarine debris flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of submarine clastic deposits along the continental margins reveals the remnants of holocenic or older debris flows with run-out distances up to hundreds of kilometers. Laboratory experiments on subaqueous debris flows, where typically one tenth of a cubic meter of material is dropped down a flume, also show high velocities and long run-out distances compared to subaerial debris flows.

Fabio V. De Blasio; Lars Engvik; Carl B. Harbitz; Anders Elverhøi

2004-01-01

186

Canyon Effects on Nearshore Infragravity Waves During NCEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infragravity waves become increasingly important as the water depth gets shallower and wind generated waves become saturated due to wave breaking. Infragravity wave energy is composed of wave-group forced long waves and reflected leaky waves and trapped edge waves. Typically conditions on a approximately alongshore uniform beach are consisdered (e.g. Herbers et al., 1994, van Dongeren et al., 2003). Here we examine the alongshore variability in the infragravity conditions induced by nearby canyons utilizing a 2D-surfbeat model (Reniers et al., 2004). The model simulates the propagation of both leaky and trapped infragravity waves that are generated by directionally spread wave groups. Model computations are used to examine the potential reflection (Inman et al., 1976, Huntley et al., 1981) of shore-trapped edge waves from the canyon walls by considering various model-scenarios with and without the canyons. Computational results will be compared with observations of infragravity conditons obtained from an alongshore array of pressure and velocity meters situated just north of the canyon (MacMahan et al., 2004, this conference). References Herbers, T.H.C., Steve Elgar and R.T. Guza, 1994: Infragravity-frequency (0.005 0.05 Hz) motions on the shelf. Part 1: Forced waves. J. Phys. Oc., 25, 1063-1079. Huntley, D. A., R. T. Guza and E. B. Thornton, 1981, "Field Observations of Surf Beat: Part I, Progressive Edge Waves", J. Geophys. Res., 86, 6451-6466. Inman, D.L., C.E. Nordstrom and R.E. Flick, 1976: Currents in sub-marine canyons: An air-sea-land interaction, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 8, 275-310. MacMahan, J., E.B. Thornton, A. Reniers and T.P. Stanton, 2004, The Torrey Pines Rip-currents, this conference. Reniers, A.J.H.M., E.B. Thornton and J.A. Roelvink, 2004: Morphodynamic modeling of an embayed beach under wave-group forcing, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C01030, doi:10.1029/2002JC001586. Van Dongeren, A.R., A.J.H.M. Reniers, J.A. Battjes and I.A. Svendsen, 2003, "Numerical modeling of infragravity wave response during Delilah." J. Geoph. Res, 108 (C9), 4-1-19

Reniers, A.; Macmahan, J.; Thornton, E.; Stanton, T.

2004-12-01

187

The Dangeard and Explorer canyons, South Western Approaches UK: Geology, sedimentology and newly discovered cold-water coral mini-mounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Celtic Margin is a complex area in terms of sedimentary dynamics and evolution, with a number of submarine canyons dissecting the continental slope and outer continental shelf. The complex terrain and diverse range of sea-bed sediments play a part in submarine canyons being described as areas of high habitat heterogeneity. This study has concentrated on the heads of two canyons: Dangeard (also known as Dangaard) and Explorer (first named here) located in UK territorial waters, in water depths between 138 and 1165 m. Multibeam echosounder, 2D reflection seismic and photographic ground-truthing data have been combined to map the sea-bed geomorphology, sedimentary features and canyon megafauna of these canyons. In addition, two previously unknown provinces of cold-water coral (CWC) mini-mounds were discovered on the interfluves of the Dangeard and Explorer canyons. The study area comprises a dendritic network of gullies feeding into the canyon thalwegs. Amphitheatre rims, where slope angles are commonly in excess of 20°, occur along the margins and heads of both canyons and are interpreted as drainage basins indicative of retrogressive mass-wasting in a shelfward direction. The CWC mini-mounds occur in water depths between 250 m and 410 m, with more than 400 mounds identified. They are up to 3 m in height and 50-150 m in diameter with no sub-surface expression, suggesting these mounds are, in geological terms, relatively young and possibly Holocene in age. Biological analyses revealed that the mounds form a habitat for ophiuroids and Munida associated with Lophelia pertusa coral rubble, suggesting these mini-mounds are not present-day living features.

Stewart, Heather A.; Davies, Jaime S.; Guinan, Janine; Howell, Kerry L.

2014-06-01

188

Quantitative differential geomorphology of the Monterey Canyon from time-separated multibeam surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes of bathymetry derived from multibeam sonars are useful for quantifying the effects of many sedimentary and tectonic processes. The assessment of resolution limits is an essential component of the analysis This research compares submarine morphology as they manifest tectonics in a rapidly transform continental margin (Monterey Bay - California). We study modern submarine processes from a geomorphic change using high-resolution multibeam bathymetry. We first used different techniques that quantify uncertainties and reveals the spatial variations of errors. An sub-area of immobile seafloor in the study area, mapped by the high-resolution multibeam record of the seafloor of the MBR collected by MBARI in each survey in a four years period (spring 2003 to winter 2006), provides a common 'benchmark'. Each survey dataset over the benchmark is filtered with a simple moving-averaging window and depth differences between the two surveys are collated to derive a difference histogram. The procedure is repeated using different length-scales of filtering. By plotting the variability of the differences versus the length-scale of the filter, the different effects of spatially uncorrelated and correlated noise can be deduced. Beside that, a variography analysis is conducted on the dataset build by differencing the benchmark surveys to highlight spatial structures and anisotropies of the measure errors. Data analysis of the Monterey Bay area indicates that the canyon floor contains an axial channel laterally bounded by elevated complex terrace surfaces. Asymmetrical megaripples dominate the active part of the canyon floor, indicating sediment transport. Terraces represent the evidence of recent degradation of the canyon floor. Slump scars and gullies, having a variety of size, shape the canyon walls. Significant changes over the analyzed period include: (a) complete reorganization of the megaripples on the channel floor, (b) local slump scar on the head of the canyon and on the channel flanks, (c) local channel widening that laterally eroded older channel, (d) extension of gully head on canyon walls, (e) erosion and sedimentation cycles all over the canyon. The analyses carried out shows how the results are based on a map of uncertainties, which can be used to remove insignificant data from the bathymetric change map.

Taramelli, A.; Zucca, F.; Innocenti, C.; Sorichetta, A.; Seeber, L.

2008-12-01

189

Possible Connections Between the Coronado Bank Fault Zone and the Newport-Inglewood, Rose Canyon, and Palos Verdes Fault Zones Offshore San Diego County, California.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution multichannel seismic-reflection and deep-tow Huntec data collected by the USGS were interpreted to map the Coronado Bank fault zone (CBFZ) offshore San Diego County, California. The CBFZ is comprised of several major strands (eastern, central, western) that change in both orientation and degree of deformation along strike. Between Coronado Bank and San Diego, the CBFZ trends N25W and occupies a narrow 7 km zone. Immediately north of La Jolla submarine canyon (LJSC), the easternmost strand changes orientation to almost due north and appears to be offset in a right-lateral sense across the canyon axis. The strand merges with a prominent fault that follows the base of the continental slope in about 600 m water depth. The central portion of the CBFZ is mapped as a negative flower structure and deforms seafloor sediment as far north as 15 km north of LJSC. Farther north, this structure is buried by more than 400 m of basin sediment. Along the eastern edge of the Coronado Bank, the western portion of the CBFZ is characterized by high angle normal faults that dip to the east. North of the Coronado Bank, the western segment follows the western edge of a basement high; it cuts through horizontal basin reflectors and in places deforms the seafloor. We mapped an additional splay of the CBFZ that trends N40W; it is only observed north and west of LJSC. Although the predominant trend of the CBFZ is about N40W, along strike deviations from this orientation of some of the strands indicate that these strands connect with other offshore fault zones in the area. Based on the limited data available, the trend of the CBFZ south of Coronado Bank suggests that it might connect with the Rose Canyon fault zone (RCFZ) that has been mapped in San Diego Bay. North of Coronado Bank, the CBFZ is a much broader fault zone (about 25 km wide) composed of diverging fault strands. The westernmost strand may merge with the western strand of the Palos Verdes fault zone (PVFZ) south of Lasuen Knoll. The eastern strand trends toward the Newport-Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ) as imaged offshore near Dana Point. These connections suggest that the CBFZ is linked at depth with other prominent fault zones to the north (PVFZ and NIFZ) as well as to the south (RCFZ).

Sliter, R. W.; Ryan, H. F.

2003-12-01

190

The spatial variability in concentrations of a traffic-related pollutant in two street canyons in York, UK—Part I: The influence of background winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of background wind flow on the dispersion of carbon monoxide (CO) was investigated over a one-month period in two street canyons of differing geometry in the city of York, UK. Electrochemical sensors were used to measure CO concentrations at various heights and locations along each canyon. Six ultrasonic anemometers were used to measure the airflow and turbulence within one of the canyons. A seventh anemometer measured the above-roof (or background) winds at approximately twice the street building height. Bi-directional traffic flow was measured in each street using the Split, Cycle and Offset Optimisation Technique (SCOOT) system. The investigation indicates that differences in the street geometry and the background winds result in contrasting in-canyon wind flows and dispersion characteristics. Whilst there is evidence of a single cross canyon vortex in one street canyon for certain background wind directions, there are also a number of three-dimensional (3D) flow structures formed in the canyon due to the influence of flow channelling, both within the canyon and from adjoining side streets. For background winds with a strong perpendicular component relative to the canyon axes, the mean CO concentrations on the leeward side of the street canyons were on average, a factor of two greater than on the windward side. This feature can be attributed to the formation of vertical and horizontal vortices. However, when the concentrations were normalised by the background wind speed and total traffic flow, a three-fold difference exists between the windward and leeward sides of the street canyon. Evidence of flow channelling and helical flow regimes was also detected for background flows with a component parallel to the canyon axes. The difference in mean CO concentrations between the two street canyons was approximately two-fold, with the highest mean concentrations in the narrower canyon, which has a smaller cross-sectional area.

Boddy, J. W. D.; Smalley, R. J.; Dixon, N. S.; Tate, J. E.; Tomlin, A. S.

191

DEVIL CANYON-BEAR CANYON PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Devil Canyon-Bear Canyon Primitive Area, located about 10 mi northeast of Pasadena in the Angeles National Forest, Los Angeles County, California, is an area about 8 mi long by 6 mi wide. To evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the area, geologic examinations were made by foot traverses. Samples of fresh, altered, and mineralized rocks, of sand, gravel, and other sediments, and of some panned concentrates from stream sediments were collected and analyzed. The mineral-resource survey concluded that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic resources.

Crowder, Dwight, F.; Fillo, Paul, V.

1984-01-01

192

Risk Assessment for Submarine Slope Stability: Preliminary Studies and Numerical Modeling of Hydroplaning of Submarine Slides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Submarine landslides present an important risk to offshore structures and related facilities. Although submarine slides have many similarities to their subaerial counterparts, there are important differences. As part of previous OTRC research sponsored by...

H. Hu S. G. Wright

2004-01-01

193

Sediment transport processes at the head of Halibut Canyon, Eastern Canada margin: An interplay between internal tides and dense shelf water cascading.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the processes by which sediment is transported through a submarine canyon incised in a glaciated margin, the bottom boundary layer quadrapod RALPH was deployed at 276-m depth in the West Halibut Canyon (off Newfoundland) during winter 2008-2009. Two main sediment transport processes were identified throughout the deployment. Firstly, periodic increases of near-bottom suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) were recorded associated with the up-canyon propagation of the semidiurnal internal tidal bore along the canyon axis, carrying fine sediment particles resuspended from deeper canyon regions. The recorded SSC peaks, lasting less than one hour, were observed sporadically and were linked to bottom intensified up-canyon flows concomitant with sharp drops in temperature. Secondly, sediment transport was also observed during events of intensified down-canyon current velocities that occurred during periods of sustained heat loss from surface waters, but were not associated with large storms. High-resolution velocity profiles throughout the water column during these events revealed that the highest current speeds (~1 m s-1) were centered several meters above the sea floor and corresponded to the region of maximum velocities of a gravity flow. Such flows had associated low SSC and cold water temperatures and have been interpreted as dense shelf water cascading events channelized along the canyon axis. Sediment transport during these events was largely restricted to bedload and saltation, producing winnowing of sands and fine sediments around larger gravel particles. Analysis of historical hydrographic data suggests that the origin of such gravity flows is not related to the formation of coastal dense waters advected towards the canyon head. Rather, the dense shelf waters appear to be generated around the outer shelf, where convection during winter is able to reach the sea floor and generate a pool of near-bottom dense water that cascades into the canyon during one or two tidal cycles. A similar transport mechanism can occur in other submarine canyons along the eastern Canadian margin, as well in other canyoned regions elsewhere, where winter convection generally reaches the shelf-edge.

Puig, Pere; Greenan, Blair J. W.; Li, Michael Z.; Prescott, Robert H.; Piper, David J. W.

2013-04-01

194

The Response of A Steep-sided Canyon Off The East Spanish Coast To Different Atmospheric Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current data collected in the region of the Palamós canyon are used to study the flow pattern and variability in the canyon and in the adjacent shelf and slope. Palamós canyon is located in the Catalan coast (northwestern Mediterranean), its axial depth is almost 2000 m, with a total width of about 30 km, implying the canyon has very steep walls. It can be considered relatively narrow, being about 30 km long. The canyon is under the influence of the Northern Current, flowing towards the SW along the conti- nental slope, as a part of the Northwestern Mediterranean cyclonic circulation. Time series data from 18 current-meters and an acoustic Doppler current profiler deployed in a seven mooring array have been collected from March to November 2001. The data provide information about currents in and around the canyon and the shelf at three dif- ferent depths, namely near the surface, at intermediate waters and near the bottom. At the surface and at intermediate levels, mean currents exhibit a general southwestward trend following the mean direction of the general circulation in the area and less af- fected by the presence of the canyon. Instead, currents at the bottom are constraint to the local bathymetry. The data set is used, in combination with available atmospheric data, to study the response of the canyon to different atmospheric forcing conditions.

Marcos, M.; Monserrat, S.; García-Ladona, E.; Tintoré, J.; Puig, P.; Palanques, A.; Martín, J.; Llobet, M.; Julià, A.; Guillén, J.; Font, J.; Casas, B.

195

Creationism in the Grand Canyon, Texas Textbooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

AGU President Bob Dickinson, together with presidents of six other scientific societies, have written to Joseph Alston, Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park, pointing out that a creationist book, The Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold in bookstores within the borders of the park as a scientific explanation about Grand Canyon geologic history. President Dickinson's 16 December letter

Peter Folger

2004-01-01

196

Some insights into typical urban canyon airflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have suggested that the key characteristics of wind flows within an urban canyon can be determined from the relative geometry of the canyon; in particular from the height to width ratio of the canyon, and, to a lesser extent, from the length to height ratio. Further, it is often assumed that the flow at mid-canyon is essentially two-dimensional and little influenced by along-canyon flow. Analysis of data collected from a field program indicates that within canyon flow is more complex than this and that the channelling effect of the canyon must be included in any description of the flow. It is also shown that the relative geometry of the canyon is insufficient on its own to determine the fundamental nature of the flow. In the field program, based on a relatively long canyon, vortex-based "skimming flow" was observed. On the basis of previous wind tunnel and numerical studies, such a flow regime is not expected for this relatively low canyon. Further analysis of the wind data confirms previous work of Nakamura and Oke (1988, Atmospheric Environment 22, 2691-2700) concerning the relationship between above-roof wind direction and canyon-floor wind direction. An explanation of this relationship in terms of the channelling effect of the canyon is provided.

Johnson, G. T.; Hunter, L. J.

197

Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.  

PubMed

Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another important concern is a suite of products from chemical reactions among oxidizing compounds with biological chemicals such as amines, thiols and carbonyls. SAMAP Meeting We (Armin and Joachim) attended the 2011 SAMAP conference in Taranto, Italy (10-14 October), which occurred just a few weeks after the IABR meeting in Parma, Italy (11-15 September 2011). It was held at the Officers' Club of the Taranto Naval Base under the patronage of the Italian navy; the local host was Lucio Ricciardi of the University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. At the 2011 SAMAP meeting, the theme was air-independent propulsion (AIP), meaning the capability of recharging the main batteries of the submarine without the need to surface. Only a few navies (e.g. US, UK, France, Russia, China) have historically had this capability using nuclear-powered submarines that can function underwater for extended periods of time (months). Most navies operate submarines with conventional diesel-electric propulsion, wherein diesel-powered generators charge battery banks which then drive an electric motor connected to the propeller. The batteries are charged while the boat is on the surface or during snorkelling, when the boat is submerged a few meters below the surface and a snorkel tube is extended to the surface. The period between battery charges can vary from several hours to one or two days depending on the power requirements and the nature of the mission. The process is necessary for breathing air revitalization (flushing out accumulated contaminants) and for the operation of the diesel engines. However, during this period the submarine is vulnerable to detection. Since the 1940s there have been various attempts to develop a power generation system that is independent of external air (AIP). To this end hydrogen peroxide was initially used and later liquid oxygen (LOX). Currently, most AIP submarines use fuel cell technology (LOX and hydrogen) to supplement the conventional diesel-electric system in order to extend the underwater endurance to 2-3 weeks. These propulsion engineering changes also reduce per

Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

2012-03-01

198

A Laboratory model for the flow in urban street canyons induced by bottom heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water tank experiments are carried out to investigate the convection flow induced by bottom heating and the effects of the ambient wind on the flow in non-symmetrical urban street canyons based on the PIV (Particle Image Visualization) technique. Fluid experiments show that with calm ambient wind, the flows in the street canyon are completely driven by thermal force, and the convection can reach the upper atmosphere of the street canyon. Horizontal and vertical motions also appear above the roofs of the buildings. These are the conditions which favor the exchange of momentum and air mass between the street canyon and its environment. More than two vortices are induced by the convection, and the complex circulation pattern will vary with time in a wider street canyon. However, in a narrow street canyon, just one vortex appears. With a light ambient wind, the bottom heating and the associated convection result in just one main vortex. As the ambient wind speed increases, the vortex becomes more organized and its center shifts closer to the leeward building.

Liu, Huizhi; Liang, Bin; Zhu, Fengrong; Zhang, Boyin; Sang, Jianguo

2003-07-01

199

Hells Canyon Environmental Investigation, 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an environmental investigation of the nonpower impacts on the Hells Canyon Complex resulting from water budget participation are presented. The water budget plan would increase flows in the Columbia and Snake Rivers between April 15 and June 15 to improve survival of migrating salmon and steelhead. The study was conducted using existing data and consultation with agencies

1984-01-01

200

Amplification of bedrock canyon incision by wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bedrock canyons etch much of the surface of Earth and Mars, and commonly inform interpretations of long-term hydrologic or tectonic changes within these landscapes. However, many bedrock canyons (particularly on Mars) exist in arid environments where wind abrasion can dramatically alter surface morphology. Although it is hypothesized that wind carves or modifies bedrock canyons on Mars, the interplay of wind and fluvial processes in shaping canyon landscapes is, to our knowledge, unexplored. Consequently, here we exploit a natural experiment along the 4.09 Ma Puripicar ignimbrite, situated on the western slope of the Andes in the Atacama Desert and subject to significant erosion from both wind and rivers. The Puripicar exhibits a series of bedrock gorges nested behind a broad north-south escarpment whose southern half is protected from wind by a large topographic barrier. This shielding provides a natural control to examine the effects of wind abrasion on canyon morphology and in particular knickpoint retreat. Our results show that for a given drainage area, knickpoints in wind-affected canyons have incised an order of magnitude farther upstream than wind-protected canyons. In addition, wind-affected canyons are wider and have more streamlined aspect ratios for a given drainage area than wind-protected canyons. Aeolian abrasion appears to result in knickpoints with average slopes half those of shielded canyons (0.2 and 0.4, respectively). Lastly, although the magnitude of knickpoint retreat is larger in wind-affected canyons, the scaling exponent between knickpoint retreat and drainage area is virtually identical for wind-affected canyons (0.56, R = 0.71) and wind-protected canyons (0.60, R = 0.80). Taken together, our results suggest that fluvial incision and wind abrasion are coupled processes in this landscape: convergent canyons funnel wind towards knickpoints, thereby leading to enhanced aeolian abrasion rates at knickpoints. We speculate that the apparent drainage area dependence of knickpoint retreat in wind-affected canyons reflects the fact that larger rivers create wider canyon mouths. Larger canyons mouths, in turn, increase wind convergence and drive higher aeolian abrasion rates at the heads of larger canyons. This study is the first to demonstrate knickpoint retreat via wind abrasion, and highlights that even in landscapes where large river gorges are present, wind may still exert a dominant control on canyon morphology.

Perkins, J. P.; Finnegan, N. J.; de Silva, S. L.

2013-12-01

201

Submarine mass wasting features at the southern central Chilean continental margin - a new database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on an extensive set of swath bathymetry data that was obtained on 12 cruises and cover about 72% of the Chilean continental margin between 33°S and 43°S, up to now more than 60 submarine mass wasting features were detected, mapped and described. They form a wide spectrum in size, apparent slide mechanism and volume. Most of them are small if compared to mass wasting features on passive continental margins. We analyze the database with the aim to determine the main tectonic preconditioning factors for mass wasting along this densely populated partof the Chilean coastline. Major factorsare (1) slope undercutting by the incision of erosive submarine canyons, (2) slope oversteepening by active folding and faulting,and (3) accretionary wedge collapse due to localized sediment underplating and/or frontal accretion. A major stratigraphic control on mass wasting may be in the form of offshore deposition of thick volcanic ash fallout of the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile. Also fluid seepage from overpressured faults tapping dewatering subducted sediments at depth may contribute to destabilization of sediments on the continental slope. Obvious triggers are the large thrust earthquakes that shake the region with a historical recurrence time of ~ 150 y. About half of the features are directly related to the active submarine canyons on the forearc. The collapse of canyon walls partly impinges on the open slope where thin translational slides detach from discrete horizons . Apart from the slides directly related to canyons, we identified medium-sized (5-25 km3) blocky slides that affect the lowermost continental slope, and small spoon-shaped headscarps of slides, which deliver their material into slope basins. A particular feature is given by Valdes Slide which developed on an upper slope thrust ramp , with mass wasting directed landward. There is no straight-forward relationship between simple geomorphic parameters such als slope gradient or curvature, and the spatial distribution of slump features, as was previously observed e.g. offshore the Pacific coast of Nicaragua. The database will serve as comparison to other regional datasets of convergent margins such as for Central America, but also to the COSTA database of mass wasting features on the North Atlantic passive margin.

Voelker, David; Geersen, Jacob; Weinrebe, Willi R.; Behrmann, Jan H.

2010-05-01

202

Submarine slopes with an exponential curvature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The curvature of submarine slopes is a little used source of information on transport processes and sediment composition. In a survey of modern submarine slopes selected from all over the world, about 15% are characterized by very regular profiles with sharp shelfbreaks and concave-upward curvature. An exponential function describes this morphology very well. These exponential profiles are from three very

Erwin W. Adams; Wolfgang Schlager; Evert Wattel

1998-01-01

203

Submarine landslide geomorphology, US continental slope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphometric analysis of submarine landslides in four distinctly different tectonic environments on the continental slopes of Oregon, central California, Texas, and New Jersey provides useful insight into submarine process, including sediment transport mechanisms and slope stability. Using Geographic Information System (GIS) software, we identify landslides from multibeam bathymetric and GLORIA sidescan surveys based solely on surficial morphology and reflectivity.

B. g. Mcadoo; L. f. Pratson; D. l. Orange

2000-01-01

204

Reactivity Accident of Nuclear Submarine near Vladivostok  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the collapse of the Soviet Union and consequently the termination of the Cold War and the disarmament agreements, many nuclear warheads are in a queue for dismantling. As a result, substantial number of nuclear submarines equipped with ballistic missiles will be also withdrawn from service. However, Russian nuclear submarines have suffered from reactivity accidents five times. In the paper,

Makoto TAKANO; Vanya ROMANOVA; Hiromi YAMAZAWA; Yuri SIVINTSEV; Keith COMPTON; Vladimir NOVIKOV; Frank PARKER

2001-01-01

205

The role of upper-regime flow bedforms in the morphodynamics of submarine channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in acoustic imaging of submarine canyons and channels have provided accurate renderings of seafloor geomorphology. Still, a fundamental understanding of channel inception, evolution, sediment transport, and the nature of the currents traversing these channels remains elusive. Here, we review a mosaic of geomorphology, shallow stratigraphy, and morphodynamics of channelized deep-water depositional systems of tectonically active slopes offshore of California, USA. These systems are imaged in high-resolution multi-beam sonar bathymetry (dominant frequency ~200 kHz) and seismic-reflection (2-16 kHz) data. From north to south, the Monterey East, Lucia Chica, and San Mateo channelized deep-water depositional systems show a breadth of geomorphology and stratigraphic architecture, including channel reaches of varying sinuosity, levees, terraces within channels, and crescent-shaped bedforms, especially in the thalwegs of incipient channel elements. Morphodynamic numerical modeling is combined with interpretations of seafloor and shallow subsurface stratigraphic imagery to demonstrate that the crescent-shaped bedforms common to channel thalwegs are likely to be cyclic steps. We propose that net-erosional and net-depositional cyclic steps play a fundamental role in the formation, filling, and maintenance phases of submarine channels in continental margins with high gradient, locally rugose bathymetry. These margins include passive-margin slopes subjected to gravity-driven tectonic deformation. In such settings, high gradients support the development of densimetric Froude-supercritical turbidity currents, and abrupt slope breaks can promote hydraulic jumps and the spontaneous evolution of an erodible seabed into cyclic steps. This morphodynamic investigation of turbidity currents and the seafloor has the potential to enhance prediction of the locations, stratigraphic evolution, and architecture of submarine canyon-channel systems.

Covault, Jacob A.; Kostic, Svetlana; Fildani, Andrea

2014-05-01

206

Carbonate apron models: Alternatives to the submarine fan model for paleoenvironmental analysis and hydrocarbon exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment gravity flow deposition along the deep-water flanks of carbonate platforms typically does not produce submarine fans. Rather, wedge-shaped carbonate aprons develop parallel to the adjacent shelf/slope break. The major difference between submarine fans and carbonate aprons is a point source with channelized sedimentation on fans, versus a line source with sheet-flow sedimentation on aprons. Two types of carbonate aprons may develop. Along relatively gentle (< 4??) platform-margin slopes, aprons form immediately adjacent to the shallow-water platform and are referred to as carbonate slope aprons. Along relatively steep (4-15??) platform margin slopes, redeposited limestones accumulate in a base-of-slope setting, by-passing an upper slope via a multitude of small submarine canyons, and are referred to as carbonate base-of-slope aprons. Both apron types are further subdivided into inner and outer facies belts. Inner apron sediments consist of thick, mud-supported conglomerates and megabreccias (Facies F) as well as thick, coarse-grained turbidites (Facies A) interbedded with subordinate amounts of fine-grained, peri-platform ooze (Facies G). Outer apron sediments consist of thinner, grain-supported conglomerates and turbidites (Facies A) as well as classical turbidites (Facies C) with recognizable Bouma divisions, interbedded with approximately equal proportions of peri-platform ooze (Facies G). Seaward, aprons grade laterally into basinal facies of thin, base-cut-out carbonate turbidites (Facies D) that are subordinate to peri-platform oozes (Facies G). Carbonate base-of-slope aprons grade shelfward into an upper slope facies of fine-grained peri-platform ooze (Facies G) cut by numerous small canyons that are filled with coarse debris, as well as intraformational truncation surfaces which result from submarine sliding. In contrast, slope aprons grade shelfward immediately into shoal-water, platform-margin facies without an intervening by-pass slope. The two carbonate apron models presented here offer alternatives to the submarine-fan model for paleoenvironmental analysis and hydrocarbon exploration for mass-transported carbonate facies. ?? 1986.

Mullins, H. T.; Cook, H. E.

1986-01-01

207

Carbonate apron models: Alternatives to the submarine fan model for paleoenvironmental analysis and hydrocarbon exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment gravity flow deposition along the deep-water flanks of carbonate platforms typically does not produce submarine fans. Rather, wedge-shaped carbonate aprons develop parallel to the adjacent shelf/slope break. The major difference between submarine fans and carbonate aprons is a point source with channelized sedimentation on fans, versus a line source with sheet-flow sedimentation on aprons. Two types of carbonate aprons may develop. Along relatively gentle (< 4°) platform-margin slopes, aprons form immediately adjacent to the shallow-water platform and are referred to as carbonate slope aprons. Along relatively steep (4-15°) platform margin slopes, redeposited limestones accumulate in a base-of-slope setting, by-passing an upper slope via a multitude of small submarine canyons, and are referred to as carbonate base-of-slope aprons. Both apron types are further subdivided into inner and outer facies belts. Inner apron sediments consist of thick, mud-supported conglomerates and megabreccias (Facies F) as well as thick, coarse-grained turbidites (Facies A) interbedded with subordinate amounts of fine-grained, peri-platform ooze (Facies G). Outer apron sediments consist of thinner, grain-supported conglomerates and turbidites (Facies A) as well as classical turbidites (Facies C) with recognizable Bouma divisions, interbedded with approximately equal proportions of peri-platform ooze (Facies G). Seaward, aprons grade laterally into basinal facies of thin, base-cut-out carbonate turbidites (Facies D) that are subordinate to peri-platform oozes (Facies G). Carbonate base-of-slope aprons grade shelfward into an upper slope facies of fine-grained peri-platform ooze (Facies G) cut by numerous small canyons that are filled with coarse debris, as well as intraformational truncation surfaces which result from submarine sliding. In contrast, slope aprons grade shelfward immediately into shoal-water, platform-margin facies without an intervening by-pass slope. The two carbonate apron models presented here offer alternatives to the submarine-fan model for paleoenvironmental analysis and hydrocarbon exploration for mass-transported carbonate facies.

Mullins, Henry T.; Cook, Harry E.

1986-06-01

208

Morphology of late Quaternary submarine landslides along the U.S. Atlantic continental margin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nearly complete coverage of the U.S. Atlantic continental slope and rise by multibeam bathymetry and backscatter imagery provides an opportunity to reevaluate the distribution of submarine landslides along the margin and reassess the controls on their formation. Landslides can be divided into two categories based on their source areas: those sourced in submarine canyons and those sourced on the open continental slope and rise. Landslide distribution is in part controlled by the Quaternary history of the margin. They cover 33% of the continental slope and rise of the glacially influenced New England margin, 16% of the sea floor offshore of the fluvially dominated Middle Atlantic margin, and 13% of the sea floor south of Cape Hatteras. The headwall scarps of open-slope sourced landslides occur mostly on the lower slope and upper rise while they occur mostly on the upper slope in the canyon-sourced ones. The deposits from both landslide categories are generally thin (mostly 20-40??m thick) and comprised primarily of Quaternary material, but the volumes of the open-slope sourced landslide deposits can be larger (1-392??km3) than the canyon-sourced ones (1-10??km3). The largest failures are located seaward of shelf-edge deltas along the southern New England margin and near salt domes that breach the sea floor south of Cape Hatteras. The spatial distribution of landslides indicates that earthquakes associated with rebound of the glaciated part of the margin or earthquakes associated with salt domes were probably the primary triggering mechanism although other processes may have pre-conditioned sediments for failure. The largest failures and those that have the potential to generate the largest tsunamis are the open-slope sourced landslides.

Twichell, D. C.; Chaytor, J. D.; ten, Brink, U. S.; Buczkowski, B.

2009-01-01

209

Mineral resources of the Fish Creek Canyon, Road Canyon, and Mule Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, San Juan County, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book reports the Fish Creek Canyon (UT-060-204), Road Canyon(UT-060-201), and Mule Canyon (UT-060-205B) Wilderness Study Areas, which comprise 40,160 acres, 52,420 acres, and 5,990 acres, respectively, studied for their mineral endowment. A search of federal, state, and county records showed no current or previous mining-claim activity. No mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study areas. Sandstone

D. J. Bove; D. R. Shawe; G. K. Lee; W. F. Hanna; R. E. Jeske

1989-01-01

210

Modes of development of slope canyons and their relation to channel and levee features on the Ebro sediment apron, off-shore northeastern Spain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six submarine slope canyons in an area of the northwestern Mediterranean, offshore from the Ebro River and Delta, were surveyed with bathymetric swathmapping (SeaBeam) and mid-range side-looking sonar (SeaMARC I). All of the canyons have slightly winding paths with concave-upwards gradients that are relatively steep shallower than 1,200 m. Two major types of canyons are identified on the basis of their morphologic character at the base of the slope; Type-I canyons lead to an unchannelled base-of-slope deposit and Type-II canyons are continuous with channel-levee systems that cross the rise. Four Type-I canyons were surveyed in the area. Two of these are broad, U-shaped, steep (average gradients of 1:14), do not indent the shelf, and terminate downslope at debris-flow deposits. These two canyons, the most northern in the area, have rounded heads with extensive gullies separated by knife-edge ridges. Relief of the canyon walls is about equal on both sides of the canyons, although the right-hand walls (looking downslope) are generally steeper. The other two Type-I canyons in the area are similar in that they do not indent the shelf, but they are much smaller and shallower and coalesce before terminating in the base-of-slope region. The two Type-II canyons that feed leveed-channels are U-shaped with flatter floors, longer profiles and gentler gradients than Type-I canyons. They are closer to the Valencia Valley and have relatively small cross-sectional areas. We propose a four-stage evolutionary sequence to explain the development of the canyons observed in this section on the prograding Ebro margin. During the initial stage, slumping and erosion on the slope creates a network of small gullies. During the next stage, headward growth of one (or more) gully leads to a major indentation of the shelf. This is the critical factor for developing a channel that will incise the slope and provide a major conduit for moving sediment to the basin. Stage 3 is characterized by the development of a continuous channel accompanied by levee growth across the lobe. In the final stage, the channel-levee system becomes inactive either through destruction by mass wasting, infilling of the channel, or loss of the major sediment source. ?? 1987.

O'Connell, S.; Ryan, W. B. F.; Normark, W. R.

1987-01-01

211

A study of sound absorption by street canyon boundaries and asphalt rubber concrete pavement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sound field model, based on a classical diffusion equation, is extended to account for sound absorption in a diffusion parameter used to model sound energy in a narrow street canyon. The model accounts for a single sound absorption coefficient, separate accommodation coefficients and a combination of separate absorption and accommodation coefficients from parallel canyon walls. The new expressions are compared to the original formula through numerical simulations to reveal the effect of absorption on sound diffusion. The newly established analytical formulae demonstrate satisfactory agreement with their predecessor under perfect reflection. As well, the influence of the extended diffusion parameter on normalized sound pressure levels in a narrow street canyon is in agreement with experimental data. The diffusion parameters are used to model sound energy density in a street canyon as a function of the sound absorption coefficient of the street canyon walls. The acoustic and material properties of conventional and asphalt rubber concrete (ARC) pavement are also studied to assess how the crumb rubber content influences sound absorption in street canyons. The porosity and absolute permeability of compacted specimens of asphalt rubber concrete are measured and compared to their normal and random incidence sound absorption coefficients as a function of crumb rubber content in the modified binder. Nonlinear trends are found between the sound absorption coefficients, porosity and absolute permeability of the compacted specimens and the percentage of crumb rubber in the modified binders. The cross-sectional areas of the air voids on the surfaces of the compacted specimens are measured using digital image processing techniques and a linear relationship is obtained between the average void area and crumb rubber content. The measured material properties are used to construct an empirical formula relating the average porosity, normal incidence noise reduction coefficients and percentage of crumb rubber in the modified binder of the compacted specimens.

Drysdale, Graeme Robert

212

77 FR 9265 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY...SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG...Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations and other management...

2012-02-16

213

77 FR 22801 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY...SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG...Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations and other management...

2012-04-17

214

78 FR 7810 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY...SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG...Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations and other management...

2013-02-04

215

78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY...SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG...Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations and other management...

2013-04-10

216

76 FR 24516 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY...SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG...Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations and other management...

2011-05-02

217

Numerical simulation of tsunami waves generated by deformable submarine landslides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new submarine landslide model based on the non-hydrostatic wave model NHWAVE of Ma et al. (2012). The landslide is modeled as a water–sediment mixture. The dense plume is driven by baroclinic pressure forcing introduced by spatial density variations. The model is validated using laboratory measurements of turbidity currents and of water wave generation by a granular landslide. The model is then utilized to study the dependence of landslide motion and associated tsunami wave generation on parameters including sediment settling velocity, initial depth of the landslide and slide density. Model results show that the slide motion and water waves which it generates are both sensitive to these parameters. The relative tsunamigenic response to rigid and deformable landslides of equal initial geometry and density is also examined. It is found that the wave energy is mostly concentrated on a narrow band of the dominant slide direction for the waves generated by rigid landslides, while directional spreading is more significant for waves generated by deformable landslides. The deformable landslide has larger speed and acceleration at the early stage of landslide, resulting in larger surface waves. The numerical results indicate that the model is capable of reasonably simulating tsunami wave generation by submarine landslides.

Ma, Gangfeng; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan

2013-09-01

218

A submarine shipboard smoking cessation program.  

PubMed

The discouragement of tobacco abuse in the military requires effective smoking cessation assistance for all active duty and dependent personnel. Specifically tailoring this assistance to the unique features of the various military communities will help to make it more effective. The program presented herein was designed for use in the submarine fleet. It combines basic proven workplace smoking cessation techniques with lessons learned from experience in submarines. It is believed that other military populations can benefit from similar efforts. This paper is an abridged version of the author's Submarine Medical Officer qualification thesis. PMID:2511509

Scali, W K

1989-11-01

219

Sediment concentrations, flow conditions, and downstream evolution of two turbidity currents, Monterey Canyon, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of turbidity currents to carry sand and coarser sediment from shallow to deep regions in the submarine environment has attracted the attention of researchers from different disciplines. Yet not only are field measurements of oceanic turbidity currents a rare achievement, but also the data that have been collected consist mostly of velocity records with very limited or no suspended sediment concentration or grain size distribution data. This work focuses on two turbidity currents measured in Monterey Canyon in 2002 with emphasis on suspended sediment from unique samples collected within the body of these currents. It is shown that concentration and grain size of the suspended material, primarily controlled by the source of the gravity flows and their interaction with bed material, play a significant role in shaping the characteristics of the turbidity currents as they travel down the canyon. Before the flows reach their normal or quasi-steady state, which is defined by bed slope, bed roughness, and suspended grain size, they might pass through a preliminary adjustment stage where they are subject to capacity-driven deposition, and release heavy material in excess. Flows composed of fine (silt/clay) sediments tend to be thicker than those with sands. The measured velocity and concentration data confirm that flow patterns differ between the front and body of turbidity currents and that, even after reaching normal state, the flow regime can be radically disrupted by abrupt changes in canyon morphology.

Xu, J. P.; Sequeiros, Octavio E.; Noble, Marlene A.

2014-07-01

220

Distribution of cold-water corals in the Whittard Canyon, NE Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep-sea floor occupies about 60% of the surface of the planet and is covered mainly by fine sediments. Most studies of deep-sea benthic fauna therefore have concentrated on soft sediments with little sampling of hard substrata, such as rocky outcrops in submarine canyons. Here we assess the distribution and abundance of cold-water corals within the Whittard Canyon (NE Atlantic) using video footage from the ROV Isis. Abundances per 100 m of video transect were calculated and mapped using ArcGIS. The data were separated into five substratum types, 'Sediment', 'Mixed Sediment and Rock', 'Sediment Slope', 'Lophelia reef' and 'Lophelia and rock'. Abundance and community structure were compared. A maximum abundance of 855 coral colonies per 100 m of ROV transect were observed with 31 coral types identified. Highest taxon richness was observed along a 'Lophelia reef' area, although a larger richness of Octocorallia was observed away from the 'Lophelia reef' areas. 'Lophelia reef' and 'Lophelia and rock' areas were found to have a different coral community structure from the other substratum types. We suggest this is the result of Lophelia outcompeting other coral types because there is increased coral taxon richness in areas without Lophelia. We also hypothesise that the hydrodynamic regime within the Whittard Canyon results in differences in organic matter input including higher quality food, in comparison with other deep-water environments, leading to changes in the coral communities.

Morris, Kirsty J.; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Doug G.; Huvenne, Veerle I. A.; Rogers, Alex D.

2013-08-01

221

Hudson Canyon benthic habitats characterization and mapping by integrated analysis of multidisciplinary data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hudson Canyon, about 180 km SE of New York City, is the largest eastern U.S. submarine canyon and is under consideration for HAPC (Habitat Area of Particular Concern) status, representing a fisheries and biodiversity hot spot. Interest in the area, within the perspective of ecosystem based management, marine spatial planning, habitat and species conservation, led to a joint project between NOAA Northeast Fisheries, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Mississippi Mineral Research Institute (MMRI), National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST), Stony Brook and Rutgers Universities for the study of benthic habitats, that includes the assembly of existing data with newly collected ones: acoustic mapping, visual ground-truthing, hydrographic, sedimentological, and trawl data collections. Acoustic mapping, performed using AUV-mounted multibeam sonar, provided ultra-high resolution bathymetric and backscatter imagery (3m and 1m respectively) at all water depths for identification of geomorphological features and for the characterization of surficial sediments along the two thirds of the shelf portion of the canyon. Identification of benthic and demersal communities was accomplished by visual ground thruthing with underwater vehicle video and still cameras, and from trawl catch data. A CTD-rosette sampler provided water column salinity-temperature profiles and water samples for dissolved methane analysis in the vicinity of suspected bottom sources. Analysis of data revealed a complex of topographic structures and hydrological patterns that provide a wide range of physical habitats in a relatively small area. A mosaic of sandy and muddy substrates, gravel beds, rock outcrops, and semilithified clay outcrops host rich and varied faunal assemblages, including deepwater corals and sponge communities. Pockmark fields, occurring below 300 m depth, suggest that methane-based chemosynthetic carbonate deposition contributes to creation of specific hard bottom habitats. Previously described hummocky terrain associated with extensive, long-term burrowing activity by golden tilefish (Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps) was clearly delineated along the canyon rims. Bedform fields and potential current deposits observed along the upper portion of canyon walls suggest the presence of intense bottom currents flowing parallel to canyon axis. A benthic habitat map of Hudson Canyon head was produced by integration of the different datasets. The distribution of habitats was primarily inferred from geophysical data characteristics. Furthermore habitat characteristics can be related to sedimentary and oceanographic processes acting on the seafloor. Comparison and refinement of bathymetric and backscatter imagery with ground truth data enabled validation of acoustic classification of the seafloor, allowing the definition of morpho-acoustic classes corresponding to as many habitats, and to extend the predictive results over larger areas.

Pierdomenico, Martina; Guida, Vincent G.; Rona, Peter A.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Scranton, Mary I.; Asper, Vernon; Diercks, Arne

2013-04-01

222

Research Furthers Conservation of Grand Canyon Sandbars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grand Canyon National Park lies approximately 25 km (15 mi) down-river from Glen Canyon Dam, which was built on the Colorado River just south of the Arizona-Utah border in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. Before the dam began to regulate the Colorado River in 1963, the river carried such large quantities of red sediment, for which the Southwest is famous, that the Spanish named the river the Rio Colorado, or 'red river'. Today, the Colorado River usually runs clear below Glen Canyon Dam because the dam nearly eliminates the main-channel sand supply. The daily and seasonal flows of the river were also altered by the dam. These changes have disrupted the sedimentary processes that create and maintain Grand Canyon sandbars. Throughout Grand Canyon, sandbars create habitat for native plants and animals, supply camping beaches for river runners and hikers, and provide sediment needed to protect archaeological resources from weathering and erosion. Maintenance of sandbars in the Colorado River ecosystem, the river corridor that stretches from the dam to the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, is a goal of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. The program is a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the mandates of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 are met through advances in information and resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center has responsibility for scientific monitoring and research efforts for the program. Extensive research and monitoring during the past decade have resulted in the identification of possible alternatives for operating Glen Canyon Dam that hold new potential for the conservation of sand resources.

Melis, Theodore S.; Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Wright, Scott A.

2007-01-01

223

Submarine landslides in Spitsbergen fjords  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fjords are areas that can be exposed to repeated submarine mass wasting, and more than 50% of the depositional sequences can be reworked occasionally. The largest and most frequent slope failures occur typically in relation to the advance and retreat of grounded ice. However, also areas not directly affected by ice can be exposed to slope failure. We provide an overview of mass-transport deposits (MTDs) from the Isfjorden fjord system, the largest fjord system on Spitsbergen. We discuss pre-conditioning factors, trigger mechanisms and the potential of MTDs as indicators for the activity of tidewater and terrestrial glaciers. Slides, slumps, debris-flow deposits and turbidites have been observed. We distinguish three 'types' of MTDs: 1) 'Glacigenic MTDs', including muddy debris-flow lobes, as well as thin sandy MTDs deposited in front of or beneath glaciers; 2) 'Fluvial MTDs', including sandy turbidites and other MTDs originating from slope failures beyond river mouths; 3) 'Other MTDs', i.e. deposits related to failures on slopes that are neither supplied with sediments from glaciers nor from rivers. Such deposits include sediment lobes (debris flows or slumps) and slides. The available data indicate that mass wasting in the Isfjorden area commenced shortly after the deglaciation of the mouth of the trunk fjord around 14,100 cal. years BP. The most frequent pre-conditioning factors and trigger mechanisms are probably high sediment supply and earthquakes related to isostatic adjustments. However, marked changes in the slope gradient (related to bedrock or moraine ridges) also affect the stability of the fronts of tidewater glaciers and the positions of grounding lines, thus influencing the locations of sediment sources and, in consequence, the distribution of glacigenic MTDs. In addition to providing information about the dynamics of marine-terminating glaciers, submarine MTDs occasionally also provide information about the dynamics of terrestrial glaciers during the Holocene.

Forwick, M.; Vorren, T. O.

2012-04-01

224

Novel Approach to Improved Submarine Escape Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conventional compressed air-based submarine excape techniques have been developed to the extent where only new approaches will yield a significant increase in performance. The novel approach suggested here is to substitute for nitrogen in the breathing mi...

D. J. Gait K. W. Miller

1973-01-01

225

Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom ...

K. Andreassen

1995-01-01

226

Obsolescence Management for Virginia-Class Submarines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This case study describes how the Navy resolves technology obsolescence issues that directly affect the operational capability, safety, and reliability of almost every major electronics system on Virginia-class submarines. To date, the Navy has solved app...

2010-01-01

227

CHALLENGES POSED BY RETIRED RUSSIAN NUCLEAR SUBMARINES  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges posed by retired Russian nuclear submarines, review current U.S. and International efforts and provide an assessment of the success of these efforts.

Rudolph, Dieter; Kroken, Ingjerd; Latyshev, Eduard; Griffith, Andrew

2003-02-27

228

A proposed Laramide proto-Grand Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absence of "rim gravels" north of Grand Canyon and of "Canaan Peak-type" gravels south of Grand Canyon suggests that a paleocanyon, which intersected the transport of these gravels north and south, may have begun forming in the Laramide in approximately the same position as today's central Grand Canyon. This Laramide-age canyon is envisioned as having flowed generally from the SW to NE; from the Peach Springs Canyon area to Mile 197 where it was captured by karst; then along a N. 60°E joint system to the Kanab Point area where it converged with drainage coming off the west side of the Kaibab arch. From there it flowed north along the west flank of the Kaibab arch to Paleogene Lake Claron. The critical idea suggested by this proposed model is that the modern Colorado River utilized Laramide paleotopography in establishing its course through the central Grand Canyon, with younger sections of the canyon integrating with it later, in the middle to late Miocene. This paleocanyon route, in association with headward erosion from the Grand Wash Cliffs toward the Kaibab arch after 16-17 Ma, helps account for the total volume of rock eroded from Grand Canyon, which cannot be explained by present-day incision rates.

Hill, C. A.; Ranney, W. D.

2008-12-01

229

ACCELERATED PILOT PROJECT FOR U CANYON DEMOLITION  

SciTech Connect

At the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is underway on a first-of-a-kind project with the decommissioning and demolition of the U Canyon. Following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) Record of Decision for the final remediation of the canyon, CH2M HILL is combining old and new technology and techniques to prepare U Canyon for demolition. The selected remedial action called first for consolidating and grouting equipment currently in the canyon into lower levels of the plant (openings called cells), after which the cell galleries, hot pipe trench, ventilation tunnel, drains and other voids below the operating deck and crane-way deck levels will be filled with approximately 20,000 cubic yards of grout and the canyon roof and walls demolished down to the approximate level of the canyon deck. The remaining canyon structure will then be buried beneath an engineered barrier designed to control potential contaminant migration for a 500-year life. Methods and lessons learned from this project will set the stage for the future demolition of Hanford's four other canyon-type processing facilities.

KEHLER KL

2011-01-13

230

Following the Cantabrian (Ventaniella) fault into the Bay of Biscay: a deeply incised canyon, a change of trend, and 20002 km of unstable continental slope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cantabrian fault, known traditionally with the local name of Ventaniella fault is a long-lived rectilinear feature that runs in a NW-SE direction for more than 200 km across northwest Spain. Its origins are linked to the end of the Variscan orogeny, but its important role took place during the extensional processes of the Mesozoic that led Iberia to become a microplate separated from Europe and Africa. With the initiation of the alpine orogeny Iberia converges with Europe pushed from the south by Africa, and the Ventaniella fault acted as a dextral strike slip fault with an important reverse component. It has a relatively low topographic expression, although its NE block is slightly uplifted with respect to the SW one. Traditionally it has been mapped offshore following the trace of the Aviles canyon, a deeply incised canyon 7 miles from the coast, oblique to the E-W coast trend and which descents from 160 m in the continental shelf , down to 4750 m in the abyssal plain of the Bay of Biscay . All this incision occurs along just 50 km length of the narrow continental shelf in this area, making the Aviles canyon one of the steepest in the Atlantic. Through seismic reflection lines across the continental shelf and slope, a bathymetric model up to date and a 3D geological model the fault has been mapped into the sea integrating the seismicity associated to its SW block and the newest geological mapping on land. At the same time, what is observed in the northwest prolongation and termination of the fault against the oceanic crust of the abyssal plain is a continental slope that is full of mass-wasting processes along more than 80 km length, showing gravitational and submarine slide processes in an area that roughly occupies 2000 km 2 and involves a volume of unstable mass estimated in more than 1000 km3 . One of the biggest displaced masses made the Aviles canyon change its trend to N-S in an almost 90° bend close to the middle slope. Although the displaced masses are big, it does not seem to pose an immediate hazard, as they all show a short run-out distance and, being the actual seismicity of low grade, it is not enough to trigger the fall of the unstable slope. The Ventaniella fault runs in the continental shelf and slope in NW-SE direction, but it also has been deduced with the new data a secondary fault trace slightly more W-E, interpreted as a termination in horsetail of the main strike-slip feature. Both structures seem to be responsible for the seismicity and the mass wasting processes observed along this strip of the Cantabrian margin.

Fernandez Viejo, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, C.; Dominguez-Cuesta, M.

2012-12-01

231

Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction.  

PubMed

Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible. PMID:16844646

Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F

2006-08-15

232

The role of erosion by fish in shaping topography around Hudson submarine canyon.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The close match of areas of rough topography and high tilefish populations, the active burrowing of the sea floor, and the clustered distribution of the burrows suggest that the hummocky topography in this area may be the result of continuous erosion by tilefish and associated crustaceans during the Holocene. -from Authors

Twichell, D. C.; Grimes, C. B.; Jones, R. S.; Able, K. W.

1985-01-01

233

Deep-sea telepresence: a proposed exploration of the Hudson submarine canyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-situ observation and exploration of the deep-sea environment presents considerable challenges and hazards. Teleoperation of remotely piloted vehicles (RPV) provides an opportunity for continuous telepresence, however, such missions are energy intensive both for propulsion and illumination. Tethered vehicles are limited in range and the need for a weather-dependent surface support ship. An approach is presented which utilizes a shore-based power

Gregory A. Konesky

2002-01-01

234

Favorable Street Canyon Aspect Ratios for Pollutant Removal- a Large-Eddy Simulation Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the limited land resource, urbanization is one of the solutions to the current rapid economic development and population growth. Narrow streets flanked by high-rise buildings, also known as street canyons, are commonly found in metropolises nowadays. In recent years, this issue has been aroused the public awareness that the air pollutants from domestic sources and vehicular emissions are unable to be removed but trapped inside the street canopy level threatening human health and our living environment. A thorough understanding of the pollutant removal mechanism is the key step to rectify the current poor urban air quality. This study is therefore conceived to examine how the pollutant removal is related to the street width and building height. Large-eddy simulation (LES) with the one-equation subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence model is employed to investigate the characteristic ventilation and pollutant transport in idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of different building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios (ARs) h/b. Model validation is performed by comparing the LES results with those of k-? turbulence model and laboratory experiments. A consistent trend of the pollutant exchange rate (PCH) among the LES, k-? turbulence model, and experimental results is obtained. While its drag is largest, the street canyon of AR = 0.5 is found to be most favorable in the pollutant removal perspective. This finding seems contradict with the presumption that the smaller the AR (wider the street), the more efficient the pollutants removal. In the isolated roughness regime the flows in (wider) street canyons, the entrainment from the prevailing flow aloft down into the ground level purging pollutant away. On the contrary in the skimming flow regime, in (narrower) street canyons, the recirculating flows inside the street canyon are isolated from the prevailing flow in which the (vertical) pollutant removal is governed by roof-level intermittency. Unexpectedly, in the wake interference regime, lying between isolated roughness and skimming flow regimes, the PCH is found to be the least among the three flow regimes. This is likely caused by the shallow purging air stream together with the pollutant re-entrainment from the roof level back into the street canyon. These LES results suggest that the pollutant removal is not simply proportional to the street width. Indeed, the turbulent transport processes should not be overlooked that plays a crucial role in the pollutant removal mechanisms. Hence more ARs should be considered generating a comprehensive picture for the favorable street canyon aspect ratios for better air quality.

Chung, T. N.; Liu, C.

2010-12-01

235

Human-Powered Submarine Competition: World Submarine International 1996 [and] Design Technology Exhibit: A School Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hibbard describes the process used by students at Millersville University to build a human-powered submarine for entry in an international submarine competition. Edwards discusses the Design Technology Exhibit held at Lu Sutton Elementary School, the purpose of which was to challenge students to design a useful structure and provide them with the…

Hibberd, John C.; Edwards, Don

1996-01-01

236

Hydroplaning and submarine debris flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examination of submarine clastic deposits along the continental margins reveals the remnants of holocenic or older debris flows with run-out distances up to hundreds of kilometers. Laboratory experiments on subaqueous debris flows, where typically one tenth of a cubic meter of material is dropped down a flume, also show high velocities and long run-out distances compared to subaerial debris flows. Moreover, they show the tendency of the head of the flow to run out ahead of the rest of the body. The experiments reveal the possible clue to the mechanism of long run-out. This mechanism, called hydroplaning, begins as the dynamic pressure at the front of the debris flow becomes of the order of the pressure exerted by the weight of the sediment. In such conditions a layer of water can intrude under the sediment with a lubrication effect and a decrease in the resistance forces between the sediment and the seabed. A physical-mathematical model of hydroplaning is presented and investigated numerically. The model is applied to both laboratory- and field-scale debris flows. Agreement with laboratory experiments makes us confident in the extrapolation of our model to natural flows and shows that long run-out distances can be naturally attained.

de Blasio, Fabio V.; Engvik, Lars; Harbitz, Carl B.; ElverhøI, Anders

2004-01-01

237

Benthic foraminifera from Capbreton Canyon revisited; faunal evolution after repetitive sediment disturbance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a 650 m deep site in the axis of Capbreton Canyon an 18-cm-thick turbidite was deposited in December 1999. During subsequent campaigns, an almost monospecific fauna of the benthic foraminifer Technitella melo, considered as a pioneer species, was found in May 2000. In 2001 this fauna had disappeared and was replaced by an exceptionally rich fauna strongly dominated by the opportunistic species Bolivina subaenariensis. We present sedimentological, radionuclide and foraminiferal data of new cores, sampled in 2005 and 2011, taken with the aim to study the further evolution of the benthic ecosystem. Cores sampled in 2005 show that in the canyon axis a new, ca. 5 cm thick, turbidite has been deposited. The live benthic foraminiferal faunas were much poorer than in 2001, but still had a high dominance and low diversity, although less extreme than in 2001. We conclude that in the canyon axis, benthic foraminiferal faunas remain in an early stage of ecosystem colonization. It appears that the very thick 1999 turbidite marks an exceptional event. The uncommonly rich faunas observed in 2001 could be a response to the concentration of organic-rich material in the fine-grained top of this deposit. In 2011, cores were sampled at a slightly different site, on the lower canyon flank. The sedimentary sequence here is marked by the absence of coarse turbidite layers, although some levels show slightly increased grain size, and lower 210Pbxs activities, indicative of an admixture with advected older sediments. Live foraminiferal faunas are much more equilibrated, as shown by their higher diversity, lower dominance, and deeper penetration into the sediment. All these characteristics are indicative of a much more stable ecosystem. Dead faunas are present throughout the core, indicating that the levels with slightly elevated grain size are not typical turbidites resulting from hyperpycnal currents (which are characterized by levels barren of foraminifera) but denote other, more long-term sedimentary processes leading to the advection of older material, such as bottom nepheloid layers, or repetitive fine-grained turbidite deposits due to small-scale slumping. The comparison of live and dead fauna shows that at both sites, the foraminiferal turnover rates are fairly low. At the lower canyon flank site sampled in 2011, the foraminiferal faunas are renewed every 1.5-2 years. Such a fairly long foraminiferal lifespan corresponds to earlier estimates, but is surprisingly high for the opportunistic taxa that dominate the faunal assemblages in these unstable and food-enriched submarine canyon settings.

Bolliet, T.; Jorissen, F. J.; Schmidt, S.; Howa, H.

2014-06-01

238

The Grand Canyon: How It Formed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today, in the deepest part of the Grand Canyon, the Colorado River flows past rocks that are 1.7 billion years old. This video describes how the river cut vertically through layers of pre-existing rock as the plateau beneath it was uplifted by tectonic forces. It also explains that other forces worked to widen the canyon, particluarly the activity of tributary streams and debris flows caused by flash flooding from intense rainfall or rapid snowmelt moving loose rock and boulders down canyon walls and side channels. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

239

Turbidity events observed in situ along the Congo submarine channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the multidisciplinary programme BIOZAIRE devoted to studying deep-sea benthic ecosystems in the Gulf of Guinea, particulate input and its relationship with near-bottom hydrodynamics were monitored using long-term moorings from 2000 to early 2005. Particular attention was given to material input through the Congo (ex-Zaïre) submarine channel that extends 760 km from the Congo River mouth to the abyssal plain (>5100 m) near 6°S. Due to its direct connection to the Congo River, the Congo canyon and channel system are characterised by particularly active recent sediment transport. During this first in situ long-term monitoring along the channel, an energetic turbidity event was observed in January 2004 at three locations along the channel from 3420 to 4790 m in depth. This event tilted and displaced the moorings installed at 3420 m (site ZR') and 4070 m (site ZD'), and resulted in high sediment deposition at all three mooring sites. The event moved at an average velocity of 3.5 m s -1 along the numerous channel meanders between 3420 and 4070 m, then at 0.7 m s -1 between 4070 m and the end of the channel at 4790 m. The particle cloud rose above the top of the valley at 4070 m (site ZD'), but not at 3420 m (site ZR') where the channel was too deep. Lastly, the mooring line broke at site ZD' in October 2004 probably due to a strong event like that of 2001 previously described by Khripounoff et al. [Khripounoff, A., Vangriesheim, A., Babonneau, N., Crassous, P., Denniellou, B., Savoye, B., 2003. Direct observation of intense turbidity activity in the Zaire submarine valley at 4000 m water depth. Marine Geology (194), 151-158]. Between these strong events, several peaks of high turbidity and particle flux occurred, but without noticeable current increases. These events were probably due to local sliding of sediment accumulated on the walls or terraces on the side of the channel. The area near 4000 m depth and the lobe appear to be the main depocentres of particulate input rich in organic matter derived from the Congo River.

Vangriesheim, Annick; Khripounoff, Alexis; Crassous, Philippe

2009-12-01

240

32 CFR 700.1058 - Command of a submarine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Command of a submarine. 700.1058 Section 700...OFFICIAL RECORDS Precedence, Authority and Command Detail to Duty § 700.1058 Command of a submarine. The officer detailed...

2010-07-01

241

32 CFR 700.1058 - Command of a submarine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Command of a submarine. 700.1058 Section 700...OFFICIAL RECORDS Precedence, Authority and Command Detail to Duty § 700.1058 Command of a submarine. The officer detailed...

2009-07-01

242

Target Motion Analysis From A Diesel Submarine's Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject of this thesis is diesel submarine tactics for performing an effective Bearing-only Target Motion Analysis while approaching a surface target, given the submarine's limited speed and battery endurance. The research is conducted through a Monte...

P. F. Coll

1994-01-01

243

Basic and Advanced Submarine Officer's Tactical Training Device Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a summary of several documents on basic and advanced officer tactics training. These investigations examine submarine officer's tactical training requirements and recommend an overall plan to advance submarine technology. The major recommend...

A. J. Pesch T. J. Hammell

1974-01-01

244

A Diablo Canyon double feature  

SciTech Connect

The current controversy and uncertainty surrounding the disposal of low-level radioactive waste makes it ever more prudent to develop methods to minimize its generation in the first place. As the industry is challenged with active opposition, missed deadlines, and political challenges, Pacific Gas and Electric`s Diablo Canyon nuclear station has implemented a plan to reduce waste generation from plant systems, from the modification and removal of plant equipment, and from the use of protective clothing and consumable contamination-control items. Our program has been extremely effective and may serve as a model for other nuclear power plants at a time of increasing processing and disposal costs. In 1994, for example, we were able to cut our radwaste generation in half-twice.

Miller, C.

1996-03-01

245

Diablo Canyon refueling outage program  

SciTech Connect

Management of outages has become one of the most talked about subjects in the nuclear power industry in the past several years. Many utilities do not perform refueling outages very well or in the past have had some outages that they would not like to repeat and in some cases do not even like to think about. With the growing cost of energy and the demands placed on utilities to improve capacity factors, it is very easy for management to focus on shortening refueling outage durations as a prime objective in improving overall corporate performance. So it is with Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the Diablo Canyon power plant. A review of their refueling outage performance reflects a utility that is responding to the nuclear industry's call for improved outage performance.

McLane, W.B.; Irving, T.L. (Pacific Gas and Electric Co., Avila Beach, CA (United States))

1991-01-01

246

Mars Science Laboratory at Canyon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

December 2, 2003

NASA's Mars Science Laboratory travels near a canyon on Mars in this artist's concept. The mission is under development for launch in 2009 and a precision landing on Mars in 2010.

Once on the ground, the Mars Science Laboratory would analyze dozens of samples scooped up from the soil and cored from rocks as it explores with greater range than any previous Mars rover. It would investigate the past or present ability of Mars to support life. NASA is considering nuclear energy for powering the rover to give it a long operating lifespan.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is managing development of the Mars Smart Laboratory for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

2003-01-01

247

Active reconfigurable control of a submarine with indirect adaptive control  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indirect adaptive controller is designed for submersibles. The design is developed using a linearized MIMO model of a submarine. Standard recursive least squares estimation method is used to estimate the parameters. Depth and pitch angle of the submarine is controlled by means of the well-known indirect self-tuning method. In case of a system fault, estimated parameters of the submarine

Ufuk Demirci; Feza Kerestecioglu

2003-01-01

248

High-Resolution Multibeam, Sidescan, and Subbottom Surveys in and Around Monterey Canyon Using the MBARI Mapping AUV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2004 and 2005, MBARI has conducted several high-resolution bathymetry, sidescan, and subbottom profiler surveys in and around Monterey Canyon, Monterey Bay, California. These surveys were conducted using the new MBARI Mapping Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). This torpedo-shaped, 6000 m deep rated vehicle is equipped with a 200 kHz multibeam sonar, 110 kHz and 410 kHz chirp sidescan sonar, and a 2-16 kHz sweep subbottom profiler. The sonar package can also be mounted on ROV Ventana, allowing near-bottom bathymetric surveys of sites where extreme topography (e.g. the Monterey Canyon axis) preclude safe autonomous operation. The Mapping AUV is being used to monitor sediment transport through Monterey Canyon by conducting repeated high-resolution bathymetric surveys in the upper canyon. Upper Monterey Canyon is known to have frequent sediment transport events. Four sites have been selected with canyon axis depths of 300 m, 520 m, 1000 m, and 1400 m, respectively. Each survey nominally covers a 600 m by 600 m area with a 35 m line spacing and a 20 m altitude. We are achieving sub-meter lateral resolution and a vertical precision of 0.3 m. The combined bathymetry and backscatter successfully image fine scale channel features, including bedforms, small scarps and plunge pools, and undercutting of the inner canyon walls. All four sites have been surveyed at least once, and we will revisit these sites three times annually for the foreseeable future. We have also collected in excess of 170 km of subbottom profiles around and across the upper canyon. The subbottom profiler successfully images sediment structure to subsurface depths of as much as 50 m. These profiles demonstrate that the upper canyon walls are draped with sediment rather than exposing an erosional surface. Another Mapping AUV survey target is Smooth Ridge, located immediately north of Monterey Canyon and west of Soquel canyon. The upper reaches of Smooth Ridge are connected to the shelf across a narrow ridge, or neck, known from ROV dives to have scattered carbonate outcrops and numerous 1-2 m high scarps. We are scheduled to autonomously survey the upper neck of Smooth Ridge during October 2005, and will present initial results from these data.

Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; McEwen, R.; Henthorn, R.; Kirkwood, W. J.; Thompson, D.; Paull, C. K.; McGill, P.

2005-12-01

249

Lynch Canyon Combination Thermal Drive Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following report provides a summary of the Lynch Canyon Thermal Drive Project. This demonstration project was begun in 1978 and terminated in 1980. The project originally was divided into four phases; Geologic Evaluation, Injectivity Test, Field Devel...

J. R. Stair

1980-01-01

250

Grand Canyon Railroad Depot: Historic Structure Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Historic Structure Report on the Grand Canyon Depot is intended to edit, augment, and revise existing documents as well as provide additional information. The report will provide a thorough description of the background, physical development, and sig...

D. Wittman H. Piza J. Petkovsek M. Zappanti W. Duecker

2008-01-01

251

How Do Submarine Networks Web the World?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From late 1997 to mid-1999, major submarine cable projects have been launched and huge contracts have been signed for the implementation of transatlantic and transpacific submarine cable systems. The submarine cable industry has rarely seen so much interest in its history and the exponential growth of offered capacity on a single fiber pair has attracted all incumbent and new, national, and international, state-owned, and private operators. Will the capacity per fiber endlessly increase and the endless bandwidth needs continue to match or will limiting factors slow down the pace? It will be shown how this appetite has been made possible and what the required conditions are to keep the same pace.

Beaufils, Jean-Marie

2000-01-01

252

Saturation diving as a submarine rescue tool.  

PubMed

The U.S. Navy Submarine Rescue Diving and Recompression System (SRDRS) uses saturation diving to provide human intervention at the hatch of a disabled submarine. The system incorporates the basic elements of traditional saturation diving platforms to provide life support to divers at the worksite as well as in a decompression chamber in between work assignments. The demands of the submarine rescue mission require that the system provide quick response to an emergency virtually anywhere in the world. To answer these demands, SRDRS uses a mixture of state-of-the-art diving technologies and traditional approaches to life support in a quickly mobilized, easily transportable diving system capable of operating in extremely harsh environments. PMID:11538562

Johnson, J M

1996-01-01

253

Structure of Flow in a Bedrock Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bedrock canyon incision is widely recognized as setting the pace of landscape evolution. A variety of models link flow and sediment transport processes to the bedrock canyon incision rate. The model components that represent sediment transport processes are quite well developed in some models. In contrast, the model components that represent fluid flow remain rudimentary. Part of the reason is that there have been relatively few observations of flow structure in a bedrock canyon. Here, we present observations of flow obtained using an array of three acoustic Doppler current profilers during a 524 km long continuous centerline traverse of the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada as it passes through a series of bedrock canyons. Through this portion of the river, the channel alternates between gravel-bedded reaches that are deeply incised into semi-consolidated glacial deposits and solid bedrock-bound reaches. We present observations of flow through 41 bedrock bound reaches of the river, derived from our centerline traverses and more detailed three-dimensional mapping of the flow structure in 2 canyons. Our observations suggest that flow in the most well-defined canyons (deep, laterally constrained, completely bedrock bound) is far more complex than that in a simple prismatic channel. As flow enters the canyon, a high velocity core plunges from the surface to the bed, causing a velocity inversion (high velocities at the bed and low velocities at the surface). This plunging flow then upwells along the canyon wall, resulting in a three-dimensional flow with counter-rotating, along-stream eddies that diverge near the bed. We observe centerline ridges along the canyon floors that result from the divergence and large-scale surface boils caused by the upwelling. This flow structure causes deep scour in the bedrock channel floor, and ensures the base of the canyon walls are swept of debris that otherwise may be deposited due to lower shear stresses abutting the walls. The observations suggest that the rudimentary modeling approaches currently included in landscape evolution theories are inadequate to capture the morphodynamics of bedrock canyons.

Venditti, J. G.; Rennie, C. D.; Church, M. A.; Bomhof, J.; Lin, M.

2012-12-01

254

First Survey For Submarine Hydrothermal Vents In NE Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IASSHA-2001 cruise (Indonesia-Australia Survey for Submarine Hydrothermal Activity) was successfully conducted from June 1 to June 29 on board Baruna Jaya VIII. Preliminary results are reported of the first expedition to locate and study submarine hydrothermal activity in north east Sulawesi. Leg A focussed on Tomini Bay, a virtually unexplored Neogene sedimentary basin. Its objective was to test whether modern sediment-hosted hydrothermal activity occurred on the sea floor. The results of new bathymetric mapping, sediment coring and CTD/transmissometer hydrocasts negate the likely presence in central Tomini Bay of large-scale modern analogues of hydrothermal massive sulfide environments involving hydrothermal venting of basinal or magma-derived fluids into reduced sediments. It is possible that the "heat engine" required to drive circulation of basinal and hydrothermal fluids is today too weak. Surveys around Colo volcano indicate that it may be in its final stage of evolution. Leg B studied the arc and behind-arc sectors of the Sangihe volcanic island chain extending northwards from Quaternary volcanoes on the northeastern tip of Sulawesi's North Arm, near Manado. West of the main active chain and extending northwards from Manado there is a subparallel ridge surmounted by a number of high (>2000 m) seamounts of uncertain age. Fifteen relatively high-standing submarine edifices were crossed during this leg, of which nine were tested for hydrothermal activity by hydrocast and dredging. Eight sites were known from previous bathymetric surveys, and seven are new discoveries made by narrow-beam or multibeam echo sounding. Two submarine edifices at least 1000 m high were discovered in the strait immediately north of Awu volcano on Sangihe Island. One, with crest at 206 m, is surrounded by a circular platform 300m deep which we infer to be a foundered fringing reef to a formerly emergent island. The other, lacking such a platform, appears relatively young and may be parasitic to Awu volcano. It has a summit crater or small caldera, about 800 m across and breached to the northwest. A dredge hauled within the caldera returned numerous un-abraded fragments of fresh pumiceous dacite glass with prominent phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene, plus small angular fragments of a similar but less vesicular lithology. Coatings of soft ferruginous deposit on some fragments suggest that the caldera is hydrothermally active. A highlight of the expedition was a visit to Banua Wuhu, classed as an active volcano (eruption in 1919) whose summit is just exposed at low tide. Gas bubbling, subsurface sonic activity, and venting of hydrothermal fluids with temperatures around 50ºC are known to occur on the summit at around 10 m depth, and ferruginous oxide deposits several mm thick are common. A multibeam bathymetric chart to 1000 m was prepared and deeper narrow-beam echo sounding show that Banua Wuhu is a parasitic feature on the north-western side of adjacent Mahenetang Island, also a volcanic construction, the combined edifice exceeding 3000 m in height. We recovered thoroughly altered porphyritc andesite containing disseminated pyrite and a carbonate-chlorite-clay mineral assemblage. In summary, while the IASSHA cruise located only a single but potentially significant example of modern seafloor hydrothermal activity, we collected much valuable new geological and oceanographic data on two contrasted areas in northeastern Sulawesi that with on going post-cruise processing will greatly expand our knowledge of these regions. Binns and Permana Co-Chief Scientists

McConachy, T.; Binns, R.; Permana, H.

2001-12-01

255

Holocene Vegetation in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well-preserved plant remains in packrat middens chronicle vegetation change in Chaco Canyon over the past 11,000 years. Early Holocene evidence of communities dominated by Douglas fir, Rocky Mountain juniper, and limber pine in the San Juan Basin calls for revision of traditional constructs based on fossil pollen. Middle and late Holocene vegetation in the canyon was pinyon-juniper woodland up until

Julio L. Betancourt; Thomas R. van Devender

1981-01-01

256

Utilization of reactor bays of decommissioned submarines  

SciTech Connect

Radiation concerns regarding dismantling and storage of decommissioned reactors and reactor bays from nuclear submarines are briefly summarized. Calculation results are presented for gamma dose rates, contamination density, and the expected location of maximum exposure dose rate on the submarine hull. However, it is noted that radiation measurements must be obtained for each ship due to differences in operating conditions. Long-term storage options for containerized reactors and reactor bays are very briefly outlined; these include placing them in concrete-lined trenches shielded from the atmosphere or in underground tunnels shielded from water. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Lugavtsov, O.V.; Malakhov, A.G.; Popkov, K.K.

1994-11-01

257

A model for the submarine depthkeeping team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most difficult task the depthkeeping team must face occurs during periscope-depth operations during which they may be required to maintain a submarine several hundred feet long within a foot of ordered depth and within one-half degree of ordered pitch. The difficulty is compounded by the facts that wave generated forces are extremely high, depth and pitch signals are very noisy and submarine speed is such that overall dynamics are slow. A mathematical simulation of the depthkeeping team based on the optimal control models is described. A solution of the optimal team control problem with an output control restriction (limited display to each controller) is presented.

Ware, J. R.; Best, J. F.; Bozzi, P. J.; Kleinman, D. W.

1981-01-01

258

Transporting submarine engines to power the PRT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The city of Hampton was unable to supply adequate electric power to operate the PRT. Navy Captain Walter S. Diehl, Bureau of Aeronautics, acquired two 1000 hp submarine engines which were to be disposed of. BuAer 'loaned' the engines to the NACA, one of which is shown here. Next to the engine is Donald H. Wood, a mechanical engineer from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and Fred Weick's assistant. Propeller Research Tunnel (PRT) engineer Donald H. Wood ponders the unlikely transfer of a submarine engine from rail car to NACA truck, May 1926. Two such diesel engines powered the PRT.

1926-01-01

259

A simple and efficient GIS tool for volume calculations of submarine landslides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numeric tool is presented for calculating volumes of topographic voids such as slump scars of landslides, canyons or craters (negative/concave morphology), or alternatively, bumps and hills (positive/convex morphology) by means of digital elevation models embedded within a geographical information system (GIS). In this study, it has been used to calculate landslide volumes. The basic idea is that a (singular) event (landslide, meteorite impact, volcanic eruption) has disturbed an intact surface such that it is still possible to distinguish between the former (undisturbed) landscape and the disturbance (crater, slide scar, debris avalanche). In such cases, it is possible to reconstruct the paleo-surface and to calculate the volume difference between both surfaces, thereby approximating the volume gain or loss caused by the event. I tested the approach using synthetically generated land surfaces that were created on the basis of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data. Also, I show the application to two real cases, (1) the calculation of the volume of the Masaya Slide, a submarine landslide on the Pacific continental slope of Nicaragua, and (2) the calculation of the void of a segment of the Fish River Canyon, Namibia. The tool is provided as a script file for the free GIS GRASS. It performs with little effort, and offers a range of interpolation parameters. Testing with different sets of interpolation parameters results in a small range of uncertainty. This tool should prove useful in surface studies not exclusively on earth.

Völker, David Julius

2010-10-01

260

Wintertime Boundary Layer Structure in the Grand Canyon.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wintertime temperature profiles in the Grand Canyon exhibit a neutral to isothermal stratification during both daytime and nighttime, with only rare instances of actual temperature inversions. The canyon warms during daytime and cools during nighttime more or less uniformly through the canyon's entire depth. This weak stability and temperature structure evolution differ from other Rocky Mountain valleys, which develop strong nocturnal inversions and exhibit convective and stable boundary layers that grow upward from the valley floor. Mechanisms that may be responsible for the different behavior of the Grand Canyon are discussed, including the possibility that the canyon atmosphere is frequently mixed to near-neutral stratification when cold air drains into the top of the canyon from the nearby snow-covered Kaibab Plateau. Another feature of canyon temperature profiles is the sharp inversions that often form near the canyon rims. These are generally produced when warm air is advected over the canyon in advance of passing synoptic-scale ridges.Wintertime winds in the main canyon are not classical diurnal along-valley wind systems. Rather, they are driven along the canyon axis by the horizontal synoptic-scale pressure gradient that is superimposed along the canyon's axis by passing synoptic-scale weather disturbances. They may thus bring winds into the canyon from either end at any time of day.The implications of the observed canyon boundary layer structure for air pollution dispersion are discussed.

Whiteman, C. David; Zhong, Shiyuan; Bian, Xindi

1999-08-01

261

PEFCs for naval ships and submarines: many tasks, one solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) for air-independent propulsion systems have been developed and tested under submarine conditions and are thus ready for submarine application. A demand analysis and the presentation of the requirements for naval surface ships and submarines will be followed by the description of the realisation concepts for PEFC propulsion plants. Based on the results of FC operation on board of a submarine and the system design for the new German submarine Class 212, synergy effects will be derived from that for surface ships. Finally, future aspects will be pointed out including PEFC propulsion for merchant ships.

Sattler, Gunter

262

Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the multi-platform drilling of the Nankai seismogenic zone. Scientific initiatives are flourishing to drive IODP towards the study of submarine geohazards. In the last three years international workshops, were held to address the topic: ESF-ECORD sponsored a Magellan Workshop focussed on submarine landslides (Barcelona, Spain, 2006); IODP sponsored a world-wide Geohazard Workshop (Portland, Oregon, 2007); ESF-ECORD sponsored another Magellan Workshop focussed on Mediterranean submarine geohazards (Luleå, Sweden, 2008). In addition, following the ECORD-Net Conference on the Deep Sea Frontier (Naples, Italy, 2006), the history, monitoring and prediction of geohazards was identified as one of the 6 major areas for a European science plan to integrate Ocean Drilling, Ocean Margin, and Seabed research. More than 200 scientists and private companies representatives have been mobilized world-wide to attend these meetings, from where it emerged that Ocean Drilling will play a key role in the future to answer the following basic open questions on submarine geohazards: - What is the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of geohazard events? - Do precursory phenomena exist and can they be recognized? - What are the physical and mechanical properties of materials prone to failure? - What are the roles of preconditioning vs. triggering in rapid seafloor deformation? - Can the tsunamigenic potential of past and future events be assessed? Within the global-ocean geohazards, worth of note is the attention given in this preparatory phase to submarine geohazards in the Mediterranean basin, a miniature ocean often called a "natural laboratory" because of the diversity of geological environments it contains. The coastline is very densely-populated, totalling 160 million inhabitants sharing 46,000 km of coastline. The Mediterranean is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving an average of 135 million visitors annually. Submarine landslides, volcanic flank collapses, volcanic island eruptions, earthquakes and the associated tsunamis can lead to destruction of seaf

Camerlenghi, A.

2009-04-01

263

Structural Features and Gas Hydrate Distribution Across the Boundary of the Submarine Taiwan Accretionary Wedge and Passive China Continental Margin Offshore Southwestern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes a 3D seismic data volume in the upper reach of the Penghu Submarine Canyon for gas hydrate investigation. This 3D seismic data set runs across the deformation front which separates the passive China continental slope from the Taiwan accretionary wedge. Bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) are widely distributed in the study area which suggests that gas hydrates are present in both the extensional and compressive structure domains. We use 3D seismic images to map the spatial distribution of BSRs, and to identify structural and sedimentary features across the deformation front. Seismic attribute analysis of the 3D seismic volume has been performed which helps to reveal structure details and physical properties of the substrata. Our study identifies detailed structural variations across the deformation front: In the passive continental slope domain, besides normal faults, buried submarine canyons and paleo-topography of the continental slope before the arc-continent collision are recognized, while in the accretionay wedge domain, the fold and thrust structures dominate. BSR distribution in the 3D box correlates well with the seafloor topography, buried channels and fluid migration paths, we suggest that there may be different gas hydrate systems for the passive continental slope and for the accretionary wedge domains. As the Penghu Submarine Canyon is an important conduit offshore southwestern Taiwan for transporting terrestrial and shallow marine sediments, we suggest that the buried channels that filled with coarse-grain sediments could be good reservoirs for gas hydrates and free gases. Accurate substrata velocity models derived from a large-offset 2D seismic profile data in the study area will help us to better estimate the gas hydrate concentration in those reservoirs.

Han, W.; Liu, C.; Lin, C.; Hsu, H.; Ko, C.; Chen, S.; Chung, S.; Wang, Y.

2012-12-01

264

Hudson Canyon Offshore New York and New Jersey: Active Circular Depressions, Fans, Ravines, Methane Discharge and Water Masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated Hudson Canyon from where it begins at the seaward edge of the continental shelf (water depth 100 m) to ~30 km seaward (100-700 m) using high-resolution bathymetry (AUV Eagle Ray; ISE Explorer; EM2000 sonar) and standard oceanographic methods. We find features and processes that create varied distinctive habitats in submarine canyons on passive continental margins, as follows: 1)Sediment conduit: The initial 10 km- long section of the canyon head connects with cross-shelf sediment transport and is smoothed by sediment accumulation indicating that it is presently inactive as a sediment conduit, in contrast to its active role during prior intervals of lowered sea level. 2)Circular depressions: A population of circular depressions with diameters from 50 to 400 m, rim-to-floor relief up to 20 m increasing directly with diameter, flat rough floors and steep walls (15-25 degrees) occur in sediment near the base of both walls of the canyon. The number of circular depressions increases with water depth with one at 325 m in the initial 10 km-long NW-SE section of the canyon, two at 350 m in the next 10 km N-S section, and nineteen at 300 to 500 m at the SW wall of the next 10 km NW-SE section. The sharp shape of the depressions suggests that they are actively forming. Larger circular depressions (diameter <800 m) exhibit different characteristics. 3)Methane chemistry: A methane anomaly (50 nmol) ten times background was measured in August 2008 in the near-bottom water column adjacent to one of the two circular depressions in the middle canyon section. In August 2009 water samples were recovered at other circular depressions and are being analyzed to test for methane discharge. We suggest that the circular depressions are gas release-collapse features possibly produced by dissociation of underlying gas hydrates. 4)Fans and ravines: Sediment fans with intervening ravines about 1 km apart extend orthogonal to the canyon axis down the two walls of the canyon in the second and third sections. 5)Hydrography: A dynamic system of multiple layers of inter-leaved shelf (cold, fresh) and slope (warm, salty) water masses was observed in the canyon head in summers 2007, 2008 and 2009 and found to produce shifting fronts and strong currents. Dynamic interactions between the hydrography and different terrains create a wide range of habitat conditions in the canyon critical for biodiversity. Enhanced shelf-slope exchange of water masses facilitated by the complex canyon topography may influence adjacent shelf circulation, and impact ecosystems including commercial fish stocks well beyond the canyon. We thank NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service(NMFS), National Institute of Science and Technology (NIUST), and National Undersea Research Program (NURP) for support.

Rona, P. A.; Guida, V.; Scranton, M. I.; Gong, D.; Haag, S.; Macelloni, L.; Simonetti, A.; James, J.; Diercks, A.; Asper, V. L.

2009-12-01

265

Physical and chemical properties of submarine basaltic rocks from the submarine flanks of the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To evaluate physical and chemical diversity in submarine basaltic rocks, approximately 280 deep submarine samples recovered by submersibles from the underwater flanks of the Hawaiian Islands were analyzed and compared. Based on observations from the submersibles and hand specimens, these samples were classified into three main occurrence types (lavas, coarse-grained volcaniclastic rocks, and fine-grained sediments), each with several subtypes. The whole-rock sulfur content and porosity in submarine basaltic rocks, recovered from depths greater than 2000 m, range from < 10 ppm and 2 vol.% to 2200 ppm and 47 vol.%, respectively. These wide variations cannot be due just to different ambient pressures at the collection depths, as inferred previously for submarine erupted lavas. The physical and chemical properties of the recovered samples, especially a combination of three whole-rock parameters (Fe-oxidation state, Sulfur content, and Porosity), are closely related to the occurrence type. The FSP triangular diagram is a valuable indicator of the source location of basaltic fragments deposited in deep submarine areas. This diagram can be applied to basaltic rocks such as clasts in debris-flow deposits, submarine-emplaced lava flows that may have crossed the shoreline, and slightly altered geological samples. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yokose, H.; Lipman, P. W.; Kanamatsu, T.

2005-01-01

266

Layers Exposed at Polar Canyon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false-color subframe of an image from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the north polar layered deposits at top and darker materials at bottom, exposed in a scarp at the head of Chasma Boreale, a large canyon eroded into the layered deposits.

The polar layered deposits appear red because of dust mixed within them, but are ice-rich as indicated by previous observations. Water ice in the layered deposits is probably responsible for the pattern of fractures seen near the top of the scarp. The darker material below the layered deposits may have been deposited as sand dunes, as indicated by the crossbedding (truncation of curved lines) seen near the middle of the scarp. It appears that brighter, ice-rich layers were deposited between the dark dunes in places. Exposures such as these are useful in understanding recent climate variations that are likely recorded in the polar layered deposits.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

2006-01-01

267

Researchers Find Japanese Submarine at Pearl Harbor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earlier this week, researchers from the University of Hawaii and the Hawaii Underwater Research Lab located the remains of a Japanese midget submarine. Found in 1200 feet of water, the submarine was sunk by the USS Ward just an hour before the aerial attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Most important, the discovery of the midget submarine offers concrete physical evidence that the United States did fire the first shot against the Japanese. Previous expeditions to locate the sub, including an effort made in 2000 by the National Geographic Society, had been unsuccessful, largely due to the fact that the area is a military "junkyard" with tons of debris on the ocean floor.For more in-depth information on this story, readers may find the first four news links particularly helpful. The fifth link leads to the Hawaii Underwater Research Lab's Web site that features photographs of the midget sub from the expedition earlier this week. The sixth link is to a Web site dealing with the history and missions of the USS Ward. The final link contains detailed information about the 2000 expedition led by Robert Ballard, with support from the National Geographic Society, to find the midget submarine.

Green, Marcia.

2002-01-01

268

Analogues of stealth: Submarines and aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Analogues of Stealth “ questions whether stealth technologies (measures designed to reduce the observable signature of a weapons platform) now being applied to aircraft will prove as successful as low?observable technologies and tactics employed by the submarine. To address that question, the article briefly explores the history of antisubmarine warfare, notes the failures of various technologies designed to counter the

Robert P. Haffa JR; James H. Patton JR

1991-01-01

269

Risk Assessment of Submarine Slope Stability - Hydroplaning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of submarine landslides have traveled large distances (100 kilometers or more) once the slide movement was initiated. A growing amount of evidence suggests that one of the reasons for the relatively large travel distances is that the slide mass h...

H. Hu S. G. Wright

2007-01-01

270

Work and Rest on Nuclear Submarines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hours of work and sleep were recorded in daily activity logs by 46 enlisted men on two Fleet Ballistic Missile submarines during routine patrols. Total working time (watch standing, non-watch work, and study) averaged 12.0 hours a day. Daily sleep time av...

A. N. Beare R. J. Biersner K. R. Bondi P. Naitoh

1981-01-01

271

New submarine uses closed cycle diesel  

SciTech Connect

Sub Sea Oil Services (SSOS) is currently building a 22-ton autonomous submarine for use in the North Sea. The sub contains two outstanding technical innovations - a closed cycle diesel engine and a toroidal (donut-shaped) hull. These innovations are discussed.

Not Available

1985-10-01

272

Experimental Measurements of a Model Submarine Wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution stereo-PIV measurements were made over ten body lengths downstream of a 1/18^th scale submarine model in the Deep Water Tow Basin at NSWCCD. The submarine model is an unclassified generic submarine shape (ONR Body-1) composed of an axisymmetric body, four stern appendages (control surfaces) and a propeller. This body is 5.8 m long, 0.49 m in diameter. Block gages on the struts measured streamwise force on the body and provided loading details for setting propeller speed. The model was towed through a stationary laser sheet oriented perpendicular to the tow direction to obtain three-dimensional velocity fields. The objective of the study was to quantify the submarine wake and rate of decay of the coherent vortices. These data will be used in conjunction with measurements obtained on a model towed array to validate computational models for array shape and dynamics. Results with and without the propeller will be presented. Approximately 40 instantaneous vector fields were obtained for each location. Mean and fluctuating streamwise and cross-stream velocities and vorticity were computed.

Bretall, Damien; Furey, Deborah; Cipolla, Kimberly

2005-11-01

273

Morphology of Quench Crystals in Submarine Basalts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submarine basalts from the mid-Atlantic ridge, Red Sea rift, and Joides site 105 in the western Atlantic have been studied in ultra thin, doubly polished thin sections. Most of the samples are pillow lava fragments containing a variety of skeletal crystal growth forms that can be related to three major textural zones in the pillows. Olivine appears as diffuse, lattice-like

Wilfred B. Bryan

1972-01-01

274

Submarine Thermal Springs on the Galapagos Rift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The submarine hydrothermal activity on and near the Galapagos Rift has been explored with the aid of the deep submersible Alvin. Analyses of water samples from hydrothermal vents reveal that hydrothermal activity provides significant or dominant sources and sinks for several components of seawater; studies of conductive and convective heat transfer suggest that two-thirds of the heat lost from new

John B. Corliss; Jack Dymond; Louis I. Gordon; John M. Edmond; Richard P. von Herzen; Robert D. Ballard; Kenneth Green; David Williams; Arnold Bainbridge; Kathy Crane; Tjeerd H. van Andel

1979-01-01

275

Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such determinations rely on studies of pieces of deep oceanic crust uplifted by tectonic forces such as along the Southwest Indian Ridge, or more complete sections of oceanic crust called ophiolite sequences which are presently exposed on continents owing to tectonic emplacement. Much of what is thought to happen in submarine hydrothermal systems is inferred from studies of ophiolite sequences, and especially from the better-exposed ophiolites in Oman, Cyprus and North America. The focus of much that follows is on a few general features: pressure, temperature, oxidation states, fluid composition and mineral alteration, because these features will control whether organic synthesis can occur in hydrothermal systems.

Shock, Everett L.

1992-01-01

276

Mineral resources of the Fish Creek Canyon, Road Canyon, and Mule Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, San Juan County, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This book reports the Fish Creek Canyon (UT-060-204), Road Canyon(UT-060-201), and Mule Canyon (UT-060-205B) Wilderness Study Areas, which comprise 40,160 acres, 52,420 acres, and 5,990 acres, respectively, studied for their mineral endowment. A search of federal, state, and county records showed no current or previous mining-claim activity. No mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study areas. Sandstone and sand and gravel have no unique qualities but could have limited local use for road metal or other construction purposes. However, similar materials are abundant outside the study areas. The three study areas have moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and low resource potential for undiscovered metals, including uranium and thorium, coal, and geothermal energy.

Bove, D.J.; Shawe, D.R.; Lee, G.K.; Hanna, W.F. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Jeske, R.E. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

1989-01-01

277

Pollutant Removal, Dispersion and Entrainment over Two-Dimensional Idealized Street Canyons: an LES Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike pollutant transport over flat terrain, the mechanism and plume dispersion over urban areas is not well known. This study is therefore conceived to examine how urban morphology modifies the pollutant transport over urban areas. The computational domain and boundary condition used in this study is shown in Figure 1. The LES shows that inside the street canyon, the ground-level pollutants are carried to roof-level by the re-circulating flow, which are then removed from the street canyon to the UBL. Right above the roof level, narrow high-speed air masses in the streamwise flows and intensive downdrafts have been found in the shear layer. Different from the flows over a smooth surface, the maximum turbulence intensities descend that are peaked near the top of the building roughness. The pollutant is rather uniformly distributed inside a street canyon but disperses rapidly over the buildings exhibiting a Gaussian-plume form in the UBL. The mean component of vertical pollutant flux shows that the mean wind contributes to pollutant removal and entrainment simultaneously. Whereas, the fluctuating component demystifies that pollutant removal is mainly governed by atmospheric turbulence. Over the roof level, atmospheric flows slow down rapidly in the wake behind leeward building, suggesting the momentum entrainment into the street canyons. The decelerating streamwise flows in turn lead to upward flows carrying pollutants away from the street canyons, illustrating the basic pollutant removal mechanism in the skimming flow regime. Figure 1: Computational domain and boundary conditions Figure 2: Ensemble average vertical pollutant flux along the roof level. (a). Mean component; (b). turbulent component.

Wong, C.; Liu, C.

2010-12-01

278

Evaluation of untested stratigraphic traps in a Pleistocene Canyon-fill complex, offshore Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

Eugene Island Block 390, located approximately 100 mi offshore Louisiana was acquired by ARCO Oil and Gas Company in 1983 to test upper Pleistocene amplitude anomalies located on the faulted northwest flank of a diapiric salt structure. Although drilling has established the presence of oil and gas in the objective section, an attempt to delineate further reserve potential on the block was made by evaluating additional amplitude anomalies located downflank in an adjacent syncline. Seismic stratigraphic analysis indicates that the anomalies are located within the confines of an erosionally incised submarine canyon complex, approximately 3 mi wide and 500 ft deep. A number of high-amplitude events located in the upper part of the fill complex are interpreted to represent relatively coarser grained sandstone bodies, in contrast to the fine-grained material that represents the majority of the fill. In map view, these high-amplitude events are axially elongated, dip-trending bodies that were deposited laterally adjacent to one another. In the deepest parts of the ARCO 1 well, stratigraphically below their original objective, approximately 50 net ft of oil-saturated but very low-permeability silt and shale were encountered. Examination of the well location on seismic data indicates that the ARCO 1 well was drilled into in the canyon flank, updip from and laterally adjacent to the high-amplitude events. The interpretation is that the low permeability oil saturated sections seen in the ARCO 1 well is representative of the depositional transition into the seal facies. Therefore, the highest amplitude events located downdip of the ARCO 1 well are thought to represent stratigraphically trapped hydrocarbons reservoired within canyon-fill sands, an interpretation supported by positive amplitude vs. offset analysis results.

Geitgey, J.E. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Dallas, TX (USA))

1990-05-01

279

Overview of the Colorado River Canyon from the helicopter pad. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview of the Colorado River Canyon from the helicopter pad. View of the Nevada side where new bridge will cross canyon, view northwest - Hoover Dam, Spanning Colorado River at Route 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

280

43. and Design, Grand Canyon National Park, dated August 23, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. and Design, Grand Canyon National Park, dated August 23, 1934, and September 17, 1934 (original located at Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado, #113/3084-set of 2) SEWAGE PLANT ADDITION. - Water Reclamation Plant, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

281

Narrow Angle movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This brief three-frame movie of the Moon was made from three Cassini narrow-angle images as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. The purpose of this particular set of images was to calibrate the spectral response of the narrow-angle camera and to test its 'on-chip summing mode' data compression technique in flight. From left to right, they show the Moon in the green, blue and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum in 40, 60 and 80 millisecond exposures, respectively. All three images have been scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is the same in each image. The spatial scale in the blue and ultraviolet images is 1.4 miles per pixel (2.3 kilometers). The original scale in the green image (which was captured in the usual manner and then reduced in size by 2x2 pixel summing within the camera system) was 2.8 miles per pixel (4.6 kilometers). It has been enlarged for display to the same scale as the other two. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS) at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

282

Influence of near-bottom environmental conditions on the structure of bathyal macrobenthic crustacean assemblages from the Capbreton canyon (Bay of Biscay, NE Atlantic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sled and box-corer samplings were performed at two sites in the Capbreton canyon in order to appreciate the influence of near-bottom environmental conditions on the structure of their macrobenthic communities (crustaceans). Although located at similar depths (ca. 1?000 m), these two sites were characterised by different physicochemical conditions at the sediment-water interface, probably related with the morphology of the submarine valley (reduced environment, oxygen depletion and stagnation of bottom water at site A; normal oceanic conditions on the near-bottom environment of site B). The analysis of the collected fauna revealed a low similarity between the two sites, mainly due to the unusual dominance of three epibenthic species in sled samples from site A: the amphipod Bonnierella abyssorum, the tanaid Apseudes spinosus and the isopod Arcturopsis giardi. Due to their apparent rarity or absence in adjacent non-canyon communities, such epibenthic crustaceans may be considered as `canyon indicator species' able to exhibit abundant populations within the peculiar confinement area of this canyon.

Marquiegui, Mikel A.; Sorbe, Jean Claude

1999-07-01

283

Metazoan meiofauna in deep-sea canyons and adjacent open slopes: A large-scale comparison with focus on the rare taxa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metazoan meiofaunal abundance, total biomass, nematode size and the richness of taxa were investigated along bathymetric gradients (from the shelf break down to ca. 5000-m depth) in six submarine canyons and on five adjacent open slopes of three deep-sea regions. The investigated areas were distributed along >2500 km, on the Portuguese to the Catalan and South Adriatic margins. The Portuguese and Catalan margins displayed the highest abundances, biomass and richness of taxa, while the lowest values were observed in the Central Mediterranean Sea. The comparison between canyons and the nearby open slopes showed the lack of significant differences in terms of meiofaunal abundance and biomass at any sampling depth. In most canyons and on most slopes, meiofaunal variables did not display consistent bathymetric patterns. Conversely, we found that the different topographic features were apparently responsible for significant differences in the abundance and distribution of the rare meiofaunal taxa (i.e. taxa accounting for <1% of total meiofaunal abundance). Several taxa belonging to the temporary meiofauna, such as larvae/juveniles of Priapulida, Holothuroidea, Ascidiacea and Cnidaria, were encountered exclusively on open slopes, while others (including the Tanaidacea and Echinodea larvae) were found exclusively in canyons sediments. Results reported here indicate that, at large spatial scales, differences in deep-sea meiofaunal abundance and biomass are not only controlled by the available food sources, but also by the region or habitat specific topographic features, which apparently play a key role in the distribution of rare benthic taxa.

Bianchelli, S.; Gambi, C.; Zeppilli, D.; Danovaro, R.

2010-03-01

284

Benzene, toluene, ozone, NO 2 and SO 2 measurements in an urban street canyon in Thessaloniki, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzene, toluene, sulphur dioxide, ozone and nitrogen dioxide were measured at a mean level of 13.5m above ground in a narrow, four-lane street canyon (height 30m, width 20m) in Thessaloniki, Greece during the period January–July 1997 by means of a commercial differential optical absorption spectrometer (OPSIS DOAS). Primary pollutant levels were found to be 2.5–4.4 times higher during the cold

Kostas A. Kourtidis; Ioannis Ziomas; Christos Zerefos; Evangelos Kosmidis; Panayotis Symeonidis; Epaminondas Christophilopoulos; Stavros Karathanassis; Antonios Mploutsos

2002-01-01

285

27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9.152 Section 9.152...Viticultural Areas § 9.152 Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of...described in this petition is âMalibu-Newton Canyon.â (b) Approved maps....

2010-04-01

286

27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9.152 Section 9.152...Viticultural Areas § 9.152 Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of...described in this petition is âMalibu-Newton Canyon.â (b) Approved maps....

2009-04-01

287

75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY...renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose...respect to the operation of Glen Canyon Dam and the exercise of other authorities...

2010-06-17

288

27 CFR 9.217 - Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara. 9.217 Section...American Viticultural Areas § 9.217 Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara. (a) Name...viticultural area described in this section is âHappy Canyon of Santa Barbaraâ. For...

2013-04-01

289

Surface Composition Differences in Martian Canyon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 29 May 2002) Color differences in this daytime infrared image taken by the camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft represent differences in the mineral composition of the rocks, sediments and dust on the surface. The image shows a portion of a canyon named Candor Chasma within the great Valles Marineris system of canyons, at approximately 5 degrees south latitude, 285 degrees east (75 degrees west) longitude. The area shown is approximately 30 by 175 kilometers (19 by 110 miles). The image combines exposures taken by Odyssey's thermal emission imaging system at three different wavelengths of infrared light: 6.3 microns, 7.4 microns and 8.7 microns.

2003-01-01

290

Geology Fieldnotes: Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located on the Colorado Plateau in Utah, this canyon is comprised mostly of sedimentary rocks, and continues to be eroded and shaped by the Paria River. Its geologic and human history are outlined on this site, including the formation of the canyon, from the Cretaceous period (144 million years ago) to the present, and geologic features, such as fins, columns, pinnacles, and hoodoos. Visitor information, links to other resources, maps, and a teacher feature (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples) are also available.

Foos, Annabelle

291

33 CFR 209.310 - Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts. 209.310 Section...Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts. (a) The policy...the locations of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts published by the...

2013-07-01

292

Submarine Volcanoes in Arctic Ocean Surprise Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Until now, geoscientists believed that spreading ridges under the Arctic Ocean were too slow-spreading and cool to vent molten rock. An article published this month in Nature details sonar data revealing two young volcanoes under Arctic waters. Dr. Marago H. Edwards of the University of Hawaii led the exploration team in which civilian scientists worked in cooperation with the Navy, using a nuclear submarine to take sonar readings of the ocean floor. A submarine was employed because the ice cover makes the Arctic seafloor unviewable by satellites and difficult for ships bearing seismic instruments to navigate. The two volcanoes were found at the Gakkel Ridge, the Earth's slowest spreading mid-ocean ridge. During August and September of 2001, Russian icebreakers and Mir submersibles will be employed to investigate the volcanoes, taking rock samples and looking for organisms living at the volcanic vents. This week's In the News takes a closer look at this discovery.

Sanders, Hilary C.

2001-01-01

293

Voluminous submarine lava flows from Hawaiian volcanoes  

SciTech Connect

The GLORIA long-range sonar imaging system has revealed fields of large lava flows in the Hawaiian Trough east and south of Hawaii in water as deep as 5.5 km. Flows in the most extensive field (110 km long) have erupted from the deep submarine segment of Kilauea's east rift zone. Other flows have been erupted from Loihi and Mauna Loa. This discovery confirms a suspicion, long held from subaerial studies, that voluminous submarine flows are erupted from Hawaiian volcanoes, and it supports an inference that summit calderas repeatedly collapse and fill at intervals of centuries to millenia owing to voluminous eruptions. These extensive flows differ greatly in form from pillow lavas found previously along shallower segments of the rift zones; therefore, revision of concepts of volcano stratigraphy and structure may be required.

Holcomb, R.T.; Moore, J.G.; Lipman, P.W.; Belderson, R.H.

1988-05-01

294

Channel network scaling laws in submarine basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluvial drainage basin area is often related to channel length and local slope through power law relationships and the relatively small range of exponents observed in these relationships is thought to result from physical mechanisms. Proposed mechanisms assume that the observed correlation between drainage area and fluid discharge is caused by precipitation. Using high resolution DEMs of channelized continental slope settings offshore Monterey, CA and Brunei Darussalam we extracted submarine channel profiles and drainage area statistics from five basins. In-situ and remote observations suggest discharge in these oceanic settings is determined by boundary conditions at the shelf-edge. In spite of substantial differences in environment and physical process, the data yield submarine scaling exponents within the range of terrestrial (fluvial) observations. The convergence in scaling relationships from two very different settings supports theoretical arguments that channel network structure results from the aggregation of random walks.

Straub, Kyle M.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Mohrig, David; Rothman, Daniel H.

2007-06-01

295

Submarine fans: Characteristics, models, classification, and reservoir potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submarine-fan sequences are important hydrocarbon reservoirs throughout the world. Submarine-fan sequences may be interpreted from bed-thickness trends, turbidite facies associations, log motifs, and seismic-reflection profiles. Turbidites occurring predominantly in channels and lobes (or sheet sands) constitute the major portion of submarine-fan sequences. Thinning- and thickening-upward trends are suggestive of channel and lobe deposition, respectively. Mounded seismic reflections are commonly indicative

G. Shanmugam; R. J. Moiola

1988-01-01

296

Accident Risk Associated with Fueled Decommissioned Nuclear Powered Submarines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many nuclear powered submarines have been removed from active duty during the past decade. Common practice when retiring such\\u000a submarines from active duty is to remove the fuel from the reactor vessel, thereby rendering the submarine relatively harmless,\\u000a from a radiation risk perspective, to workers, the public and the environment. In Russia, the defueling process is progressing\\u000a slowly and a

S. Kupca; A. Natalizio

297

VIRGINIA-Class Submarine: Two for Four in 2012 (B)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VIRGINIA-class submarine was one of the largest naval-acquisition projects in history, involving the construction of 30 submarines at an acquisition cost of $93 billion. By FY05, the VIRGINIA-class program was in its 10th year. Construction had begun on seven submarines. Unit costs were running 41% over the base-line budget, and production goals were not being met. Ship construction budget

Tom Cross

298

VIRGINIA-Class Submarine: Two for Four in 2012 (A)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VIRGINIA-class submarine was one of the largest naval-acquisition projects in history, involving the construction of 30 submarines at an acquisition cost of $93 billion. By FY05, the VIRGINIA-class program was in its 10th year. Construction had begun on seven submarines. Unit costs were running 41% over the base-line budget, and production goals were not being met. Ship construction budget

Tom Cross

299

The Long Island Sound submarine cable interconnection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the design and installation of a 300-MVA, 19-km, 138-kV, high-pressure, oil-filled submarine cable for spanning the Long Island Sound between Norwalk, Conn., and Northport, N.Y. The use of self-contained, oil-filled cable for this crossing represents a major contribution in the field of cable technology. This long-desired intertie became a reality with the development of new low-viscosity impregnants¿capable

P. Gazzana-Priaroggia; J. H. Piscioneri; S. W. Margolin

1971-01-01

300

Submarine LNG tanker concept for the Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

If LNG tankers could travel underwater, they could transport natural gas from Arctic regions year-round. General Dynamics has designed just such a tanker - a 140,000-m³ submarine with a methane-fired steam-propulsion system that uses recirculated exhaust gas injected with oxygen to sustain combustion. (Nuclear power would be cheaper but might not be practical if new regulations are imposed.) Developed from

P. T. Veliotis; S. Reitz

1981-01-01

301

Air independent power systems for autonomous submarines  

Microsoft Academic Search

United Stirling AB (USAB), the world leader in Stirling external combustion engine development and Kockums AB are jointly testing in a full scale submarine test section a new 100 kW Stirling engine, the V4-275R, for the Royal Swedish Navy. The engine is integrated with a liquid oxygen storage and a closed cycle combustion system is provided for underwater propulsion. The

Herbert Nilsson

1985-01-01

302

Hydrothermal mineralization along submarine rift zones, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Describes mineralization of midplate submarine rift zones and hydrothermal manganese oxide mineralization of midplate volcanic edifices. Hydrothermal Mn oxides were recovered from submarine extensions of two Hawaiian rift zones, along Haleakala and Puna Ridges. These Mn oxides form two types of deposits, metallic stratiform layers in volcaniclastic rocks and cement for clastic rocks; both deposit types are composed of todorokite and birnessite. Unlike most other hydrothermal Mn oxide deposits, those from Hawaiian rift zones are enriched in the trace metals Zn, Co, Ba, Mo, Sr, V, and especially Ni. Metals are derived from three sources: mafic and ultramafic rocks leached by circulating hydrothermal fluids, clastic material (in Mn-cemented sandstone), and seawater that mixed with the hydrothermal fluids. Precipitation of Mn oxide below the seafloor is indicated by its occurrence as cement, growth textures that show mineralizing fluids were introduced from below, and pervasive replacement of original matrix of clastic rocks.Hydrothermal Mn oxides were recovered from submarine extensions of two Hawaiian rift zones, along Haleakala and Puna Ridges. These Mn oxides form two types of deposits, metallic stratiform layers in volcaniclastic rocks and cement for clastic rocks. Both deposit types are composed of todorokite and birnessite. This article describes in detail the specific characteristics of these Mn oxides.

Hein, J. R.; Gibbs, A. E.; Clague, D. A.; Torresan, M.

1996-01-01

303

Regional depositional history of the Miocene-Pleistocene Louisiana Slope, Green Canyon and Mississippi Canyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regional sequence-stratigraphic analysis was recently completed for the Tertiary slope sediments in Green Canyon, Ewing Bank, and Mississippi Canyon to provide a chronostratigraphic framework for basin reconstructions and predict lithofacies distributions of reservoir and seal rocks. Sixteen third-order sequences of lowstand deep-water deposits were interpreted for the middle Miocene-Pleistocene section. Thirty regional lithofacies maps were made of predominantly lowstand

D. L. Risch; A. N. Chowdhury; A. E. Hannan

1994-01-01

304

Compositional range in the Canyon Diablo meteoroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compositional range within the Canyon Diablo (CD) iron meteorites associated with the formation of the Meteor Crater (Arizona) was examined, using the INAA to analyze a set of CD samples consisting of nine irons collected within 7 km of the Meteor Crater, four Arizona IAB irons that were identified by Wasson (1968) as transported CD fragments, and irons from

John T. Wasson; Xinwei Ouyang

1990-01-01

305

Different Views of the Grand Canyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year the spectacular scenery of the Grand Canyon of Arizona awes its more than 4,000,000 visitors. Just as its enormous scale dwarfs our human sense of space, its geology also dwarfs our human sense of time. Perhaps here, more than anywhere else on the planet, we can experience a sense of ``Deep Time.'' The colorful rocks exposed in the

Wilfred A. Elders

2003-01-01

306

Map Your Way to the Grand Canyon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the introductory assignment, each randomly assigned group spends about 10 to 15 minutes at each station. The author incorporates as much sensory stimulation in the activity as possible. At the first station, students view a PowerPoint show from a geology class the author participated in at the Grand Canyon. At station two, students look at a…

Yoder, Holly

2005-01-01

307

Valles Marineris: The Grand Canyon of Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides a general description of this system of canyons located just south of the Martian equator. Included are various images of the terrain: some photographic, some constructed from remotely sensed datasets. One set of images is presented in stereo and must be viewed with 3D glasses.

308

December oil drilling seen for Baltimore Canyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Second Circuit Court of Appeals has opened the way for offshore exploration in the Baltimore Canyon, although further delays could develop from action by the Natural Resources Defense Council or the Coalition of Northeast Governors. Rising costs of pipeline construction were cited by the appeals court in its recommendation to proceed with the program. Exxon plans on December

1977-01-01

309

Mt. Vernon Canyon Runaway Truck Escape Ramp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A gravel arrester bed type Runaway Truck Escape Ramp was built on a 5.2% downgrade along I-70 in Mt. Vernon Canyon, Colorado. The ramp was completed in July 1979 and to date it has stopped fifty-three runaway or potentially runaway trucks. Only two trucks...

R. L. Hayden

1982-01-01

310

Use of Vesicomyid Clams as Proxies for Ageing Submarine Landslide Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Age dating of submarine landslides and other geologic events that produce tsunamis is desirable, but difficult. Estimation of the time of failure" for submarine slides may be possible using proxies for age, including estimates of the time of colonization of animals on landslide scars or associated features. For submarine landslides in methane-rich strata, chemosynthetic biological communities (CBCs) will likely colonize the site, and establish a `baseline' for estimating the age of the slumping event. Vesicomyid clams are conspicuous members of methane seep environments (CBCs) worldwide, and are the dominant megafauna inhabiting eastern Pacific seep communities. Although several geological settings, including subduction zones, mud volcanoes, submarine landslide scars, and submarine canyon settings are associated with the presence of CBCs, the principal geological processes that regulate their distribution remain unresolved. Nevertheless, vesicomyid clams commonly colonize sites of recent erosion or slope failure events on continental margins, where access to sulfide-rich fluids is possible. CBCs in Monterey Bay include a fairly high diversity of vesicomyid clams (10+ species), which are somewhat segregated by geochemical conditions, water depth, and perhaps other factors. Seep sites with highest sulfide (>10.0 mM) and methane (>2.0 mM) concentrations in pore waters are dominated by Calyptogena kilmeri, while C. pacifica is the principal species at sites with low sulfide ( ˜0.1 mM) and methane ( ˜0.0 mM) levels. Time-lapse observations suggest that variation in sulfide levels may stimulate clam movement. These two species cohabit individual seeps but exhibit very different sulfide physiologies and growth rates. C. kilmeri is well-adapted to higher sulfide tolerance, which may enable high rates of production by bacterial symbionts, high carbon intake, and high rates of growth compared to C. pacifica. Growth rates of C. kilmeri, calculated from tagged individuals, was ˜10 mm/y, with individuals reaching an maximum size of ˜120 mm in approximately 10 y. In contrast, although the sulfide physiology of C. pacifica is more efficient in some ways than C. kilmeri, it is restricted to low sulfide microhabitats (<1.5 mM), and exhibits very low rates of growth. All C. pacifica tagged grew less than 1 mm/y, indicating a period of 50-75 y, or more, to attain asymptotic size near 65 mm. The density and size structure of populations of C. kilmeri and C. pacifica, as well as other CBC organisms may be useful in constraining the timing of slumping events associated with tsunamis. While knowledge of the growth rates and size versus age relationships of vesicomyid species enhance their value in aging submarine slope failure events, the observed wide differences in growth rates among species also complicates interpretation of the colonization history following landslide events.

Barry, J. P.; Whaling, P. J.

2003-12-01

311

Creationism in the Grand Canyon, Texas Textbooks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU President Bob Dickinson, together with presidents of six other scientific societies, have written to Joseph Alston, Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park, pointing out that a creationist book, The Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold in bookstores within the borders of the park as a scientific explanation about Grand Canyon geologic history. President Dickinson's 16 December letter urges that Alston clearly separate The Grand Canyon: A Different View from books and materials that discuss the legitimate scientific understanding of the origin of the Grand Canyon. The letter warns the Park Service against giving the impression that it approves of the anti-science movement known as young-Earth creationism, or that it endorses the advancement of religious tenets disguised as science. The text of the letter is on AGU's Web site http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/sci_pol.html. Also, this fall, AGU sent an alert to Texas members about efforts by intelligent design creationists aimed at weakening the teaching of biological evolution in textbooks used in Texas schools. The alert pointed scientists to a letter, drafted by AGU, together with the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, and the American Astronomical Society, that urged the Texas State Board of Education to adopt textbooks that presented only accepted, peer-reviewed science and pedagogical expertise. Over 550 scientists in Texas added their names to the letter (http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/texas_textbooks.pdf ), sent to the Board of Education on 1 November prior to their vote to adopt a slate of new science textbooks. The Board voted 11-5 in favor of keeping the textbooks free of changes advocated by groups supporting intelligent design creationism.

Folger, Peter

2004-01-01

312

Stromboli Island (Italy): Scenarios of Tsunamis Generated by Submarine Landslides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stromboli is an Italian volcanic island known for its persistent state of activity, which leads to frequent mass failures and consequently to frequent tsunamis ranging from large (and rare) catastrophic events involving the entire southern Tyrrhenian Sea to smaller events with, however, extremely strong local impact. Most of tsunamigenic landslides occur in the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) zone, which is a deep scar in the NW flank of the volcano, that was produced by a Holocene massive flank collapse and that is the accumulation area of all the eruptive ejecta from the craters. Shallow-water bathymetric surveys around the island help one to identify submarine canyons and detachment scars giving evidence of mass instabilities and failures that may have produced and might produce tsunamis. The main purpose of this paper is to call attention to tsunami sources in Stromboli that are located outside the SdF area. Further, we do not touch on tsunami scenarios associated with gigantic sector collapses that have repeat times in the order of several thousands of years, but rather concentrate on intermediate size tsunamis, such as the ones that occurred in December 2002. Though we cannot omit tsunamis from the zone of the SdF, the main emphasis is on the elaboration of preliminary scenarios for three more possible source areas around Stromboli, namely Punta Lena Sud, Forgia Vecchia and Strombolicchio, with the aim of purposeful contributing to the evaluation of the hazard associated with such events and to increase the knowledge of potential threats affecting Stromboli and the nearby islands of the Aeolian archipelago. The simulations show that tsunami sources outside of the SdF can produce disastrous effects. As a consequence, we recommend that the monitoring system that is presently operating in Stromboli and that is focussed on the SdF source area be extended in order to cover even the other sources. Moreover, a synoptic analysis of the results from all the considered tsunami scenarios leads to a very interesting relation between the tsunami total energy and the landslide potential energy, that could be used as a very effective tool to evaluate the expected tsunami size from estimates of the landslide size.

Tinti, Stefano; Zaniboni, Filippo; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Manucci, Anna

2008-12-01

313

New constraints on oceanographic vs. seismic control on submarine landslide initiation: a geotechnical approach off Uruguay and northern Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine landslides are common along the Uruguayan and Argentinean continental margin, but size, type and frequency of events differ significantly between distinct settings. Previous studies have proposed sedimentary and oceanographic processes as factors controlling slope instability, but also episodic earthquakes have been postulated as possible triggers. However, quantitative geotechnical slope stability evaluations for this region and, for that matter, elsewhere in the South Atlantic realm are lacking. This study quantitatively assesses continental slope stability for various scenarios including overpressure and earthquake activity, based on sedimentological and geotechnical analyses on three up to 36 m long cores collected on the Uruguayan slope, characterized by muddy contourite deposits and a locus of landslides (up to 2 km3), and in a canyon-dominated area on the northern Argentinean slope characterized by sandy contourite deposits. The results of shear and consolidation tests reveal that these distinct lithologies govern different stability conditions and failure modes. The slope sectors are stable under present-day conditions (factor of safety >5), implying that additional triggers would be required to initiate failure. In the canyon area, current-induced oversteepening of weaker sandy contourite deposits would account for frequent, small-scale slope instabilities. By contrast, static vs. seismic slope stability calculations reveal that a peak ground acceleration of at least 2 m/s2 would be required to cause failure of mechanically stronger muddy contourite deposits. This implies that, also along the western South Atlantic passive margin, submarine landslides on open gentle slopes require episodic large earthquakes as ultimate trigger, as previously postulated for other, northern hemisphere passive margins.

Ai, Fei; Strasser, Michael; Preu, Benedict; Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Krastel, Sebastian; Kopf, Achim

2014-05-01

314

Mining Technique for Narrow Orebodies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a summary of a narrow mining project in Sweden. The purpose of the project was to compile, develop and propose suitable techniques for mining of underground narrow orebodies. The first part of the report presents a summary of present mining ...

M. Olsson H. Thorshag

1987-01-01

315

Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.  

SciTech Connect

He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe then used data collected from the District's stream assessment and inventory, utilizing the Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (SVAP), to determine treatment necessary to bring 90% of reaches ranked Poor or Fair through the SVAP up to good or excellent. In 10 year's time, all reaches that were previously evaluated with SVAP will be reevaluated to determine progress and to adapt methods for continued success. Over 400 miles of stream need treatment in order to meet identified restoration goals. Treatments include practices which result in riparian habitat improvements, nutrient reductions, channel condition improvements, fish habitat improvements, invasive species control, water withdrawal reductions, improved hydrologic alterations, upland sediment reductions, and passage barrier removal. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management Watershed Division (Tribe) developed this document to guide restoration activities within the Big Canyon Creek watershed for the period of 2008-2018. This plan was created to demonstrate the ongoing need and potential for anadromous fish habitat restoration within the watershed and to ensure continued implementation of restoration actions and activities. It was developed not only to guide the District and the Tribe, but also to encourage cooperation among all stakeholders, including landowners, government agencies, private organizations, tribal governments, and elected officials. Through sharing information, skills, and resources in an active, cooperative relationships, all concerned parties will have the opportunity to join together to strengthen and maintain a sustainable natural resource base for present and future generations within the watershed. The primary goal of the strategy is to address aquatic habitat restoration needs on a watershed level for resident and anadromous fish species, promoting quality habitat within a self-sustaining watershed. Seven objectives have been developed to support this goal: (1) Identify factors limiting quality

Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

2007-10-01

316

Real-time considerations in submarine target motion analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submarine command and control has many real-time requirements. The paper describes a demonstration application called the Manual Adaptive Target Motion Analysis Evaluator (MATE) developed at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center. The MATE algorithm uses sensor input in order for human trackers to graphically track submarine contacts. The demonstration system is built using several computer systems standards including POSIX, Ada, and

G. Bussiere; James Oblinger; Victor Fay Wolfe

1993-01-01

317

Carbohydrate Metabolism in U.S. Navy Submarine Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One- and two-hour postprandial glucose and insulin values were measured in 58 submariners with 5 or more FBM patrols and in 58 non-submariners. An interrelationship between serum glucose and insulin for classifying defects in carbohydrate metabolism indic...

E. Heyder L. W. Mooney D. V. Tappan

1985-01-01

318

Earthquakes at Loihi Submarine Volcano and the Hawaiian Hot Spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loihi is an active submarine volcano located 35 km south of the island of Hawaii and may eventually grow to be the next and southernmost island in the Hawaiian chain. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory recorded two major earthquake swarms located there in 1971-1972 and 1975 which were probably associated with submarine eruptions or intrusions. The swarms were located very close

Fred W. Klein

1982-01-01

319

Earthquakes at Loihi submarine volcano and the Hawaiian hot spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loihi is an active submarine volcano located 35 km south of the island of Hawaii and may eventually grow to be the next and southernmost island in the Hawaiian chain. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory recorded two major earthquake swarms located there in 1971-1972 and 1975 which were probably associated with submarine eruptions or intrusions. The swarms were located very close

Fred W. Klein

1982-01-01

320

Identification of a ship or submarine from its magnetic signature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between the measured time fluctuations of the ambient magnetic field due to the passage of a ship or submarine and the characteristic magnetization properties of this vessel are derived. This relationship would be useful in identifying or classifying ships and submarines according to their magnetization properties.

Ioannidis, G.

1977-01-01

321

3D View of Grand Canyon, Arizona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Grand Canyon is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the canyon sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the canyon form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago).

The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel Canyon towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the Canyon View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the canyon over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000.

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

2000-01-01

322

Lava Flows in the Grand Canyon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over vast expanses of time, natural processes like floods and volcanoes deposit layers of rock on the Earth's surface. To delve down through layers of rock is to explore our planet's history. Sometimes rock layers are exposed through human activity, such as drilling or excavation. Other times, rivers carve through the rock. One of the best, and most well-known, examples of a river exposing ancient rocks is Colorado River in Arizona's Grand Canyon. What fewer people know is that the Grand Canyon also has a history of relatively recent (on geologic time scales) volcanism. The evidence--hardened lava--spills down the canyon walls all the way to the river. On June 22, 2003, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the Grand Canyon, near 36.2 degrees north latitude and 113.2 degrees west longitude. ASTER detects light visible to human eyes as well as 'invisible' infrared light. Because different minerals reflect different portions of the light spectrum, ASTER can see varying mineral compositions of the rocks it observes, as well as detecting vegetation. In this three-dimensional visualization, lava fields appear brownish gray, darker than the layers of limestone, sandstone and other rock in the canyon. Vegetation appears green, and sparsely vegetated areas appear mustard. Water in the Colorado River is blue-purple. Geologists estimate that between 1.8 million and 400,000 years ago, lava flows actually dammed the Colorado River more than a dozen times. Some of the lava dams were as high as 600 meters (about 1,969 feet), forming immense reservoirs. Over time, enough water and sediment built up to push the river flow over the tops of these dams and eventually erode them away. Today, remnants of these lava dams remain throughout the area, along with the much older rock layers they cover. Among the most well known examples of these 'frozen' lava cascades is Lava Falls, which spills down to the river next to a cinder cone known as Volcan's Throne. Numerous flows spread down into Whitmore Canyon, a Colorado River tributary, as well.

2003-01-01

323

Seismically induced rock slope failures resulting from topographic amplification of strong ground motions: The case of Pacoima Canyon, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 1994 Northridge earthquake (Mw = 6.7) triggered extensive rock slope failures in Pacoima Canyon, immediately north of Los Angeles, California. Pacoima Canyon is a narrow and steep canyon incised in gneissic and granitic rocks. Peak accelerations of nearly 1.6 g were recorded at a ridge that forms the left abutment of Pacoima Dam; peak accelerations at the bottom of the canyon were less than 0.5 g, suggesting the occurrence of topographic amplification. Topographic effects have been previously suggested to explain similarly high ground motions at the site during the 1971 (Mw = 6.7) San Fernando earthquake. Furthermore, high landslide concentrations observed in the area have been attributed to unusually strong ground motions rather than higher susceptibility to sliding compared with nearby zones. We conducted field investigations and slope stability back-analyses to confirm the impact of topographic amplification on the triggering of landslides during the 1994 earthquake. Our results suggest that the observed extensive rock sliding and falling would have not been possible under unamplified seismic conditions, which would have generated a significantly lower number of areas affected by landslides. In contrast, modelling slope stability using amplified ground shaking predicts slope failure distributions matching what occurred in 1994. This observation confirms a significant role for topographic amplification on the triggering of landslides at the site, and emphasises the need to select carefully the inputs for seismic slope stability analyses. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sepulveda, S. A.; Murphy, W.; Jibson, R. W.; Petley, D. N.

2005-01-01

324

Distribution patterns of living benthic foraminifera from Cap Breton canyon, Bay of Biscay: Faunal response to sediment instability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of living (Rose Bengal-stained) benthic foraminifera in 13 multicorer samples taken along the Cap Breton canyon (Bay of Biscay) revealed that the combination of organic-rich material and sediment instability provides very specific benthic ecosystem conditions. The active canyon hosts different foraminiferal assemblages that appear to be determined by different types and frequencies of environmental disturbance at the sites. Most of them are strongly dominated by shallow-infaunal living taxa that combine a tolerance for low-quality organic matter with a high reproductive potential. Foraminiferal assemblages characterized by high densities, very superficially living taxa and strong dominance of bolivinids and buliminids, follow a poor pioneer fauna dominated by Technitella melo. These assemblages are observed in the narrow canyon axis, where frequent sediment resuspension occurs and affects habitat stability. Assemblages studied from sites outside the canyon axis are still dominated by shallow-infaunal species but show lower foraminiferal densities and higher diversities. Deep-infaunal taxa are only present in some inner meanders and more distal stations. These assemblages are typical for ecological niches that are relatively stable and unaffected by re-sedimentation processes. They have attained a more advanced stage of ecosystem stability. They are influenced by neither lateral sediment nor enriched organic matter input.

Hess, Silvia; Jorissen, Frans J.

2009-09-01

325

Submarine LNG tanker concept for the Arctic  

SciTech Connect

If LNG tankers could travel underwater, they could transport natural gas from Arctic regions year-round. General Dynamics has designed just such a tanker - a 140,000-m/sup 3/ submarine with a methane-fired steam-propulsion system that uses recirculated exhaust gas injected with oxygen to sustain combustion. (Nuclear power would be cheaper but might not be practical if new regulations are imposed.) Developed from parametric variations in cargo capacity, hull material, and ballasting, the design identifies such ship characteristics as length, beam, depth, cargo-system arrangement, speed, and ship control. An economic analysis indicates the concept's competitiveness with both pipelines and icebreaking tankers.

Veliotis, P.T.; Reitz, S.

1981-01-01

326

Holocene vegetation in chaco canyon, new Mexico.  

PubMed

Well-preserved plant remains in packrat middens chronicle vegetation change in Chaco Canyon over the past 11,000 years. Early Holocene evidence of communities dominated by Douglas fir, Rocky Mountain juniper, and limber pine in the San Juan Basin calls for revision of traditional constructs based on fossil pollen. Middle and late Holocene vegetation in the canyon was pinyon-juniper woodland up until Anasazi occupation between 1000 and 800 years ago. Instead of climate, Anasazi fuel needs may explain the drastic reduction of pinyon and juniper after 1230 years ago. The lack of pinyon-juniper recovery over the past millennium has implications for contemporary forest and range ecology. PMID:17839658

Betancourt, J L; VAN Devender, T R

1981-11-01

327

Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1995, the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) was created in order to measure the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on natural and physical resources along the Colorado River. As such, the GCMRC's projects also monitor and examine the biological, cultural, and physical resources of the entire Colorado River ecosystem. The materials on their site are divided into five primary sections, including "News & Info", "Research", and "Products". In the "News & Info" area visitors can learn about the endangered species that reside in the area covered by the GCMRC and also take a look at their outreach materials, which include fact sheets, posters, and transcripts from recent symposia. The "Research" area is a bit more technical in nature, containing papers on water flow simulations and elevation data. The site is rounded out by the "Products" area, where visitors can look over new publications and evaluate simulation models.

328

The Research of Inertial Navigation System Based on Submarine Space Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking submarine platform inertial navigation system (PINS) as the research object, the space motion mathematical models of submarine are analyzed and established. Then according to the submarine symmetry and submarine motion characteristics, the model is reasonably simplified by theoretical and experiences study. Through coordinate transformation relationship research of the fixed coordinate system, the moving coordinate system and the local present

Lin Zhao; Liang Yan; Jian-hua Cheng; Xinzhe Wang

2008-01-01

329

Comparison of performance of diesel and fuel cell based submarine power supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of diesel electric power on submarines can expose the submarine to danger from acoustic and visual detection. With an aim to reduce the amount of time the submarine is required to remain vulnerable in this way, this paper analyses a number of fuel cell diesel hybrid submarine configurations. A generic diesel electric power system model was selected as

Leigh Piper; Sumedha Rajakaruna

2010-01-01

330

Numerical estimation of the effective albedo of an urban canyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The paper focuses on the absorption of shortwave radiation in an urban street canyon. To test the effective albedo of the\\u000a canyon an analytic solution of the multiple reflection problem is applied. The infinitesimally long canyon is divided into\\u000a slices and a matrix of view factors for the slices is defined. Incoming shortwave radiation includes direct and diffuse parts\\u000a and

K. Fortuniak

2008-01-01

331

Flood Geology and the Grand Canyon: A Critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four claims of Flood Geology—as they are related to the Grand Canyon and specifically to the book Grand Canyon: A Different View—are evaluated by directly addressing Young Earth Creationist arguments, by showing rock features that belie these claims, and by presenting the most up-to-date scientific theories on the origin of the Grand Canyon. We conclude that Young Earth Creationism promotes

Carol A. Hill; Stephen O. Moshier

2009-01-01

332

Submarine mass wasting on the Ionian Calabrian margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass wasting processes on continental margins have strong relevance both for geohazards of coastal areas and for the emplacement and monitoring of offshore infrastructures. The seabed dynamics of the Ionian Calabrian Margin (ICM) are currently being examined in the context of the project MAGIC (Marine Geohazard along the Italian Coasts). The objective of this project is the definition of elements that may constitute geological risk for coastal areas. The ICM is a tectonically-active margin, the structures of which reflect two main processes: frontal compression and fore-arc extension during the SE advance of the Calabrian accretionary prism since the late Miocene; and a rapid uplift (up to 1mm/yr) of onshore and shallow shelf areas since the mid-Pleistocene. These processes are reflected in different tectonic settings at seabed, which is characterized by a narrow continental shelf above a slope of irregular morphology in water depths of 150-2000 m. In the north, a broad slope is dominated by ridges and intervening basins that are the morphological expression of the southern Apennine fold-and-thrust belt; in the south, the continental slope descends steeply towards the deep-water Crotone and Spartivento fore-arc basins. The overall objective of this study is to map major features of mass wasting on the slopes of the ICM, investigate possible triggering mechanisms and consider the geohazards these features may represent for coastal areas. The study is based on an integrated analysis of multibeam morpho-bathymetric data and subbottom profiles, which together allow the recognition of four main types of mass wasting phenomena along the slopes of the ICM: 1) mass transport complexes (MTCs) within intra-slope basins - these are identified in the northern area, within the piggy-back basins: seabed imagery show the slopes of all the seabed ridges to be marked by headwall scarps recording widespread failure, while Chirp profiles show the adjacent basins to contain unstratified bodies indicative of debris flows buried beneath stratified sediments; multiple debris flows in several basins indicate one or more past episodes of failure that may be linked to activity on the faults bounding the structural highs. 2) slope slide scars - these are identified in two locations along the relatively steep southern Calabrian slope; the slide scars record several episodes of failure, linked to deposits within the deep-water basins that are yet to be identified. 3) possible gravity sliding - in one area of the southern Calabrian slope, elongate seabed features oriented subparallel to contours are observed, associated with diapiric structures that have been linked to Messinian salt observed on seismic profiles (Rossi & Sartori 1981); we suggest that the elongate seabed features may record a form of downslope sediment sliding above salt, resulting in features analogous to the cobblestone topography of the outer Calabrian Arc; 4) canyon headwalls - in the upper parts of all canyons, numerous headwall scarps are consistent with retrogressive activity of the canyons.

Ceramicola, S.; Forlin, E.; Coste, M.; Cova, A.; Praeg, D.; Fanucci, F.; Critelli, S.

2010-12-01

333

Attack submarines: The case for negotiated reductions  

SciTech Connect

In East-West naval arms control, the realistic and genuinely useful options are fairly limited. The United States is likely to resist constraints on the numbers and operations of naval assets that serve national interests beyond East-West security. It is not altogether clear, in a post-Cold War environment, that such constraints on U.S. forces would be in the Soviet interest either. The attack submarine, however, is different - an artifact of the Cold War, with very limited utility in non-Cold War contingencies. Controlling its operations and movements has always been difficult, and is bound to remain so. But operations can be controlled indirectly, and costs can be reduced, by cutting inventories. To bring a substantial benefit, such cuts would need to be large, mutual, and to a more-or-less common ceiling. If something along the lines suggested above were agreed upon and implemented, the United States and the Soviet Union would eliminate from the world's oceans between 200 and 300 attack submarines. That would seem to be quite a respectable start toward building confidence, security, and stability at sea, and toward a more sensible force structure for both navies. 1 tab.

Lacy, J.L.

1990-12-01

334

Argon geochronology of Kilauea's early submarine history  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Submarine alkalic and transitional basalts collected by submersible along Kilauea volcano's south flank represent early eruptive products from Earth's most active volcano. Strongly alkalic basalt fragments sampled from volcaniclastic deposits below the mid-slope Hilina Bench yield 40Ar/39Ar ages from 212 ?? 38 to 280 ?? 20 ka. These ages are similar to high-precision 234 ?? 9 and 239 ?? 10 ka phlogopite ages from nephelinite clasts in the same deposits. Above the mid-slope bench, two intact alkalic to transitional pillow lava sequences protrude through the younger sediment apron. Samples collected from a weakly alkalic basalt section yield 138 ?? 30 to 166 ?? 26 ka ages and others from a transitional basalt section yield 138 ?? 115 and 228 ?? 114 ka ages. The ages are incompatible with previous unspiked K-Ar studies from samples in deep drill holes along the east rift of Kilauea. The submarine birth of Kilauea volcano is estimated at <300 ka. If the weakly alkalic sequence we dated is representative of the volcano as a whole, the transition from alkalic to tholeiitic basalt compositions is dated at ??? 150 ka. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Calvert, A. T.; Lanphere, M. A.

2006-01-01

335

Deep-Sea Submarine 'Ben Franklin'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The deep-sea submarine 'Ben Franklin' is being docked in the harbor. Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep-ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life. It also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effect of a long-term routine on the crew. The submarine's record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.

1969-01-01

336

Deep-Sea Research Submarine 'Ben Franklin'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an aerial view of the deep-sea research submarine 'Ben Franklin' at dock. Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep-ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life, and also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effects of a long-term routine on the crew. The submarine's record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.

1969-01-01

337

36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. 7.8 Section 7... § 7.8 Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. (a) Dogs and cats...lands within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. (i)...

2010-07-01

338

36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. 7.8 Section 7... § 7.8 Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. (a) Dogs and cats...lands within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. (i)...

2009-07-01

339

75 FR 439 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG...SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) was...Decision on the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement...

2010-01-05

340

78 FR 54482 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...4073000] Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY...renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose...concerning the operation of Glen Canyon Dam and the exercise of other authorities...

2013-09-04

341

33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California...1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California...a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

2013-07-01

342

A potential submarine landslide tsunami in South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine earthquakes and submarine landslides are two main sources of tsunamis. Tsunami hazard modeling in the South China Sea has been primarily concerned with the potential large submarine earthquakes in the Manila trench. In contrast, evaluating the regional risk posed by tsunamis generated from submarine landslide is a new endeavor. At offshore south central Vietnam, bathymetric and seismic surveys show evidence of potentially tsunamigenic submarine landslides although their ages remain uncertain. We model two hypothetical submarine landslide events at a potential site on the heavily sediment laden, seismically active, steep continental slope offshore southeast Vietnam. Water level rises along the coast of Vietnam are presented for the potential scenarios, which indicate that the southeast coastal areas of Vietnam are at considerable risk of tsunami generated offshore submarine landslides. Key references: Kusnowidjaja Megawati, Felicia Shaw, Kerry Sieh, Zhenhua Huang, Tso-Ren Wu, Y. Lin, Soon Keat Tan and Tso-Chien Pan.(2009). Tsunami hazard from the subduction megathrust of the South China Sea, Part I, Source characterization and the resulting tsunami, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 36(1), pp. 13-20. Enet, F., Grilli, S.T. and Watts, P. (2003). Laboratory experiments for tsunami generated by underwater landslides: comparison with numerical modeling, In: Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Offshore and Polar Engineering, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, pp. 372-379.

Huang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Switzer, A. D.

2010-12-01

343

Mixing at the head of a canyon: A laboratory investigation of fluid exchanges in a rotating, stratified basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations indicate that oceanic mixing is intensified near the head of submarine canyons. How the presence of canyon walls affects the local production and distribution of mixed fluid is an open question. These dynamics are addressed through rotating tank experiments which impose mixing at middepth at the closed end of a channel open to a larger body of water. Turbulence is generated in a linearly stratified fluid with initial buoyancy frequency N by means of a single bar oscillated with frequency ?. The mixed fluid quickly reaches a steady state height h ˜ (?/N)1/2 independent of the Coriolis frequency f and collapses into the channel interior. A small percentage of the fluid exported from the turbulent zone enters a boundary current. The bulk forms a cyclonic circulation in front of the bar. As the recirculation cell expands to fill the channel, it restricts horizontal entrainment into the turbulent zone. Mixed fluid flux decays with time as t? and is dependent on the size of the mixing zone and the balance between turbulence, rotation, and stratification. The recirculation cell is confined within the channel, and export of mixed fluid into the basin is restricted to the weak boundary current. As horizontal entrainment is shut down, long-term production of mixed fluid relies more on vertical entrainment. However, the scalings indicate that short-term dynamics are the most applicable to oceanic conditions.

Wells, Judith R.; Helfrich, Karl R.

2006-12-01

344

Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three ancient impact craters (Chesapeake Bay—35.7 Ma; Toms Canyon—35.7 Ma; Montagnais—51 Ma) and one multiring impact basin (Chicxulub—65 Ma) are currently known to be buried beneath modern continental shelves. All occur on the passive Atlantic margin of North America in regions extensively explored by seismic reflection surveys in the search for oil and gas reserves. We limit our discussion herein to the three youngest structures. These craters were created by submarine impacts, which produced many structural and morphological features similar in construction, composition, and variability to those documented in well-preserved subaerial and planetary impact craters. The subcircular Chesapeake Bay (diameter 85 km) and ovate Montagnais (diameter 45-50 km) structures display outer-rim scarps, annular troughs, peak rings, inner basins, and central peaks similar to those incorporated in the widely cited conceptual model of complex impact craters. These craters differ in several respects from the model, however. For example, the Montagnais crater lacks a raised lip on the outer rim, the Chesapeake Bay crater displays only small remnants of a raised lip, and both craters contain an unusually thick body of impact breccia. The subtriangular Toms Canyon crater (diameter 20-22 km), on the other hand, contains none of the internal features of a complex crater, nor is it typical of a simple crater. It displays a prominent raised lip on the outer rim, but the lip is present only on the western side of the crater. In addition, each of these craters contains some distinct features, which are not present in one or both of the others. For example, the central peak at Montagnais rises well above the elevation of the outer rim, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the outer rim is higher than the central peak. The floor of the Toms Canyon crater is marked by parallel deep troughs and linear ridges formed of sedimentary rocks, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the crater floor contains concentric faults and compression ridges formed in rocks of the crystalline basement. The Chesapeake Bay crater is distinguished further by its cluster of at least 23 adjacent secondary craters. The North American tektite strewn field, a widespread deposit of distal ejecta, is thought to be derived from the Chesapeake Bay impact, perhaps with a small contribution from the Toms Canyon impact. No ejecta field is known to be associated with the Montagnais impact. No immediate major extinction event is directly linked to any of these three impacts. There is evidence, however, that the Chesapeake Bay and Toms Canyon impacts helped initiate a long-term pulse of warm global climate, whose eventual dissipation coincided with an early Oligocene mass extinction event, 2 Ma after the impacts.

Poag, C. Wylie; Plescia, Jeffrey B.; Molzer, Phillip C.

345

The mortality of Royal Naval submariners 1960-89.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To examine the mortality pattern of submariners in the Royal Navy to assess the long term effects on health of serving in submarines. Any specific cause of death which was increased was considered in advance to be of interest, but attention focused particularly on cancer mortality. METHOD: A mortality follow up study: 15 138 submariners who had conducted their first submarine training between 1960 and 1979 were followed up through their time in the Navy and into civilian life, up to the end of 1989. The main outcome measures were the numbers of deaths and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) which indicate whether the mortality from all causes and specific causes, particularly cancers, exceeds that in men in England and Wales. RESULTS: Mortality in submariners was lower than that for men in England and Wales with an all cause SMR of 86; this was comparable with that found in other studies of armed forces personnel. Cancer mortality was particularly low with an SMR of 69 and there was no particular cancer site which showed an excess. Increased mortality from digestive diseases was found, the excess being attributable to cirrhosis of the liver, which had an SMR of 221 based on 12 deaths, alcohol being a contributory factor in eight. Deaths from accidents and violence were also higher than expected with an SMR of 115, but this was due to high levels of accidents occurring after discharge from the Navy. There was no apparent trend in mortality with time since starting submarine work. Likewise there was no pattern by calendar period, although the excess of cirrhosis of the liver was confined to the period 1970-9. CONCLUSION: The submariners seemed to be a healthy group with low mortality overall. Working in submarines was not associated with any increased cancer mortality. Excess deaths from cirrhosis of the liver, and from accidents and violence after leaving the Navy, were of some concern but they cannot be attributed directly to the submarine environment.

Inskip, H; Snee, M; Styles, L

1997-01-01

346

Submarine landslides and tsunami potential Off SE Australian Margin: results from the voyage SS2008/12  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the continental margins around Australia are themselves passive, they are surrounded by the Pacific Ring of Fire characterized by a great many earthquakes, tsunamis and submarine landslides. The Earthquake Catalogue of Geo-science Australia shows that in Australia earthquakes with a magnitude 5.5+ occur on average every two years with the potential of a disastrous earthquake of magnitude 6 or more every six years. Historical records also show that there were 47 tsunami hits in Australian Coasts during the last 150 years. The main objective of Voyage SS2008/12 onboard RV Southern Surveyor in 2008, was to map out the submarine landslides in the region off northern New South Wales and southern Queensland in order to investigate its tsunami-genic potential that could impact their densely populated coastal cities. During the survey ca. 13,000 square km of multi-beam swath bathymetry data (MBES) along with TOPAS high resolution seismic and different types of ground truth samples were collected in the continental slope. This study presents the preliminary morpho-tectonic analysis of the collected acoustic images of the seabeds and near surfaces. In the survey area, the continental slopes extend from the shelf break to the abyssal plain between ~150m to ~4500m water depth. The survey area can be divided into northern and southern areas separated by relatively stable seabed of the Nerang Plateau. The average slopes range from a minimum of 2.8° on plateau to a maximum of 8.5° in steeper segments. Submarine slides of all sizes from 0.5 to 20 cubic km were encountered, there having different morphologies. They can be characterized as slab slides, debris flows and carbonate platform slides. The gravity cores takes from selected slide planes suggest that they have different ages (between ca. 6 to 25 ka) and the northern slides are older than the southern ones. Other bathymetric features are box canyons, linear canyons, volcanic cones, carbonate mounds and pockmarks. The most important discovery seems to be the observation of a "hanging block" in the mid continental slope off Merton Island, Queensland. The block has a volume of over 100 cubic km with prominent crown cracks. It seems that the block is a remnant left by canyon excavations in the mid to lower continental slopes. The crown cracks indicate its instability and the inception of the sliding processes. The toe of the block is already wasted and characterized by plunge pools. The tsunami-genic potential of this giant block depends on how it would fail: either altogether or piecewise, and how rapid the process would be. Many big landslides observed in the survey area show the evidence for multiple and recurrent sliding events. Our future research activity would focus to determine the tsunami-genic potential of these potential, massive, submarine landslides.

Rahman Talukder, Asrarur; Boyd, Ron; Keene, Jock; Hubble, Tom; Clarke, Samantha; Kinsela, Michael; Exon, Neville; Gardner, Jim; Felzenberg, Janice

2010-05-01

347

Geotechnical Considerations of Canyon Formation: the Case of Cap de Creus Canyon, Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portion of the Cap de Creus has been selected for a detailed analysis of slope instability. The selected area is located on the north side of the Canyon between water depth ranging between 150 m and 750 m. This sector, which presents geomorphic evidences of landsliding, has been sampled at three different water depths along a line perpendicular to

M. Sansoucy; J. Locat; H. J. Lee

2006-01-01

348

Submarine thermal sprirngs on the galapagos rift.  

PubMed

The submarine hydrothermal activity on and near the Galápagos Rift has been explored with the aid of the deep submersible Alvin. Analyses of water samples from hydrothermal vents reveal that hydrothermal activity provides significant or dominant sources and sinks for several components of seawater; studies of conductive and convective heat transfer suggest that two-thirds of the heat lost from new oceanic lithosphere at the Galápagos Rift in the first million years may be vented from thermal springs, predominantly along the axial ridge within the rift valley. The vent areas are populated by animal communities. They appear to utilize chemosynthesis by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to derive their entire energy supply from reactions between the seawater and the rocks at high temperatures, rather than photosynthesis. PMID:17776033

Corliss, J B; Dymond, J; Gordon, L I; Edmond, J M; von Herzen, R P; Ballard, R D; Green, K; Williams, D; Bainbridge, A; Crane, K; van Andel, T H

1979-03-16

349

EAARL Submarine Topography - Biscayne National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Project Description This lidar-derived submarine topography map was produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs for the purposes of habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment (for example: bleaching, hurricanes, disease outbreaks). As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring water depth and conducting cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to managers of coastal tropical habitats.

Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd; Harris, Melanie S.; Mosher, Lance

2006-01-01

350

A contaminant monitor for submarine atmospheres.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A requirement for monitoring selected atmospheric constituents on board nuclear powered submarines has been met by the development of the Central Atmosphere Monitoring System, Mark I. This system employs a mass spectrometer to monitor H2, H2O, N2, O2, CO2, Freon 11, Freon 12, and Freon 114, in addition to an infrared sensor for CO. The CAMS MKI development is discussed, including background, operating fundamentals, principal requirements, functional and physical descriptions, and summarized test results. Each of two prototype units has successfully completed over 9000 hr of operational sea trails, providing the necessary ground work for the manufacture of production units. At the same time, these units, which have benefited extensively from NASA hardware experience, may in turn provide useful data for the development of a new class of maintainable atmospheric monitoring instrumentation for manned spacecraft.

Ruecker, M. R.

1973-01-01

351

Improved OTEC System for a Submarine Robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), now undergoing development, is a less-massive, more-efficient means of exploiting the same basic principle as that of the proposed system described in "Alternative OTEC Scheme for a Submarine Robot" (NPO-43500), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 1 (January 2009), page 50. The proposed system as described previously would be based on the thawing-expansion/freezing-contraction behavior of a wax or perhaps another suitable phase-change material (PCM). The power generated by the system would be used to recharge the batteries in a battery- powered unmanned underwater vehicle [UUV (essentially, a small exploratory submarine robot)] of a type that has been deployed in large numbers in research pertaining to global warming. A UUV of this type travels between the ocean surface and depths, measuring temperature and salinity. At one phase of its operational cycle, the previously proposed system would utilize the surface ocean temperature (which lies between 15 and 30 C over most of the Earth) to melt a PCM that has a melting/freezing temperature of about 10 C. At the opposite phase of its operational cycle, the system would utilize the lower ocean temperature at depth (e.g., between 4 and 7 C at a depth of 300 m) to freeze the PCM. The melting or freezing would cause the PCM to expand or contract, respectively, by about 9 volume percent. The PCM would be contained in tubes that would be capable of expanding and contracting with the PCM. The PCM-containing tubes would be immersed in a hydraulic fluid. The expansion and contraction would drive a flow of the hydraulic fluid against a piston that, in turn, would push a rack-and-pinion gear system to spin a generator to charge a battery.

Chao, Yi; Jones, Jack; Valdez, Thomas

2010-01-01

352

Space, evolution, and function in the houses of Chaco Canyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prehistoric cultural landscape of Chaco Canyon is made up of monumental great houses and small houses. The Chaco Canyon architectural record has been extensively studied, yet the relationship between great and small houses remains a fundamental problem of Southwest archaeology. By using space syntax access analyses, I examine in this research the spatial organisation of great and small houses

Wendy Bustard

1999-01-01

353

Benthic foraminifera of a Miocene canyon and fan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present benthic foraminiferal assemblage data from an exhumed Miocene canyon and fan system from the Tabernas Basin (SE Spain). The presence of good indicator taxa and unique assemblages occupying specific environments allows the distinction of slope, canyon and fan environments within the Tabernas Basin by foraminiferal assemblages alone. Five assemblages are defined on the basis of the occurrence of

M. Rogerson; T. J. Kouwenhoven; G. J. van der Zwaan; B. J. O'Neill; C. J. van der Zwan; G. Postma; K. Kleverlaan; H. Tijbosch

2006-01-01

354

The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone Online Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website offers an online tour of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone. Prominent viewpoints of the canyon are highlighted with photos and information concerning their history. Other stops include information on giant glacial boulders and waterfalls. Similar tours of the Old Faithful area, the Norris Geyser Basin, the Fountain Paint Pots, and the Mammoth Hot Springs are also available online.

Park, Yellowstone N.

355

The Grand Canyon: The Top Two Rock Layers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Watch this short video clip to learn more about the rock layers of the Grand Canyon. This video discusses the two sandstone formations that comprise the uppermost part of the canyon. The video also discusses how the two sandstone layers were formed.

2006-01-01

356

Seismological shoot-out at Diablo Canyon  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Gas and Electric Co.'s right to operate a nuclear power plant at California's Diablo Canyon has been contested for eight years at 36 federal and four state hearings, three licensing appeals, and two congressional inquiries. The utility announced that design errors in the structural supports were discovered just as the plant appeared ready for operation. Corrections will be technically straightforward, but the political and legal ramifications may cause further delays by supporting the claims of environmental groups that the plant cannot withstand an earthquake. A review of the debate indicates that the developing field of seismic engineering is still imprecise because the theoretical bases remain untested. (DCK)

Smith, R.J.

1981-10-30

357

20140430_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data  

DOE Data Explorer

Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 April to 30 April 2014.

Joe Thibedeau

358

Three-dimensional grid generation about a submarine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systematic multiple-block grid method has been developed to compute grids about submarines. Several topologies are proposed, and an oscillatory transfinite interpolation is used in the grid construction.

Abolhassani, Jamshid Samareh; Smith, Robert E.

1988-01-01

359

Pyrotechnic Delay Ignition System for a Submarine Launched Marine Signal,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development of a delay ignition system for a submarine launched marine signal. The igniter, which incorporates a pyrotechnic delay element, was designed to transfer ignition from the payload expelling charge to the flare candle. ...

B. W. Whiffen

1987-01-01

360

The fluorescent tracer experiment on Holiday Beach near Mugu Canyon, Southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

After revisiting sand tracer techniques originally developed in the 1960s, a range of fluorescent coating formulations were tested in the laboratory. Explicit steps are presented for the preparation of the formulation evaluated to have superior attributes, a thermoplastic pigment/dye in a colloidal mixture with a vinyl chloride/vinyl acetate copolymer. In September 2010, 0.59 cubic meters of fluorescent tracer material was injected into the littoral zone about 4 kilometers upcoast of Mugu submarine canyon in California. The movement of tracer was monitored in three dimensions over the course of 4 days using manual and automated techniques. Detailed observations of the tracer's behavior in the coastal zone indicate that this tracer successfully mimicked the native beach sand and similar methods could be used to validate models of tracer movement in this type of environment. Recommendations including how to time successful tracer studies and how to scale the field of view of automated camera systems are presented along with the advantages and disadvantages of the described tracer methodology.

Kinsman, Nicole; Xu, J.P.

2012-01-01

361

Multi-Objective Design Optimisation of Submarine Electric Drive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of an integrated electric propulsion (IEP) system is considered for naval submarine propulsion. A multi-objective genetic algorithm is used to explore potential IEP topologies and designs, including direct-drive, geared-drive and hybrid steam-turbine\\/electric drive. Typical submarine mission scenarios are simulated and trade-offs in performance are investigated. Compromises in propeller and electric motor efficiency are found, as are large discrepancies

Benjamin A. Skinner; Patrick R. Palmer; Geoffrey T. Parks

2007-01-01

362

ATTICA family of thermal cameras in submarine applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optronics Mast Systems (US: Photonics Mast Systems) are electro-optical devices which enable a submarine crew to observe the scenery above water during dive. Unlike classical submarine periscopes they are non-hull-penetrating and therefore have no direct viewing capability. Typically they have electro-optical cameras both for the visual and for an IR spectral band with panoramic view and a stabilized line of

Gunther Kuerbitz; Joerg Fritze; Jens-Rainer Hoefft; Berthold Ruf

2001-01-01

363

The rate and pattern of bed incision and bank adjustment on the Colorado River in Glen Canyon downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, 1956-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963 transformed the Colorado River by reducing the magnitude and duration of spring floods, increasing the magnitude of base flows, and trapping fine sediment delivered from the upper watershed. These changes caused the channel downstream in Glen Canyon to incise, armor, and narrow. This study synthesizes over 45 yr of channel-change measurements and demonstrates that the rate and style of channel adjustment are directly related to both natural processes associated with sediment deficit and human decisions about dam operations. Although bed lowering in lower Glen Canyon began when the first cofferdam was installed in 1959, most incision occurred in 1965 in conjunction with 14 pulsed high flows that scoured an average of 2.6 m of sediment from the center of the channel. The average grain size of bed material has increased from 0.25 mm in 1956 to over 20 mm in 1999. The magnitude of incision at riffles decreases with distance downstream from the dam, while the magnitude of sediment evacuation from pools is spatially variable and extends farther downstream. Analysis of bed-material mobility indicates that the increase in bed-material grain size and reduction in reach-average gradient are consistent with the transformation of an adjustable-bed alluvial river to a channel with a stable bed that is rarely mobilized. Decreased magnitude of peak discharges in the post-dam regime coupled with channel incision and the associated downward shifts of stage-discharge relations have caused sandbar and terrace erosion and the transformation of previously active sandbars and gravel bars to abandoned deposits that are no longer inundated. Erosion has been concentrated in a few pre-dam terraces that eroded rapidly for brief periods and have since stabilized. The abundance of abandoned deposits decreases downstream in conjunction with decreasing magnitude of shift in the stage-discharge relations. In the downstream part of the study area where riffles controlling channel elevation have not incised, channel narrowing has resulted from decreased magnitude of peak discharges and minor post-dam deposition. These physical changes to the aquatic and riparian systems have supported the establishment and success of an artifact ecosystem dominated by non-native species. Models for the channel response downstream from large dams typically consider factors such as the degree of sediment deficit, the pre-dam surface and subsurface grain size, and the magnitude of post-dam average flows. These results suggest that it is also necessary to consider (1) the possibility of variable responses among different channel elements and (2) the potential importance of exceptional flows resulting from management decisions. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.; Topping, D. J.

2007-01-01

364

Active geologic processes in Barrow Canyon, northeast Chukchi Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Circulation patterns on the shelf and at the shelf break appear to dominate the Barrow Canyon system. The canyon's shelf portion underlies and is maintained by the Alaska Coastal Current (A.C.C.), which flows northeastward along the coast toward the northeast corner of the broad Chukchi Sea. Offshelf and onshelf advective processes are indicated by oceanographic measurements of other workers. These advective processes may play an important role in the production of bedforms that are found near the canyon head as well as in processes of erosion or non-deposition in the deeper canyon itself. Coarse sediments recovered from the canyon axis at 400 to 570 m indicate that there is presently significant flow along the canyon. The canyon hooks left at a point north of Point Barrow where the A.C.C. loses its coastal constriction. The left hook, as well as preferential west-wall erosion, continues down to the abyssal plain of the Canada Basin at 3800 m. A possible explanation for the preferential west-wall erosion along the canyon, at least for the upper few hundred meters, is that the occasional upwelling events, which cause nutrient-rich water to flow along the west wall would in turn cause larger populations of burrowing organisms to live there than on the east wall, and that these organisms cause high rates of bioerosion. This hypothesis assumes that the dominant factor in the canyon's erosion is biological activity, not current velocity. Sedimentary bedforms consisting of waves and furrows are formed in soft mud in a region on the shelf west of the canyon head; their presence there perhaps reflects: (a) the supply of fine suspended sediments delivered by the A.C.C. from sources to the south, probably the Yukon and other rivers draining northwestern Alaska; and (b) the westward transport of these suspended sediments by the prevailing Beaufort Gyre which flows along the outer shelf. ?? 1982.

Eittreim, S.; Grantz, A.; Greenberg, J.

1982-01-01

365

Acoustic facies and depositional processes in the upper submarine canyon Swatch of No Ground (Bay of Bengal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetics and equilibrium studies of the adsorption of blue copper on a natural (NC) and electrochemically treated (EMC) bentonite, taken in different experimental conditions, were carried out. Changes of the dye uptake versus operating factors were evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM). The kinetics at 5-50 °C and pH < 10 obeyed the pseudo-first-order equation. Beyond pH 10, the pseudo-second-order equation also was suitable. The kinetics for NC was essentially controlled by external diffusion. However, both internal and external diffusion were the rate-limiting steps of the EMC kinetics. The NC isotherms were well described by the Langmuir model and the maximum uptake was around 21 mg/g. In the case of EMC, the Freundlich equation was rather fitting. Dye adsorption on both sorbents was a non-spontaneous process (2 < ?G {/T 0} < 8 kJ/mol). According to the RSM results, pH had a negative impact on the dye adsorption and was the most influential factor in the case of EMC. For NC, the clay dose was rather the most important parameter.

Kottke, B.; Schwenk, T.; Breitzke, M.; Wiedicke, M.; Kudrass, H. R.; Spiess, V.

2014-05-01

366

[Epidemiology of mycoses in submariners based on the Kola Peninsula].  

PubMed

Subject of the study was spreading of mycoses in the troops based on the Kola Peninsula. Examined were the military serving on atomic submarines, maintenance crews of deactivated atomic submarines awaiting disposal, and coastal units. Spreading of skin lesions among the submariners was not same as among the coastal military. Signs of clinical mycoses were observed in 41.2% of submariners of the active unit, in 66.9% of the maintenance crews, and in 38.1% of the coastal military. Infection agents were fungi g. Candida (albicans, guilliermondii, krusei, pseudotropicalis), Epidermophytia plicarum, Ptyriasis versicolor, Trichophyton interdigitale. Among the fighters on active submarines, 53.8% of the clinical observations were accounted for onychomycosis and foot skin lesions and 38.5%--for erythema, maceration and suppuration. Among the maintenance crews 51.8% of the observations were accounted for onychomycosis and foot skin lesions and maceration; hyperkeratosis and fissures prevailed in the coastal military (31.1%). For submariners most common were Candida albicans (80.7%) and guilliermondii (11.6%), and Trichophyton interdigitale (7.7%). In the maintenance crew those were Candida albicans (84.1%) and guilliermondii (11.6%) and in the coastal military, Candida albicans (70.6%), guilliermondii (11.8%) and krusei (14.7%). PMID:14503184

Vakulova, I N; Myznikov, I L; Kutelev, G M; Kopylova, N S

2003-01-01

367

Spectral narrowing via quantum coherence  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the transmission through an optically thick {sup 87}Rb vapor that is illuminated by monochromatic and noise-broadened laser fields in {lambda} configuration. The spectral width of the beat signal between the two fields after transmission through the atomic medium is more than 1000 times narrower than the spectral width of this signal before the medium.

Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Zhang Aihua; Welch, George R. [Department of Physics and Institute of Quantum Studies, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Sautenkov, Vladimir A. [Department of Physics and Institute of Quantum Studies, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); P. N. Lebedev Institute of Physics, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zubairy, M. Suhail [Department of Physics and Institute of Quantum Studies, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Scully, Marlan O. [Department of Physics and Institute of Quantum Studies, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2006-07-15

368

Narrow-band reflecting filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A narrowing of the band of maximum reflection as compared with the band of a classical quarter-wave multilayer system can be obtained in two ways. One of these is to reduce the difference in refractive index An = nH-n L between the alternate layers [1]. In this case, in order to preserve the large values of reflection coefficients at the

I. N. Shklyarevskii; R. I. Umerov; E. A. Lupashko; I. I. Kalimanova

1970-01-01

369

Surface Composition Differences in Martian Canyon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Color differences in this daytime infrared image taken by the camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft represent differences in the mineral composition of the rocks, sediments and dust on the surface.

The image shows a portion of a canyon named Candor Chasma within the great Valles Marineris system of canyons, at approximately 5 degrees south latitude, 285 degrees east (75 degrees west) longitude. The area shown is approximately 30 by 175 kilometers (19 by 110 miles).

The image combines exposures taken by Odyssey's thermal emission imaging system at three different wavelengths of infrared light: 6.3 microns, 7.4 microns and 8.7 microns.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The thermal emission imaging system was provided by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2002-01-01

370

Atmospheric Fragmentation of the Canyon Diablo Meteoroid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About 50 kyr ago the impact of an iron meteoroid excavated Meteor Crater, Arizona, the first terrestrial structure widely recognized as a meteorite impact crater. Recent studies of ballistically dispersed impact melts from Meteor Crater indicate a compositionally unusually heterogeneous impact melt with high SiO2 and exceptionally high (10 to 25% on average) levels of projectile contamination. These are observations that must be explained by any theoretical modeling of the impact event. Simple atmospheric entry models for an iron meteorite similar to Canyon Diablo indicate that the surface impact speed should have been around 12 km/s [Melosh, personal comm.], not the 15-20 km/s generally assumed in previous impact models. This may help explaining the unusual characteristics of the impact melt at Meteor Crater. We present alternative initial estimates of the motion in the atmosphere of an iron projectile similar to Canyon Diablo, to constraint the initial conditions of the impact event that generated Meteor Crater.

Pierazzo, E.; Artemieva, N. A.

2005-01-01

371

Submarine Landslides at Santa Catalina Island, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santa Catalina Island is an active tectonic block of volcanic and metamorphic rocks originally exposed during middle Miocene transtension along the evolving Pacific-North America transform plate boundary. Post-Miocene transpression created the existing large pop-up structure along the major strike-slip restraining bend of the Catalina fault that forms the southwest flank of the uplift. Prominent submerged marine terraces apparent in high-resolution bathymetric maps interrupt the steep submarine slopes in the upper ~400 meters subsea depths. Steep subaerial slopes of the island are covered by Quaternary landslides, especially at the sea cliffs and in the blueschist metamorphic rocks. The submarine slopes also show numerous landslides that range in area from a few hectares to more than three sq-km (300 hectares). Three or more landslides of recent origin exist between the nearshore and first submerged terrace along the north-facing shelf of the island's West End. One of these slides occurred during September 2005 when divers observed a remarkable change in the seafloor configuration after previous dives in the area. Near a sunken yacht at about 45-ft depth where the bottom had sloped gently into deeper water, a "sinkhole" had formed that dropped steeply to 100-ft or greater depths. Some bubbling sand was observed in the shallow water areas that may be related to the landslide process. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry acquired in 2008 by CSU Monterey Bay show this "fresh" slide and at least two other slides of varying age along the West End. The slides are each roughly 2 hectares in area and their debris aprons are spread across the first terrace at about 85-m water depth that is likely associated with the Last Glacial Maximum sealevel lowstand. Larger submarine slides exist along the steep Catalina and Catalina Ridge escarpments along the southwest flank of the island platform. A prominent slide block, exceeding 3 sq-km in area, appears to have slipped more than 5-km down the escarpment, dropping about 550-m and leaving a 1.2-km wide by 30-m deep trench behind in its wake. High-resolution multichannel seismic reflection profiles (MCS) show a finely-layered internal structure of the slide and deformation in the underlying slope sediments. The head scarp area appears to be a bedrock outcrop, possibly exposed metamorphic basement of the Catalina Schist based on island outcrops in this area and the laminated internal structure. The toe of the slide block coincides with a youthful fault that shows west-side up (upward facing) separation, suggesting that an existing seafloor fault scarp may have halted the slide. Possibly a large earthquake that formed the scarp also triggered the slide. Another fault with west-side up displacement exists about 3-km behind (east of) the toe of the slide and deforms the seafloor, which we suggest represents post-slide seafloor fault rupture. A large bedrock slide traveling more than 5-km laterally and dropping more than 500-m likely represents a catastrophic failure and rapid slip capable of producing a locally destructive tsunami. A thin veneer of sediment, less than 15-m, may cover the slide block, but higher resolution data are required to more accurately measure sediment cover and estimate the slide age.

Legg, M. R.; Francis, R. D.

2011-12-01

372

Submarine Volcanic Morphology of Santorini Caldera, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santorini volcanic group form the central part of the modern Aegean volcanic arc, developed within the Hellenic arc and trench system, because of the ongoing subduction of the African plate beneath the European margin throughout Cenozoic. It comprises three distinct volcanic structures occurring along a NE-SW direction: Christianna form the southwestern part of the group, Santorini occupies the middle part and Koloumbo volcanic rift zone extends towards the northeastern part. The geology of the Santorini volcano has been described by a large number of researchers with petrological as well as geochronological data. The offshore area of the Santorini volcanic field has only recently been investigated with emphasis mainly inside the Santorini caldera and the submarine volcano of Kolumbo. In September 2011, cruise NA-014 on the E/V Nautilus carried out new surveys on the submarine volcanism of the study area, investigating the seafloor morphology with high-definition video imaging. Submarine hydrothermal vents were found on the seafloor of the northern basin of the Santorini caldera with no evidence of high temperature fluid discharges or massive sulphide formations, but only low temperature seeps characterized by meter-high mounds of bacteria-rich sediment. This vent field is located in line with the normal fault system of the Kolumbo rift, and also near the margin of a shallow intrusion that occurs within the sediments of the North Basin. Push cores have been collected and they will provide insights for their geochemical characteristics and their relationship to the active vents of the Kolumbo underwater volcano. Similar vent mounds occur in the South Basin, at shallow depths around the islets of Nea and Palaia Kameni. ROV exploration at the northern slopes of Nea Kameni revealed a fascinating underwater landscape of lava flows, lava spines and fractured lava blocks that have been formed as a result of 1707-1711 and 1925-1928 AD eruptions. A hummocky topography at the area that lies between the town of Fira on the main island of Santorini and Nea Kammeni has been revealed. The lower slopes were covered with landslide debris which consisted of lava blocks mostly mantled with soft sediment. At the upper slopes an abrupt cliff face was exposed that was highly indurated by biologic material. At the top of a volcanic dome, a crater with its deepest part at 43m, its rim at about 34m with an approximately 8m diameter was also found. Shimmery water with temperatures as much as 25°C above ambient was observed there but the source of venting has not yet been found. The combination of ROV video footage and multibeam data provide new information about the main morphological characteristics of Santorini Caldera which demonstrates the intense geodynamic processes occurring at the central part of the active Hellenic volcanic arc. These results will be useful for the interpretation of understanding the offshore volcanic area and its linkage with the onshore structures.

Nomikou, P.; Croff Bell, K.; Carey, S.; Bejelou, K.; Parks, M.; Antoniou, V.

2012-04-01

373

Continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide in a deep street canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a 1-week continuous monitoring campaign of carbon monoxide in a deep street canyon in the city of Naples are reported. CO was selected as a passive pollutant emitted by vehicle exhausts. The geometry of the canyon is: width W=5.8m and height H=33m (aspect ratio AR= H/ W=5.7). The monitoring campaign was carried out from 14 to 20 June 2006. CO concentration level was measured at pedestrian level ( h=2.5m) and roof top level ( h=25m). In the same period traffic flow in the street canyon was manually measured and the CO emission rate from vehicle exhausts was evaluated using the COPERT procedure. Meteorological conditions (wind velocity and direction) are also reported and their effect on CO concentration level in the canyon is discussed. Due to its geometry the street canyon monitored may be considered almost ideal. The results show that the deep street canyon is a "hot spot" compared with roads with high traffic flows in the urban area of Naples, and that significant differences exist between concentration levels at pedestrian and roof top level. Some insights into the effect and relative importance of meteorological parameters on the air quality in the canyon are also given. The monitoring data collected have been made available on the web and can be used by other researchers to test air dispersion models.

Murena, Fabio; Favale, Giuseppe

374

Water quality of Canyon Lake, central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The volume-weighted average concentrations of the principal dissolved constituents in Canyon Lake on the Guadalupe River in central Texas are usually less than 240 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, 20 milligrams per liter of chloride, and 30 milligrams per liter of sulfate. The water, which is very hard, has a volume-weighted average concentration of hardness of about 200 milligrams per liter. There is little seasonal variation in the volume-weighted average concentrations of the principal dissolved constituents. Thermal stratification of the lake usually begins during March and persists until September or October. Stratification results in significant seasonal and areal variations in dissolved oxygen, which in turn result in higher concentrations of dissolved iron, dissolved manganese, and total ammonia during the summer. Oxygen used in the stabilization of unoxidized material in the lake is not replaced during summer stagnation. The depth-integrated concentration of dissolved oxygen averaged less than 4.0 milligrams per liter during summer stagnation and about 9.0 milligrams per liter during winter circulation. The concentrations of dissolved iron and dissolved manganese, which varied seasonally, were closely related to the concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Reducing conditions in the hypolimnion often result in the dissolution of iron and manganese from bottom sediments in the deep parts of the lake. At site Dc, a deep site on an arm of Canyon Lake, the summer concentrations of dissolved iron averaged 860 micrograms per liter and the concentration of dissolved manganese averaged 390 micrograms per liter. The concentrations of total ammonia in the lake usually were less than 0.2 milligram per liter except in the hypolimnion (bottom stratum) during summer stagnation when nitrate and nitrite are reduced to ammonia. The closure of Canyon Dam resulted in a change in the monthly average water temperature of the Guadalupe River downstream from the dam. Prior to closure, the maximum monthly average water temperature for the Guadalupe River near Sattler, which was 29.0? degrees Celsius, occurred during June or July. Since closure of the dam, the maximum monthly average water temperature, which is 19.0? degrees Celsius, occurs during September or November.

Roddy, W. R.; Waddell K. M.

1982-01-01

375

How long are submarine landslides coupled to the water column?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waves generated from submarine mass failure, come in second only to earthquakes as the most frequent causes of tsunami waves. The gap however between the understanding of earthquake generated waves and the generation of tsunami waves from submarine mass failure (hereafter called submarine landslides) is quite large. A critical component of shortening this gap is to understand the efficiency that submarine landslides have in generating tsunamis. Unlike earthquake-induced tsunamis, where the deformation at the free surface can be derived directly from the deformation of the seafloor, submarine landslides exhibit a complex and nonlinear energy transfer from the moving slide to the water column. Therefore the application of several empirical formulae and equations derived from theory do not lead consistent results. For example inverting the amplitude of the leading wave with such equations can result in a scatter of the wave height up to six orders of magnitude. To derive more robust and reliable estimates of leading-wave characteristics, the coupling between the slide body and the water surface need to be investigated further to shed light on the energy transfer. We present results from parameters studies, carried out with the hydrocode iSALE. iSALE has proven to be a reliable simulation tool for generation of large waves from subaerial and submarine landslides. In order to shed more light on energy transfer from the slide body to the water column, we focus, in here, on the duration of the energy transfer. In our modeling the slide motion generates a trough with depth, s, which increases after the slide is in motion, ds/dt > 0. Decoupling, tau, is then defined when ds/dt ? 0, and the decoupling time, ?d, as being reached when ds/dt = 0. A parameter study relating the decoupling to mass, depth of submergence, and viscosity is conducted as an initial step in elucidating the generation processes of submarine landslide-generated tsunamis.

O'Shay, J.; Weiss, R.; Synolakis, C. E.

2012-04-01

376

Fine-scale predictive mapping of Cold Water Coral species in the Cap de Creus Canyon (NW Mediterranean): first insights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water corals (CWC) are azooxanthellate species which develop in a complex environment ruled out by a delicate interplay between geological, biological and oceanographic conditions.High impact deep-sea bottom trawling activities are seriously compromising the health and state of conservation of CWC habitats. It has been recently discovered that submarine canyons can act as hosting areas for benthic communities dominated by CWCs. Favorable environmental conditions along the canyons coupled with the rough seafloor morphology can foster their development and facilitate their preservation from the trawling threat. The aim of this study is to statistically predict the distribution of three CWC species (Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa, Dendrophyllia cornigera) in the Cap de Creus Canyon (NW Mediterranean) based on high-resolution swath-bathymetry data (pixel resolution: 5m) and video observations from the submersible JAGO (IFM-GEOMAR). Species distribution models have been constructed with a Maximum Entropy approach (MaxEnt model) using the presence data from video imagery and layers derived from multibeam bathymetry such as slope, geomorphologic category, rugosity, aspect (orientation of the pixel respect to the North) and backscatter. For the three species the predictive model performance is outstanding, with the area under the curve (AUC) from the sensitivity-specificity approach of 0.98 for M. oculata and D. cornigera and of 0.99 for L. pertusa. The most relevant variables responsible for the CWC distribution are the slope and aspect for M. oculata and L. pertusa, and rugosity and aspect for D. cornigera. According to the models, CWC species are most likely to be found on the medium to steep rough walls of the southern flank of the Cap de Creus Canyon and almost exclusively along the regions facing the North and the North-West, from where strong organic sediment-rich currents flow. Results are coherent with previous observations and quantitative studies performed in the area. Insights coming out from the application of geo-spatial statistical models could represent the basis for the development of a scientifically-based approach in the planning and management of Marine Protected Areas.

Lo Iacono, Claudio; Gonzalez-Villanueva, Rita; Gori, Andrea; Orejas, Covadonga; Gili, Josep Maria

2013-04-01

377

New statistical methods for investigating submarine pockmarks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the applicability of some novel spatial analysis techniques, developed for studies of astrophysical datasets, to the analysis of spatial point data in sedimentary basins. The techniques are evaluated and compared with standard methods using two test areas that contain large numbers of submarine pockmarks developed in distributed arrays. The familiar Ripley K and Voronoi tesselation techniques are used, and the results are then compared with those obtained using more novel techniques, the correlation length and minimal spanning tree. The correlation length technique is found to identify the precise distances at which clustering occurs more accurately, making a physical interpretation more clear than is possible using the Ripley K. The minimal spanning tree is found to be powerful at identifying the space-filling nature of the pockmark distribution, and has the advantage of being immune to edge effects. The use of these two novel techniques permits more information to be extracted from the datasets, and demonstrates clear statistically significant differences between them, which are not detectable using standard techniques.

Cartwright, Annabel; Moss, Jennifer; Cartwright, Joe

2011-10-01

378

Report Summary, Final Hells Canyon Environmental Investigation.  

SciTech Connect

The Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 provided for the establishment of a Regional Power Planning Council (Regional Council) and mandated the development of a Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (F&W Program). The F&W Program was adopted by the Regional Council in November 1982. and is intended to mitigate fish and wildlife losses resulting from the development of hydroelectric dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. One element of the FLW Program is the Water Budget. It calls for additional flows in the Columbia and Snake Rivers between April 15 and June 15 to improve the survival of juvenile salmon and steelhead migrating downstream. The Snake River's contribution to the Water Budget is 20,000 cubic feet per second-months (A volume of water equal to a flow of 20.000 cubic feet per second, 24 hours per day, for a period of a month) over and above water that would normally flow for power production. The water for the Water Budget would come out of Idaho Power Company's (IPCo) Hells Canyon Complex and the Corps of Engineers' (Corps) Dvorshak Reservoir. IPCo's Hells Canyon Complex consists of three dams, Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells Canyon. Brownlee, at the upstream end, contains a large reservoir and controls flow to the lower dams. IPCo's participation in the Water Budget could affect the level of the Brownlee Reservoir and flows downstream of the Hells Canyon Complex on the Snake River. In light of this, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and IPCo contracted with the consulting firm of CH2!4 Hill to study the potential changes that could occur to the environment. The Environmental Investigation (EI) takes into account concerns that were expressed by the public at a series of public meetings held in the Snake River area during June 1983 and again during September 1984. Existing information and consultations with agencies which have management responsibilities in the project area formed the basis for the data used in the EI. This document summarizes the findings of the final EI in the following areas: (1) natural features, water use, and air and water quality; (2) fish, wildlife, and vegetation; (3) land use, recreation, and aesthetics; and (4) historical and archaeological resources. The EI provides information to be used by IPCo as they assess the effect on the system operations (power and nonpower) resulting from Water Budget participation. BPA and IPCo are continuing to discuss the prospects for IPCo's involvement in implementation of the Water Budget on the Snake River. When IPCo reaches a decision on whether and to what extent it wishes to participate in a Water Budget agreement with BPA, the proposed agreement will be subject to analysis under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). That analysis will consider alternatives, significance of impacts to the environment, and mitigative measures.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1985-01-01

379

Compositional range in the Canyon Diablo meteoroid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The compositional range within the Canyon Diablo (CD) iron meteorites associated with the formation of the Meteor Crater (Arizona) was examined, using the INAA to analyze a set of CD samples consisting of nine irons collected within 7 km of the Meteor Crater, four Arizona IAB irons that were identified by Wasson (1968) as transported CD fragments, and irons from Las Vegas (Nevada) and Moab (Utah) that Buchwald (1975) suggested to be transported CD fragments. Results show that the irons named Helt Township, Idaho, Las Vegas, Mamaroneck, Moab, and Pulaski County are, most likely, mislabeled CD specimens. On the other hand, meteorites named Alexander County, Allan Hills A77283, Ashfork, Fairfield, and Rifle are identified as compositionally distinct independent falls.

Wasson, John T.; Ouyang, Xinwei

1990-01-01

380

Licensing process at Diablo Canyon nuclear powerplant  

SciTech Connect

George Maneatis of Pacific Gas and Electric Co. and Nunzio Palladino of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) were the principal witnesses at a hearing held to discuss some of the concerns about the Diablo Canyon nuclear plant relating to earthquake vulnerability and quality assurance during construction. The utility and NRC both responded when the earthquake fault and the construction and design errors were discovered to verify the seismic as well as non-seismic design of the plant, but public confidence has not been restored. The committee was exploring how much the licensing procedure itself contributed to the loss of public confidence. Testimony was also heard from two panels of concerned citizens and their consultants. An appendix with additional statements and responses follows their testimony. (DCK)

Not Available

1983-01-01

381

Compositional range in the Canyon Diablo meteoroid  

SciTech Connect

The Ir distribution in the IAB Canyon Diablo meteorites associated with the formation of Meteor Crater, Arizona, ranges from 2.1 to 2.5 {mu}g/g with peaks at 2.17 and 2.34 {mu}g/g. Only Ir, Ni, and Cu show appreciably more variance in the large set of specimens than observed within a single specimen. The Ir peaks may reflect random sampling of the large (40-100 m), fractionated meteoroid or the presence of two distinct metallic regions differing in composition. None of the other elements they determined show strong correlations with Ir; the Au range is strikingly small (1.5-1.6 {mu}g/g). The presence of chondritic silicates and high contents of planetary-type noble gases in IAB indicates that these solidified rapidly following melting, as expected if they originated as pools of impact-generated melt on a chondritic body. The absence of fractional crystallization trends is consistent with such a model. That 14 of 15 Ir contents fall into two peaks suggests the possibility that the meteoroid included two pools. The alternative that the distribution is continuous can be tested by the study of additional specimens; those from the crater rim are particularly important since these are largely shrapnel spalled from the trailing hemisphere of the meteoroid. Their studies show that the irons named Helt Township, Idaho, Las Vegas, Mamaroneck, Moab, and Pulaski County are probably mislabelled Canyon Diablo specimens; Jenny's Creek and Jenkins are also compositionally indistinguishable. Alexander County, Allan Hills A77283, Ashfork, Fairfield, and Rifle are compositionally distinct, independent falls.

Wasson, J.T.; Ouyang, Xinwei (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

1990-11-01

382

Phase III: Laboratory Investigation of Portable Instruments for Submarine Air Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drager tubes are currently used to supplement the atmosphere analysis measurements made aboard U.S. Navy submarines. The submarine fleet has requested that these tubes be replaced with a less labor intensive measurement system. Due to recent developments ...

T. W. Evans J. M. Werner S. L. Rose-Pehrsson M. H. Hammond

2004-01-01

383

Alcohol and Drug Abuse Hospitalizations Among Submarine Personnel in the U.S. Navy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluated alcohol and drug abuse risks associated with U.S. Navy submarine duty by comparing hospitalization rates of submariners with surface-ship personnel for five occupational groups. Occupational groups included administrative/clerical, ap...

L. A. Palinkas R. G. Burr

1990-01-01

384

Addressing the Challenges of a Smoke-Free U.S. Navy Submarine Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traditionally submarines have had a smoking space. A study conducted 2007-9 concluded nonsmokers are exposed to significant levels of environmental tobacco smoke, regardless of location on the submarine. In 2009, a working group was established to create ...

F. Yeo J. McQuade L. Williams M. Long

2011-01-01